WorldWideScience

Sample records for black americans

  1. Black Americans and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS: The Basics Black Americans and HIV/AIDS: The Basics Feb 07, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn ... Black Americans have been disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS since the epidemic’s beginning, and that disparity has ...

  2. The Institutional Decimation of Black American Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James B.; Scott, Joseph W.

    1978-01-01

    In 1970, there were 85 Black men for every 100 Black women in major American cities. Factors which produced this imbalance in the sex ratio of Blacks include educational, health care, public assistance, and penal correction systems, labor market mechanisms, and the military. (Author/MC)

  3. Black Americans Still Undertreated for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163420.html Black Americans Still Undertreated for HIV Nearly 1 in 4 had progressed to AIDS ...

  4. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  5. Black American Literature, Grades 10-12. Experimental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Evelyn, Ed.

    This black American literature course for grades 10-12 is designed to introduce students to the unique contribution that the black American has made to American life. The course guide is divided into four units--Slave Narrative and Autobiography, Poetry, Short Story, Drama--with suggested activites, including class discussions, small group…

  6. The Black Man and the Macabre in American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Roslyn

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the association of the Black character (tortured, distorted, mistreated, and misjudged) with horror and the macabre in white American literature from "Letters from an American Farmer" (1782) to "Gravity's Rainbow" (1973). (JM)

  7. The Educational Panacea of the Black Man: Black American Faith in American Education, 1954-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Clarence, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews efforts by Black Americans to gain social justice and equality through education. Traces the civil rights movement from the 1954 Supreme Court Brown decision and the Montgomery (Alabama) bus strike and examines the philosophy of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., on education as an instrument of social justice. (AOS)

  8. The Phonetic and Grammatical Features of American Black English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莉

    2015-01-01

    Black English is different from the ordinary American English, it is one of many variations in American English which has differences in many respects to other variants. However, for any kind of variation, there is always a difference from others.So was the black English, this paper briefly analyses the characteristics on its pronunciation and grammar.

  9. The Phonetic and Grammatical Features of American Black English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莉

    2015-01-01

    Black English is different from the ordinary American English, it is one of many variations in American English which has differences in many respects to other variants.However, for any kind of variation, there is always a difference from others.So was the black English, this paper briefly analyses the characteristics on its pronunciation and grammar.

  10. Legal Abortion: Are American Black Women Healthier Because of It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Willard, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews various aspects of legal abortion, including attitudes, practices, mortality and effects, as they relate to black American women. States that black women have shared in the health benefits accompanying the increased availability of legal abortion, probably to an even greater extent than white women. (Author/GC)

  11. Black Interpretation, Black American Literature, and Grey Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Earl M.

    1981-01-01

    Defines and illustrates language techniques used by Black authors writing to and for Blacks in the 1960s and 1970s. Suggests how language and theme barriers of such literature might be overcome in a contemporary integrated oral interpretation classroom. (PD)

  12. A full annual cycle modeling framework for American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Orin J.; McGowan, Conor; Devers, Patrick K.; Brook, Rodney W.; Huang, Min; Jones, Malcom; McAuley, Daniel G.; Zimmerman, Guthrie

    2016-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) are a harvested, international migratory waterfowl species in eastern North America. Despite an extended period of restrictive harvest regulations, the black duck population is still below the population goal identified in the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP). It has been hypothesized that density-dependent factors restrict population growth in the black duck population and that habitat management (increases, improvements, etc.) may be a key component of growing black duck populations and reaching the prescribed NAWMP population goal. Using banding data from 1951 to 2011 and breeding population survey data from 1990 to 2014, we developed a full annual cycle population model for the American black duck. This model uses the seven management units as set by the Black Duck Joint Venture, allows movement into and out of each unit during each season, and models survival and fecundity for each region separately. We compare model population trajectories with observed population data and abundance estimates from the breeding season counts to show the accuracy of this full annual cycle model. With this model, we then show how to simulate the effects of habitat management on the continental black duck population.

  13. Black Americans and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... challenges contribute to the epidemic among Blacks, including poverty, lack of access to health care, higher rates ... critical to addressing HIV in the United States. Overview Today, there are more than 1.2 million ...

  14. The Black American in Books for Children: Readings in Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Donnarae, Ed.; Woodard, Gloria, Ed.

    This collection of essays discusses a variety of issues raised by the images of black Americans as portrayed in literary works written for children. The editors specifically address their introduction to librarians and educators, arguing that there has not been sufficient awareness of the racist content of many books circulated in libraries and…

  15. Cope, Conform, or Resist? Functions of a Black American Identity at a Predominantly White University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Yasser Arafat; Suddler, Carl

    2014-01-01

    This study organized five black American undergraduate students into a participatory action research (PAR) team to examine Cross and Strauss' (1998) and Cross, Smith, and Payne's (2002) functions of blackness theory (i.e., bonding, code switching, and individualism) within a sample of black American students, frontline staff (i.e.,…

  16. The Dimensions of Subjective Well-Being among Black Americans: A Structural Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh V.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of data from 668 black adult respondents to the 1980 National Survey of Black Americans suggests that subjective well-being among black Americans is multidimensional. A three-factor model of subjective well-being encompassing strain (depressive symptoms), life satisfaction, and self-esteem was empirically supported and consistently…

  17. Selected correlates of white nursing students' attitudes toward black American patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, B S

    1983-01-01

    Multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between white nursing students' attitudes toward black American patients and variables selected within a theoretical framework of prejudice which included socialization factors and personality-based factors. The variables selected were: authoritarianism and self-esteem (personality-based factors), parents' attitudes toward black Americans, peer attitudes toward black Americans, interracial contact and socioeconomic status (socialization factors). The study also examined the differences in the relationship among white nursing students enrolled in baccalaureate degree, associate degree and diploma nursing programs. Data were collected from 201 senior nursing students enrolled in the three types of nursing programs in Rhode Island during the late fall and winter of 1979-1980. Although baccalaureate degree, associate degree and diploma students were similar in terms of peer attitudes toward black Americans, fathers' attitudes toward black Americans, self-esteem and attitudes toward black American patients, they were significantly different in terms of age, socioeconomic status, mothers' attitudes toward black Americans, interracial contact and authoritarianism. The major findings of this study indicate that the socialization explanation of prejudice is more significant than the personality-based explanation. The variables socioeconomic status, interracial contact and peer attitudes toward black Americans (all socialization variables) accounted for 22.0% of the total variance in attitudes toward black American patients for the total sample of nursing students. However, this relationship was not generalizable across the three different types of nursing programs.

  18. Sex and Ethnic Differences in Mathematics Achievement of Black and Mexican-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John L.; Exezidis, Roxane H.

    This investigation focused on sex and ethnic differences in mathematics achievement among and between black and Mexican-American adolescents. One hundred twelve subjects were chosen; the selection included 61 blacks and 51 Mexican-Americans. The sample included 42 males and 70 females. All pupils attended the same school, with most from homes low…

  19. Effects of Goal-Striving Stress on the Mental Health of Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Sherrill L.; Neighbors, Harold W.

    2008-01-01

    Although many scholars have theorized about how responding to the stress of blocked opportunities can affect the well-being of black Americans, few scholars have empirically examined the relationships between striving efforts, personal goals, and mental health among black Americans. This investigation examines the relationship between…

  20. Developmental Characteristics of African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents' Attributions regarding Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13-17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life. Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination…

  1. Other race recognition: a comparison of black American and African subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroo, A W

    1986-02-01

    The ability of black American and black African men to recognize previously seen white male faces was assessed. Relationships between recognition, performance scores and quality of interracial experience were also examined. Black American participants (n = 10) performed significantly better and made fewer false responses than the Nigerian participants (n = 10). Significant positive relationships were found between performance scores and interracial experience. Differential use of cues for discriminating white male faces by both groups was also found.

  2. HYDROCEPHALUS IN THREE JUVENILE NORTH AMERICAN BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sylvia H; Novak, Janelle; Hecht, Silke; Craig, Linden E

    2016-06-01

    Hydrocephalus has been reported in a variety of species, including the North American black bear ( Ursus americanus ). This report describes three cases of hydrocephalus in this species from wild bears aged 3-4 mo considered retrospectively from necropsy records of one institution. Clinical signs included cortical blindness and ataxia. Primary gross findings were doming of the skull, gyri compression and flattening, and lateral ventricle dilation. Two cases had severe bilateral ventricular dilation with loss of the septum pellucidum; atrophy of the surrounding corpus callosum; and bilateral periventricular tears involving the caudate nuclei, internal capsule, and adjacent cerebrum. Histologically, the cases with periventricular tearing had severe axonal loss and degeneration, malacia, hemorrhage, and variable periventricular astrocytosis. All cases were likely congenital, given the bears' age and lack of an apparent acquired obstruction.

  3. Modeling movement and fidelity of American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, N.L.; Conroy, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial relationships among stocks of breeding waterfowl can be an important component of harvest management. Prediction and optimal harvest management under adaptive harvest management (AHM) requires information on the spatial relationships among breeding populations (fidelity and inter-year exchange), as well as rates of movements from breeding to harvest regions. We used band-recovery data to develop a model to estimate probabilities of movement for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) among 3 Canadian breeding strata and 6 harvest regions (3 in Canada, and 3 in the United States) over the period 1965-1998. Model selection criteria suggested that models containing area-, year-, and age-specific recovery rates with area- and sex-specific movement rates were the best for modeling movement. Movement by males to southern harvest areas was variable depending on the originating area. Males from the western breeding area predominantly moved to the Mississippi Flyway or southern Atlantic Flyway (??ij = 0.353, SE = 0.0187 and ??ij = 0.473, SE = 0.037, respectively), whereas males that originated in the eastern and central breeding strata moved to the northern Atlantic flyway (??ij = 0.842, SE = 0.010 and ??ij = 0.578, SE = 0.0222, respectively). We used combined recoveries and recaptures in Program MARK to estimate fidelity to the 3 Canadian breeding strata. Information criteria identified a model containing sex- and age-specific fidelity for black ducks. Estimates of fidelity were 0.9695 (SE = 0.0249) and 0.9554 (SE = 0.0434) for adult males and females, respectively. Estimates of fidelity for juveniles were slightly lower at 0.9210 (SE = 0.0931) and 0.8870 (SE = 0.0475) for males and females, respectively. These models have application to the development of spatially stratified black duck harvest management models for use in AHM.

  4. The Soul of Leadership: African American Students' Experiences in Historically Black and Predominantly White Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…

  5. Swimming black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) Kleptoparasitize American coots (Fulica americana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid.......I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid....

  6. Developmental Characteristics of African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents’ Attributions Regarding Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13 to 17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination attributions, depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Approximately half the youth attributed discrimination to race/ethni...

  7. An American health dilemma: a history of blacks in the health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, W M; Clayton, L A

    1992-02-01

    The present black health crisis is a continuum. After 346 years of neglect, flawed efforts were made to admit black Americans to the "mainstream" health system. Gains were significant from 1965 to 1975; however, since then black health status has eroded. Since colonial times, the racial dilemma that affected America's liberal democratic system also distorted medical relationships and institutions. There are clear connections between campaigns to defeat bills that would improve the health of blacks and other disadvantaged groups and acquiescence with the present reassignment of them to the underfunded, overcrowded, inferior, public health-care sector. Physician leadership helped to establish the slaveocracy, create the racial inferiority myths, and build the segregated health subsystem for blacks and the poor. Clearly, if the history-based health disparities are to be resolved, black physician leadership will be necessary. Without justice and equity in health care, the dream of Martin Luther King will never become a reality for African Americans.

  8. African American Homeschool Parents' Motivations for Homeschooling and Their Black Children's Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the motivations of African American parents for choosing homeschooling for their children and the academic achievement of their Black homeschool students. Their reasons for homeschooling are similar to those of homeschool parents in general, although some use homeschooling to help their children understand Black culture and…

  9. Deconstructing Black History Month: Three African American Boys' Exploration of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Melissa Hare

    2012-01-01

    Every February, schools celebrate Black History Month and teachers teach the grand narrative of famous African Americans such as Martin Luther King, Jr. While the stories communicate bravery, they are also about racism and violence. Here, through narrative inquiry, a teacher deconstructs Black History Month, inviting student responses to stories…

  10. Perceived Racism and Coping: Joint Predictors of Blood Pressure in Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Gwendolyn James; Robertson, Jermaine; Robinson, Jackie Collins; Austin, Candice; Edochie, Valencia

    2008-01-01

    Black Americans suffer disproportionate incidences of severe complications associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Psychosocial factors and subsequent coping responses have been implicated in the etiology of disease. Perceived racism has been identified as a source of stress for Blacks and is related to anger, hostility, paranoia,…

  11. "Combing" through Representations of Black Girls' Hair in African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda M.; McNair, Jonda C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we share findings from a content analysis of six picturebooks about hair. The picturebooks selected feature Black female protagonists and are written by African American females. Our content analysis examines the ways in which Black hair is theorized and represented to children (from diverse backgrounds) very early on in their…

  12. The Black "Dumb Jock": An American Sports Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Harry

    1984-01-01

    "Dumb jocks" are not born, they are being systematically created. Black student athletes suffer from the outset from disadvantages: the myth of innate Black athletic superiority, the stereotype of the dumb Black, and social forces determining a vulnerability to exploitation. (MSE)

  13. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  14. Blindness in a wild American black bear cub (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Elizabeth; McGregor, Glenna F; Bauer, Bianca S; Parker, Dennilyn; Grahn, Bruce H

    2016-07-01

    An approximately six-month-old wild American black bear (Ursus americanus) was found wandering in Saskatchewan and was presented to the Veterinary Medical Centre of the Western College of Veterinary Medicine for apparent blindness. Clinical examination confirmed an inability to navigate a photopic maze, bilateral tapetal hyper-reflectivity, fundi devoid of retinal vessels, and small pale optic nerve papillae. Single-flash electroretinography revealed A and B-wave amplitudes of approximately 40 and 140 microvolts, respectively, in both eyes. Histologic abnormalities included bilateral optic papillary mineralization and bilateral segmental optic nerve degeneration, with occasional intralesional lymphocytes confirmed with immunohistochemistry for CD3+. There was also bilateral multifocal retinal dysplasia, gliosis, lymphocytic retinitis, a complete lack of retinal blood vessels, an intravitreal vascular membrane, and a mild lymphocytic-plasmacytic uveitis with small pre-iridal cellular membranes. The presence of a positive ERG in a blind bear with numerous retinal ganglion cells and degenerative changes in the optic nerve are most consistent with vision loss due to optic nerve injury, which given the young age of the bear likely occurred during ocular development. The presence of ocular inflammation suggests this injury resulted from an inflammatory/infectious process. The etiology could not be determined. Hepatic concentrations of vitamin A were within the normal reference range for domestic species. Pan-herpesvirus PCR and immunohistochemistry for canine distemper virus and Toxoplasma gondii were negative, although this does not rule out these or other infectious etiologies. This represents the first case report of neonatal or congenital ocular abnormalities in an ursid species.

  15. Black crystal: a novel color mutant in the American mink (Mustela vision Schreber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapezov, O V

    1997-01-01

    Black crystal, a new mutant of coat color pattern occurring in the American mink in the course of selection for domestic behavior, is described. A salient feature of the mutation is the appearance of white guard hairs producing a veil-like covering of the body. In the Black crystal homozygote, coat color is of the Himalayan type. Breeding data demonstrate that the novel color phase is inherited as a monogenic autosomal semidominant trait. The mutant gene is designated as Black crystal and is symbolized by Cr. The Cr gene is not allelic to the multiple-allelic series at the Black cross locus.

  16. Rules of engagement: predictors of Black Caribbean immigrants' engagement with African American culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nancy; Watson, Natalie N; Wang, Zhenni; Case, Andrew D; Hunter, Carla D

    2013-10-01

    The cultural context in the United States is racialized and influences Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation processes, but what role it plays in Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation into specific facets of American society (e.g., African American culture) has been understudied in the field of psychology. The present study extends research on Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturative process by assessing how this group's experience of the racial context (racial public regard, ethnic public regard, and cultural race-related stress) influences its engagement in African American culture (i.e., adoption of values and behavioral involvement). Data were collected from 93 Black participants of Caribbean descent, ranging in age from 13 to 45 and analyzed using a stepwise hierarchical regression. The findings highlighted that when Black Caribbean-descended participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their racial group they were more likely to engage in African American culture. In contrast, when participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their ethnic group (e.g., Haitian) they were less likely to engage in African American culture. Furthermore, among participants experiencing low levels of cultural race-related stress, the associations between racial public regard and engagement with African American culture were amplified. However, for participants experiencing high cultural race-related stress, their engagement in African American culture did not change as a function of racial public regard. These findings may suggest that, for Black Caribbean immigrants, the experience of the racial context influences strategies that serve to preserve or bolster their overall social status and psychological well-being in the United States.

  17. Black and Blue: Depression and African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowden, Keith O; Thompson Adams, Linda; Wiley, Dana

    2016-10-01

    Depression is a common mental disorder affecting individuals. Although many strides have been made in the area of depression, little is known about depression in special populations, especially African American men. African American men often differ in their presentation of depression and are often misdiagnosed. African American men are at greater risk for depression, but they are less likely to participate in mental health care. This article explores depression in African American by looking at environmental factors, sigma, role, and other unique to this populations, such as John Henryism. Interventions to encourage early screening and participation in care are also discussed.

  18. Functional limitations and nativity status among older Arab, Asian, black, Hispanic, and white Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallo, Florence J; Booza, Jason; Nguyen, Norma D

    2015-04-01

    To examine the association between nativity status (foreign and US-born) by race/ethnicity (Arab, Asian, black, Hispanic, white) on having a functional limitation. We used American Community Survey data (2001-2007; n = 1,964,777; 65+ years) and estimated odds ratios (95% confidence intervals). In the crude model, foreign-born Blacks and Arabs were more likely, while Asians and Hispanics were less likely to report having a functional limitation compared to white. In the fully adjusted model, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians were less likely, while Arabs were more likely to report having a functional limitation. In the crude model, US-born Blacks and Hispanics were more likely, while Asians and Arabs were less likely to report having a functional limitation compared to whites. Policies and programs tailored to foreign-born Arab Americans may help prevent or delay the onset of disability, especially when initiated shortly after their arrival to the US.

  19. 12-Month and Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts among Black Adolescents in the National Survey of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Sean; Baser, Raymond S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The data from the National Survey of American life on the suicidal behavior of 1,170 African American and Caribbean black adolescents aged 13 to 17 shows that black adolescents report having a lifetime prevalence of 7.5 percent for suicidal ideation and 2.7 percent for attempts. The 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation is 3.2 percent and…

  20. Black Hawk. The Story of an American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Maggi

    Born in 1767, Black Hawk was the last great war leader of the Sauk Indians, who lived in the Rock River valley in Illinois. By age 25, he was a famed warrior and leader of his people who raided neighboring tribes until a period of peace and prosperity began about 1800. Various treaties of which the Sauk knew and understood very little deprived the…

  1. Deep Rivers; A Portfolio: 20 Contemporary Black American Poets; Teachers' Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madgett, Naomi L., Ed.

    This publication offers 20 bulletin-board-oriented posters of varying colors and sizes (from 8" X 13" to 10" X 15"), each of which features a poem by a contemporary black American poet. Poems have been selected for their literary excellence, diversity, appropriateness, and student appeal, and are intended to familiarize students with the work of…

  2. Perceived Discrimination and Interracial Contact: Predicting Interracial Closeness among Black and White Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropp, Linda R.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether perceptions of discrimination moderate relationships between interracial contact and feelings of interracial closeness among black and white Americans, using survey responses gathered by the National Conference for Community and Justice (2000). Results indicate that the general association between contact and…

  3. Pulpits and Platforms: The Role of the Church in Determining Protest among Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Scott T.

    2005-01-01

    This article further specifies the relationship between church-based resources, group identification and political activism among black Americans. Previous research indicates that political communication within churches and activism within the church serve to motivate political participation. Our research suggests that, net of relevant controls,…

  4. Academic Attitudes and Psychological Well-Being of Black American Psychology Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uqdah, Aesha L.; Tyler, Kenneth M.; DeLoach, Chante

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to explore the relationships between academic self-concept, perception of competency in related domains, and academic motivation (intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation), and reported anxiety and depression among Black American psychology graduate students. The major research question asks whether there is a relationship…

  5. The Enduring Significance of Racism: Discrimination and Delinquency among Black American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Monica J.; McCarthy, Bill; Conger, Rand D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Brody, Gene H.

    2011-01-01

    Prominent explanations of the overrepresentation of Black Americans in criminal justice statistics focus on the effects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, racial isolation, and social disorganization. We suggest that perceived personal discrimination is an important but frequently neglected complement to these factors. We test this…

  6. Earnings Differentials Between Whites and Ethnic Minorities: The Cases of Asian Americans, Blacks, and Chicanos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiobu, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    The three aspects of the differential earnings between non-Spanish surnamed, native-born whites and blacks, Chinese, Mexican, and Japanese Americans considered are: (1) rates of return on age, education, and occupation; (2) the net cost of minority status; and (3) the possible effects of raising minority socioeconomic status to white levels. (NQ)

  7. A Novel Approach: Using Fiction by African American Women To Teach Black Women's History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch-Lyons, Beverly A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of novels and other works written by African American women as tools for teaching the history of black women in the United States in an undergraduate course. Focuses on specific works used in the course, such as Octavia Butler's "Kindred" and Terry McMillan's "Waiting to Exhale." (CMK)

  8. A Bibliography of Plays Written by Black Americans: 1855 to the Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Roger, Comp.

    This 342-item alphabetized bibliography of plays by black Americans covers the period from 1855 to the present. Some of the playwrights and their works are Paul L. Dunbar's "Uncle Eph's Christmas," 1905; James W. Johnson and Bob Cole's "The Shoo-Fly Regiment," 1907; Lorraine Hansberry's "A Raisin in the Sun," 1959; James Baldwin's "Blues for Mr.…

  9. Gender Differences in Student Engagement among African American Undergraduates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.; Carini, Robert M.; Bridges, Brian K.; Hayek, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Differences in student engagement between women and men at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are examined in this study. Data were collected from 1,167 African American undergraduate students at 12 four-year HBCUs that participated in the National Survey of Student Engagement. Controlling for several factors that might obscure…

  10. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  11. Being Poor, Black, and American: The Impact of Political, Economic, and Cultural Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William Julius

    2011-01-01

    Through the second half of the 1990s and into the early years of the 21st century, public attention to the plight of poor black Americans seemed to wane. There was scant media attention to the problem of concentrated urban poverty (neighborhoods in which a high percentage of the residents fall beneath the federally designated poverty line), little…

  12. The Prevalence of Perceived Discrimination among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined ethnic, gender, and age differences in perceived discrimination and the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents. Data are from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean…

  13. Exercise May Help Black Americans Lower Blood Pressure Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Americans, health professionals should prescribe a dose of physical activity, just as they would prescribe a medication," he suggested. Diaz is an assistant professor at Columbia University Medical Center's Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health in New York City. The researchers believe that ...

  14. Population-level resource selection by sympatric brown and American black bears in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belant, J.L.; Griffith, B.; Zhang, Y.; Follmann, E.H.; Adams, L.G.

    2010-01-01

    Distribution theory predicts that for two species living in sympatry, the subordinate species would be constrained from using the most suitable resources (e.g., habitat), resulting in its use of less suitable habitat and spatial segregation between species. We used negative binomial generalized linear mixed models with fixed effects to estimate seasonal population-level resource selection at two spatial resolutions for female brown bears (Ursus arctos) and female American black bears (U. americanus) in southcentral Alaska during May-September 2000. Black bears selected areas occupied by brown bears during spring which may be related to spatially restricted (i.e., restricted to low elevations) but dispersed or patchy availability of food. In contrast, black bears avoided areas occupied by brown bears during summer. Brown bears selected areas near salmon streams during summer, presumably to access spawning salmon. Use of areas with high berry production by black bears during summer appeared in response to avoidance of areas containing brown bears. Berries likely provided black bears a less nutritious, but adequate food source. We suggest that during summer, black bears were displaced by brown bears, which supports distribution theory in that black bears appeared to be partially constrained from areas containing salmon, resulting in their use of areas containing less nutritious forage. Spatial segregation of brown and American black bears apparently occurs when high-quality resources are spatially restricted and alternate resources are available to the subordinate species. This and previous work suggest that individual interactions between species can result in seasonal population-level responses. ?? US Government 2009.

  15. The Black Charter School Effect: Black Students in American Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Monica R.

    2012-01-01

    This literature analysis examines the experiences of Black students in public charter schools in the United States by analyzing the current literature and enrollment data in this domain. Through the investigation of multiple empirical studies that examine the effects of charter schools on the academic achievement and enrollment trends of Black…

  16. Black Gold Revolution: What New Oil Means for American Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    economy was the rapid growth of the petroleum export market . The same year that the UK became oil sufficient, oil exports appeared. There is little... BLACK GOLD REVOLUTION: WHAT NEW OIL MEANS FOR AMERICAN SECURITY POLICY BY MATTHEW M. BELLE, MAJ, USAF A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE...certainty. These concepts translate into economic transparency and trade. The global oil market lives within international trade, and has an

  17. Resistance and Assent: How Racial Socialization Shapes Black Students' Experience Learning African American History in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Theodore E.

    2016-01-01

    African American history is often taught poorly in high school U.S. history courses. However, we know little about how Black students perceive and experience this situation. I use a refined racial socialization framework and interview data with 32 Black college students in the Northeast to investigate how familial racial socialization shapes their…

  18. Multiculturalism or Multibodism: On the Impossible Intersections of Race and Gender in the American White Feminist and Black Nationalist Discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Oyeronke

    1999-01-01

    Examines the discounting of African American women in both feminist and black nationalist discourses, despite the civil rights and women's movements of the 1960s and the rhetoric of multiculturalism and identity politics that developed following these movements. Accounts for the marginalization of African American women in race and gender…

  19. American black bear denning behavior: Observations and applications using remote photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, A.S.; Fox, J.A.; Olfenbuttel, C.; Vaughan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers examining American black bear (Ursus americanus) denning behavior have relied primarily on den-site visitation and radiotelemetry to gather data. Repeated den-site visits are time-intensive and may disturb denning bears, possibly causing den abandonment, whereas radiotelemetry is sufficient only to provide gross data on den emergence. We used remote cameras to examine black bear denning behavior in the Allegheny Mountains of western Virginia during March-May 2003. We deployed cameras at 10 den sites and used 137 pictures of black bears. Adult female black bears exhibited greater extra-den activity than we expected prior to final den emergence, which occurred between April 12 and May 6, 2003. Our technique provided more accurate den-emergence estimation than previously published methodologies. Additionally, we observed seldom-documented behaviors associated with den exits and estimated cub age at den emergence. Remote cameras can provide unique insights into denning ecology, and we describe their potential application to reproductive, survival, and behavioral research.

  20. Optimized methods for high-throughput analysis of hair samples for American black bears (Ursus americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea V Kristensen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive sampling has revolutionized the study of species that are difficult or dangerous to study using traditional methods. Early studies were often confined to small populations as genotyping large numbers of samples was prohibitively costly and labor intensive. Here we describe optimized protocols designed to reduce the costs and effort required for microsatellite genotyping and sex determination for American black bears (Ursus americanus. We redesigned primers for six microsatellite loci, designed novel primers for the amelogenin gene for genetic determination of sex, and optimized conditions for a nine-locus multiplex PCR. Our high-throughput methods will enable researchers to include larger sample sizes in studies of black bears, providing data in a timely fashion that can be used to inform population management.

  1. Unique variation in genetic selection among Black North American women and its potential influence on pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Shirlee; Normand, Neil; Jayaram, Aswathi; Orfanelli, Theofano; Doulaveris, Georgios; Passos, Mariana; Kanninen, Tomi T; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Linhares, Iara M; Witkin, Steven S

    2013-11-01

    We hypothesize that variations in the frequency of genetic polymorphisms, reflecting ancestral differences in living conditions and exposure to microorganisms, increase susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcome among present day Black North American women. Striking differences were observed in the frequency of genetic variants between Black and White or Hispanic women in 5 genes (IL1RN, MBL2, PPARA, ATG16L1, CIAS1) associated with inflammation and anti-microbial immunity. The CIAS1 and IL1RN polymorphisms were associated with altered interleukin-1β serum levels; the MBL2 polymorphism resulted in a decreased serum mannose-binding lectin concentration. Gene polymorphisms associated with an alteration in innate immunity were most frequent in Black women. This may reflect an evolutionary selection in response to an ancient environment containing a high multitude of microorganisms, and may increase susceptibility of Black women to infection-associated preterm birth in the current North American environment.

