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Sample records for black americans

  1. The Black Man in American Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framingham Public Schools, MA.

    GRADE OR AGES: Junior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: The black man in American society. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are four major parts each with an overview. The four parts concern a) the African heritage of the black man, b) the American exploitation of the black man, c) the black man's contribution to American society, d) the…

  2. Black Elite: The New Market for Highly Educated Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Richard B.

    This examination of the collapse in traditional discriminatory patterns in the market for highly qualified black Americans documents the World War II gain of college trained and related high level black workers, investigates the response of black college students and qualified personnel to the new market setting, and explores the factors that…

  3. Black American and Nigerian Pentecostalism: A Black Religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Black American and Nigerian Pentecostalism: A Black Religious Schizophrenia, 1910-2010. ... in American and African Pentecostalism as is related to social crisis, the dislocation of masses brought on by economic deprivation, urbanization, the break up of traditional society and consequence loss of traditional values.

  4. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  5. Black Students, Black Colleges: An African American College Choice Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Patricia M.; Antonio, Anthony Lising; Trent, James W.

    1997-01-01

    Explores African Americans' college choice decisions, based on a national sample of 220,757 freshmen. Independent of gender, family income, or educational aspiration, the most powerful predictors for choosing historically black colleges and universities are geography, religion, the college's academic reputation, and relatives' desires. The top…

  6. Capturing American black ducks in tidal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M.K.; Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, Dennis G.; Stotts, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    We modified conventional, funnel-entrance dabbling duck bait traps to increase captures for banding of American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) in tidal saltmarsh habitats of Smith Island, Maryland, one of the few remaining strongholds for breeding Black Ducks in the Chesapeake Bay. Traps and trapping techniques were adapted to tidal creeks and refined to improve capture rate, reduce mortality, and minimize interference by gulls. Best results were achieved by synchronizing trapping with predawn, low-tide foraging patterns of Black Ducks. Trap entrances were critical to retaining ducks, and use of loafing platforms reduced overall mortality to 3% of captures per year. We captured 3071 Black Ducks during the 14-year period, 1984-199

  7. African American film sound: scoring blackness

    OpenAIRE

    Doughty, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    The term ‘black music’ has long been a cause for contention. What do we mean by music being ‘black’, or more specifically in the case of this chapter, African American? The music industry has typically marketed products via the categorization of specific genres: for example, jazz, blues, soul, funk and rap. These generic types are often classified as ‘black music’. Philip Tagg vehemently debates the suitability of such an essentializing label, as he correctly argues that aesthetic practice is...

  8. The Intragroup Stigmatization of Skin Tone Among Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Richard D.; LaBeach, Nicole; Pridgen, Ellie; Gocial, Tammy M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which racial contexts moderate the importance and function of intragroup skin-tone stigma among Black Americans. One hundred and thirty-two Black students were recruited from both a predominantly Black university and a predominantly White university and completed measures on skin tone,…

  9. Black American Literature and the Problem of Racism, Slavery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem created by racism could be traced to be the major factor behind most Black literature through the ages. In America, this gave rise to a new form of literary expression known as the Black American Literature or African American Literature. The main concern of this sub-genre of literature is to redeem the face of ...

  10. Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

  11. Black Interpretation, Black American Literature, and Grey Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Earl M.

    1981-01-01

    Defines and illustrates language techniques used by Black authors writing to and for Blacks in the 1960s and 1970s. Suggests how language and theme barriers of such literature might be overcome in a contemporary integrated oral interpretation classroom. (PD)

  12. Poor representation of Blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, José E; Campbell, Kendall M; Adelson, Wendi J

    2015-04-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how various systems in medicine are limiting representation of blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans. Flat and decreasing percentages of Underrepresented Minorities in Medicine (URMM), especially in the black and Native American populations, is concerning for family medicine since members from URMM groups care for minority and underserved populations in greater numbers. Underrepresentation is not only noted in the medical community but also in our medical schools when it comes to numbers of URMM faculty. The changing definition of "disadvantaged" in medical school admissions has also played a part in limiting URMM representation. In addition, the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) excludes black, Latino, and Native American students in greater numbers. The authors support these arguments with evidence from the medical literature. Although unintentional, these systems effectively limit representation of blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in medicine. Effective changes are suggested and can be implemented to ensure that URMM individuals have equal representation in careers in medicine.

  13. Demographic Correlates of Relationship Status among Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, M. Belinda; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Analyzed National Survey of Black Americans data (N=2,107) to determine extent and structural correlates of marriage, romantic involvements, and preference for romantic involvement. Found marriage among Blacks dependent on male economic readiness and "traditionality"; fewer marital options for economically disadvantaged males, older…

  14. Legal Abortion: Are American Black Women Healthier Because of It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Willard, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews various aspects of legal abortion, including attitudes, practices, mortality and effects, as they relate to black American women. States that black women have shared in the health benefits accompanying the increased availability of legal abortion, probably to an even greater extent than white women. (Author/GC)

  15. Black and Korean: Racialized Development and the Korean American Subject in Korean/American Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeehyun Lim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the representation of the encounters and exchanges between Asian and black Americans in Sŏk-kyŏng Kang’s “Days and Dreams,” Heinz Insu Fenkl’s Memories of My Ghost Brother, and Chang-rae Lee’s A Gesture Life. While one popular mode of looking at Asian and black Americans relationally in the postwar era is to compare the success of Asian American assimilation to the failure of black Americans, Lim argues that such a mode of comparison cannot account for the ways in which Asian American racialization takes places within the global currents of militarism and migration. Against the popular view that attributes Asian American success to cultural difference, Lim relies on political scientist Claire Kim’s understanding of culture as something that is constructed in the process of racialization to explore how the above texts imagine the terms of comparative racialization between black and Asian Americans. The black-Korean encounters in these texts demand a heuristic of comparative racialization that goes beyond the discussion of the black-white binary as a national construct and seeks the reification and modification of this racial frame as it travels along the routes of US military and economic incursions in the Pacific. Lim suggests that the literary imagining of black-Korean encounters across the Pacific illustrates race and racialization as effects of a regime of economic development that is supported by military aggression.

  16. Black Americans and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Although they represent only 12% of the U.S. population, Blacks account for a much larger share of HIV diagnoses (43%), people estimated to be living with HIV disease (43%), and deaths among people with HIV (44%) than any other ...

  17. Updating movement estimates for American black ducks (Anas rubripes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orin J. Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding migratory connectivity for species of concern is of great importance if we are to implement management aimed at conserving them. New methods are improving our understanding of migration; however, banding (ringing data is by far the most widely available and accessible movement data for researchers. Here, we use band recovery data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes from 1951–2011 and analyze their movement among seven management regions using a hierarchical Bayesian framework. We showed that black ducks generally exhibit flyway fidelity, and that many black ducks, regardless of breeding region, stopover or overwinter on the Atlantic coast of the United States. We also show that a non-trivial portion of the continental black duck population either does not move at all or moves to the north during the fall migration (they typically move to the south. The results of this analysis will be used in a projection modeling context to evaluate how habitat or harvest management actions in one region would propagate throughout the continental population of black ducks. This analysis may provide a guide for future research and help inform management efforts for black ducks as well as other migratory species.

  18. Black Air: African American Contributions to Airpower before Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Charles Lindbergh across the Atlantic, inspired many young Americans to fly, both white and Black. However, racial hatred and discrimination was so...year at a reception in New York, when General Charles de Gaulle, spotting Bullard in his legion uniform and his medals, pulled him out of the crowd...armorers, medics, cooks, and logisticians were necessary for support. 2 1LT Charles E. Francis, Tuskegee

  19. Benefits, costs, and determinants of dominance in American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    Behavioural dominance was studied in captive American black ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-December 1984. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and groups of 10 ducks consisting of 5 adults (3 males and 2 females) and 5 juveniles (3 males and 2 females) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet, and ducks in the other 4 pens were given a restricted diet. Dominance structure within pens was linear. Adults were dominant to young, and body mass had no influence on dominance rank. The effect of sex on dominance rank was age-specific. Adult males were dominant to adult females and to young black ducks of both sexes; however, dominance rank of young males did not differ from adult or young females. Paired adults were dominant to unpaired adults and to young individuals that were either paired or unpaired. Paired young black ducks were similar in dominance rank to unpaired adults and unpaired young indicating that pairing did not make these individuals more dominant. Ducks on the restricted diet gained less body mass than ducks on the ad libitum diet, but dominant and subordinate black ducks within treatment groups experienced similar changes in body mass during the early winter. Dominant black ducks interacted more frequently and were more likely to form pair bonds than subordinates, thus higher energy costs of dominant individuals may explain the poor relationship between physical condition and dominance rank. There was a significant positive association between the dominance ranks of pair members.

  20. Biblical Faith, Ethics and the Quality of Life Quest among Black Americans: Implications for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbury, Carl H.

    This paper reviews the role of the black church in black American history and suggests ways in which its role must change to help blacks cope with our modern and technological society. Initially, religion was the one social institution which gave black slaves a common tie before the Civil War. Baptist and Methodist ideologies provided emotional…

  1. Internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans, US-born Caribbean Blacks, and foreign-born Caribbean Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzon, Dawne M; McLean, Jamila S

    2017-02-01

    The tripartite model of racism includes personally mediated racism, institutionalized racism, and the less-oft studied internalized racism. Internalized racism - or negative beliefs about one's racial group - results from cultural racism that is endemic in American society. In this project, we studied whether these negative stereotypes are associated with mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Using secondary data from the National Survey of American Life, we investigated the association between internalized racism and mental health (measured by depressive symptoms and serious psychological distress (SPD)) among these two groups. We also explored whether ethnicity/nativity and mastery moderate the association between internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Internalized racism was positively associated with depressive symptoms and SPD among all Black subgroups. However, internalized racism was a weaker predictor of SPD among foreign-born Caribbean Blacks than US-born Caribbean Blacks and US-born African-Americans. Additionally, higher mastery was protective against distress associated with internalized racism. Internalized racism is an important yet understudied determinant of mental health among Blacks. Future studies should take into account additional heterogeneity within the Black population (e.g. African-born individuals) and other potential protective mechanisms in addition to mastery (e.g. self-esteem and racial identity).

  2. HYDROCEPHALUS IN THREE JUVENILE NORTH AMERICAN BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sylvia H; Novak, Janelle; Hecht, Silke; Craig, Linden E

    2016-06-01

    Hydrocephalus has been reported in a variety of species, including the North American black bear ( Ursus americanus ). This report describes three cases of hydrocephalus in this species from wild bears aged 3-4 mo considered retrospectively from necropsy records of one institution. Clinical signs included cortical blindness and ataxia. Primary gross findings were doming of the skull, gyri compression and flattening, and lateral ventricle dilation. Two cases had severe bilateral ventricular dilation with loss of the septum pellucidum; atrophy of the surrounding corpus callosum; and bilateral periventricular tears involving the caudate nuclei, internal capsule, and adjacent cerebrum. Histologically, the cases with periventricular tearing had severe axonal loss and degeneration, malacia, hemorrhage, and variable periventricular astrocytosis. All cases were likely congenital, given the bears' age and lack of an apparent acquired obstruction.

  3. The urothelium of a hibernator: the American black bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, David A; Deng, Jie; Coleman, Richard; Wade, James B

    2015-06-01

    The American black bear undergoes a 3-5 month winter hibernation during which time bears do not eat, drink, defecate, or urinate. During hibernation renal function (GFR) is 16-50% of normal but urine is reabsorbed across the urinary bladder (UB) urothelium thus enabling metabolic recycling of all urinary constituents. To elucidate the mechanism(s) whereby urine is reabsorbed, we examined the UBs of five nonhibernating wild bears using light, electron (EM), and confocal immunofluorescent (IF) microscopy-concentrating on two components of the urothelial permeability barrier - the umbrella cell apical membranes and tight junctions (TJ). Bear UB has the same tissue layers (serosa, muscularis, lamina propria, urothelia) and its urothelia has the same cell layers (basal, intermediate, umbrella cells) as other mammalians. By EM, the bear apical membrane demonstrated a typical mammalian scalloped appearance with hinge and plaque regions - the latter containing an asymmetric trilaminar membrane and, on IF, uroplakins Ia, IIIa, and IIIb. The umbrella cell TJs appeared similar to those in other mammals and also contained TJ proteins occludin and claudin - 4, and not claudin -2. Thus, we were unable to demonstrate urothelial apical membrane or TJ differences between active black bears and other mammals. Expression and localization of UT-B, AQP-1 and -3, and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase on bear urothelial membranes was similar to that of other mammals. Similar studies of urothelia of hibernating bears, including evaluation of the apical membrane lipid bilayer and GAGs layer are warranted to elucidate the mechanism(s) whereby hibernating bears reabsorb their daily urine output and thus ensure successful hibernation. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  4. Blue Thursday? Homicide and suicide among urban 15-24-year-old black male Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, M; Schneider, D

    1992-01-01

    A comparative analysis was made of day of the week variations in homicide and suicide deaths among 15-24-year-old white males, black males, white females, and black females in the 22 counties with the most black persons in the United States. Thirty-seven percent of black Americans and 14 percent of white Americans lived in these densely populated counties. The authors expected a weekend excess of homicide and a Monday excess of suicide. They found a pronounced excess of homicides on weekends, especially among white males. A slight excess of suicide was observed on Monday, but other slight excesses of suicide were also found. Young black males exhibited an unexpected excess of homicides and suicides on Thursday. On Thursdays the black male-white male ratio for homicide was 1.43 and for suicide, 1.26. Possible explanations for the young black males' blue Thursday phenomenon are offered. PMID:1594735

  5. Spatial memory in captive American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamisch, Valeria; Vonk, Jennifer

    2012-11-01

    The spatial memory and foraging strategies of four adult captive-born American black bears (Ursus americanus) were explored in four experiments using a simulated foraging task. In the first three experiments, each session consisted of two phases separated by a delay: During the exploration phase, subjects foraged among a set of baited and unbaited sites. During the delay, the same locations were rebaited and subjects were released again and allowed to search the sites (search phase). In Experiments 1a and 1b, different sites were baited each day and the interval between exploration and search was short (4 hr or 15 min). Subjects were not accurate at recovering the food items in either experiment. In Experiment 2, an "informed forager" paradigm was used in which one subject was given privileged knowledge about the location of the food during the exploration phase and was later released with an "uninformed" competitor during the search phase. The bears did not achieve above-chance recovery accuracy even in the presence of a competitor. In Experiment 3, the same two of four sites were continually baited and the bears were released simultaneously over a period of 20 days, with each baiting separated by 2 or 3 days. As a group, the bears' foraging accuracy with repeated baiting and longer intervals approached greater than chance accuracy. Results suggest some limitations on bears' use of spatial memory in captive environments, but reveal the potential for use of spatial memory over longer delays.

  6. Black and white population change in small American suburbs since World War II: regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahura, J M

    1988-10-01

    "This study examines the relationship between black population concentration (% black), black population change and white population change for small American suburbs for the 1950-1980 period. Linear, tipping point (curvilinear) and interaction models of racial transition are evaluated for each decade by region (South and non-South), controlling for several other suburban characteristics (age, annexation and distance to the Central Business District) which may affect both black and white population change. The analyses show that racial transition in suburbs involves the parallel development of white and black populations with mainly weak and complex causal linkages which are sensitive to broader suburbanization patterns." excerpt

  7. The Canonical Black Body: Alternative African American Religions and the Disruptive Politics of Sacrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Tucker Edmonds

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available “The Canonical Black Body” argues that central to the study of African American religions is a focus on the black body and the production and engagement of canons on the sacred black body within the black public sphere. Furthermore, this essay suggests that, by paying attention to alternative African American religions in the twentieth century, we can better engage the relationship between African American religion and the long history of creating these canons on the black body, debating their relationship to black freedom, and circulating the canons to contest the oppressive, exclusive practices of modern democracy. Through a critical engagement of the fields of Black Theology and New Religious Movements and using the resources offered by Delores Williams’ accounts of variety and experience and Vincent Wimbush’s category of signifying, this essay will argue for how a return to the body provides resources and tools for not only theorizing African American religions but thinking about the production and creation of competing black publics, including the important role of alternative black sacred publics.

  8. FastStats: Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2015, Table P-1c [ ...

  9. "Combing" through Representations of Black Girls' Hair in African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda M.; McNair, Jonda C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we share findings from a content analysis of six picturebooks about hair. The picturebooks selected feature Black female protagonists and are written by African American females. Our content analysis examines the ways in which Black hair is theorized and represented to children (from diverse backgrounds) very early on in their…

  10. Evaluation of log submergence to control EAB and preserve black ash for native American basketry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Damon J. Crook; Tina M. Ciaramitaro

    2011-01-01

    Many Native American cultures use black ash, Fraxinus nigra, for basket-making because its ring-porous wood allows the annual layers of xylem to be easily separated. The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is threatening North America's ash resource including black ash, and a centuries-old native art form. Native...

  11. Black Americans, Africa and History: A Reassessment of the Pan-African and Identity Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Tunde

    1998-01-01

    Examines the paradigm of Pan-Africanism and the identity construct in the historic and cultural contexts of blacks outside of Africa, critiquing theories on the African identity construct. Suggests that black American identity is too complex for this simplification and must be considered within the context of world acculturation. Contains 34…

  12. Homozygous tyrosinase gene mutation in an American black with tyrosinase-negative (type IA) oculocutaneous albinism.

    OpenAIRE

    Spritz, R A; Strunk, K M; Hsieh, C L; Sekhon, G S; Francke, U

    1991-01-01

    We have identified a tyrosinase gene mutation in an American black with classic, tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism. This mutation results in an amino acid substitution (Cys----Arg) at codon 89 of the tyrosinase polypeptide. The proband is homozygous for the substitution, suggesting that this mutation may be frequently associated with tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism in blacks.

  13. Impact of "Roots": Evidence from the National Survey of Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Halford H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports on the perceptions of "Roots" among a nationally representative sample of black Americans. Examines viewing patterns and reactions to "Roots" in relation to seven variables: urbanicity, region, gender, age, education, and income. Suggests that, for Blacks, "Roots" was more than entertainment, and that heaviest…

  14. Pedagogy of Self-Development: The Role the Black Church Can Have on African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Carlos R.; Grant, Cosette M.; Beachum, Floyd D.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the Black Church has been an institutional stronghold in the Black community and has thereby sustained a cultural ethos that has enabled African Americans to combat racial prejudice and hostility for generations. Therefore, this article will unearth Yosso's notion of alternative capital that students of color have at their disposal…

  15. The Evolution of the Term Mulatto: A Chapter in Black-Native American Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Jack O.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the different social, ethnic, and racial connotations of the word "mulatto" since the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Stresses the fact that in Spanish America, the word more often referred to individuals of Black and American Indian admixture than to those of Black and White (Spanish) admixture. (GC)

  16. African American Homeschool Parents' Motivations for Homeschooling and Their Black Children's Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the motivations of African American parents for choosing homeschooling for their children and the academic achievement of their Black homeschool students. Their reasons for homeschooling are similar to those of homeschool parents in general, although some use homeschooling to help their children understand Black culture and…

  17. Swimming black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) Kleptoparasitize American coots (Fulica americana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid.......I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid....

  18. Empty Promise: Black American Veterans and the New GI Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, Alford H.

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 GI Bill offers college funds for veterans. Yet Black male vets are not taking advantage of these benefits. This chapter examines personal and societal problems that hinder access to higher education for Black vets, and suggests some ways adult educators can advocate for these young men.

  19. The impact of goal-striving stress on physical health of white Americans, African Americans, and Caribbean blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Sherrill L; Neighbors, Harold W; Zhang, Rong; Jackson, James S

    2012-01-01

    To contribute to the growing understanding of U.S. black-white health disparities by examining psychosocial stress as an important contributor to physical health problems. Data are from the National Survey of American Life, an integrated national household probability sample of White Americans, African Americans, and Caribbean blacks. Regression analysis was used to assess associations between goal-striving stress and hypertension, BMI, physical health problems, and self-rated health. After accounting for sociodemographic factors and three additional stressors--personal problems, lifetime racial discrimination, and everyday racial discrimination-goal-striving stress was a significant predictor of hypertension, physical health problems, and diminished self-rated health. Ethnicity moderated the relationship; the negative association between goal-striving stress and physical health problems was strongest for Caribbean blacks. This study extends the research on goal-striving stress and adds to a growing literature documenting relationships between social processes and disease.

  20. I'm a Jesus girl: coping stories of Black American women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Godfrey

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most diagnosed cancer for all women, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, in the United States. Incidence rates are 1 in 8 for an American woman being diagnosed. Moreover, statistics indicate that every 13 min an American woman dies from complications related to breast cancer. Despite all the gains made in the area of cancer research, Black American women continue to have a 67% higher mortality rate than their White counterparts. There is no preparation for a diagnosis of breast cancer. Upon hearing the words: you have breast cancer, a woman's life is forever altered. The woman's initial reactions of denial and/or anger yield to strategic responses. These responses may strengthen the woman's resiliency both during and following treatments. Research indicates that Black Americans, specifically Black American women, exhibit greater religiosity/spirituality than do other racial/ethnic groups. In addition, the use of religiosity/spirituality by Black Americans increases during a crisis. This qualitative study examines how religiosity/spirituality was utilized as a coping mechanism by a group of Black American women following their diagnoses of breast cancer.

  1. Nondepressive Psychosocial Factors and CKD Outcomes in Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunyera, Joseph; Davenport, Clemontina A; Bhavsar, Nrupen A; Sims, Mario; Scialla, Julia; Pendergast, Jane; Hall, Rasheeda; Tyson, Crystal C; Russell, Jennifer St Clair; Wang, Wei; Correa, Adolfo; Boulware, L Ebony; Diamantidis, Clarissa J

    2018-02-07

    Established risk factors for CKD do not fully account for risk of CKD in black Americans. We studied the association of nondepressive psychosocial factors with risk of CKD in the Jackson Heart Study. We used principal component analysis to identify underlying constructs from 12 psychosocial baseline variables (perceived daily, lifetime, and burden of lifetime discrimination; stress; anger in; anger out; hostility; pessimism; John Henryism; spirituality; perceived social status; and social support). Using multivariable models adjusted for demographics and comorbidity, we examined the association of psychosocial variables with baseline CKD prevalence, eGFR decline, and incident CKD during follow-up. Of 3390 (64%) Jackson Heart Study participants with the required data, 656 (19%) had prevalent CKD. Those with CKD (versus no CKD) had lower perceived daily (mean [SD] score =7.6 [8.5] versus 9.7 [9.0]) and lifetime discrimination (2.5 [2.0] versus 3.1 [2.2]), lower perceived stress (4.2 [4.0] versus 5.2 [4.4]), higher hostility (12.1 [5.2] versus 11.5 [4.8]), higher John Henryism (30.0 [4.8] versus 29.7 [4.4]), and higher pessimism (2.3 [2.2] versus 2.0 [2.1]; all P psychosocial variables: factor 1, life stressors (perceived discrimination, stress); factor 2, moods (anger, hostility); and, factor 3, coping strategies (John Henryism, spirituality, social status, social support). After adjustments, factor 1 (life stressors) was negatively associated with prevalent CKD at baseline among women only: odds ratio, 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 0.89). After a median follow-up of 8 years, identified psychosocial factors were not significantly associated with eGFR decline (life stressors: β =0.08; 95% confidence interval, -0.02 to 0.17; moods: β =0.03; 95% confidence interval, -0.06 to 0.13; coping: β =-0.02; 95% confidence interval, -0.12 to 0.08) or incident CKD (life stressors: odds ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.29; moods: odds ratio, 1.02; 95

  2. On the Edge: A History of Poor Black Children and Their American Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Carl Husemoller

    This book provides an account of life in the inner city from World War II to the present. Poor, jobless, and racially outcast young black people are economically and socially excluded from the American mainstream. To compensate for this, inner-city children turn to American traditions of consumerism and violence. Buying into the implicit message…

  3. Beyond Black and White: The Model Minority Myth and the Invisibility of Asian American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Jean Yonemura

    2007-01-01

    This study of diverse Asian American students at a racially integrated public high school illustrates that the achievement gap is a multi-racial problem that cannot be well understood solely in terms of the trajectories of Black and white students. Asian American students demonstrated a high academic profile on average, but faced difficulties and…

  4. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  5. Stereotypes of Black American Women Related to Sexuality and Motherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Intersectionality theorists and researchers suggest the importance of examining unique stereotypes associated with intersecting group identities. We focus on the unique stereotypes of Black women in the United States related to sexuality and motherhood. In an online experimental study, 435 undergraduates from a Northeastern U.S. university were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in which they viewed a photograph and read a description of a target young woman. The target’s race (Black vs. White) and pregnancy status (pregnant vs. no pregnancy information) were varied. A Black female target (pregnant or not) was perceived more negatively on items related to historically rooted societal stereotypes about sexual activity, sexual risk, motherhood status, and socioeconomic status than was a White female target, but there were no differences on items unrelated to societal stereotypes. A Black target described as pregnant was also perceived as more likely to be a single mother and to need public assistance than was a White target described as pregnant. Current findings, along with evidence that societal stereotypes have damaging effects, underscore the importance of diversifying images of Black women and increasing awareness of how stereotypes affect perceptions of Black women. Findings also highlight the value of research employing intersectionality to understand stereotypes. PMID:27821904

  6. I Too Have a Voice: The Literacy Experiences of Black Boys Engaging with and Responding to African American Literature Depicting Black Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Merle B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how the use of African American literature that depicts Black males influences the reading comprehension and the reading motivation of Black boys as demonstrated through oral, written, and creative expressions. Studies have been conducted using children's literature with Black boys to examine their social interaction with the…

  7. Black Lives Matter: Teaching African American Literature and the Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    In theorizing how we should pedagogically approach African American literature, especially in courses for undergraduates, I argue that we have to move away from questions of what was or even what is African American literature and, instead, find ways to teach African American literature in both its historical contexts--artistic and political--and…

  8. Use of professional and informal support by African Americans and Caribbean blacks with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Amanda Toler; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Neighbors, Harold W; Chatters, Linda M; Jackson, James S

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the use of professional services and informal support among African Americans and Caribbean blacks with a lifetime mood, anxiety, or substance use disorder. Data were from the National Survey of American Life. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test the utilization of professional services only, informal support only, both, or neither. Analyses controlled for sociodemographic characteristics, disorder-related variables, and family network variables. The analytic sample included 1,096 African Americans and 372 Caribbean blacks. Forty-one percent used both professional services and informal support, 14% relied on professional services only, 23% used informal support only, and 22% did not seek help. There were no significant differences in help seeking between African Americans and Caribbean blacks. Having co-occurring mental and substance use disorders, having a severe disorder in the past 12 months, having more people in the informal helper network, and being female increased the likelihood of using professional services and informal supports. When men sought help, they were more likely to rely on informal helpers. Marital status, age, and socioeconomic status were also significantly related to help seeking. The significant proportion of black Americans with a mental disorder who relied on informal support alone, professional services alone, or no help at all suggests potential unmet need in this group. However, the reliance on informal support also may be evidence of a strong protective role that informal networks play in the lives of African Americans and Caribbean blacks.

  9. Rules of engagement: predictors of Black Caribbean immigrants' engagement with African American culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nancy; Watson, Natalie N; Wang, Zhenni; Case, Andrew D; Hunter, Carla D

    2013-10-01

    The cultural context in the United States is racialized and influences Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation processes, but what role it plays in Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation into specific facets of American society (e.g., African American culture) has been understudied in the field of psychology. The present study extends research on Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturative process by assessing how this group's experience of the racial context (racial public regard, ethnic public regard, and cultural race-related stress) influences its engagement in African American culture (i.e., adoption of values and behavioral involvement). Data were collected from 93 Black participants of Caribbean descent, ranging in age from 13 to 45 and analyzed using a stepwise hierarchical regression. The findings highlighted that when Black Caribbean-descended participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their racial group they were more likely to engage in African American culture. In contrast, when participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their ethnic group (e.g., Haitian) they were less likely to engage in African American culture. Furthermore, among participants experiencing low levels of cultural race-related stress, the associations between racial public regard and engagement with African American culture were amplified. However, for participants experiencing high cultural race-related stress, their engagement in African American culture did not change as a function of racial public regard. These findings may suggest that, for Black Caribbean immigrants, the experience of the racial context influences strategies that serve to preserve or bolster their overall social status and psychological well-being in the United States. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Increasing Sex Mortality Differentials among Black Americans, 1950-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Ellen M.; Veevers, Jean E.

    1985-01-01

    In regard to sex differentials in mortality among Blacks, explores (1) age groups responsible for increasing the differential, (2) causes of death that have contributed to the increased differential, and (3) whether the phenomenon derives from decreased female mortality, increased male mortality, or both rates moving in the same direction at…

  11. Black-white unions: West Indians and African Americans compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model, S; Fisher, G

    2001-05-01

    In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.

  12. Berries Bittersweet: Visual Representations of Black Female Sexuality in Contemporary American Pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Ariane Renee

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation, Berries Bittersweet: Visual Representations of Black Female Sexuality in Contemporary American Pornography interrogates how pornography, from the 1930s to the present, functions as an essential site in the production of black female sexuality. Closely reading a diverse pool of primary pornographic visual materials, across print, moving image and the internet, such as photographs, magazines, trade magazines, videos, DVDs, and internet website viewings, I argue that pornograph...

  13. Time and Quest of Identity of the African-American Character: George Schuyler's Black No More

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Naji Shanbooj Alolaiwi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine the theme of “passing,” viewed as a metaphor of race that marks a step forward from the painful reality of the Middle Passage to “passing,” as both physical reality and metaphor, and to find out the underlying causes of the passing character in George Schyler's Black No More in the light of social and historical dimensions. The study investigates the aspects of “passing”  manifested by the African-American who is often viewed as an “appendage” to the rest of society, blacks have struggled to attain the success, equality, and overall collective consciousness of the American society, while simultaneously creating and maintaining and identity of their own. Blacks have been and continue to be socially, economically, educationally, and politically disenfranchised and therefore cannot completely find unity within an American system that continuously seeks to reaffirm their inferiority.

  14. Survival and band recovery rates of sympatric American black ducks and mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Obrecht, H.H.; Hines, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Banding and recovery data from American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) banded in the same breeding or wintering areas over the same time periods were used to estimate annual survival and band recovery rates. Recovery rates, based on preseason bandings, were very similar for sympatric black ducks and mallards and exhibited similar patterns of year-to-year variation for the 2 species. Tests for differences between the species in annual survival rates yielded equivocal results. We tentatively conclude that annual survival rates of mallards generally were not higher than those of black ducks banded in the same areas. The apparent difference in population status between black ducks and eastern mallards does not seem to result from differences in mortality rate. Nevertheless, we should attempt to identify management practices that might increase survival probabilities of black ducks.

  15. The effects of hunting on survival rates of American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, D.G.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Percival, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    Using data from 10 preseason and 10 winter major reference areas from 1950-83, the authors tested hypotheses regarding the effects of hunting on the survival and recovery rates of the American black duck (Anas rubripes ). Although estimates of the proportion of total annual mortality due to hunting are low (35% for ad and 45% for young) compared to Blandin's (1982) estimates, mean mortality and kill rates have increased since 1982. When hunting regulations were liberalized, recovery rates increased and survival rates decreased in males whereas only recovery rates increased in females. Changes in hunting regulations appeared to affect survival rates of adult males and young American black ducks.

  16. Gambling involvement among Native Americans, Blacks, and Whites in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Grace M; Welte, John W; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O

    2017-10-01

    This paper examines risk factors of gambling and problem gambling among racial subgroups in the U.S. population, namely Native Americans and blacks, for whom research data are lacking. Findings are based on a large representative general population survey (n = 3,474) of gambling in the U.S. with an oversample of Native Americans (n = 549). Multiple domains were assessed including sociodemographic factors; ecological factors (census-defined neighborhood disadvantage, geocoded density of casinos within 30 miles of respondents' homes, and perceived gambling convenience); impulsivity; and alcohol abuse. After controlling for all variables in the study, neighborhood disadvantage has a significantly greater effect on overall gambling, frequent gambling, and problem gambling for Native Americans than for the rest of the U.S. In addition, the relationship between frequent gambling and heavier drinking is much stronger for blacks than for the rest of the U.S. There is a lack of research on gambling involvement among minority groups in the U.S. Blacks and Native Americans are at a higher risk for problem gambling as compared with the rest of the population. Furthermore, social factors and alcohol abuse may show a stronger co-occurrence with gambling involvement among minority groups than among whites. This study is a large representative U.S. sample with sizeable numbers of Native Americans and blacks. Thus, prevalence rates and risk factors can be assessed for these important population subgroups. This will allow for targeted intervention programs for Native Americans and blacks with problem gambling and alcohol abuse. (Am J Addict 2017;26:713-721). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  17. Discrimination and social anxiety disorder among African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Debra Siegel; Himle, Joseph A; Abelson, Jamie M; Matusko, Niki; Dhawan, Nikhil; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between discrimination and social anxiety disorder (SAD) in a sample of African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites using the National Survey of American Life, the most comprehensive study of psychopathology among American blacks to date (N = 6082). Previous work has highlighted a strong association between discrimination and mental health symptoms (Keith, Lincoln, Taylor, and Jackson [Sex Roles 62:48-59, ]; Kessler, Mickelson, and Williams [J Health Soc Behav 40:208-230, 1999]; Soto, Dawson-Andoh, and BeLue [J Anxiety Disord 25:258-265, ]). However, few studies have examined the effects of particular types of discrimination on specific anxiety disorders or among different black subgroups. In this study, logistic regression analyses indicated that everyday but not major experiences of discrimination are associated with SAD for African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites. This study adds to the extant literature by demonstrating that specific types of discrimination may be uniquely associated with SAD for different ethnic/racial groups.

  18. Black Students' Perceptions: The Complexity of Persistence to Graduation at an American University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. Deborah

    2007-01-01

    This book looks at the socialization process and persistence to graduation from the perspectives of black students at American universities today. The students' perceptions discussed include what it meant to them to have a pre-college experience, the importance of expectations, the pain caused by racism, and how they were able to find "safe…

  19. Moving on Up: Urban to Suburban Translocation Experiences of High-Achieving Black American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqi; Seeberg, Vilma; Malone, Larissa

    2017-01-01

    Minority suburbanization has been a fast growing demographic shift in the United States during the first decade of the 21st century. This article examines the tapestry of the suburbanization experience of a group of high-achieving Black American students and their families as told by them. Departing from the all too common, deficit orientation…

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in American Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ) of the Central Appalachians, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, John J; Murphy, Sean M; Augustine, Ben C; Guthrie, Joseph M; Hast, John T; Maehr, Sutton C; McDermott, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    We assessed Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in 53 free-ranging American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) in the Central Appalachian Mountains, US. Seroprevalence was 62% with no difference between males and females or between juvenile and adult bears. Wildlife agencies should consider warnings in hunter education programs to reduce the chances for human infection from this source.

  1. Black Hegemony, a Significant Influence in the School Success of High-Achieving African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jean C.

    This is an interpretive study of the influence of Black Hegemony on the academic success of three successful African Americans: Clifton L. Taulbert, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Margaret Morgan Lawrence. All three spent their youth in southern communities strongly influenced by Jim Crow laws and customs, and their academic accomplishments were…

  2. African American College Student Retention and the Ecological Psychology of Historically Black Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. Christopher, II

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the dominant historic, economic, political, and social issues which affect the retention of African American college students through studies on ecological psychology. Considers the behaviors demonstrated by historically Black colleges which translate into effective retention policies or practices for predominantly White institutions.…

  3. Afro-Brazilian Literature: A New Dimension for Black and Latin American Studies Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James H.

    This paper profiles representative Afro-Brazilian writers and provides a guide to English language translations and critical studies of their work. The aim is to encourage instructors to broaden the scope of current curricula in black and Latin American studies courses. Recent studies estimate that more than 40 percent of Brazil's inhabitants are…

  4. Academic Attitudes and Psychological Well-Being of Black American Psychology Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uqdah, Aesha L.; Tyler, Kenneth M.; DeLoach, Chante

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to explore the relationships between academic self-concept, perception of competency in related domains, and academic motivation (intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation), and reported anxiety and depression among Black American psychology graduate students. The major research question asks whether there is a relationship…

  5. Being Poor, Black, and American: The Impact of Political, Economic, and Cultural Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William Julius

    2011-01-01

    Through the second half of the 1990s and into the early years of the 21st century, public attention to the plight of poor black Americans seemed to wane. There was scant media attention to the problem of concentrated urban poverty (neighborhoods in which a high percentage of the residents fall beneath the federally designated poverty line), little…

  6. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  7. White Americans, The New Minority? Non-Blacks and the Ever-Expanding Boundaries of Whiteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jonathan W.; Twine, France Winddance

    1997-01-01

    Argues that in the United States the "white" racial category has expanded across time to include groups previously considered "non-white." The role of blacks in this expansion is explored as well as whether white Americans are really becoming a numerical minority. An alternative racial future to the one frequently forecasted is…

  8. American Black Bears as Hosts of Blacklegged Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnik, Christine P; Makkay, Amanda M; Falco, Richard C; Daniels, Thomas J

    2015-09-01

    Ticks and whole blood were collected from American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) between October 2011 and October 2012 across four counties in northwestern New Jersey, an area where blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say) and their associated tick-borne pathogens are prevalent. Adult American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis Say) were the most frequently collected tick species in late spring, whereas adult and nymphal blacklegged ticks were found in both the late spring and fall months. Additionally, for blacklegged ticks, we determined the quality of bloodmeals that females acquired from black bears compared with bloodmeals from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman), the most important host for the adult stage of this tick species. Measures of fecundity after feeding on each host species were not significantly different, suggesting that the bloodmeal a female blacklegged tick acquires from a black bear is of similar quality to that obtained from a white-tailed deer. These results establish the American black bear as both a host and quality bloodmeal source to I. scapularis. Thus, black bears may help support blacklegged tick populations in areas where they are both present. In addition, samples of black bear blood were tested for DNA presence of three tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Foggie and Babesia microti Franca were found in 9.2 and 32.3% of blood samples, respectively. All blood samples were quantitative polymerase chain reaction-negative for Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, & Brenner. Although circulating pathogens were found in blood, the status of black bears as reservoirs for these pathogens remains unknown. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine for mental disorders among African Americans, black Caribbeans, and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Amanda T; Bullard, Kai M; Taylor, Robert J; Chatters, Linda M; Baser, Raymond E; Perron, Brian E; Jackson, James S

    2009-10-01

    This study examined racial and ethnic differences in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of mental and substance use disorders. Data were from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) and the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). The analytic sample included 631 African Americans and 245 black Caribbeans from the NSAL and 1,393 non-Hispanic whites from the NCS-R who met criteria for a mood, anxiety, or substance use disorder in the past 12 months. Logistic regression was used to examine racial and ethnic differences in the use of any CAM and in the use of CAM only versus the use of CAM plus services in another treatment sector. Thirty-four percent of respondents used some form of CAM. Whites were more likely than blacks to use any CAM, although there was no racial or ethnic difference in CAM use only versus CAM use plus traditional services. A higher proportion of blacks than whites used prayer and other spiritual practices. Among those with a mood disorder, black Caribbeans were less likely than African Americans to use any CAM. Findings of this study were similar to those of previous studies that examined physical illness in relation to CAM use in terms of its overall prevalence, the predominant use of CAM in conjunction with traditional service providers, and racial and ethnic differences in the use of CAM. The use of prayer was a major factor in differences between blacks and whites in CAM use; however, there were also differences among black Americans that warrant further research.