  2. Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Black American Men: Moderated-Mediation Effects of Ethnicity and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H; N'cho, Hammad S; Green, Carlton E; Jernigan, Maryam M; Helms, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is related to depression and poor self-esteem among Black men. Poorer self-esteem is also associated with depression. However, there is limited research identifying how self-esteem may mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms for disparate ethnic groups of Black men. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic groups as a moderator of the mediating effects of self-esteem on the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of African American (n = 1201) and Afro-Caribbean American men (n = 545) in the National Survey of American Life. Due to cultural socialization differences, we hypothesized that self-esteem would mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms only for African American men, but not Afro-Caribbean American men. Moderated-mediation regression analyses indicated that the conditional indirect effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms through self-esteem were significant for African American men, but not for Afro-Caribbean men. Our results highlight important ethnic differences among Black men.

  3. Research Brief--Sex and Ethnic Differences in Mathematics Achievement of Black and Mexican-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John L.; Exezidis, Roxane H.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the effects of both sex and ethnic background on mathematics achievement, 112 Mexican-American and Black adolescents were studied. Achievement scores, parental influence, and math attitudes were analyzed. Ethnic background seemed to exert a much greater effect on mathematics achievement than did gender. (PP)

  4. Importance of Religion and Spirituality in the Lives of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the importance of spirituality and religion in daily life (i.e., only religion, only spirituality, both religion and spirituality, and neither religion nor spirituality) among a nationally representative sample of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites. A majority in each group felt they were both important…

  5. Factors Leading African Americans and Black Caribbeans to Use Social Work Services for Treating Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tyrone C.; Robinson, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    This secondary analysis of 5,000 African Americans and black Caribbeans explored how their use of social work services to address mental and substance use disorders was associated with the disorder involved as well as their perceived need for services, belief system, family resources, proximity to services, social-structural factors, and…

  6. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  7. An Intersectional Approach for Understanding Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life,…

  8. Gentrification in black and white: the racial impact of public housing demolition in American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The gentrification that has transformed high-poverty neighbourhoods in US cities since the mid 1990s has been characterised by high levels of state reinvestment. Prominent among public-sector interventions has been the demolition of public housing and in some cases multimillion dollar redevelopment efforts. In this paper, the racial dimension of state-supported gentrification in large US cities is examined by looking at the direct and indirect displacement induced by public housing transformation. The data show a clear tendency towards the demolition of public housing projects with disproportionately high African American occupancy. The pattern of indirect displacement is more varied; public housing transformation has produced a number of paths of neighbourhood change. The most common, however, involve significant reductions in poverty, sometimes associated with Black to White racial turnover and sometimes not. The findings underscore the central importance of race in understanding the dynamics of gentrification in US cities.

  9. Aboveground predation by an American badger (Taxidea taxus) on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    During research on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), we repeatedly observed a female American badger (Taxidea taxus) hunting prairie dogs on a colony in southern Phillips County, Montana. During 1-14 June 2006, we observed 7 aboveground attacks (2 successful) and 3 successful excavations of prairie dogs. The locations and circumstances of aboveground attacks suggested that the badger improved her probability of capturing prairie dogs by planning the aboveground attacks based on perceptions of speeds, angles, distances, and predicted escape responses of prey. Our observations add to previous reports on the complex and varied predatory methods and cognitive capacities of badgers. These observations also underscore the individuality of predators and support the concept that predators are active participants in predator-prey interactions.

  10. Serum immune-related proteins are differentially expressed during hibernation in the American black bear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A Chow

    Full Text Available Hibernation is an adaptation to conserve energy in the face of extreme environmental conditions and low food availability that has risen in several animal phyla. This phenomenon is characterized by reduced metabolic rate (∼25% of the active basal metabolic rate in hibernating bears and energy demand, while other physiological adjustments are far from clear. The profiling of the serum proteome of the American black bear (Ursus americanus may reveal specific proteins that are differentially modulated by hibernation, and provide insight into the remarkable physiological adaptations that characterize ursid hibernation. In this study, we used differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE analysis, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequent MASCOT analysis of the mass spectra to identify candidate proteins that are differentially expressed during hibernation in captive black bears. Seventy serum proteins were identified as changing by ±1.5 fold or more, out of which 34 proteins increased expression during hibernation. The majority of identified proteins are involved in immune system processes. These included α2-macroglobulin, complement components C1s and C4, immunoglobulin μ and J chains, clusterin, haptoglobin, C4b binding protein, kininogen 1, α2-HS-glycoprotein, and apoplipoproteins A-I and A-IV. Differential expression of a subset of these proteins identified by proteomic analysis was also confirmed by immunodetection. We propose that the observed serum protein changes contribute to the maintenance of the hibernation phenotype and health, including increased capacities for bone maintenance and wound healing during hibernation in bears.

  11. Contributions of vital rates to growth of a protected population of American black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M.S.; Pacifici, L.B.; Grand, J.B.; Powell, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of large, long-lived animals suggest that adult survival generally has the potential to contribute more than reproduction to population growth rate (??), but because survival varies little, high variability in reproduction can have a greater influence. This pattern has been documented for several species of large mammals, but few studies have evaluated such contributions of vital rates to ?? for American black bears (Ursus americanus). We used variance-based perturbation analyses (life table response experiments, LTRE) and analytical sensitivity and elasticity analyses to examine the actual and potential contributions of variation of vital rates to variation in growth rate (??) of a population of black bears inhabiting the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina, using a 22-year dataset. We found that recruitment varied more than other vital rates; LTRE analyses conducted over several time intervals thus indicated that recruitment generally contributed at least as much as juvenile and adult survival to observed variation in ??, even though the latter 2 vital rates had the greater potential to affect ??. Our findings are consistent with predictions from studies on polar bears (U. maritimus) and grizzly bears (U. arctos), but contrast with the few existing studies on black bears in ways that suggest levels of protection from human-caused mortality might explain whether adult survival or recruitment contribute most to variation in ?? for this species. We hypothesize that ?? is most strongly influenced by recruitment in protected populations where adult survival is relatively high and constant, whereas adult survival will most influence ?? for unprotected populations. ?? 2009 International Association for Bear Research and Management.

  12. GM1-gangliosidosis in American black bears: clinical, pathological, biochemical and molecular genetic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Torres, Paola A; Wang, Betty C; Zeng, Bai Jin; Eaton, Samuel; Erdelyi, Ildiko; Ducore, Rebecca; Maganti, Rajanikarath; Keating, John; Perry, Bain J; Tseng, Florina S; Waliszewski, Nicole; Pokras, Mark; Causey, Robert; Seger, Rita; March, Philip; Tidwell, Amy; Pfannl, Rolf; Seyfried, Thomas; Kolodny, Edwin H; Alroy, Joseph

    2014-04-01

    G(M1)-gangliosidosis is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder due to an autosomal recessively inherited deficiency of lysosomal β-galactosidase. We have identified seven American black bears (Ursus americanus) found in the Northeast United States suffering from G(M1)-gangliosidosis. This report describes the clinical features, brain MRI, and morphologic, biochemical and molecular genetic findings in the affected bears. Brain lipids were compared with those in the brain of a G(M1)-mouse. The bears presented at ages 10-14 months in poor clinical condition, lethargic, tremulous and ataxic. They continued to decline and were humanely euthanized. The T(2)-weighted MR images of the brain of one bear disclosed white matter hyperintensity. Morphological studies of the brain from five of the bears revealed enlarged neurons with foamy cytoplasm containing granules. Axonal spheroids were present in white matter. Electron microscopic examination revealed lamellated membrane structures within neurons. Cytoplasmic vacuoles were found in the liver, kidneys and chondrocytes and foamy macrophages within the lungs. Acid β-galactosidase activity in cultured skin fibroblasts was only 1-2% of control values. In the brain, ganglioside-bound sialic acid was increased more than 2-fold with G(M1)-ganglioside predominating. G(A1) content was also increased whereas cerebrosides and sulfatides were markedly decreased. The distribution of gangliosides was similar to that in the G(M1)-mouse brain, but the loss of myelin lipids was greater in the brain of the affected bear than in the brain of the G(M1) mouse. Isolated full-length cDNA of the black bear GLB1 gene revealed 86% homology to its human counterpart in nucleotide sequence and 82% in amino acid sequence. GLB1 cDNA from liver tissue of an affected bear contained a homozygous recessive T(1042) to C transition inducing a Tyr348 to His mutation (Y348H) within a highly conserved region of the GLB1 gene. The coincidence of several

  13. Evaluating detection probabilities for American marten in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.B.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring techniques designed to determine presence of forest carnivores, such as American marten (Martes americana), is crucial for validation of survey results. Although comparisons between techniques have been made, little attention has been paid to the issue of detection probabilities (p). Thus, the underlying assumption has been that detection probabilities equal 1.0. We used presence-absence data obtained from a track-plate survey in conjunction with results from a saturation-trapping study to derive detection probabilities when marten occurred at high (>2 marten/10.2 km2) and low (???1 marten/10.2 km2) densities within 8 10.2-km2 quadrats. Estimated probability of detecting marten in high-density quadrats was p = 0.952 (SE = 0.047), whereas the detection probability for low-density quadrats was considerably lower (p = 0.333, SE = 0.136). Our results indicated that failure to account for imperfect detection could lead to an underestimation of marten presence in 15-52% of low-density quadrats in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA. We recommend that repeated site-survey data be analyzed to assess detection probabilities when documenting carnivore survey results.

  14. Social Integration between African American and European American Children in Majority Black, Majority White, and Multicultural Elementary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Wilson, Travis; Ahn, Hai-Jeong

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors use social network analysis and multilevel modeling to examine a central feature of classroom social organization: the ethnic composition of the classroom. They examine classroom ethnic composition as it relates to patterns of social integration between African American and European American children. They asked…

  15. Educational Borrowing as Negotiation: Re-Examining the Influence of the American Black Industrial Education Model on British Colonial Education in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shoko

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which American educational ideas made an impact on policy-making and practice of education in British African colonies between the two World Wars. The analysis re-examines the apparent "borrowing" of American black industrial education models for application in Africa. It is argued that, while the view…

  16. Educational Borrowing as Negotiation: Re-Examining the Influence of the American Black Industrial Education Model on British Colonial Education in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shoko

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which American educational ideas made an impact on policy-making and practice of education in British African colonies between the two World Wars. The analysis re-examines the apparent "borrowing" of American black industrial education models for application in Africa. It is argued that, while the view that…

  17. Outcome of aggressive interactions between American black ducks and mallards during the breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, D.G.; Clugston, D.A.; Longcore, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Black duck (Anas rubripes) numbers have declined during the past several decades, while mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have expanded their range eastward. Competitive exclusion of black ducks from wetlands by mallards has been proposed as a principal cause of the decline. We studied a sympatric population of black ducks and mallards in Maine during the early breeding season to document behavior and interactions. We observed 832 aggressive interactions; most (72%) were between members of the same species. When a choice was available, both species interacted more often with conspecifics than with the other species (P behaviorally superior to black ducks.

  18. New Trends in Black American Interracial Marriage: The Social Structural Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, M. Belinda; Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia

    1990-01-01

    Addressed underlying demographic correlates of interracial marriage as distinct among Black women and men. Found that interracially married tended to be younger, more likely to have been married before, and more distant in age from their spouses. Persons born in North and foreign countries were more likely to be married to non-Blacks. (Author/NB)

  19. Black-White Biracial Students in American Schools: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rhina Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    With increasing numbers of students who identify as Black and White multiracial and with the persistence of the Black-White test score gap, the necessity for research regarding these students' educational experiences cannot be understated. To date, research in this area has been scarce. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the available…

  20. A mixed methods study of health and social disparities among substance-using African American/Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P

    2015-03-01

    African American/Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the U.S. experience health and social disparities at greater rates than MSM of other races/ethnicities, including HIV infection and substance use. This mixed methods paper presents: 1) a quantitative examination of health and social disparities among a sample of substance-using African American/Black MSM (N=108), compared to Caucasian/White MSM (N=250), and 2) in-depth qualitative data from a subsample of African American/Black MSM (N=21) in order to contextualize the quantitative data. Findings indicate that compared to Caucasian/White MSM, African American/Black MSM experienced a wide range of health and social disparities including: substance use and dependence; buying, trading or selling sex; educational attainment; employment; homelessness; identifying as gay; HIV status; arrest history; social support; and satisfaction with one's living situation. Qualitative data suggests that structural interventions that address homophobia and the social environment would be likely to mitigate many of the health and social disparities experienced by African American/Black MSM.

  1. "Machismo," self-esteem, education and high maximum drinking among anglo, black and Mexican-American male drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, J A; Prihoda, T J; Hoppe, S K

    1991-09-01

    This study seeks to clarify the relevance of machismo to patterns of high maximum drinking among male drinkers. Specifically, the study describes the psychometric properties of a newly developed 7-item machismo measure, compares levels of machismo and self-esteem for a sample of Anglo, black and Mexican-American males, and examines both main and interaction effects of machismo, self-esteem and education as predictors of alcohol use in these racial/ethnic subgroups. Logistic regression analyses document interaction between race/ethnicity, machismo, self-esteem and education, which calls into question the presumed importance of machismo as a cultural element causing heavy drinking patterns among Mexican-American males.

  2. White Anglo-Saxon hopes and black Americans' Atlantic dreams: Jack Johnson and the British boxing colour bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runstedtler, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the controversy surrounding Jack Johnson's proposed world heavyweight title fight against the British champion Bombardier Billy Wells in London (1911). In juxtaposing African Americans' often glowing discussions of European tolerance with the actual white resistance the black champion faced in Britain, including the Home Office's eventual prohibition of the match, the article explores the period's transnational discourses of race and citizenship. Indeed, as white sportsmen on both sides of the Atlantic joined together in their search for a "White Hope" to unseat Johnson, the boxing ring became an important cultural arena for interracial debates over the political and social divisions between white citizens and nonwhite subjects. Although African Americans had high hopes for their hero's European sojourn, the British backlash against the Johnson-Wells match underscored the fact that their local experiences of racial oppression were just one facet of a much broader global problem. At the same time, the proposed prizefight also made the specter of interracial conflict in the colonies all the more tangible in the British capital, provoking public discussions about the merits of U.S. racial segregation, along with the need for white Anglo-Saxon solidarity around the world. Thus, this article not only exposes the underlying connections between American Jim Crow and the racialized fault lines of British imperialism, but it also traces the "tense and tender ties" linking U.S. and African American history with the new imperial history and postcolonial studies.

  3. 美国文学中黑人女性形象的嬗变%The Evolution of Black Female Images in American Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凡凡

    2016-01-01

    The thesis studies the deconstruction of the image of the black female and the construction of the new image of the black fe-male from the development of the black literature.The development of black female images in American literature has experienced three stages:"the other"image of the black women in the early white mainstream literature;the positive image of the black female initiated by black female literature pioneer in 20th century;the new black female images made by black female writers who actively struggle and realize the self after the rise of the black civil rights movement and the women's liberation movement.%美国文学发展中,关于黑人女性形象的塑造经历过由"扁"到渐"圆"的过程. 黑人女性形象的发展大致经历了三个阶段:一是早期白人主流文学中的黑人女性"他者"形象,二是20世纪初黑人女性文学先驱者首创的黑人女性正面形象,三是黑人民权运动及妇女解放运动兴起后,黑人女性作家塑造的积极抗争与实现自我的新黑人女性形象.

  4. African-American Firsts. Famous, Little-Known and Unsung Triumphs of Blacks in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Joan; Claytor, Constance

    Stories of more than 400 "firsts" by African Americans, break-through achievements in a variety of fields, are told in question-and-answer form ("Who was the first African American to ...?"). These are stories of people who were forced to contend with racism, directly or indirectly, in their struggle towards goals that require…

  5. Legacy of the American West: Indian Cowboys, Black Cowboys, and Vaqueros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, S. Kay

    2008-01-01

    The cowboy is viewed as an American icon: rider of the open range, rugged individual, and champion of good. Cowboys are still very much a part of American culture today. Why is it important to study cowboys? The introduction of cattle and horses by the Spanish "conquistadors" transformed the local culture, influenced the economics of the…

  6. Dietary patterns are associated with incident stroke and contribute to excess risk of stroke in Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Suzanne E; Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Newby, PK; Howard, George; Howard, Virginia J; Locher, Julie L; Kissela, Brett M; Shikany, James M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Black Americans and residents of the Southeastern United States, are at increased risk of stroke. Diet is one of many potential factors proposed that might explain these racial and regional disparities. Methods Between 2003–2007, the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study enrolled 30,239 black and white Americans aged 45 years or older. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis and foods from food frequency data. Incident strokes were adjudicated using medical records by a team of physicians. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk of stroke. Results Over 5.7 years, 490 incident strokes were observed. In a multivariable-adjusted analysis, greater adherence to the Plant-based pattern was associated with lower stroke risk (HR=0.71; 95% CI=0.56–0.91; ptrend=0.005). This association was attenuated after addition of income, education, total energy intake, smoking, and sedentary behavior. Participants with a higher adherence to the Southern pattern experienced a 39% increased risk of stroke (HR=1.39; 95% CI=1.05, 1.84), with a significant (p = 0.009) trend across quartiles. Including Southern pattern in the model mediated the black-white risk of stroke by 63%. Conclusions These data suggest that adherence to a Southern style diet may increase the risk of stroke while adherence to a more plant-based diet may reduce stroke risk. Given the consistency of finding a dietary impact on stroke risk across studies, discussing nutrition patterns during risk screening may be an important step in reducing stroke. PMID:24159061

  7. Education and Alcohol Consumption among Older Americans; Black-White Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Purpose: Although the link between education and alcohol consumption is known, limited information exists on racial differences in this link. We conducted the current study to test Black- White differences in the association between education and alcohol consumption among older adults in the United States. Methods: This cross-sectional survey enrolled 1,493 Black (n=734 and White (n=759 older adults (age 66 or more in United States. Data came from the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, 2001. Race, demographics, socio-economics, and alcohol consumption were measured. Independent variable was education level. Outcome was alcohol consumption. Race was the focal moderator. Logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results: Education was positively associated with ever drinking in the pooled sample. Race, however, interacted with education level on drinking, suggesting a smaller effect of education on drinking for Blacks compared to Whites. Among Whites, high school graduation and college graduation were associated with increased odds of ever drinking, net of covariates. Among Blacks, high school graduation but not college graduation was associated with ever drinking. Conclusion: Blacks and Whites differ in how socio-economic status (i.e. education shapes behaviors health behaviors (i.e. drinking. How race modifies consequences and correlates of social determinants of health is not yet clear. College graduation may result in the same level of change to the social network and income of race group members. Lower effect of education on health of Blacks may be due to the structural role of race and racism that has resulted in lower job availability and pay for Blacks.

  8. To Test or Not to Test: Barriers and Solutions to Testing African American College Students for HIV at a Historically Black College/University

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Naomi M.; Peterson, Jennifer; Johnson, Malynnda

    2014-01-01

    Young African Americans are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The purpose was to identify reasons that African American college students at a historically Black college/university (HBCU) identified as barriers to HIV testing, and how these barriers can be removed. Fifty-seven heterosexual-identified undergraduate students (ages 18–25) attending an HBCU in the southeastern US participated in a mixed method study. Latent content analytic techniques w...

  9. Young, black, and connected: Facebook usage among African American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E Bun

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the extent and intensity of Facebook usage among African American college students and investigates their reasons for using Facebook. As expected, 98% of students in the survey had a Facebook account, and a large number of Facebook “friends.” Younger users spent significantly more time on Facebook than older ones. Our findings underscore the importance of cultural influence for African American online users. Displaying photographs and personal interests on Facebook signals racial identity among African American college students. Personality traits, such as self-esteem, trust in people, satisfaction with university life, and racial identity, were not significant predictors on the time spent on Facebook.

  10. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    ’s a lifestyle I enjoy.” For Monáe, the tuxedo is both working clothes and a superhero uniform. Together with futuristic references to Fritz Lang’s dystopian Metropolis, her trademark starched shirt and tuxedo also recall Weimar and pre-war Berlin. While outwardly dissimilar, Sioux’s and Monáe’s shared black...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses....

  11. An empirical evaluation of landscape energetic models: Mallard and American black duck space use during the non-breeding period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Naylor, Luke W.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.; Coluccy, John M.; Soulliere, G.

    2015-01-01

    Bird conservation Joint Ventures are collaborative partnerships between public agencies and private organizations that facilitate habitat management to support waterfowl and other bird populations. A subset of Joint Ventures has developed energetic carrying capacity models (ECCs) to translate regional waterfowl population goals into habitat objectives during the non-breeding period. Energetic carrying capacity models consider food biomass, metabolism, and available habitat to estimate waterfowl carrying capacity within an area. To evaluate Joint Venture ECCs in the context of waterfowl space use, we monitored 33 female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 55 female American black ducks (A. rubripes) using global positioning system satellite telemetry in the central and eastern United States. To quantify space use, we measured first-passage time (FPT: time required for an individual to transit across a circle of a given radius) at biologically relevant spatial scales for mallards (3.46 km) and American black ducks (2.30 km) during the non-breeding period, which included autumn migration, winter, and spring migration. We developed a series of models to predict FPT using Joint Venture ECCs and compared them to a biological null model that quantified habitat composition and a statistical null model, which included intercept and random terms. Energetic carrying capacity models predicted mallard space use more efficiently during autumn and spring migrations, but the statistical null was the top model for winter. For American black ducks, ECCs did not improve predictions of space use; the biological null was top ranked for winter and the statistical null was top ranked for spring migration. Thus, ECCs provided limited insight into predicting waterfowl space use during the non-breeding season. Refined estimates of spatial and temporal variation in food abundance, habitat conditions, and anthropogenic disturbance will likely improve ECCs and benefit conservation planners

  12. Extensive mitochondrial introgression in North American Great Black-backed Gulls (Larus marinus) from the American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus) with little nuclear DNA impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, J-M; Sonsthagen, S; Dove, C; Crochet, P-A

    2014-03-01

    Recent genetic studies have shown that introgression rates among loci may greatly vary according to their location in the genome. In particular, several cases of mito-nuclear discordances have been reported for a wide range of organisms. In the present study, we examine the causes of discordance between mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA introgression detected in North American populations of the Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus), a Holarctic species, from the Nearctic North American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus). Our results show that extensive unidirectional mtDNA introgression from Larus smithsonianus into Larus marinus in North America cannot be explained by ancestral polymorphism but most likely results from ancient hybridization events occurring when Larus marinus invaded the North America. Conversely, our nuclear DNA results based on 12 microsatellites detected very little introgression from Larus smithsonianus into North American Larus marinus. We discuss these results in the framework of demographic and selective mechanisms that have been postulated to explain mito-nuclear discrepancies. We were unable to demonstrate selection as the main cause of mito-nuclear introgression discordance but cannot dismiss the possible role of selection in the observed pattern. Among demographic explanations, only drift in small populations and bias in mate choice in an invasive context may explain our results. As it is often difficult to demonstrate that selection may be the main factor driving the introgression of mitochondrial DNA in natural populations, we advocate that evaluating alternative demographic neutral hypotheses may help to indirectly support or reject hypotheses invoking selective processes.

  13. Celebrating the Black Female Self: Zora Neale Hurston's American Classic (Reclaiming the Canon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Julie

    1989-01-01

    Outlines Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God," focusing on the structure of the novel as a classic hero's quest. Notes that this story of a Black woman's journey toward self-definition can stretch students' own horizons of possibility. (MM)

  14. Differences in Brazelton Scale Performance Between Puerto Rican and North American White and Black Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Cynthia Garcia; And Others

    The performances of three groups of neonates on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale were compared to determine if cultural differences exist. Subjects were 90 full term, healthy infants; 30 born in Puerto Rico, 30 black and 30 white born in Florida who were administered the scale within the first two days of life. Eight summary…

  15. Losing Ground: Science and Engineering Graduate Education of Black and Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcom, Shirley M.; Van Horne, Virginia V.; Gaddy, Catherine D.; George, Yolanda S.

    This study examined the effects of court challenges to affirmative action policies on the admission of black and Hispanic students to selective science and engineering (S&E) graduate programs. Data were gathered from a sample of 76 major research universities in regard to the application, admission, and enrollment of U.S. citizens and permanent…

  16. Black Female Adolescents' Career Aspirations and Expectations: Rising to the Challenge of the American Occupational Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sherlon P.

    Career and life planning, while a complex task for people of all races and ages, is often compounded for black adolescent females. Social and economic traditions such as racism, poverty, and oppression have often retarded their employment perceptions, aspirations, expectations, and realities. This article explores the relationship between black…

  17. The Origin of American Black English: Be-Forms in the HOODOO Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Traute

    The study examines origins of the usage patterns of "be" forms (conjugated and invariant forms of the copula) in Black English as they developed over a period of about 30 years. The corpus studied consists of selected interviews from a collection of recordings about Hoodoo, conjuration, witchcraft, and rootwork made by a white priest with almost…

  18. Copula Deletion and West African Languages: A Source for Covert Norms in American Black English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Thomas S.

    The loss of the copula in Black English Vernacular (BEV) is demonstrably traceable to norms of pidginization that have their roots in West African languages and in contact among those languages. An extensive examination of the verb systems of a number of West African languages reveals that in every case a variety of verbal forms serves the many…

  19. Racial and Ethnic-Related Stressors as Predictors of Perceived Stress and Academic Performance for African American Students at a Historically Black College and University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether racial and ethnic-related stressors were associated with overall levels of perceived stress and academic performance among African American students at a historically Black college and university (HBCU). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test racial and ethnic-related stressors…

  20. The Relation of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Socialization to Discrimination-Distress: A Meta-Analysis of Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…

  1. Promoting Academic Achievement: The Role of Racial Identity in Buffering Perceptions of Teacher Discrimination on Academic Achievement among African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Oseela N.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Faison, Nkesha; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the moderating effects of different dimensions racial identity (i.e., racial centrality and public regard) on perceptions of teacher discrimination and academic achievement among a nationally represented sample of African American and Caribbean Black adolescents. The findings revealed that perceived teacher…

  2. Attitudes and beliefs about smoking among African-American college students at historically black colleges and universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powe, Barbara D; Ross, Louie; Cooper, Dexter L

    2007-04-01

    Smoking rates are lower among African Americans compared to Caucasians, but African Americans have higher lung cancer mortality. Guided by the Powe Fatalism Model, this descriptive study reports on attitudes and beliefs and predictors of lifetime cigarette smoking behaviors among students at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Data were collected using the Attitudes and Beliefs about Perceived Consequences of Smoking Scale and a Demographic Data Questionnaire. The majority (N = 438) were female and single. More than 50% reported trying cigarettes in their lifetime and reported smoking a whole cigarette at age 15.5 years. Only 7.5% of the sample were lifetime smokers. The likelihood that a student would smoke was 15 times greater if their friends smoked and almost seven times greater if they were not members of a Greek organization compared to other students. Males associated smoking with self-confidence, endorsed the emotional benefits and influencing factors of smoking compared to females. Intervention efforts should focus on preventing the initiation of smoking as well as cessation efforts for students at HBCUs. Campus clubs and organizations can play a vital role in long-term changes in smoking behaviors for these students.

  3. The Connection between Worship Attendance and Racial Segregation Attitudes among White and Black Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khari Brown

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study finds that, for Whites, worship attendance is associated with heightened support for racial segregation. This has much to do with the fact that the individuals that attend worship service the least, secular and young adults, tend to be more racially progressive. That is, the extent to which secular and Generation X and Y individuals attend worship services as often as others, worship attendance is associated with weakened opposition to racial segregation. Conversely, worship attendance, religious affiliation, and age cohort are largely unrelated to Black racial segregation attitudes.

  4. Premarital Cohabitation and the Risk of Marital Disruption among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Julie A; Sweeney, Megan M.

    2003-01-01

    We use data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth to investigate racial and ethnic differences in risk factors for marital disruption, with a particular emphasis on premarital cohabitation. Our analysis expands upon the array of risk factors considered in prior investigations of racial and ethnic differences in disruption and is among the first to systematically examine marital disruption among recent cohorts of Mexican American women. We find that the nature and strength of the esti...

  5. Disparities in self-reported diabetes mellitus among Arab, Chaldean, and black Americans in Southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Hikmet; Fakhouri, Monty; Dallo, Florence; Templin, Thomas; Khoury, Radwan; Fakhouri, Haifa

    2008-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects minorities. Using a cross sectional, convenience sample, we estimated the prevalence of self-reported diabetes for Whites (n = 212), Arabs (n = 1,303), Chaldeans (n = 828), and Blacks (n = 789) in southeast Michigan. In addition, using a logistic regression model, we estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between ethnicity and diabetes before and after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic status, health care, chronic conditions, and health behavior variables. The overall age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 7.0%. Estimates were highest for Blacks (8.0%) followed by Arabs and Whites (7.0% for each group) and Chaldeans (6.0%). In the fully adjusted model, the association between ethnicity and diabetes was not statistically significant. Future studies should collect more detailed socioeconomic status, acculturation and health behavior information, which are factors that may affect the relationship between race/ethnicity and diabetes.

  6. Warm springs, early lay dates, and double brooding in a North American migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K Townsend

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have correlated the advancement of lay date in birds with warming climate trends, yet the fitness effects associated with this phenological response have been examined in only a small number of species. Most of these species--primarily insectivorous cavity nesters in Europe--exhibit fitness declines associated with increasing asynchrony with prey. Here, we use 25 years of demographic data, collected from 1986 to 2010, to examine the effects of spring temperature on breeding initiation date, double brooding, and annual fecundity in a Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens. Data were collected from birds breeding at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA, where long-term trends toward warmer springs have been recorded. We found that black-throated blue warblers initiated breeding earlier in warmer springs, that early breeders were more likely to attempt a second brood than those starting later in the season, and that double brooding and lay date were linked to higher annual fecundity. Accordingly, we found selection favored earlier breeding in most years. However, in contrast to studies of several other long-distance migratory species in Europe, this selection pressure was not stronger in warmer springs, indicating that these warblers were able to adjust mean lay date appropriately to substantial inter-annual variation in spring temperature. Our results suggest that this North American migratory songbird might not experience the same fecundity declines as songbirds that are unable to adjust their timing of breeding in pace with spring temperatures.

  7. Warm springs, early lay dates, and double brooding in a North American migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Andrea K; Sillett, T Scott; Lany, Nina K; Kaiser, Sara A; Rodenhouse, Nicholas L; Webster, Michael S; Holmes, Richard T

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have correlated the advancement of lay date in birds with warming climate trends, yet the fitness effects associated with this phenological response have been examined in only a small number of species. Most of these species--primarily insectivorous cavity nesters in Europe--exhibit fitness declines associated with increasing asynchrony with prey. Here, we use 25 years of demographic data, collected from 1986 to 2010, to examine the effects of spring temperature on breeding initiation date, double brooding, and annual fecundity in a Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, the black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens). Data were collected from birds breeding at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA, where long-term trends toward warmer springs have been recorded. We found that black-throated blue warblers initiated breeding earlier in warmer springs, that early breeders were more likely to attempt a second brood than those starting later in the season, and that double brooding and lay date were linked to higher annual fecundity. Accordingly, we found selection favored earlier breeding in most years. However, in contrast to studies of several other long-distance migratory species in Europe, this selection pressure was not stronger in warmer springs, indicating that these warblers were able to adjust mean lay date appropriately to substantial inter-annual variation in spring temperature. Our results suggest that this North American migratory songbird might not experience the same fecundity declines as songbirds that are unable to adjust their timing of breeding in pace with spring temperatures.

  8. Intermittent feeding in a migratory omnivore: Digestion and body composition of American Black Duck during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    Birds fast intermittently during weather disturbances and migration. We tested responses of black duck to lost feeding days during autumn mass gain. Nine adult males were fed a pelleted diet (1.5% fat, 15.8% protein, and 18.3% neutral detergent fiber) and caged indoors during September and October (12 h light; 17? -24? C) to measure balances over 14 d when fed ad lib. each day and fasted intermittently for 2 d wk-1 (short fast) or 4 d wk-1 (long fast). Body mass (1,081 g), body water content, and metabolizable intakes of energy and protein were maintained as daily intakes of dry matter increased to 1.65 (short fast) and 2.35 (long fast) times the unfasted level. Intermittent feeding reduced metabolizability of dry matter, energy, protein, and acid detergent fiber. Concentrations of Mn provided similar estimates of metabolizability to direct measures in unfasted birds but underestimated measures of birds on long fasts. Fasting regimes continued outdoors for 9 wk when temperatures declined to -9? C. Birds on short fasts were heavier (1,373 vs. 1,241 g) and fatter (159 vs. 58 g) than those on long fasts, while body water (894 g) and protein (316 g) were similar between groups after 5 wk. Birds on long fasts subsequently gained mass when fed daily, but those on short fasts lost mass when fed each day. Omnivorous waterfowl combine ingestive and digestive flexibility with plasticity of body lipid to contend with uncertain food availability.

  9. Uncovering Black/African American and Latina/o students' motivation to learn science: Affordances to science identity development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfood, Denise Marcia

    The following dissertation reports on a qualitative exploration that serves two main goals: (1) to qualitatively define and highlight science motivation development of Black/African American and Latina/o students as they learn science in middle school, high school, and in college and (2) to reveal through personal narratives how successful entry and persistence in science by this particular group is linked to the development of their science identities. The targeted population for this study is undergraduate students of color in science fields at a college or university. The theoretical frameworks for this study are constructivist theory, motivation theory, critical theory, and identity theories. The methodological approach is narrative which includes students' science learning experiences throughout the course of their academic lives. I use The Science Motivation Questionnaire II to obtain baseline data to quantitatively assess for motivation to learn science. Data from semi-structured interviews from selected participants were collected, coded, and configured into a story, and emergent themes reveal the important role of science learning in both informal and formal settings, but especially in informal settings that contribute to better understandings of science and the development of science identities for these undergraduate students of color. The findings have implications for science teaching in schools and teacher professional development in science learning.

  10. Extended family and friendship support networks are both protective and risk factors for major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms among African-Americans and black Caribbeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chae, David H; Lincoln, Karen D; Chatters, Linda M

    2015-02-01

    This study explores relationships between lifetime and 12-month Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) major depressive disorder (MDD), depressive symptoms, and involvement with family and friends within a national sample of African-American and Black Caribbean adults (n = 5191). MDD was assessed using the DSM-IV World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression subscale and the K6. Findings indicated that among both populations, close supportive ties with family members and friends are associated with lower rates of depression and MDD. For African-Americans, closeness to family members was important for both 12-month and lifetime MDD, and both family and friend closeness were important for depressive symptoms. For Caribbean Blacks, family closeness had more limited associations with outcomes and was directly associated with psychological distress only. Negative interactions with family (conflict, criticisms), however, were associated with higher MDD and depressive symptoms among both African-Americans and Black Caribbeans.

  11. Why replication is important in landscape genetics: American black bear in the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Bull R.A.; Cushman, S.A.; MacE, R.; Chilton, T.; Kendall, K.C.; Landguth, E.L.; Schwartz, M.K.; McKelvey, K.; Allendorf, F.W.; Luikart, G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how landscape features influence gene flow of black bears by testing the relative support for 36 alternative landscape resistance hypotheses, including isolation by distance (IBD) in each of 12 study areas in the north central U.S. Rocky Mountains. The study areas all contained the same basic elements, but differed in extent of forest fragmentation, altitude, variation in elevation and road coverage. In all but one of the study areas, isolation by landscape resistance was more supported than IBD suggesting gene flow is likely influenced by elevation, forest cover, and roads. However, the landscape features influencing gene flow varied among study areas. Using subsets of loci usually gave models with the very similar landscape features influencing gene flow as with all loci, suggesting the landscape features influencing gene flow were correctly identified. To test if the cause of the variability of supported landscape features in study areas resulted from landscape differences among study areas, we conducted a limiting factor analysis. We found that features were supported in landscape models only when the features were highly variable. This is perhaps not surprising but suggests an important cautionary note - that if landscape features are not found to influence gene flow, researchers should not automatically conclude that the features are unimportant to the species' movement and gene flow. Failure to investigate multiple study areas that have a range of variability in landscape features could cause misleading inferences about which landscape features generally limit gene flow. This could lead to potentially erroneous identification of corridors and barriers if models are transferred between areas with different landscape characteristics. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  13. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  14. The Black Cultural Ethos and science teachers' practices: A case study exploring how four high school science teachers meet their African American students' needs in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Samantha L.

    The underachievement of African American students in science has been a persistent problem in science education. The achievement patterns of African American students indicate that researchers must take a closer look at the types of practices that are being used to meet these students' needs in science classrooms. Determining why science teachers decide to employ certain practices in their classrooms begins with a careful examination of teachers' beliefs as well as their instructional approaches. The purpose of this study was to explore four urban high school science teachers' beliefs about their African American students' learning needs and to investigate how these teachers go about addressing students' needs in science classrooms. This research study also explored the extent to which teachers' practices aligned with the nine dimensions of an established cultural instructional theory, namely the Black Cultural Ethos. Qualitative research methods were employed to gather data from the four teachers. Artifact data were collected from the teachers and they were interviewed and observed. Believing that their students had academic-related needs as well as needs tied to their learning preferences, the four science teachers employed a variety of instructional strategies to meet their students where they were in learning. Overall, the instructional strategies that the teachers employed to meet their students' needs aligned with five of the nine tenets of the Black Cultural Ethos theory.

  15. The education and medical practice of Dr. James McCune Smith (1813-1865), first black American to hold a medical degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas M

    2003-07-01

    James McCune Smith (1813-1865)--first black American to obtain a medical degree, prominent abolitionist and suffragist, compassionate physician, prolific writer, and public intellectual--has been relatively neglected by historians of medicine. No biography of Smith exists to this day, though he has been the subject of several essays. Born, in his own words, "the son of a self-emancipated bond-woman," and denied admission to colleges in the United States, his native land, Smith earned medical, master's, and baccalaureate degrees at Glasgow University in Scotland. On his return to New York City in 1837, Smith became the first black physician to publish articles in US medical journals. Smith was broadly involved in the anti-slavery and suffrage movements, contributing to and editing abolitionist newspapers and serving as an officer of many organizations for the improvement of social conditions in the black community. In his scientific writings Smith debunked the racial theories in Thomas Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia, refuted phrenology and homeopathy, and responded with a forceful statistical critique to the racially biased US Census of 1840. Frederick Douglass, Gerrit Smith, and John Brown personally collaborated with James McCune Smith in the fight for black freedom. As the learned physician-scholar of the abolition movement, Smith was instrumental in making the overthrow of slavery credible and successful.

  16. Perceptions of High Achieving African American/Black 10th Graders from a Low Socioeconomic Community Regarding Health Scientists and Desired Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekeloo, Bradley; Randolph, Suzanne; Timmons-Brown, Stephanie; Wang, Min Qi

    2014-01-01

    Measures are needed to assess youth perceptions about health science careers to facilitate research aimed at facilitating youth pursuit of health science. Although the Indiana Instrument provides an established measure of perceptions regarding nursing and ideal careers, we were interested in learning how high achieving 10th graders from relatively low socioeconomic areas who identify as Black/African American (Black) perceive health science and ideal careers. The Indiana Instrument was modified, administered to 90 youth of interest, and psychometrically analyzed. Reliable subscales were identified that may facilitate parsimonious, theoretical, and reliable study of youth decision-making regarding health science careers. Such research may help to develop and evaluate strategies for increasing the number of minority health scientists. PMID:25194058

  17. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T

    2010-03-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy.

  18. Effect of Expectation of Care on Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications Among Hypertensive Blacks: Analysis of the Counseling African Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Andrea Barnes; Seixas, Azizi; Frederickson, Keville; Butler, Mark; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2017-01-01

    Novel ideas are needed to increase adherence to antihypertensive medication. The current study used data from the Counseling African Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) study, a sample of 442 hypertensive African Americans, to investigate the mediating effects of expectation of hypertension care, social support, hypertension knowledge, and medication adherence, adjusting for age, sex, number of medications, diabetes, education, income, employment, insurance status, and intervention. Sixty-six percent of patients had an income of $20,000 or less and 56% had a high school education or less, with a mean age of 57 years. Greater expectation of care was associated with greater medication adherence (P=.007), and greater social support was also associated with greater medication adherence (P=.046). Analysis also showed that expectation of care mediated the relationship between hypertension knowledge and medication adherence (P<.05). Expectation of care and social support are important factors for developing interventions to increase medication adherence among blacks. PMID:26593105

  19. Effect of Expectation of Care on Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications Among Hypertensive Blacks: Analysis of the Counseling African Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Andrea Barnes; Seixas, Azizi; Frederickson, Keville; Butler, Mark; Tobin, Jonathan N; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2016-07-01

    Novel ideas are needed to increase adherence to antihypertensive medication. The current study used data from the Counseling African Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) study, a sample of 442 hypertensive African Americans, to investigate the mediating effects of expectation of hypertension care, social support, hypertension knowledge, and medication adherence, adjusting for age, sex, number of medications, diabetes, education, income, employment, insurance status, and intervention. Sixty-six percent of patients had an income of $20,000 or less and 56% had a high school education or less, with a mean age of 57 years. Greater expectation of care was associated with greater medication adherence (P=.007), and greater social support was also associated with greater medication adherence (P=.046). Analysis also showed that expectation of care mediated the relationship between hypertension knowledge and medication adherence (PExpectation of care and social support are important factors for developing interventions to increase medication adherence among blacks.

  20. When Lions Write History: Black History Textbooks, African-American Educators, & the Alternative Black Curriculum in Social Studies Education, 1890-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.

    2014-01-01

    The African proverb, "Until the lions have their historians, tales of the hunt shall always glorify the hunter," is used to metaphorically describe how dominant groups inscribe power through historical narrative. In this article the author discusses how African-American educators between the years of 1890-1940 conceptualized citizenship…

  1. "We as Black Men Have to Encourage Each other:" Facilitators and Barriers Associated with HIV Testing among Black/African American Men in Rural Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ashley; Toledo, Lauren; Brown, Emma Ej; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2017-01-01

    HIV testing for some African American men remains a challenge, and effective interventions are lacking. We explored facilitators and barriers associated with HIV testing among heterosexual African American men in rural Florida. We conducted focus group interviews with 67 African American men who were low-income, and HIV-uninfected based on prior testing or had unknown HIV status. Using computer-assisted thematic analyses, we examined transcribed focus group responses for main themes. Thematic analyses revealed three main themes regarding facilitators of HIV testing: 1) using preferred HIV testing community locations (park, library, gym); 2) receiving incentives (food or money); and 3) the importance of peer-led messaging for free, rapid HIV testing. Barriers included HIV testing at the local health department, and perceived social and emotional consequences to testing and the possibility of receiving a positive result. Effective HIV testing interventions for heterosexual African American men in rural Florida may need to incorporate suggested facilitators and reduce perceived barriers in order to improve HIV testing strategies.

  2. Adolescent experiences of violence and relation to violence perpetration beyond young adulthood among an urban sample of Black and African American males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Lawrence, Danielle A; Santana, M C; Welles, C Seth L; Horsburgh, C Robert; Silverman, Jay G; Rich, John A; Raj, Anita

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if experiences of physical violence during early and late adolescence (12-21 years) places urban Black males at increased risk for interpersonal violence perpetration beyond young adulthood (30 years and older). Participants of this cross-sectional study were Black and African American men (N = 455) between the ages of 30 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the Northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of adolescent experiences of violence to: (1) past 6 month street violence involvement and (2) past year intimate partner violence perpetration. Ten percent of the sample reported that they experienced adolescent victimization. Men reporting adolescent victimization were significantly more likely to report past 6-month street violence involvement (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.7-6.3) and past 6 month intimate partner violence perpetration (AOR = 2.8, 95 % CI = 1.8-5.4) compared to men who did not report such victimization. Study findings suggest that in order to prevent adulthood perpetration of violence, more work is needed to address experiences of victimization among young Black males, particularly violence experienced during adolescence.

  3. Feminism and Black Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Bell

    1989-01-01

    Women's studies programs have largely ignored Black women. Until Black women's studies courses are developed, feminist scholarship on Black women will not advance, and the contributions of Black women to women's rights movements and African American literature and scholarship may be neglected. (DM)

  4. Adapting an Evidence-Based HIV Intervention for At-Risk African American College Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities Who Use Alcohol and Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla Marie Sawyer-Kurian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of the high prevalence of HIV incidence among African American adolescent and adult women along with substance use and risky sexual behavior among university students necessitates the development of a HIV intervention specifically addressing culture, gender, and college factors for female African American university students. The woman-focused HIV intervention was chosen for adaptation because it has been shown to be efficacious with reducing risk for African American women who use alcohol and drugs, and has been successfully adapted 7 times. The target population was African American college women enrolled at a historically Black university who use alcohol and other drugs, and who engaged in risky sex behaviors. To understand and assess the needs of this population, we conducted four focus groups with African American college women, two in-depth interviews with faculty, and a combination of in-depth interviews and focus groups with student affairs and health staff that were analyzed using content analysis. From this analysis, several themes emerged that were used to adapt the intervention. Emerging themes included challenges related to identity and societal stereotypes, lack of knowledge about sexual health (i.e., negotiating safer sex and the function of female and male anatomies, high incidents of pregnancy, negative consequences related to alcohol and marijuana use, and the need to incorporate testimonies from college students, media enhancements, and role-plays to convey intervention messages. After the preliminary adaptation, 11 college women reviewed the adapted intervention and provided positive feedback. Plans for future research are discussed.

  5. Effects of intratesticular zinc gluconate treatment on testicular dimensions, echodensity, histology, sperm production, and testosterone secretion in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Leonardo F C; Sertich, Patricia L; Rives, William; Knobbe, Marc; Del Piero, Fabio; Stull, Gordon B

    2011-05-01

    Eight adult American black bears were used to evaluate the effects of chemical castration by intratesticular zinc gluconate treatment on testicular dimensions, echodensity, histology, sperm production, and testosterone secretion. Treatment did not affect testicular dimensions and did not result in decreased resting or GnRH-stimulated testosterone secretion. Multifocal hyperchoic areas in the testicular parenchyma were observed on ultrasound examination, and white foci were observed on gross pathology examination after zinc gluconate treatment. Histologically, there were normal seminiferous tubules containing either round or elongated spermatids, along with abnormal tubules in all bears after treatment. Vacuolation of the seminiferous epithelium, sloughing of germ cells into the tubules' lumen, presence of multinuclear giant cells, and reduced height of the seminiferous epithelium with missing generations of germ cells were commonly observed. The most severe testicular changes were multifocal and included fibrosis, complete degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium with shrinkage of the tubule, and sperm stasis. Epididymal sperm reserve was 982.74 ± 654.16 × 10(6) sperm (mean ± SEM) and motile sperm were observed in the epididymis of all but one of the bears. In conclusion, although intratesticular zinc gluconate treatment in black bears resulted in testicular degenerative changes detected by ultrasound and histology examinations, sperm production was not completely ablated. We inferred that normal fertility might have been compromised, but treatment unlikely resulted in sterility.

  6. Manifest Meanings: The Selling (Not Telling) of American Indian History and the Case of "The Black Horse Ledger"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gercken, Becca

    2010-01-01

    What is the value or perceived necessity--for an Indian or for a white man--of changing Northern Cheyenne history? How are a reader's conclusions affected by her perception of the race of the person altering that history? Why is it acceptable to sell but not tell American Indian history? An examination of the visual and discursive rhetoric of "The…

  7. AIDS in black and white: the influence of newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS on HIV/AIDS testing among African Americans and White Americans, 1993-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robin; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS on HIV testing behavior in a U.S. population. HIV testing data were taken from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's National Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 1993 to 2007 (N = 265,557). The authors content-analyzed news stories from 24 daily newspapers and 1 wire service during the same time period. The authors used distributed lagged regression models to estimate how well HIV/AIDS newspaper coverage predicted later HIV testing behavior. Increases in HIV/AIDS newspaper coverage were associated with declines in population-level HIV testing. Each additional 100 HIV/AIDS-related newspaper stories published each month was associated with a 1.7% decline in HIV testing levels in the subsequent month. This effect differed by race, with African Americans exhibiting greater declines in HIV testing subsequent to increased news coverage than did Whites. These results suggest that mainstream newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS may have a particularly deleterious effect on African Americans, one of the groups most affected by the disease. The mechanisms driving the negative effect deserve further investigation to improve reporting on HIV/AIDS in the media.

  8. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits in the American West: History, ecology, ecological significance, and survey methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simes, Matthew; Longshore, Kathleen; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Beatty, Greg L.; Brown, David E.; Esque, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Across the western United States, Leporidae are the most important prey item in the diet of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Leporids inhabiting the western United States include black-tailed (Lepus californicus) and white-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) and various species of cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.). Jackrabbits (Lepus spp.) are particularly important components of the ecological and economic landscape of western North America because their abundance influences the reproductive success and population trends of predators such as coyotes (Canis latrans), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and a number of raptor species. Here, we review literature pertaining to black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits comprising over 170 published journal articles, notes, technical reports, conference proceedings, academic theses and dissertations, and other sources dating from the late 19th century to the present. Our goal is to present information to assist those in research and management, particularly with regard to protected raptor species (e.g., Golden Eagles), mammalian predators, and ecological monitoring. We classified literature sources as (1) general information on jackrabbit species, (2) black-tailed or (3) white-tailed jackrabbit ecology and natural history, or (4) survey methods. These categories, especially 2, 3, and 4, were further subdivided as appropriate. The review also produced several tables on population trends, food habits, densities within various habitats, and jackrabbit growth and development. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits are ecologically similar in general behaviors, use of forms, parasites, and food habits, and they are prey to similar predators; but they differ in their preferred habitats. While the black-tailed jackrabbit inhabits agricultural land, deserts, and shrublands, the white-tailed jackrabbit is associated with prairies, alpine tundra, and sagebrush-steppe. Frequently considered abundant, jackrabbit numbers in western North

  9. To Test or Not to Test: Barriers and Solutions to Testing African American College Students for HIV at a Historically Black College/University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Naomi M; Peterson, Jennifer; Johnson, Malynnda

    2014-01-01

    Young African Americans are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. The purpose was to identify reasons that African American college students at a historically Black college/university (HBCU) identified as barriers to HIV testing, and how these barriers can be removed. Fifty-seven heterosexual-identified undergraduate students (ages 18-25) attending an HBCU in the southeastern US participated in a mixed method study. Latent content analytic techniques were used to code the transcripts for themes and categories, and representative quotations were used in the findings. Quantitative data indicates high levels of perceived knowledge about HIV transmission, low perception of risk and concern of contracting HIV, yet continued sexual risk behavior. Qualitative data indicates three main themes used to avoid testing and three themes to encourage testing. Students were forthcoming in discussing the themes around avoidance of HIV testing (being scared to know, preferring not to know, and lack of discussion about HIV) and encouraging testing (group testing, increasing basic knowledge, and showing the reality of HIV). It is important for college healthcare professionals, researchers, and officials to identify appropriate ways to encourage HIV testing, and promote testing as part of overall health.

  10. Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors among African American women: the Black cosmetologists promoting health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldon Rai-nesha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women have higher rates of breast cancer mortality than their white counterparts. Studies have suggested that this is partly caused by discovery of cancer at a later stage, highlighting the importance of encouraging early detection of breast cancer in this population. To guide the creation of a breast cancer education intervention and help focus other health educators' and clinicians' health promotion efforts, this study explored whether a cohort of African American women living in San Diego would demonstrate the possession of adequate baseline knowledge about breast cancer screening and adherence to widely recommended screening guidelines. Methods African American women (N = 1,055 from San Diego, California participated in a beauty salon-based survey about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices. Women's ages ranged from 20 to 94 years, with average age of 42.20 (SD = 13.53 years. Thirty-four percent reported completing college and/or some graduate school training, and 52% reported having some college or post high school formal training. Seventy-five percent of the sample reported working outside their home. Participating cosmetologists and their salons were recruited to the study through word-of-mouth referral by highly respected African American community leaders. Results Salon clients reported low rates of adherence to recommended breast cancer screening guidelines. Of the 1,055 participants, 31% reporting performing breast self-exam every month. Of those participants 40 and older, 57% reported having had a clinical breast exam and 43% reported having had a mammogram in the past year. Knowledge of breast cancer was associated with adherence to screening guidelines. While women recognized the serious health threat that breast cancer poses and that early detection of breast cancer is important, only 30% of women reported feeling well informed about the disease. Many participants

  11. Excessive daytime sleepiness and adherence to antihypertensive medications among Blacks: analysis of the counseling African Americans to control hypertension (CAATCH trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams NJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natasha J Williams,1 Girardin Jean-Louis,1 Abhishek Pandey,2 Joseph Ravenell,1 Carla Boutin-Foster,3 Gbenga Ogedegbe1 1Center for Healthful Behavior Change, Division of Internal Medicine, NYU Medical Center, New York, 2Department of Family Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, 3Center of Excellence in Disparities Research, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS often occurs as a result of insufficient sleep, sleep apnea, illicit substance use, and other medical and psychiatric conditions. This study tested the hypothesis that blacks exhibiting EDS would have poorer self-reported adherence to hypertensive medication using cross-sectional data from the Counseling African-Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH trial. Methods: A total of 1,058 hypertensive blacks (average age 57±12 years participated in CAATCH, a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a multilevel intervention for participants who receive care from community health centers in New York City. Data analyzed in this study included baseline sociodemographics, medical history, EDS, and medication adherence. We used the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, with a cutoff score of ≥10, to define EDS. Medication adherence was measured using an abbreviated Morisky Medication Adherence scale, with a score >0 indicating nonadherence. Results: Of the sample, 71% were female, 72% received at least a high school education, 51% reported a history of smoking, and 33% had a history of alcohol consumption. Overall, 27% of the participants exhibited EDS, and 44% of those who exhibited EDS were classified as adherent to prescribed antihypertensive medications. Multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusting for effects of age, body mass index, sex, education, and smoking and drinking history indicated that participants who exhibited EDS were more than twice as likely to be nonadherent (odds ratio 2.28, 95

  12. Early Academic Achievement Among American Low-Income Black Students from Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Palamar, Joseph; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2015-11-01

    At least half of the well-documented achievement gap for low-income Black children is already present in kindergarten, due in part to limited opportunities for acquiring foundational skills necessary for school success. There is some evidence that low-income minority children from immigrant families have more positive outcomes than their non-immigrant counterparts, although little is known about how the immigrant paradox may manifest in young children. This study examines foundational school readiness skills (academic and social-emotional learning) at entry into pre-kindergarten (pre-k) and achievement in kindergarten and second grade among Black children from low-income immigrant and non-immigrant families (N = 299). Immigrant and non-immigrant children entered pre-k with comparable readiness scores; in both groups, reading scores decreased significantly from kindergarten to second grade and math scores decreased significantly for non-immigrant children and marginally for immigrant children. Regardless of immigrant status, pre-k school readiness and pre-k classroom quality were associated with elementary school achievement. However, declines in achievement scores were not as steep for immigrant children and several predictive associations were moderated by immigrant status, such that among those with lower pre-k school readiness or in lower quality classrooms, immigrant children had higher achievement test scores than children from non-immigrant families. Findings suggest that immigrant status provides young Black students with some protection against individual- and classroom-level risk factors for early underachievement in elementary school.

  13. Early Family Deaths May Create 'Grief Gap' for Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163190.html Early Family Deaths May Create 'Grief Gap' for Blacks Compared ... Americans, the researchers found that death strikes black families significantly earlier than whites on average. "Blacks were ...