  10. Population-level resource selection by sympatric brown and American black bears in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belant, Jerrold L.; Griffith, Brad; Zhang, Yingte; Follmann, Erich H.; Adams, Layne G.

    2010-01-01

    Distribution theory predicts that for two species living in sympatry, the subordinate species would be constrained from using the most suitable resources (e.g., habitat), resulting in its use of less suitable habitat and spatial segregation between species. We used negative binomial generalized linear mixed models with fixed effects to estimate seasonal population-level resource selection at two spatial resolutions for female brown bears (Ursus arctos) and female American black bears (U. americanus) in southcentral Alaska during May–September 2000. Black bears selected areas occupied by brown bears during spring which may be related to spatially restricted (i.e., restricted to low elevations) but dispersed or patchy availability of food. In contrast, black bears avoided areas occupied by brown bears during summer. Brown bears selected areas near salmon streams during summer, presumably to access spawning salmon. Use of areas with high berry production by black bears during summer appeared in response to avoidance of areas containing brown bears. Berries likely provided black bears a less nutritious, but adequate food source. We suggest that during summer, black bears were displaced by brown bears, which supports distribution theory in that black bears appeared to be partially constrained from areas containing salmon, resulting in their use of areas containing less nutritious forage. Spatial segregation of brown and American black bears apparently occurs when high-quality resources are spatially restricted and alternate resources are available to the subordinate species. This and previous work suggest that individual interactions between species can result in seasonal population-level responses.

  11. The Relationship between Trauma, Arrest, and Incarceration History among Black Americans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäggi, Lena J; Mezuk, Briana; Watkins, Daphne C; Jackson, James S

    2016-11-01

    Prior research indicates an association between exposure to trauma (e.g., being victimized) and perpetration of crime, especially in the context of chronic victimization. This study examines the relationship between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and history of arrest and incarceration among a representative sample of black Americans from the National Survey of American Life (N = 5,189). One-third had a history of arrest, and 18 percent had a history of incarceration. Frequency of trauma exposure was associated with involvement with the criminal justice system. Relative to never experiencing trauma, experiencing ≥4 traumas was associated with elevated odds of arrest (odds ratio [OR] = 4.03), being jailed (OR = 5.15), and being imprisoned (OR = 4.41), all p history of trauma (OR = 2.18, p Americans.

  12. An Analysis of Black American's Social Problems as Reflected in Sonny's Blues by James Baldwin

    OpenAIRE

    Tinambunan, Romina

    2014-01-01

    The thesis is entitled ‘An Analysis of Black American’s Social Problems as reflected in Sonny’s Blues By James Baldwin.’ This thesis is an analysis of social problems which are faced by Black American who live in America, especially the people who live in Harlem and the impact of those social problems. The social problems which are discussed in this thesis are race discrimination, poverty, alcholism, criminality, and drug addict. The purposes of this thesis are to analyze and to provide that ...

  13. Functional Limitations and Nativity Status among Older Arab, Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallo, Florence J.; Booza, Jason; Nguyen, Norma D.

    2013-01-01

    Background To examine the association between nativity status (foreign and US-born) by race/ethnicity (Arab, Asian, black, Hispanic, white) on having a functional limitation. Methods We used American Community Survey data (2001-2007; n=1,964,777; 65+ years) and estimated odds ratios (95% confidence intervals). Results In the crude model, foreign-born Blacks, Hispanics and Arabs were more likely, while Asians were less likely to report having a functional limitation compared to white. In the fully adjusted model, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians were less likely, while Arabs were more likely to report having a functional limitation. In both the crude and fully adjusted models, US-born Blacks and Hispanics were more likely, while Asians and Arabs were less likely to report having a functional limitation compared to whites. Discussion Policies and programs tailored to foreign-born Arab Americans may help prevent or delay the onset of disability, especially when initiated shortly after their arrival to the US. PMID:24165988

  14. What works for obesity prevention and treatment in black Americans? Research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, S K; Whitt-Glover, M C; Haire-Joshu, D

    2014-10-01

    Obesity prevalence in black/African American children and adults of both sexes is high overall and compared with US whites. What we know, and do not know, about how to enhance the effectiveness of obesity prevention and treatment interventions in African Americans is the focus of the 10 articles in this special issue of Obesity Reviews. The evidence base is limited in quantity and quality and insufficient to provide clear guidance. With respect to children, there is relatively consistent, but not definitive support for prioritizing the systematic implementation and evaluation of child-focused interventions in pre-school and school settings and outside of school time. For adults or all ages, developing and refining e-health approaches and faith-based or other culturally and contextually relevant approaches, including translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program intervention to community settings is indicated. Major evidence gaps were identified with respect to interventions with black men and boys, ways to increase participation and retention of black adults in lifestyle behaviour change programmes, and studies of the impact of environmental and policy changes on eating and physical activity in black communities. Bold steps related to research funding priorities, research infrastructure and methodological guidelines are recommended to improve the quantity and quality of research in this domain. © 2014 World Obesity.

  15. Serum Immune-Related Proteins are Differentially Expressed during Hibernation in the American Black Bear

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Brian A.; Donahue, Seth W.; Vaughan, Michael R.; McConkey, Brendan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2013-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptation to conserve energy in the face of extreme environmental conditions and low food availability that has risen in several animal phyla. This phenomenon is characterized by reduced metabolic rate (∼25% of the active basal metabolic rate in hibernating bears) and energy demand, while other physiological adjustments are far from clear. The profiling of the serum proteome of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) may reveal specific proteins that are differentially m...

  16. Serosurvey for selected pathogens in free-ranging American black bears (Ursus americanus) in Maryland, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Ellen; Spiker, Harry; Driscoll, Cindy P

    2014-10-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) in Maryland, USA, live in forested areas in close proximity to humans and their domestic pets. From 1999 to 2011, we collected 84 serum samples from 63 black bears (18 males; 45 females) in five Maryland counties and tested them for exposure to infectious, including zoonotic, pathogens. A large portion of the bears had antibody to canine distemper virus and Toxoplasma gondii, many at high titers. Prevalences of antibodies to zoonotic agents such as rabies virus and to infectious agents of carnivores including canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus were lower. Bears also had antibodies to vector-borne pathogens common to bears and humans such as West Nile virus, Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Antibodies were detected to Leptospira interrogans serovars Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, and Bratislava. We did not detect antibodies to Brucella canis or Ehrlichia canis. Although this population of Maryland black bears demonstrated exposure to multiple pathogens of concern for humans and domesticated animals, the low levels of clinical disease in this and other free-ranging black bear populations indicate the black bear is likely a spillover host for the majority of pathogens studied. Nevertheless, bear populations living at the human-domestic-wildlife interface with increasing human and domestic animal exposure should continue to be monitored because this population likely serves as a useful sentinel of ecosystem health.

  17. Mortality among blacks or African Americans with HIV infection--United States, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Azfar-e-Alam; Hu, Xiaohong; Hall, H Irene

    2015-02-06

    A primary goal of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy is to reduce HIV-related health disparities, including HIV-related mortality in communities at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As a group, persons who self-identify as blacks or African Americans (referred to as blacks in this report), have been affected by HIV more than any other racial/ethnic population. Forty-seven percent of persons who received an HIV diagnosis in the United States in 2012 and 43% of all persons living with diagnosed HIV infection in 2011 were black. Blacks also experienced a low 3-year survival rate among persons with HIV infection diagnosed during 2003-2008. CDC and its partners have been pursuing a high-impact prevention approach and supporting projects focusing on minorities to improve diagnosis, linkage to care, and retention in care, and to reduce disparities in HIV-related health outcomes. To measure trends in disparities in mortality among blacks, CDC analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System. The results of that analysis indicated that among blacks aged ≥13 years the death rate per 1,000 persons living with diagnosed HIV decreased from 28.4 in 2008 to 20.5 in 2012. Despite this improvement, in 2012 the death rate per 1,000 persons living with HIV among blacks was 13% higher than the rate for whites and 47% higher than the rate for Hispanics or Latinos. These data demonstrate the need for implementation of interventions and public health strategies to further reduce disparities in deaths.

  18. Black Consciousness, Self-Esteem, and Satisfaction with Physical Appearance among African-American Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lori R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The extent to which black consciousness and self-esteem are associated with satisfaction with physical appearance is explored for 152 African-American female college students. Satisfaction with overall physical appearance and black consciousness have a moderate relationship. A strong relationship exists for self-esteem and satisfaction with facial…

  19. Resistance and Assent: How Racial Socialization Shapes Black Students' Experience Learning African American History in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Theodore E.

    2016-01-01

    African American history is often taught poorly in high school U.S. history courses. However, we know little about how Black students perceive and experience this situation. I use a refined racial socialization framework and interview data with 32 Black college students in the Northeast to investigate how familial racial socialization shapes their…

  20. Racism Toward the Blacks During the American Civil War as Depicted in Edgar Lawrence Doctorow's the March

    OpenAIRE

    CHOLIFAH, NUR

    2014-01-01

    Keywords : racism, stereotype, prejudice, discrimination Slavery in the United States is closely connected to the American CivilWar between the North and the South which was happened in 1861-1865. Slavery deals with the ill-treatment of the Whites to the Blacks. Moreover, thosetreatments to the Blacks became the bad issues in illustrating the racism duringAmerican Civil War. Besides, the writer conducted a study by using sociologicalapproach about racism of critical race theory during the Ame...

  1. American black bear denning behavior: Observations and applications using remote photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, A.S.; Fox, J.A.; Olfenbuttel, C.; Vaughan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers examining American black bear (Ursus americanus) denning behavior have relied primarily on den-site visitation and radiotelemetry to gather data. Repeated den-site visits are time-intensive and may disturb denning bears, possibly causing den abandonment, whereas radiotelemetry is sufficient only to provide gross data on den emergence. We used remote cameras to examine black bear denning behavior in the Allegheny Mountains of western Virginia during March-May 2003. We deployed cameras at 10 den sites and used 137 pictures of black bears. Adult female black bears exhibited greater extra-den activity than we expected prior to final den emergence, which occurred between April 12 and May 6, 2003. Our technique provided more accurate den-emergence estimation than previously published methodologies. Additionally, we observed seldom-documented behaviors associated with den exits and estimated cub age at den emergence. Remote cameras can provide unique insights into denning ecology, and we describe their potential application to reproductive, survival, and behavioral research.

  2. Seasonal variation in American black bear Ursus americanus activity patterns: Quantification via remote photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, A.S.; Vaughan, M.R.; Klenzendorf, S.

    2004-01-01

    Activity pattern plasticity may serve as an evolutionary adaptation to optimize fitness in an inconstant environment, however, quantifying patterns and demonstrating variation can be problematic. For American black bears Ursus americanus, wariness and habitat inaccessibility further complicate quantification. Radio telemetry has been the primary technique used to examine activity, however, interpretation error and limitation on numbers of animals available to monitor prevent extrapolation to unmarked or untransmittered members of the population. We used remote cameras to quantify black bear activity patterns and examined differences by season, sex and reproductive class in the Alleghany Mountains of western Virginia, USA. We used 1,533 pictures of black bears taken during 1998-2002 for our analyses. Black bears generally were diurnal in summer and nocturnal in autumn with a vespertine activity peak during both seasons. Bear-hound training seasons occurred during September and may offer explanation for the observed shift towards nocturnal behaviour. We found no substantial differences in activity patterns between sex and reproductive classes. Use of remote cameras allowed us to efficiently sample larger numbers of individual animals and likely offered a better approximation of population-level activity patterns than individual-level, telemetry-based methodologies.

  3. Novel species interactions: American black bears respond to Pacific herring spawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Caroline Hazel; Paquet, Paul Charles; Reimchen, Thomas Edward

    2015-05-26

    In addition to the decline and extinction of the world's species, the decline and eventual loss of species interactions is one of the major consequences of the biodiversity crisis. On the Pacific coast of North America, diminished runs of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) drive numerous marine-terrestrial interactions, many of which have been intensively studied, but marine-terrestrial interactions driven by other species remain relatively unknown. Bears (Ursus spp.) are major vectors of salmon into terrestrial ecosystems, but their participation in other cross-ecosystem interactions is similarly poorly described. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), a migratory forage fish in coastal marine ecosystems of the North Pacific Ocean and the dominant forage fish in British Columbia (BC), spawn in nearshore subtidal and intertidal zones. Spawn resources (eggs, milt, and spawning adults) at these events are available to coastal predators and scavengers, including terrestrial species. In this study, we investigated the interaction between American black bears (Ursus americanus) and Pacific herring at spawn events in Quatsino Sound, BC, Canada. Using remote cameras to monitor bear activity (1,467 camera days, 29 sites, years 2010-2012) in supratidal and intertidal zones and a machine learning approach, we determined that the quantity of Pacific herring eggs in supratidal and intertidal zones was a leading predictor of black bear activity, with bears positively responding to increasing herring egg masses. Other important predictors included day of the year and Talitrid amphipod (Traskorchestia spp.) mass. A complementary analysis of black bear scats indicated that Pacific herring egg mass was the highest ranked predictor of egg consumption by bears. Pacific herring eggs constituted a substantial yet variable component of the early springtime diet of black bears in Quatsino Sound (frequency of occurrence 0-34%; estimated dietary content 0-63%). Other major dietary items included

  4. Blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein patterns in captive and wild American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Nicholas; Elliott, Sarah B; Allin, Shawn B; Ramsay, Edward C

    2006-02-01

    To compare blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein patterns for captive and wild American black bears (Ursus americanus). 7 captive and 9 wild adult (> or = 4 years old) black bears. Blood was collected from 2 groups of captive black bears (groups A and B) and 1 group of wild black bears (group C). Blood triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol concentrations were compared among groups. Plasma lipoproteins were isolated by use of a self-generating gradient of iodixanol, and lipoprotein patterns were compared between groups A and B. Captive bears (mean +/- SD, 187.8 +/- 44.4 kg) weighed significantly more than wild bears (mean, 104.8 +/- 41.4 kg), but mean body weight did not differ between groups A and B. Mean blood TG concentrations for groups B (216.8 +/- 16.0 mg/dL) and C (190.7 +/- 34.0 mg/dL) were significantly higher than that of group A (103.9 +/- 25.3 mg/dL). Mean blood cholesterol concentration was also significantly higher for group B (227.8 +/- 8.2 mg/dL) than for groups A (171.7 +/- 35.5 mg/dL) or C (190.8 +/- 26.8 mg/dL). Mean very-low-density lipoprotein TG and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were 2- and 3-fold higher, respectively, for group B, compared with concentrations for group A. Blood lipid concentrations vary significantly among populations of black bears. Plasma lipoprotein patterns of captive bears differed significantly between colonies and may have reflected differences in diet or management practices.

  5. Effect of restrictive harvest regulations on survival and recovery rates of American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, C.M.; Sauer, J.R.; Serie, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Population management of waterfowl requires an understanding of the effects of changes in hunting regulations on harvest and survival rates. Mean survival and recovery rates of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) were estimated during 3 periods of increasingly restrictive harvest regulations: 1950-66, 1967-82, and 1983-93. From the first to the second period, direct recovery rates declined for at least 1 age class in 4 of 6 reference areas, with a mean decline of 14% for adult and 7% for immature black ducks. From the second to the third period, direct recovery rates declined in all areas, declines averaging 37% for adults and 27% for immatures. Estimated mean survival rates increased from the first to the second period, consistent with a model of additivity of hunting mortality. Limited evidence existed for increases in survival rates from the second to the third period for immature males. For adults, however, survival increased less between these periods than would be expected if hunting mortality were additive and changes in recovery rates were proportional to changes in hunting mortality. Changes in survival and recovery rates of black ducks banded postseason were similar to those of adults banded preseason. Comparisons among estimates by degree blocks of latitude and longitude indicate that, at least between 1967 and 1983, estimated survival rates of immature and adult black ducks were lower in areas with high direct recovery rates. Smaller samples of banded birds and changes in banding locations in recent years may be limiting ability to evaluate consequences of recent changes in harvest rates. These correlation-based studies are limited in their ability to explain causes of observed changes in survival rates, suggesting the need for alternative approaches such as adaptive harvest management to increase understanding of the effects of hunting on black duck populations.

  6. SURGICAL CORRECTION OF BILATERAL PATELLAR LUXATION IN AN AMERICAN BLACK BEAR CUB (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Katarina R; Desmarchelier, Marion R; Bailey, Trina R

    2015-06-01

    A wild orphaned male American black bear cub ( Ursus americanus ) presented with hind limb gait abnormalities and was found to have bilateral grade 3 laterally luxating patellas. There were no other significant abnormalities detected on neurologic, radiographic, or hematologic examinations. The trochlear grooves were deepened with a chondroplasty, and the redundant soft tissues imbricated. There was a marked improvement in the bear's gait postoperatively, with an apparent full return to function. To the authors' knowledge, patellar luxation has not been reported in the Ursidae family, and the success in this case suggests that this technique may be used in large wild or captive carnivore cubs.

  7. The State of Black Education: The Politics of Educating African American Students at Colleges and Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earnest N. Bracey, Ph.D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In terms of higher education for African American students, the “school-to-prison pipeline” or Prison Industrial Complex must be totally dismantled in order to focus entirely on academic performance at colleges and universities and HBCUs. Additionally, mentors should be identified to tutor and guide and help black youngsters overcome their fear of learning and going to school, so that our whole society can benefit and improve academically. Finally, in this respect, we-the-people can move our nation forward by graduating people of color at higher institutions of learning, while providing them with a more productive life, and social advancement.

  8. Race, Housing, and the Federal Government: Black Lives on the Margins of the American Dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hughes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As historians have increasingly explored the complex historical relationship between race, class, and institutions such as the federal government in shaping contemporary American society, historical sources such as the Federal Housing Association’s Underwriting Manual (1938 provide provocative opportunities for teaching. Brief excerpts from the Manual are a small window through which to examine the underappreciated role of the U.S. federal government in creating and sustaining a racialized version of the American Dream. The result is an opportunity to equip students, as citizens, with the historical thinking skills and sources to examine the enduring historical arc of racial injustice and resistance in the United States that serves as the foundation for the Black Lives Matter movement.

  9. Determinants of usual source of care disparities among African American and Caribbean Black men: findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Mohottige, Dinushika; Chantala, Kim; Hastings, Julia F; Neighbors, Harold W; Snowden, Lonnie

    2011-02-01

    The Aday-Andersen model was used as a framework for investigating the contribution of immigration status (i.e., nativity and acculturation), socioeconomic factors, health care access, health status, and health insurance to usual source of health care (USOC) in a nationally representative sample of African American (n=551) and Caribbean Black men (n=1,217). We used the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative household survey of non-institutionalized U.S. Blacks to conduct descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Older age, more health conditions, neighborhood medical clinic access, and health insurance were associated with higher odds of reporting a USOC. Odds were lower for men with lower-middle incomes and poorer mental health status. Having health insurance was associated with higher odds of reporting a USOC for African American men but lower odds among Caribbean Black men. Odds were higher in the presence of more health conditions for African American men than for Caribbean Black men. Health care reform policies aimed solely at increasing health insurance may not uniformly eliminate USOC disparities disfavoring U.S. and foreign-born non-Hispanic Black men.

  10. Determinants of Usual Source of Care Disparities among African American and Caribbean Black Men: Findings from the national Survey of american life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Mohottige, Dinushika; Chantala, Kim; Hastings, Julia F.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Snowden, Lonnie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The Aday-Andersen model was used as a framework for investigating the contribution of immigration status (i.e., nativity and acculturation), socioeconomic factors, health care access, health status, and health insurance to usual source of health care (USOC) in a nationally representative sample of African American (n5551) and Caribbean Black men (n51,217). Methods We used the 2001–2003 National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative household survey of non-institutionalized U.S. Blacks to conduct descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Results Older age, more health conditions, neighborhood medical clinic access, and health insurance were associated with higher odds of reporting a USOC. Odds were lower for men with lower-middle incomes and poorer mental health status. Having health insurance was associated with higher odds of reporting a USOC for African American men but lower odds among Caribbean Black men. Odds were higher in the presence of more health conditions for African American men than for Caribbean Black men. Conclusions Health care reform policies aimed solely at increasing health insurance may not uniformly eliminate USOC disparities disfavoring U.S. and foreign-born non-Hispanic Black men. PMID:21317513

  11. Using stable isotopes to assess dietary changes of American black bears from 1980 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen van Manen, Jennapher L; Muller, Lisa I; Li, Zheng-hua; Saxton, Arnold M; Pelton, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    We measured stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in 117 hair samples from American black bears (Ursus americanus) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, during 1980-2001 from live-trapped bears. We also collected hair from bears with known diets to compare with the wild bears. We hypothesized that biological factors (age, mass, and sex), food availability (hard mast and wild hogs (Sus scrofa)), and nuisance status would influence food selection by black bears and changes in their feeding history would be measureable using stable isotopes. We developed a set of a priori models using nine variables to examine changes in black bear stable isotope values. We found no support for changes in δ(13)C values associated with any of the nine variables we analyzed. Bears had enriched (15)N in years with low white oak mast production and depleted (15)N when white oak mast was abundant. Subadults had enriched (15)N compared with adults and older adults. Variation in δ(15)N increased from 1980-1991 to 1992-2000 when hard mast production had greater fluctuations. Bears in a better physical condition appeared more likely to access foods with higher protein content. In years of low white oak acorn production, larger bears and subadults likely turned to alternative food sources. The long-term variation detected in this study was important in identifying which bears were potentially more susceptible to changes in availability of hard mast.

  12. Constructing Bias: Conceptualization Breaks the Link Between Implicit Bias and Fear of Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kent M; Lindquist, Kristen A; Payne, B Keith

    2017-07-06

    Negative affect toward outgroup members has long been known to predict discriminatory behavior. However, psychological constructionist theories of emotion suggest that negative affect may not always reflect antipathy for outgroup members. Rather, the subjective experience depends on how negative affect is conceptualized as specific discrete emotions (e.g., fear vs. sympathy). Our current research integrates theories of implicit bias with psychological constructionist theories of emotion to understand the implications of negative affect toward outgroup members. Across 3 studies, we find evidence that conceptualization of negative affect toward Black Americans as sympathy, rather than fear, mitigates the relationship between negative affect and fear of Black Americans on self-report and perceptual measures, and reduces racial bias on a psychophysiological measure. These studies provide evidence that conceptualization of negative affect can shape reactions to outgroup members. We discuss the implications of these findings and ground them in theories of implicit bias, social cognition, and affective science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. A confirmatory test of the underlying factor structure of scores on the collective self-esteem scale in two independent samples of Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O; Constantine, Madonna G

    2006-04-01

    In this study, we examined the factor structure of the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSES; Luhtanen & Crocker, 1992) across 2 separate samples of Black Americans. The CSES was administered to a sample of Black American adolescents (n = 538) and a community sample of Black American adults (n = 313). Results of confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs), however, did not support the original 4-factor model identified by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) as providing an adequate fit to the data for these samples. Furthermore, an exploratory CFA procedure failed to find a CSES factor structure that could be replicated across the 2 samples of Black Americans. We present and discuss implications of the findings.

  14. An Intersectional Approach for Understanding Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-being among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black adolescents. The results indicated main effects such that perceived discrimination was ...

  15. An intersectional approach for understanding perceived discrimination and psychological well-being among African American and Caribbean Black youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Sellers, Robert M; Jackson, James S

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life, which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black adolescents. The results indicated main effects such that perceived discrimination was linked to increased depressive symptoms and decreased self-esteem and life satisfaction. Additionally, there were significant interactions for ethnicity, gender, and race. Specifically, older Caribbean Black female adolescents exhibited higher depressive symptoms and lower life satisfaction in the context of high levels of perceived discrimination compared with older African American male adolescents.

  16. The mediating role of internalized racism in the relationship between racist experiences and anxiety symptoms in a Black American sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jessica R; West, Lindsey M; Martinez, Jennifer; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2016-07-01

    The current study explores the potential mediating role of internalized racism in the relationship between racist experiences and anxiety symptomology in a Black American sample. One hundred and 73 Black American participants, between 18 and 62 years of age, completed a questionnaire packet containing measures of anxious arousal and stress symptoms, internalized racism, and experiences of racist events. Results indicated that internalized racism mediated the relationship between past-year frequency of racist events and anxious arousal as well as past-year frequency of racist events and stress symptoms. Internalized racism may be 1 mechanism that underlies the relationship between racism and anxious symptomology for Black Americans. These preliminary findings suggest that internalized racism may be an avenue through which clinicians can target the anxiety elicited by racist experiences. The clinical implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Identification and synthetic modeling of factors affecting American black duck populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Michael J.; Miller, Mark W.; Hines, James E.

    2002-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on factors potentially affecting the population status of American black ducks (Anas rupribes). Our review suggests that there is some support for the influence of 4 major, continental-scope factors in limiting or regulating black duck populations: 1) loss in the quantity or quality of breeding habitats; 2) loss in the quantity or quality of wintering habitats; 3) harvest, and 4) interactions (competition, hybridization) with mallards (Anas platyrhychos) during the breeding and/or wintering periods. These factors were used as the basis of an annual life cycle model in which reproduction rates and survival rates were modeled as functions of the above factors, with parameters of the model describing the strength of these relationships. Variation in the model parameter values allows for consideration of scientific uncertainty as to the degree each of these factors may be contributing to declines in black duck populations, and thus allows for the investigation of the possible effects of management (e.g., habitat improvement, harvest reductions) under different assumptions. We then used available, historical data on black duck populations (abundance, annual reproduction rates, and survival rates) and possible driving factors (trends in breeding and wintering habitats, harvest rates, and abundance of mallards) to estimate model parameters. Our estimated reproduction submodel included parameters describing negative density feedback of black ducks, positive influence of breeding habitat, and negative influence of mallard densities; our survival submodel included terms for positive influence of winter habitat on reproduction rates, and negative influences of black duck density (i.e., compensation to harvest mortality). Individual models within each group (reproduction, survival) involved various combinations of these factors, and each was given an information theoretic weight for use in subsequent prediction. The reproduction model with highest

  18. Free at last? Social dominance, loss aversion, and White and Black Americans' differing assessments of racial progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibach, Richard P; Keegan, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    White Americans tend to believe that there has been greater progress toward racial equality than do Black Americans. The authors explain this difference by combining insights from prospect theory and social dominance theory. According to prospect theory, changes seem greater when framed as losses rather than gains. Social dominance theory predicts that White Americans tend to view increases in equality as losses, whereas Black Americans view them as gains. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors experimentally tested whether groups judge the same change differently depending on whether it represents a loss or gain. In Studies 3-6, the authors used experimental methods to test whether White participants who frame equality-promoting changes as losses perceive greater progress toward racial equality. The authors discuss theoretical and political implications for progress toward a just society. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Contributions of vital rates to growth of a protected population of American black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M.S.; Pacifici, L.B.; Grand, J.B.; Powell, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of large, long-lived animals suggest that adult survival generally has the potential to contribute more than reproduction to population growth rate (??), but because survival varies little, high variability in reproduction can have a greater influence. This pattern has been documented for several species of large mammals, but few studies have evaluated such contributions of vital rates to ?? for American black bears (Ursus americanus). We used variance-based perturbation analyses (life table response experiments, LTRE) and analytical sensitivity and elasticity analyses to examine the actual and potential contributions of variation of vital rates to variation in growth rate (??) of a population of black bears inhabiting the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina, using a 22-year dataset. We found that recruitment varied more than other vital rates; LTRE analyses conducted over several time intervals thus indicated that recruitment generally contributed at least as much as juvenile and adult survival to observed variation in ??, even though the latter 2 vital rates had the greater potential to affect ??. Our findings are consistent with predictions from studies on polar bears (U. maritimus) and grizzly bears (U. arctos), but contrast with the few existing studies on black bears in ways that suggest levels of protection from human-caused mortality might explain whether adult survival or recruitment contribute most to variation in ?? for this species. We hypothesize that ?? is most strongly influenced by recruitment in protected populations where adult survival is relatively high and constant, whereas adult survival will most influence ?? for unprotected populations. ?? 2009 International Association for Bear Research and Management.

  20. Gentrification in black and white: the racial impact of public housing demolition in American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The gentrification that has transformed high-poverty neighbourhoods in US cities since the mid 1990s has been characterised by high levels of state reinvestment. Prominent among public-sector interventions has been the demolition of public housing and in some cases multimillion dollar redevelopment efforts. In this paper, the racial dimension of state-supported gentrification in large US cities is examined by looking at the direct and indirect displacement induced by public housing transformation. The data show a clear tendency towards the demolition of public housing projects with disproportionately high African American occupancy. The pattern of indirect displacement is more varied; public housing transformation has produced a number of paths of neighbourhood change. The most common, however, involve significant reductions in poverty, sometimes associated with Black to White racial turnover and sometimes not. The findings underscore the central importance of race in understanding the dynamics of gentrification in US cities.

  1. Perceived racism and mental health among Black American adults: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L; Todd, Nathan R; Neville, Helen A; Carter, Robert T

    2012-01-01

    The literature indicates that perceived racism tends to be associated with adverse psychological and physiological outcomes; however, findings in this area are not yet conclusive. In this meta-analysis, we systematically reviewed 66 studies (total sample size of 18,140 across studies), published between January 1996 and April 2011, on the associations between racism and mental health among Black Americans. Using a random-effects model, we found a positive association between perceived racism and psychological distress (r = .20). We found a moderation effect for psychological outcomes, with anxiety, depression, and other psychiatric symptoms having a significantly stronger association than quality of life indicators. We did not detect moderation effects for type of racism scale, measurement precision, sample type, or type of publication. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Serum immune-related proteins are differentially expressed during hibernation in the American black bear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A Chow

    Full Text Available Hibernation is an adaptation to conserve energy in the face of extreme environmental conditions and low food availability that has risen in several animal phyla. This phenomenon is characterized by reduced metabolic rate (∼25% of the active basal metabolic rate in hibernating bears and energy demand, while other physiological adjustments are far from clear. The profiling of the serum proteome of the American black bear (Ursus americanus may reveal specific proteins that are differentially modulated by hibernation, and provide insight into the remarkable physiological adaptations that characterize ursid hibernation. In this study, we used differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE analysis, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequent MASCOT analysis of the mass spectra to identify candidate proteins that are differentially expressed during hibernation in captive black bears. Seventy serum proteins were identified as changing by ±1.5 fold or more, out of which 34 proteins increased expression during hibernation. The majority of identified proteins are involved in immune system processes. These included α2-macroglobulin, complement components C1s and C4, immunoglobulin μ and J chains, clusterin, haptoglobin, C4b binding protein, kininogen 1, α2-HS-glycoprotein, and apoplipoproteins A-I and A-IV. Differential expression of a subset of these proteins identified by proteomic analysis was also confirmed by immunodetection. We propose that the observed serum protein changes contribute to the maintenance of the hibernation phenotype and health, including increased capacities for bone maintenance and wound healing during hibernation in bears.

  3. Genomic analysis of expressed sequence tags in American black bear Ursus americanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Species of the bear family (Ursidae) are important organisms for research in molecular evolution, comparative physiology and conservation biology, but relatively little genetic sequence information is available for this group. Here we report the development and analyses of the first large scale Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) resource for the American black bear (Ursus americanus). Results Comprehensive analyses of molecular functions, alternative splicing, and tissue-specific expression of 38,757 black bear EST sequences were conducted using the dog genome as a reference. We identified 18 genes, involved in functions such as lipid catabolism, cell cycle, and vesicle-mediated transport, that are showing rapid evolution in the bear lineage Three genes, Phospholamban (PLN), cysteine glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3) and Troponin I type 3 (TNNI3), are related to heart contraction, and defects in these genes in humans lead to heart disease. Two genes, biphenyl hydrolase-like (BPHL) and CSRP3, contain positively selected sites in bear. Global analysis of evolution rates of hibernation-related genes in bear showed that they are largely conserved and slowly evolving genes, rather than novel and fast-evolving genes. Conclusion We provide a genomic resource for an important mammalian organism and our study sheds new light on the possible functions and evolution of bear genes. PMID:20338065

  4. Genomic analysis of expressed sequence tags in American black bear Ursus americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sen; Shao, Chunxuan; Goropashnaya, Anna V; Stewart, Nathan C; Xu, Yichi; Tøien, Øivind; Barnes, Brian M; Fedorov, Vadim B; Yan, Jun

    2010-03-26

    Species of the bear family (Ursidae) are important organisms for research in molecular evolution, comparative physiology and conservation biology, but relatively little genetic sequence information is available for this group. Here we report the development and analyses of the first large scale Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) resource for the American black bear (Ursus americanus). Comprehensive analyses of molecular functions, alternative splicing, and tissue-specific expression of 38,757 black bear EST sequences were conducted using the dog genome as a reference. We identified 18 genes, involved in functions such as lipid catabolism, cell cycle, and vesicle-mediated transport, that are showing rapid evolution in the bear lineage Three genes, Phospholamban (PLN), cysteine glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3) and Troponin I type 3 (TNNI3), are related to heart contraction, and defects in these genes in humans lead to heart disease. Two genes, biphenyl hydrolase-like (BPHL) and CSRP3, contain positively selected sites in bear. Global analysis of evolution rates of hibernation-related genes in bear showed that they are largely conserved and slowly evolving genes, rather than novel and fast-evolving genes. We provide a genomic resource for an important mammalian organism and our study sheds new light on the possible functions and evolution of bear genes.

  5. Demographic characteristics and infectious diseases of a population of American black bears in Humboldt County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nicole; Higley, J Mark; Sajecki, Jaime L; Chomel, Bruno B; Brown, Richard N; Foley, Janet E

    2015-02-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are common, widely distributed, and broad-ranging omnivorous mammals in northern California forests. Bears may be susceptible to pathogens infecting both domestic animals and humans. Monitoring bear populations, particularly in changing ecosystems, is important to understanding ecological features that could affect bear population health and influence the likelihood that bears may cause adverse impacts on humans. In all, 321 bears were captured between May, 2001, and October, 2003, and blood samples were collected and tested for multiple zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. We found a PCR prevalence of 10% for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and a seroprevalence of 28% for Toxoplasma gondii, 26% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 26% for A. phagocytophilum, 8% for Trichinella spiralis, 8% for Francisella tularensis and 1% for Yersinia pestis. In addition, we tested bears for pathogens of domestic dogs and found a seroprevalence of 15% for canine distemper virus and 0.6% for canine parvovirus. Our findings show that black bears can become infected with pathogens that are an important public health concern, as well as pathogens that can affect both domestic animals and other wildlife species.

  6. Serum immune-related proteins are differentially expressed during hibernation in the American black bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Brian A; Donahue, Seth W; Vaughan, Michael R; McConkey, Brendan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2013-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptation to conserve energy in the face of extreme environmental conditions and low food availability that has risen in several animal phyla. This phenomenon is characterized by reduced metabolic rate (∼25% of the active basal metabolic rate in hibernating bears) and energy demand, while other physiological adjustments are far from clear. The profiling of the serum proteome of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) may reveal specific proteins that are differentially modulated by hibernation, and provide insight into the remarkable physiological adaptations that characterize ursid hibernation. In this study, we used differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequent MASCOT analysis of the mass spectra to identify candidate proteins that are differentially expressed during hibernation in captive black bears. Seventy serum proteins were identified as changing by ±1.5 fold or more, out of which 34 proteins increased expression during hibernation. The majority of identified proteins are involved in immune system processes. These included α2-macroglobulin, complement components C1s and C4, immunoglobulin μ and J chains, clusterin, haptoglobin, C4b binding protein, kininogen 1, α2-HS-glycoprotein, and apoplipoproteins A-I and A-IV. Differential expression of a subset of these proteins identified by proteomic analysis was also confirmed by immunodetection. We propose that the observed serum protein changes contribute to the maintenance of the hibernation phenotype and health, including increased capacities for bone maintenance and wound healing during hibernation in bears.

  7. Genomic analysis of expressed sequence tags in American black bear Ursus americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tøien Øivind

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species of the bear family (Ursidae are important organisms for research in molecular evolution, comparative physiology and conservation biology, but relatively little genetic sequence information is available for this group. Here we report the development and analyses of the first large scale Expressed Sequence Tag (EST resource for the American black bear (Ursus americanus. Results Comprehensive analyses of molecular functions, alternative splicing, and tissue-specific expression of 38,757 black bear EST sequences were conducted using the dog genome as a reference. We identified 18 genes, involved in functions such as lipid catabolism, cell cycle, and vesicle-mediated transport, that are showing rapid evolution in the bear lineage Three genes, Phospholamban (PLN, cysteine glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3 and Troponin I type 3 (TNNI3, are related to heart contraction, and defects in these genes in humans lead to heart disease. Two genes, biphenyl hydrolase-like (BPHL and CSRP3, contain positively selected sites in bear. Global analysis of evolution rates of hibernation-related genes in bear showed that they are largely conserved and slowly evolving genes, rather than novel and fast-evolving genes. Conclusion We provide a genomic resource for an important mammalian organism and our study sheds new light on the possible functions and evolution of bear genes.