  14. Graduating Black Males: A Generic Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Black males face a difficult educational battle. Across America, graduation statistics for Black males are sobering. The purpose of this study was to explore why Black males drop out of school and to examine the current employment status of the study participants. The research took place in rural North Carolina. Fifteen Black American male high…

  15. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  16. Influence of drift and admixture on population structure of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Central Interior Highlands, USA, 50 years after translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Emily E.; Kristensen, Thea V.; Wilton, Clay M.; Lyda, Sara B.; Noyce, Karen V.; Holahan, Paula M.; Leslie,, David M.; Beringer, J.; Belant, Jerrold L.; White, D.; Eggert, L.S.

    2014-01-01

    Bottlenecks, founder events, and genetic drift often result in decreased genetic diversity and increased population differentiation. These events may follow abundance declines due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations, where translocations may be an effective conservation strategy to increase population size. American black bears (Ursus americanus) were nearly extirpated from the Central Interior Highlands, USA by 1920. In an effort to restore bears, 254 individuals were translocated from Minnesota, USA, and Manitoba, Canada, into the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains from 1958 to 1968. Using 15 microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes, we observed contemporary genetic diversity and differentiation between the source and supplemented populations. We inferred four genetic clusters: Source, Ouachitas, Ozarks, and a cluster in Missouri where no individuals were translocated. Coalescent models using approximate Bayesian computation identified an admixture model as having the highest posterior probability (0.942) over models where the translocation was unsuccessful or acted as a founder event. Nuclear genetic diversity was highest in the source (AR = 9.11) and significantly lower in the translocated populations (AR = 7.07-7.34; P = 0.004). The Missouri cluster had the lowest genetic diversity (AR = 5.48) and served as a natural experiment showing the utility of translocations to increase genetic diversity following demographic bottlenecks. Differentiation was greater between the two admixed populations than either compared to the source, suggesting that genetic drift acted strongly over the eight generations since the translocation. The Ouachitas and Missouri were previously hypothesized to be remnant lineages. We observed a pretranslocation remnant signature in Missouri but not in the Ouachitas.

  17. Influence of drift and admixture on population structure of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Central Interior Highlands, USA, 50 years after translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Emily E; Kristensen, Thea V; Wilton, Clay M; Lyda, Sara B; Noyce, Karen V; Holahan, Paula M; Leslie, David M; Beringer, Jeff; Belant, Jerrold L; White, Don; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-05-01

    Bottlenecks, founder events, and genetic drift often result in decreased genetic diversity and increased population differentiation. These events may follow abundance declines due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations, where translocations may be an effective conservation strategy to increase population size. American black bears (Ursus americanus) were nearly extirpated from the Central Interior Highlands, USA by 1920. In an effort to restore bears, 254 individuals were translocated from Minnesota, USA, and Manitoba, Canada, into the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains from 1958 to 1968. Using 15 microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes, we observed contemporary genetic diversity and differentiation between the source and supplemented populations. We inferred four genetic clusters: Source, Ouachitas, Ozarks, and a cluster in Missouri where no individuals were translocated. Coalescent models using approximate Bayesian computation identified an admixture model as having the highest posterior probability (0.942) over models where the translocation was unsuccessful or acted as a founder event. Nuclear genetic diversity was highest in the source (AR = 9.11) and significantly lower in the translocated populations (AR = 7.07-7.34; P = 0.004). The Missouri cluster had the lowest genetic diversity (AR = 5.48) and served as a natural experiment showing the utility of translocations to increase genetic diversity following demographic bottlenecks. Differentiation was greater between the two admixed populations than either compared to the source, suggesting that genetic drift acted strongly over the eight generations since the translocation. The Ouachitas and Missouri were previously hypothesized to be remnant lineages. We observed a pretranslocation remnant signature in Missouri but not in the Ouachitas.

  18. How to End Colonial Domination of Black America: A Challenge to Black Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph Hannibal, III

    1970-01-01

    Argues that Black people must engage in a therapeutic struggle which stresses Afro-American history and nationalism, and that Black professionals must shed narrow confines of academic disciplines and think as social scientists. (KG)

  19. In and out of love with hip-hop: saliency of sexual scripts for young adult African American women in hip-hop and Black-oriented television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D

    2016-10-01

    Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed.

  20. Black Self-Love, Language, and the Teacher Education Dilemma. The Cultural Denial and Cultural Limbo of African American Preservice Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Shuaib J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the phenomena of cultural denial and cultural limbo among African American preservice teachers with linguistic allegiance to African American English, presenting data from interviews with two preservice teachers. Discusses African American self-love within the language politics of teacher education. Examines survival strategies used…

  1. Vital Signs: The State of African Americans in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Theodore L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents a statistical record of the progress of African Americans in institutions of higher education in the United States. Statistics include trends in black enrollment, library resources in historically black colleges, leading foundation grants, blacks in business schools, and comparative analysis of Asian Americans and blacks in higher…

  2. Medical advice and diabetes self-management reported by Mexican-American, Black- and White-non-Hispanic adults across the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaccaro Joan A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, particularly among minorities, and if improperly managed can lead to medical complications and death. Healthcare providers play vital roles in communicating standards of care, which include guidance on diabetes self-management. The background of the client may play a role in the patient-provider communication process. The aim of this study was to determine the association between medical advice and diabetes self care management behaviors for a nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes. Moreover, we sought to establish whether or not race/ethnicity was a modifier for reported medical advice received and diabetes self-management behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from 654 adults aged 21 years and over with diagnosed diabetes [130 Mexican-Americans; 224 Black non-Hispanics; and, 300 White non-Hispanics] and an additional 161 with 'undiagnosed diabetes' [N = 815(171 MA, 281 BNH and 364 WNH] who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2008. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether medical advice to engage in particular self-management behaviors (reduce fat or calories, increase physical activity or exercise, and control or lose weight predicted actually engaging in the particular behavior and whether the impact of medical advice on engaging in the behavior differed by race/ethnicity. Additional analyses examined whether these relationships were maintained when other factors potentially related to engaging in diabetes self management such as participants' diabetes education, sociodemographics and physical characteristics were controlled. Sample weights were used to account for the complex sample design. Results Although medical advice to the patient is considered a standard of care for diabetes, approximately one-third of the sample reported not receiving dietary, weight management, or physical

  3. "It Really Is Not Just Gay, but African American Gay": The Impact of Community and Church on the Experiences of Black Lesbians Living in North Central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Clare F

    2016-09-01

    The experiences of Black lesbians highlight the unique circumstance found at the intersection of sexuality, race, and gender. However, most sexuality research tends to focus on White lesbians and White gay men, and most race research tends to focus on Black heterosexuals. Furthermore, research on the Black gay community tends to focus on those living in the Northeast or on the West Coast, neglecting experiences of those living in the more politically, socially, and religiously conservative South. This article draws on data obtained from semistructured interviews with 12 Black lesbians living in north central Florida, exploring their perspectives as they negotiate a social world of intersecting oppressions. Participants especially highlight how they contextualized their sexuality in racialized terms and negotiated it in racially defined communities.

  4. The Role of the Black Church, the Barbershop/Beauty Salon, and Digital Communication to Support African American Persons Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Yegan

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010) reports that approximately 1 million people in the United States are living with HIV. African Americans comprise 12% of the population yet account for approximately 46% of the people living with HIV. The rising prevalence rate among African Americans is an anomaly given that the prevalence rate…

  5. Black humor in O.Henry's novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静楠

    2013-01-01

      Black humor is a kind of literary style rose in American and O .Henry's novels used it to express the satire to society and show the sympathy to the lower class .The most typical works contain black humor two are The Cop and the Anthem and The Gift of the Magi.By using black humor, he created his unique endings .This article is trying to analysis the use of black humor in his novels and the effect.

  6. Black Press Commentary on the Japanese Internment during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeter, James Phillip

    A study examined contemporary reactions of the Black American press to the relocation and internment of the Japanese and Japanese Americans during World War II. Noting that the Black American press has been an activist press since its inception in 1827, it was hypothesized that Black newspapers would editorialize against the internment of Japanese…

  7. Black History, Inc! Investigating the Production of Black History through Walmart's Corporate Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Social and public sites are becoming a popular medium for intellectual consumption of Black history. Given the educational climate in which many students' exposure to Black history may come from outside of schools, the authors examine how Walmart's Black History Month Web site produced simplistic and safe narratives about African American history.

  8. Recommendations to Public Speaking Instructors for the Negotiation of Code-Switching Practices among Black English-Speaking African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Deric M.; Walker, Felicia R.

    2004-01-01

    Six recommendations that instructors can employ to encourage effective classroom code-switching practices among Black English-speaking students in the basic communication course are discussed. These include reconsidering attitudes, communicating expectations, demonstrating model language behavior, affirming students' language, creating culturally…

  9. Contesting history and pursuing "other" knowledge: A study of hip-hop and non-formal education among Native American youth in San Francisco and black Portuguese youth in Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Miye Nadya

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a broad-reaching effort to interrogate enduring colonial legacies as experienced by Native American youth in the United States of America and Black Portuguese youth of Cape Verdean origin in Portugal. As part of its methodological approach, it uses hip-hop - a cultural movement composed of four elements including rap music - to examine how youth from specific communities access knowledge which is denied to them in schools, give revolutionary voice to their realities, and broadcast perspectives on race, place and belonging. When knowledge is negated in learning institutions, non-formal education created by youth is a powerful force in re-affirming tradition and transformation. Hip-hop becomes a medium to create alternative educational projects addressing the needs of youth in San Francisco, USA, and Lisbon, Portugal, where this research was conducted.

  10. First Person Past: American Autobiographies, Volume 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    American literature, biography, Tunis Campbell, Black Elk, Andrew Carnegie, Booker T. Washington, Mary Antin, Mary Jones, Frederic Howe, Anna Howard Shaw, Woody Guthrie, Monica Sone, Anne Moody, Ron Kovic......American literature, biography, Tunis Campbell, Black Elk, Andrew Carnegie, Booker T. Washington, Mary Antin, Mary Jones, Frederic Howe, Anna Howard Shaw, Woody Guthrie, Monica Sone, Anne Moody, Ron Kovic...

  11. Interprete black humor in the American novelist Heller's works%美国小说家海勒作品中的黑色幽默解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张希萌

    2013-01-01

    "Black humor"with despair, pain, horror of meaning, so it is also called"gallows humor","desperate humor".The theme of the novel absurd plot, be reduced to fragments, figure distorted, style is hidden deep sorrow and despair behind the humorous, showing the features have a style of one's own.This paper first describes the creation background of black humor, interprete black humor theory how through the dialogue way to show the absurdity of the world, struggle in vain, rational fear, social alienation of people, so that readers can have a more comprehensive understanding of black humor in Heller's works.%  “黑色幽默”带有绝望、痛苦、恐怖之意,故又称为“绞刑架下的幽默”,“绝望的幽默”等。其小说主题荒诞悖谬,情节支离破碎,人物扭曲变形,风格则在滑稽幽默的背后蕴藏着深沉的悲哀与绝望,显示出别具一格的特色。本文先讲述黑色幽默创作的背景,进而主要解读黑色幽默理论如何通过对话的方式展现世界的荒诞、自我挣扎的徒劳、理性原则破灭后的惶恐、社会对人的异化,使读者对海勒作品中的黑色幽默有更全面的认识。

  12. African and African American Children's and Adolescent Literature in the Classroom: A Critical Guide. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian, Ed.; Napoli, Mary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The essays in this collection discuss multicultural issues in children's and adolescent literature, focusing particularly on African and African American cultures. They challenge everyone's understanding of what, in an age of globalization, multicultural texts really are. Cumulatively, these essays illustrate multicultural literature's power to…

  13. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  14. Black psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black psyllium is a weed that grows aggressively throughout the world. The plant was spread with the ... to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse black psyllium with other forms of psyllium including blond ...

  15. Disillusionment of the American Dream——On An American Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管秀丽

    2008-01-01

    Theodore Dreiser is now regarded as one of the pre-eminent American realistic novelists of the first half of the twentieth century.an anatomist of the American Dream.In his great work An American Tragedy,Dreis- er exposes and criticizes mercilessly the corruption and black side of American society.The disillusionment of the American Dream is an important theme of the fiction.This paper illustrates "An American Tragedy" is the re- flection of disillusionment of the American Dream in the perspectives of the tragedy of a mortal,the tragedy of American society,and the tragedy of the American Dream.

  16. Breastfeeding Initiation and Maintenance Among African Americans and Blacks Enrolled in a Nurse Home Visitation Program: An Outcomes Focused Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    cancer, and potentially decreased risk of osteoporosis 8 during the woman’s postmenopausal period (10; 50; 62; 72; 90; 129; 134; 149; 174; 206; 227...and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults , 1999-2010. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 307:491-7 88...factors on bone mass later in life. Osteoporosis International : A Journal Established As Result Of Cooperation between the European Foundation for

  17. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  18. Consequences of the Black Sense of Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard L.; Bagozzi, Richard P.

    2001-01-01

    Interviewed African American adults to investigate the influence of a multifaceted black self-construct (African self-consciousness, ethnic identity, and black identity) on specific social and political orientations. The separate facets of the self-construct were correlated, reflected a strong sense of self, indicated a collectivist orientation,…

  19. Spiritual Weapons: Black Female Principals and Religio-Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Noelle; Taylor, Dianne L.

    2010-01-01

    The historic connection of religion and spirituality to women, education, advocacy, and leadership is prevalent in Black American histories in general and the role of the religion and spirit in promoting education and socialisation. Important in this history is the intersection of spirituality and leadership for Black American women. This research…

  20. Research Sources and Microforms in Black Studies: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridinger, Robert B. Marks

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes 93 reference works and 23 microform collections concerning the Black American experience in 13 subject areas of the social sciences (anthropology, biography, race relations and civil rights, the Black church, communication studies, economics, education, dance, genealogy, Black history, sports, women's studies, and literature and language)…

  1. Undoing Racism in America: Help from the Black Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Erika; Vora, Jay A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether a planned engagement of white college students, which had very little contact with African Americans, with members of a black community in a safe, welcoming environment (a black church) would significantly reduce racism. Participant surveys indicated that positive interactions between Blacks and Whites resulted in positive…

  2. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  3. Streaming weekly soap opera video episodes to smartphones in a randomized controlled trial to reduce HIV risk in young urban African American/black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel; Lacroix, Lorraine J

    2012-07-01

    Love, Sex, and Choices is a 12-episode soap opera video series created as an intervention to reduce HIV sex risk. The effect on women's HIV risk behavior was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in 238 high risk, predominately African American young adult women in the urban Northeast. To facilitate on-demand access and privacy, the episodes were streamed to study-provided smartphones. Here, we discuss the development of a mobile platform to deliver the 12-weekly video episodes or weekly HIV risk reduction written messages to smartphones, including; the technical requirements, development, and evaluation. Popularity of the smartphone and use of the Internet for multimedia offer a new channel to address health disparities in traditionally underserved populations. This is the first study to report on streaming a serialized video-based intervention to a smartphone. The approach described here may provide useful insights in assessing advantages and disadvantages of smartphones to implement a video-based intervention.

  4. New Resources for Black History Month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Patricia, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews eight children's books, three books for teachers, and a set of posters that focus on African American history. The books focus on rhymes, poetry, the negro baseball leagues, the African American family, the civil rights movement, the Coretta Scott King Awards, multicultural education, and black innovators. (MDM)

  5. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  6. Black plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, L

    1997-01-01

    Many African-Americans are reluctant to participate in clinical trials of any type, citing the Federal government's unethical syphilis experiments in the Tuskegee Study. African-Americans are also more predisposed to choose alternative treatments over mainstream therapies. These attitudes contribute to the rise in infection rates in this population that now accounts for 41 percent of all reported cases. It is essential that African-Americans participate in HIV research at every level.

  7. Identité et marchandisation : Le cas des black memorabilia et black collectibles

    OpenAIRE

    Elmaleh, Eliane

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to raise the issue of the commodification of African American culture, mainly through a certain form of art that has re-emerged with Black memorabilia which paradoxically fit into a black-driven market. However, these items penetrated American culture from 1920 to the 1950s to convey images of black people as lazy, stupid, childlike and happy. This condition of permanent happiness, typified by a broad smile and white teeth, was a fundamental component of this racist...

  8. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  9. Higher Education and the Early Education of African American Ministers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The education of African American ministers in the United States has been little researched. Numerous books address the profession of ministry and the education of Blacks in general, but most do not specifically address issues pertaining to the professional education of Black ministers. The majority of the hurdles African Americans faced were…

  10. A Study of Complexion, Gender and Black Original Ecological Culture in Afro-American Feminist Literature%美国非裔女性作家笔下的肤色、性别与黑人原生态文化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志芳; 王声令

    2014-01-01

    肤色、性别与原生态文化是美国非裔女性作家佐拉·尼尔·赫斯顿创作的主要关涉点。与白皮肤比较而言,赫斯顿认为黑肤色等族裔特征为一种差异性的美。被界定为非主流草根文化的黑人原生态文化是黑人生存的策略和非裔文化身份的标识,是美国文化不可或缺的一个构成元素。黑人与白人、黑人文化与白人文化在保持个性的同时要进行种族间人与人的良性互动和种族间文化与文化的交融。赫斯顿在文本中近距离地审视了黑人男性对黑人女性的性别歧视,倡导族裔内部平等、互补的双性和谐,为非裔美国女性作家开启了一种有效的性别、种族、文化的诉求途径。%Afro-American woman writer Zola Neale Hurston focuses on complexion, gender,original ecologi-cal culture. As compared to white, Hurston considers black complexion as a beauty of difference. Black original ecological culture, which is defined as non-mainstream grassroots culture, is not only the strategy of the black’s survival but also the mark of Afro-American’s cultural identity, and the essential element of American culture. Black and white, black culture and white culture should keep the benign interaction between the racial groups and ethnic culture blending while maintaining individual characteristics. In the text Hurston makes a closer examina-tion of black men’s gender discrimination against black women, and advocates the equality inside the ethnic com-munity and the complementary harmony between the two genders. All of these open an effective channel for Af-ro-American women writers to appeal for gender, race and culture.

  11. Developing Critical Hip Hop Feminist Literacies: Centrality and Subversion of Sexuality in the Lives of Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The present article explores discourses surrounding the bodies of Black women and girls as they engage the meanings of Black womanhood in (American) society in an afterschool setting. Drawing on Black and hip hop feminisms, African American literacies, and critical discourse perspectives, the author analyzes two young girls' narratives, which…

  12. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  13. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  14. Spatial segmentation and the black middle class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Ethnographic studies of the black middle class focus attention on the ways in which residential environments condition the experiences of different segments of the black class structure. This study places these arguments in a larger demographic context by providing a national analysis of neighborhood inequality and spatial inequality of different racial and ethnic groups in urban America. The findings show that there has been no change over time in the degree to which majority-black neighborhoods are surrounded by spatial disadvantage. Predominantly black neighborhoods, regardless of socioeconomic composition, continue to be spatially linked with areas of severe disadvantage. However, there has been substantial change in the degree to which middle- and upper-income African-American households have separated themselves from highly disadvantaged neighborhoods. These changes are driven primarily by the growing segment of middle- and upper-income African-Americans living in neighborhoods in which they are not the majority group, both in central cities and in suburbs.

  15. Fanon's Children: The Black Panther Party and the Rise of the Crips and Bloods in Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Barganier, George

    2011-01-01

    Black nationalists of the Black Power era often viewed Black criminality as an essential component to Black political consciousness. "There have been those black Americans who have resisted white America," activist Julius Lester argued. "These were the field niggers during slavery, Nat Turner, the Black abolitionists, Garvey, and in our own time, Malcolm, the hustler on the corner and the high-school dropout." Scholars have amply demonstrated the ideological logic of Julius Lester's thinki...

  16. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon Dawson, Candice

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  17. Civil Rights and Japanese-American Internment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Greg; Hojo, Samantha; Lai, Selena; Mukai, Gary; Yoda, Steven

    Students may not be as familiar with the Asian American struggle for equal rights as they are with the black struggle for equal rights. But Asian Americans' civil rights have also been challenged and/or denied throughout their history in the United States. This curriculum module contains six lessons and can be used as a supplement to history…

  18. African-American attitudes towards United States immigration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, J

    1998-01-01

    In the growing US debate over immigration policy since the 1980s, it is often argued that immigration must be restricted in order to protect Black Americans from competition with newly arrived immigrants. Findings are reported upon Black Americans' attitudes toward immigration policy. An extensive review of more than 50 Black newspapers and magazines, from January 1994 to June 1996, uncovered attitudes both in favor of and against restricting immigration. The majority of articles in the Black press on immigration, however, were nonrestrictionist. The Black political leadership is also against restricting immigration. Furthermore, a review of the 14 most recent national opinion polls on immigration available to the Roper Center for Public Opinion Research as of July 1996 found that while many Blacks favor restricting immigration, all US Blacks should not be characterized as restrictionist, especially when compared with Whites. Historical attitudes among US Blacks dating back to before the abolition of slavery are discussed.

  19. Mortality rates among Arab Americans in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallo, Florence J; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans were in the range of whites and blacks. However, Arab American men had lower mortality rates from cancer and chronic lower respiratory disease compared to both whites and blacks. Among women, Arab Americans had lower mortality rates from heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes than whites and blacks. Arab Americans are growing in number. Future study should focus on designing rigorous separate analyses for this population.

  20. Black-White Health Inequalities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry; Patterson, Andrew C

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about Black-White health inequalities in Canada or the applicability of competing explanations for them. To address this gap, we used nine cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey to analyze multiple health outcomes in a sample of 3,127 Black women, 309,720 White women, 2,529 Black men and 250,511 White men. Adjusting for age, marital status, urban/rural residence and immigrant status, Black women and men were more likely than their White counterparts to report diabetes and hypertension, Black women were less likely than White women to report cancer and fair/poor mental health and Black men were less likely than White men to report heart disease. These health inequalities persisted after controlling for education, household income, smoking, physical activity and body-mass index. We conclude that high rates of diabetes and hypertension among Black Canadians may stem from experiences of racism in everyday life, low rates of heart disease and cancer among Black Canadians may reflect survival bias and low rates of fair/poor mental health among Black Canadian women represent a mental health paradox similar to the one that exists for African Americans in the United States.

  1. Korean Wife-American Husband Families in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Don Chang

    Many American servicemen have married Asian women and brought them to the United States. Asian wife-American husband families are unique compared to black-white or European-American marriages because they are both interracial and cross-cultural. Yet, few studies have been done to analyze their relationships and problems in adjusting to American…

  2. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  3. Black Ghetto Diversity and Anomie: A Sociopolitical View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsis, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses a study which measured responses to anomie scales across black neighborhoods. Findings indicate that American black urban ghettos include a great variety of subculturally distinct residential areas. Concludes that the most crucial variables are those which determine the relationship between neighborhoods and the citypower structure.…

  4. Molecular characterization of aphid resistance in black raspberry germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black raspberry is a minor but lucrative crop with most of the acreage in the U.S. found in Oregon. Rapid decline of plantings results from virus infection vectored by the North American large raspberry aphid and is the most limiting factor for growing black raspberry. Existing cultivars are suscept...

  5. Obesity among Black Adolescent Girls: Genetic, Psychosocial, and Cultural Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Sylvan I.; LaPoint, Velma

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the causes, consequences, and prevention of obesity among a subgroup of the American population, Black adolescent girls. Using an ecological perspective on obesity among Black adolescent girls, including feminist-womanist perspectives and historical and medical sociological perspectives, the authors discuss genetic,…

  6. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁梅

    2016-01-01

    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  7. Black Heroes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Describes activities and resources for elementary and junior high school students that highlight the contributions of African-Americans in the United States. Materials reviewed include games, workbooks, teacher's guides, and books for students. A list of distributors who can provide additional print and nonprint materials is included. (two…

  8. Kill Them Before They Grow. Misdiagnosis of African American Boys in American Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael

    This book contends that the American public education system has made "black male" synonymous with "disabled" through the creation of the labels "Behavior Disorders" and "Emotional Disorders." These labels, which say that African American boys cannot behave without special treatment, juvenile probation, and,…

  9. W. E. B. Du Bois's Basic American Negro Creed and the Associates in Negro Folk Education: A Case of Repressive Tolerance in the Censorship of Radical Black Discourse on Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Talmadge C.; Brookfield, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    W. E. B. Du Bois, one of the brightest lights in African American history, wrote a sparkling critique of the American social and economic system originally planned as part of the Bronze Booklets series, edited and published by Alain Locke and the Associates in Negro Folk Education. The piece was never published and has, until now, been lost to the…

  10. Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunava

    2011-01-01

    The European Center for Nuclear Research or CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has caught our attention partly due to the film "Angels and Demons." In the movie, an antimatter bomb attack on the Vatican is foiled by the protagonist. Perhaps just as controversial is the formation of mini black holes (BHs). Recently, the American Physical Society…

  11. Harvard, Harvard: He's Perfect and He's Black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the higher educational experiences of Lawrence Mungin, an African American who attended Harvard University and Harvard Law School. Mungin believed that working hard and being the good Black would lead to success in the White world. Despite his credentials, he was given trivial work at the law firm that hired him and that he later sued.…

  12. Black Cinderella: Multicultural Literature and School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses diversity issues evident in fairy tales and explores the pedagogical implications for adding counter-narratives in the school curriculum. Critical Race Theory is employed. In order to uncover contradictory discourses of race within Black cultures, four Africana (African, African American, and Caribbean) Cinderella tale types…

  13. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union." Keywords: literature concepts, African American abstracts

  14. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Kandil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black thyroid syndrome, all of whom underwent thyroid surgery, were reviewed. Data on age, gender, race, preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA, thyroid function levels, and pathology reports were collected. Main Outcome. The mean age was 60 years. There were 5 females, 4 of whom were African American. All patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Black pigmentation was not diagnosed in preoperative FNA, and only one patient had a preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The other patients underwent surgery and were found to have black pigmentation of the thyroid associated with carcinoma. Conclusions. FNA does not diagnose black thyroid, which is associated with thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid glands with black pigmentation deserve thorough pathologic examination, including several sections of each specimen.

  15. Identité et marchandisation : Le cas des black memorabilia et black collectibles Identity and Commodification: The Case of Black Memorabilia and Black Collectibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Elmaleh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to raise the issue of the commodification of African American culture, mainly through a certain form of art that has re-emerged with Black memorabilia which paradoxically fit into a black-driven market. However, these items penetrated American culture from 1920 to the 1950s to convey images of black people as lazy, stupid, childlike and happy. This condition of permanent happiness, typified by a broad smile and white teeth, was a fundamental component of this racist and stereotyped imagery. Thus, this article focuses on the thin border between racism and the denunciation of racism, commodification and denunciation of commodification, art and its by-products being always co-opted in the specific logic of private productivity.