  8. Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Black American Men: Moderated-Mediation Effects of Ethnicity and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H; N'cho, Hammad S; Green, Carlton E; Jernigan, Maryam M; Helms, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is related to depression and poor self-esteem among Black men. Poorer self-esteem is also associated with depression. However, there is limited research identifying how self-esteem may mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms for disparate ethnic groups of Black men. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic groups as a moderator of the mediating effects of self-esteem on the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of African American (n = 1201) and Afro-Caribbean American men (n = 545) in the National Survey of American Life. Due to cultural socialization differences, we hypothesized that self-esteem would mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms only for African American men, but not Afro-Caribbean American men. Moderated-mediation regression analyses indicated that the conditional indirect effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms through self-esteem were significant for African American men, but not for Afro-Caribbean men. Our results highlight important ethnic differences among Black men.

  9. Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms among Black American Men: Moderated-Mediation Effects of Ethnicity and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    N’cho, Hammad S.; Green, Carlton E.; Jernigan, Maryam M.; Helms, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is related to depression and poor self-esteem among Black men. Poorer self-esteem is also associated with depression. However, there is limited research identifying how self-esteem may mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms for disparate ethnic groups of Black men. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic groups as a moderator of the mediating effects of self-esteem on the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of African American (n=1,201) and Afro-Caribbean American men (n=545) in the National Survey of American Life. Due to cultural socialization differences, we hypothesized that self-esteem would mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms only for African American men, but not Afro-Caribbean American men. Moderated-mediation regression analyses indicated that the conditional indirect effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms through self-esteem were significant for African American men, but not for Afro-Caribbean men. Our results highlight important ethnic differences among Black men. PMID:27337623

  10. Vitamin D status of black and white Americans and changes in vitamin D metabolites after varied doses of vitamin D supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Controversy exists over the cause of disparate circulating 25-hydroxyvitaminD (25OHD) between black and white Americans. Objective: To determine whether there are differences in total and directly measured free 25OHD between black and white American adults and to assess the degree to w...

  11. News coverage of diet-related health disparities experienced by black Americans: a steady diet of misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankofa, John; Johnson-Taylor, Wendy L

    2007-01-01

    Compared to their white counterparts, black Americans experience greater morbidity and mortality across a range of diet-related diseases and conditions, including heart disease, type II diabetes, cancer, stroke, and obesity. Many factors influence dietary behaviors among blacks, including those associated with socioeconomics, culture, racism, psychology, and health care quality and access. However, when reporting about the health status and dietary behavior of black Americans, the mainstream print media pursues a largely one-dimensional focus on behavioral and cultural factors. This approach tends to disregard or minimize other factors that influence health behaviors. Health scientists and journalists must be careful to include discussion of the other factors if they want to become a part of the solution to minimize diet-related disparities.

  12. An Intersectional Approach for Understanding Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life,…

  13. Factors Leading African Americans and Black Caribbeans to Use Social Work Services for Treating Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tyrone C.; Robinson, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    This secondary analysis of 5,000 African Americans and black Caribbeans explored how their use of social work services to address mental and substance use disorders was associated with the disorder involved as well as their perceived need for services, belief system, family resources, proximity to services, social-structural factors, and…

  14. The DSM-IV Construct of Cocaine Dependence in a Treatment Sample of Black, Mexican American, and White Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, John; Caetano, Raul

    1996-01-01

    The unidimensionality of the fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-IV) construct of cocaine dependence was examined among 263 black, 212 Mexican American, and 256 white men in treatment. Results generally support a unidimensional model of the cocaine dependence indicators, with one indicator…

  15. Importance of Religion and Spirituality in the Lives of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the importance of spirituality and religion in daily life (i.e., only religion, only spirituality, both religion and spirituality, and neither religion nor spirituality) among a nationally representative sample of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites. A majority in each group felt they were both important…

  16. Obesity Status and Body Satisfaction: Are There Differences between African American College Females at Black and White Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C. S.; Bonds, Jennifer R.

    2006-01-01

    The goals of this project were to 1) assess obesity status and body satisfaction among African American college students, and 2) to compare differences in these variables between students at a predominantly white university (PWU) and a historically black college and university (HBCU). Four hundred and two undergraduate females completed a…

  17. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  18. A Review of Tenure for Black, Latino, and Native American Faculty in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Zedeena E; Rodríguez, José E; Campbell, Kendall M

    2017-01-01

    Tenure policies in US medical schools have been under scrutiny for decades while black/African American, Latino, and Native American faculty continue to be underrepresented in medicine. As medical institutions seek to improve diversity, tenure continues to be a major retention tool. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to investigate the role that tenure plays in the recruitment, retention, and advancement of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM) faculty in academic medicine. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Education Resources Information Center for articles relating to URMM faculty and tenure. Articles published in the last 20 years, in English, that discussed recruitment or retention of women, URMM faculty, and tenure in academic medicine, and were of high quality based on data were included in the study. Narrative reviews, opinion, editorials, and letters to the editor were excluded. Of the 1038 articles we reviewed, 23 met the criteria for inclusion. Tenure was associated with leadership, higher salaries, and comfort in the work environment. URMM faculty comprised the lowest percentage of tenured faculty in academic medicine, with the highest percentage pertaining to white men. More research needs to be done to determine whether tenure status can improve the number of URMM faculty in academic medicine. Tenure may provide URMM faculty the benefits that they need to progress in their careers and remain in academic medicine.

  19. Sperm ultrastructure, morphometry, and abnormal morphology in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, L F C; Sertich, P L; Stull, G B; Rives, W; Knobbe, M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe sperm ultrastructure, morphometry, and abnormal morphology in American black bears. Electroejaculation was successful in 53.8% (7/13) of the attempts, but urine contamination was common. Epididymal sperm samples were also obtained from five bears. Sperm had a paddle-like head shape and the ultrastructure was similar to that of most other mammals. The most striking particularity of black bear sperm ultrastructure was a tightening of the nucleus in the equatorial region. Although the differences were not significant in all bears, the overall decrease in sperm nucleus dimensions during transport from the caput epididymis to the cauda suggested increasing compaction of the nucleus during maturation. For ejaculated sperm, nucleus length, width, and base width were 4.9, 3.7, and 1.8 μm, respectively, whereas sperm head length, width, and base width were 6.6, 4.8, and 2.3 μm, and midpiece, tail (including midpiece), and total sperm lengths were 9.8, 68.8, and 75.3 μm. Evaluation of sperm cytoplasmic droplets in the epididymis revealed that proximal droplets start migrating toward a distal position in the caput epididymis and that the process was mostly completed by the time sperm reached the cauda epididymis. The proportion of morphologically normal sperm in the ejaculate was 35.6%; the most prevalent sperm defects were distal cytoplasmic droplets and bent/coiled tails. The morphology of abnormal sperm and the underlying ultrastructural defects were similar to that in other large domestic animals thus suggesting similar underlying pathogenesis of specific sperm defects and similar effects on fertility. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. GM1-gangliosidosis in American black bears: clinical, pathological, biochemical and molecular genetic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Torres, Paola A; Wang, Betty C; Zeng, Bai Jin; Eaton, Samuel; Erdelyi, Ildiko; Ducore, Rebecca; Maganti, Rajanikarath; Keating, John; Perry, Bain J; Tseng, Florina S; Waliszewski, Nicole; Pokras, Mark; Causey, Robert; Seger, Rita; March, Philip; Tidwell, Amy; Pfannl, Rolf; Seyfried, Thomas; Kolodny, Edwin H; Alroy, Joseph

    2014-04-01

    G(M1)-gangliosidosis is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder due to an autosomal recessively inherited deficiency of lysosomal β-galactosidase. We have identified seven American black bears (Ursus americanus) found in the Northeast United States suffering from G(M1)-gangliosidosis. This report describes the clinical features, brain MRI, and morphologic, biochemical and molecular genetic findings in the affected bears. Brain lipids were compared with those in the brain of a G(M1)-mouse. The bears presented at ages 10-14 months in poor clinical condition, lethargic, tremulous and ataxic. They continued to decline and were humanely euthanized. The T(2)-weighted MR images of the brain of one bear disclosed white matter hyperintensity. Morphological studies of the brain from five of the bears revealed enlarged neurons with foamy cytoplasm containing granules. Axonal spheroids were present in white matter. Electron microscopic examination revealed lamellated membrane structures within neurons. Cytoplasmic vacuoles were found in the liver, kidneys and chondrocytes and foamy macrophages within the lungs. Acid β-galactosidase activity in cultured skin fibroblasts was only 1-2% of control values. In the brain, ganglioside-bound sialic acid was increased more than 2-fold with G(M1)-ganglioside predominating. G(A1) content was also increased whereas cerebrosides and sulfatides were markedly decreased. The distribution of gangliosides was similar to that in the G(M1)-mouse brain, but the loss of myelin lipids was greater in the brain of the affected bear than in the brain of the G(M1) mouse. Isolated full-length cDNA of the black bear GLB1 gene revealed 86% homology to its human counterpart in nucleotide sequence and 82% in amino acid sequence. GLB1 cDNA from liver tissue of an affected bear contained a homozygous recessive T(1042) to C transition inducing a Tyr348 to His mutation (Y348H) within a highly conserved region of the GLB1 gene. The coincidence of several

  1. Survival of American Black Ducks radiomarked in Quebec, Nova Scotia and Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Clugston, D.A.; Bunck, C.M.; Giroux, J.-F.; Ouellet, C.; Parker, G.R.; Dupuis, P.; Stotts, D.B.; Goldsberry, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    We monitored survival of 397 radiomarked juvenile American black ducks (Anas rubripes) distributed among Les Escoumins (n = 75) and Kamouraska, Quebec (n = 84), Amherst Point, Nova Scotia (n = 89), and a site on the Vermont-Quebec border (n = 149) during autumn 1990 and 1991. Eighty-six percent (215 of 250) of all confirmed mortalities during the study was from hunting; 72% of marked ducks were shot and retrieved and 14% were shot and unretrieved. We tested for differences in survival in relation to sex, body mass, year (1990-91, 1991-92), and among the 4 locations for each of 2 monitoring periods (early, EMP; late, LMP). With data from the EMP for Vermont-Quebec in 1990 and 1991, Les Escoumins in 1990, and Amherst Point in 1991, survival of hatching-year (HY) males and females did not differ (P = 0.357). For sexes combined for the EMP, survival of ducks was greater in 1991 than 1990 (P = 0.086), and differed among locations (P = 0.013). Survival (years combined) was greater at Amherst Point than at Kamouraska (P = 0.003) and Vermont-Quebec (P = 0.002) during the EMP. The highest survival rate at Amherst Point (0.545 ? 0.056 [SE]) was associated with the latest date (8 Oct) of season opening; the lowest survival rate (0.395 ? 0.043) was at the Vermont-Quebec border, where hunter numbers and activity were greatest. For the LMP, no interaction between years and locations was detected (P = 0.942), and no differences in survival existed between years (P = 0.102) and among locations (P = 0.349). No association was detected between body mass at capture and survival of combined males and females during the EMP (P = 0.572) or during the LMP (P = 0.965). When we censored hunting losses for combined years for each period, EMP or LMP, all survival estimates exceeded 0.800 (0.809-0.965). These data emphasize need for an improved harvest strategy for American black ducks in North America to allow for increases in breeding populations to achieve population goals.

  2. Dental and Temporomandibular Joint Pathology of the American Black Bear (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E J; Chesnutt, S R; Winer, J N; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    Museum specimens (maxillae and/or mandibles) from 371 American black bears (Ursus americanus) acquired between 1889 and 2006 were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria, and 348 were included in this study. Of the 348 specimens, 126 (36.2%) were from male animals, 106 (30.5%) were from female animals and 116 (33.3%) were from animals of unknown sex. Specimen ages ranged from young adult (n = 63, 18.1%) to adult (n = 285, 81.9%), with juveniles excluded from the study. The number of teeth available for examination was 12,019 (82.2%); 7.0% of teeth were absent artefactually, 0.4% were deemed absent due to acquired tooth loss and 9.7% were absent congenitally. In 43 specimens (12.3%), 82 teeth (0.68%) were small vestigial structures with crowns that were flush with the level of surrounding alveolar bone. The remaining teeth (99.3%) were of normal morphology. Only three supernumerary teeth and three instances of enamel hypoplasia were encountered. Persistent deciduous teeth or teeth with an aberrant number of roots were not encountered in any of the specimens. Approximately one-third of the teeth examined (4,543, 37.8%) displayed attrition/abrasion, affecting nearly all of the specimens (n = 338, 97.1%). Incisor and molar teeth accounted for 52.5% and 34.3% of the affected teeth, respectively, with significantly more adults affected than young adults. Dental fractures were noted in 63 bears, affecting 18.1% of specimens and 1.0% of the total number of present teeth. The canine teeth were most often fractured, with adults having significantly more complicated crown fractures of these teeth than young adults. There were 11 specimens (3.2%) that displayed periapical lesions, affecting 12 (0.1%) dental alveoli. There were 179 specimens (51.4%) displaying bony changes indicative of periodontitis, affecting 816 (6.8%) dental alveoli. The proportion of adult bears affected by periodontitis (57.9%) was significantly greater than that of young adults

  3. Black racial identity as a mediator of cardiovascular reactivity to racism in African-American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Vernessa R; Cobb, Renia E B; Hopkins, Reginald; Smith, Christine E

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the ability of Black racial identity to mediate cardiovascular reactivity to racism. The Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity (MMRI), which consists of four dimensions, salience, centrality, regard, and ideology was used to define Black racial identity. The subdimensions of ideology are oppressed minority, nationalist, humanist, and assimilationist racial identities. Heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, and blood pressure were measured in 72 African-American men as they viewed a videotaped scene depicting racial profiling and a neutral scene. We hypothesized that individuals with high levels of Black-oriented identities (centrality, public regard, private regard, oppressed minority, and nationalist) would be less stressed by the racial profiling scenes than those low in these identities. In addition, we predicted that individuals with high levels of non-Black-oriented identities (assimilationist, humanist) would be more stressed by the racial profiling scenes than those with low levels of these identities. Private regard, humanist, and assimilationist racial identities were significantly associated with increased cardiovascular reactivity to the scenes. Specifically, private regard significantly predicted cardiac output and stroke volume responses to the scenes. In addition, assimilationist and humanist racial identities were associated with greater blood output and faster heart rates in response to the scenes. Although private regard (Black oriented) and assimilationist and humanist (non- Black oriented) racial identities showed elevated cardiovascular reactivity to the scenes, the underlying mechanisms of these associations may differ.

  4. Morbidity, disability, and health status of black American elderly: a new look at the oldest-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, T P; Bernard, M A

    1992-10-01

    There are over 2.5 million black Americans aged 65 and over living in the United States today, including some 258,000 persons aged 85 years and over. The post-World War II baby boom within the US black population should ensure that the numbers of persons aged 65 and over will increase into the 21st Century. If present trends continue, it is projected that the current population of black elders will also age. This means that the numbers of black persons aged 85 and over will also increase. Data from both national surveys and population-based community studies concerning the health and well-being of black elders are now becoming available. This report presents information concerning self-reported health status, chronic disease prevalence, disease-risk-factor prevalence, measures of physical functioning, and nursing home utilization rates for age groups within the black population aged 65 years and over. The availability of such data should lead to the development of targeted interventions designed to lessen impairment and prolong independent living.

  5. Social and nonsocial category discriminations in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer; Johnson-Ulrich, Zoe

    2014-09-01

    One captive adult chimpanzee and 3 adult American black bears were presented with a series of natural category discrimination tasks on a touch-screen computer. This is the first explicit comparison of bear and primate abilities using identical tasks, and the first test of a social concept in a carnivore. The discriminations involved a social relationship category (mother/offspring) and a nonsocial category involving food items. The social category discrimination could be made using knowledge of the overarching mother/offspring concept, whereas the nonsocial category discriminations could be made only by using perceptual rules, such as "choose images that show larger and smaller items of the same type." The bears failed to show above-chance transfer on either the social or nonsocial discriminations, indicating that they did not use either the perceptual rule or knowledge of the overarching concept of mother/offspring to guide their choices in these tasks. However, at least 1 bear remembered previously reinforced stimuli when these stimuli were recombined, later. The chimpanzee showed transfer on a control task and did not consistently apply a perceptual rule to solve the nonsocial task, so it is possible that he eventually acquired the social concept. Further comparisons between species on identical tasks assessing social knowledge will help illuminate the selective pressures responsible for a range of social cognitive skills.

  6. Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

  7. Black Adoption Placement and Research Center at 25: placing African-American children in permanent homes (1983-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Black Adoption Research and Placement Center is a nonprofit organization delivering culturally specific adoption and foster care services. The organization developed as a response to concerns in the African-American community about the high numbers of African-American children entering and not exiting the public foster care system. The organization has undergone significant transformations over its 25-year history in relation to social, political, and economic changes that have altered the ways that the agency finances and delivers services. The history of Black Adoption Research and Placement Center presents an organization that has weathered many challenges because of its strong leadership, its committed governing body, its external relationships, and its internal operations.

  8. Representin' in cyberspace: sexual scripts, self-definition, and hip hop culture in Black American adolescent girls' home pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Carla E

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of media in the lives of girls, sexuality researchers have largely overlooked how Black American adolescent girls engage with media to construct sexual self-definitions and explore their emerging sexuality. This study investigated sexual scripts, self-definition, and hip hop culture in internet home pages constructed by Black girls aged 14-17 years residing in southern states in the USA. Although some girls in the sample constructed sexual self-representations that mirrored sexual scripts portrayed in the media, hip hop, and youth cyberculture, others resisted stereotypical representations of Black female sexuality. This paper discusses the dominant sexual scripts that emerged from in-depth analysis of 27 home pages constructed by girls residing in Georgia. The focus is on 'Freaks', 'Virgins', 'Down-Ass Chicks/Bitches', 'Pimpettes', and Resisters. Findings suggest that a one-size-fits-all approach to sexuality education may fail to address key contextual issues of relevance to girls and young women. Innovative sexuality and media education strategies that respond to the significance of media in the lives of Black American girls and young women are needed.

  9. The Social Environmental Elements of Resilience among Vulnerable African American/Black Men Who Have Sex with Men

    OpenAIRE

    Buttram, Mance E.

    2015-01-01

    Resilience theory has been suggested as a strong framework for research on HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM). Among this population, literature indicates that African American/Black MSM are particularly vulnerable to health and social disparities associated with HIV transmission risk. Conceptualizing resilience as a part of one’s social environment, this qualitative study investigates the specific elements of resilience, and the associated contexts and relationships, among ...

  10. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses.......Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance...

  11. The Social Environmental Elements of Resilience among Vulnerable African American/Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, Mance E

    Resilience theory has been suggested as a strong framework for research on HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM). Among this population, literature indicates that African American/Black MSM are particularly vulnerable to health and social disparities associated with HIV transmission risk. Conceptualizing resilience as a part of one's social environment, this qualitative study investigates the specific elements of resilience, and the associated contexts and relationships, among a sample of 21 substance-using African American/Black MSM. Data indicate that: 1) elements contributing to resilience are multiple and co-occurring, including inner strengths, social relationships, diversity of experience, religion/spirituality, altruism, and creativity; 2) as an element of resilience, social support was experienced differently among men who did and did not have supportive relationships with other gay and bisexual men, which has implications for social service provision and intervention approaches; and 3) diversity of experiences and relationships is an important influencing factor on expressions of resilience. Social services or interventions that facilitate the development of these elements of resilience will likely be especially beneficial for vulnerable African American/Black MSM.

  12. Population ecology and harvest of the American black duck: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, D.H.; Ankney, C.D.; Boyd, H.; Longcore, J.R.; Montalbano, F.; Ringelman, J.K.; Stotts, V.D.

    1989-01-01

    1. The purpose of our review was to examine available data on population trends and current status of black ducks and trends in natality and survival and to relate these, where possible, to changes in habitat, predation, disease, contaminants, harvest, and hybridization with mallards. 2. The number of black ducks tallied in the winter survey has declined steadily over the past 30 years at an average rate of about 3%/ year. Reliability and precision of the survey are uncertain; it may not provide an adequate index to the continental population of black ducks. Breeding surveys are incomplete and sporadic, but black ducks have decreased in Ontario and increased in the Maritime Provinces and Quebec. 3. Recent declines in numbers of black ducks tallied in the winter survey are not unusual in magnitude or much different from those that have occurred among several other species of waterfowl. 4. At present, black ducks are not especially scarce relative to numbers of several other ducks in eastern North America. 5. There is no solid evidence of major decreases in quality or quantity of breeding habitat for black ducks in recent years; in some areas, habitat has improved. 6. Natural mortality of black ducks has not been well studied, but does not seem unusually high compared to other dabbling ducks. 7. Harvest rates of black ducks are similar to those of sympatric mallards as determined by banding analyses. 8. There is no strong evidence for direct effects of contaminants on black ducks, but some indirect effects through invertebrate food resources have been detected. 9. Age ratios in black ducks show no trend in the past 18 years. 10. The quality and quantity of wintering habitat for black ducks have decreased substantially in some areas. 11. Disease and other natural mortality that affect black ducks do .not occur in unusually high frequency. 12. A decline in harvest of black ducks has occurred; most of the decline has been in the United States, especially since

  13. Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks' Diminished Return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Mistry, Ritesh

    2018-04-16

    Although higher socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Blacks’ Diminished Return theory posits that the protective effects of SES are systemically smaller for Blacks than Whites. To explore the Black/White differences in the association between education and smoking. This cross-sectional study used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2017 ( n = 3217). HINTS is a national survey of American adults. The current analysis included 2277 adults who were either Whites ( n = 1868; 82%) or Blacks ( n = 409; 18%). The independent variable was educational attainment, and the dependent variables were ever and current (past 30-day) smoking. Demographic factors (age and gender) were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. In the pooled sample, higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of ever and current smoking. Race interacted with the effects of higher educational attainment on current smoking, suggesting a stronger protective effect of higher education against current smoking for Whites than Blacks. Race did not interact with the effect of educational attainment on odds of ever smoking. In line with previous research in the United States, education is more strongly associated with health and health behaviors in Whites than Blacks. Smaller protective effects of education on health behaviors may be due to the existing racism across institutions such as the education system and labor market.

  14. Intergenerational differences in smoking among West Indian, Haitian, Latin American, and African blacks in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tod G. Hamilton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due in large part to increased migration from Africa and the Caribbean, black immigrants and their descendants are drastically changing the contours of health disparities among blacks in the United States. While prior studies have examined health variation among black immigrants by region of birth, few have explored the degree of variation in health behaviors, particularly smoking patterns, among first- and second- generation black immigrants by ancestral heritage. Using data from the 1995–2011 waves of the Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS, we examine variation in current smoking status among first-, second-, and third/higher- generation black immigrants. Specifically, we investigate these differences among all black immigrants and then provide separate analyses for individuals with ancestry from the English-speaking Caribbean (West Indies, Haiti, Latin America, and Africa—the primary sending regions of black immigrants to the United States. We also explore differences in smoking behavior by gender. The results show that, relative to third/higher generation blacks, first-generation black immigrants are less likely to report being current smokers. Within the first-generation, immigrants who migrated after age 13 have a lower probability of smoking relative to those who migrated at or under age 13. Disparities in smoking prevalence among the first-generation by age at migration are largest among black immigrants from Latin America. The results also suggest that second-generation immigrants with two foreign-born parents are generally less likely to smoke than the third/higher generation. We find no statistically significant difference in smoking between second-generation immigrants with mixed nativity parents and the third or higher generation. Among individuals with West Indian, Haitian, Latin American, and African ancestry, the probability of being a current smoker increases with each successive generation

  15. Loneliness and substance use: the influence of gender among HIV+ Black/African American adults 50+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannes, Zachary L; Burrell, Larry E; Bryant, Vaughn E; Dunne, Eugene M; Hearn, Lauren E; Whitehead, Nicole Ennis

    2016-01-01

    Estimates suggest 30% of adults report the highest levels of loneliness. Though men are more likely than women to use illicit substances and engage in heavy drinking, the prevalence of substance use in women is growing and their escalation toward dependence occurs more rapidly. Loneliness and substance use have greater relevance within the HIV+ population, with higher rates of substance misuse than the general population. However, the association between loneliness and substance use within HIV+ individuals remains understudied. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that there would be an association between loneliness and substance moderated by gender in HIV+ older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and January 2014. Study participants included 96 HIV-positive Black/African American men and women recruited through the University of Florida Center for HIV/AIDS Research, Education and Service (UF CARES) in Jacksonville, Florida. Participants completed an interviewer-administered assessment examining mental and behavioral health. Pearson correlations examined associations between loneliness and substance use. Binary logistic regression analyses stratified by gender examined the association between loneliness and substance use while controlling for covariates. Among women, loneliness was associated with illicit drug use, AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.23-9.21, p = .018 and heavy drinking, AOR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.07-5.71, p = .033. No significant associations were found between loneliness and illicit drug use, and heavy drinking in men. Substance use among women in this population may be linked to loneliness. Interventions should be gender specific. Further research into this association is necessary as it will likely have important clinical implications for this population.

  16. Could Trends in Time Children Spend with Parents Help Explain the Black-White Gap in Human Capital? Evidence from the American Time Use Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    It is widely believed that the time children spend with parents significantly impacts human capital formation. If time varies significantly between black and white children, this may help explain the large racial gap in test scores and wages. In this study, I use data from the American Time Use Survey to examine the patterns in the time black and…

  17. Defensive Localism in White and Black: A Comparative History of European-American and African-American Youth Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Compares European American and African American youth gangs in four historical periods (seaboard, immigrant, racially changing, and hypersegregated cities), showing that differences can be traced to race-specific effects of labor, housing, and consumer markets, government policies, local politics, and organized crime on their communities.…

  18. Hispanic and Black American Adolescents' Beliefs Relating to Sexuality and Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Clarissa S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored the level of scientific knowledge regarding sexuality and contraception of Black and Hispanic inner-city adolescents. Results indicated that Hispanic males were the most knowledgeable, Hispanic females the least, and Black males and females were intermediate. A cultural basis for this difference is considered, and the need to design…

  19. Gay Identity Issues among Black American: Racism, Homophobia, and the Need for Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiacano, Darryl K.

    1989-01-01

    Interviewed six homosexual Black men and women regarding homosexual identity development issues. Three themes related to dual identity emerged: (1) finding validation in the homosexual community; (2) finding validation in the Black community; and (3) the need to integrate identities. (Author/ABL)

  20. Children’s Environmental Health Disparities: Black and African American Children and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    The burdens of asthma fall more heavily on Black children: in 2001-2005, Black children, regardless of family income, reported higher rates of asthma. It is twice as likely to hospitalize and four times as likely to kill them, compared to White children.

  1. Population Care Management and Team-Based Approach to Reduce Racial Disparities among African Americans/Blacks with Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, Rowena E; Chen, Agnes; Handler, Joel; Platt, Sharon Takeda; Gould, Bernice

    2016-01-01

    At Kaiser Permanente, national Equitable Care Health Outcomes (ECHO) Reports with a baseline measurement of 16 Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set measures stratified by race and ethnicity showed a disparity of 8.1 percentage points in blood pressure (BP) control rates between African- American/black (black) and white members. The aims of this study were to describe a population care management team-based approach to improve BP control for large populations and to explain how a culturally tailored, patient-centered approach can address this racial disparity. These strategies were implemented through: 1) physician-led educational programs on treatment intensification, medication adherence, and consistent use of clinical practice guidelines; 2) building strong care teams by defining individual roles and responsibilities in hypertension management; 3) redesign of the care delivery system to expand access; and 4) programs on culturally tailored communication tools and self-management. At a physician practice level where 65% of patients with hypertension were black, BP control rates (team-based approach closed the gap for blacks with hypertension.

  2. Effects of sampling conditions on DNA-based estimates of American black bear abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufenberg, Jared S.; Van Manen, Frank T.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    DNA-based capture-mark-recapture techniques are commonly used to estimate American black bear (Ursus americanus) population abundance (N). Although the technique is well established, many questions remain regarding study design. In particular, relationships among N, capture probability of heterogeneity mixtures A and B (pA and pB, respectively, or p, collectively), the proportion of each mixture (π), number of capture occasions (k), and probability of obtaining reliable estimates of N are not fully understood. We investigated these relationships using 1) an empirical dataset of DNA samples for which true N was unknown and 2) simulated datasets with known properties that represented a broader array of sampling conditions. For the empirical data analysis, we used the full closed population with heterogeneity data type in Program MARK to estimate N for a black bear population in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee. We systematically reduced the number of those samples used in the analysis to evaluate the effect that changes in capture probabilities may have on parameter estimates. Model-averaged N for females and males were 161 (95% CI = 114–272) and 100 (95% CI = 74–167), respectively (pooled N = 261, 95% CI = 192–419), and the average weekly p was 0.09 for females and 0.12 for males. When we reduced the number of samples of the empirical data, support for heterogeneity models decreased. For the simulation analysis, we generated capture data with individual heterogeneity covering a range of sampling conditions commonly encountered in DNA-based capture-mark-recapture studies and examined the relationships between those conditions and accuracy (i.e., probability of obtaining an estimated N that is within 20% of true N), coverage (i.e., probability that 95% confidence interval includes true N), and precision (i.e., probability of obtaining a coefficient of variation ≤20%) of estimates using logistic regression. The capture probability

  3. Examining the relationship between the endorsement of racial/ethnic stereotypes and excess body fat composition in a national sample of African Americans and black Caribbeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lauren J; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2013-01-01

    Using the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative household survey of non-institutionalized US Blacks, our study examined whether the endorsement of racial/ ethnic stereotypes was associated with excess body fat composition among African Americans (n = 3,265) and Black Caribbeans (n = 1,332) living in the United States. We used ordinary least squares and multinomial logistic regression analyses controlling for potential confounders. Results from the linear regression suggested that the endorsement of racial/ethnic stereotypes was associated with increased body mass index and weight among African American males (b = .57, P females (b = .50 P Black Caribbeans. Future studies should examine the relationship between internalized discrimination and endorsements of negative racial/ethnic stereotypes and excess fat accumulation among ethnically heterogeneous samples of Blacks.

  4. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Female African American Undergraduate Engineering Students at a Predominantly White and an Historically Black Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frillman, Sharron Ann

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in…

  5. "I Worship Black Gods": Formation of an African American Lucumi Religious Subjectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Lisanne

    2015-01-01

    In 1959, Christopher Oliana and Walter “Serge” King took a historic journey to pre-revolutionary Cuba that would change the religious trajectory of numerous African Americans, particularly in New York City. They became the first African American initiates into the Afro-Cuban Lucumi orisha tradition opening the way for generations of African Americans who would comprehensively transform their way of life. This dissertation examines the inter-diasporic exchanges between African Americans and th...

  6. Education and Alcohol Consumption among Older Americans; Black-White Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Purpose: Although the link between education and alcohol consumption is known, limited information exists on racial differences in this link. We conducted the current study to test Black- White differences in the association between education and alcohol consumption among older adults in the United States. Methods: This cross-sectional survey enrolled 1,493 Black (n=734 and White (n=759 older adults (age 66 or more in United States. Data came from the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, 2001. Race, demographics, socio-economics, and alcohol consumption were measured. Independent variable was education level. Outcome was alcohol consumption. Race was the focal moderator. Logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results: Education was positively associated with ever drinking in the pooled sample. Race, however, interacted with education level on drinking, suggesting a smaller effect of education on drinking for Blacks compared to Whites. Among Whites, high school graduation and college graduation were associated with increased odds of ever drinking, net of covariates. Among Blacks, high school graduation but not college graduation was associated with ever drinking. Conclusion: Blacks and Whites differ in how socio-economic status (i.e. education shapes behaviors health behaviors (i.e. drinking. How race modifies consequences and correlates of social determinants of health is not yet clear. College graduation may result in the same level of change to the social network and income of race group members. Lower effect of education on health of Blacks may be due to the structural role of race and racism that has resulted in lower job availability and pay for Blacks.

  7. Education and Alcohol Consumption among Older Americans; Black-White Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2016-01-01

    Although the link between education and alcohol consumption is known, limited information exists on racial differences in this link. We conducted the current study to test Black-White differences in the association between education and alcohol consumption among older adults in the U.S. This cross-sectional survey enrolled 1,493 Black (n = 734) and White (n = 759) older adults (age 66 or more) in U.S. Data came from the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, 2001. Race, demographics, socioeconomics, and alcohol consumption were measured. Independent variable was education level. Outcome was alcohol consumption. Race was the focal moderator. Logistic regression was used for data analysis. Education was positively associated with ever drinking in the pooled sample. However, race interacted with education level on drinking, suggesting a smaller effect of education on drinking for Blacks compared to Whites. Among Whites, high-school graduation and college graduation were associated with increased odds of ever drinking, net of covariates. Among Blacks, high-school graduation, but not college graduation, was associated with ever drinking. Blacks and Whites differ in how socioeconomic status (i.e., education) shapes behaviors, especially health behaviors (i.e., drinking). How race modifies consequences and correlates of social determinants of health is not yet clear. College graduation may result in the same level of change to the social network and income of race group members. Weaker effect of education on health of Blacks may be due to the structural role of race and racism that has resulted in lower job availability and pay for Blacks.

  8. "Machismo," self-esteem, education and high maximum drinking among anglo, black and Mexican-American male drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, J A; Prihoda, T J; Hoppe, S K

    1991-09-01

    This study seeks to clarify the relevance of machismo to patterns of high maximum drinking among male drinkers. Specifically, the study describes the psychometric properties of a newly developed 7-item machismo measure, compares levels of machismo and self-esteem for a sample of Anglo, black and Mexican-American males, and examines both main and interaction effects of machismo, self-esteem and education as predictors of alcohol use in these racial/ethnic subgroups. Logistic regression analyses document interaction between race/ethnicity, machismo, self-esteem and education, which calls into question the presumed importance of machismo as a cultural element causing heavy drinking patterns among Mexican-American males.

  9. What "price" means when buying food: insights from a multisite qualitative study with Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann; Grier, Sonya A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Baskin, Monica L; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Young, Deborah Rohm; Lassiter, Vikki; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2013-03-01

    We explored the role of price in the food purchasing patterns of Black adults and youths. We analyzed qualitative data from interviews and focus groups with socioeconomically diverse, primarily female, Black adults or parents (n = 75) and youths (n = 42) in 4 US cities. Interview protocols were locality specific, but all were designed to elicit broad discussion of food marketing variables. We performed a conventional qualitative content analysis by coding and analyzing data from each site to identify common salient themes. Price emerged as a primary influence on food purchases across all sites. Other value considerations (e.g., convenience, food quality, healthfulness of product, and family preferences) were discussed, providing a more complex picture of how participants considered the price of a product. Food pricing strategies that encourage consumption of healthful foods may have high relevance for Black persons across income or education levels. Accounting for how price intersects with other value considerations may improve the effectiveness of these strategies.

  10. The effects of hibernation and captivity on glucose metabolism and thyroid hormones in American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Stephanie; Ramsay, Ed; Kirk, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) have been shown to become transiently insulin resistant and hypothyroid during winter, but no studies have investigated these changes in long-term captive bears or in bears which remain awake year-round. Wild, captive hibernating, and captive nonhibernating bears were evaluated at times corresponding to three of their major physiologic stages: fall (hyperphagic stage), winter (hibernation stage), and summer (normal activity stage). Combined insulin and glucose tolerance tests and thyroid hormone profiles were performed on all bears during each stage. All three groups of bears had evidence of insulin resistance during the winter, as compared to the summer or fall, based on glucose tolerance curves. Analysis of thyroid hormone concentration varied and distinct patterns or similarities were not apparent. While obesity in captive American black bears is multifactorial, the finding that, regardless of their ability to hibernate, captive bears retain similar physiology to their wild counterparts indicates that captive bears' complex physiologic changes need to be addressed in their management.

  11. Science self-efficacy of African Americans enrolled in freshman level physical science courses in two historically black institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihoda, Belinda Ann

    2011-12-01

    Science education must be a priority for citizens to function and be productive in a global, technological society. African Americans receive fewer science degrees in proportion to the Caucasian population. The primary purposes of this study were to determine the difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American nonscience majors, the difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American science majors, the relationship between science self-efficacy and course grade, the relationship between gender and science self-efficacy score, and the relationship between science self-efficacy score and course withdrawal. This study utilized a Likert survey instrument. All participants were enrolled in freshman level courses in the physical sciences at a historically black institution: a college or university. Participants completed the pretest survey within two weeks after the 12th class day of the semester. Initially, 458 participants completed the pretest survey. The posttest was administered within two weeks before the final exam. Only 245 participants completed the posttest survey. Results indicate that there is a difference in science self-efficacy of science majors and nonscience majors. There was no significant difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American science majors and nonscience majors. There was no significant relationship between science self-efficacy and course grade, gender and science self-efficacy score, and course withdrawal and science self-efficacy score.

  12. White Anglo-Saxon hopes and black Americans' Atlantic dreams: Jack Johnson and the British boxing colour bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runstedtler, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the controversy surrounding Jack Johnson's proposed world heavyweight title fight against the British champion Bombardier Billy Wells in London (1911). In juxtaposing African Americans' often glowing discussions of European tolerance with the actual white resistance the black champion faced in Britain, including the Home Office's eventual prohibition of the match, the article explores the period's transnational discourses of race and citizenship. Indeed, as white sportsmen on both sides of the Atlantic joined together in their search for a "White Hope" to unseat Johnson, the boxing ring became an important cultural arena for interracial debates over the political and social divisions between white citizens and nonwhite subjects. Although African Americans had high hopes for their hero's European sojourn, the British backlash against the Johnson-Wells match underscored the fact that their local experiences of racial oppression were just one facet of a much broader global problem. At the same time, the proposed prizefight also made the specter of interracial conflict in the colonies all the more tangible in the British capital, provoking public discussions about the merits of U.S. racial segregation, along with the need for white Anglo-Saxon solidarity around the world. Thus, this article not only exposes the underlying connections between American Jim Crow and the racialized fault lines of British imperialism, but it also traces the "tense and tender ties" linking U.S. and African American history with the new imperial history and postcolonial studies.