  16. Dominant culturable bacterial microbiota in the digestive tract of the American black vulture (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 and search for antagonistic substances Microbiota bacteriana dominante cultivável no trato digestivo do urubu (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydston Rodrigues de Carvalho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Strict and facultative culturable anaerobic bacteria from the digestive tract of six American black vultures (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 were isolated and identified. After capture, the birds received a non-contaminated diet for one week to eliminate possible allochthonous microorganisms. Then, specimens collected from tongue, stomach and intestines were weighed, submitted to decimal dilution in an anaerobic chamber, inoculated into culture media and incubated aerobically and anaerobically at 37ºC for enumeration, isolation and identification. Isolated bacteria were submitted to tests to detect possible antagonisms between them. The total bacterial population along the digestive tract ranged from 3.46 ± 0.39 log CFU/g in the stomach to 10.75 ± 0.37 log CFU/g in the distal intestine. Some bacteria were isolated for the first time from the digestive tract of C. atratus: Actinomyces bovis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Micrococcus luteus, Neisseria sicca, Clostridium bifermentans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Peptostreptococcus sp., Sarcina sp., Serratia odorifera, and Shigella flexneri. Associations between microorganisms were observed during isolation on two occasions, one involving A. bovis and N. sicca, and the other involving A. bovis and a Gram-negative rod. Hetero-, iso- and autoantagonisms were observed, suggesting the ecological role of these indigenous microorganisms in terms of population auto-control and environmental barrier in the digestive tract of carrion-feeding birds.As bactérias anaeróbias estritas e facultativas cultiváveis do trato digestivo de seis urubus (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 foram isoladas e identificadas. Após a captura, as aves receberam uma alimentação de baixa contaminação durante uma semana para eliminar possíveis microorganismos alóctonos. A seguir, amostras colhidas na língua, estomago e intestinos foram pesadas, submetidas a diluições decimais numa câmara anaeróbia, inoculadas em meios de

  17. Black gold

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, MW

    2016-01-01

    Following the Yom Kippur war of October 1973, OPEC raises the price of oil by 70% along with a 5% reduction in oil production. Len Saunders a highly skilled and knowledgeable British engineer for Jaguar motors, is approached by the UK energy commission in the January of 1974 to create a new propulsion system; using a secret document from a German WW2 scientist, that they have come into possession of. Len Saunders sets to work on creating the holy grail of energy. Seven years later 1981, Haidar Farooq the Kuwait oil minister working at OPEC and head of a secret organisation named Black Gold bec

  18. Telephone surveys underestimate cigarette smoking among African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope eLandrine

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study tested the hypothesis that data from random digit-dial telephone surveys underestimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among African-American adults. Method. A novel, community-sampling method was used to obtain a statewide, random sample of N= 2118 California (CA African-American/Black adults, surveyed door-to-door. This Black community sample was compared to the Blacks in the CA Health Interview Survey (N = 2315, a statewide, random digit-dial telephone-survey conducted simultaneously. Results. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among community (33% than among telephone-survey (19% Blacks, even after controlling for sample-differences in demographics.Conclusions. Telephone surveys underestimate smoking among African-Americans and probably underestimate other health risk behaviors as well. Alternative methods are needed to obtain accurate data on African-American health behaviors and on the magnitude of racial disparities in them.

  19. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  20. Dissonant Black Droplets and Black Funnels

    CERN Document Server

    Fischetti, Sebastian; Way, Benson

    2016-01-01

    A holographic field theory on a fixed black hole background has a gravitational dual represented by a black funnel or a black droplet. These states are "detuned" when the temperature of the field theory near the horizon does not match the temperature of the background black hole. In particular, the gravitational dual to the Boulware state must be a detuned solution. We construct detuned droplets and funnels dual to a Schwarzschild background and show that the Boulware phase is represented by a droplet. We also construct hairy black droplets associated to a low-temperature scalar condensation instability and show that they are thermodynamically preferred to their hairless counterparts.

  1. Mortality Rates Among Arab Americans in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Dallo, Florence J.; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J.; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, ...

  2. Kitchenette Correlatives: African American Neo-Modernism,the Popular Front, and the Emergence of a Black Literary Avant-garde in the 1940s and 1950s%非洲裔美国新现代主义、大众阵线与20世纪40-50年代先锋派黑人文学的兴起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹姆斯·斯摩瑟斯特

    2007-01-01

    与许多白肤色作家和批评家一样,第二次世界大战之后的非洲裔美国作家和批评家真切地承受着20世纪初期现代主义的遗产.一方面,他们有志于利用各种"精英现代主义"来塑造黑人主观世界和黑人经历,并借此大胆宣示非洲裔美国人在艺术领域的公民地位;另一方面,黑人作家们也清楚地意识到艾略特、庞德、艾伦·泰特等美国主要的现代主义领袖人物及其支持者表现出来的种族主义,所以在吸收他们成果的同时也对这种种族主义提出了质疑.美国新现代主义的兴起常常被认为是对随着冷战而得以强化的大众阵线的美学和文化体系的攻击,黑人新现代主义作家--许多都曾经是左翼活跃分子--却常常坚持与大众阵线艺术在形式上和主题上的联系,这一点使他们全然不同于白肤色同仁们.非洲裔美国作家与现代主义以及新批评派和纽约派所支持的20世纪40-50年代现代主义复兴的关系主要沿着两条轨迹发展:一是美国黑人新现代主义的兴起明显地受到冷战时期新现代主义复兴大气候的影响,这一点在非洲裔美国文学艺术中一直显眼;二是它推动了一种大相迥异却不无关联的更加平民化的非洲裔美国先锋文学的发展,将非洲裔美国精英艺术推到世界艺术表现的锋尖,同时又使之与非洲裔美国人的经历和表现文化不可避免地联系起来,尤其是与新的博普爵士乐联系起来.非洲裔美国文学中的新现代主义和更加平民化的先锋派,两者在许多方面都根植于20世纪30-50年代的黑人左翼文化与政治.%Like many of their white peers, post-World War Ⅱ African American writers and critics strongly engaged the legacy of early twentieth century modernism. They were interested in the utility of various strains of "high modernism" for the figuration of black subjectivity and experience as well as a tool for aggressively

  3. EXPLORATION ON PERFORMANCE AND CAUSES OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN IN WORLD WAR II---LEAVING ASIDE THE DISCUSSION OF THE POSTWAR BLACK CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT%二战后美国黑人教育进步的表现及原因探析--撇开战后黑人民权运动的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩; 周磊

    2014-01-01

    Education is particularly important for enlightening wisdom and heritage of national culture of a nation, but as a "second-class citizens", the African-American’ right to receive education was denied when they came to the American continent. The African Americans not only struggle for freedom, but also for the right to receive education at all times. The blacks’right to receive education after World War II has been continuously improved and achieved great progress. The progress in educational advancement is due to the post-war turbulent black civil rights movement and more importantly, the main reason is due to the enhancement of the political and economic status of African Americans;In addition, Postwar America needs high-quality labor of African Americans; Postwar U.S. domestic and international situation have also played a significant role in promoting the educational progress of African Americans;certainly the progress also benefits from the support of liberal American politicians.%教育对于启迪一个民族的智慧和传承民族文化尤为重要,而作为“二等公民”的美国黑人接受教育的权力在其来到美洲大陆,就被剥夺。美国黑人在争取自由的同时,也在无时不刻的争取接受教育的权利。二战后黑人受教育权利不断得到改善,进步明显。这些进步不仅是战后风起云涌的黑人民权运动所致,更主要的是美国黑人自身政治经济地位的提升;战后对于高素质黑人劳动力的需要;同时战后美国国内和国际形势对于黑人教育进步也起到了很大的促进作用;当然也得益于开明美国政治人物的支持。

  4. Empowering Young Black Males--III: A Systematic Modular Training Program for Black Male Children & Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Courtland C.

    This series of five interrelated modules is an update and revision of "Saving the Native Son: Empowerment Strategies for Young Black Males (1996)." It offers specific strategies for empowering young African American males to help them achieve optimal educational and social success. Empowerment is a developmental process by which people who are…

  5. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  6. A Critique of Race Relations Theory as Applied to Public Policy: The Case of Historically Black Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William H.

    American race relations theory is applied to the conceptualization of assimilation in America and to problems in planning in higher education desegregation. Black colleges can be viewed as microcosms of American race relations in their patterns of conflict, accommodation, and assimilation. The conflict over the propriety of black colleges' claims…

  7. Just Doing What They Gotta Do: Single Black Custodial Fathers Coping with the Stresses and Reaping the Rewards of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Roberta L.

    2009-01-01

    For single African American custodial fathers, parenting stress is exacerbated by the cultural expectation that Black fathers are "normally" absent and by the clustering of stresses that Black men are more likely to encounter. This sample of African American fathers have used a repertoire of problem-focused and cognitive coping strategies,…

  8. Substance Abuse in Rural African-American Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Marvin P.; Williams, Mary M.

    More research into illicit substance abuse in rural African-American communities is needed. The existing literature indicates that patterns of use for licit substances (alcohol and cigarettes) are either similar for rural Blacks and Whites or lower for Blacks. However, the negative health and social consequences of smoking and abusive drinking are…

  9. On the Issue of Race in Contemporary American Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Harry

    1982-01-01

    Just as Blacks are underrepresented in authority positions and overrepresented in the lower occupational strata in the broader American labor force, Blacks in sports also function in a semi-caste system; they are relegated to the least powerful, least secure, most expendable, and most exploited role: that of the athlete. (Author/GC)

  10. African-American Vernacular Dance: Core Culture and Meaning Operatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard-Gordon, Katrina

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of social dancing in the lives and culture of working class Black Americans. Focuses specifically on four aspects of its meaning: identity (self-esteem), cultural integrity, ingroup-outgroup, and political resistance. Bases argument on sociological, biographical, and fictional works by and about Black culture. (KH)

  11. From Dark to Light: Skin Color and Wages among African-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Arthur H.; Hamilton, Darrick; Darity, William, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops and tests a theory, referred to as "preference for whiteness," which predicts that the interracial (white-black) and intraracial wage gap widens as the skin shade of the black worker darkens. Using data drawn from the Multi City Study of Urban Inequality and the National Survey of Black Americans, we report evidence…

  12. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  13. Achievement and Expectations of Immigrant, Second Generation, and Non-Immigrant Black Students in U.S. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Research on academic achievement contrasting Black immigrant, second generation, and non-immigrant students as distinct groups is surprisingly sparse in the higher education literature. This study examined Black immigrant and second generation undergraduates from Africa and the Caribbean and non-immigrant Black American undergraduates, using the…

  14. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Trellie

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  15. Black Populations and Identity Issues in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wade

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I explore the basis for black identity in Latin America. I begin with a general consideration of the position of black populations in the framework of Latin American nationalism, taking into account the transnational dimensions of this position and then analyzing in theoretical terms the tension between particularism and universalism in ideologies of nationalism and racism. In the second part of the article, I examine some concrete historical cases of Afrodescendent mobilization and/or opening towards racial diversity in order to evaluate these as bases for a Latin American black identity in general (the racial war in Cuba in 1912, the Frente Negra Brasileira of the 1930s, the Creoles in the Sandinista regime in Nicaragua, the official multiculturalism of various Latin American countries in the 1990s, and the image of “Africa” as the basis for Afrodescendant identification.

  16. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  17. The angry black woman: the impact of pejorative stereotypes on psychotherapy with black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In the aftermath of slavery and the resulting social, economic, and political effects, Black women have become the victims of negative stereotyping in mainstream American culture. Such stereotypes include the myth of the angry Black woman that characterizes these women as aggressive, ill tempered, illogical, overbearing, hostile, and ignorant without provocation. Symptoms presented by Black women during mental health treatment may reinforce this myth. However, many of the negative characteristics of the angry Black woman developed in response to external stressors and historical factors. Black women also have a unique experience with and expressions of anger that shape the presenting symptoms interpreted by the mental health clinician. This myth and corresponding negative stereotypes significantly affect Black women intrapsychically, interpersonally, and are likely to influence the efficacy of mental health treatment. Understanding and treatment of Black women in a mental health context should be influenced by the cultural norms and sociopolitical dynamics affecting these clients. Successful mental health treatment requires cultural competence and clinicians who are well prepared to navigate the inherent complexities of culture with clients. Awareness of the angry Black woman mythology, including its genesis, manifestations, and the unique experiences of Black women, may raise the standards of cultural competence for clinicians and provide more successful treatment outcomes in working with this population. A case example illustrates the assiduity essential to practicing in a culturally competent manner. A client is presented from a traditional psychotherapeutic perspective and then viewed through a lens that integrates psychotherapeutic practice with conscious awareness of the mythology and stereotypes impacting Black women. Implications for culturally relevant practice are discussed.

  18. American Involvement in Fringe Religious Cults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    "Twenty million Americans are involved in fringe religious cults such as spiritualism, Hare Krishna, Scientology, and Black Gospel groups," according to anthropologist Irving Zaretsky of the University of Chicago. He recently completed a 10-year period as a participant-observer of fringe religious groups in the San Francisco Bay area and the…

  19. Measuring Black and White Perceptions of Racial Dynamics in Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Sumner, William Graham Folkways. New York: Ginn, 1906. Tajfel , H. Experiments in intergroup discrimination , Scientific American, 1970, 223, 96-102...organizational re- searchers (Purcell and Cavanagh, 1972; Fernandez, 1975). In light of the long history of racial discrimination - in the United...Promotion Discrimination Item Scored 1 + Blacks have to work harder than Whites to prove themselves. 2 + Blacks are almost never evaluated fairly by

  20. Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, Patricia L; Emerson, Thomas E; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R; Ward, Timothy

    2012-08-28

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States.

  1. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Imani

    2015-01-01

    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  2. Black hole hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  3. Black Hole Hair Removal

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair, -- degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  4. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  5. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  6. Life inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuchaev, V I

    2012-01-01

    We consider test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside a black hole, which are stable, periodic and neither come out of the black hole nor terminate at the singularity. Interiors of supermassive black holes may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on planets with the third-kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of black holes by observing their white hole counterparts.

  7. Charged Lifshitz Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, M. H.; Pourhasan, R.; Mann, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate modifications of the Lifshitz black hole solutions due to the presence of Maxwell charge in higher dimensions for arbitrary $z$ and any topology. We find that the behaviour of large black holes is insensitive to the topology of the solutions, whereas for small black holes significant differences emerge. We generalize a relation previously obtained for neutral Lifshitz black branes, and study more generally the thermodynamic relationship between energy, entropy, and chemical pot...

  8. American ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron ... Dizziness. Pregnancy and childbirth complications. Stress. Anemia. Insomnia. Gastritis. Impotence. Fever. Hangover symptoms. Headaches. Swine flu. Aging. ...

  9. Competing Claims: Religious Affiliation and African Americans' Intolerance of Homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledet, Richard

    2016-09-15

    Literature on religion and political intolerance indicates competing expectations about how Black Protestant church affiliation affects African Americans' attitudes about civil liberties. On the one hand, Black Protestant theology emphasizes personal freedom and social justice, factors generally linked to more tolerant attitudes. On the other hand, Black Protestants tend to be conservative on family and social issues, factors often linked to intolerance of gays and lesbians. Data from the General Social Survey are used to examine the influence of religious group identification, as well as other relevant aspects of religiosity, on political intolerance among African Americans. Results indicate that although other aspects of religion (beliefs and behaviors) help explain variation in political intolerance, Black Protestant church affiliation has no relationship with attitudes about the civil liberties of homosexuals. However, additional tests show that Black Protestant church affiliation significantly predicts intolerance of other target groups (atheists and racists).

  10. The Portrayal of Black Women in the Ads of Popular Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Juanita M.

    1980-01-01

    Black women are underrepresented and stereotyped in advertising in the popular press. Both their physical characteristics, which run counter to the American ideals of beauty, and their relatively limited buying power are factors in this underrepresentation and misrepresentation. (GC)

  11. Novel Approach to the Dark Matter Problem: Primordial Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    A discussion at a Scientific American level of the idea that the constituents of the dark mater in galactic halos are primordial intermediate-mass black holes with masses between ten and one hundred thousand times the solar mass.

  12. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  13. Marketing for Black Alums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tracy A.

    1994-01-01

    Considers need for colleges and universities to develop effective marketing plan for recruitment of black students. Highlights advantages of designing marketing plan for recruitment of black alumni to assist in recruitment and retention of black students. Identifies key indicators that often hinder institutions in their recruitment of black…

  14. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  15. Renormalized thermodynamic entropy of black holes in higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.P. [Department of Physics, Kunsan National University, Kunsan 573-701 (Korea); Kim, S.K. [Department of Physics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea); Soh, K. [Department of Physics Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea); Yee, J.H. [Department of Physics and Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea)

    1997-02-01

    We study the ultraviolet divergent structures of the matter (scalar) field in a higher D-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr{umlt o}m black hole and compute the matter field contribution to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy by using the Pauli-Villars regularization method. We find that the matter field contribution to the black hole entropy does not, in general, yield the correct renormalization of the gravitational coupling constants. In particular, we show that the matter field contribution in odd dimensions does not give the term proportional to the area of the black hole event horizon. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. 美国黑核桃的栽培及在我国的发展前景%AMERICAN BLACK WALNUT AND THE PROSPECTIVE OF ITS EXTENSION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴东; 吴燕民; 奚声柯

    2000-01-01

    @@ 黑核桃(Black walnut, Juglans nigra L.)原产于美国,是美国东部的乡土树种,常被称为东部黑核桃;它属于胡桃科(Juglandaceae)、核桃属(Juglans L.)黑核桃组.在黑核桃组中,目前已栽培的还有北加州黑核桃(J.hindsii)、魁核桃(J.major)、小果黑核桃(J.microcarpa)等,其中以黑核桃(东部黑核桃)的栽培面积最广、经济价值最高.

  17. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  18. On Accelerated Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Letelier, P S; Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    1998-01-01

    The C-metric is revisited and global interpretation of some associated spacetimes are studied in some detail. Specially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We found that the spacetime fo an accelerated Schwarzschild black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon. By using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature. We also show that the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/sqrt(27)) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated Kerr black holes. We found that they are not changed by the black hole rotation.

  19. Educational Lynching: Critical Race Theory and the Suspension of Black Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Macheo

    2010-01-01

    Looking at the disproportionate suspension of African American, Black male students through the lens of critical race theory, this presents arguments from a CRT how the disproportionate suspension of Black male students is rooted in white supremacy and racist policy in the United States. Local recommendations are offered for Oakland Unified School…

  20. Cultivating the Genius of Black Children: Strategies to Close the Achievement Gap in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Debra Ren-Etta

    2016-01-01

    There has been much attention given to the opportunity gap between white and minority students, especially African American children. Using research and years of experience "Cultivating the Genius of Black Children" is able to break down the cultural influences on learning style and provides a practical approach to helping Black children…

  1. Black Deaf Individuals' Reading Skills: Influence of ASL, Culture, Family Characteristics, Reading Experience, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M. Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Gilbert, Gizelle L.; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family…

  2. The Quality of Education and Cohort Variation in Black-White Earnings Differentials: Comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, John S.; Garfinkel, Irv

    1980-01-01

    Even after controlling for quality, ability, and motivation, a large difference in predicted earnings for Whites and Blacks was found. The returns to years of education for Whites are approximately three percentage points greater than for Blacks at every working age. Available from American Economic Review, 1313 21st Avenue So., Suite 809,…

  3. Neighborhood Racial Composition and Perceptions of Racial Discrimination: Evidence from the Black Women's Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew O.; Wise, Lauren A.; Jipguep, Marie-Claude; Cozier, Yvette C.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of social context or "place" factors (e.g., characteristics of local populations) on African Americans' perceptions and experiences of racism. Using data from 42,445 U.S. black women collected during the 1997 follow-up wave of the Black Women's Health Study, we investigated the association between neighborhood…

  4. Out-of-School Time Program Test Score Impact for Black Children of Single-Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Barry T.

    2013-01-01

    Out-of-School Time programs and their impact on standardized college entrance exam scores for black or African-American children of single parents who have applied for a competitive college scholarship program is the study focus. Study importance is supported by the large percentage of black children raised by single parents, the large percentage…

  5. Meditating Gunrunner Speaking, Part I: A Black Male Journey Teaching in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Johnnie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I offer my own decolonizing counterstory of teaching as a Black American man in a teacher education program in South Korea, to purport how I was both a colonizer and the colonized, inside and outside of the classroom and the curriculum (Asher, 2010; Baszile, 2008, 2009, 2010). To further complicate matters, my Black male body did…

  6. Private Sector Investment in Black Education and Training: Rescuing South African Capitalism from Apartheid's Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Andre

    1989-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the factors contributing to increased involvement by South African business and industry in Black education and training; (2) the Urban Foundation's commitment to non-formal education in Black communities; (3) intervention by American corporations; and (4) the dramatic failure of capitalist initiatives. Contains 55 references. (SV)

  7. Voices of Their Own:On the Construction of Black Female Characters in The Bluest Eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗姒妤

    2014-01-01

    In American cultural and literary traditions, the black females are often marginalized and stereotyped as a voiceless dim backdrop. This paper argues that The Bluest Eye notes the process of voice deprivation, and records the black females’own stories to give them back a unique voice of their own in order to construct new black female characters. This paper analyzes the tragic life of Pecola Breedlove and explores possible ways of speaking out.

  8. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  9. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2015-01-01

    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... to the lasting impact of Bang's American period, which remains the key to understanding his works....

  10. An analysis of African American Vernacular English in Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Chen-yang

    2014-01-01

    AAVE is a form of American English spoken primarily by African Americans. Although an AAVE speaker's dialect may exhibit regional variation, there are still many salient features. The relationship between Black Music and Standard American Eng-lish is a reflection of the special situation of the mutual influence and infiltration of the African-American sub-culture and the main-stream American culture. African-American sub-culture is shaped under pressure from the main-stream culture, and af-fected the latter to so great an extent that African-American sub-culture has been identified as one of the most important feature of American culture. The origin and development of Black Music are closely related to the cultural life of the Blacks. Because of its innate cultural connotation and the musical feature such as lively rhythm, fast talking, omission of pronunciation, full of ob-scene language and rhyme, all the features mentioned above help to have a great effect on the development of the AAVE.

  11. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  12. "Sturdy Black Bridges": Discussing Race, Class, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, KaaVonia

    2004-01-01

    Black feminist literary theory offers tools that teachers can use to initiate discussions on the issues of race, gender and class to analyze the works of adolescent literature. This feminist theory helps in reading and teaching literature about parallel cultures, like African-Americans and their love for self and community and their recognition of…

  13. Gene May Help Guide Black Patients' Opioid Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Gene May Help Guide Black Patients' Opioid Addiction Treatment Finding suggests they may need higher doses of ... News on: African American Health Genes and Gene Therapy Opioid Abuse and Addiction Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics African ...

  14. Race, the Black Male, and Heterogeneous Racisms in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita; Ray, Nichole; Lasker-Scott, Tennille

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the effects of historical and current racism on the educational experiences of American Black males. The authors use critical race theory to illustrate how assumptions about culture and gender have subverted the egalitarian ideals of adult education. Teachers and students are urged to use critical reflection and open…

  15. The Experiences and Development of Undergraduate Adult Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joni Denise Dent

    2012-01-01

    Just as there are reasons why Black American women decide not to attend college or to dropout of college when they are young, there are reasons why they choose to enter or reenter college as adults. Among those reasons are self-fulfillment, career aspirations, financial incentives offered by employers, and military benefits (Parr, 2000; Richardson…

  16. Picture Books about Blacks: An Interview with Opal Moore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Donnarae; Richard, Olga

    1991-01-01

    Presents an interview with Opal Moore, who discusses Black imagery in picture books published in the last four years and the institutions that circulate that imagery. Topics discussed include the issue of race pride; interracial themes; appropriate illustrations; African versus African-American books; and the roles of publishers, books reviewers,…

  17. Psychometric Properties of Scores on Three Black Racial Identity Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Crystal; Worrell, Frank C.; Berry, Jane M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency and the structural validity of scores on the African Self-Consciousness Scale (ASCS), the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), and the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS). Participants consisted of 225 African American college students--75 attending predominantly White institutions…

  18. A Call for Change: Providing Solutions for Black Male Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casserly, Michael; Lewis, Sharon; Simon, Candace; Uzzell, Renata; Palacios, Moses

    2012-01-01

    In October 2010, the Council of the Great City Schools released a major report on the academic status of African American males, "A Call for Change: The Social and Educational Factors Contributing to the Outcomes of Black Males in Urban Schools." The report was the first phase of the Council's efforts to recommit the energies of the nation's urban…

  19. Extremal Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A; Saavedra, Joel; Vasquez, Yerko

    2014-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and an U(1) electromagnetic field. Solving the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar system we find exact hairy charged black hole solutions with the scalar field regular everywhere. We go to the zero temperature limit and we study the effect of the scalar field on the near horizon geometry of an extremal black hole. We find that except a critical value of the charge of the black hole there is also a critical value of the charge of the scalar field beyond of which the extremal black hole is destabilized. We study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that if the space is flat then at low temperature the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is thermodynamically preferred, while if the space is AdS the hairy charged black hole is thermodynamically preferred at low temperature.

  20. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  1. Black Branes as Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A

    2012-01-01

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  2. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  3. Perturbations around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, B

    2005-01-01

    Perturbations around black holes have been an intriguing topic in the last few decades. They are particularly important today, since they relate to the gravitational wave observations which may provide the unique fingerprint of black holes' existence. Besides the astrophysical interest, theoretically perturbations around black holes can be used as testing grounds to examine the proposed AdS/CFT and dS/CFT correspondence.

  4. A twentieth-century triangle trade: selling black beauty at home and abroad, 1945–1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Malia

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the careers of African American beauty culturists as they worked in the United States, Europe, and Africa between 1945 and 1965. Facing push back at home, African American beauty entrepreneurs frequently sought out international venues that were hospitable and receptive to black Americans in the years following World War II. By strategically using European sites that white Americans regarded as the birthplace of Western fashion and beauty, African American entrepreneurs in the fields of modeling, fashion design, and hair care were able to win accolades and advance their careers. In gaining support abroad, particularly in Europe, these beauty culturists capitalized on their international success to establish, legitimize, and promote their business ventures in the United States. After importing a positive reputation for themselves from Europe to the United States, African American beauty entrepreneurs then exported an image of themselves as the world's premier authorities on black beauty to people of color around the globe as they sold their products and marketed their expertise on the African continent itself. This essay demonstrates the important role that these black female beauty culturists played, both as businesspeople and as race leaders, in their generation's struggle to gain greater respect and opportunity for African Americans both at home and abroad. In doing so it places African American beauty culturists within the framework of transatlantic trade networks, the Black Freedom Movement, Pan-Africanism, and America's Cold War struggle.

  5. Are We Still Receiving a Colored Education? Education of Black Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Marjorie

    With the 1964 Civil Rights Act, school segregation was to come to an end, but it may be that black students are still receiving a "colored" education. There are inequities and prejudices in U.S. institutions, and these have tremendous influences on how African Americans are perceived and accepted. The nation's African American students are…

  6. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended.

  7. Asymptotic Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  8. Asymptotic black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  9. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carlip, S

    2014-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1970s that black holes radiate as black bodies has radically affected our understanding of general relativity, and offered us some early hints about the nature of quantum gravity. In this chapter I will review the discovery of black hole thermodynamics and summarize the many independent ways of obtaining the thermodynamic and (perhaps) statistical mechanical properties of black holes. I will then describe some of the remaining puzzles, including the nature of the quantum microstates, the problem of universality, and the information loss paradox.

  10. Management of high blood pressure in Blacks: an update of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, John M; Sica, Domenic A; Bakris, George; Brown, Angela L; Ferdinand, Keith C; Grimm, Richard H; Hall, W Dallas; Jones, Wendell E; Kountz, David S; Lea, Janice P; Nasser, Samar; Nesbitt, Shawna D; Saunders, Elijah; Scisney-Matlock, Margaret; Jamerson, Kenneth A

    2010-11-01

    Since the first International Society on Hypertension in Blacks consensus statement on the "Management of High Blood Pressure in African American" in 2003, data from additional clinical trials have become available. We reviewed hypertension and cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment guidelines, pharmacological hypertension clinical end point trials, and blood pressure-lowering trials in blacks. Selected trials without significant black representation were considered. In this update, blacks with hypertension are divided into 2 risk strata, primary prevention, where elevated blood pressure without target organ damage, preclinical cardiovascular disease, or overt cardiovascular disease for whom blood pressure consistently blood pressure with target organ damage, preclinical cardiovascular disease, and/or a history of cardiovascular disease, for whom blood pressure consistently blood pressure is ≤10 mm Hg above target levels, monotherapy with a diuretic or calcium channel blocker is preferred. When blood pressure is >15/10 mm Hg above target, 2-drug therapy is recommended, with either a calcium channel blocker plus a renin-angiotensin system blocker or, alternatively, in edematous and/or volume-overload states, with a thiazide diuretic plus a renin-angiotensin system blocker. Effective multidrug therapeutic combinations through 4 drugs are described. Comprehensive lifestyle modifications should be initiated in blacks when blood pressure is ≥115/75 mm Hg. The updated International Society on Hypertension in Blacks consensus statement on hypertension management in blacks lowers the minimum target blood pressure level for the lowest-risk blacks, emphasizes effective multidrug regimens, and de-emphasizes monotherapy.

  11. The Awakening of Self-consciousness of the African American Women-an Analysis of Dee in Everyday Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Zhao-niao

    2011-01-01

    Alice Walker is one of the prominent American writers in American women's literature and black literature in 1950s-1960s.Everyday Use is regarded as Alice Walker's best-written short story.The prevailing opinion among the critics about this story is that Dee is the traitor of black American's cultural heritage,and the mother and Maggie are the hope of true value of the African Americans' tradition and heritage; however,after considering the historical and cultural background of the story,we may safely come to the conclusion that Dee actually took the first step toward the awakening of self-consciousness of the African Americans women.

  12. Daily Movements, Habitat Use, and Mortality Factors of American Ducks Wintering in Western Tennessee

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — American black ducks (Anas rubripes) wintering in the Mississippi Flyway comprise approx 30% if the continental population. Winter surveys for this population have...

  13. Arbitrators, Blacks and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Kenneth

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of the handling of disciplinary problems of black employees concludes that management should be concerned because of the effect that grievance resolution may have on the company's overall employee discipline program and the additional appeal alternatives available to the black employee. (Author/EA)

  14. Perturbing supersymmetric black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Onozawa, H; Mishima, T; Ishihara, H; Onozawa, Hisashi; Okamura, Takashi; Mishima, Takashi; Ishihara, Hideki

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the perturbations of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in the N=2 supergravity is presented. In the extreme case, the black hole responds to the perturbation of each field in the same manner. This is possibly because we can match the modes of the graviton, gravitino, and photon using supersymmetry transformations.

  15. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  16. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  17. Scattering by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.

  18. Blacks and Trade Unionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenfelter, Orley

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, focuses on two issues: (1) the effect of the presence of trade unionism on the position of black workers in the labor market relative to white workers; and (2) the effect of federal government efforts to increase the position of black workers…

  19. Fifty shades of black

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2015-11-01

    Creating dark materials that prevent reflections has become hot competition recently, with Guinness World Records having to keep revising the darkest substance yet created. But depending on who's asking, the best black may not be the blackest black, as Jon Cartwright discovers.

  20. Black ducks and their Chesapeake Bay habitats : proceedings of a symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Matthew C.

    2002-01-01

    The symposium 'Black Ducks and Their Chesapeake Bay Habitats,' held October 4, 2000, provided a forum for scientists to share research about the American black duck (Anas rubripes), an important breeding and wintering waterfowl species dependent upon the Chesapeake Bay habitats. American black ducks have declined significantly in the last 50 years and continue to be a species of management concern. The symposium, sponsored by the Wildfowl Trust of North America and the U.S. Geological Survey, highlighted papers and posters on a range of topics, from the traditional concerns of hunting, habitat, and hybridization to the more recent concerns of human disturbance and neophobia. Other presentations provided a historical perspective of black duck management. The direction that black duck conservation initiatives could and/or should take in the future was also discussed. As populations of humans in the Chesapeake Bay region continue to increase, we can expect that these subjects will receive increased discussion in the future.

  1. Syndromes, communicative disorders, and black children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, M D; Weddington, G T

    1986-05-01

    Birth defects increase the risk of speech, language, and hearing disorders in childhood. The prevalence of particular congenital anomalies varies from one racial and ethnic group to another. Some conditions such as the hemoglobinopathies, polydactyly, and external ear malformations are more common among black people. Other birth defects are rarer among black children, notably cleft lip and palate, neural tube defects, and phenylketonuria. The more common defects of Down's syndrome, neurofibromatosis, and cerebral palsy appear to occur in equal frequency in black and white Americans.Speech-language pathologists, audiologists, and other health professionals who work with black children with birth defects must be familiar with the special problems and the positive features reflected in this population. Difficulties in obtaining adequate medical care, poor health and nutrition, and inadequate financial support are problems plaguing the poor. However, the shared responsibility assumed by the church, the community, and the extended family often results in positive acceptance of the handicapped child. Many families rely on folk medicine whose remedies can often be combined with traditional therapies for the ultimate benefit of the patient.Health professionals must assume a managerial role to ensure that services reach the child with syndrome-related speech, language, and hearing problems.

  2. Cosmological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Stornaiolo, C

    2002-01-01

    In this letter we propose the existence of low density black holes and discuss its compatibility with the cosmological observations. The origin of these black holes can be traced back to the collapse of long wavelength cosmological perturbations during the matter dominated era, when the densities are low enough to neglect any internal and thermal pressure. By introducing a threshold density $\\hat{\\rho}$ above which pressure and non-gravitational interactions become effective, we find the highest wavelength for the perturbations that can reach an equilibrium state instead of collapsing to a black hole. The low density black holes introduced here, if they exist, can be observed through weak and strong gravitational lensing effects. Finally we observe that we obtained here a cosmological model which is capable to explain in a qualitative way the void formation together with the value $\\Omega=1$. But we remark that it needs to be improved by considering non spherical symmetric black holes.

  3. Primordial Black Hole Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, D; Turok, N G; Baumann, Daniel; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2007-01-01

    We reconsider the possibility that the observed baryon asymmetry was generated by the evaporation of primordial black holes that dominated the early universe. We present a simple derivation showing that the baryon asymmetry is insensitive to the initial black hole density and the cosmological model but is sensitive to the temperature-dependence of the CP and baryon-violating (or lepton-violating) interactions. We also consider the possibility that black holes stop evaporating and form Planck-mass remnants that act as dark matter. We show that primordial black holes cannot simultaneously account for both the observed baryon asymmetry and the (remnant) dark matter density unless the magnitude of CP violation is much greater than expected from most particle physics models. Finally, we apply these results to ekpyrotic/cyclic models, in which primordial black holes may form when branes collide. We find that obtaining the observed baryon asymmetry is compatible with the other known constraints on parameters.

  4. Lifshitz Topological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, R B

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  5. 白色的国家黑色的心灵--论美国文学与文化中黑人文化身份认同的困惑%White Country and Black Soul: Identity Dilemma of the Blacks in American Culture and Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立新

    2005-01-01

    黑人文化身份认同的困惑(black cultural identity dilemma)是美国文学与文化中的一个特殊现象,它表现了生活在以盎格鲁-萨克逊白人种族占主导地位的美国社会中黑人对自身文化身份认同的迷惘.因此,它不仅是一种生理特征的认同,而且具有深刻的社会和文化内涵.黑人文化身份认同的困惑不仅导致了美国黑人个人人性的压抑、心理扭曲和畸变,而且在一定程度上成为美国社会内部美国白人与黑人社会、文化冲突的重要根源.黑人对于自身文化身份的困惑、怀疑和追求成为研究美国文学与文化的重要线索.

  6. Teacher Education and Black Male Students in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Richard Milner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Teacher education programs in the United States (U.S. struggle to prepare teachers to meet the complex needs of elementary and secondary students in public schools - especially those of color, those living in poverty, and those whose first language is not English. In this article, we argue for focused attention on preparing educators to teach African American male students as these students face particular institutional challenges in successfully navigating the U.S. public school system. Drawing from the significant body of research on teacher education and teacher learning for equity and social justice, four Black teacher educators discuss challenges they have faced in classes designed to prepare teachers to teach Black male students. Through an analysis of commonalities in their experiences, they propose means for teacher educators to foster greater understandings of the heterogeneity found among Black male students so that teachers can craft more responsive and responsible educational experiences for Black males.

  7. Book review: Black bass diversity: Multidisciplinary science for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelks, Howard

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are from the third symposium dedicated to management and conservation of black basses in the genus Micropterus. The first symposium was held in 1975 (R. H. Stroud and H. Clepper. Black Bass Biology and Management. Washington (DC): Sport Fishing Institute) followed 25 years later by Black Bass 2000 (D. P. Philipp and M. S. Ridgway. 2002. Black Bass: Ecology, Conservation, and Management. Bethesda (MD): American Fisheries Society). Although the previous books discussed conservation of genetic variation and distinct strains of basses, the bulk of the papers in those tomes emphasized management of largemouth and smallmouth bass. In contrast, this third symposium is focused on the rarer bass species and challenges for their successful management.

  8. Black Hole Critical Phenomena Without Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Liebling, S L

    2000-01-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  9. National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    In observance of National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day, Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the HIV/AIDS among African Americans and what steps can be taken on the national, state, local, and individual levels to address this epidemic.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  10. Vital Signs: The Current State of African Americans in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a statistical record of the progress of African Americans in higher education, offering: the Black-White Higher Education Equality Index; statistics that measure racial inequality; states in which black college enrollments are expected to grow over the next 15 years; and differences among the states in their percentages of low-income…

  11. Report of the Task Force on the Education of Maryland's African-American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In 1993, the Governor's Commission on Black Males, chaired by then Delegate Elijah E. Cummings, issued a report that studied the conditions of African-American males in Maryland as they related to employment, health conditions, criminal justice, and education. The Commission provided a "snapshot of the plight of the black males in Maryland." In…

  12. Extreme Prejudice. Dinesh D'Souza and the Coarsening of American Conservatism. Book Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube, Michael

    1996-01-01

    In "The End of Racism" Dinesh D'Souza proposes a theory of rational discrimination based on the recognition that there are vast civilizational differences between black and white Americans and states a case for the repeal of the Civil Rights Act because it actually harms black prospects. (SLD)

  13. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  14. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  15. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  16. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Kleihaus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  17. Black Hole Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    P. Mitra

    1994-01-01

    In the talk different definitions of the black hole entropy are discussed and compared. It is shown that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy $S^{BH}$ (defined by the response of the free energy of a system containing a black hole on the change of the temperature) differs from the statistical- mechanical entropy $S^{SM}=-\\mbox{Tr}(\\hat{\\rho}\\ln \\hat{\\rho})$ (defined by counting internal degrees of freedom of a black hole). A simple explanation of the universality of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (...

  18. Black hole entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, V

    1994-01-01

    In the talk different definitions of the black hole entropy are discussed and compared. It is shown that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S^{BH} (defined by the response of the free energy of a system containing a black hole on the change of the temperature) differs from the statistical- mechanical entropy S^{SM}=-\\mbox{Tr}(\\hat{\\rho}\\ln \\hat{\\rho}) (defined by counting internal degrees of freedom of a black hole). A simple explanation of the universality of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (i.e. its independence of the number and properties of the fields which might contribute to S^{SM}) is given.

  19. Primordial Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    MacGibbon, Jane H; Linnemann, J T; Marinelli, S S; Stump, D; Tollefson, K

    2015-01-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are of interest in many cosmological contexts. PBHs lighter than about 1012 kg are predicted to be directly detectable by their Hawking radiation. This radiation should produce both a diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background from the cosmologically-averaged distribution of PBHs and gamma-ray burst signals from individual light black holes. The Fermi, Milagro, Veritas, HESS and HAWC observatories, in combination with new burst recognition methodologies, offer the greatest sensitivity for the detection of such black holes or placing limits on their existence.

  20. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Hypertensive US-Born Blacks and Foreign-Born Blacks: Analysis of the CAATCH Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence shows that blacks exhibit greater daytime sleepiness compared with whites, based on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. In addition, sleep complaints might differ based on individuals’ country of origin. However, it is not clear whether individuals’ country of origin has any influence on excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS. Study Objectives. We tested the hypothesis that US-born blacks would show a greater level of EDS compared with foreign-born blacks. The potential effects of sociodemographic and medical risk were also determined. Design. We used the Counseling African-Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH data. CAATCH is a group randomized clinical trial that was conducted among 30 community healthcare centers in New York, yielding baseline data for 1,058 hypertensive black patients. Results. Results of univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that US-born blacks were nearly twice as likely as their foreign-born black counterparts to exhibit EDS (OR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.30–2.68, P<0.001. After adjusting for effects of age, sex, education, employment, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and smoking habit, US-born blacks were 69% more likely than their counterparts to exhibit EDS (OR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.11–2.57, P<0.01. Conclusion. Findings demonstrate the importance of considering individuals’ country of origin, in addition to their race and ethnicity, when analyzing epidemiologic sleep data.

  1. The Price of "Black Dominance."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberman, John

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of stereotyping black males as athletes, noting that over-identification with athletes and the world of physical performance limits black children's development by discouraging academic achievement. Examines the negative influence of mass media focus on black athletes, rappers, and stylized ghetto blackness. Discusses…

  2. Motherboards, Microphones and Metaphors: Re-Examining New Literacies and Black Feminist Thought through Technologies of Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Tisha Lewis; Kirkland, David E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how two African American females composed counter-selves using a computer motherboard and a stand-alone microphone as critical identity texts. Situated within sociocultural and critical traditions in new literacy studies and black feminist thought, the authors extend conceptions of language, literacy and black femininity via…

  3. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta I. Winters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relative importance of race and socioeconomic status (SES in determining whether Black and White teenagers report having ever been pregnant. Data gathered from 1999 to 2006 by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention included 1,580 Black and White females aged 15 to 19 years. Results supported the effects of race and SES, with SES having the stronger effect. However, the effects of race and SES differ when controlling for the state of the economy. No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy. In particular, during 2005-2006, the reduction in pregnancy rates for Black minors (15-17 fell below those for White minors within their respective SES categories. Policy implications are discussed in light of these findings.

  4. Janus black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Janik, Romuald A.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper Janus black holes in A dS 3 are considered. These are static solutions of an Einstein-scalar system with broken translation symmetry along the horizon. These solutions are dual to interface conformal field theories at finite temperature. An approximate solution is first constructed using perturbation theory around a planar BTZ blackhole. Numerical and exact solutions valid for all sets of parameters are then found and compared. Using the exact solution the thermodynamics of the system is analyzed. The entropy associated with the Janus black hole is calculated and it is found that the entropy of the black Janus is the sum of the undeformed black hole entropy and the entanglement entropy associated with the defect.

  5. Black Rail Pilot Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aural surveys using tape recorded calls proved to be an efficient and effective way to survey large expanses of shallow marsh for black rails (Laterallus...

  6. Black Friday = Broget Branding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Black Friday er et godt eksempel på, hvordan ikke kun produktbrands og corporate brands rejser på tværs af landegrænser, men også traditioner som Halloween, Valentines Day og i dette tilfælde den ultimative tilbuds-fredag, som i USA går under navnet Black Friday. Men hvad er Black Friday i Danmark......? Essensen ved Black Friday er lave priser, og det er der ved første øjekast ikke mange brandingmuligheder forbundet ved, hvis man forstår branding som en måde at skabe ekstra værdi omkring sit produkt eller sin virksomhed. Som brand bliver man dog alligevel nødt til at forholde sig til konceptet, da det er...

  7. Modelling quantum black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Govindarajan, T R

    2016-01-01

    Novel bound states are obtained for manifolds with singular potentials. These singular potentials require proper boundary conditions across boundaries. The number of bound states match nicely with what we would expect for black holes. Also they serve to model membrane mechanism for the black hole horizons in simpler contexts. The singular potentials can also mimic expanding boundaries elegantly, there by obtaining appropriately tuned radiation rates.

  8. Helical superconducting black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P

    2012-05-25

    We construct novel static, asymptotically five-dimensional anti-de Sitter black hole solutions with Bianchi type-VII(0) symmetry that are holographically dual to superconducting phases in four spacetime dimensions with a helical p-wave order. We calculate the precise temperature dependence of the pitch of the helical order. At zero temperature the black holes have a vanishing entropy and approach domain wall solutions that reveal homogenous, nonisotropic dual ground states with an emergent scaling symmetry.

  9. Black Is Cool!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston

    1997-01-01

    Do you remember the colors the college freshmen dyed their hair when you were here? Turquoise, orange, bright yellow.... Things have changed. Black has (?)ome the color of choice among the young people. Young men and women alike dye their hair coal black. The women let their hair grow very long. and it hangs straight and stringy down their backs. The young men leave it long on

  10. Braneworld black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    In these lectures, I give an introduction to and overview of braneworlds and black holes in the context of warped compactifications. I first describe the general paradigm of braneworlds, and introduce the Randall-Sundrum model. I discuss braneworld gravity, both using perturbation theory, and also non perturbative results. I then discuss black holes on the brane, the obstructions to finding exact solutions, and ways of tackling these difficulties. I describe some known solutions, and conclude with some open questions and controversies.

  11. Black Hole Induced Ejections

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, G.

    2004-01-01

    Black Holes generate a particular kind of environments dominated by an accretion flow which concentrates a magnetic field. The interplay of gravity and magnetism creates this paradoxical situation where relativistic ejection is allowed and consequently high energy phenomena take place. Therefore Black Holes, which are very likely at the origin of powerfull astrophysical phenomena such as AGNs, micro- quasars and GRBs where relativistic ejections are observed, are at the heart of high energy a...

  12. Cosmic censorship inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Thorlacius, L

    2006-01-01

    A simple argument is given that a traversable Cauchy horizon inside a black hole is incompatible with unitary black hole evolution. The argument assumes the validity of black hole complementarity and applies to a generic black hole carrying angular momentum and/or charge. In the second part of the paper we review recent work on the semiclassical geometry of two-dimensional charged black holes.

  13. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  14. The Middle Ordovician Knox unconformity in the Black Warrior Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Gary S.; Repetski, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of well core and cuttings from the Black Warrior Basin in Mississippi reveals the presence of a Middle Ordovician (Whiterockian) erosional unconformity interpreted to be equivalent to the well-known Knox-Beekmantown unconformity in eastern North America. The unconformity occurs at the top of a peritidal dolostone unit known informally as the upper dolostone, whose stratigraphic placement has been the subject of a long-standing controversy. The unconformity, which represents the Sauk-Tippecanoe megasequence boundary on the North American craton, was previously thought to be short-lived or altogether absent in the Black Warrior Basin.

  15. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steven L Liebling

    2000-10-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  16. Charged Galileon black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  17. Ultramassive Black Hole Coalescence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Fazeel; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gr...

  18. FEASTING BLACK HOLE BLOWS BUBBLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A monstrous black hole's rude table manners include blowing huge bubbles of hot gas into space. At least, that's the gustatory practice followed by the supermassive black hole residing in the hub of the nearby galaxy NGC 4438. Known as a peculiar galaxy because of its unusual shape, NGC 4438 is in the Virgo Cluster, 50 million light-years from Earth. These NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy's central region clearly show one of the bubbles rising from a dark band of dust. The other bubble, emanating from below the dust band, is barely visible, appearing as dim red blobs in the close-up picture of the galaxy's hub (the colorful picture at right). The background image represents a wider view of the galaxy, with the central region defined by the white box. These extremely hot bubbles are caused by the black hole's voracious eating habits. The eating machine is engorging itself with a banquet of material swirling around it in an accretion disk (the white region below the bright bubble). Some of this material is spewed from the disk in opposite directions. Acting like high-powered garden hoses, these twin jets of matter sweep out material in their paths. The jets eventually slam into a wall of dense, slow-moving gas, which is traveling at less than 223,000 mph (360,000 kph). The collision produces the glowing material. The bubbles will continue to expand and will eventually dissipate. Compared with the life of the galaxy, this bubble-blowing phase is a short-lived event. The bubble is much brighter on one side of the galaxy's center because the jet smashed into a denser amount of gas. The brighter bubble is 800 light-years tall and 800 light-years across. The observations are being presented June 5 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Rochester, N.Y. Both pictures were taken March 24, 1999 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. False colors were used to enhance the details of the bubbles. The red regions in the picture denote the hot gas

  19. African-American College Student Attitudes toward Physics and Their Effect on Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Carl Timothy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or…

  20. MESA/MEP at American River College: Year One Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Beth S.; And Others

    In 1989, the Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement (MESA)/Minority Engineering Program (MEP) was initiated at American River College. The MESA/MEP program recruits Black, Hispanic, and Native American students and provides assistance, encouragement, and enrichment programs to help them succeed in the fields of mathematics, engineering,…

  1. Keeping Current. African American History Month--More than Book Reports!

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Anita J.

    2005-01-01

    Mention the observance of African American History Month and the name Carter G. Woodson immediately comes to mind. Woodson, an educator, publisher, and historian, initiated the "Negro History Week" observance in 1926. Known as the "Father of Black History," Woodson believed that it was important for African Americans to know their history in…

  2. Sisters in the Struggle: African American Female Graduate Students Coping with Racism and Racism-Related

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kelsie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined if coping was predictive of perceived racism and racism related stress of African American female graduate students. Participants were 217 African American female graduate students attending Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and…

  3. "I Have a Dream, Too!": The American Dream in Coretta Scott King Award-Winning Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Linda T.; Castleman, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The Coretta Scott King (CSK) Award, instituted in 1969 and recognized as an official award by the American Library Association (ALA) in 1982, is conferred annually to an African American author and an illustrator for their outstanding contributions to literature about the Black experience for children and young adults. A partial impetus for the…

  4. African-American Literature and "Post-Racial" America. Or, You Know, Not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Jacqueline A.

    2011-01-01

    In 1983, when the author began graduate school at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville as the only black student in the Graduate English School, it offered no graduate-level African-American Literature course. Today an undergraduate student at the University of Virginia can major in African-American and African Studies and take courses…

  5. Do black ducks and wood ducks habituate to aircraft disturbance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conomy, J.T.; Dubovsky, J.A.; Collazo, J.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Requests to increase military aircraft activity in some training facilities in the United States have raised the need to determine if waterfowl and other wildlife are adversely affected by aircraft disturbance. We hypothesized that habituation was a possible proximate factor influencing the low proportion of free-ranging ducks reacting to military aircraft activities in a training range in coastal North Carolina during winters 1991 and 1992. To test this hypothesis, we subjected captive, wild-strain American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and wood ducks (Aix sponsa) to actual and simulated activities of jet aircraft. In the first experiment, we placed black ducks in an enclosure near the center of aircraft activities on Piney Island, a military aircraft target range in coastal North Carolina. The proportion of times black ducks reacted (e.g., alert posture, fleeing response) to visual and auditory aircraft activity decreased from 38 to 6% during the first 17 days of confinement. Response rates remained stable at 5.8% thereafter. In the second experiment, black ducks and wood ducks were exposed to 6 different recordings of jet noise. The proportion of times black ducks reacted to noise decreased (P 0.05) in time-activity budgets of black ducks between pre-exposure to noise and 24 hr after first exposure. Unlike black ducks, wood duck responses to jet noise did not decrease uniformly among experimental groups following initial exposure to noise (P = 0.01). We conclude that initial exposure to aircraft noise elicits behavioral responses from black ducks and wood ducks. With continued exposure of aircraft noise, black ducks may become habituated. However, wood ducks did not exhibit the same pattern of response, suggesting that the ability of waterfowl to habituate to aircraft noise may be species specific.

  6. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  7. Religiosity and psychological distress among blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D R; Ndubuisi, S C; Gary, L E

    1990-03-01

    The influence of religion on mental well-being has been the subject of controversy for a long while. Yet little is known about this relationship among black Americans. Using a probability-based sample of 451 urban black Americans, this study examines gender differences in religiosity and explores the ramifications for mental health. Findings indicate that females are more religious than males as evidenced by their greater participation in organizational forms of religious practice such as meetings and other gatherings. However, for both males and females, religiosity varied significantly by age and by marital and parental status. On the other hand, there were no differences in religiosity according to levels of education, income, and employment status for either males or females. With regard to mental health, greater religiosity was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for both males and females. Further, in the event of stressful circumstances, the influence of religion on mental well-being for females was direct, while religious involvement appeared to have an indirect or stress- buffering effect for males.

  8. Are My Grades a Reflection of Me?: Black College Students' Attributions and Interpretations of Grades Received in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Diana Nicole

    2013-01-01

    In the school achievement and motivation literature of African American students, one major theme of the literature is a supposed inconsistency or discrepancy in African American students' value and expectations for their academic achievement and their actual levels of achievement. The discrepancy between Black students' achievement ideologies and…

  9. Black Hope, White Power: Emancipation, Reconstruction and the Legacy of Unequal Schooling in the US South, 1861-1880

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchart, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    Current explanations for the gap between African-American and white school achievement are inadequate; most cannot explain the high level of black school achievement in the decade after Emancipation. Further, traditional accounts of the origins of educational discrimination against African-Americans are inaccurate. The roots of educational…

  10. Thermodynamic black di-rings

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Previously the five dimensional $S^1$-rotating black rings have been superposed in concentric way by some solitonic methods and regular systems of two $S^1$-rotating black rings were constructed by the authors and then Evslin and Krishnan (we called these solutions black di-rings). In this place we show some characteristics of the solutions of five dimensional black di-rings, especially in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the summary of the di-ring expressions and their physical quantities, first we comment on the equivalence of the two different solution-sets of the black di-rings. Then the existence of thermodynamic black di-rings are shown, in which both iso-thermality and iso-rotation between the inner black ring and the outer black ring are realized. We also give detailed analysis of peculiar properties of the thermodynamic black di-ring including discussion about a certain kind of thermodynamic stability (instability) of the system.

  11. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  12. The Origins of African-American Family Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Steven

    1994-01-01

    Uses the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series to trace race differences in African American family structure between 1880 and 1980. Confirms a long-standing high incidence rate of single parenthood and children residing without their parents. Data also show blacks have had a consistently higher percentage of extended households than have whites.…

  13. Equality v. Liberty v. Pluralism: Latinos in American Constitutional Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero, Carlos R.

    This paper examines how U.S. courts, particularly the Supreme Court, have applied constitutional law principles to Latino communities and individuals in three areas: public education, the status of Puerto Rico, and jury selection. Consistent with traditional views of American society as biracial (black and white), constitutional law discussions…

  14. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  15. Putting the Blue,Black,and Red in the Red,White,and Blue: Langston Hughts and the Emergence of the Blues in American Literature%兰斯顿·休斯与布鲁士在美国文学中的兴起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史蒂文·C·特雷西

    2008-01-01

    This paper will discuss the emergence of the blues into American literature,focusing on Langston Hughes's work in the context of folklore studies,sheet music and commercial recordings,Jazz Age aesthetics,and Leftist politics.Hughes's use of dialect in his poetry,of course,was preceded by the important work of realist and local color writers such as James Whitcomb Riley,Mark Twain,Southwestern humorists,Daniel Webster Davis,James Edwin Campbell,and especially Paul Laurence Dunbar (whose musicality Hughes also echoed).The emergence of collections of blues in American folklore studies by such authors as Howard W.Odum,Guy B.Johnson,Gates Thomas,Dorothy Scarborough,Prescott Webb and others,as well as the emergence of blues on sheet music by Antonio Maggio,Hart Wand and W.C.Handy,assisted in creating an interest in intellectual and popular culture circles that helped make it possible for Hughes to have his poetic experiments with blues and jazz be acceptable,at least to some audiences.Hughes's distinctive contributions and importance will be examined in this context,as well as in the criticism and poetry of James Weldon Johnson and Alain Locke,the American Songbag of Carl Sandburg,the "Black Ulysses" novels of Howard W.Odum,Sterling Brown's experiments with dialect and blues and jazz materials,the journal Blues:A Magazine of New Rhythms,and the leftist folk song movement of the 1920s and 1930s that helped usher African American folk music into the Popular Front scene,political appearances,supper clubs like the Café Society,the "From Spirituals to Swing" concerts,and mainstream American music.%本文将在民间传说研究、活页乐谱与商业唱片、爵士时期美学和左派政治等多个语境中研究兰斯顿·休斯的作品,探讨布鲁士在美国文学中的兴起.当然,使用方言写诗并非休斯首创,在他之前,詹姆斯·莱利和马克·吐温等现实主义的和具有地方色彩的作家丹尼尔·戴维斯和詹姆斯·坎贝尔等西南

  16. Barack Obama’s Dreams from My Father and African American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stein

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a series of close readings of Barack Obama’s autobiography Dreams from My Father. It places the narrative within the history of African American literature and rhetoric and argues that Obama uses the text to create a life story that resonates with central concepts of African American selfhood and black male identity, including double consciousness, invisibility, and black nationalism. The article reads Dreams from My Father as an attempt to arrive at a state of “functional Blackness,” which moves away from questions of racial authenticity and identity politics but recognizes the narrative powers of African American literature to shape a convincing and appealing black self.