  13. Dietary patterns are associated with incident stroke and contribute to excess risk of stroke in Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Suzanne E; Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Newby, PK; Howard, George; Howard, Virginia J; Locher, Julie L; Kissela, Brett M; Shikany, James M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Black Americans and residents of the Southeastern United States, are at increased risk of stroke. Diet is one of many potential factors proposed that might explain these racial and regional disparities. Methods Between 2003–2007, the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study enrolled 30,239 black and white Americans aged 45 years or older. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis and foods from food frequency data. Incident strokes were adjudicated using medical records by a team of physicians. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk of stroke. Results Over 5.7 years, 490 incident strokes were observed. In a multivariable-adjusted analysis, greater adherence to the Plant-based pattern was associated with lower stroke risk (HR=0.71; 95% CI=0.56–0.91; ptrend=0.005). This association was attenuated after addition of income, education, total energy intake, smoking, and sedentary behavior. Participants with a higher adherence to the Southern pattern experienced a 39% increased risk of stroke (HR=1.39; 95% CI=1.05, 1.84), with a significant (p = 0.009) trend across quartiles. Including Southern pattern in the model mediated the black-white risk of stroke by 63%. Conclusions These data suggest that adherence to a Southern style diet may increase the risk of stroke while adherence to a more plant-based diet may reduce stroke risk. Given the consistency of finding a dietary impact on stroke risk across studies, discussing nutrition patterns during risk screening may be an important step in reducing stroke. PMID:24159061

  14. Celebrating the Black Female Self: Zora Neale Hurston's American Classic (Reclaiming the Canon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Julie

    1989-01-01

    Outlines Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God," focusing on the structure of the novel as a classic hero's quest. Notes that this story of a Black woman's journey toward self-definition can stretch students' own horizons of possibility. (MM)

  15. Why replication is important in landscape genetics: American black bear in the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Short Bull; Samuel Cushman; R. Mace; T. Chilton; K. C. Kendall; E. L. Landguth; Michael Schwartz; Kevin McKelvey; Fred W. Allendorf; G. Luikart

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how landscape features influence gene flow of black bears by testing the relative support for 36 alternative landscape resistance hypotheses, including isolation by distance (IBD) in each of 12 study areas in the north central U.S. Rocky Mountains. The study areas all contained the same basic elements, but differed in extent of forest fragmentation,...

  16. Social network analysis of mating patterns in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer A; Xu, Ran; Frank, Kenneth; Draheim, Hope; Scribner, Kim T

    2015-08-01

    Nonrandom mating can structure populations and has important implications for population-level processes. Investigating how and why mating deviates from random is important for understanding evolutionary processes as well as informing conservation and management. Prior to the implementation of parentage analyses, understanding mating patterns in solitary, elusive species like bears was virtually impossible. Here, we capitalize on a long-term genetic data set collected from black bears (Ursus americanus) (N = 2422) in the Northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan, USA. We identified mated pairs using parentage analysis and applied logistic regression (selection) models that controlled for features of the social network, to quantify the effects of individual characteristics, and spatial and population demographic factors on mating dynamics. Logistic regression models revealed that black bear mating was associated with spatial proximity of mates, male age, the time a pair had coexisted, local population density and relatedness. Mated pairs were more likely to contain older males. On average, bears tended to mate with nearby individuals to whom they were related, which does not support the existence of kin recognition in black bears. Pairwise relatedness was especially high for mated pairs containing young males. Restricted dispersal and high male turnover from intensive harvest mortality of NLP black bears are probably the underlying factors associated with younger male bears mating more often with female relatives. Our findings illustrate how harvest has the potential to disrupt the social structure of game species, which warrants further attention for conservation and management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Serum adiponectin and coronary heart disease risk in older Black and White Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Alka M; Wassel Fyr, Christina; Vittinghoff, Eric; Havel, Peter J; Cesari, Matteo; Nicklas, Barbara; Harris, Tamara; Newman, Anne B; Satterfield, Suzanne; Cummings, Steve R

    2006-12-01

    Adiponectin may influence the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Because body composition and adiponectin levels vary by race, we examined the relationship of adiponectin with prevalent and incident CHD in a cohort of older Black and White adults. We conducted a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study at two U.S. clinical centers. Participants included 3075 well-functioning adults between ages 70 and 79 yr enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Prevalent CHD was defined as history of myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft, percutaneous coronary transluminal angioplasty, angina, or major electrocardiogram abnormalities. After excluding those with prevalent CHD, incident CHD was defined as hospitalized myocardial infarction or CHD death. At baseline, 602 participants (19.6%) had CHD. During 6 yr of follow-up, 262 (10.6%) incident CHD events occurred. Whites had higher median adiponectin than Blacks (12 vs. 8 microg/ml, P Blacks, a doubling of adiponectin was associated with a 40% higher risk of both prevalent CHD (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.78) and incident CHD (hazards ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87) after adjusting for explanatory variables. High circulating concentrations of adiponectin were associated with higher risk of CHD in older Blacks, even accounting for traditional CHD risk factors.

  18. Size of Informal Helper Network Mobilized during a Serious Personal Problem among Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatters, Linda M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined use by Black adults (N=1,322) of informal helpers during serious personal problems. Found network size predicted by age, gender, income, familial contact, and problem type. Discussed significance of informal network in providing assistance during personal crisis. (Author/CM)

  19. Reclaiming Our Queendom: Black Feminist Pedagogy and the Identity Formation of African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Approaches to rectifying the inequities Black female students encounter in U.S. educational institutions are rarely discussed in the body of research in which these individuals are the foci. In this critical race feminist auto-ethnography, the author used qualitative data from a two-year study of a girls' empowerment program that she established…

  20. African American College Students at Predominantly White and Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to more fully understand the socialization experiences of African American college students, and to investigate and/or uncover new information that can offer meaningful insight for transforming institutional barriers that interfere with the success of African American college students. The existing literature…

  1. The American Heart Association Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among Blacks: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effoe, Valery S; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Chen, Haiying; Joseph, Joshua J; Norwood, Arnita F; Bertoni, Alain G

    2017-06-21

    The concept of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH), defined by the American Heart Association primarily for coronary heart disease and stroke prevention, may apply to diabetes mellitus prevention among blacks. Our sample included 2668 adults in the Jackson Heart Study with complete baseline data on 6 of 7 American Heart Association CVH metrics (body mass index, healthy diet, smoking, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and physical activity). Incident diabetes mellitus was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, physician diagnosis, use of diabetes mellitus drugs, or glycosylated hemoglobin ≥6.5%. A summary CVH score from 0 to 6, based on presence/absence of ideal CVH metrics, was derived for each participant. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios. Mean age was 55 years (65% women) with 492 incident diabetes mellitus events over 7.6 years (24.6 cases/1000 person-years). Three quarters of participants had only 1 or 2 ideal CVH metrics; no participant had all 6. After adjustment for demographic factors (age, sex, education, and income) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, each additional ideal CVH metric was associated with a 17% diabetes mellitus risk reduction (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.93). The association was attenuated with further adjustment for homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79-1.00). Compared with participants with 1 or no ideal CVH metric, diabetes mellitus risk was 15% and 37% lower in those with 2 and ≥3 ideal CVH metrics, respectively. The AHA concept of ideal CVH is applicable to diabetes mellitus prevention among blacks. These associations were largely explained by insulin resistance. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  2. Young, black, and connected: Facebook usage among African American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E Bun

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the extent and intensity of Facebook usage among African American college students and investigates their reasons for using Facebook. As expected, 98% of students in the survey had a Facebook account, and a large number of Facebook “friends.” Younger users spent significantly more time on Facebook than older ones. Our findings underscore the importance of cultural influence for African American online users. Displaying photographs and personal interests on Facebook signals racial identity among African American college students. Personality traits, such as self-esteem, trust in people, satisfaction with university life, and racial identity, were not significant predictors on the time spent on Facebook.

  3. Anaerobic oral flora in the North American black bear (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Elsburgh O; Stoskopf, Michael K; Minter, Larry J; Stringer, Elizabeth M

    2012-06-01

    Microbial flora can provide insight into the ecology and natural history of wildlife in addition to improving understanding of health risks. This study examines the anaerobic oral flora of hunter killed black bears (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina. Oral swabs from the buccal and lingual supragingival tooth surfaces of the first and second mandibular and maxillary molars of 22 black bears were inoculated onto Brucella Blood Agar plates supplemented with hemin and vitamin K after transport from the field using reduced oxoid nutrient broth. Sixteen anaerobic bacterial species, representing nine genera were identified using the RapID ANA II Micromethod Kit system and a number of organisms grown that could not be identified with the system. The most frequently identified anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus prevotii, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The diversity in the anaerobic oral flora of black bear in eastern North Carolina suggests the importance of including these organisms in basic health risk assessment protocols and suggests a potential tool for assessment of bear/habitat interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An empirical evaluation of landscape energetic models: Mallard and American black duck space use during the non-breeding period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Naylor, Luke W.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.; Coluccy, John M.; Soulliere, G.

    2015-01-01

    Bird conservation Joint Ventures are collaborative partnerships between public agencies and private organizations that facilitate habitat management to support waterfowl and other bird populations. A subset of Joint Ventures has developed energetic carrying capacity models (ECCs) to translate regional waterfowl population goals into habitat objectives during the non-breeding period. Energetic carrying capacity models consider food biomass, metabolism, and available habitat to estimate waterfowl carrying capacity within an area. To evaluate Joint Venture ECCs in the context of waterfowl space use, we monitored 33 female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 55 female American black ducks (A. rubripes) using global positioning system satellite telemetry in the central and eastern United States. To quantify space use, we measured first-passage time (FPT: time required for an individual to transit across a circle of a given radius) at biologically relevant spatial scales for mallards (3.46 km) and American black ducks (2.30 km) during the non-breeding period, which included autumn migration, winter, and spring migration. We developed a series of models to predict FPT using Joint Venture ECCs and compared them to a biological null model that quantified habitat composition and a statistical null model, which included intercept and random terms. Energetic carrying capacity models predicted mallard space use more efficiently during autumn and spring migrations, but the statistical null was the top model for winter. For American black ducks, ECCs did not improve predictions of space use; the biological null was top ranked for winter and the statistical null was top ranked for spring migration. Thus, ECCs provided limited insight into predicting waterfowl space use during the non-breeding season. Refined estimates of spatial and temporal variation in food abundance, habitat conditions, and anthropogenic disturbance will likely improve ECCs and benefit conservation planners

  5. Disparities in total knee replacement: Population losses in quality-adjusted life years due to differential offer, acceptance, and complication rates for Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerman, Hannah M; Smith, Savannah R; Smith, Karen C; Collins, Jamie E; Suter, Lisa G; Katz, Jeffrey N; Losina, Elena

    2018-01-24

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is an effective treatment for end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA). American racial minorities undergo fewer TKRs than Whites. We estimated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost for Black knee OA patients due to differences in TKR offer, acceptance, and complication rates. We used the Osteoarthritis Policy Model, a computer simulation of knee OA, to predict QALY outcomes for Black and White knee OA patients with and without TKR. We estimated per-person QALYs gained from TKR as the difference between QALYs with current TKR use and QALYs when no TKR was performed. We estimated average, per-person QALY losses in Blacks as the difference between QALYs gained with White rates of TKR and QALYs gained with Black rates of TKR. We calculated population-level QALY losses by multiplying per-person QALY losses by the number of persons with advanced knee OA. Finally, we estimated QALYs lost specifically due to lower TKR offer and acceptance and higher complications among Black knee OA patients. Black men and women gain 64,100 QALYs from current TKR use. With white offer and complications rates, they would gain an additional 72,000 QALYs. Because these additional gains are unrealized, we call this a loss of 72,000 QALYs. Black Americans lose 67,500 QALYs because of lower offer, 15,800 QALYs because of lower acceptance, and 2,600 QALYs because of higher complications. Black Americans lose 72,000 QALYs due to disparities in TKR offer and complication rates. Programs to decrease disparities in TKR use are urgently needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. A census tract-level examination of social determinants of health among black/African American men with diagnosed HIV infection, 2005-2009--17 US areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanetta Gant

    Full Text Available HIV disproportionately affects black men in the United States: most diagnoses are for black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively referred to as MSM. A better understanding of the social conditions in which black men live and work may better explain why HIV incidence and diagnosis rates are higher than expected in this population.Using data from the National HIV Surveillance System and the US Census Bureau's American Community Survey, we examined the relationships of HIV diagnosis rates and 5 census tract-level social determinants of health variables for 21,948 black MSM and non-MSM aged ≥ 15 years residing in 17 areas in the United States. We examined federal poverty status, marital status, education level, employment status, and vacancy status and computed rate ratios (RRs and prevalence odds ratios (PORs, using logistic regression with zero-inflated negative binomial modeling.Among black MSM, HIV diagnosis rates decreased as poverty increased (RR: 0.54. At the time of HIV diagnosis, black MSM were less likely than black non-MSM to live in census tracts with a higher proportion below the poverty level (POR: 0.81 and with a higher proportion of vacant houses (POR: 0.86. In comparison, housing vacancy was positively associated with HIV diagnosis rates among black non-MSM (RR: 1.65. HIV diagnosis rates were higher for black MSM (RR: 2.75 and non-MSM (RR: 4.90 whose educational level was low. Rates were significantly lower for black MSM (RR: 0.06 and non-MSM (RR: 0.26 as the proportion unemployed and the proportion married increased.This exploratory study found differences in the patterns of HIV diagnosis rates for black MSM and non-MSM and provides insight into the transmission of HIV infection in areas that reflect substantial disadvantage in education, housing, employment, and income.

  7. American badgers selectively excavate burrows in areas used by black-footed ferrets: implications for predator avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Livieri, Travis M.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated how American badgers (Taxidea taxus) might exert selective pressure on black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) to develop antipredator defenses. In a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in South Dakota, badgers concentrated their activities where burrow openings and prairie dogs were abundant, a selective behavior that was exhibited by ferrets in the same colony. Badgers excavated burrows more often when in areas recently used by a ferret, suggesting that badgers hunt ferrets or steal prey from ferrets, or both. We also conducted an analysis of survival studies for ferrets and Siberian polecats (M. eversmanii) released onto prairie dog colonies. This polecat is the ferret's ecological equivalent but evolved without a digging predator. Badgers accounted for 30.0% of predation on polecats and 5.5% of predation on ferrets. In contrast, both polecats and ferrets have evolutionary experience with canids, providing a plausible explanation for the similar relative impact of coyotes (Canis latrans) on them (65.0% and 67.1% of predation, respectively). We hypothesize that ferrets and badgers coexist because ferrets are superior at exploitation competition and are efficient at avoiding badgers, and badgers are superior at interference competition.

  8. Pityriasis Rotunda: A Case Report of Familial Disease in an American-Born Black Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G. Lefkowitz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rotunda is an uncommon dermatosis with an unusual geographic and racial distribution. The skin disorder is characterized by sharply defined, perfectly circular, scaly patches with no inflammatory changes. Notably, it may be associated with underlying malignancy or chronic infection. We report an uncommon familial case in an American-born female.

  9. Predominantly Black Institutions and Public Montessori Schools: Reclaiming the "Genius" in African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jor'dan, Jamilah R.

    2018-01-01

    There are more than 22,000 Montessori schools in over 100 countries worldwide. Beginning in the 1950s the American Montessori movement was primarily a private pre-school movement. There are more than 5,000 schools in the United States; over 500 of these are public. Montessori schools are an increasingly popular choice in the U.S. for public school…

  10. Do Black Families Value Education? White Teachers, Institutional Cultural Narratives, & Beliefs about African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchner, Laurel; Markowitz, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this article Puchner and Markowitz illustrate a major problem in education and in teacher education, the underlying dynamics of which are a national problem. The problem of negative beliefs about African American families in schools is not a new idea but actually stems from unfounded and untested assumptions about the way the world works and…

  11. A History of Black and Brown: Chicana/o-African American Cultural and Political Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Luis; Widener, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Rather than assume that ethnicity or race necessarily marks the edges of one's culture or politics, the contributors to this dossier highlight the messy, blurry, and often contradictory relationships that arise when Chicana/os and African Americans engage one another. The essays explore the complicated mix of cooperation and conflict that…

  12. The Relation of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Socialization to Discrimination-Distress: A Meta-Analysis of Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…

  13. Racial and Ethnic-Related Stressors as Predictors of Perceived Stress and Academic Performance for African American Students at a Historically Black College and University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether racial and ethnic-related stressors were associated with overall levels of perceived stress and academic performance among African American students at a historically Black college and university (HBCU). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test racial and ethnic-related stressors…

  14. Social Constructs Regarding the Physical and Sexual Energy of Whites, Indigenous South Americans and Blacks in Spanish and Colombian Primary School Reading Books between 1900 and 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-López, Federico Guillermo; Somoza-Rodríguez, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the manner in which the physical and sexual energy of the white, native South American and black populations was represented in reading books for elementary school children in Spain and Colombia between 1900 and 1960. Ninety reading books from representative authors were examined. It was found that the ideal of extraordinary…

  15. African American Students in a California Community College: Perceptions of Cultural Congruity and Academic Self-Concept within a Black Culture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Tenisha Celita

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the cultural congruity and academic self-concept of African American students in a community college setting who participated in a Black Culture Center. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between cultural congruity and academic self-concept through the following two research…

  16. African American women's infant feeding choices: prenatal breast-feeding self-efficacy and narratives from a black feminist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen M; VandeVusse, Leona

    2011-01-01

    Examining prenatal breast-feeding self-efficacy and infant feeding decisions among African American women using a mixed-method approach. A black feminist philosophy was used to keep women's experiences as the central research focus. The Prenatal Breast-feeding Self-efficacy Scale was used to determine differences between intended breast-feeders and formula users among 59 women. Seventeen narrative interviews were conducted to analyze postpartum accounts of actual feeding practices. Both groups (intended breast- or formula-feeders) demonstrated confidence in their ability to breast-feed. Women planning to breast-feed (M = 82.59, SD = 12.53) scored significantly higher than anticipated formula users (M = 70, SD = 15.45), P = .001 (2-tailed). Four of the six themes emerging from narrative analysis were similar to categories of self-efficacy: performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasions, and physiological reactions. In addition, themes of social embarrassment and feelings of regret were identified. Although African American women in this study rated themselves overall as confident with breast-feeding, several narratives about actual feeding choices indicated ambivalence. Women planning to breast-feed need continued support from their healthcare providers throughout the childbearing year. Furthermore, prenatal and immediate postpartum opportunities may exist for nurses to encourage breast-feeding among individuals who initially plan formula use.

  17. Intermittent feeding in a migratory omnivore: Digestion and body composition of American Black Duck during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, Dennis G.

    2001-01-01

    Birds fast intermittently during weather disturbances and migration. We tested responses of black duck to lost feeding days during autumn mass gain. Nine adult males were fed a pelleted diet (1.5% fat, 15.8% protein, and 18.3% neutral detergent fiber) and caged indoors during September and October (12 h light; 17? -24? C) to measure balances over 14 d when fed ad lib. each day and fasted intermittently for 2 d wk-1 (short fast) or 4 d wk-1 (long fast). Body mass (1,081 g), body water content, and metabolizable intakes of energy and protein were maintained as daily intakes of dry matter increased to 1.65 (short fast) and 2.35 (long fast) times the unfasted level. Intermittent feeding reduced metabolizability of dry matter, energy, protein, and acid detergent fiber. Concentrations of Mn provided similar estimates of metabolizability to direct measures in unfasted birds but underestimated measures of birds on long fasts. Fasting regimes continued outdoors for 9 wk when temperatures declined to -9? C. Birds on short fasts were heavier (1,373 vs. 1,241 g) and fatter (159 vs. 58 g) than those on long fasts, while body water (894 g) and protein (316 g) were similar between groups after 5 wk. Birds on long fasts subsequently gained mass when fed daily, but those on short fasts lost mass when fed each day. Omnivorous waterfowl combine ingestive and digestive flexibility with plasticity of body lipid to contend with uncertain food availability.

  18. Efficacy of GPS cluster analysis for predicting carnivory sites of a wide-ranging omnivore: the American black bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindschuh, Sarah R.; Cain, James W.; Daniel, David; Peyton, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to describe and quantify predation by large carnivores expanded considerably with the advent of GPS technology. Analyzing clusters of GPS locations formed by carnivores facilitates the detection of predation events by identifying characteristics which distinguish predation sites. We present a performance assessment of GPS cluster analysis as applied to the predation and scavenging of an omnivore, the American black bear (Ursus americanus), on ungulate prey and carrion. Through field investigations of 6854 GPS locations from 24 individual bears, we identified 54 sites where black bears formed a cluster of locations while predating or scavenging elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), or cattle (Bos spp.). We developed models for three data sets to predict whether a GPS cluster was formed at a carnivory site vs. a non-carnivory site (e.g., bed sites or non-ungulate foraging sites). Two full-season data sets contained GPS locations logged at either 3-h or 30-min intervals from April to November, and a third data set contained 30-min interval data from April through July corresponding to the calving period for elk. Longer fix intervals resulted in the detection of fewer carnivory sites. Clusters were more likely to be carnivory sites if they occurred in open or edge habitats, if they occurred in the early season, if the mean distance between all pairs of GPS locations within the cluster was less, and if the cluster endured for a longer period of time. Clusters were less likely to be carnivory sites if they were initiated in the morning or night compared to the day. The top models for each data set performed well and successfully predicted 71–96% of field-verified carnivory events, 55–75% of non–carnivory events, and 58–76% of clusters overall. Refinement of this method will benefit from further application across species and ecological systems.

  19. Warm springs, early lay dates, and double brooding in a North American migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K Townsend

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have correlated the advancement of lay date in birds with warming climate trends, yet the fitness effects associated with this phenological response have been examined in only a small number of species. Most of these species--primarily insectivorous cavity nesters in Europe--exhibit fitness declines associated with increasing asynchrony with prey. Here, we use 25 years of demographic data, collected from 1986 to 2010, to examine the effects of spring temperature on breeding initiation date, double brooding, and annual fecundity in a Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens. Data were collected from birds breeding at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA, where long-term trends toward warmer springs have been recorded. We found that black-throated blue warblers initiated breeding earlier in warmer springs, that early breeders were more likely to attempt a second brood than those starting later in the season, and that double brooding and lay date were linked to higher annual fecundity. Accordingly, we found selection favored earlier breeding in most years. However, in contrast to studies of several other long-distance migratory species in Europe, this selection pressure was not stronger in warmer springs, indicating that these warblers were able to adjust mean lay date appropriately to substantial inter-annual variation in spring temperature. Our results suggest that this North American migratory songbird might not experience the same fecundity declines as songbirds that are unable to adjust their timing of breeding in pace with spring temperatures.

  20. Why replication is important in landscape genetics: American black bear in the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Bull R.A.; Cushman, S.A.; MacE, R.; Chilton, T.; Kendall, K.C.; Landguth, E.L.; Schwartz, Maurice L.; McKelvey, K.; Allendorf, F.W.; Luikart, G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how landscape features influence gene flow of black bears by testing the relative support for 36 alternative landscape resistance hypotheses, including isolation by distance (IBD) in each of 12 study areas in the north central U.S. Rocky Mountains. The study areas all contained the same basic elements, but differed in extent of forest fragmentation, altitude, variation in elevation and road coverage. In all but one of the study areas, isolation by landscape resistance was more supported than IBD suggesting gene flow is likely influenced by elevation, forest cover, and roads. However, the landscape features influencing gene flow varied among study areas. Using subsets of loci usually gave models with the very similar landscape features influencing gene flow as with all loci, suggesting the landscape features influencing gene flow were correctly identified. To test if the cause of the variability of supported landscape features in study areas resulted from landscape differences among study areas, we conducted a limiting factor analysis. We found that features were supported in landscape models only when the features were highly variable. This is perhaps not surprising but suggests an important cautionary note – that if landscape features are not found to influence gene flow, researchers should not automatically conclude that the features are unimportant to the species’ movement and gene flow. Failure to investigate multiple study areas that have a range of variability in landscape features could cause misleading inferences about which landscape features generally limit gene flow. This could lead to potentially erroneous identification of corridors and barriers if models are transferred between areas with different landscape characteristics.

  1. Interactions among American badgers, black-footed ferrets, and prairie dogs in the grasslands of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Grassel, Shaun M.; Livieri, Travis M.; Licht, Daniel S.; Proulx, Gilbert; Do Linh San, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    American badgers (Taxidea taxus) and black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) sometimes occur sympatrically within colonies of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) in the grasslands of western North America. From the perspective of a simplified food web, badgers are consumers of ferrets and, to a greater extent, prairie dogs; ferrets are specialized consumers of prairie dogs; and prairie dogs are consumers of vegetation. We review information on the predatory behaviours of badgers, which collectively demonstrate that badgers exhibit complex hunting strategies to improve their probability of capturing prairie dogs and, perhaps, ferrets. We also review studies of interactions between badgers and ferrets, which suggest that there is selective pressure on badgers to compete with ferrets, and pressure on ferrets to compete with and avoid badgers. We then speculate as to how prairie dogs might shape interactions between badgers and ferrets, and how badgers could spread the plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis) among prairie dog colonies. Lastly, we provide recommendations for research on this tractable system of semi-fossorial predators and prey.

  2. Extensive gene flow characterizes the phylogeography of a North American migrant bird: Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Els, Paul; Spellman, Garth M; Smith, Brian Tilston; Klicka, John

    2014-09-01

    We describe range-wide phylogeographic variation in the Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus), a songbird that is widely distributed across North American scrublands and forests. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, n=424) revealed three geographically structured clades. One widespread clade occurs throughout the Rocky Mountains, Great Basin, and Mexican Plateau, a second clade is found on the Pacific coast and in coastal ranges; and, a third in the Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca and Guerrero. Some geographical structuring occurs in Mexican Plateau and Sierra Madre Oriental mtDNA clade, presumably because these populations have been more stable over time than northern populations. Multiple mitochondrial groups are found sympatrically in the Okanogan River Valley in Washington, the eastern Sierra Nevada, and the Transvolcanic Belt across central Mexico, indicating that there is a potential for introgression. Analyses of 12 nuclear loci did not recover the same geographically structured clades. Population analyses show high levels of gene flow in nucDNA from the Interior into the Sierra Madre del Sur and Pacific population groups, possibly indicating expansion of the Interior population at the expense of peripheral populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Uncovering Black/African American and Latina/o students' motivation to learn science: Affordances to science identity development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfood, Denise Marcia

    The following dissertation reports on a qualitative exploration that serves two main goals: (1) to qualitatively define and highlight science motivation development of Black/African American and Latina/o students as they learn science in middle school, high school, and in college and (2) to reveal through personal narratives how successful entry and persistence in science by this particular group is linked to the development of their science identities. The targeted population for this study is undergraduate students of color in science fields at a college or university. The theoretical frameworks for this study are constructivist theory, motivation theory, critical theory, and identity theories. The methodological approach is narrative which includes students' science learning experiences throughout the course of their academic lives. I use The Science Motivation Questionnaire II to obtain baseline data to quantitatively assess for motivation to learn science. Data from semi-structured interviews from selected participants were collected, coded, and configured into a story, and emergent themes reveal the important role of science learning in both informal and formal settings, but especially in informal settings that contribute to better understandings of science and the development of science identities for these undergraduate students of color. The findings have implications for science teaching in schools and teacher professional development in science learning.

  4. Social Network Characteristics Moderate the Association Between Stigmatizing Attributions About HIV and Non-adherence Among Black Americans Living with HIV: a Longitudinal Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Wagner, Glenn J; Green, Harold D; Mutchler, Matt G; Klein, David J; McDavitt, Bryce

    2015-12-01

    Stigma may contribute to HIV-related disparities among HIV-positive Black Americans. We examined whether social network characteristics moderate stigma's effects. At baseline and 6 months post-baseline, 147 HIV-positive Black Americans on antiretroviral treatment completed egocentric social network assessments, from which we derived a structural social support capacity measure (i.e., ability to leverage support from the network, represented by the average interaction frequency between the participant and each alter). Stigma was operationalized with an indicator of whether any social network member had expressed stigmatizing attributions of blame or responsibility about HIV. Daily medication adherence was monitored electronically. In a multivariate regression, baseline stigma was significantly related to decreased adherence over time. The association between stigma and non-adherence was attenuated among participants who increased the frequency of their interactions with alters over time. Well-connected social networks have the potential to buffer the effects of stigma.

  5. Chronic Medical Conditions and Major Depressive Disorder: Differential Role of Positive Religious Coping among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the main and buffering effects of positive religious coping on the association between the number of chronic medical conditions and major depressive disorder (MDD) among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites. This cross-sectional study used data from the National Survey of American Life, 2001 and 2003. This study enrolled 3,570 African Americans, 1,438 Caribbean Blacks and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Number of chronic conditions and positive religious coping were independent variables, 12-month MDD was the outcome and socio-economic characteristics were controls. We fitted the following three ethnic-specific logistic regressions for data analysis. In Model I, we included the number of chronic conditions and controls. In Model II, we added the main effect of religious coping. In Model III, we included an interaction between religious coping and number of chronic conditions. Based on Model I, number of chronic conditions was associated with higher odds of 12-month MDD among all race/ethnic groups. Model II showed a significant and negative association between religious coping and MDD among Caribbean Blacks (odds ratio [OR] =0.55, 95% confidence Interval [CI] =0.39-0.77), but not African Americans or Hispanic Whites. Model III suggested that, only among Caribbean Blacks, the effect of chronic medical conditions on MDD is smaller in the presence of high positive religious coping (OR for interaction = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.55-0.96). Although the association between multiple chronic conditions and MDD may exist regardless of race and ethnicity, race/ethnicity may shape how positive religious coping buffers this association. This finding sheds more light onto race and ethnic differences in protective effects of religiosity on mental health of populations.

  6. Extended Family and Friendship Support Networks are both Protective and Risk Factors for Major Depressive Disorder, and Depressive Symptoms Among African Americans and Black Caribbeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chae, David H.; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores relationships between lifetime and 12 month DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), depressive symptoms and involvement with family and friends within a national sample of African American and Black Caribbean adults (n=5,191). MDD was assessed using the DSM-IV World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) and depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D and the K6. Findings indicated that among both populations close supportive ties with family members and friends are associated with lower rates of depression and major depressive disorder. For African Americans, closeness to family members was important for both 12 month and lifetime MDD; and both family and friend closeness were important for depressive symptoms. For Caribbean Blacks, family closeness had more limited associations with outcomes and was directly associated with psychological distress only. Negative interactions with family (conflict, criticisms), however, were associated with higher MDD and depressive symptoms among both African Americans and Black Caribbeans. PMID:25594791

  7. Black women’s ‘two-ness’ in african-american literature: can black and white worlds join together? = A dualidade de mulheres negras na literatura afro-americana: os mundos negro e branco podem se unir?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Endoença Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how black women keep contacts with both black and white worlds in novels written by African-American female writers. In Toni Morrison’s (1970 The Bluest Eye, Pecola Breedlove keeps contact with the white world through her assimilationist behavior; in Alice Walker’s (1982 The Color Purple, Celie freezes herself in the black world by playing the role of the nationalist Negro; finally, in Lorraine Hansberry’s (1987 A Raisin in the Sun, Mama Younger joins black and white worlds together when she develops a catalyst agenda, as she moves to a white neighborhood.O artigo discute como mulheres negras mantêm contato com os mundos negro e branco em romances de escritoras afroamericanas. Em O Olho Mais Azul, de Toni Morrison (1970, Pecola Breedlove se alia ao mundo branco pelo comportamento assimilacionista; em A Cor Púrpura, de Alice Walker (1982, Celie se isola no mundo negro ao assumir o papel do Negro nacionalista; por fim, em Uma Cereja ao Sol, de Lorraine Hansberry (1987, Mama Younger aproxima o mundo negro e branco quando se torna catalista, indo morar num bairro branco.

  8. Phylogeographic Analyses of American Black Bears (Ursus americanus) Suggest Four Glacial Refugia and Complex Patterns of Postglacial Admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Emily E; Etter, Paul D; Johnson, Eric A; Eggert, Lori S

    2015-09-01

    Studies of species with continental distributions continue to identify intraspecific lineages despite continuous habitat. Lineages may form due to isolation by distance, adaptation, divergence across barriers, or genetic drift following range expansion. We investigated lineage diversification and admixture within American black bears (Ursus americanus) across their range using 22 k single nucleotide polymorphisms and mitochondrial DNA sequences. We identified three subcontinental nuclear clusters which we further divided into nine geographic regions: Alaskan (Alaska-East), eastern (Central Interior Highlands, Great Lakes, Northeast, Southeast), and western (Alaska-West, West, Pacific Coast, Southwest). We estimated that the western cluster diverged 67 ka, before eastern and Alaskan divergence 31 ka; these divergence dates contrasted with those from the mitochondrial genome where clades A and B diverged 1.07 Ma, and clades A-east and A-west diverged 169 ka. We combined estimates of divergence timing with hindcast species distribution models to infer glacial refugia for the species in Beringia, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, and Southeast. Our results show a complex arrangement of admixture due to expansion out of multiple refugia. The delineation of the genomic population clusters was inconsistent with the ranges for 16 previously described subspecies. Ranges for U. a. pugnax and U. a. cinnamomum were concordant with admixed clusters, calling into question how to order taxa below the species level. Additionally, our finding that U. a. floridanus has not diverged from U. a. americanus also suggests that morphology and genetics should be reanalyzed to assess taxonomic designations relevant to the conservation management of the species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved.For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Sex-biased natal dispersal and inbreeding avoidance in American black bears as revealed by spatial genetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Cecily M; Creel, Scott R; Kalinowski, Steven T; Vu, Ninh V; Quigley, Howard B

    2008-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that sex-biased natal dispersal reduces close inbreeding in American black bears, a solitary species that exhibits nearly complete male dispersal and female philopatry. Using microsatellite DNA and spatial data from reproductively mature bears (>or= 4 years old), we examined the spatial genetic structure of two distinct populations in New Mexico from 1993 to 2000. As predicted, relatedness (r) and the frequency of close relationships (parent-offspring or full siblings) decreased with distance among female dyads, but little change was observed among male or opposite-sex dyads. Neighbouring females were more closely related than neighbouring males. The potential for inbreeding was low. Most opposite-sex pairs that lived sufficiently close to facilitate mating were unrelated, and few were close relatives. We found no evidence that bears actively avoided inbreeding in their selection of mates from this nearby pool, as mean r and relationship frequencies did not differ between potential and actual mating pairs (determined by parentage analysis). These basic patterns were apparent in both study areas despite a nearly two-fold difference in density. However, the sex bias in dispersal was less pronounced in the lower-density area, based on proportions of bears with male and female relatives residing nearby. This result suggests that male bears may respond to reduced competition by decreasing their rate or distance of dispersal. Evidence supports the hypothesis that inbreeding avoidance is achieved by means of male-biased dispersal but also indicates that competition (for mates or resources) modifies dispersal patterns.

  10. Comparative reproductive biology of sympatric species: Nest and chick survival of American avocets and black-necked stilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hartman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying differences in reproductive success rates of closely related and sympatrically breeding species can be useful for understanding limitations to population growth. We simultaneously examined the reproductive ecology of American avocets Recurvirostra americana and black-necked stilts Himantopus mexicanus using 1274 monitored nests and 240 radio-marked chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Although there were 1.8 times more avocet nests than stilt nests, stilts nonetheless fledged 3.3 times more chicks. Greater production by stilts than avocets was the result of greater chick survival from hatching to fledging (avocet: 6%; stilt: 40%), and not because of differences in clutch size (avocet: 3.84; stilt: 3.77), nest survival (avocet: 44%; stilt: 35%), or egg hatching success (avocet: 90%; stilt: 92%). We reviewed the literature and confirmed that nest survival and hatching success are generally similar when avocets and stilts breed sympatrically. In addition to species, chick survival was strongly influenced by age, site, and year. In particular, daily survival rates increased rapidly with chick age, with 70% of mortalities occurring ≤ 1 week after hatch. California gulls Larus californicus caused 55% of avocet, but only 15% of stilt, chick deaths. Differential use of micro-habitats likely reduced stilt chick’s vulnerability to gull predation, particularly during the first week after hatch, because stilts nested in vegetation 2.7 times more often than avocets and vegetation height was 65% taller at stilt nests compared with avocet nests. Our results demonstrate that two co-occurring and closely related species with similar life history strategies can differ markedly in reproductive success, and simultaneous studies of such species can identify differences that limit productivity.

  11. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  12. Decolonizing "Othello" in Search of Black Feminist North American Identities: Djanet Sears' "Harlem Duet" and Toni Morrison's "Desdemona"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucarella-Ramon, Vicent

    2017-01-01

    The plays "Harlem Duet" (1997) by African Canadian playwright Djanet Sears and "Desdemona" (2012) by Toni Morrison signify upon European texts aiming to carve out a new definition of what it means to be black in North America. Therefore, both texts make for interesting reading in the study of (black) identity construction…

  13. Vital Signs: Racial Disparities in Age-Specific Mortality Among Blacks or African Americans - United States, 1999-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Croft, Janet B; Liu, Yong; Lu, Hua; Eke, Paul I; Giles, Wayne H

    2017-05-05

    Although the overall life expectancy at birth has increased for both blacks and whites and the gap between these populations has narrowed, disparities in life expectancy and the leading causes of death for blacks compared with whites in the United States remain substantial. Understanding how factors that influence these disparities vary across the life span might enhance the targeting of appropriate interventions. Trends during 1999-2015 in mortality rates for the leading causes of death were examined by black and white race and age group. Multiple 2014 and 2015 national data sources were analyzed to compare blacks with whites in selected age groups by sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health behaviors, health-related quality of life indicators, use of health services, and chronic conditions. During 1999-2015, age-adjusted death rates decreased significantly in both populations, with rates declining more sharply among blacks for most leading causes of death. Thus, the disparity gap in all-cause mortality rates narrowed from 33% in 1999 to 16% in 2015. However, during 2015, blacks still had higher death rates than whites for all-cause mortality in all groups aged blacks in age groups deaths among blacks (especially cardiovascular disease and cancer and their risk factors) across the life span and create equal opportunities for health.

  14. Acid precipitation and food quality: Effects of dietary Al, Ca and P on bone and liver characteristics in American black ducks and mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) were fed diets varying in concentrations of aluminum (Al). calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) for 10 weeks to identify toxic effects of Al under conditions representative of areas with acid precipitation. Femur and liver tissues were analyzed for Al. Ca, and P concentrations and structural characteristics. At two weeks of age, both species demonstrated pronounced differences in femur Al and P concentrations and femur mass from dietary Al and interaction between Ca:P regimen and Al:Low Ca:Low P enhanced Al storage and decreased P and mass in femurs. Femur Ca was lowest in the Low Ca:Low P regimen but was not affected by dietary Al. At 10 weeks, femur and liver Al continued to vary with dietary Al. Elevated Al and reduced Ca lowered modulus of elasticity. Femur P increased with elevated dietary P in black ducks. Elevated dietary P negated some of the effects of dietary A! on femur mass in black ducks. Reduced Ca concentrations weakened bones of both species and lowered both Ca and P. An array of clinical signs including lameness, discoloration of the upper mandible, complete and greenstick fractures, and death were responses to elevated Al and Ca:P regimen. Black ducks seemed to display these signs over a wider range of diets than mallards. Diets of 1,000 mg/kg Al had toxic effects on both species, particularly when combined with diets low in Ca and P.