  17. Alcohol and tobacco advertising in black and general audience newspapers: targeting with message cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elisia L; Caburnay, Charlene A; Rodgers, Shelly

    2011-07-01

    This study content analyzed 928 tobacco- and alcohol-related advertisements from a 3-year national sample of Black (n = 24) and general audience (n = 11) newspapers from 24 U.S. cities. The authors compared the frequency of tobacco and alcohol product and control advertising in Black versus general audience newspapers, as well as the presence of 5 message cues: model ethnicity, presence of health official, referral to resources, personal behavior mobilization, and localization. Results within health issues show that Black newspapers had more alcohol product advertising than did general audience newspapers. In contrast, Black newspapers had less alcohol and tobacco control advertising than general audience newspapers. Black newspapers' tobacco/alcohol product advertisements had more African American models than did general audience newspapers' tobacco/alcohol advertising, whereas general audience newspapers' tobacco control advertisements were significantly more likely to feature public health officials than ads in Black newspapers. Fewer message cues such as personal behavior mobilization, referral to resources, and localization were present in Black versus general audience newspapers. Results suggest that Black newspapers may have greater dependency than do general audience newspapers on these risk-related advertisements that target African American consumers. Given the current advertising environment, public health initiatives are needed to counter unhealthy alcohol product advertising messages that target vulnerable populations.

  18. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2009-05-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  19. Charged Galileon black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematic...

  20. Black Afrikaans: An alternative use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P. Maritz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a first look at the nature of the alternative functions of Black Afrikaans. These functions realise when Black Afrikaans is imitated by Afrikaans mother-tongue speakers. The functions of the alternative use of Black Afrikaans centre on: the social nature of the variety, sensitivity as a deciding role-player, identity, humour, inclusivity and exclusivity, language repertoire and similar variety. Furthermore, because of the direct relationship between Black Afrikaans, Pidginised Afrikaans and the imitation of Black Afrikaans, these varieties are compared to establish a starting point description for the imitation of Black Afrikaans, as the variety has not yet been described.

  1. Black women talk about workplace stress and how they cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J Camille; Everett, Joyce E; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie

    2012-01-01

    Black women face the same struggles as White women; however, they have to face issues of diversity on top of inequality. The purpose of this study was to explore work-related stressors that affect the lives of Black women and how they cope with them. Using an exploratory design with grounded-theory methods, five basic themes emerged that identify when racism and sexism are experienced as stressors for African American women in the workplace. The themes are: (1) being hired or promoted in the workplace, (2) defending one’s race and lack of mentorship, (3) shifting or code switching to overcome barriers to employment, (4) coping with racism and discrimination, and (5) being isolated and/or excluded. The results from this study indicate African American women use emotion- and problem-focused coping responses to manage stress (e.g., racism and sexism) in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion of practice implications of these findings.

  2. African-American Biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  3. It's Not About American Football: Tony Dungy's Journey of Self-Emancipation from Rejected Black Quarterback to Celebrated African American Coach (No se trata de fútbol americano: la emancipación de Tony Dungy, de marginado quarterback negro a célebre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman, James R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The ideals of individual freedom and universal equality contrast with the persistence of oppression and inequality worldwide, making every case study of practical progress toward freedom and equality valuable. The example of Coach Tony Dungy, the first African American to lead a Super Bowl championship team, is an instance of incremental self-emancipation. Dungy's competitive nature shows up in everything he writes and says, but his emphasis on commitment to self-improvement and community-building illustrates the possibilities of individual and collective progress. Dungy's narrative, seen in the context of Jacques Ranciere's theoretical approach, is an instructive example of "intellectual equality." Ranciere insists that we are all intellectual equals, and Dungy's autobiographical writing exemplifies a pragmatic application of this attitude, which also suggests a theoretical and practical approach to the development of community through a process of dedicated self-emancipation. Resumen: Los ideales de la libertad individual e igualdad universal contrastan con la persistencia de la opresión y desigualdad mundial, y por lo tanto cada estudio hacia la libertad y la igualdad se hace valioso. El ejemplo del entrenador de fútbol americano Tony Dungy, el primer afroamericano en entrenar un equipo que ganó la Super Bowl, es un ejemplo de auto-emancipación gradual. La naturaleza competitiva de Dungy está presente en todo lo que él escribe y dice, pero el énfasis otorgada a su compromiso con la autosuperación y la creación de comunidad ilustran las posibilidades del progreso tanto a nivel individual como colectivo. La narrativa de Dungy, vista en el contexto del enfoque teórico de Jacques Ranciere, es un ejemplo didáctico de "igualdad intelectual." Ranciere insiste en que todos poseemos igualdad de intelecto y la escritura autobiográfica de Dungy ejemplifica una aplicación pragmática de esta actitud, la cual sugiere un enfoque te

  4. Black Hole Induced Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Pelletier, G

    2004-01-01

    Black Holes generate a particular kind of environments dominated by an accretion flow which concentrates a magnetic field. The interplay of gravity and magnetism creates this paradoxical situation where relativistic ejection is allowed and consequently high energy phenomena take place. Therefore Black Holes, which are very likely at the origin of powerfull astrophysical phenomena such as AGNs, micro- quasars and GRBs where relativistic ejections are observed, are at the heart of high energy astrophysics. The combination of General Relativity and Magneto-HydroDynamics (MHD) makes theory difficult; however great pionneers opened beautiful tracks in the seventies and left important problems to be solved for the next decades. These lectures will present the status of these issues. They have a tutorial aspect together with critical review aspect and contain also some new issues. Most of these lectures has been presented at the "School on Black Hole in the Universe" at Cargese, in May 2003.

  5. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  6. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  7. Black hole entropy quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Corichi, A; Fernandez-Borja, E; Corichi, Alejandro; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernandez-Borja, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the pioneer works of Bekenstein and Hawking, black hole entropy has been known to have a quantum origin. Furthermore, it has long been argued by Bekenstein that entropy should be quantized in discrete (equidistant) steps given its identification with horizon area in (semi-)classical general relativity and the properties of area as an adiabatic invariant. This lead to the suggestion that black hole area should also be quantized in equidistant steps to account for the discrete black hole entropy. Here we shall show that loop quantum gravity, in which area is not quantized in equidistant steps can nevertheless be consistent with Bekenstein's equidistant entropy proposal in a subtle way. For that we perform a detailed analysis of the number of microstates compatible with a given area and show that an observed oscillatory behavior in the entropy-area relation, when properly interpreted yields an entropy that has discrete, equidistant values that are consistent with the Bekenstein framework.

  8. Black hole accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. outbursting black-hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We then turn to the role of advection in accretion flow onto black holes illustrating its action and importance with a toy model describing both ADAFs and slim discs. We conclude with a presentation of the general-relativistic formalism describing accretion discs in the Kerr space-time.

  9. Tunneling Through Black Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liu

    2007-01-01

    Hawking radiation of black ring solutions to 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory is analyzed by use of the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method. To get the correct tunneling amplitude and emission rate, we adopt and develop the Angheben-Nadalini-Vanzo-Zerbini covariant approach to cover the effects of rotation and electronic discharge all at once, and the effect of back reaction is also taken into account. This constitutes a unified approach to the tunneling problem. Provided the first law of thermodynamics for black rings holds, the emission rate is proportional to the exponential of the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Explicit calculation for black ring temperatures agrees exactly with the results obtained via the classical surface gravity method and the quasi-local formalism.

  10. Black hole gravitohydromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...

  11. The closest black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Fender, Rob; Heywood, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the assumption that there is a large population (> 10^8) of isolated, stellar-mass black holes (IBH) distributed throughout our galaxy, we consider the detectable signatures of accretion from the interstellar medium (ISM) that may be associated with such a population. We simulate the nearby (radius 250 pc) part of this population, corresponding to the closest ~35 000 black holes, using current best estimates of the mass distribution of stellar mass black holes combined with two models for the velocity distribution of stellar-mass IBH which bracket likely possibilities. We distribute this population of objects appropriately within the different phases of the ISM and calculate the Bondi-Hoyle accretion rate, modified by a further dimensionless efficiency parameter \\lambda. Assuming a simple prescription for radiatively inefficient accretion at low Eddington ratios, we calculate the X-ray luminosity of these objects, and similarly estimate the radio luminosity from relations found empirically for b...

  12. Black home, black looks: Identity and socialization in black and interracials families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Ernestina Brito

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at aprehending how and in what circumstances families formed by couples of different ethnic-racial origins, being one black and one white, prepare and/or assist their children to face the discrimination the might undergo in consequence of racism againt afro-americans. In oerder to achieve the goal, parents and children of two interracial families were interviewed, in a total of seven interviews. We tried to deepen the knowledge on socilization of mixed offsprings within interracial families, from the statements of the parents and the child. The data obtained and analyzed allow us to conclude that the families use up some strategies to assist hteir children in facing the problem of racism and racial discrimination, even though there are difficulties in elaborating them, and they do not constitute, at least apparently, a priority in children education. However, it was possible to observe that there is a construction of racial belonging, and orientation on possible discriminatory acts kids may undergo. Thus, the orientation is associated to discriminatory experiences lived by the children within the expanded family, at school, on the street, in clubs, being attached to strong affective bonds.

  13. The Treatment of Black Widow Spider Envenomation with Antivenin Latrodectus Mactans: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Steven R. Offerman; Daubert, G. Patrick; Clark, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Black widow spiders (Latrodectus mactans) are found throughout the US. Though bites are relatively uncommon, they pose a significant health problem with over 2500 reported to American poison control centers annually. Black widow spider bites cause a characteristic envenomation syndrome consisting of severe pain, muscle cramping, abdominal pain, and back pain. The significant pain associated with envenomation is often refractory to traditional analgesics. Antivenom (Antivenin Latrodectus macta...

  14. Analysis of Black Humor in the Movie Forrest Gump From Rhetorical Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱梅红; 刘立红

    2009-01-01

    The humorous effect is well presented throughout the American movie Forrest Gump by using kinds of rhetoric methods.This paper mainly focuses on the black humor in the movie from rhetorical perspective.It analyzes the application of certain rhetoric methods such as sarcasm,irony,simile,and hyperbole in the movie;and it also illustrates how the effect of black humor is achieved by giving a great number of examples.

  15. Black Air: African American Contributions to Airpower before Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    laborer and treasured his hours at home telling his children stories about the notable deeds of their ancestors. It was his father‘s influence and...The pay, food , and clothing provided by the military offered them an exceptional opportunity. To be denied the right to serve was interpreted by...overhauled, or planes returned from a mission so badly damaged they looked like they were ready for the junk yard, but they were rapidly returned to

  16. Horndeski black hole geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Tretyakova, D A

    2016-01-01

    We examine geodesics for the scalar-tensor black holes in the Horndeski-Galileon framework. Our analysis shows that first kind relativistic orbits may not be present within some model parameters range. This is a highly pathological behavior contradicting to the black hole accretion and Solar System observations. We also present a new (although very similar to those previously known) solution, which contains the orbits we expect from a compact object, admits regular scalar field at the horizon and and can fit into the known stability criteria.

  17. Are Black Holes Springy?

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R

    2014-01-01

    A $(3+1)$-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed $\\Omega_+$ can be used to define an effective spring constant, $k=m\\Omega_+^2$. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, $k = \\kappa $, which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: $2\\pi T = \\kappa - k$. Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force $F = 1/4$, which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  18. Acoustic black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, M

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic propagation in a moving fluid provides a conceptually clean and powerful analogy for understanding black hole physics. As a teaching tool, the analogy is useful for introducing students to both General Relativity and fluid mechanics. As a research tool, the analogy helps clarify what aspects of the physics are kinematics and what aspects are dynamics. In particular, Hawking radiation is a purely kinematical effect, whereas black hole entropy is intrinsically dynamical. Finally, I discuss the fact that with present technology acoustic Hawking radiation is almost experimentally testable.

  19. Superfluid Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hennigar, Robie A; Tjoa, Erickson

    2016-01-01

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "$\\lambda$-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid $^4$He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically AdS hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  20. Superfluid Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-13

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  1. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  2. Bulletproof Black Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højer, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst.......Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst....

  3. Black Brane World Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, S H

    2001-01-01

    We consider a brane world residing in the interior region inside the horizon of extreme black branes. In this picture, the size of the horizon can be interpreted as the compactification size. The large mass hierarchy is simply translated into the large horizon size, which is provided by the magnitude of charges carried by the black branes. Hence, the macroscopic compactification size is a quantity calculable from the microscopic theory which has only one physical scale, and its stabilization is guaranteed from the charge conservation.

  4. Modeling black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The scope of this book is two-fold: the first part gives a fully detailed and pedagogical presentation of the Hawking effect and its physical implications, and the second discusses the backreaction problem, especially in connection with exactly solvable semiclassical models that describe analytically the black hole evaporation process. The book aims to establish a link between the general relativistic viewpoint on black hole evaporation and the new CFT-type approaches to the subject. The detailed discussion on backreaction effects is also extremely valuable.

  5. Between black and brown: blaxican (black-Mexican) multiracial identity in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the racial/ethnic identities of multiracial Black-Mexicans or “Blaxicans.” In-depth interviews with 12 Blaxican individuals in California reveal how they negotiate distinct cultural systems to accomplish multiracial identities. I argue that choosing, accomplishing, and asserting a Blaxican identity challenges the dominant monoracial discourse in the United States, in particular among African American and Chicana/o communities. That is, Blaxican respondents are held accountable by African Americans and Chicanas/os/Mexicans to monoracial notions of “authenticity.” The process whereby Blaxicans move between these monoracial spaces to create multiracial identities illustrates crucial aspects of the social construction of race/ethnicity in the United States and the influence of social interactions in shaping how Blaxicans develop their multiracial identities.

  6. Reflections on a Black Mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R

    2016-01-01

    A black mirror is an accelerated boundary that produces particles in an exact correspondence to an evaporating black hole. We investigate the spectral dynamics of the particle creation during the formation process.

  7. Quantum aspects of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.

  8. Meer bekend over Black Mold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyvesteijn, R.G.E.; Kohrman, E.

    2008-01-01

    In de vollegrondsrozenteelt zorgde Black Mold in 2007 voor een groot aantal mislukte oculaties. In 2008 waren er aanzienlijk minder problemen. Uit onderzoek is meer bekend over de oorzaak en bestrijding van Black Mold.

  9. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  10. Conquering the Black Girl Blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lani Valencia; Guy-Sheftall, Beverly

    2015-10-01

    An examination of the literature on epidemiology, etiology, and use of services for this population reveals an insufficient application of culturally congruent approaches to intervening with black women. An exploration of the social work practice literature and other relevant fields indicate that black feminist perspectives offer the opportunity to gain a clearer understanding of the intersection and influence of oppression among black women struggling with psychiatric issues and provide a useful framework for mental health practice with this population. This article discusses the evolving black feminist thought and summarizes the scholarship on black women's mental health services needs and utilization issues. The article includes a discussion of black feminisms as an emerging mental health perspective, arguing that black feminist perspectives in therapy provide an ideal framework for services that are responsive to the values and health needs of black women. The article concludes with a case vignette that illustrates some of its points.

  11. Linking Sleep to Hypertension: Greater Risk for Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (8 hour sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18–85 years. Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (8 hours sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR = 1.34 and 1.37, resp.; P<0.01. Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension.

  12. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  13. Black Hole: The Interior Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2016-01-01

    The information loss paradox is often discussed from the perspective of the observers who stay outside of a black hole. However, the interior spacetime of a black hole can be rather nontrivial. We discuss the open problems regarding the volume of a black hole, and whether it plays any role in information storage. We also emphasize the importance of resolving the black hole singularity, if one were to resolve the information loss paradox.

  14. The Black Ring is Unstable

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    We study non-axisymmetric linearised gravitational perturbations of the Emparan-Reall black ring using numerical methods. We find an unstable mode whose onset lies within the "fat" branch of the black ring and continues into the "thin" branch. Together with previous results using Penrose inequalities that fat black rings are unstable, this provides numerical evidence that the entire black ring family is unstable.

  15. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  16. Simulations of coalescing black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    We describe the methods and results of numerical simulations of coalescing black holes. The simulation in dynamical spacetime covers the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases. We analyze the emission of gravitational waves and properties of a black hole being the merger product. We discuss the results in the context of astrophysical environment of black holes that exist in the Universe.

  17. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  18. "Exotic" black holes with torsion

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In the context of three-dimensional gravity with torsion, the concepts of standard and "exotic" Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes are generalized by going over to black holes with torsion. This approach provides a unified insight into thermodynamics of black holes, with or without torsion.

  19. Educating African American Males: Contexts for Consideration, Possibilities for Practice. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 383

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. Christopher, II, Ed.; Dancy, T. Elon, II, Ed.; Davis, James Earl, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This book's predecessor, "Black Sons to Mothers: Compliments, Critiques, and Challenges for Cultural Workers in Education" (Peter Lang, 2000), sparked a decade of meaningful scholarship on the educational experiences and academic outcomes of African American males. "Black Sons to Mothers" proffered seminal contributions to the academic literature…

  20. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  1. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  2. Newborn Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  3. Rotating regular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    The formation of spacetime singularities is a quite common phenomenon in General Relativity and it is regulated by specific theorems. It is widely believed that spacetime singularities do not exist in Nature, but that they represent a limitation of the classical theory. While we do not yet have any solid theory of quantum gravity, toy models of black hole solutions without singularities have been proposed. So far, there are only non-rotating regular black holes in the literature. These metrics can be hardly tested by astrophysical observations, as the black hole spin plays a fundamental role in any astrophysical process. In this letter, we apply the Newman-Janis algorithm to the Hayward and to the Bardeen black hole metrics. In both cases, we obtain a family of rotating solutions. Every solution corresponds to a different matter configuration. Each family has one solution with special properties, which can be written in Kerr-like form in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. These special solutions are of Petrov type ...

  4. Celebrity-black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull; Richey, Lisa Ann

    2015-01-01

    troubled by Joof’s performances during the telethon show, which was split between performing the figure of ‘the African woman’ and Danish ‘cultural insiderness’. The article concludes that unlike the US context where the category of ‘black celebrity’ has been analysed as connecting to a particular social...

  5. Moulting Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Chowdhury, Borun D.; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2012-03-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that some of the CFT states are lifted at strong coupling. Neither the bulk nor the boundary phases are captured by the elliptic genus, which makes the coincidence of the phase boundaries particularly remarkable. Our configurations are supersymmetric, have non-Cardy-like entropy, and are the first instance of a black hole entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual. Furthermore, contrary to common lore, these objects exist in a region of parameter space (between the "cosmic censorship bound" and the "unitarity bound") where no black holes were thought to exist.

  6. Rotating regular black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn; Modesto, Leonardo, E-mail: lmodesto@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-04-25

    The formation of spacetime singularities is a quite common phenomenon in General Relativity and it is regulated by specific theorems. It is widely believed that spacetime singularities do not exist in Nature, but that they represent a limitation of the classical theory. While we do not yet have any solid theory of quantum gravity, toy models of black hole solutions without singularities have been proposed. So far, there are only non-rotating regular black holes in the literature. These metrics can be hardly tested by astrophysical observations, as the black hole spin plays a fundamental role in any astrophysical process. In this Letter, we apply the Newman–Janis algorithm to the Hayward and to the Bardeen black hole metrics. In both cases, we obtain a family of rotating solutions. Every solution corresponds to a different matter configuration. Each family has one solution with special properties, which can be written in Kerr-like form in Boyer–Lindquist coordinates. These special solutions are of Petrov type D, they are singularity free, but they violate the weak energy condition for a non-vanishing spin and their curvature invariants have different values at r=0 depending on the way one approaches the origin. We propose a natural prescription to have rotating solutions with a minimal violation of the weak energy condition and without the questionable property of the curvature invariants at the origin.

  7. Twistors and Black Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neitzke, A.; Pioline, B.; Vandoren, S.

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by black hole physics in N = 2,D = 4 supergravity, we study the geometry of quaternionic-K¨ahler manifolds Mobtained by the c-map construction from projective special Kähler manifolds Ms. Improving on earlier treatments, we compute the Käahler potentials on the twistor space Z and Swann sp

  8. Rotating black hole hair

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Ruth; Wills, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    A Kerr black hole sporting cosmic string hair is studied in the context of the abelian Higgs model vortex. It is shown that a such a system displays much richer phenomenology than its static Schwarzschild or Reissner--Nordstrom cousins, for example, the rotation generates a near horizon `electric' field. In the case of an extremal rotating black hole, two phases of the Higgs hair are possible: Large black holes exhibit standard hair, with the vortex piercing the event horizon. Small black holes on the other hand, exhibit a flux-expelled solution, with the gauge and scalar field remaining identically in their false vacuum state on the event horizon. This solution however is extremely sensitive to confirm numerically, and we conjecture that it is unstable due to a supperradiant mechanism similar to the Kerr-adS instability. Finally, we compute the gravitational back reaction of the vortex, which turns out to be far more nuanced than a simple conical deficit. While the string produces a conical effect, it is con...

  9. Black Strings, Black Rings and State-space Manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    State-space geometry is considered, for diverse three and four parameter non-spherical horizon rotating black brane configurations, in string theory and $M$-theory. We have explicitly examined the case of unit Kaluza-Klein momentum $D_1D_5P$ black strings, circular strings, small black rings and black supertubes. An investigation of the state-space pair correlation functions shows that there exist two classes of brane statistical configurations, {\\it viz.}, the first category divulges a degenerate intrinsic equilibrium basis, while the second yields a non-degenerate, curved, intrinsic Riemannian geometry. Specifically, the solutions with finitely many branes expose that the two charged rotating $D_1D_5$ black strings and three charged rotating small black rings consort real degenerate state-space manifolds. Interestingly, arbitrary valued $M_5$-dipole charged rotating circular strings and Maldacena Strominger Witten black rings exhibit non-degenerate, positively curved, comprehensively regular state-space con...

  10. Growth of Primordial Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomohiro

    Primordial black holes have important observational implications through Hawking evaporation and gravitational radiation as well as being a candidate for cold dark matter. Those black holes are assumed to have formed in the early universe typically with the mass scale contained within the Hubble horizon at the formation epoch and subsequently accreted mass surrounding them. Numerical relativity simulation shows that primordial black holes of different masses do not accrete much, which contrasts with a simplistic Newtonian argument. We see that primordial black holes larger than the 'super-horizon' primordial black holes have decreasing energy and worm-hole like struture, suggesting the formation through quamtum processes.

  11. Over spinning a black hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-09-22

    A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.

  12. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  13. The Black diaspora and health inequalities in the US and England: does where you go and how you get there make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazroo, James; Jackson, James; Karlsen, Saffron; Torres, Myriam

    2007-09-01

    The relatively poor health of Black American people in the US and Black Caribbean people in England is a consistent finding in the health inequalities literature. Indeed, there are many similarities between the health, social, economic and demographic profiles of these two groups. However, there is evidence that Caribbean people in the US are faring considerably better. This paper explores differences in the social and economic position of Black American, Black Caribbean and white people in the US and Black Caribbean and white people in England, how these relate to ethnic inequalities in health, and may be underpinned by differences in patterns and contexts of migration. We use similar surveys from the US and England to explore these questions. The US data were drawn from the National Survey of American Life and the English data were drawn from the Health Survey for England and a follow up study. Findings show the advantaged health position of Caribbean American people in comparison with both Caribbean people in England and Black American people. Multivariate analyses indicate that these differences, and the differences in health between Black and white people in the two countries, are a consequence of social and economic inequalities.

  14. Philosophical Issues of Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Gustavo E

    2014-01-01

    Black holes are extremely relativistic objects. Physical processes around them occur in a regime where the gravitational field is extremely intense. Under such conditions, our representations of space, time, gravity, and thermodynamics are pushed to their limits. In such a situation philosophical issues naturally arise. In this chapter I review some philosophical questions related to black holes. In particular, the relevance of black holes for the metaphysical dispute between presentists and eternalists, the origin of the second law of thermodynamics and its relation to black holes, the problem of information, black holes and hypercomputing, the nature of determinisim, and the breakdown of predictability in black hole space-times. I maintain that black hole physics can be used to illuminate some important problems in the border between science and philosophy, either epistemology and ontology.

  15. Analysis of the Image of the Black People in Gwendolyn Brooks's Poetry from the Perspective of Post-colonialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Xiao-li

    2011-01-01

    Gwendolyn Brooks is one of the most significant American poets.She mainly depicts the ordinary black people and their daily lives,especially the complexity of the lives of the poor black people in her later poetry.This paper attempts to employ her several

  16. An Exploratory Survey of the Attitudes of Black Memphians Toward Funeral Homes, the Funeral Ritual and Preparations for Death. Findings and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gordon C., II

    Black Americans face a paradox concerning death: although their involvement with death is intense, their knowledge of death, per se, comprehension of death related behaviors, and exposure to available life extending alternatives are minimal. An interview based questionnaire was distributed to 1,010 adults in a predominantly black section of…

  17. American Vitiligo Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life can acquire vitiligo Welcome to The American Vitiligo Foundation 2017 AVRF Calendars Order your calendar with ... animal testing. Please Visit Our Donations Page American Vitiligo Research Foundation "We Walk By Faith, Not By ...

  18. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  19. American Hospice Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Hospice Foundation Skip to content Home Caregiving Learning About Hospice Grief Grieving Children Grief at School Grief at ... for all who come after us. The American Hospice Foundation (AHF) closed its doors in June 2014. ...

  20. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  1. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  2. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy ...

  3. American Urogynecologic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Site » PFD Registry » Contact Us American Urogynecologic Society 1100 Wayne Avenue, Suite 670 Silver Spring, MD ... Us | Privacy Policy | HONcode Accredited © 2016 American Urogynecologic Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Asthma and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2014, 2.1 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...

  5. Optical black hole lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Faccio, Daniele; Lamperti, Marco; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Using numerical simulations we show how to realise an optical black hole laser, i.e. an amplifier formed by travelling refractive index perturbations arranged so as to trap light between a white and a black hole horizon. The simulations highlight the main features of these lasers: the growth inside the cavity of positive and negative frequency modes accompanied by a weaker emission of modes that occurs in periodic bursts corresponding to the cavity round trips of the trapped modes. We then highlight a new regime in which the trapped mode spectra broaden until the zero-frequency points on the dispersion curve are reached. Amplification at the horizon is highest for zero-frequencies, therefore leading to a strong modification of the structure of the trapped light. For sufficiently long propagation times, lasing ensues only at the zero-frequency modes.

  6. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  7. Presentism meets black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Gustavo E

    2014-01-01

    Presentism is, roughly, the metaphysical doctrine that maintains that whatever exists, exists in the present. The compatibility of presentism with the theories of special and general relativity was much debated in recent years. It has been argued that at least some versions of presentism are consistent with time-orientable models of general relativity. In this paper we confront the thesis of presentism with relativistic physics, in the strong gravitational limit where black holes are formed. We conclude that the presentist position is at odds with the existence of black holes and other compact objects in the universe. A revision of the thesis is necessary, if it is intended to be consistent with the current scientific view of the universe.

  8. Creating a Pipeline for African American Computing Science Faculty: An Innovative Faculty/Research Mentoring Program Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleston, LaVar J.; Gilbert, Juan E.; Escobar, Barbara; Jackson, Jerlando F. L.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans represent 1.3% of all computing sciences faculty in PhD-granting departments, underscoring the severe underrepresentation of Black/African American tenure-track faculty in computing (CRA, 2012). The Future Faculty/Research Scientist Mentoring (FFRM) program, funded by the National Science Foundation, was found to be an effective…

  9. France in Black Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    mediation role between African governments and their private creditors. 123 France in Black Africa To further complicate matters, France herself is...34La coop6ration Franco-Ivoirienne, annde 1986," Mission de Cooperation et d’Action Culturelle , Ambassade de France en C6te D’Ivoire, Abidjan, 1987, p. 8...Ministry in "La France et l’Afrique: Etude des relations Franco-Africaines politiques, finan- cires, economiques, commerciales et culturelles ," Paris, 1984

  10. Black Hair is Beautiful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    On June 9, the 1994 ⅩⅢ Asian Make-up and Hairstyling Competition was held in Beijing. More than 200 contestants from 12 countries and regions across Asia participated. The competition is now considered the largest and most prestigious exchange activity in Asian beauty and hair circles. Black Hair is Beautiful" was the theme of this competition, which stressed Asian physical characteristics and aesthetics.

  11. Black Friday = Broget Branding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    ? Essensen ved Black Friday er lave priser, og det er der ved første øjekast ikke mange brandingmuligheder forbundet ved, hvis man forstår branding som en måde at skabe ekstra værdi omkring sit produkt eller sin virksomhed. Som brand bliver man dog alligevel nødt til at forholde sig til konceptet, da det er...