  15. Recruiting black Americans in a large cohort study: the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) design, methods and participant characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, R Patti; Butler, Terry; Hall, Sonja; Montgomery, Susanne B; Fraser, Gary E

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the prospective Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) was to examine the relationship between diet and risk of breast, prostate and colon cancers in Black and White participants. This paper describes the study design, recruitment methods, response rates, and characteristics of Blacks in the AHS-2, thus providing insights about effective strategies to recruit Blacks to participate in research studies. We designed a church-based recruitment model and trained local recruiters who used various strategies to recruit participants in their churches. Participants completed a 50-page self-administered dietary and lifestyle questionnaire. Participants are Black Seventh-day Adventists, aged 30-109 years, and members of 1,209 Black churches throughout the United States and Canada. Approximately 48,328 Blacks from an estimated target group of over 90,000 signed up for the study and 25,087 completed the questionnaire, comprising about 26% of the larger 97,000 AHS-2-member cohort. Participants were diverse in age, geographic location, education, and income. Seventy percent were female with a median age of 59 years. In spite of many recruitment challenges and barriers, we successfully recruited a large cohort whose data should provide some answers as to why Blacks have poorer health outcomes than several other ethnic groups, and help explain existing health disparities.

  16. THE USE OF KETAMINE-XYLAZINE OR BUTORPHANOL-AZAPERONE-MEDETOMIDINE TO IMMOBILIZE AMERICAN BLACK BEARS ( URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ryan H; Muller, Lisa L; Blair, Coy

    2018-04-04

      Wildlife anesthetic protocols must offer rapid inductions and recoveries, be physiologically safe, and be minimally regulated. With this in mind, we evaluated differences in induction and recovery times and physiological parameters in 33 American black bears ( Ursus americanus) anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine (KX) or immobilized with a commercial drug combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM). Dose was based on mass estimated from field observations. Bears were housed at Appalachian Bear Rescue, Townsend, Tennessee, US, or free-ranging within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Tennessee and North Carolina, US) and chemically immobilized for management purposes. From 11 April to 29 June 2016, we immobilized bears with injection via pole syringe or disposable dart projected from an air-powered dart rifle. Once immobilized, we measured each bear's temperature, respiration (breaths/min), heart rate (beats/min), hemoglobin oxygen saturation (via pulse oximetry), arterial blood gases, and mass (kg). We found no differences in the induction parameters, partial pressures of CO 2 , and rectal temperatures. The BAM-treated bears had lower heart and respiratory rates that led to lower hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels (from blood gas analysis, SaO 2 ). The SaO 2 after treatment with BAM (91.1±0.8%) was lower than with KX (93.4±0.9%). After handling, we reversed KX-treated bears with a x̄=0.2±0.02 mg/kg yohimbine and BAM-treated bears with x̄=1.5±0.1 mg/kg atipamezole and 0.8±0.1 mg/kg naltrexone. We found no differences in the recovery times to increased respiration and to the bear assuming a head-up position. The BAM-treated bears stood and recovered quicker than did KX-treated animals. Based on our observations, BAM appears to offer safe, predictable immobilizations with fewer drawbacks and faster recovery times than KX-treated bears.

  17. Investigating the mechanism for maintaining eucalcemia despite immobility and anuria in the hibernating American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Rita L; Cross, Randal A; Rosen, Clifford J; Causey, Robert C; Gundberg, Caren M; Carpenter, Thomas O; Chen, Tai C; Halteman, William A; Holick, Michael F; Jakubas, Walter J; Keisler, Duane H; Seger, Richard M; Servello, Frederick A

    2011-12-01

    Ursine hibernation uniquely combines prolonged skeletal unloading, anuria, pregnancy, lactation, protein recycling, and lipolysis. This study presents a radiographic and biochemical picture of bone metabolism in free-ranging, female American black bears (Ursus americanus) that were active (spring bears and autumn bears) or hibernating (hibernating bears). Hibernating bears included lactating and non-lactating individuals. We measured serum calcium, albumin, inorganic phosphate, creatinine, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSALP), CTX, parathyroid hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-l), leptin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] and sclerostin from 35 to 50 tranquilized hibernating bears and 14 to 35 tranquilized spring bears. We compared metacarpal cortical indices (MCI), measured by digital X-ray radiogrammetry, from 60 hunter-killed autumn bears and 79 tranquilized, hibernating bears. MCI was greater in autumn than winter in younger bears, but showed no seasonal difference in older bears. During hibernation eucalcemia was maintained, BSALP was suppressed, and CTX was in the range expected for anuria. During hibernation 1,25(OH)(2)D was produced despite anuria. 1,25(OH)(2)D and IGF-I were less in hibernating than spring bears. In a quarter of hibernating bears, sclerostin was elevated. Leptin was greater in hibernating than spring bears. In hibernating bears, leptin correlated positively with BSALP in non-lactating bears and with CTX in lactating bears. Taken together the biochemical and radiographic findings indicate that during hibernation, bone turnover was persistent, balanced, and suppressed; bone resorption was lower than expected for an unloaded skeleton; and there was no unloading-induced bone loss. The skeleton appears to perceive that it was loaded when it was actually unloaded during hibernation. However, at the level of sclerostin, the skeleton recognized that it was unloaded. During hibernation leptin

  18. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T.

    2010-01-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy. PMID:22822291

  19. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T

    2010-03-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy.

  20. A hierarchical model for regional analysis of population change using Christmas Bird Count data, with application to the American Black Duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.; Niven, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data is complicated by the need to account for variation in effort on counts and to provide summaries over large geographic regions. We describe a hierarchical model for analysis of population change using CBC data that addresses these needs. The effect of effort is modeled parametrically, with parameter values varying among strata as identically distributed random effects. Year and site effects are modeled hierarchically, accommodating large regional variation in number of samples and precision of estimates. The resulting model is complex, but a Bayesian analysis can be conducted using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. We analyze CBC data for American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes), a species of considerable management interest that has historically been monitored using winter surveys. Over the interval 1966-2003, Black Duck populations showed distinct regional patterns of population change. The patterns shown by CBC data are similar to those shown by the Midwinter Waterfowl Inventory for the United States.

  1. A Marketing Study on the Recruitment and Retention of Black-American and Women Cadets. Part I. Qualitative Research Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-15

    retention in terms of the attitudes Blacks must have to persist in the environment. He commented, "Blacks who make it through... .understand racism . They are... stigma attached to it because of the "macho image" that pervaded the atmosphere, so that was out", commxnented one graduate. Another felt that the OB-GYN...together and plan social znd cultural events. The Counseling Center was felt to be good. However, few cadets had used the center because of the stigma

  2. Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Differences Between Caribbean Black and African American Patients as Measured by Spectral Domain OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rohini; Dhrami-Gavazi, Elona; Al-Aswad, Lama; Ciarleglio, Adam; Cioffi, George A; Blumberg, Dana M

    2015-01-01

    There are well-established differences in optic nerve morphology between patients of African and European descent. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning has demonstrated these differences with respect to optic disc area (DA), average cup-disc ratio, cup volume, and nerve fiber layer thickness. However, the term "African descent" describes a heterogenous group with considerable variability. This study evaluates differences in optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) parameters as measured by Cirrus HD-OCT between Caribbean black and African American patients. A total of 25 African American subjects and 25 Caribbean black subjects with normal ocular examinations were consecutively recruited to this study. All patients received imaging of the optic nerve and nerve fiber layer with Cirrus HD-OCT. Optic nerve and RNFL parameters were evaluated for statistically significant differences using a t test. A mixed effect model for correlated data was then created to adjust outcome variables for (1) repeated measures and (2) optic nerve size. Two one-sided t tests were then utilized to determine equivalence. After adjustment for DA, RNFL thickness, cup volume, DA, inferior nerve fiber layer, and vertical cup-disc ratio demonstrated statistically significant equivalence between the 2 groups (P value fiber layer quadrant was significantly different between the 2 groups and may merit further investigation. Findings of this study suggest that optic nerve and RNFL morphology is markedly similar between Caribbean blacks and African Americans once adjusted for optic nerve size but cannot be considered equivalent in all measures, particularly in the superior nerve fiber layer.

  3. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  4. Alcoholism and Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Bertha; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Notes that in America, knowledge base concerning alcoholism is concentrated on drinking patterns of Whites, and that Black Americans often differ in their drinking behavior, resulting in a need to clarify issues regarding alcoholism and Blacks. Provides theoretical information useful in better discerning drinking behavior of Blacks. (Author/NB)

  5. When Lions Write History: Black History Textbooks, African-American Educators, & the Alternative Black Curriculum in Social Studies Education, 1890-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.

    2014-01-01

    The African proverb, "Until the lions have their historians, tales of the hunt shall always glorify the hunter," is used to metaphorically describe how dominant groups inscribe power through historical narrative. In this article the author discusses how African-American educators between the years of 1890-1940 conceptualized citizenship…

  6. Mortality among African American women with sarcoidosis: data from the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukey, M H; Berman, J S; Boggs, D A; White, L F; Rosenberg, L; Cozier, Y C

    2013-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that disproportionately affects black females.  Few studies have specifically addressed causes of death in this population. To assess rates and causes of death among women with sarcoidosis in a prospective cohort study of U.S. black women. The Black Women's Health Study is a follow-up study of 59,000 U.S. black women aged 21-69 (median age 38) at entry in 1995.  Data on demographic and lifestyle factors and medical conditions, including sarcoidosis, were obtained through biennial questionnaires.  Deaths and causes of death from 1995 through 2009 among study subjects were identified from National Death Index data. We assessed mortality rates among women with and without a history of sarcoidosis.  Poisson regression models were used to estimate age-adjusted mortality rates. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for mortality and 95% confidence intervals. A total of 121 deaths occurred among 1,192 women with a history of sarcoidosis and 2813 deaths among women without sarcoidosis.  Mortality was greater at every age among women with sarcoidosis and the overall multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio was 2.44 (95% CI 2.03-2.93, p<0.0001). Of the deaths among women with sarcoidosis, 24.7% were directly attributable to sarcoidosis. In the Black Women's Health Study, women with sarcoidosis were more than twice as likely to die as women without the disease, with many of the deaths directly attributable to sarcoidosis.  Sarcoidosis is an important cause of premature death among black women with the disease.

  7. Food habits of American black bears as a metric for direct management of humanbear conflict in Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, S.S.; Matthews, S.M.; Wright, R.G.; Beecham, J.J.; Leithead, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The management of human-American black bear (Ursus americanus) conflict has been of significant concern for Yosemite National Park (YNP) personnel since the 1920s. Park managers implemented the YNP Human-Bear Management Plan in 1975 in an effort to reduce human-bear conflicts, especially in the extensively developed Yosemite Valley (YV). We used scat analysis to estimate annual and seasonal food habits of black bears in YV during 2001-02. We assessed the success of efforts to reduce the availability of anthropogenic foods, including garbage, by examining changes in the diet compared to a study from 1974-78 (Graber 1981). We also quantified consumption of non-native fruit to address its possible contribution to human-bear conflicts. The annual percent volume of human-provided food and garbage in black bear scats in YV decreased from 21% to 6% between 1978 and 2002, indicating YNP efforts have been effective. We found high use of non-native apples by bears throughout YV. Non-native food sources could be contributing to habituation and food conditioning, given their proximity to developed areas of YV. We recommend that YNP managers continue to (1) adapt and improve their management tools to address changing circumstances, (2) quantify the success of new management tools, and (3) reduce the availability of non-native food sources. ?? 2009 International Association for Bear Research and Management.

  8. Adolescent experiences of violence and relation to violence perpetration beyond young adulthood among an urban sample of Black and African American males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Lawrence, Danielle A; Santana, M C; Welles, C Seth L; Horsburgh, C Robert; Silverman, Jay G; Rich, John A; Raj, Anita

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if experiences of physical violence during early and late adolescence (12-21 years) places urban Black males at increased risk for interpersonal violence perpetration beyond young adulthood (30 years and older). Participants of this cross-sectional study were Black and African American men (N = 455) between the ages of 30 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the Northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of adolescent experiences of violence to: (1) past 6 month street violence involvement and (2) past year intimate partner violence perpetration. Ten percent of the sample reported that they experienced adolescent victimization. Men reporting adolescent victimization were significantly more likely to report past 6-month street violence involvement (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.7-6.3) and past 6 month intimate partner violence perpetration (AOR = 2.8, 95 % CI = 1.8-5.4) compared to men who did not report such victimization. Study findings suggest that in order to prevent adulthood perpetration of violence, more work is needed to address experiences of victimization among young Black males, particularly violence experienced during adolescence.

  9. Experiences of racial discrimination and relation to sexual risk for HIV among a sample of urban black and African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, E; Santana, M C; Bowleg, L; Welles, S L; Horsburgh, C R; Raj, A

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to examine racial discrimination and relation to sexual risk for HIV among a sample of urban black and African American men. Participants of this cross-sectional study were black and African American men (N = 703) between the ages of 18 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of reported racial discrimination to the following: (1) sex trade involvement, (2) recent unprotected sex, and (3) reporting a number of sex partners in the past 12 months greater than the sample average. The majority of the sample (96%) reported racial discrimination. In adjusted analyses, men reporting high levels of discrimination were significantly more likely to report recent sex trade involvement (buying and/or selling) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) range = 1.7-2.3), having recent unprotected vaginal sex with a female partner (AOR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.0), and reporting more than four sex partners in the past year (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI, 1.1-1.9). Findings highlight the link between experiences of racial discrimination and men's sexual risk for HIV.

  10. The Relationship Between Perceived Racism/Discrimination and Health Among Black American Women: a Review of the Literature from 2003 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Lora L; Johnson, Rhonda; VanHoose, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature investigating the relationship between perceived racism/discrimination and health among black American women. Searches for empirical studies published from January 2003 to December 2013 were conducted using PubMed and PsycInfo. Articles were assessed for possible inclusion using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2009 framework. In addition, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) system for rating the strength of scientific evidence was used to assess the quality of studies included in the review. Nineteen studies met criteria for review. There was mixed evidence for general relationships between perceived racism/discrimination and health. Consistent evidence was found for the relationship between adverse birth outcomes, illness incidence, and cancer or tumor risk and perceived racism/discrimination. Inconsistent findings were found for the relationship between perceived racism/discrimination and heart disease risk factors. There was no evidence to support the relationship between perceived racism/discrimination and high blood pressure. There is mixed evidence to support the association between perceived racism/discrimination and overall objective health outcomes among black American women. The strongest relationship was seen between perceived racism/discrimination and adverse birth outcomes. Better understanding of the relationship between health and racism/discrimination can aid in identifying race-based risk factors developing primary prevention strategies. Future studies should aim to investigate the role of perceived racism/discrimination as a specific chronic stressor within discrete pathogenesis models.

  11. Reading Black Literature With Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jean A.

    This paper is a broad study of the field of black American Literature which outlines the important movements, stereotypes, and trends that have had significant influence upon the literature. The changing stereotypes and archetypes of blacks depicted in American literature from the early concept of blacks as "chattels" to the contemporary concept…

  12. Detection and prevalence of four different hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in Eastern North Carolina American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Lori S H; Stoskopf, Michael K; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2017-02-01

    Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are globally emerging, obligate parasitic, epierythrocytic bacteria that infect many vertebrates, including humans. Hemoplasma infection can cause acute life-threatening symptoms or lead to a chronic sub-clinical carrier state. Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. transmission, prevalence, and host specificity are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of Mycoplasma species in blood from 68 free-ranging black bears from the eastern coast of North Carolina. DNA amplification of Mycoplasma 16S rRNA gene identified four distinct species infecting 34/68 (50%) of the black bear blood samples, including Candidatus M. haematoparvum. The high prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma infection in this wildlife species highlights the importance of understanding intra and inter species transmission. Black bears may play a role in the transmission of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. between animals, arthropod vectors, and humans. Further studies are needed to elucidate black bears as a potential reservoir for hemotropic Mycoplasma infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pan-Africanism, the Mystique of World Black Unity: An Afro-American Scholar's Sojourn in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Robert

    1977-01-01

    The author explores the ideology of Pan-Africanism in terms of the social and economic position of Blacks in the United States. He briefly describes his visit to Africa (Senegal and Nigeria) and the effects that this experience has had in forming his political viewpoint. (MC)

  14. An analysis of stereotype threat in African American engineering students at predominantly White, ethnically diverse, and historically Black colleges and universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, David M.

    The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The researcher collected demographic and survey data using the Stereotype Vulnerability Scale (SVS). The study was offered to the entire population of African American engineering students at each college using an online survey. Results were analyzed using MANOVA and Pearson's correlational statistical analyses to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that little differences exist between students' scores on an assessment of stereotype vulnerability, with a few areas showing that HBCUs and ethnically diverse universities are doing a similar job in addressing perceptions of their African American engineering students. Finding also revealed that the percentage of African American students at a university did not correlate with the scores on the SVS accept on questions related to the personal feelings students have about their race. The strongest findings related to the differences in male and female students across the universities. African American female engineering students appeared to perceive more stereotype threat than did their male counterparts; although, this fining was not statistically significant. Overall, no statistically significant differences were found between students' perceptions of stereotype threat at the three types of universities. Future research should expand the number of survey participants at the current universities, add more HBCUs to the study population, run similar experiments in different parts of the country, compare stereotype threat in private and elite universities, use ethnically diverse universities as models for minority student development, and use new or improved survey instruments

  15. Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Cynthia M.

    Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

  16. Black Writers' Views of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Loyle

    1979-01-01

    This article argues that the stagnation, pessimism, and self-pity evident in recent Black writing results in part from the alienation of Black writers from the mainstream of Black life, and in part from the illusions that they share with other Blacks who have embraced the American value system. (Author/EB)

  17. What “Price” Means When Buying Food: Insights From a Multisite Qualitative Study With Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann; Grier, Sonya A.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Baskin, Monica L.; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Young, Deborah Rohm; Lassiter, Vikki

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the role of price in the food purchasing patterns of Black adults and youths. Methods. We analyzed qualitative data from interviews and focus groups with socioeconomically diverse, primarily female, Black adults or parents (n = 75) and youths (n = 42) in 4 US cities. Interview protocols were locality specific, but all were designed to elicit broad discussion of food marketing variables. We performed a conventional qualitative content analysis by coding and analyzing data from each site to identify common salient themes. Results. Price emerged as a primary influence on food purchases across all sites. Other value considerations (e.g., convenience, food quality, healthfulness of product, and family preferences) were discussed, providing a more complex picture of how participants considered the price of a product. Conclusions. Food pricing strategies that encourage consumption of healthful foods may have high relevance for Black persons across income or education levels. Accounting for how price intersects with other value considerations may improve the effectiveness of these strategies. PMID:23327261

  18. Adapting an Evidence-Based HIV Intervention for At-Risk African American College Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities Who Use Alcohol and Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla Marie Sawyer-Kurian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of the high prevalence of HIV incidence among African American adolescent and adult women along with substance use and risky sexual behavior among university students necessitates the development of a HIV intervention specifically addressing culture, gender, and college factors for female African American university students. The woman-focused HIV intervention was chosen for adaptation because it has been shown to be efficacious with reducing risk for African American women who use alcohol and drugs, and has been successfully adapted 7 times. The target population was African American college women enrolled at a historically Black university who use alcohol and other drugs, and who engaged in risky sex behaviors. To understand and assess the needs of this population, we conducted four focus groups with African American college women, two in-depth interviews with faculty, and a combination of in-depth interviews and focus groups with student affairs and health staff that were analyzed using content analysis. From this analysis, several themes emerged that were used to adapt the intervention. Emerging themes included challenges related to identity and societal stereotypes, lack of knowledge about sexual health (i.e., negotiating safer sex and the function of female and male anatomies, high incidents of pregnancy, negative consequences related to alcohol and marijuana use, and the need to incorporate testimonies from college students, media enhancements, and role-plays to convey intervention messages. After the preliminary adaptation, 11 college women reviewed the adapted intervention and provided positive feedback. Plans for future research are discussed.

  19. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits in the American West: History, ecology, ecological significance, and survey methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simes, Matthew; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Beatty, Greg L.; Brown, David E.; Esque, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Across the western United States, Leporidae are the most important prey item in the diet of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Leporids inhabiting the western United States include black-tailed (Lepus californicus) and white-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) and various species of cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.). Jackrabbits (Lepus spp.) are particularly important components of the ecological and economic landscape of western North America because their abundance influences the reproductive success and population trends of predators such as coyotes (Canis latrans), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and a number of raptor species. Here, we review literature pertaining to black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits comprising over 170 published journal articles, notes, technical reports, conference proceedings, academic theses and dissertations, and other sources dating from the late 19th century to the present. Our goal is to present information to assist those in research and management, particularly with regard to protected raptor species (e.g., Golden Eagles), mammalian predators, and ecological monitoring. We classified literature sources as (1) general information on jackrabbit species, (2) black-tailed or (3) white-tailed jackrabbit ecology and natural history, or (4) survey methods. These categories, especially 2, 3, and 4, were further subdivided as appropriate. The review also produced several tables on population trends, food habits, densities within various habitats, and jackrabbit growth and development. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits are ecologically similar in general behaviors, use of forms, parasites, and food habits, and they are prey to similar predators; but they differ in their preferred habitats. While the black-tailed jackrabbit inhabits agricultural land, deserts, and shrublands, the white-tailed jackrabbit is associated with prairies, alpine tundra, and sagebrush-steppe. Frequently considered abundant, jackrabbit numbers in western North

  20. Effects of intratesticular zinc gluconate treatment on testicular dimensions, echodensity, histology, sperm production, and testosterone secretion in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Leonardo F C; Sertich, Patricia L; Rives, William; Knobbe, Marc; Del Piero, Fabio; Stull, Gordon B

    2011-05-01

    Eight adult American black bears were used to evaluate the effects of chemical castration by intratesticular zinc gluconate treatment on testicular dimensions, echodensity, histology, sperm production, and testosterone secretion. Treatment did not affect testicular dimensions and did not result in decreased resting or GnRH-stimulated testosterone secretion. Multifocal hyperchoic areas in the testicular parenchyma were observed on ultrasound examination, and white foci were observed on gross pathology examination after zinc gluconate treatment. Histologically, there were normal seminiferous tubules containing either round or elongated spermatids, along with abnormal tubules in all bears after treatment. Vacuolation of the seminiferous epithelium, sloughing of germ cells into the tubules' lumen, presence of multinuclear giant cells, and reduced height of the seminiferous epithelium with missing generations of germ cells were commonly observed. The most severe testicular changes were multifocal and included fibrosis, complete degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium with shrinkage of the tubule, and sperm stasis. Epididymal sperm reserve was 982.74 ± 654.16 × 10(6) sperm (mean ± SEM) and motile sperm were observed in the epididymis of all but one of the bears. In conclusion, although intratesticular zinc gluconate treatment in black bears resulted in testicular degenerative changes detected by ultrasound and histology examinations, sperm production was not completely ablated. We inferred that normal fertility might have been compromised, but treatment unlikely resulted in sterility. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The Relationship between Perceived Racism/Discrimination and Health among Black American Women: A Review of the Literature from 2003-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Lora L.; Johnson, Rhonda; VanHoose, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature investigating the relationship between perceived racism/discrimination and health among black American women. Methods Searches for empirical studies published from January 2003 to December 2013 were conducted using PubMed and PsycInfo. Articles were assessed for possible inclusion using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2009 framework. In addition, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) system for rating the strength of scientific evidence was used to assess the quality of studies included in the review. Results Nineteen studies met criteria for review. There was mixed evidence for general relationships between perceived racism/discrimination and health. Consistent evidence was found for the relationship between adverse birth outcomes, illness incidence, and cancer or tumor risk and perceived racism/discrimination. Inconsistent findings were found for the relationship between perceived racism/discrimination and heart disease risk factors. There was no evidence to support the relationship between perceived racism/discrimination and high blood pressure. Conclusions There is mixed evidence to support the association between perceived racism/discrimination and overall objective health outcomes among black American women. The strongest relationship was seen between perceived racism/discrimination and adverse birth outcomes. Better understanding the relationship between health and racism/discrimination can aid in identifying race-based risk factors developing primary prevention strategies. Future studies should aim to investigate the role of perceived racism/discrimination as a specific chronic stressor within discrete pathogenesis models. PMID:25973361

  2. A hermeneutic phenomenological study of the experiences of female African American undergraduate engineering students at a predominantly White and an historically Black institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frillman, Sharron Ann

    2011-12-01

    This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, a traditionally White institution. Interviews provided insights into the "lived" experiences of these young women and the factors they believe have contributed to their success in their respective engineering programs. Data analysis involved coding each participant's responses to interview questions using Atlas.ti, a powerful qualitative data analysis tool. This generated 181 codes that were further categorized into nine emergent themes, indicating the potential for extensive associations among the variables. The emergent themes are as follows: (1) Demographic information/special circumstances, (2) Personal attributes and characteristics, (3) Personal insights, (4) Sense of mission, (5) Sources of negative stress, (6) Success strategies, (7) Various forms of support, (8) Would/would not have made it to where she is now, and (9) Being African American and female in engineering. Analysis of these themes and their relationships led to the development of the Frillman Model of Emergent Themes in Female African American Engineering Students. Success. In addressing similarities and differences, three overriding theme categories emerged. These were: (1) Four personhood themes and dual social identity theme; (2) Environmental input and response theme; and (3) Outcome emergent theme of Would/Would not have made it to where she is now. Recommendations were made for future research to expand upon this exploratory study.

  3. "No Unfavorable Comments from Any Quarter": Teaching Black History to White Students in the American South, 1928-1943

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyshner, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: The history curriculum is often used to help reach the goal of racial tolerance and understanding by teaching about the nation's diversity. Many educators believe that teaching about diverse peoples in schools will bring about greater equity in society. This historical study looks at the segregated American South from 1928 to…

  4. Virtual Black Spaces: An Anthropological Exploration of African American Online Communities' Racial and Political Agency amid Virtual Universalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, Kamela S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the strategic practice of virtual racial embodiment, as a case study of African Americans attempting to complicate current constructions of race and social justice in new media. I suggest that dominant racial constructions online teeter between racial stereotypes and the absence of race. Virtual racial classification and…

  5. Manifest Meanings: The Selling (Not Telling) of American Indian History and the Case of "The Black Horse Ledger"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gercken, Becca

    2010-01-01

    What is the value or perceived necessity--for an Indian or for a white man--of changing Northern Cheyenne history? How are a reader's conclusions affected by her perception of the race of the person altering that history? Why is it acceptable to sell but not tell American Indian history? An examination of the visual and discursive rhetoric of "The…

  6. AIDS in black and white: the influence of newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS on HIV/AIDS testing among African Americans and White Americans, 1993-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robin; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS on HIV testing behavior in a U.S. population. HIV testing data were taken from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's National Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 1993 to 2007 (N = 265,557). The authors content-analyzed news stories from 24 daily newspapers and 1 wire service during the same time period. The authors used distributed lagged regression models to estimate how well HIV/AIDS newspaper coverage predicted later HIV testing behavior. Increases in HIV/AIDS newspaper coverage were associated with declines in population-level HIV testing. Each additional 100 HIV/AIDS-related newspaper stories published each month was associated with a 1.7% decline in HIV testing levels in the subsequent month. This effect differed by race, with African Americans exhibiting greater declines in HIV testing subsequent to increased news coverage than did Whites. These results suggest that mainstream newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS may have a particularly deleterious effect on African Americans, one of the groups most affected by the disease. The mechanisms driving the negative effect deserve further investigation to improve reporting on HIV/AIDS in the media.

  7. Linking Canadian Harvested Juvenile American Black Ducks to Their Natal Areas Using Stable Isotope (δD, δ13C, and δ15N Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ashley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding source-sink dynamics of game birds is essential to harvest and habitat management but acquiring this information is often logistically and financially challenging using traditional methods of population surveys and banding studies. This is especially true for species such as the American Black Duck (Anas rubripes, which have low breeding densities and extensive breeding ranges that necessitate extensive surveys and banding programs across eastern North America. Despite this effort, the contribution of birds fledged from various landscapes and habitat types within specific breeding ranges to regional harvest is largely unknown but remains an important consideration in adaptive harvest management and targeted habitat conservation strategies. We investigated if stable isotope (δD, δ13C, δ15N could augment our present understanding of connectivity between breeding and harvest areas and so provide information relevant to the two main management strategies for black ducks, harvest and habitat management. We obtained specimens from 200 hatch-year Black Duck wings submitted to the Canadian Wildlife Service Species Composition Survey. Samples were obtained from birds harvested in Western, Central, and Eastern breeding/harvest subregions to provide a sample representative of the range and harvest rate of birds harvested in Canada. We sampled only hatch-year birds to provide an unambiguous and direct link between production and harvest areas. Marine origins were assigned to 12%, 7%, and 5% of birds harvested in the Eastern, Central, and Western subregions, respectively. In contrast, 32%, 9%, and 5% of birds were assigned, respectively, to agricultural origins. All remaining birds were assigned to nonagricultural origins. We portrayed probability of origin using a combination of Bayesian statistical and GIS methods. Placement of most eastern birds was western Nova Scotia, eastern New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and southern

  8. Career Aspirations versus Career Actualizations of African American Executive Level Administrators in Higher Education at Historically Black Colleges and Universities in a State in the Southeast: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Kristen LeToria

    2013-01-01

    Despite affirmative action, gender inequities persist at institutions of higher learning in the United States. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the perceptions of African American women serving in executive-level leadership positions at historically black colleges and universities in a state the Southeast. Participants…

  9. Contesting History and Pursuing "Other" Knowledge: A Study of Hip-Hop and Non-Formal Education among Native American Youth in San Francisco and Black Portuguese Youth in Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Miye Nadya

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a broad-reaching effort to interrogate enduring colonial legacies as experienced by Native American youth in the United States of America and Black Portuguese youth of Cape Verdean origin in Portugal. As part of its methodological approach, it uses hip-hop--a cultural movement composed of four elements including rap music--to…

  10. Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors among African American women: the Black cosmetologists promoting health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldon Rai-nesha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women have higher rates of breast cancer mortality than their white counterparts. Studies have suggested that this is partly caused by discovery of cancer at a later stage, highlighting the importance of encouraging early detection of breast cancer in this population. To guide the creation of a breast cancer education intervention and help focus other health educators' and clinicians' health promotion efforts, this study explored whether a cohort of African American women living in San Diego would demonstrate the possession of adequate baseline knowledge about breast cancer screening and adherence to widely recommended screening guidelines. Methods African American women (N = 1,055 from San Diego, California participated in a beauty salon-based survey about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices. Women's ages ranged from 20 to 94 years, with average age of 42.20 (SD = 13.53 years. Thirty-four percent reported completing college and/or some graduate school training, and 52% reported having some college or post high school formal training. Seventy-five percent of the sample reported working outside their home. Participating cosmetologists and their salons were recruited to the study through word-of-mouth referral by highly respected African American community leaders. Results Salon clients reported low rates of adherence to recommended breast cancer screening guidelines. Of the 1,055 participants, 31% reporting performing breast self-exam every month. Of those participants 40 and older, 57% reported having had a clinical breast exam and 43% reported having had a mammogram in the past year. Knowledge of breast cancer was associated with adherence to screening guidelines. While women recognized the serious health threat that breast cancer poses and that early detection of breast cancer is important, only 30% of women reported feeling well informed about the disease. Many participants

  11. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. The Films of Oscar Micheaux: America's First Fabulous Black Filmmaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bernard L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Although Oscar Micheaux was not the first Black American filmmaker, he was undoubtedly the most prolific Black American movie producer. He is credited with making the first full-length, all-Black silent film produced by a Black company, as well as the first full-length, all-Black sound film. (Author/MC)

  14. Seasonal regulation of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in the American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Stanley; Morgan-Boyd, Rebecca; Nelson, Ralph; Garshelis, David L; Turyk, Mary E; Unterman, Terry

    2011-10-01

    The American black bear maintains lean body mass for months without food during winter denning. We asked whether changes in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH-IGF-I) axis may contribute to this remarkable adaptation to starvation. Serum IGF-I levels were measured by radioimmunoassay, and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) were analyzed by ligand blotting. Initial studies in bears living in the wild showed that IGF-I levels are highest in summer and lowest in early winter denning. Detailed studies in captive bears showed that IGF-I levels decline in autumn when bears are hyperphagic, continue to decline in early denning, and later rise above predenning levels despite continued starvation in the den. IGFBP-2 increased and IGFBP-3 decreased in early denning, and these changes were also reversed in later denning. Treatment with GH (0.1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) × 6 days) during early denning increased serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and lowered levels of IGFBP-2, indicating that denning bears remain responsive to GH. GH treatment lowered blood urea nitrogen levels, reflecting effects on protein metabolism. GH also accelerated weight loss and markedly increased serum levels of free fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, resulting in a ketoacidosis (bicarbonate decreased to 15 meq/l), which was reversed when GH was withdrawn. These results demonstrate seasonal regulation of GH/IGF-I axis activity in black bears. Diminished GH activity may promote fat storage in autumn in preparation for denning and prevent excessive mobilization and premature exhaustion of fat stores in early denning, whereas restoration of GH/IGF activity in later denning may prepare the bear for normal activity outside the den.

  15. Rethinking the memorial in a Black Belt landscape: Planning, memory and identity of African-Americans in Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giliberti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many old sites are well preserved, many sites of historical and cultural value in the United States are disappearing due to their abandonment. In some cases, the condition of these sites makes restorers’ work very difficult. In other cases, in order to recover blighted local economies, administrations and cultural institutions are adopting strategic spatial plans to attract tourists or accommodate historical theme parks. However, recent scholarly interest in the interaction of history and collective memory has highlighted these sites. Even if the memory of some historical sites is fading quickly, this memory is receiving greater attention than in the past in order to enhance local identity and strengthen the sense of community. This article examines a number of plans and strategies adopted to give shape to the memorial landscape in Alabama, thereby documenting and exploring some key relations between city planning and the commemoration of African-American history.

  16. Reticulate evolution in North American black-fruited hawthorns (Crataegus section Douglasia; Rosaceae): evidence from nuclear ITS2 and plastid sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrei, M; Stefanović, S; Dickinson, T A

    2014-08-01

    The taxonomic complexity of Crataegus (hawthorn; Rosaceae, Maleae), especially in North America, has been attributed by some to hybridization in combination with gametophytic apomixis and polyploidization, whereas others have considered the roles of hybridization and apomixis to be minimal. Study of the chemical composition and therapeutic value of hawthorn extracts requires reproducible differentiation of entities that may be difficult to distinguish by morphology alone. This study sought to address this by using the nuclear ribosomal spacer region ITS2 as a supplementary DNA barcode; however, a lack of success prompted an investigation to discover why this locus gave unsatisfactory results. ITS2 was extensively cloned so as to document inter- and intraindividual variation in this locus, using hawthorns of western North America where the genus Crataegus is represented by only two widely divergent groups, the red-fruited section Coccineae and the black-fruited section Douglasia. Additional sequence data from selected loci on the plastid genome were obtained to enhance further the interpretation of the ITS2 results. In the ITS2 gene tree, ribotypes from western North American hawthorns are found in two clades. Ribotypes from diploid members of section Douglasia occur in one clade (with representatives of the east-Asian section Sanguineae). The other clade comprises those from diploid and polyploid members of section Coccineae. Both clades contribute ribotypes to polyploid Douglasia. Data from four plastid-derived intergenic spacers demonstrate the maternal parentage of these allopolyploids. Repeated hybridization between species of section Douglasia and western North American members of section Coccineae involving the fertilization of unreduced female gametes explains the observed distribution of ribotypes and accounts for the phenetic intermediacy of many members of section Douglasia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals

  17. The effect of urinary cadmium on cardiovascular fitness as measured by VO2 max in white, black and Mexican Americans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egwuogu, Heartley; Shendell, Derek G.; Okosun, Ike S.; Goodfellow, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: We explored potential effects of cadmium exposure on cardiovascular fitness measures, including gender and racial/ethnic differences. Methods: Data were from the 1999 to 2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); 1963 participating subjects were included in our analysis. Volume of oxygen consumed at sub-maximum activity (VO 2 max) were recorded in a series of graded exercises; the goal was to elicit 75% of predetermined age-specific heart rates. Cadmium from urine samples was measured in the laboratory using standard methods. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to determine potential relationships. Results: Increased urinary cadmium concentrations were generally associated with decreased estimated VO 2 max values. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were also observed. Specifically, associations were statistically significant for white males and Mexican American females. Conclusion: Inverse associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and estimated VO 2 max values were observed, including racial and gender differences. The implications of such gender and racial/ethnic differences on long-term cardiovascular health and health disparities of present public health concern warrant further investigation

  18. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Profiles > Black/African American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 ... to receive late or no prenatal care. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  19. A systematic literature review of diabetes self-management education features to improve diabetes education in women of Black African/Caribbean and Hispanic/Latin American ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Enza; Chan, Vivian Wing-Sheung; Manuel, Lisa; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-08-01

    This systematic literature review aims to identify diabetes self-management education (DSME) features to improve diabetes education for Black African/Caribbean and Hispanic/Latin American women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We conducted a literature search in six health databases for randomized controlled trials and comparative studies. Success rates of intervention features were calculated based on effectiveness in improving glycosolated hemoglobin (HbA1c), anthropometrics, physical activity, or diet outcomes. Calculations of rate differences assessed whether an intervention feature positively or negatively affected an outcome. From 13 studies included in our analysis, we identified 38 intervention features in relation to their success with an outcome. Five intervention features had positive rate differences across at least three outcomes: hospital-based interventions, group interventions, the use of situational problem-solving, frequent sessions, and incorporating dietitians as interventionists. Six intervention features had high positive rate differences (i.e. ≥50%) on specific outcomes. Different DSME intervention features may influence broad and specific self-management outcomes for women of African/Caribbean and Hispanic/Latin ethnicity. With the emphasis on patient-centered care, patients and care providers can consider options based on DSME intervention features for its broad and specific impact on outcomes to potentially make programming more effective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences in Mexican Americans' Prevalence of Chronic Pain and Co-Occurring Analgesic Medication and Substance Use Relative to Non-Hispanic White and Black Americans: Results from NHANES 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingshead, Nicole A; Vrany, Elizabeth A; Stewart, Jesse C; Hirsh, Adam T

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the burgeoning Mexican American (MA) population's pain experience. Using 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, prevalence of chronic pain, analgesic medication use, and substance use were examined among MA, non-Hispanic White (NHW), and non-Hispanic Black (NHB) respondents. Logistic and linear regression models examined racial/ethnic differences in: 1) chronic pain prevalence among all respondents, 2) location and number of pain sites among respondents with chronic pain, and 3) analgesic medication and substance use among respondents with chronic pain. Compared to NHWs and NHBs, MAs were less likely to report any chronic pain. Among respondents with chronic pain, MAs had higher odds of reporting headache, abdominal pain, and a greater number of pain sites than NHWs. Compared to NHWs, MAs with chronic pain had lower odds of reporting past-month analgesic medication and COX-2 inhibitor use. MAs with chronic pain had lower odds of being a current cigarette smoker and heavy alcohol drinker but had similar street drug/cocaine use relative to NHWs. Results suggest that: 1) MAs are less likely to develop chronic pain than NHWs, 2) MAs with chronic pain report greater headache and abdominal pain than NHWs, and 3) MAs with chronic pain are less likely to use analgesic medications and other substances compared to NHWs. These results suggest that providers should consider taking extra time to discuss analgesic medications with MAs. Future investigations should examine reasons underlying these racial/ethnic differences in chronic pain, as well as differences in the use of other substances, such as marijuana. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. In and out of love with hip-hop: saliency of sexual scripts for young adult African American women in hip-hop and Black-oriented television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D

    2016-10-01

    Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed.

  2. Influence of drift and admixture on population structure of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Central Interior Highlands, USA, 50 years after translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Emily E.; Kristensen, Thea V.; Wilton, Clay M.; Lyda, Sara B.; Noyce, Karen V.; Holahan, Paula M.; Leslie,, David M.; Beringer, J.; Belant, Jerrold L.; White, D.; Eggert, L.S.

    2014-01-01

    Bottlenecks, founder events, and genetic drift often result in decreased genetic diversity and increased population differentiation. These events may follow abundance declines due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations, where translocations may be an effective conservation strategy to increase population size. American black bears (Ursus americanus) were nearly extirpated from the Central Interior Highlands, USA by 1920. In an effort to restore bears, 254 individuals were translocated from Minnesota, USA, and Manitoba, Canada, into the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains from 1958 to 1968. Using 15 microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes, we observed contemporary genetic diversity and differentiation between the source and supplemented populations. We inferred four genetic clusters: Source, Ouachitas, Ozarks, and a cluster in Missouri where no individuals were translocated. Coalescent models using approximate Bayesian computation identified an admixture model as having the highest posterior probability (0.942) over models where the translocation was unsuccessful or acted as a founder event. Nuclear genetic diversity was highest in the source (AR = 9.11) and significantly lower in the translocated populations (AR = 7.07-7.34; P = 0.004). The Missouri cluster had the lowest genetic diversity (AR = 5.48) and served as a natural experiment showing the utility of translocations to increase genetic diversity following demographic bottlenecks. Differentiation was greater between the two admixed populations than either compared to the source, suggesting that genetic drift acted strongly over the eight generations since the translocation. The Ouachitas and Missouri were previously hypothesized to be remnant lineages. We observed a pretranslocation remnant signature in Missouri but not in the Ouachitas.

  3. Influence of drift and admixture on population structure of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Central Interior Highlands, USA, 50 years after translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Emily E; Kristensen, Thea V; Wilton, Clay M; Lyda, Sara B; Noyce, Karen V; Holahan, Paula M; Leslie, David M; Beringer, Jeff; Belant, Jerrold L; White, Don; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-05-01

    Bottlenecks, founder events, and genetic drift often result in decreased genetic diversity and increased population differentiation. These events may follow abundance declines due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations, where translocations may be an effective conservation strategy to increase population size. American black bears (Ursus americanus) were nearly extirpated from the Central Interior Highlands, USA by 1920. In an effort to restore bears, 254 individuals were translocated from Minnesota, USA, and Manitoba, Canada, into the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains from 1958 to 1968. Using 15 microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes, we observed contemporary genetic diversity and differentiation between the source and supplemented populations. We inferred four genetic clusters: Source, Ouachitas, Ozarks, and a cluster in Missouri where no individuals were translocated. Coalescent models using approximate Bayesian computation identified an admixture model as having the highest posterior probability (0.942) over models where the translocation was unsuccessful or acted as a founder event. Nuclear genetic diversity was highest in the source (AR = 9.11) and significantly lower in the translocated populations (AR = 7.07-7.34; P = 0.004). The Missouri cluster had the lowest genetic diversity (AR = 5.48) and served as a natural experiment showing the utility of translocations to increase genetic diversity following demographic bottlenecks. Differentiation was greater between the two admixed populations than either compared to the source, suggesting that genetic drift acted strongly over the eight generations since the translocation. The Ouachitas and Missouri were previously hypothesized to be remnant lineages. We observed a pretranslocation remnant signature in Missouri but not in the Ouachitas. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. The Asian black truffle Tuber indicum can form ectomycorrhizas with North American host plants and complete its life cycle in non-native soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Bonito; James M. Trappe; Sylvia Donovan; Rytas Vilgalys

    2011-01-01

    The Asian black truffle Tuber indicum is morphologically and phylogenetically similar to the European black truffle Tuber melanosporum. T. indicum is considered a threat to T. melanosporum trufficulture due to its presumed competitiveness and broad host compatibility. Recently, in independent events,

  5. Re-Examining the Black on Black Crime Issue: A Theoretical Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses Black on Black crime and provides evidence that it is directly linked to American societal problems. Covers the following historical and societal influences: (1) the legacy of slavery and Jim Crow; (2) Black migration and disorder in cities; (3) the use of alcohol and drugs; and (4) policing of the Black ghetto. (JS)

  6. Ten Myths, Half-Truths and Misunderstandings About Black History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffins, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Common myths and misconceptions about Blacks in American history and evidence that refutes them are presented. Issues addressed include Black enslavement patterns, social status within the Black community based on skin color, the legality of slaves learning to read, resistance to slavery, African influences in modern Black culture, Black names and…

  7. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  8. Medical advice and diabetes self-management reported by Mexican-American, Black- and White-non-Hispanic adults across the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaccaro Joan A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, particularly among minorities, and if improperly managed can lead to medical complications and death. Healthcare providers play vital roles in communicating standards of care, which include guidance on diabetes self-management. The background of the client may play a role in the patient-provider communication process. The aim of this study was to determine the association between medical advice and diabetes self care management behaviors for a nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes. Moreover, we sought to establish whether or not race/ethnicity was a modifier for reported medical advice received and diabetes self-management behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from 654 adults aged 21 years and over with diagnosed diabetes [130 Mexican-Americans; 224 Black non-Hispanics; and, 300 White non-Hispanics] and an additional 161 with 'undiagnosed diabetes' [N = 815(171 MA, 281 BNH and 364 WNH] who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2008. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether medical advice to engage in particular self-management behaviors (reduce fat or calories, increase physical activity or exercise, and control or lose weight predicted actually engaging in the particular behavior and whether the impact of medical advice on engaging in the behavior differed by race/ethnicity. Additional analyses examined whether these relationships were maintained when other factors potentially related to engaging in diabetes self management such as participants' diabetes education, sociodemographics and physical characteristics were controlled. Sample weights were used to account for the complex sample design. Results Although medical advice to the patient is considered a standard of care for diabetes, approximately one-third of the sample reported not receiving dietary, weight management, or physical

  9. Medical advice and diabetes self-management reported by Mexican-American, Black- and White-non-Hispanic adults across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Joan A; Feaster, Daniel J; Lobar, Sandra L; Baum, Marianna K; Magnus, Marcia; Huffman, Fatma G

    2012-03-12

    Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, particularly among minorities, and if improperly managed can lead to medical complications and death. Healthcare providers play vital roles in communicating standards of care, which include guidance on diabetes self-management. The background of the client may play a role in the patient-provider communication process. The aim of this study was to determine the association between medical advice and diabetes self care management behaviors for a nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes. Moreover, we sought to establish whether or not race/ethnicity was a modifier for reported medical advice received and diabetes self-management behaviors. We analyzed data from 654 adults aged 21 years and over with diagnosed diabetes [130 Mexican-Americans; 224 Black non-Hispanics; and, 300 White non-Hispanics] and an additional 161 with 'undiagnosed diabetes' [N = 815(171 MA, 281 BNH and 364 WNH)] who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether medical advice to engage in particular self-management behaviors (reduce fat or calories, increase physical activity or exercise, and control or lose weight) predicted actually engaging in the particular behavior and whether the impact of medical advice on engaging in the behavior differed by race/ethnicity. Additional analyses examined whether these relationships were maintained when other factors potentially related to engaging in diabetes self management such as participants' diabetes education, sociodemographics and physical characteristics were controlled. Sample weights were used to account for the complex sample design. Although medical advice to the patient is considered a standard of care for diabetes, approximately one-third of the sample reported not receiving dietary, weight management, or physical activity self-management advice. Participants who

  10. "It Really Is Not Just Gay, but African American Gay": The Impact of Community and Church on the Experiences of Black Lesbians Living in North Central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Clare F

    2016-09-01

    The experiences of Black lesbians highlight the unique circumstance found at the intersection of sexuality, race, and gender. However, most sexuality research tends to focus on White lesbians and White gay men, and most race research tends to focus on Black heterosexuals. Furthermore, research on the Black gay community tends to focus on those living in the Northeast or on the West Coast, neglecting experiences of those living in the more politically, socially, and religiously conservative South. This article draws on data obtained from semistructured interviews with 12 Black lesbians living in north central Florida, exploring their perspectives as they negotiate a social world of intersecting oppressions. Participants especially highlight how they contextualized their sexuality in racialized terms and negotiated it in racially defined communities.

  11. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  12. Black Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  13. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  14. Suburban Black Lives Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-McCoy, R. L'Heureux

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the range of experiences and meanings of Black life in suburban space. Drawing from educational, historical, and sociological literatures, I argue that an underconsideration of suburban space has left many portraits of educational inequality incomplete. The article outlines the emergence of American suburbs and the formation…

  15. The Chicano and the Black Legend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Porfirio

    An historical overview traces the Black Legend about persons of Spanish descent and seeks to demonstrate the influence of the Black Legend on Anglo attitudes towards Mexican Americans. The beginnings of the Black Legend are found in the sixteenth century when European countries in conflict with Spain used Spanish actions during the Sack of Rome,…

  16. IQ Tests and the Black Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNiel, Nathaniel D.

    1975-01-01

    On a test (Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogeneity) oriented toward the language, attitudes, and life-styles of Afro-Americans, white students perform more poorly than blacks do on tests oriented toward white middle-class values, indicating that there are important dissimilarities in the cultural backgrounds of blacks and whites.…

  17. Impact of parent-child communication interventions on sex behaviors and cognitive outcomes for black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino youth: a systematic review, 1988-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline Y; Lasswell, Sarah M; Lanier, Yzette; Miller, Kim S

    2014-04-01

    We reviewed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI)- behavioral interventions implemented with disproportionately affected black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino youth and designed to improve parent-child communications about sex. We compared their effectiveness in improving sex-related behavior or cognitive outcomes. A search of electronic databases identified peer-reviewed studies published between 1988 and 2012. Eligible studies were U.S.-based parent-child communication interventions with active parent components, experimental and quasiexperimental designs, measurement of youth sexual health outcomes, and enrollment of ≥ 50% black/African-American or Hispanic/Latino youth. We conducted systematic, primary reviews of eligible papers to abstract data on study characteristics and youth outcomes. Fifteen studies evaluating 14 interventions were eligible. Although youth outcome measures and follow-up times varied, 13 of 15 studies (87%) showed at least one significantly improved youth sexual health outcome compared with controls (p parent and child session attendance, promotion of parent/family involvement, sexuality education for parents, developmental and/or cultural tailoring, and opportunities for parents to practice new communication skills with their youth. Parent-child communication interventions that include parents of youth disproportionately affected by HIV/STIs can effectively reduce sexual risk for youth. These interventions may help reduce HIV/STI-related health disparities and improve sexual health outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. The Experiences and Academic Successes of African American Post-9/11 Veterans at Martin R. Delaney State University (Pseudonym of an Actual Historically Black University)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Dymilah Luwanna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the academic experiences of veterans attending historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Following World War II, enrollment at HBCUs was as high as 35%. Broader access at traditional colleges and the proliferation of for-profit colleges and universities (FPCUs) have led to a decline in African…

  20. African American Male College Students Navigate to Achieve: The Relationship among College Adjustment Experiences, Coping, and GPA for Black Males at Two Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Sabrina Denise

    2017-01-01

    African American males face daunting obstacles as they pursue higher education as research has shown. This study sought to better understand the impact of specific factors--social support, racial identity, perceived racial discrimination, coping, and religious coping--on the academic achievement of African American male college student…

  1. The Role of Shame as a Mediator between Anti-Black Racial Identity Attitudes and Negative Affect in a Sample of African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 168 African American undergraduates was surveyed to clarify past findings demonstrating a consistent relationship between endorsing negative attitudes about being African American and experiencing negative affect. Specifically, shame was tested as a mediator between participants' endorsement of preencounter attitudes (i.e., anti-Black…

  2. Nut Growers Hear It Pays to Care for Black Walnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Jr. Ponder; James E. Jones; Rita Mueller; Andrea Clark

    2003-01-01

    Careful attention to walnut trees could pay off in nut yields. Nutrient management and improved nut varieties can make a big difference in black walnut nut production. This was the theme of the 2002 American Black Walnut Conference in Springfield, MO. The conference was sponsored by the Center For Advancement of American Black Walnut and Southwest Missouri RC&D (...

  3. Computed tomographic, magnetic resonance imaging, and cross-sectional anatomic features of the manus in a normal American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, C P; Freeman, L E

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description of cross-sectional anatomic structures of the manus of a black bear cadaver and correlate anatomic findings with corresponding features in computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images. CT, MR imaging, and transverse sectioning were performed on the thoracic limb of a cadaver female black bear which had no evidence of lameness or thoracic limb abnormality prior to death. Features in CT and MR images corresponding to clinically important anatomic structures in anatomic sections were identified. Most of the structures identified in transverse anatomic sections were also identified using CT and MR imaging. Bones, muscles and tendons were generally easily identified with both imaging modalities, although divisions between adjacent muscles were rarely visible with CT and only visible sometimes with MR imaging. Vascular structures could not be identified with either imaging modality.

  4. Application of large-scale parentage analysis for investigating natal dispersal in highly vagile vertebrates: a case study of American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer A; Draheim, Hope M; Etter, Dwayne; Winterstein, Scott; Scribner, Kim T

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect dispersal is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology, particularly as populations are faced with increasing anthropogenic impacts. Here we collected georeferenced genetic samples (n = 2,540) from three generations of black bears (Ursus americanus) harvested in a large (47,739 km2), geographically isolated population and used parentage analysis to identify mother-offspring dyads (n = 337). We quantified the effects of sex, age, habitat type and suitability, and local harvest density at the natal and settlement sites on the probability of natal dispersal, and on dispersal distances. Dispersal was male-biased (76% of males dispersed) but a small proportion (21%) of females also dispersed, and female dispersal distances (mean ± SE  =  48.9±7.7 km) were comparable to male dispersal distances (59.0±3.2 km). Dispersal probabilities and dispersal distances were greatest for bears in areas with high habitat suitability and low harvest density. The inverse relationship between dispersal and harvest density in black bears suggests that 1) intensive harvest promotes restricted dispersal, or 2) high black bear population density decreases the propensity to disperse. Multigenerational genetic data collected over large landscape scales can be a powerful means of characterizing dispersal patterns and causal associations with demographic and landscape features in wild populations of elusive and wide-ranging species.

  5. Application of large-scale parentage analysis for investigating natal dispersal in highly vagile vertebrates: a case study of American black bears (Ursus americanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Moore

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that affect dispersal is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology, particularly as populations are faced with increasing anthropogenic impacts. Here we collected georeferenced genetic samples (n = 2,540 from three generations of black bears (Ursus americanus harvested in a large (47,739 km2, geographically isolated population and used parentage analysis to identify mother-offspring dyads (n = 337. We quantified the effects of sex, age, habitat type and suitability, and local harvest density at the natal and settlement sites on the probability of natal dispersal, and on dispersal distances. Dispersal was male-biased (76% of males dispersed but a small proportion (21% of females also dispersed, and female dispersal distances (mean ± SE  =  48.9±7.7 km were comparable to male dispersal distances (59.0±3.2 km. Dispersal probabilities and dispersal distances were greatest for bears in areas with high habitat suitability and low harvest density. The inverse relationship between dispersal and harvest density in black bears suggests that 1 intensive harvest promotes restricted dispersal, or 2 high black bear population density decreases the propensity to disperse. Multigenerational genetic data collected over large landscape scales can be a powerful means of characterizing dispersal patterns and causal associations with demographic and landscape features in wild populations of elusive and wide-ranging species.

  6. Black History, Inc! Investigating the Production of Black History through Walmart's Corporate Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Social and public sites are becoming a popular medium for intellectual consumption of Black history. Given the educational climate in which many students' exposure to Black history may come from outside of schools, the authors examine how Walmart's Black History Month Web site produced simplistic and safe narratives about African American history.

  7. From Black Power to Black Studies: How a Radical Social Movement became an Academic Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    The black power movement helped redefine African Americans' identity and establish a new racial consciousness in the 1960s. As an influential political force, this movement in turn spawned the academic discipline known as Black Studies. Today there are more than a hundred Black Studies degree programs in the United States, many of them located in…

  8. Attractiveness of black and white modified Shannon traps to phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in the Brazilian Amazon Basin, an area of intense transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; de Ávila, Márcia Moreira; de Souza, Jailson Ferreira; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; Sábio, Priscila Bassan; de Paula, Marcia Bicudo; Godoy, Rodrigo Espindola; Melchior, Leonardo Augusto Kohara; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; de Oliveira Cardoso, Cristiane; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2017-01-01

    In the Amazon region the phlebotomine fauna is considered one of the most diverse in the world. The use of Shannon traps may provide information on the anthropophily of the species and improve the traps' performance in terms of diversity and quantity of insects collected when white and black colored traps are used together. This study sought to verify the attractiveness of the traps to the phlebotomine species of the Brazilian Amazon basin using Shannon traps under these conditions. The insects were collected using two Shannon traps installed side by side, one white and the other black, in a primary forest area of the municipality of Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Samples were collected once a month during the period August 2013 to July 2015. A sample of females was dissected to test for natural infection by flagellates. A total of 6,309 (864 males and 5,445 females) specimens (36 species) were collected. Psychodopygus carrerai carrerai (42%), Nyssomyia shawi (36%), and Psychodopygus davisi (13%), together represented 90% of the insects collected. Nyssomyia shawi and Psychodopygus davisi were more attracted by the white color. Specimens of Nyssomyia shawi, Nyssomyia whitmani, and Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus were found naturally infected by flagellates in the mid and hindgut. This is the first study in Acre state using and comparing both black and white Shannon traps, demonstrating the richness, diversity, and anthropophilic behavior of the phlebotomine species and identifying proven and putative vectors of the etiological agents of leishmaniasis. © A.F. Brilhante et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  9. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are correlated with cardiometabolic risk among American black and white adolescents living in a year-round sunny climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Samip; Guo, De-Huang; Pollock, Norman K; Petty, Karen; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Gutin, Bernard; Houk, Chris; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2012-05-01

    Low vitamin D status is common among healthy black and white adolescents residing at southern U.S. latitudes with a year-round sunny climate. Thus we aimed to study the relationships between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and cardiometabolic risk factors in this population. 25(OH)D concentrations were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy in 701 girls and boys (14-18 years old, 54% blacks, 49% females). Cardiometabolic risk was indexed by adipokines, inflammatory markers, fasting glucose, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, and blood pressure (BP). Controlling for age, sex, race, sexual maturation, season, physical activity, and percent body fat, 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly correlated with adiponectin (r = 0.06, P = 0.05), leptin (r = -0.32, P risk factors, independent of adiposity. Clinical trials addressing the effects of vitamin D supplementation on cardiometabolic risk are warranted in adolescents irrespective of their geographical regions.

  10. We Dream a World: The 2025 Vision for Black Men and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi-A-Fatt, Rhonda

    2010-01-01

    Black men are vital and important members of American society, especially in their communities. Black families suffer a great loss when Black men are unable to thrive. Throughout modern American history, Black men have struggled to gain their footing and fulfill their destinies as strong, caring and productive members of society and their…

  11. African and African American Children's and Adolescent Literature in the Classroom: A Critical Guide. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian, Ed.; Napoli, Mary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The essays in this collection discuss multicultural issues in children's and adolescent literature, focusing particularly on African and African American cultures. They challenge everyone's understanding of what, in an age of globalization, multicultural texts really are. Cumulatively, these essays illustrate multicultural literature's power to…

  12. One-year response of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) to granular fertilizer applications on a reclaimed surface mine in eastern Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josh Brinks; John Lhotka; Chris. Barton

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of intensively managed woody energy crops on reclaimed surface mine lands provides an opportunity to diversify domestic biomass sources, while increasing the productivity and economic value of underutilized land. Our objective is to test the effect of fertilization on the growth and biomass accumulation of American sycamore (Platanus...

  13. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  14. Mobilizing Black America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    or just for a walk in the park. They offer an ear if the youngster simply needs someone to talk to. When it comes to a discussion of economic...neighborhoods and making it unsafe for decent people to walk the streets. One method that several schools have used to support the community in this...children with their studies. By their very presence these men show that education is not sissy .’ 3 6 Once we have succeeded in keeping black Americans

  15. Black strings and classical hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Yang, H.

    1997-01-01

    We examine the geometry near the event horizon of a family of black string solutions with traveling waves. It has previously been shown that the metric is continuous there. Contrary to expectations, we find that the geometry is not smooth, and the horizon becomes singular whenever a wave is present. Both five-dimensional and six-dimensional black strings are considered with similar results. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. African American Scholars and Parents Cannot Blame Current Harsh Physical Punishment of Black Males on Slavery: A Response to "Cultural Interpretations of Child Discipline: Voices of African American Scholars".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Henry J.; Jones, Fred; Cooke, Vanessa

    1998-01-01

    Current research strongly refutes assertions that nonspanking methods do not work well with African-American children. Autocratic childrearing is no longer effective. Hitting children does not instill confidence or courage, but supports poor self-concepts, builds desire for revenge, and fosters violence. Data is presented to support this view.…

  17. African-American wildland memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker

    2004-01-01

    Collective memory can be used conceptually to examine African-American perceptions of wildlands and black interaction with such places. The middle--American view of wildlands frames these terrains as refuges--pure and simple, sanctified places distinct from the profanity of human modification. However, wild, primitive areas do not exist in the minds of all Americans as...

  18. Black Cohosh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have had hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer or for pregnant women or nursing mothers. Black cohosh should not be confused with blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) , which has different effects and may not be safe. Black cohosh has ...

  19. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    reproducing the bourgeois-aspiring aesthetic of 1920s and 1930s New York City Harlem renaissance jazz clubs, gangsters, Marlene Dietrich, Fred Astaire, and classics of American film noir: “I bathe in it, I swim in it, and I could be buried in it. A tux is such a standard uniform, it’s so classy and it’s...... aesthetic had unmistakable associations with interwar Weimar Berlin, Louise Brooks (‘Die Brooks’), Sally Bowles, Cabaret, and Nazi chic. It was a look that originally went along with the Dadaist spirit of punk in protesting the dystopian ‘no future’-status of youth in Western society. Equally influential...

  20. Comparison of the efficacy of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers in African American patients with hypertension. ISHIB Investigators Group. International Society on Hypertension in Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W D; Reed, J W; Flack, J M; Yunis, C; Preisser, J

    1998-10-12

    Hypertension is a prevalent disease among African Americans, and successful treatment rates are low. Since calcium channel blockers are well-tolerated and efficacious in African Americans, we undertook this study to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 3 commonly prescribed calcium channel blockers: amlodipine besylate (Norvasc), nifedipine coat core (CC) (Adalat CC), and nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) (Procardia XL). One hundred ninety-two hypertensive patients across 10 study centers were randomly assigned to double-blind monotherapy with amlodipine besylate (5 mg/d), nifedipine CC (30 mg/d), or nifedipine GITS (30 mg/d) for 8 weeks. Patients not achieving therapeutic response after 4 weeks had their dose doubled for the next 4 weeks. The primary end point was a comparison of the average reduction (week 8 minus baseline) in 24-hour ambulatory diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Secondary end points included a comparison of average 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure (SBP), office SBP or DBP reduction, responder rates, safety, and tolerability. One hundred sixty-three patients were evaluable for efficacy after 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in the average 24-hour ambulatory DBP (-8.5, -9.0, and -6.1 mm Hg, respectively) or SBP (-14.3, -15.7, and -11.8 mm Hg, respectively) reduction. Average office SBP and DBP were reduced to a comparable degree (19-22 mm Hg [P =.50] and 12-14 mm Hg [P =.51], respectively). Responder rates (DBP or = 10 mm Hg) were similar (P = .38). Discontinuation rates and adverse event frequency were distributed similarly across the 3 treatment groups. The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the 3 dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are equivalent in African Americans with stages 1 and 2 hypertension.

  1. HIV/AIDS disparity between African-American and Caucasian men who have sex with men: intervention strategies for the black church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William Allen; McNeely, Clea

    2013-06-01

    This manuscript examines the HIV/AIDS health disparity among African-American (AA) men who have sex with men (MSM) as compared to non-Hispanic White (NHW) MSM, and proposes faith-based intervention strategies as a means of reducing the disparity. Effective faith-based HIV/AIDS intervention programs to encompass AA MSM must include community-based participatory research; engage the faith community through data sharing; specifically target and equip church leaders in addition to laity; involve effective collaboration and compromise between public health practitioners and faith leaders; emphasize spirituality and compassion; utilize popular opinion leaders; and be intergenerational.

  2. Black America in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, John

    1982-01-01

    In this bulletin, recent demographic and socioeconomic trends among American blacks are reviewed and compared with trends among whites. The report includes information on black population growth and composition; rural-urban distribution; fertility and family planning practice; mortality; migration; family structure and marital status; education;…

  3. The New Mood of Black America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Jack W.

    This is a collection of articles, excerpts, poems, essays, and short stories dealing with the increasingly militant and aggressive posture now being assumed by certain segments of the Black community. It attempts to reflect, for the teacher and student, the direction in which great masses of Black Americans are currently moving. The initial…

  4. Black cohosh Actaea racemosa: an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary L. Predny; Patricia De Angelis; James L. Chamberlain

    2006-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa, Syn.: Cimicifuga racemosa), a member of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), is an erect perennial found in rich cove forests of Eastern North America from Georgia to Ontario. Native Americans used black cohosh for a variety of ailments including rheumatism, malaria, sore throats, and complications...

  5. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness ... that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen ( ...

  6. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  7. First Person Past: American Autobiographies, Volume 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    American literature, biography, Tunis Campbell, Black Elk, Andrew Carnegie, Booker T. Washington, Mary Antin, Mary Jones, Frederic Howe, Anna Howard Shaw, Woody Guthrie, Monica Sone, Anne Moody, Ron Kovic......American literature, biography, Tunis Campbell, Black Elk, Andrew Carnegie, Booker T. Washington, Mary Antin, Mary Jones, Frederic Howe, Anna Howard Shaw, Woody Guthrie, Monica Sone, Anne Moody, Ron Kovic...

  8. Undoing Racism in America: Help from the Black Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Erika; Vora, Jay A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether a planned engagement of white college students, which had very little contact with African Americans, with members of a black community in a safe, welcoming environment (a black church) would significantly reduce racism. Participant surveys indicated that positive interactions between Blacks and Whites resulted in positive…

  9. The Archetype of Initiation in Selected Novels of Black Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, B. Joye

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses several novels written by black American writers that deal with the initiation experiences of young blacks, and should, therefore, appeal to black adolescents. The novels are grouped according to the three stages in the initiation experience of the adolescent: separation; transition; and incorporation. In separation, the…

  10. Sociological Tradition of E. Franklin Frazier: Implications for Black Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmes, Clovis E.

    1986-01-01

    E. Franklin Frazier's sociological work laid the cornerstone for research in Black Studies. His analysis of the relationship between social organization and culture, and the effect of racial and cultural subordination on Black intellectuals is explored. Frazier's theme, that the issue of assimilation is the central problem facing Black Americans,…

  11. Beyond the Black Family: The Trend toward Singlehood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Robert

    1979-01-01

    The percentage of single individuals is rising, especially among Blacks. Based on the present trend, one can predict that by the year 1980 the majority of Black adults will be unmarried. The acceptance by Black men and women of certain Euro-American values exacerbates this trend. (RLV)

  12. Don't Call Me Black! Rhizomatic Analysis of Blackness, Immigration, and the Politics of Race Without Guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Awad

    2017-01-01

    What happens when the syntax of race meets immigrants whose bodies are assumed to be "Black" in North America but who either do not have the history or the conception of Blackness in North America or are not familiar with the North American Black-White dichotomy? Dealing with three empirical studies and a novel, in the present review…

  13. Understanding Afrocentrism: Why Blacks Dream of a World without Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    Describes the perceived failure of integration and the growing number of black Americans who are looking at the world from an African perspective instead of from the European-centered perspective that dominates American culture. The article explains Afrocentrism's appeal in giving Blacks an ideological unity, not just on color but as an expression…

  14. Black plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, L

    1997-01-01

    Many African-Americans are reluctant to participate in clinical trials of any type, citing the Federal government's unethical syphilis experiments in the Tuskegee Study. African-Americans are also more predisposed to choose alternative treatments over mainstream therapies. These attitudes contribute to the rise in infection rates in this population that now accounts for 41 percent of all reported cases. It is essential that African-Americans participate in HIV research at every level.

  15. Narrative Significations of Contemporary Black Girlhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda; Sekayi, Dia; Savage, Lorraine; Waller, Ellyn; Picot, Iresha

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how Black girlhood is constructed through fiction. The following research question guided this study: How do writers represent the heterogeneity of urban teenage girls in school-sanctioned African American young adult literature? Five popular narratives that exemplify the contemporary lives of urban African American female…

  16. Investigating Black ASL: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toliver-Smith, Andrea; Gentry, Betholyn

    2017-01-01

    The authors reviewed the literature regarding linguistic variations seen in American Sign Language. These variations are influenced by region and culture. Features of spoken languages have also influenced sign languages as they intersected, e.g., Black ASL has been influenced by African American English. A literature review was conducted to…

  17. Descendants of "Ruth:" Black Girls Coping through the "Black Male Crisis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ayanna F.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the complex relationship between how black male and female identities have been constructed dichotomously in response to the gender framed "crisis" in black America. The ethnographic research study was conducted in an secondary African American History course, located in an urban school district in the southern…

  18. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  19. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  20. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  1. Quantum black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Calmet, Xavier; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Written by foremost experts, this short book gives a clear description of the physics of quantum black holes. The reader will learn about quantum black holes in four and higher dimensions, primordial black holes, the production of black holes in high energy particle collisions, Hawking radiation, black holes in models of low scale quantum gravity and quantum gravitational aspects of black holes.

  2. What the White "Squaws" Want from Black Hawk: Gendering the Fan-Celebrity Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, Tena L.

    2010-01-01

    Americans in the East were great fans of Black Hawk, whose popularity on tour overtook that of Andrew Jackson's parallel tour of the Northeast. Undoubtedly, then, Black Hawk was a celebrity. He remained popular even in 1837, when he attended Catlin's gallery opening in New York, which included his 1832 painting of Black Hawk. Black Hawk may also…

  3. The loss of a polymorphic glycosylation site caused by Thr-927 [yields] Ile is linked to a second polymorphic Val-816 [yields] Ile substitution in lysosomal [alpha]-glucosidase of American blacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermans, M.M.P.; Oostra, B.A.; Reuser, A.J.J. (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)); Svetkey, L.P.; Chen, Y.T. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Inherited deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase [alpha]-glucosidase (acid maltase) causes lysosomal accumulation of glycogen, a condition known as glycogen storage disease type II (GSD II). The clinical phenotype is heterogeneous, and heterogeneity also exists at the molecular level. Point mutations were recently identified in two cases of severe infantile and one case of adult GSD II. In addition to mutations with a deleterious effect on enzyme function, several polymorphisms have been documented. Of note are those polymorphisms that relate to racial differences, but they can pose a problem when mutant alleles are being analyzed. An example of this was an American black patient with an adult form of GSD II (GM1935). Mutation analysis revealed three amino acid substitutions that were not encountered in the Caucasian population. The three substitutions were Asp-645 [r arrow] Glu (exon 14), Val-816 [r arrow] Ile (exon 17), and Thr-927 [r arrow] Ile (exon 19), and they were linked to the same allele . The Thr-927 [r arrow] Ile substitution deleting the most carboxyl-terminal N-linked glycosylation site was found to have no effect on enzyme function, in agreement with the studies on the role of the individual glycosylation sites. There were different opinions, however, with respect to the effect of the other two substitutions. The Val-816 [r arrow] Ile substitution was reported by Martiniuk et al. to cause the lysosomal [alpha]-glucosidase deficiency, but the authors concluded on the basis of more extensive studies that the Asp-645[r arrow] Glu substitution was actually the deleterious mutation and the Val-816 [r arrow] Ile substitution a polymorphism. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Substance Abuse Among Blacks Across the Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Krim K; Mouzon, Dawne M; Govia, Ishtar O; Matusko, Niki; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Abelson, Jamie M; Jackson, James S

    2016-07-28

    Lower rates of substance abuse are found among Black Americans compared to Whites, but little is known about differences in substance abuse across ethnic groups within the black population. We examined prevalence rates of substance abuse among Blacks across three geographic regions (US, Jamaica, Guyana). The study also sought to ascertain whether length of time, national context and major depressive episodes (MDE) were associated with substance abuse. We utilized three different data sources based upon probability samples collected in three different countries. The samples included 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 US Caribbean Black adults from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL). An additional 1,142 Guyanese Blacks and 1,176 Jamaican Blacks living in the Caribbean region were included from the 2005 NSAL replication extension study, Family Connections Across Generations and Nations (FCGN). Mental disorders were based upon DSM-IV criteria. For the analysis, we used descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression analytic procedures. Prevalence of substance abuse varied by national context, with higher rates among Blacks within the United States compared to the Caribbean region. Rates of substance abuse were lower overall for women, but differ across cohorts by nativity and length of time in the United States, and in association with major depressive episode. The study highlights the need for further examination of how substance abuse disparities between US-based and Caribbean-based populations may become manifested.

  5. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of Ophthalmology 2018 Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery * Required * First Name: * Last Name: ...

  6. Nostalgia and Educational History: An American Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousmaniere, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This essay examines the way in which nostalgia informs the 1953 painting of a school setting by the popular American artist Norman Rockwell. "The Girl with Black Eye", the cover image of the American popular magazine "The Saturday Evening Post" on 23 May 1953, draws on traditional American iconography of the disciplining of…

  7. Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stay Connected OMH Home > Policy and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While the cause is not always known, some ...

  8. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.

    1980-01-01

    In years 1920 as a result of quantum mechanics principles governing the structure of ordinary matter, a sudden importance for a problem raised a long time ago by Laplace: what happens when a massive body becomes so dense that even light cannot escape from its gravitational field. It is difficult to conceive how could be avoided in the actual universe the accumulation of important masses of cold matter having been submitted to gravitational breaking down followed by the formation of what is called to day a black hole [fr

  9. Black Hole Universe Model and Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2011-01-01

    Considering black hole as spacetime and slightly modifying the big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach principle and Einsteinian general relativity and self consistently explains various observations of the universe without difficulties. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole and gradually grew through a supermassive black hole to the present universe by accreting ambient material and merging with other black holes. The entire space is infinitely and hierarchically layered and evolves iteratively. The innermost three layers are the universe that we lives, the outside space called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and zero limits for both the mass density and absolute temperature. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of spacetime, and tend to expand outward physically. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside black holes. The origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of black hole universe have been presented in the recent sequence of American Astronomical Society (AAS) meetings and published in peer-review journals. This study will show how this new model explains the acceleration of the universe and why dark energy is not required. We will also compare the black hole universe model with the big bang cosmology.

  10. String model of black hole microstates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, F.

    1997-01-01

    The statistical mechanics of black holes arbitrarily far from extremality is modeled by a gas of weakly interacting strings. As an effective low-energy description of black holes the string model provides several highly nontrivial consistency checks and predictions. Speculations on a fundamental origin of the model suggest surprising simplifications in nonperturbative string theory, even in the absence of supersymmetry. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Duality invariance of black hole creation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Pair creation of electrically charged black holes and its dual process, pair creation of magnetically charged black holes, are considered. It is shown that the creation rates are equal provided the boundary conditions for the two processes are dual to one another. This conclusion follows from a careful analysis of boundary terms and boundary conditions for the Maxwell action. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Critical race theory as a tool for understanding poor engagement along the HIV care continuum among African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV in the United States: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Robert; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Silverman, Elizabeth; Kutnick, Alexandra; Leonard, Noelle R; Ritchie, Amanda S; Reed, Jennifer; Martinez, Belkis Y

    2017-03-24

    African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV (AABH-PLWH) in the U.S. evidence insufficient engagement in HIV care and low uptake of HIV antiretroviral therapy, leading to suboptimal clinical outcomes. The present qualitative study used critical race theory, and incorporated intersectionality theory, to understand AABH-PLWH's perspectives on the mechanisms by which structural racism; that is, the macro-level systems that reinforce inequities among racial/ethnic groups, influence health decisions and behaviors. Participants were adult AABH-PLWH in New York City who were not taking antiretroviral therapy nor well engaged in HIV care (N = 37). Participants were purposively sampled for maximum variation from a larger study, and engaged in semi-structured in-depth interviews that were audio-recorded and professionally transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a systematic content analysis approach. We found AABH-PLWH experienced HIV care and medication decisions through a historical and cultural lens incorporating knowledge of past and present structural racism. This contextual knowledge included awareness of past maltreatment of people of color in medical research. Further, these understandings were linked to the history of HIV antiretroviral therapy itself, including awareness of the first HIV antiretroviral regimen; namely, AZT (zidovudine) mono-therapy, which was initially prescribed in unacceptably high doses, causing serious side effects, but with only modest efficacy. In this historical/cultural context, aspects of structural racism negatively influenced health care decisions and behavior in four main ways: 1) via the extent to which healthcare settings were experienced as overly institutionalized and, therefore, dehumanizing; 2) distrust of medical institutions and healthcare providers, which led AABH-PLWH to feel pressured to take HIV antiretroviral therapy when it was offered; 3) perceptions that patients are excluded from the health

  13. STU black holes and string triality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrndt, K.; Kallosh, R.; Rahmfeld, J.; Shmakova, M.; Wong, W.K.

    1996-01-01

    We find double-extreme black holes associated with the special geometry of the Calabi-Yau moduli space with the prepotential F=STU. The area formula is STU-moduli independent and has [SL(2,Z)] 3 symmetry in space of charges. The dual version of this theory without a prepotential treats the dilaton S asymmetric vs T,U moduli. We display the dual relation between new (STU) black holes and stringy (S|TU) black holes using a particular Sp(8,Z) transformation. The area formula of one theory equals that of the dual theory when expressed in terms of dual charges. We analyze the relation between (STU) black holes to string triality of black holes: (S|TU), (T|US), (U|ST) solutions. In the democratic STU-symmetric version we find that all three S, T, and U duality symmetries are nonperturbative and mix electric and magnetic charges. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. Making Blackness, Making Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Too often the acknowledgment that race is a social construction ignores exactly how this construction occurs. By illuminating the way in which the category of blackness and black individuals are made, we can better see how race matters in America. Antidiscrimination policy, social science research, and the state's support of its citizens can all be improved by an accurate and concrete definition of blackness. Making Blackness, Making Policy argues that blackness and black people are literally...

  15. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Black holes; numerical relativity; nonlinear sigma. Abstract. Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. ... Theoretical and Computational Studies Group, Southampton College, Long Island University, Southampton, NY 11968, USA ...

  16. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  17. Developing Critical Hip Hop Feminist Literacies: Centrality and Subversion of Sexuality in the Lives of Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The present article explores discourses surrounding the bodies of Black women and girls as they engage the meanings of Black womanhood in (American) society in an afterschool setting. Drawing on Black and hip hop feminisms, African American literacies, and critical discourse perspectives, the author analyzes two young girls' narratives, which…

  18. Afro-American Music and Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Samuel A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines the concurrent development of Black music and Black dance in the United States, and describes the interaction of the two genres throughout their mutually dependent evolutions. Traces the histories of the dances of African American culture, known collectively as "jazz dance," in relation to ragtime, jazz, and the blues. (AF)

  19. EARLY DOWNHOME BLUES IN AMERICAN CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Muhni, Djuhertati Imam

    2012-01-01

    People's traditional music and the way people behave when performing it are symbolic expressions of broad cultural pattern and social organization . In other words music is a part of men's learned heritage . Hence this study is about music in a given culture, specifically blues in American culture . Allen Trachtenberg stated that blues songs are inheritance from the American past for negotiating black people's lives as Americans . In the experience of blues the African-Americans find themselv...

  20. Do stringy corrections stabilize colored black holes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanti, P.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    We consider hairy black hole solutions of Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton theory, coupled to a Gauss-Bonnet curvature term, and we study their stability under small, spacetime-dependent perturbations. We demonstrate that stringy corrections do not remove the sphaleronic instabilities of colored black holes with the number of unstable modes being equal to the number of nodes of the background gauge function. In the gravitational sector and in the limit of an infinitely large horizon, colored black holes are also found to be unstable. Similar behavior is exhibited by magnetically charged black holes while the bulk of neutral black holes are proved to be stable under small, gauge-dependent perturbations. Finally, electrically charged black holes are found to be characterized only by the existence of a gravitational sector of perturbations. As in the case of neutral black holes, we demonstrate that for the bulk of electrically charged black holes no unstable modes arise in this sector. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  1. Extreme black hole with an electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Tada, T.

    1996-01-01

    We construct a new extreme black hole solution in a toroidally compactified heterotic string theory. The black hole saturates the Bogomol close-quote nyi bound, has zero angular momentum, but a nonzero electric dipole moment. It is obtained by starting with a higher-dimensional rotating charged black hole, and compactifying one direction in the plane of rotation. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. 20 African-Americans Your Students Should Meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardeen, Tara

    2008-01-01

    There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…

  3. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  4. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  5. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  6. Black Eye: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Black eye Black eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A black eye is caused by bleeding under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a ... 13, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-black-eye/basics/ART-20056675 . Mayo ...

  7. Leadership, Governance, and Sustainability of Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzell, Jack L., Jr.; Schexnider, Alvin J.

    2010-01-01

    A topic of continuing interest in American higher education and society is the future of historically black colleges and universities, commonly referred to as HBCUs. The nation's public and private black institutions of higher education have proved their mettle, and yet they face persistent challenges to survive. A huge part of the challenge black…

  8. Motivations, Sacrifices, and Challenges: Black Parents' Decisions to Home School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields-Smith, Cheryl; Williams, Meca

    2009-01-01

    This study examines home schooling among Black parents by providing insight to Black families' beliefs, concerns, and desires for their children's education. To date, the literature remains void of empirical work related to home education among African American families. However, the present study directly addresses this void. Findings…

  9. Black Greek-Lettered Organizations and Civic Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article discuss the potential impact of Black Greek-Lettered Organizations (BGLOs) in advancing African American civil and political rights. During the antebellum years and Jim Crow era, barriers to Black voting included enslavement, anti-literacy laws, violence and intimidation, grandfather clauses, gerrymandering, literacy requirements,…

  10. Obesity among Black Adolescent Girls: Genetic, Psychosocial, and Cultural Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Sylvan I.; LaPoint, Velma

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the causes, consequences, and prevention of obesity among a subgroup of the American population, Black adolescent girls. Using an ecological perspective on obesity among Black adolescent girls, including feminist-womanist perspectives and historical and medical sociological perspectives, the authors discuss genetic,…

  11. The Early History of Blacks at Harvard Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Ronald T.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the history of the admission of African Americans at the Harvard Medical School and the racial prejudice that followed. The author reveals how Harvard medical students of the time believed that blacks were intellectually inferior and that having black students at the school would devalue the school and their diplomas. (GR)

  12. The Church: Black Catholic Women Religious in Antebellum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the formation of the Oblate Sisters of Providence and the Congregation of the Holy Family, two orders of Black nuns founded in the American South prior to the Civil War for the purposes of educating Black children and caring for orphans and elderly, abandoned slaves. (GC)

  13. Molecular characterization of aphid resistance in black raspberry germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black raspberry is a minor but lucrative crop with most of the acreage in the U.S. found in Oregon. Rapid decline of plantings results from virus infection vectored by the North American large raspberry aphid and is the most limiting factor for growing black raspberry. Existing cultivars are suscept...

  14. Cosmic microwave background radiation of black hole universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. X.

    2010-11-01

    Modifying slightly the big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe. This new cosmological model is consistent with the Mach principle, Einsteinian general theory of relativity, and observations of the universe. The origin, structure, evolution, and expansion of the black hole universe have been presented in the recent sequence of American Astronomical Society (AAS) meetings and published recently in a scientific journal: Progress in Physics. This paper explains the observed 2.725 K cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present universe with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses. According to the black hole universe model, the observed cosmic microwave background radiation can be explained as the black body radiation of the black hole universe, which can be considered as an ideal black body. When a hot and dense star-like black hole accretes its ambient materials and merges with other black holes, it expands and cools down. A governing equation that expresses the possible thermal history of the black hole universe is derived from the Planck law of black body radiation and radiation energy conservation. The result obtained by solving the governing equation indicates that the radiation temperature of the present universe can be ˜2.725 K if the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole, and is therefore consistent with the observation of the cosmic microwave background radiation. A smaller or younger black hole universe usually cools down faster. The characteristics of the original star-like or supermassive black hole are not critical to the physical properties of the black hole universe at present, because matter and radiation are mainly from the outside space, i.e., the mother universe.

  15. Theoretical Perspectives of Ethnicity and Outdoor Recreation: A Review and Synthesis of African-American and European-American Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker; Donald B.K. English; Dreamal Worthen

    1997-01-01

    For over three decades, research has shown differences in recreation participation by ethnic group membership, particularly for African Americans and European Americans. This paper is the first of a two-part publication series that examines black/white recreation. In this first part, the literature and empirical findings on black/white leisure participation are...

  16. 'If we must Die…': Dominant Sentiments in African-American Literature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Black literature in America is essentially protest inclined. The prevalence of this attitude in the literary culture has a lot to do with the very nature of the black experience of slavery and the slave trade. In this paper, we provide a critical treatment of protest in black American literature by examining the protest of black writers ...

  17. Dominant culturable bacterial microbiota in the digestive tract of the American black vulture (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 and search for antagonistic substances Microbiota bacteriana dominante cultivável no trato digestivo do urubu (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydston Rodrigues de Carvalho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Strict and facultative culturable anaerobic bacteria from the digestive tract of six American black vultures (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 were isolated and identified. After capture, the birds received a non-contaminated diet for one week to eliminate possible allochthonous microorganisms. Then, specimens collected from tongue, stomach and intestines were weighed, submitted to decimal dilution in an anaerobic chamber, inoculated into culture media and incubated aerobically and anaerobically at 37ºC for enumeration, isolation and identification. Isolated bacteria were submitted to tests to detect possible antagonisms between them. The total bacterial population along the digestive tract ranged from 3.46 ± 0.39 log CFU/g in the stomach to 10.75 ± 0.37 log CFU/g in the distal intestine. Some bacteria were isolated for the first time from the digestive tract of C. atratus: Actinomyces bovis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Micrococcus luteus, Neisseria sicca, Clostridium bifermentans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Peptostreptococcus sp., Sarcina sp., Serratia odorifera, and Shigella flexneri. Associations between microorganisms were observed during isolation on two occasions, one involving A. bovis and N. sicca, and the other involving A. bovis and a Gram-negative rod. Hetero-, iso- and autoantagonisms were observed, suggesting the ecological role of these indigenous microorganisms in terms of population auto-control and environmental barrier in the digestive tract of carrion-feeding birds.As bactérias anaeróbias estritas e facultativas cultiváveis do trato digestivo de seis urubus (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 foram isoladas e identificadas. Após a captura, as aves receberam uma alimentação de baixa contaminação durante uma semana para eliminar possíveis microorganismos alóctonos. A seguir, amostras colhidas na língua, estomago e intestinos foram pesadas, submetidas a diluições decimais numa câmara anaeróbia, inoculadas em meios de

  18. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  19. The Award Winning Black Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2018-01-01

    Black Suns: An Astrophysics Adventure is a documentary film focusing on the annular and total solar eclipses of 2012. We made a different kind of astronomy documentary showing the human aspects rather than just focusing on pretty astronomy pictures. The film combines personal stories with science. Our heroes are Hakeem Oluseyi and Alphonse Sterling, who valiantly travel to study the solar corona during total solar eclipses. The goals of the film included presenting three dimensional scientists, to show their paths to becoming astrophysicists, and to show them as they collect data and work as scientists. Drama and tension surround taking data during the small window of time during totality. The Black Suns was filmed in Tokyo, Cairns, Tucson, and Melbourne Florida. Uniquely, the film began through a Kickstarter campaign to fund travel and filming in Tokyo. Many American Astronomical Society members donated to the film! Black Suns won the Jury Prize at the 2017 Art of Brooklyn Film Festival. Black Suns will be screening in full on ???.

  20. W. E. B. Du Bois's Basic American Negro Creed and the Associates in Negro Folk Education: A Case of Repressive Tolerance in the Censorship of Radical Black Discourse on Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Talmadge C.; Brookfield, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    W. E. B. Du Bois, one of the brightest lights in African American history, wrote a sparkling critique of the American social and economic system originally planned as part of the Bronze Booklets series, edited and published by Alain Locke and the Associates in Negro Folk Education. The piece was never published and has, until now, been lost to the…

  1. Identité et marchandisation : Le cas des black memorabilia et black collectibles Identity and Commodification: The Case of Black Memorabilia and Black Collectibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Elmaleh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to raise the issue of the commodification of African American culture, mainly through a certain form of art that has re-emerged with Black memorabilia which paradoxically fit into a black-driven market. However, these items penetrated American culture from 1920 to the 1950s to convey images of black people as lazy, stupid, childlike and happy. This condition of permanent happiness, typified by a broad smile and white teeth, was a fundamental component of this racist and stereotyped imagery. Thus, this article focuses on the thin border between racism and the denunciation of racism, commodification and denunciation of commodification, art and its by-products being always co-opted in the specific logic of private productivity.

  2. Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunava

    2011-01-01

    The European Center for Nuclear Research or CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has caught our attention partly due to the film "Angels and Demons." In the movie, an antimatter bomb attack on the Vatican is foiled by the protagonist. Perhaps just as controversial is the formation of mini black holes (BHs). Recently, the American Physical Society…

  3. compressibility characteristics of black cotton soil admixed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The British method [26] for determination of. Atterberg's limits such as liquid limit, plastic limit and shrinkage limit was used. The Atterberg limit of the natural black cotton soil was first determined for proper classification of the soil using the American. Association for State Highway and Testing organization (AASHTO) and later ...

  4. To Be Young, Black and Oppressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Defining the period of youth as the ages between 16 to 24 years, this article discusses the political economy of Afro-American youth oppression, the colonial educational system, crime and violence, death at an early age, and the future of black youth. (JM)

  5. Black Cinderella: Multicultural Literature and School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses diversity issues evident in fairy tales and explores the pedagogical implications for adding counter-narratives in the school curriculum. Critical Race Theory is employed. In order to uncover contradictory discourses of race within Black cultures, four Africana (African, African American, and Caribbean) Cinderella tale types…

  6. Transracial Adoption in Black and White: A Survey of Social Worker Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, Judy

    2002-01-01

    Assessed attitudes of U.S. social workers regarding transracial adoption (TRA), specifically black children being adopted by white parents. Found that white social workers were more in favor of TRA than black social workers. African American respondents who were members of the National Association of Black Social Workers had less favorable…

  7. Teaching and Learning Color Consciousness in Black Families: Exploring Family Processes and Women's Experiences with Colorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, JeffriAnne; Cain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Family is regarded as a powerful force in the lives of Black Americans. Often-times, families function as an agent of socialization that counters racism. At the same time, however, Black families can perpetuate skin tone consciousness and bias, or "colorism." Although there is an extensive body of revisionist literature on Black families and a…

  8. Assessment of Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra) Decline in Minnesota. Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Palik; Michael E. Ostry; Robert C. Venette; Kathleen T. Ward

    2012-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is present throughout the upper Midwest and Northeastern United States and is often found in lowland hardwood forests. Black ash seed is an important food for birds and small mammals, and its twigs and foliage are used by ungulates. Black ash wood is valued for paneling and furniture as well as for Native American basketry...

  9. The Association of Black Psychologists: An Organization Dedicated to Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, Ezemenari M.; Speight, Suzette L.; Rowe, Daryl M.; Clark, Le Ondra; Turner-Essel, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Association of Black Psychologists (ABPsi) was founded on September 2, 1968, in San Francisco, California, in response to the American Psychological Association's failure to address the mental health needs of the Black community. This revolutionary idea was borne out of the efforts of Black early career psychologists and student activists from…

  10. Correspondence principle for black holes and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Polchinski, J.

    1997-01-01

    For most black holes in string theory, the Schwarzschild radius in string units decreases as the string coupling is reduced. We formulate a correspondence principle, which states that (i) when the size of the horizon drops below the size of a string, the typical black hole state becomes a typical state of strings and D-branes with the same charges, and (ii) the mass does not change abruptly during the transition. This provides a statistical interpretation of black hole entropy. This approach does not yield the numerical coefficient, but gives the correct dependence on mass and charge in a wide range of cases, including neutral black holes. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. VIOLENT BLACK MAN AND THE MYTH OF BLACK MACHO IN EUGENE O’NEILL’S "THE DREAMY KID"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Łobodziec

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is the investigation of the extent to which Eugene O’Neill, in his drama "The Dreamy Kid", (reconstructs, or employs, the black macho myth, which negatively images black men as marginalized and violent. This undertaking questions O’Neill’s self-proclaimed progressive racial attitudes and stated focus on the universal nature of human existence, which he professed to express through drama. Moreover, the article challenges the mainstream view of "The Dreamy Kid" as progressive. Although the play focalizes the experience of a marginalized black man, which could be interpreted as the playwright’s concern with the unjust racial and class stratification of American society, O’Neill’s production, unfortunately, contains a number of pervasive stereotypes relative to black people’s alleged moral degeneracy, primitiveness, and violent behavior, which threatens the white dominated constructed order. In terms of gendered racial politics, in the article attention is given to O’Neill’s presentation of black male negotiations with the white patriarchal power structure, embodied by the police forces, and with black matriarchy, represented by O’Neill’s stereotypical character portrayal of a dominant elderly black woman. Lastly, an overall analysis is performed in light of the call for an autonomous black art, which emerged among black artists in opposition to the demeaning, unrealistic, stereotypical portrayals of black victims of oppression by white American writers.

  12. Brane world black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahay, Anurag; Sengupta, Gautam

    2007-01-01

    Five dimensional neutral rotating black rings are described from a Randall-Sundrum brane world perspective in the bulk black string framework. To this end we consider a rotating black string extension of a five dimensional black ring into the bulk of a six dimensional Randall-Sundrum brane world with a single four brane. The bulk solution intercepts the four brane in a five dimensional black ring with the usual curvature singularity on the brane. The bulk geodesics restricted to the plane of rotation of the black ring are constructed and their projections on the four brane match with the usual black ring geodesics restricted to the same plane. The asymptotic nature of the bulk geodesics are elucidated with reference to a bulk singularity at the AdS horizon. We further discuss the description of a brane world black ring as a limit of a boosted bulk black 2 brane with periodic identification

  13. Forging a Collaborative Relationship between the Black Church and the Counseling Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adksion-Bradley, Carla; Johnson, Darrell; Sanders, JoAnn Lipford; Duncan, Lonnie; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    In the field of counseling, there has been a growing awareness of the important role the Black church plays in African American communities. Although counseling professionals have begun recognizing the influence the Black church has in the lives of African Americans, there seems to be little information on how counselors can collaborate with…

  14. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  15. Do black lives matter in public health research and training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Rosenberg

    Full Text Available To examine whether investments made in public health research align with the health burdens experienced by white and black Americans.In this cross-sectional study of all deaths in the United States in 2015, we compared the distribution of potential years of life lost (PYLL across 39 causes of death by race and identified key differences. We examined the relationship between cause-of-death-specific PYLL and key indicators of public health investment (federal funding and number of publications by race using linear spline models. We also compared the number of courses available at the top schools of public health relevant to the top causes of death contributor to PYLL for black and white Americans.Homicide was the number one contributor to PYLL among black Americans, while ischemic heart disease was the number one contributor to PYLL among white Americans. Firearm-related violence accounted for 88% of black PYLL attributed to homicide and 71% of white PYLL attributed to homicide. Despite the high burden of PYLL, homicide research was the focus of few federal grants or publications. In comparison, ischemic heart disease garnered 341 grants and 594 publications. The number of public health courses available relevant to homicide (n = 9 was similar to those relevant to ischemic heart disease (n = 10.Black Americans are disproportionately affected by homicide, compared to white Americans. For both black and white Americans, the majority of PYLL due to homicide are firearm-related. Yet, homicide research is dramatically underrepresented in public health research investments in terms of grant funding and publications, despite available public health training opportunities. If left unchecked, the observed disproportionate distribution of investments in public health resources threatens to perpetuate a system that disadvantages black Americans.

  16. "What Exactly Is a Black?": Interrogating the Reality of Race in Jean Genet's The Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debby Thompson

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available On the dedication page of The Blacks , Genet writes "One evening an actor asked me to write a play for an all-black cast. But what exactly is a black? First of all, what's his color?" Prefiguring major issues and paradoxes of African American cultural studies today, The Blacks insists on the very real ways in which the black/white racial binary, like the very concept of race itself, is lived and socially enforced, and at the same time argues that the binary is ultimately a fiction, made real through performative reification. Genet's "clown show," ambiguously reversing the blackface minstrelsy tradition, dramatizes how racial identity can become internalized and naturalized through cultural myths of interracial rape and colonialist narratives of a "heart of darkness," an imaginary site from which "black essence" arises. These racist performance traditions and narratives are so powerful and resilient that attempts to protest them become subtle and unwitting ways of re-creating them. The Blacks' parody of the minstrel tradition to interrogate all racial identity is so permanently suspended in a dialectic of both reinforcing the black/white binary and invalidating it, that the play's strategies present vital paradigms for the study of other and diverse interrogations of racial ontologies.

  17. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  18. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  19. Black-Body Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Black-body radiation; thermal radiation; heat; electromagnetic radiation; Stefan's Law; Stefan–Boltzmann Law; Wien's Law; Rayleigh–Jeans Law; black-body spectrum; ultraviolet catastrophe; zero point energy; photon.

  20. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  1. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  2. Historically Black Colleges and Teacher Accreditation: Successes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    The lack of African-American presence in teacher education programs in American's Predominately White Institutions (PWI) has not changed since the initial increase following "Brown v. Board of Education," 1954 (National Council for Educational Statistics, 2011). Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) continue to…

  3. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I.G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  4. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  5. Genocide and Black Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that the survival of black people is in serious jeopardy as is evidenced in contemporary discussions on the worldwide plight of black people, and that an exhaustive study of the problem in its many dimensions is seriously lacking; the moral and ethical issues of genocide require examination from a black perspective. (JW)

  6. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  7. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  8. The angry black woman: the impact of pejorative stereotypes on psychotherapy with black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In the aftermath of slavery and the resulting social, economic, and political effects, Black women have become the victims of negative stereotyping in mainstream American culture. Such stereotypes include the myth of the angry Black woman that characterizes these women as aggressive, ill tempered, illogical, overbearing, hostile, and ignorant without provocation. Symptoms presented by Black women during mental health treatment may reinforce this myth. However, many of the negative characteristics of the angry Black woman developed in response to external stressors and historical factors. Black women also have a unique experience with and expressions of anger that shape the presenting symptoms interpreted by the mental health clinician. This myth and corresponding negative stereotypes significantly affect Black women intrapsychically, interpersonally, and are likely to influence the efficacy of mental health treatment. Understanding and treatment of Black women in a mental health context should be influenced by the cultural norms and sociopolitical dynamics affecting these clients. Successful mental health treatment requires cultural competence and clinicians who are well prepared to navigate the inherent complexities of culture with clients. Awareness of the angry Black woman mythology, including its genesis, manifestations, and the unique experiences of Black women, may raise the standards of cultural competence for clinicians and provide more successful treatment outcomes in working with this population. A case example illustrates the assiduity essential to practicing in a culturally competent manner. A client is presented from a traditional psychotherapeutic perspective and then viewed through a lens that integrates psychotherapeutic practice with conscious awareness of the mythology and stereotypes impacting Black women. Implications for culturally relevant practice are discussed.

  9. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  10. Gender Differences in African American Attitudes toward Gay Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…

  11. Gender and Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Obesity and Depression Among Black Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between obesity and major depression disorder (MDD) in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents in the USA. The study also tested the effects of ethnicity and gender as possible moderators. Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL)-Adolescents, a representative household mental health survey of Black adolescents in the USA. Participants consisted of 1170 Black adolescents (810 African Americans and 360 Caribbean Blacks). Obesity was defined determined by the cutoff points based on the body mass index (BMI) appropriate for age and gender. Twelve-month MDD was measured using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). In the first step, the association between obesity and MDD in the pooled sample, controlling for the main effects of gender and ethnicity. In the next steps, two interactions were tested: (1) obesity and ethnicity and (2) obesity and gender. Although any associations between obesity and MDD in the pooled sample of Blacks were not found, there was a significant interaction between ethnicity and obesity on MDD. Upon testing the associations across intersections of ethnicity and gender, a positive association was found among Caribbean Black females but not Caribbean Black males, African American males, or African American female. The link between BMI and MDD among Blacks depends on ethnicity and gender, and risk of comorbid depression among Black youth with obesity is highest among Caribbean Black females.

  12. Haitian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    Uses 1990 U.S. Census data to show the changing demographic profile of Haitian Americans. Haitian Americans are likely to live along the Atlantic seaboard and to have relatively low, although not the lowest, incomes. However, the demographic mosaic of Haitian Americans is diverse, showing the effects of Haitian national and ethnic history. (SLD)

  13. Bounds for perpetual American option prices in a jump diffusion model

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Erik

    2006-01-01

    We provide bounds for perpetual American option prices in a jump diffusion model in terms of American option prices in the standard Black-Scholes model. We also investigate the dependence of the bounds on different parameters of the model.

  14. Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, Patricia L.; Emerson, Thomas E.; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R.; Ward, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States. PMID:22869743

  15. The Development of African American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    DEROUICHE, aicha

    2016-01-01

    In America, racism spread around the country especially in the South. Black people were treated badly. They did not have full rights as the white citizens. Due to these facts, many black writers responded with a set of literary works and used their skill in writing to reflect on their life. Thus, they have reached an artistic level and produced creative works. This research work deals with African American Literature which has appeared due to some historical circumstances. I...

  16. Surprise: Dwarf Galaxy Harbors Supermassive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    with the Hubble Space Telescope. They found a region near the center of the galaxy that strongly emits radio waves with characteristics of those emitted by super-fast "jets" of material spewed outward from areas close to a black hole. They then searched images from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory that showed this same, radio-bright region to be strongly emitting energetic X-rays. This combination, they said, indicates an active, black-hole-powered, galactic nucleus. "Not many dwarf galaxies are known to have massive black holes," Sivakoff said. While central black holes of roughly the same mass as the one in Henize 2-10 have been found in other galaxies, those galaxies all have much more regular shapes. Henize 2-10 differs not only in its irregular shape and small size but also in its furious star formation, concentrated in numerous, very dense "super star clusters." "This galaxy probably resembles those in the very young Universe, when galaxies were just starting to form and were colliding frequently. All its properties, including the supermassive black hole, are giving us important new clues about how these black holes and galaxies formed at that time," Johnson said. The astronomers reported their findings in the January 9 online edition of Nature, and at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Seattle, WA.

  17. Interacting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2000-01-01

    We revisit the geometry representing l collinear Schwarzschild black holes. It is seen that the black holes' horizons are deformed by their mutual gravitational attraction. The geometry has a string like conical singularity that connects the holes but has nevertheless a well defined action. Using standard gravitational thermodynamics techniques we determine the free energy for two black holes at fixed temperature and distance, their entropy and mutual force. When the black holes are far apart the results agree with Newtonian gravity expectations. This analyses is generalized to the case of charged black holes. Then we consider black holes embedded in string/M-theory as bound states of branes. Using the effective string description of these bound states and for large separation we reproduce exactly the semi-classical result for the entropy, including the correction associated with the interaction between the holes

  18. Black silicon integrated aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbo; Dickensheets, David L.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the incorporation of nanotextured black silicon as an optical absorbing material into silicon-based micro-optoelectromechanical systems devices to reduce stray light and increase optical contrast during imaging. Black silicon is created through a maskless dry etch process and characterized for two different etch conditions, a cold etch performed at 0°C and a cryogenic etch performed at -110°C. We measure specular reflection at visible wavelengths to be black velvet paint used to coat optical baffles and compare favorably with other methods to produce black surfaces from nanotextured silicon or using carbon nanotubes. We illustrate the use of this material by integrating a black silicon aperture around the perimeter of a deformable focus-control mirror. Imaging results show a significant improvement in contrast and image fidelity due to the effective reduction in stray light achieved with the self-aligned black aperture.

  19. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  20. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  1. Newtonian versus black-hole scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siopsis, G.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss non-relativistic scattering by a Newtonian potential. We show that the gray-body factors associated with scattering by a black hole exhibit the same functional dependence as scattering amplitudes in the Newtonian limit, which should be the weak-field limit of any quantum theory of gravity. This behavior arises independently of the presence of supersymmetry. The connection to two-dimensional conformal field theory is also discussed. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  2. Counting States of Near-Extremal Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    A six-dimensional black string is considered and its Bekenstein-Hawking entropy computed. It is shown that to leading order above extremality this entropy precisely counts the number of string states with the given energy and charges. This identification implies that Hawking decay of the near-extremal black string can be analyzed in string perturbation theory and is perturbatively unitary. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. On the Issue of Race in Contemporary American Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Harry

    1982-01-01

    Just as Blacks are underrepresented in authority positions and overrepresented in the lower occupational strata in the broader American labor force, Blacks in sports also function in a semi-caste system; they are relegated to the least powerful, least secure, most expendable, and most exploited role: that of the athlete. (Author/GC)

  4. Black Populations and Identity Issues in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wade

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I explore the basis for black identity in Latin America. I begin with a general consideration of the position of black populations in the framework of Latin American nationalism, taking into account the transnational dimensions of this position and then analyzing in theoretical terms the tension between particularism and universalism in ideologies of nationalism and racism. In the second part of the article, I examine some concrete historical cases of Afrodescendent mobilization and/or opening towards racial diversity in order to evaluate these as bases for a Latin American black identity in general (the racial war in Cuba in 1912, the Frente Negra Brasileira of the 1930s, the Creoles in the Sandinista regime in Nicaragua, the official multiculturalism of various Latin American countries in the 1990s, and the image of “Africa” as the basis for Afrodescendant identification.

  5. Joe Louis as a Key Functionary: White Reactions toward a Black Champion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Art

    1985-01-01

    Investigates White Americans' responses toward Joe Louis, the Black champion. Focuses on the Louis-Schmeling heavyweight title fight of 1938 as exemplifying Louis' role as a key functionary for the American system. Argues that Louis's achieved status as the American representative fighting against Nazism did not negate Whites' negative perception…

  6. Whites but Not Blacks Gain Life Expectancy from Social Contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-10-16

    Background . Recent research suggests that the health gain from economic resources and psychological assets may be systematically larger for Whites than Blacks. Aim . This study aimed to assess whether the life expectancy gain associated with social contacts over a long follow up differs for Blacks and Whites. Methods . Data came from the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study, 1986-2011. The sample was a nationally representative sample of American adults 25 and older, who were followed for up to 25 years ( n = 3361). Outcome was all-cause mortality. The main predictor was social contacts defined as number of regular visits with friends, relatives, and neighbors. Baseline demographics (age and gender), socioeconomic status (education, income, and employment), health behaviors (smoking and drinking), and health (chronic medical conditions, obesity, and depressive symptoms) were controlled. Race was the focal moderator. Cox proportional hazard models were used in the pooled sample and based on race. Results . More social contacts predicted higher life expectancy in the pooled sample. A significant interaction was found between race and social contacts, suggesting that the protective effect of more social contacts is smaller for Blacks than Whites. In stratified models, more social contacts predicted an increased life expectancy for Whites but not Blacks. Conclusion . Social contacts increase life expectancy for White but not Black Americans. This study introduces social contacts as another social resource that differentially affects health of Whites and Blacks.

  7. American = Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Hazel Rose

    2017-09-01

    U.S. American cultures and psyches reflect and promote independence. Devos and Banaji (2005) asked, does American equal White? This article asks, does American equal independent? The answer is that when compared to people in East Asian or South Asian contexts, people in American contexts tend to show an independent psychological signature-a sense of self as individual, separate, influencing others and the world, free from influence, and equal to, if not better than, others (Markus & Conner, 2013). Independence is a reasonable description of the selves of people in the White, middle-class American mainstream. Yet it is a less good characterization of the selves of the majority of Americans who are working-class and/or people of color. A cultural psychological approach reveals that much of North American psychology is still grounded in an independent model of the self and, as such, neglects social contexts and the psychologies of a majority of Americans. Given the prominence of independence in American ideas and institutions, the interdependent tendencies that arise from intersections of national culture with social class, race, and ethnicity go unrecognized and are often misunderstood and stigmatized. This unseen clash of independence and interdependence is a significant factor in many challenges, including those of education, employment, health, immigration, criminal justice, and political polarization.

  8. Counting states of black strings with traveling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Marolf, D.

    1997-01-01

    We consider a family of solutions to string theory which depend on arbitrary functions and contain regular event horizons. They describe six-dimensional extremal black strings with traveling waves and have an inhomogeneous distribution of momentum along the string. The structure of these solutions near the horizon is studied and the horizon area computed. We also count the number of BPS string states at weak coupling whose macroscopic momentum distribution agrees with that of the black string. It is shown that the number of such states is given by the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black string with traveling waves. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Renormalized thermodynamic entropy of black holes in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.P.; Kim, S.K.; Soh, K.; Yee, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    We study the ultraviolet divergent structures of the matter (scalar) field in a higher D-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem black hole and compute the matter field contribution to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy by using the Pauli-Villars regularization method. We find that the matter field contribution to the black hole entropy does not, in general, yield the correct renormalization of the gravitational coupling constants. In particular, we show that the matter field contribution in odd dimensions does not give the term proportional to the area of the black hole event horizon. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Black holes are warm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravndal, F.

    1978-01-01

    Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)

  11. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  12. Black hole candidates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Black hole candidates. In the case of X-ray sources such as Cyg X-1, the mass of the compact object inferred from combined optical and X-ray data, suggest M_compact object > 3.4 M_sun => Black Hole! A remarkable discovery!! Thus X-ray emitting binary systems ...

  13. Black hole Berry phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the

  14. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  15. Black hole levitron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  16. Protecting Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  17. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of ...

  18. Black Boycott: Gainsville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Arthur O.

    1975-01-01

    A case study of the events precipitating a black student boycott in 1969 in Gainesville, Flordia, when school board manuevering to avoid school integration led to the threatened closing of Lincoln High School, a reputable black community school. Also described are the subsequent transformations of Lincoln into a vocational-technical school and…

  19. Neoliberalism and Black Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, John Martin

    1986-01-01

    In contrast to traditional liberals, neoliberals share a commitment to greater economic risk-taking, support for entrepreneurism, a new industrial policy, and a different Federal Role. While New Deal and Great Society liberalism may have been more favorable to blacks, perhaps more balanced and equitable policies for blacks could be developed if…

  20. Lifshitz topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  1. Legitimizing Blacks in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameliah Shorter-Bourhanou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In its efforts toward improving diversity, the discipline of philosophy has tended to focus on increasing the number of black philosophers. One crucial issue that has received less attention is the extent to which black philosophers are delegitimized in the discipline because their philosophical contributions challenge the status quo. A systematic problem that bars black philosophers from equal and full participation, this delegitimization precludes the emergence of genuine diversity and reveals the importance of interrogating broader attitudes toward black philosophical contributions. In this essay, I argue for radical systematic changes to disciplinary hallmarks of professionalization such as pedagogy, mentoring, publishing, and hiring practices with the aim of legitimizing black philosophers and their contributions.

  2. African Literature in Afro-American Studies Programs or: Too Many Indispensables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, David F., Jr.

    Within the Afro-American studies program, the study of African literature is invaluable in demonstrating the relationship between black Americans and Africa; it contributes to the sketchy glimpse of what black culture is and reflects the affective experience of colonialism and neocolonialism. This paper explores the values of an African-literature…

  3. Wavy strings: Black or bright?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaloper, N.; Myers, R.C.; Roussel, H.

    1997-01-01

    Recent developments in string theory have brought forth considerable interest in time-dependent hair on extended objects. This novel new hair is typically characterized by a wave profile along the horizon and angular momentum quantum numbers l,m in the transverse space. In this work, we present an extensive treatment of such oscillating black objects, focusing on their geometric properties. We first give a theorem of purely geometric nature, stating that such wavy hair cannot be detected by any scalar invariant built out of the curvature and/or matter fields. However, we show that the tidal forces detected by an infalling observer diverge at the open-quotes horizonclose quotes of a black string superposed with a vibration in any mode with l≥1. The same argument applied to longitudinal (l=0) waves detects only finite leading-order tidal forces. We also provide an example with a manifestly smooth metric, proving that at least a certain class of these longitudinal waves have regular horizons. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as a star or dispersing altogether. Were we engineers with advanced technology, we might attempt to find that critical amount of energy necessary to form a black hole. However, despite some fears to the contrary, such technology does not exist, so instead we investigate this critical regime numerically. The first step is to pick ...

  5. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    denotes the partial derivatives of . The construction of a numerical method with which ... which configurations form black holes and which disperse (the only two options in this model). The problem in picturing such a space is that it is infinite ..... 4.1 The future: Less symmetry. The work described above all assumes spherical ...

  6. Black deaf individuals' reading skills: influence of ASL, culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M; Anderson, Melissa L; Gilbert, Gizelle L; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education. (The descriptor Black is used throughout the present article, as Black Deaf individuals prefer this term to African American. For purposes of parallel construction, the term White is used instead of European American.) It was found that Black Deaf study participants scored lower on measures of both reading and ASL. These findings provide implications for possible interventions at the primary, secondary, and college levels of education.

  7. Severe physical violence and Black women's health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Krim K; Sears, Karen Powell; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the association between intimate partner violence and the mental and physical health status of US Caribbean Black and African American women. We used 2001 to 2003 cross-sectional data from the National Survey of American Life-the most detailed study to date of physical and mental health disorders of Americans of African descent. We assessed participants' health conditions by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (Washington, DC; American Psychological Association) Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We found differences in health conditions between abused African American and Caribbean Black women. There were increased risks for lifetime dysthymia, alcohol dependence, drug abuse, and poor perceived health for African American victims of partner abuse, and binge eating disorder was associated with partner violence among Caribbean Black women. Severe intimate partner violence was associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes for US Black women, with different patterns between African American and Caribbean Blacks. Understanding intimate partner violence experiences of US Black women requires recognition of key intragroup differences, including nativity and immigrant status, and their differential relationships to women's health.

  8. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production

  9. "Black Like Me": Reframing Blackness for Decolonial Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, George J. Sefa

    2018-01-01

    From a particular vantage point, as an African-born scholar with a politics to affirm my Black subjectivity and Indigeneity in a diasporic context, my article engages a (re)theorization of Blackness for decolonial politics. Building on existing works of how Black scholars, themselves, have theorized Blackness, and recognizing the fluid,…

  10. Black women and breast health: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banning, Maggi

    2011-02-01

    In the UK, it is known that screening inequalities exist involving ethnic minority groups such as Black women (Patnick, 2009). To date, there is limited UK data on Black British women and breast health awareness. Black British women appear to be an underrepresented group in breast cancer studies (Breast Cancer Care, 2004, 2005). This literature review aimed to explore Black women's perceptions of breast health and factors that influence breast cancer screening practices. A literature search for the period 1994 to September 2009 was undertaken using BNI, CINAHL, PubMed, OSH-ROM, PsyInfo, Google scholar, and Scopus databases. Key words used included: breast cancer, breast health, African American women, Black British women, black women, breast cancer screening, qualitative studies. Hand-searching was also done, and reference lists of papers were examined for relevant studies. Black women hold a variety of views and perceptions on the risk that breast cancer poses. These perceptions are strongly related to existing knowledge, related stigmatization, spiritual and religious beliefs, all of which can adversely influence motivation to engage in self-breast examination and breast cancer screening. US based studies identified several influential factors: religion, educational awareness of breast cancer screening, breast health awareness. Breast health interventions and research are needed to increase breast health awareness in Black British women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  12. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  13. Statistical Entropy of Nonextremal Four-Dimensional Black Holes and U-Duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Lowe, D.A.; Maldacena, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    We identify the states in string theory which are responsible for the entropy of near-extremal rotating four-dimensional black holes in N=8 supergravity. For black holes far from extremality (with no rotation), the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is exactly matched by a mysterious duality invariant extension of the formulas derived for near-extremal black holes states. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. The Black Political Tradition in New York: A Conjunction of Political Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Keith S.

    1977-01-01

    Examines three issues: (1) street journalism, (2) the assimilation of West Indian women to Afro-American women's political standards, and (3) the growth of a political sense of community in black New York. (Author/AM)

  15. Management of high blood pressure in Blacks: an update of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, John M; Sica, Domenic A; Bakris, George; Brown, Angela L; Ferdinand, Keith C; Grimm, Richard H; Hall, W Dallas; Jones, Wendell E; Kountz, David S; Lea, Janice P; Nasser, Samar; Nesbitt, Shawna D; Saunders, Elijah; Scisney-Matlock, Margaret; Jamerson, Kenneth A

    2010-11-01

    Since the first International Society on Hypertension in Blacks consensus statement on the "Management of High Blood Pressure in African American" in 2003, data from additional clinical trials have become available. We reviewed hypertension and cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment guidelines, pharmacological hypertension clinical end point trials, and blood pressure-lowering trials in blacks. Selected trials without significant black representation were considered. In this update, blacks with hypertension are divided into 2 risk strata, primary prevention, where elevated blood pressure without target organ damage, preclinical cardiovascular disease, or overt cardiovascular disease for whom blood pressure consistently 15/10 mm Hg above target, 2-drug therapy is recommended, with either a calcium channel blocker plus a renin-angiotensin system blocker or, alternatively, in edematous and/or volume-overload states, with a thiazide diuretic plus a renin-angiotensin system blocker. Effective multidrug therapeutic combinations through 4 drugs are described. Comprehensive lifestyle modifications should be initiated in blacks when blood pressure is ≥115/75 mm Hg. The updated International Society on Hypertension in Blacks consensus statement on hypertension management in blacks lowers the minimum target blood pressure level for the lowest-risk blacks, emphasizes effective multidrug regimens, and de-emphasizes monotherapy.

  16. Understanding the Black Aesthetic Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Marvin V.

    1988-01-01

    Discussing the importance of the Black aesthetic experience, Curtis examines Black cultural heritage and participatory style, the spiritual, and the creation and recreation of Black music. Advocating multicultural music education in teacher training, he suggests that Black music be studied for its value and contribution to society. Lists five ways…

  17. The Thermodynamics of Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wald Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.

  18. Sex Ratio at Birth and Racial Differences: Why Do Black Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    KEY WORDS: Birth, Race, Sex ratio, Sub-Saharan black women. 1Dr. Amadu Jacky ... in the majority of countries or societies in the world. .... Caribbean nations with majority Black populations is 1.03, the same as the average for all of Africa and for African. Americans. 1. The two important questions then that will be asked in ...

  19. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in North Carolina Eastern Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Lori S H; Stoskopf, Michael K; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2016-10-01

    We detected Anaplasma phagocytophilum by DNA amplification in whole blood from free-ranging, hunter-killed American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from the east coast of North Carolina, US. Molecular prevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum was 3% from 68 black bears. No DNA of other Anaplasma or Ehrlichia spp. was identified.

  20. The Effects of HIV/AIDS on the Retention of Black Women in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2013-01-01

    Although only contributing approximately 12% to the United States population, Black Americans account for the majority (51%) of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses in this country. Black women in college between the ages of 18 and 24 fall directly in the center of these alarming statistics. These young women are faced with the psychosocial manifestations of…

  1. Black Deaf Individuals' Reading Skills: Influence of ASL, Culture, Family Characteristics, Reading Experience, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M. Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Gilbert, Gizelle L.; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family…

  2. The Destruction of the Young Black Male: The Impact of Popular Culture and Organized Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, John C.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the negative aspects of popular culture and organized sports in American society contribute to the economic, psychological, and social destruction of the Black male. The media nurtures unrealistic fantasies in young Black males, preventing them from acquiring the education and skills necessary to participate in the mainstream. (ETS)

  3. Cultivating the Genius of Black Children: Strategies to Close the Achievement Gap in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Debra Ren-Etta

    2016-01-01

    There has been much attention given to the opportunity gap between white and minority students, especially African American children. Using research and years of experience "Cultivating the Genius of Black Children" is able to break down the cultural influences on learning style and provides a practical approach to helping Black children…

  4. Private Sector Investment in Black Education and Training: Rescuing South African Capitalism from Apartheid's Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Andre

    1989-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the factors contributing to increased involvement by South African business and industry in Black education and training; (2) the Urban Foundation's commitment to non-formal education in Black communities; (3) intervention by American corporations; and (4) the dramatic failure of capitalist initiatives. Contains 55 references. (SV)

  5. 77 FR 59283 - National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The founders of our Nation's first colleges and universities for African Americans... path to freedom, independence, and success. More than 150 years later, America's Historically Black...

  6. Beyond Double Consciousness: Black Peace Corps Volunteers in Africa, 1961-1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jonathan

    1995-01-01

    Examines the Peace Corps' early efforts to recruit black volunteers and the consequent culture clash between their expectations of Africa and its reality. Sexism, social stratification, and cultural stereotyping often underscored the differences between black Americans and Africans. Nonetheless, volunteers generally credited the experience as a…

  7. Emasculation Blues: Black Male Teachers' Perspectives on Gender and Power in the Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockenbrough, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Over the past decade, a growing chorus of educational stakeholders has called for the recruitment of more Black men into the American teaching profession, casting these men as ideal surrogate father figures for Black youth who may lack adult male role models in their families or communities. Although a small body of scholarly…

  8. Black Societies in the New World: The Need for a Principal Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboukou, Alexandre

    1982-01-01

    Examines the need for a comprehensive study of Black societies in the Americas. Attributes paucity of research to geographic, economic, and language issues as well as ethnocentrism among Black scholars in the United States, and the lack of cooperation with Carribean and Latin American scholars. (JCD)

  9. Meditating Gunrunner Speaking, Part I: A Black Male Journey Teaching in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Johnnie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I offer my own decolonizing counterstory of teaching as a Black American man in a teacher education program in South Korea, to purport how I was both a colonizer and the colonized, inside and outside of the classroom and the curriculum (Asher, 2010; Baszile, 2008, 2009, 2010). To further complicate matters, my Black male body did…

  10. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the scavenging black vultures (Coragyps atratus) from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in black vultures (Coragyps atratus) that are are obligate scavenging birds found throughout the American continent. Serum samples from 121 wild black vultures captured in urban areas of the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, were tested for the pr...

  11. Failure of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) rhizome transplants: potential causes and forest farming implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine J. Small; James L. Chamberlain; Christopher M. Nuckols

    2014-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) rhizomes are harvested extensively from eastern North American forests and sold worldwide for treatment of menopausal symptoms. While forest farming is encouraged to reduce wild-harvest impacts, little information is available to aid landowners in successfully cultivating black cohosh. This study examined survival and multi-year growth...

  12. Competing Claims: Religious Affiliation and African Americans' Intolerance of Homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledet, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Literature on religion and political intolerance indicates competing expectations about how Black Protestant church affiliation affects African Americans' attitudes about civil liberties. On the one hand, Black Protestant theology emphasizes personal freedom and social justice, factors generally linked to more tolerant attitudes. On the other hand, Black Protestants tend to be conservative on family and social issues, factors often linked to intolerance of gays and lesbians. Data from the General Social Survey are used to examine the influence of religious group identification, as well as other relevant aspects of religiosity, on political intolerance among African Americans. Results indicate that although other aspects of religion (beliefs and behaviors) help explain variation in political intolerance, Black Protestant church affiliation has no relationship with attitudes about the civil liberties of homosexuals. However, additional tests show that Black Protestant church affiliation significantly predicts intolerance of other target groups (atheists and racists).

  13. American Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron in the blood (anemia), diabetes, insulin resistance related to HIV treatments, cancer-related fatigue, high blood pressure, trouble sleeping (insomnia), ...

  14. The American Colonization Society's West African Enterprise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Back to Africa enterprises surfaced periodically in American history in response to societal and governmental unwillingness to absorb equitably that portion or the population with African roots. By late 18th Century, the slave population and free blacks were or increasing concern to slave holders, social moderates and ...

  15. American Involvement in Fringe Religious Cults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    "Twenty million Americans are involved in fringe religious cults such as spiritualism, Hare Krishna, Scientology, and Black Gospel groups," according to anthropologist Irving Zaretsky of the University of Chicago. He recently completed a 10-year period as a participant-observer of fringe religious groups in the San Francisco Bay area and the…

  16. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  17. Colliding black hole solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    2005-01-01

    A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)

  18. Black Sea aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacisalihoglu, G.; Eliyakut, F.; Anwari, M.A.; Ataman, O.Y.; Balkas, T.I.; Tuncel, G.; Olmez, I.

    1991-01-01

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m 3 , which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  19. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta I. Winters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relative importance of race and socioeconomic status (SES in determining whether Black and White teenagers report having ever been pregnant. Data gathered from 1999 to 2006 by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention included 1,580 Black and White females aged 15 to 19 years. Results supported the effects of race and SES, with SES having the stronger effect. However, the effects of race and SES differ when controlling for the state of the economy. No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy. In particular, during 2005-2006, the reduction in pregnancy rates for Black minors (15-17 fell below those for White minors within their respective SES categories. Policy implications are discussed in light of these findings.

  20. Illuminating black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O'Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.

  1. Black holes with halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.

  2. Black Friday = Broget Branding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Black Friday er et godt eksempel på, hvordan ikke kun produktbrands og corporate brands rejser på tværs af landegrænser, men også traditioner som Halloween, Valentines Day og i dette tilfælde den ultimative tilbuds-fredag, som i USA går under navnet Black Friday. Men hvad er Black Friday i Danmark......? Essensen ved Black Friday er lave priser, og det er der ved første øjekast ikke mange brandingmuligheder forbundet ved, hvis man forstår branding som en måde at skabe ekstra værdi omkring sit produkt eller sin virksomhed. Som brand bliver man dog alligevel nødt til at forholde sig til konceptet, da det er...

  3. Behold, she stands at the door: Reentry, black women and the black church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn V. Stanley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the African American church’s response to the special problems of African American women who reenter the community post-incarceration. The first portion of the paper examines the impact of criminal justice policies on women of color and the attending problems of reentry which resulted. It then surveys the black church’s response to returning citizens, especially women. It concludes by proposing shifts in perspectives and theologies which create barriers to successful reintegration into the community at large, and the church in particular. The intended audience is individuals and faith communities who seek to work effectively with returning women.

  4. Mobilizing Black America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    and financially for childbirth or parenting. - Adolescent Pregnancy Black female teenagers 15 to 19 years old were 140 percent more likely to have a...on adolescent pregnancy teenage sexual activity, and federally funded programs prevention. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT...communities? o Access to Health Care: Does everyone have equal access? o Poverty o Racism o Health Insurance o Black Physicians o Summary o Infant Mortality

  5. Black chrome outgassing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beat, T.

    1979-01-01

    This report covers why black chrome is of interest, why its outgassing is relevant, how the study was conducted, examples of resultant data, and a conclusion. Black chrome is of interest in several areas of activity. Vacuum outgassing characteristics must be known to establish the pumping speed requirements. How much gas is evolved determines the pump speed required. The species of gas evolved determines the type of pump. The outgassing characteristics must be known to determine needed precleaning steps

  6. Quantum black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    't Hooft, G.

    1987-01-01

    No particle theory can be complete without gravity. Einstein's theory of gravity is of the Euler-Lagrange form, but standard quantization procedure fails. In quantum gravity the higher order interactions have a dimensionality different form the fundamental ones, because Newton's constant G has dimensions and the renormalization procedure fails. Another problem with quantum gravity is even more mysterious. Suppose that we had regularized the gravitational forces at the small distance end in the way that the weak intermediate vector boson regularized the fundamental 4-fermion interaction vertex of the weak interactions. Then what we discover is that the gravitational forces are unstable. Given sufficiently large amount of matter, it can collapse under its own weight. Classical general relativity tells us what will happen: a black hole is formed. But how is this formulated in quantum theory. S. Hawking observed that when a field theory is quantized in the background metric of a black hole, the black hole actually emits particles in a completely random thermal way. Apparently black holes are just another form of matter unstable against Hawking decay. Unfortunately this picture cannot be complete. The problem is that the quantum version of black holes has infinite phase space, and other symptoms of a run-away solution. Black holes are the heaviest and most compact forms of matter that can be imagined. A complete particle theory can have nothing but a spectrum of black-hole like objects at it high-energy end. This is why it is believed that a resolution of the black hole problem will in time disclose the complete small-distance structure of our world. 6 references

  7. Black Lesbian Families and Their Relationships With Their Families of Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, Valerie Q

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two African American lesbians were interviewed in order to identify and examine the intersection of individual and family processes that African American lesbian couples engage in as a family with members of their families of origin. A qualitative research design based on grounded theory methods was used. Data were interpreted using an integrative framework of postmodern feminism, Black feminism, and symbolic interactionism. Findings revealed three major themes: a) Black lesbian couple...

  8. Tuberculosis in Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Studies Consortium Research Projects Publications TB Trials Consortium Study Descriptions Background Behavioral & Social Science Research Infection Control TB in Specific Populations African-American Community Stop TB in the African-American ...

  9. Charged Galileon black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory

  10. The Influence of Religious Attendance on Smoking Among Black Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Janice V; Parker, Lauren J; Beadle-Holder, Michelle; Ezema, Ashley; Bruce, Marino A; Thorpe, Roland J

    2017-04-16

    Cigarette smoking poses a major public health problem that disproportionately affects Blacks and men. Religious attendance has been shown to be positively associated with health promotion and disease prevention among the Black population. In light of this evidence, this study examined if a similar relationship could be found for religious attendance and smoking in Black men. The National Survey of American Life (NSAL) study sampled 1,271 African American men and 562 Black Caribbean men. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between religious attendance and cigarette smoking. After adjusting for age, marital status, household income, education, foreign born status, importance of prayer and major stress, men who reported attending religious services almost every day (odds ratio (OR) = 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.07, 0.62) and weekly (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.29, 0.77) had lower odds of being a current smoker compared to men who reported never attending religious services. Conclusions/Importance: Findings suggest a health benefit in attending religious services on cigarette smoking among Black men in a nationally representative sample. In spite of lower church attendance in Black men in general, our results demonstrate that religious service attendance may still serve as a buffer against cigarette use. Given the emergent attention on faith-based health promotion among men, this conclusion is relevant and timely.

  11. Whites but Not Blacks Gain Life Expectancy from Social Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent research suggests that the health gain from economic resources and psychological assets may be systematically larger for Whites than Blacks. Aim. This study aimed to assess whether the life expectancy gain associated with social contacts over a long follow up differs for Blacks and Whites. Methods. Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL Study, 1986–2011. The sample was a nationally representative sample of American adults 25 and older, who were followed for up to 25 years (n = 3361. Outcome was all-cause mortality. The main predictor was social contacts defined as number of regular visits with friends, relatives, and neighbors. Baseline demographics (age and gender, socioeconomic status (education, income, and employment, health behaviors (smoking and drinking, and health (chronic medical conditions, obesity, and depressive symptoms were controlled. Race was the focal moderator. Cox proportional hazard models were used in the pooled sample and based on race. Results. More social contacts predicted higher life expectancy in the pooled sample. A significant interaction was found between race and social contacts, suggesting that the protective effect of more social contacts is smaller for Blacks than Whites. In stratified models, more social contacts predicted an increased life expectancy for Whites but not Blacks. Conclusion. Social contacts increase life expectancy for White but not Black Americans. This study introduces social contacts as another social resource that differentially affects health of Whites and Blacks.

  12. Declining Black Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Richard; Gallaway, Lowell

    1993-01-01

    Explores income inequality during declining African-American employment, examines current welfare systems, and suggests ways to improve the economic disadvantages of minority groups. Letting markets work can improve the economic status of African Americans. The present dual African-American economy, a market economy and an entitlement economy, is…

  13. The Relationship between African American Enculturation and Racial Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin; Helm, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how predictive the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; B. J. Vandiver, W. E. Cross, F. C. Worrell, & P. Fhagen-Smith, 2002), a measure of Black racial identity, was of African American cultural practices, beliefs, and attitudes (i.e., enculturation) as measured by the African American Acculturation Scale-33 (H. Landrine & E.…

  14. The Black Atlantic as reversal: A reappraisal of African and black theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Engdahl

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will try to do three things. Firstly, pay attention to the notion of Black Atlantic as coined by Paul Gilroy, which in effect could signify a reversal of colonialism and slavery. Secondly, revisit the 1970s and the debate about the relevance of Black theology vis-à-vis African theology, using John Mbiti’s article ‘An African Views American Black Theology’ as entry point. Here, I will discuss contributions also made by Desmond Tutu and James Cone. Thirdly, starting with the premise that both theologies are relevant and soul mates today, which would (probably be confirmed by all the above mentioned at this point in time, an assessment of current voices will be made, that is, Tinyiko Maluleke and Vuyani Vellem on black and African ecclesiologies from a South African perspective, and Lawrence Burnley on the fate of the Black Church in the United States.

  15. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  16. Unforgivable Blackness: Visual Rhetoric, Reader Response, and Critical Racial Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Roberta Price

    2017-01-01

    Perceptions of black representations in literature and other visual mediums as positive or negative continuously cause consternation and debate (Fleetwood, 2011). Because African American children are literacy participants and consumers, they are not immune from experiencing this tension. This essay considers the effects and affective threads of…

  17. Statistical Entropy of Four-Dimensional Extremal Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldacena, J.M.; Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    String theory is used to count microstates of four-dimensional extremal black holes in compactifications with N=4 and N=8 supersymmetry. The result agrees for large charges with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Statistical Origin of Black Hole Entropy in Matrix Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The statistical entropy of black holes in matrix theory is considered. Assuming matrix theory is the discretized light-cone quantization of a theory with eleven-dimensional Lorentz invariance, we map the counting problem onto the original Gibbons-Hawking calculations of the thermodynamic entropy. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  19. Of Belonging and Becoming: Black Atlantic (Inter-)Cultural Memory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... memoric repetition of Afro-American figures of memory, involving as they do lines of flight and, in the light of anticipated nomadic routes out of South Africa, an emerging intersubjectivity that goes beyond an imitative belonging to the Black Atlantic. Such a repetition, what Deleuze calls the third repetition, in cultural memory ...

  20. New Mafia: Black, Hispanic,and Italian Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Francis A. J.

    1974-01-01

    To research the nature of organized crime in America a major study using anthropological field work techniques was undertaken: although we focused on the patterns of blacks and Hispanic crime activists, previous research on Italian-American patterns was utilized for comparison. (Author/JM)

  1. "To Reunite the Great Family": Free Blacks and Haitian Emigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Julie

    When historians of the U.S. antebellum free black community examine attitudes toward emigration, they invariably focus on hostility to the American Colonization Society (ACS). However, while many free people were deeply disturbed by the efforts of the ACS to send them to Liberia, they were ready to consider settling on Haiti. In 1818, Prince…

  2. History of black walnut genetics research in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Victory; Keith Woeste; Olin E., Jr. Rhodes

    2004-01-01

    Eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is an economically and ecologically important hardwood species that has been used throughout the history of settlement in North America. It was a resource that helped Native Americans in their everyday life, it helped European settlers carve a living out of the wilderness, and it has helped rural farmers and...

  3. Pastoral Care: Notions of Caring and the Black Female Principal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Noelle; Arnold, Bruce Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative life narrative study was to describe the themes and patterns in which religio-spirituality influences the leadership process for four Black American principals. The study explored how these women leaders navigated intersecting oppressions as they engaged in social justice in their schools and the role of…

  4. Meanings of thinness and dysfunctional eating in black South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research. Culture Medicine and Psychiatry 2004; 24 (4) 617-621. 2. Le Grange D, Louw J, Breen A, Katzman M. The meaning of 'self- starvation' in impoverished black adolescents in South Africa. Culture. Medicine and Psychiatry 2004; 24 (4) 439-461. 3. American Psychiatric Association (APA). Diagnostic and Statistical.

  5. "Sturdy Black Bridges": Discussing Race, Class, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, KaaVonia

    2004-01-01

    Black feminist literary theory offers tools that teachers can use to initiate discussions on the issues of race, gender and class to analyze the works of adolescent literature. This feminist theory helps in reading and teaching literature about parallel cultures, like African-Americans and their love for self and community and their recognition of…

  6. Protecting black ash from the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les Benedict

    2010-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is an important resource for Tribes in the Northeast and Great Lakes regions of the North American continent. Ash in North America is being threatened with widespread destruction as a result of the introduction of emerald ash borer beetle (Agrilus planipennis) in 2002. Measures are being taken to slow the spread of emerald ash borer beetle....

  7. Growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron syndrome) in black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-Caucasians with growth honnone receptor (GHR) deficiency/Lamn syndrome among the approximately 180 recognised cases are rare, and include a Japanese and 3 African Americans. Black African siblings, a brother and a sister seen initially at 11 years 9 months and 5 years 6 months of age respectively were -7,4 ...

  8. Examining Suicide Protective Factors among Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Chuan; Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Tran, Kimberly K.; Bonaparte, Taria S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to the nascent literature on resilience and suicidality among Black Americans by examining factors that may predict less suicidal behavior among this population. The authors hypothesized that reasons for living, life satisfaction, and religious awareness would account for unique variance in suicidal…

  9. "Let's Do This!": Black Women Teachers' Politics and Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Adrienne D.

    2003-01-01

    Examined how contemporary African American women teachers continued the tradition of political involvement, noting the extent to which issues of race, class, and gender identity informed their pedagogy and situating their activities in a black feminist activist tradition. Interviews with two elementary teachers indicated that while they did not…

  10. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  11. Magnetic monopoles near the black hole threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, A.; Weinberg, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    We present new analytic and numerical results for self-gravitating SU(2)-Higgs magnetic monopoles approaching the black hole threshold. Our investigation extends to large Higgs self-coupling, λ, a regime heretofore unexplored. When λ is small, the critical solution where a horizon first appears is extremal Reissner-Nordstroem outside the horizon but has a nonsingular interior. When λ is large, the critical solution is an extremal black hole with non-Abelian hair and a mass less than the extremal Reissner-Nordstroem value. The transition between these two regimes is reminiscent of a first-order phase transition. We analyze in detail the approach to these critical solutions as the Higgs expectation value is varied, and compare this analysis with the numerical results. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  12. Social Determinants of Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: Intersection of Ethnicity and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2018-02-15

    Most of the existing sociological and epidemiological literature has focused on the protective effects of high socioeconomic status (SES) on population health through reducing exposure to risk factors and increasing human and material resources that can mitigate adversities. Recent studies, however, have documented poor mental health of high SES Blacks, particularly African American males and Caribbean Black females. The literature also shows a link between perceived discrimination and poor mental health. To better understand the extra costs of upward social mobility for minority populations, this study explored ethnic by gender variations in the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination in an ethnically diverse national sample of Black youth. This study included 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth who were sampled in the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent supplement (NSAL-A). Three SES indicators (financial hardship, family income, and income to needs ratio) were the independent variables. The dependent variable was perceived (daily) discrimination. Age was the covariate. Ethnicity and gender were the focal moderators. Linear regressions were used for data analysis in the pooled sample and also based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Considerable gender by ethnicity variations were found in the patterns of the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination. Financial hardship was a risk factor for perceived discrimination in African American males only. High family income and income to needs ratio were associated with high (but not low) perceived discrimination in African American males and Caribbean Black females. SES indicators were not associated with perceived discrimination for African American females or Caribbean Black males. When it comes to Black youth, high SES is not always protective. Whether SES reduces or increases perceived discrimination among Black youth depends on the

  13. Social Determinants of Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: Intersection of Ethnicity and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing sociological and epidemiological literature has focused on the protective effects of high socioeconomic status (SES on population health through reducing exposure to risk factors and increasing human and material resources that can mitigate adversities. Recent studies, however, have documented poor mental health of high SES Blacks, particularly African American males and Caribbean Black females. The literature also shows a link between perceived discrimination and poor mental health. To better understand the extra costs of upward social mobility for minority populations, this study explored ethnic by gender variations in the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination in an ethnically diverse national sample of Black youth. This study included 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth who were sampled in the National Survey of American Life—Adolescent supplement (NSAL-A. Three SES indicators (financial hardship, family income, and income to needs ratio were the independent variables. The dependent variable was perceived (daily discrimination. Age was the covariate. Ethnicity and gender were the focal moderators. Linear regressions were used for data analysis in the pooled sample and also based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Considerable gender by ethnicity variations were found in the patterns of the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination. Financial hardship was a risk factor for perceived discrimination in African American males only. High family income and income to needs ratio were associated with high (but not low perceived discrimination in African American males and Caribbean Black females. SES indicators were not associated with perceived discrimination for African American females or Caribbean Black males. When it comes to Black youth, high SES is not always protective. Whether SES reduces or increases perceived discrimination among Black youth

  14. Surface geometry of 5D black holes and black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Goswami, Rituparno

    2007-01-01

    We discuss geometrical properties of the horizon surface of five-dimensional rotating black holes and black rings. Geometrical invariants characterizing these 3D geometries are calculated. We obtain a global embedding of the 5D rotating black horizon surface into a flat space. We also describe the Kaluza-Klein reduction of the black ring solution (along the direction of its rotation) which, though it is nakedly singular, relates this solution to the 4D metric of a static black hole distorted by the presence of external scalar (dilaton) and vector ('electromagnetic') fields. The properties of the reduced black hole horizon and its embedding in E 3 are briefly discussed

  15. Pair creation of dilaton black holes in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousso, R.

    1997-01-01

    Dilatonic charged Nariai instantons mediate the nucleation of black hole pairs during extended chaotic inflation. Depending on the dilaton and inflaton fields, the black holes are described by one of two approximations in the Lorentzian regime. For each case we find Euclidean solutions that satisfy the no boundary proposal. The complex initial values of the dilaton and inflaton are determined, and the pair creation rate is calculated from the Euclidean action. Similar to standard inflation, black holes are abundantly produced near the Planck boundary, but highly suppressed later on. An unusual feature we find is that the earlier in inflation the dilatonic black holes are created, the more highly charged they can be. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Book review: Black bass diversity: Multidisciplinary science for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelks, Howard L.

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are from the third symposium dedicated to management and conservation of black basses in the genus Micropterus. The first symposium was held in 1975 (R. H. Stroud and H. Clepper. Black Bass Biology and Management. Washington (DC): Sport Fishing Institute) followed 25 years later by Black Bass 2000 (D. P. Philipp and M. S. Ridgway. 2002. Black Bass: Ecology, Conservation, and Management. Bethesda (MD): American Fisheries Society). Although the previous books discussed conservation of genetic variation and distinct strains of basses, the bulk of the papers in those tomes emphasized management of largemouth and smallmouth bass. In contrast, this third symposium is focused on the rarer bass species and challenges for their successful management.

  17. Holographic description of a quantum black hole on a computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Masanori; Hyakutake, Yoshifumi; Ishiki, Goro; Nishimura, Jun

    2014-05-23

    Black holes have been predicted to radiate particles and eventually evaporate, which has led to the information loss paradox and implies that the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics may be violated. Superstring theory, a consistent theory of quantum gravity, provides a possible solution to the paradox if evaporating black holes can actually be described in terms of standard quantum mechanical systems, as conjectured from the theory. Here, we test this conjecture by calculating the mass of a black hole in the corresponding quantum mechanical system numerically. Our results agree well with the prediction from gravity theory, including the leading quantum gravity correction. Our ability to simulate black holes offers the potential to further explore the yet mysterious nature of quantum gravity through well-established quantum mechanics. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Teacher Education and Black Male Students in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Richard Milner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Teacher education programs in the United States (U.S. struggle to prepare teachers to meet the complex needs of elementary and secondary students in public schools - especially those of color, those living in poverty, and those whose first language is not English. In this article, we argue for focused attention on preparing educators to teach African American male students as these students face particular institutional challenges in successfully navigating the U.S. public school system. Drawing from the significant body of research on teacher education and teacher learning for equity and social justice, four Black teacher educators discuss challenges they have faced in classes designed to prepare teachers to teach Black male students. Through an analysis of commonalities in their experiences, they propose means for teacher educators to foster greater understandings of the heterogeneity found among Black male students so that teachers can craft more responsive and responsible educational experiences for Black males.

  19. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2015-01-01

    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... to the lasting impact of Bang's American period, which remains the key to understanding his works....

  20. The Black Family---Perpetuating the Myths: An Analysis of Family Sociology Textbook Treatment of Black Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Marie Ferguson

    1974-01-01

    A serious issue in the family sociology field is the inadequacies of both research and textbooks in the treatment of Black American families. College family sociology textbooks in the family sociology field are analyzed. A guide is presented for evaluating other college family sociology textbooks. (Author)

  1. Massive Black Hole Implicated in Stellar Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    of Alabama who led the study. Irwin and his colleagues obtained optical spectra of the object using the Magellan I and II telescopes in Las Campanas, Chile. These data reveal emission from gas rich in oxygen and nitrogen but no hydrogen, a rare set of signals from globular clusters. The physical conditions deduced from the spectra suggest that the gas is orbiting a black hole of at least 1,000 solar masses. The abundant amount of oxygen and absence of hydrogen indicate that the destroyed star was a white dwarf, the end phase of a solar-type star that has burned its hydrogen leaving a high concentration of oxygen. The nitrogen seen in the optical spectrum remains an enigma. "We think these unusual signatures can be explained by a white dwarf that strayed too close to a black hole and was torn apart by the extreme tidal forces," said coauthor Joel Bregman of the University of Michigan. Theoretical work suggests that the tidal disruption-induced X-ray emission could stay bright for more than a century, but it should fade with time. So far, the team has observed there has been a 35% decline in X-ray emission from 2000 to 2008. The ULX in this study is located in NGC 1399, an elliptical galaxy about 65 million light years from Earth. Irwin presented these results at the 215th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Washington, DC. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra's science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass. More information, including images and other multimedia, can be found at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  2. The management of hypertension in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M

    2007-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.

  3. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Hypertensive US-Born Blacks and Foreign-Born Blacks: Analysis of the CAATCH Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence shows that blacks exhibit greater daytime sleepiness compared with whites, based on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. In addition, sleep complaints might differ based on individuals’ country of origin. However, it is not clear whether individuals’ country of origin has any influence on excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS. Study Objectives. We tested the hypothesis that US-born blacks would show a greater level of EDS compared with foreign-born blacks. The potential effects of sociodemographic and medical risk were also determined. Design. We used the Counseling African-Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH data. CAATCH is a group randomized clinical trial that was conducted among 30 community healthcare centers in New York, yielding baseline data for 1,058 hypertensive black patients. Results. Results of univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that US-born blacks were nearly twice as likely as their foreign-born black counterparts to exhibit EDS (OR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.30–2.68, P<0.001. After adjusting for effects of age, sex, education, employment, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and smoking habit, US-born blacks were 69% more likely than their counterparts to exhibit EDS (OR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.11–2.57, P<0.01. Conclusion. Findings demonstrate the importance of considering individuals’ country of origin, in addition to their race and ethnicity, when analyzing epidemiologic sleep data.

  4. Black God and white devil in the urban ghettos of America: Religion and black nationalism of the Nation of Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Marcin Kowalewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nation of Islam, commonly known as the Black Muslim movement,appeared during the Great Depression in the black ghettos of the big urban andindustrial centers in the northern United States. It was founded by W. Fard Muhammad,one of the probably most mysterious figures in the history of Black America,in whom his followers saw the incarnation of Allah. Its doctrine was a combinationof an extremely heterodox or “heretical” Islam and a separatist variety of blacknationalism. A quarter of century later, the marginal sect led by Elijah Muhammadas Messenger of Allah became the most important new religious movement to emerge in the U.S. in the twentieth century. It has proved to be the largest and longest-lived nationalist movement among the American blacks. Its activities, including the preaching of “black internationalism”, were seen by the federal authorities as a threat to national security. The outstanding revolutionary leader Malcolm X emerged from its bosom. Rooted in the lowest layers of the black working class, the Nation of Islam durably and successfully questions the liberal middle-class leadership of the northern black communities, which aspires toward integration into white society.

  5. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  6. Pulsation of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changjun; Lu, Youjun; Shen, You-Gen; Faraoni, Valerio

    2018-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose singularity theorem states that a singularity forms inside a black hole in general relativity. To remove this singularity one must resort to a more fundamental theory. Using a corrected dynamical equation arising in loop quantum cosmology and braneworld models, we study the gravitational collapse of a perfect fluid sphere with a rather general equation of state. In the frame of an observer comoving with this fluid, the sphere pulsates between a maximum and a minimum size, avoiding the singularity. The exterior geometry is also constructed. There are usually an outer and an inner apparent horizon, resembling the Reissner-Nordström situation. For a distant observer the horizon crossing occurs in an infinite time and the pulsations of the black hole quantum "beating heart" are completely unobservable. However, it may be observable if the black hole is not spherical symmetric and radiates gravitational wave due to the quadrupole moment, if any.

  7. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  8. Bringing Black Holes Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmann, John M.

    2003-03-01

    Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.

  9. Coiffured black rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Ross, Simon F.; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2014-08-01

    We describe a new type of hair on supersymmetric black string and black ring solutions, which produces the largest known violation of black hole uniqueness, parameterized by an arbitrary function and hence an infinite number of continuous parameters. The new solutions can have non-trivial density profiles for the electric fields along the horizon, and yet have a geometry that is regular, although generically not infinitely differentiable, at the horizon. Both neutral and charged probes can cross the horizon without experiencing divergent forces. We also find restricted examples, parameterized by a few arbitrary continuous parameters, where the charge densities fluctuate but the metric does not and hence is completely differentiable. Our new class of solutions owes its existence to a mechanism reminiscent of the Q-ball: in the simplest examples the metric has more symmetry than the matter that supports it.

  10. Black hole gravitohydromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...

  11. American Illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected such monarch......Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected...... such monarchial pomp and adapted spectacular lighting to their democratic, commercial culture. In American Illuminations, David Nye explains how they experimented with gas and electric light to create illuminated cityscapes far brighter and more dynamic than those of Europe, and how these illuminations became......, commercial lighting that defined distinct zones of light and glamorized the city’s White Ways, skyscrapers, bridges, department stores, theaters, and dance halls. Poor and blighted areas disappeared into the shadows. American illuminations also became integral parts of national political campaigns...

  12. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  13. Black widow spider envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael E

    2006-11-01

    Black widow spiders are found throughout the continental United States and north into the southern Canadian provinces. Male black widow spiders are of little medical importance. Female black widow spiders can be 20 times larger than males. The female can be identified by the hourglass pattern, red or orange in color, on the ventral aspect of her shiny, globose black abdomen. Black widow spiders control the amount of venom they inject; an estimated 15% of bites to humans are non-envenomating. Cats are very sensitive to the venom and deaths are common. Dogs have severe clinical signs but are considered more resistant than cats. A single bite is capable of delivering a lethal dose of venom to companion animals. There are several toxic components consisting of five or six biologically active proteins. These include a potent mammalian neurotoxin called alpha-latrotoxin, which induces neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals. Acetylcholine, noradrenalin, dopamine, glutamate, and enkephalin systems are all susceptible to the toxin. Onset of clinical signs usually occurs during the first 8 hours post envenomation. The condition is extremely painful in moderate to severe envenomations. Abdominal rigidity without tenderness is a hallmark sign of Latrodectus envenomation. In cats, paralytic signs may occur early and are particularly marked. Hypertension is a significant threat. First aid is of no value in the treatment. The primary treatment for black widow spider envenomation is the administration of specific antivenin, which provides the most permanent and quickest relief of the envenomation syndrome, usually within 30 minutes of infusion. The prognosis of Latrodectus envenomation is uncertain of several days, and complete recovery may take weeks.

  14. National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    In observance of National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day, Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the HIV/AIDS among African Americans and what steps can be taken on the national, state, local, and individual levels to address this epidemic.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  15. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  16. Superfluid Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-13

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  17. Are black holes springlike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-02-01

    A (3 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed Ω+ can be used to define an effective spring constant, k =m Ω+2. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, k =κ , which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: 2 π T =κ -k . Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force F =1 /4 , which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  18. Bulletproof Black Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højer, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst.......Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst....

  19. Virtual Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hawking, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...

  20. Better Physician's 'Black Bags'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The "black bag" is outgrowth of astronaut monitoring technology from NASA's Johnson Space Center. Technically known as the portable medical status system, a highly advanced physician's "black bag" weighs less than 30 pounds, yet contains equipment for monitoring and recording vital signs, electrocardiograms, and electroencephalograms. Liquid crystal displays are used to present 15 digits of data simultaneously for long periods of time without excessive use of battery power. Single printed circuit card contains all circuitry required to measure and display vital signs such as heart and respiration rate, temperature, and blood pressure.