  12. Life Inside Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav

    2013-11-01

    It is considered the test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside the black hole (BH), which are stable, periodic and neither come out the BH nor terminate at the central singularity. Interiors of the supermassive BHs may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on the planets with the third kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of BHs by observing their white hole counterparts.

  13. Noncommutative Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bastos, C; Dias, N C; Prata, J N

    2010-01-01

    One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.

  14. Black Holes and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Samir D

    2012-01-01

    The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome `remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a `fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates ...

  15. Slowly balding black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    The "no hair" theorem, a key result in General Relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the "no hair" theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively "frozen-in" the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes $N_B = e \\Phi_\\infty /(\\pi c \\hbar)$, where $\\Phi_\\infty \\approx 2 \\pi^2 B_{NS} R_{NS}^3 /(P_{\\rm NS} c)$ is the initial magnetic flux through the hemisphere...

  16. Linear dilaton black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, G; Leygnac, C; Clement, Gerard; Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Leygnac, Cedric

    2003-01-01

    We present new solutions to Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion (EMDA) gravity in four dimensions describing black holes which asymptote to the linear dilaton background. In the non-rotating case they can be obtained as the limiting geometry of dilaton black holes. The rotating solutions (possibly endowed with a NUT parameter) are constructed using a generating technique based on the Sp(4,R) duality of the EMDA system. In a certain limit (with no event horizon present) our rotating solutions coincide with supersymmetric Israel-Wilson-Perjes type dilaton-axion solutions. In presence of an event horizon supersymmetry is broken. The temperature of the static black holes is constant, and their mass does not depend on it, so the heat capacity is zero. We investigate geodesics and wave propagation in these spacetimes and find superradiance in the rotating case. Because of the non-asymptotically flat nature of the geometry, certain modes are reflected from infinity, in particular, all superradiant modes are confined. Thi...

  17. Moulting Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that some of the CFT states are lifted at strong coupling. Neither the bulk nor the boundary phases are captured by the elliptic genus, which makes the coincidence of the phase boundaries particularly remarkable. Our configurations are supersymmetric, have non-Cardy-like entropy, and are the first instance of a black hole entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual. Furthermore, contrary to common lore, these objects exist in a region of parameter space (between the "cosmic censorship bound" and the "unitarity bound") where no b...

  18. Attractors in Black

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, S; Marrani, A

    2008-01-01

    We review recent results in the study of attractor horizon geometries (with non-vanishing Bekenstein-Hawking entropy) of dyonic extremal d=4 black holes in supergravity. We focus on N=2, d=4 ungauged supergravity coupled to a number n_{V} of Abelian vector multiplets, outlining the fundamentals of the special Kaehler geometry of the vector multiplets' scalar manifold (of complex dimension n_{V}), and studying the 1/2-BPS attractors, as well as the non-BPS (non-supersymmetric) ones with non-vanishing central charge. For symmetric special Kaehler geometries, we present the complete classification of the orbits in the symplectic representation of the classical U-duality group (spanned by the black hole charge configuration supporting the attractors), as well as of the moduli spaces of non-BPS attractors (spanned by the scalars which are not stabilized at the black hole event horizon). Finally, we report on an analogous classification for N>2-extended, d=4 ungauged supergravities, in which also the 1/N-BPS attrac...

  19. Non-Abelian magnetic black strings versus black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present d+1 -dimensional pure magnetic Yang-Mills (YM) black strings (or 1-branes) induced by the d -dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dilaton black holes. The Born-Infeld version of the YM field makes our starting point which goes to the standard YM field through a limiting procedure. The lifting from black holes to black strings (with less number of fields) is done by adding an extra, compact coordinate. This amounts to the change of horizon topology from S^{d-2} to a product structure. Our black string in 5 dimensions is a rather special one, with uniform Hawking temperature and non-asymptotically flat structure. As the YM charge becomes large the string gets thinner to tend into a breaking point and transform into a 4-dimensional black hole.

  20. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  1. Black Holes with Skyrme Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Shiiki, N; Shiiki, Noriko; Sawado, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    This paper is intended to give a review of the recent developments on black holes with Skyrme hair. The Einstein-Skyrme system is known to possess black hole solutions with Skyrme hair. The spherically symmetric black hole skyrmion with B=1 was the first discovered counter example of the no-hair conjecture for black holes. Recently we found the B=2 axially symmetric black hole skyrmion. In this system, the black hole at the center of the skyrmion absorbs the baryon number partially, leaving fractional charge outside the horizon. Therefore the baryon number is no longer conserved. We examine the B=1, 2 black hole solutions in detail in this paper. The model has a natural extension to the gauged version which can describe monopole black hole skyrmions. Callan and Witten discussed the monopole catalysis of proton decay within the Skyrme model. We apply the idea to the Einstein-Maxwell-Skyrme system and obtain monopole black hole skyrmions. Remarkably there exist multi-black hole skyrmion solutions in which the g...

  2. How Black Are Black Hole Candidates?

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, S L; Robertson, Stanley L.; Leiter, Darryl J.

    2002-01-01

    In previous work we found that many of the spectral properties of x-ray binaries, including both galactic black hole candiates (GBHC) and neutron stars, were consistent with the existence of intrinsically magnetized central objects. Here we review and extend the observational evidence for the existence of intrinsically magnetized GBHC and show that their existence is consistent with a new class of solutions of the Einstein field equations of General Relativity. These solutions are based on a strict adherence to the Principle of Equivalence, which prevents the time-like geodesics of physical matter from becoming null on trapped surfaces of infinite red shift. The new solutions emerge from the fact that the structure and radiation transfer properties of the energy-momentum tensor on the right hand side of the Einstein field equations must have a form that is consistent with this Principle of Equivalence requirement. In this context, we show that the Einstein field equations allow the existence of highly red shi...

  3. The American South in the Atlantic World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , emphasizing black and white racial binaries and outdated geographical boundaries, The American South and the Atlantic World seeks larger thematic and spatial contexts. This is the first book to focus explicitly on how contacts with the peoples, cultures, ideas, and economies of the Atlantic World have...... when there is growing emphasis on globalizing southern studies the collection both demonstrates and critiques the value of Atlantic World perspectives on the region. Equally important, the mix of case studies and state-of-the field essays combines the latest historical thinking on the South’s myriad...... of The Postsouthern Sense of Place in Contemporary Fiction. William A. Link, Richard J. Milbauer Professor of History at the University of Florida, is the author of Links: My Family in American History....

  4. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  5. Black Female Voices: Self-Presentation Strategies in Doctoral Programs at Predominately White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, Marjorie C.; Moore, James L., III

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a larger study, this qualitative investigation uses Black feminist thought as the interpretive lens to investigate perceptions and experiences of African American female doctoral students at predominately White institutions (PWIs). Semistructured interviews were used to gain an understanding of their experiences and how these…

  6. Black in a Blonde World: Race and Girls' Interpretations of the Feminine Ideal in Teen Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Finds that Black adolescent girls were largely uninterested in teen magazines' beauty images because they conflict with African-American standards of attractiveness; that makeup and haircare products were seen as specifically intended for White girls, who consequently invest more authority in the magazines' counsel and images; and that White girls…

  7. Who Is Whistling Vivaldi? How Black Football Players Engage with Stereotype Threats in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Whitney

    2017-01-01

    In light of the impact of negative stereotypes on student-athlete academic performance, the purpose of this paper was to conduct a qualitative study that examined how Black American male football players engage and cope with negative stereotypes at a predominantly White institution. Data were collected and analyzed from semi-structured interviews…

  8. Improving the Climate for LGBTQ Students at an Historically Black University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marilyn W.; Ericksen, Kirsten S.

    2016-01-01

    African American lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students attending an Historically Black College or University (HBCU) may experience bullying. Using snowball sampling, the authors recruited six LGBTQ students for a focus group to learn how they perceived their HBCU campus atmosphere toward LGBTQ students. Thirty faculty…

  9. Interracial and Intraracial Patterns of Mate Selection among America's Diverse Black Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Christie D.; Qian, Zhenchao; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2006-01-01

    Despite recent immigration from Africa and the Caribbean, Blacks in America are still viewed as a monolith in many previous studies. In this paper, we use newly released 2000 census data to estimate log-linear models that highlight patterns of interracial and intraracial marriage and cohabitation among African Americans, West Indians, Africans,…

  10. Relational Mentoring of Doctoral Social Work Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Sheriff, Fariyal; Berry Edwards, Janice; Orme, Julie

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the distinctive mentoring experiences of social work doctoral students at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). With a philosophical emphasis on social justice, self-determination, racial identity and pride, and social integration, social work faculty at HBCUs mentor African American and other students in PhD…

  11. Slavery Unwilling to Die: The Background of Black Oppression in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagin, Joe

    1986-01-01

    "Falling Apart," a report by the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, indicates that America practices internal colonialism and continues to subject Blacks to "semislavery." The North American slavery system is traced from 1650, and it is shown how characteristics of that system have continued to the present. (PS)

  12. Reconstructing : Culturetypal and Counter-Cultural Rhetorics in the Martyred Black Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucaites, John Louis; Condit, Celeste Michelle

    1990-01-01

    Examines Black Americans' attempts in the 1960s to achieve legitimacy and , defined as ideological commitment to promote "sameness" and "identity" explicitly through rhetoric of control. Investigates how the culturetypal rhetoric of Martin Luther King, Jr., and the counter-culture rhetoric of Malcolm X…

  13. Examination of the Link between Parental Racial Socialization Messages and Racial Ideology among Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Simone C.; Neville, Helen A.

    2008-01-01

    The relations between racial socialization and color-blind racial beliefs (i.e., the denial, distortion, or minimization of racism) among 153 Black American college students, including 34 college student-parent dyads, were examined. Findings from open-ended data indicate that participants identified receiving both protective (i.e., messages about…

  14. Black Achievers' Experiences with Racial Spotlighting and Ignoring in a Predominantly White High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter Andrews, Dorinda J.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Despite a history of racial oppression and degradation in U.S. schools, African Americans have responded to racism and discrimination in ways that promote educational attainment and school success. Many Black adolescents have been empowered to succeed academically partly because of their awareness of racist practices in…

  15. Power, Politics, and Critical Race Pedagogy: A Critical Race Analysis of Black Male Teachers' Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Marvin; Jennings, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the analytic connections between the scholarship on Black teachers and the development of the concept of critical pedagogy. In particular, the authors conduct a detailed analysis of both of these discourses and then explore the work of two African-American male teachers in an urban school in Los Angeles. The…

  16. Assessment of Marijuana Use and Psychosocial Behaviors at Two Historically Black Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen-Reid, Terra L.; Rhodes, Warren A.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed three constructs (resilient, invulnerable, and vulnerable) as they related to marijuana use, examining the role of spirituality and social support as potential buffering mechanisms. Data on 103 African American undergraduates from two historically black colleges indicated that students who continued to use marijuana were less spiritual…

  17. What’s really in our black raspberry products? – chemotaxonomy by anthocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will focus on the phytochemical portion of our research into breeding commercial black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap) cultivars with better fruit quality. A North American native, it was traditionally used as a food and a natural colorant, but renewed US consumer inter...

  18. Visceral mast cell tumor in a captive black jaguar (Panthera onca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Márcio Botelho; Werther, Karin; Godoy, Guilherme Sellera; Borges, Vivian Palmeira; Alessi, Antonio Carlos

    2003-03-01

    Little is known about neoplasia in the jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest American feline. A captive black jaguar was diagnosed at necropsy with a mastocytic form of visceral mast cell tumor similar to that which occurs in domestic cats. This animal had no previous clinical disease and died during anesthesia for a routine dental treatment.

  19. The Quality of Education and Cohort Variation in Black-White Earnings Differentials: Reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Finis

    1980-01-01

    Examines the methodology used by the authors of the article immediately preceding this one. Questions both the use of expenditure per student as a measure of educational quality and the cohort effect's influence on the differences in the wage earnings of Blacks and Whites. Available from American Economic Review, 1313 21st Avenue So., Suite 809,…

  20. 76 FR 51011 - Applications for New Awards; Predominantly Black Institutions Formula Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... students by encouraging college preparation and student persistence in secondary school and postsecondary... baccalaureate degree-granting institution or a graduate or professional school in a degree program in disciplines in which Black American students are underrepresented, bears to the percentage of such...

  1. Strings Attached? Linking Historically Black Colleges and Universities Public Revenue Sources with Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupet, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), a set of US higher education institutions historically tasked with educating African-American students, receive both state and federal funding. However, state governments often assert operational control through the political process, potentially influencing how key resources are used. Do these…

  2. Earning Autonomy While Maintaining Family Ties: Black Women's Reflections on the Transition into College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sheena; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    African American women have made great strides in their college enrollment and graduation rates despite social and economic barriers. This study explores Black women's reflections on their college adjustment processes during their sophomore year at a predominantly White university. The findings indicated that the way participants coped with the…

  3. Rurality/Urbanism and Extended Familism Among Working- and Lower-Class Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Katheryn Thomas

    A comprehensive look is taken at the rural-urban variation in extended familism among a segment of the population for which extended familism purportedly is especially salient: lower and working class black Americans. The study is guided by the general hypothesis that rurality/urbanism affects extended familism when nonecological variables are…

  4. The Spirit Bears Witness: Reflections of Two Black Women's Journey in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generett, Gretchen Givens; Cozart, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    This article describes our evolution as two Black American women academics who, after years of dealing with our community's marginalization and our own marginalization in the academy, began to employ research as a way of surviving. To share the significance of this experience, we first reflect on our understandings of our positionality within the…

  5. Physical Activity Behaviors of Students of a Rural Historically Black College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Karen A.; Welsh, Ralph S.

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity can have a positive impact on health disparities among African Americans. Objective: In this study, we assessed physical activity behaviors and correlates of students of a Historically Black College. Methods: In September 2004, an online survey and pedometers were used to measure physical activity behavior and correlates.…

  6. Combating “I Hate This Stupid Book!”: Black Males and Critical Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Summer; Jocius, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Too often, instruction designed to improve literacy achievement for black male readers and writers focuses on skill-based learning, ignoring cultural, social, and personal development. This article calls for the use of critical literacy strategies with African American male students, which can raise expectations for academic achievement by…

  7. Educators' and Non-Educators' Perceptions of Black Males: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Herbert L.

    1995-01-01

    This survey of 1,627 educators and 1,503 non-educators found stereotypical attitudes and prejudices toward African American males, in the categories of athletics, crime, education, music, attitude, family, personality, and sexual prowess. Teachers are urged to become aware of negative black male stereotypes they may harbor, which…

  8. The Impact of Desegregation on College Choices of Elite Black Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Noue, George R.; Bennett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Even a casual observer of American college athletics can see the emergence of star black athletes in conferences that once were racially segregated. By analyzing the college origins of National Football League and National Basketball Association draft choices between 1947 and 2011, this research measures the impact of higher education…

  9. The Relationship between Black Racial Identity and Academic Achievement in Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Brian E.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between Black racial identity and academic achievement in urban settings. Using Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1918) as a comparative framework, the author describes current practices and suggests practical applications of empirical findings for practicing classroom teachers of African American students.…

  10. Geometry of black hole spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Lars; Blue, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    These notes, based on lectures given at the summer school on Asymptotic Analysis in General Relativity, collect material on the Einstein equations, the geometry of black hole spacetimes, and the analysis of fields on black hole backgrounds. The Kerr model of a rotating black hole in vacuum is expected to be unique and stable. The problem of proving these fundamental facts provides the background for the material presented in these notes. Among the many topics which are relevant for the uniqueness and stability problems are the theory of fields on black hole spacetimes, in particular for gravitational perturbations of the Kerr black hole, and more generally, the study of nonlinear field equations in the presence of trapping. The study of these questions requires tools from several different fields, including Lorentzian geometry, hyperbolic differential equations and spin geometry, which are all relevant to the black hole stability problem.

  11. Impact of learning orientation on African American children's attitudes toward high-achieving peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marryshow, Derrick; Hurley, Eric A; Allen, Brenda A; Tyler, Kenneth M; Boykin, A Wade

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Ogbu's widely accepted thesis that African American students reject high academic achievement because they perceive its limited utility in a world where their upward mobility is constrained by racial discrimination. Boykin's psychosocial integrity model contends that Black students value high achievement but that discrepancies between their formative cultural experiences and those imposed in school lead them to reject the modes of achievement available in classrooms. Ninety Black children completed a measure of attitudes toward students who achieve via mainstream or African American cultural values. Participants rejected the mainstream achievers and embraced the African American cultural achievers. Moreover, they expected their teachers to embrace the mainstream achievers and reject those who achieved through high-verve behavior. Results suggest that Boykin's thesis is a needed refinement to Ogbu's ideas. They indicate that Black children may reject not high achievement but some of the mainstream cultural values and behaviors on which success in mainstream classrooms is made contingent.

  12. Sarcoid granuloma on black tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Callaghan, Ana María; Aguilar-Bernier, Miguel; Martínez-García, Gerardo; Miranda-Romero, Alberto

    2006-11-01

    We report the case of a patient with a black and turquoise tattoo who developed sarcoid granulomas on the areas of black pigment. Patch tests showed a positive reaction to nickel, cobalt, and cadmium; spectrophotometric analysis of the black pigment revealed the presence of nickel and cobalt among other metals. Although the pathogenesis of sarcoid granulomas is unknown, it seems that a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction is one of the mechanisms involved.

  13. Origin of supermassive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S G

    2007-01-01

    The origin of supermassive black holes in the galactic nuclei is quite uncertain in spite of extensive set of observational data. We review the known scenarios of galactic and cosmological formation of supermassive black holes. The common drawback of galactic scenarios is a lack of time and shortage of matter supply for building the supermassive black holes in all galaxies by means of accretion and merging. The cosmological scenarios are only fragmentarily developed but propose and pretend to...

  14. A Link to the Future: A Pilot Study Look at How Historically Black Colleges and Universities with Journalism and Mass Communications Units Use the Internet in Recruiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jerry, II

    2012-01-01

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) have had the ability to recruit African-American students since the 1860s by stressing a sense of inclusion and family through their mission statements and community outreach. There was little to no competition for African-American students from predominantly white institutions until integration…

  15. "I Am Teaching Some of the Boys:" Chaplain Robert Boston Dokes and Army Testing of Black Soldiers in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, George, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    African Americans have served in the United States Armed Forces in nearly every conflict in the nation's history. However, the State--through official government policy, ad hoc decisions of military commanders, or statements by prominent civilians--was rarely comfortable with Black military service. Throughout most of American history, the various…

  16. The Gifted Black Child: Problems and Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John R.

    In this paper, it is noted that there are three reasons for studying the black gifted child. First, black destiny has in part been shaped by talented blacks--for example, Malcolm X and Martin Luther King. Second, the black gifted are a minority within a minority. The gifted black female, subject to sexism, is even more of a minority. Third,…

  17. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David

    2016-09-23

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.

  18. Black holes and the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  19. How black holes saved relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda

    2016-02-01

    While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.

  20. Breast Cancer Screening in Black and Hispanic Subpopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Miller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary objective was to examine and compare the breast cancer screening adherence rates between black (African American and Afro-Caribbean and Hispanic (foreign born Hispanic and US-born Hispanic subpopulations. Methods: Study data was collected in community settings in New York City between the years of 2011-2012. Participants (N=592 were black and Hispanic individuals who attended a breast cancer screening community outreach program. Breast cancer screening rates as well as demographic data were collected. Results: Results revealed that Afro-Caribbean and foreign-born Hispanics are at a greater risk for non-adherence in breast cancer screening compared with African Americans and US-born Hispanics. Conclusions: The majority of breast screening research and community outreach programs categorize people into broad racial and ethnic groups (e.g., black and Hispanic. The results revealed significant variability within these broader racial/ethnic categories with regard to breast cancer screening. Community outreach programs and future research efforts should target the subpopulations that are at particular risk for breast cancer screening non-adherence.

  1. Metabolic syndrome in Black people of the African diaspora: the paradox of current classification, definition and criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Trudy; Schuster, Dara; Osei, Kwame

    2009-01-01

    According to the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, African Americans have a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome than do Whites. Recent reports in Blacks in other regions have confirmed these observations, but the rates vary. This lower rate of metabolic syndrome in Blacks can be partly ascribed to the lower prevalent rates of some major components of metabolic syndrome, namely serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Blacks. This is in contrast with the higher prevalence of obesity (waist circumference) and blood pressure that meet National Cholesterol Education Program criteria in Blacks. Despite these seemingly favorable lipids and lipoprotein profiles, Blacks continue to have higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity, even in the absence of diabetes, than do Whites. Insulin resistance is more prevalent in Blacks than in Whites. However, the relationships among insulin resistance and CVD risk factors such as hypertension, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides are weak in contrast with Whites. The paradox of more favorable lipid profile and conversely the higher rates of unfavorable blood pressure in Blacks calls into question the validity of the current criteria for metabolic syndrome in Blacks. Thus, it can be argued that each of the components of the metabolic syndrome carry different CVD risk factors in Blacks. The greater CVD mortality and morbidity in Blacks appear to be multifactorial. With the emerging epidemic of noncommunicable diseases, chronic kidney diseases due to both diabetes and hypertension have emerged as major CVD risks that are associated with increasing mortality and morbidity in Blacks. We need to emphasize specific components of metabolic syndrome, specifically blood pressure and chronic kidney disease, that carry higher CVD risk with associated greater morbidity and mortality for primary prevention of CVD and type 2 diabetes in Blacks. To this end, we

  2. Efficacy and cutaneous safety of adapalene in black patients versus white patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernielewski, Janusz; Poncet, Michel; Mizzi, Fabienne

    2002-10-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common dermatologic disorder seen in American black patients (ie, African Americans and African Caribbeans, Fitzgerald skin types IV through VI). Despite its prevalence, there is a lack of data on the effects of treatments, such as the use of topical retinoids and retinoid analogs, in this patient population. Adapalene is a topical retinoid analog that has demonstrated efficacy in the reduction of noninflammatory and inflammatory lesions, along with excellent cutaneous tolerability. Most clinical studies of this agent have involved predominantly white patient populations. This meta-analysis of 5 randomized US and European studies was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adapalene in black versus white patients. The percentage reduction in the number of inflammatory lesions was significantly greater among black patients compared with white patients (P=.012). The percentage reductions in total inflammatory and noninflammatory lesion counts were similar in the 2 groups (P>.3). There were significantly less erythema and scaling in black patients compared with white patients (P<.001 and P=.026 for worst scores for erythema and scaling, respectively). Although the incidence of dryness was similar in both groups, a smaller percentage of black than white patients had moderate or severe scores for dryness (7% vs 18%, respectively). In summary, adapalene appears to be a viable treatment for black patients with acne vulgaris.

  3. Black monazite from Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzko, J.J.; Overstreet, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    Two forms of detrital monazite are known in offshore bars in southwestern Taiwan: a yellow-green to colorless form and an unusual but abundant pelletlike form, generally black but also colored gray or brown. These black pellets, which are about 160 by 200 microns in size, are composed of fine-grained monazite crystals from 2 to 20 microns in size. The pellets are associated with highly variable amounts of discrete grains of detrital quartz, rutile, amphibole, tourmaline, and other minerals. Intergrown with the monazite are quartz, a cerium oxide mineral, chlorite, sulfides, and other minerals. Opaqueness of the pelletlike monazite is due principally to the cryptocrystalline nature of part of the monazite; only a small part of the opaqueness can be attributed to opaque inclusions. The black pelletlike monazite lacks thorium and has a high content of europium. In this respect, as in color, shape, size, and inclusions, the pelletlike monazite differs from the yellow-green detrital monazite. Despite the fact that they occur together in the littoral placers, they appear to have had different origins. The yellow-green monazite originated as an accessory mineral in plutonic rocks and has accumulated at the coast through erosion and transport. The origin of the pelletlike monazite is as yet unknown, but it is here inferred that it originated in unconsolidated coastal plain sediments through migration of cerium from the detrital monazite during weathering, and of the intermediate weight mobile rare earths from clay minerals during diagenesis. Possibly these pelletlike grains are detrital particles formed through erosion and transport from originally larger aggregates cemented by diagenetic monazite.

  4. American Spirit in Uncle Tom’s Cabin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧嘉丽

    2015-01-01

    <正>I.The American Spirit Reflected in Uncle Tom’s Cabin In most people’s opinions,Uncle Tom’s Cabin is a novel which exploded the Civil War and truly described the dreadful life of black people,in my opinion,however,the American spirit reflects in Uncle Tom’s Cabin is the truly reason to the whole course of the Civil War,it is also one of the most important prime movers in the later development of the whole nation,it is a systemic theory of Americans’thoughts

  5. Contemporary American poetry in Slovenian criticism and translation : 1945 - 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Divjak

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the Slovenian reception of five major groups in American post-war poetry -the Formalists, the Confessionals, the Beats, the Black Mountain poets, and the New York School poets - as well as the reception of those prominent authors who cannot be classified in any of these groups. The analysis reveals which groups have attracted  most interest of the Slovenian critics and translators, when was the peak of their reception, which methods of interpretation have been used by the Slovenian critics, and to what extent has their judgement about certain contemporary American authors gradually changed.

  6. Magnonic Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Molina, A; Nunez, Alvaro S; Duine, R A

    2017-02-10

    We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons-the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.

  7. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Casadio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce

  8. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, C; Bertolami, O [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Dias, N C; Prata, J N, E-mail: cbastos@fisica.ist.utl.p, E-mail: orfeu@cosmos.ist.utl.p, E-mail: ncdias@mail.telepac.p, E-mail: joao.prata@mail.telepac.p [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Avenida Campo Grande, 376, 1749-024 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-04-01

    One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, {eta}. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.

  9. Black hole accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. ou...

  10. Magnonic Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Molina, A.; Nunez, Alvaro S.; Duine, R. A.

    2017-02-01

    We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons—the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.

  11. Artificial black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt; Volovik, Grigory E

    2009-01-01

    Physicists are pondering on the possibility of simulating black holes in the laboratory by means of various "analog models". These analog models, typically based on condensed matter physics, can be used to help us understand general relativity (Einstein's gravity); conversely, abstract techniques developed in general relativity can sometimes be used to help us understand certain aspects of condensed matter physics. This book contains 13 chapters - written by experts in general relativity, particle physics, and condensed matter physics - that explore various aspects of this two-way traffic.

  12. Black German identities : validating the multidimensional inventory of black identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wandert, T.; Ochsmann, R.; Brug, P.; Chybicka, A.; Lacassagne, M.F.; Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the reliability and validity of a German version of the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI) in a sample of 170 Black Germans. The internal consistencies of all subscales are at least moderate. The factorial structure of the MIBI, as assessed by principal component

  13. Growing Up Black: A Black Literature Unit For Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massenburg, Doris O.; Applebury, Bruce C.

    1971-01-01

    This literature-based unit is intended to examine the prevalent black moods, conflicts, alienations and disillusionments which accompany the present era. Literature selections include works by both black and white writers. At the end of the unit, the student will be able to realize the man, from what literature has stamped as substantial accounts…

  14. Surfing a Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way

  15. The health of the American slave examined by means of Union Army medical statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freemon, F R

    1985-01-01

    The health status of the American slave in the 19th century remains unclear despite extensive historical research. Better knowledge of slave health would provide a clearer picture of the life of the slave, a better understanding of the 19th-century medicine, and possibly even clues to the health problems of modern blacks. This article hopes to contribute to the literature by examining another source of data. Slaves entering the Union Army joined an organization with standardized medical care that generated extensive statistical information. Review of these statistics answers questions about the health of young male blacks at the time American slavery ended.

  16. Astrophysical Black Holes in the Physical Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter I focus on asking and answering the following questions: (1) What is a black hole? Answer: There are three types of black holes, namely mathematical black holes, physical black holes and astrophysical black holes. An astrophysical black hole, with mass distributed within its event horizon but not concentrated at the singularity point, is not a mathematical black hole. (2) Can astrophysical black holes be formed in the physical universe? Answer: Yes, at least this can be done with gravitational collapse. (3) How can we prove that what we call astrophysical black holes are really black holes? Answer: Finding direct evidence of event horizon is not the way to go. Instead I propose five criteria which meet the highest standard for recognizing new discoveries in experimental physics and observational astronomy. (4) Do we have sufficient evidence to claim the existence of astrophysical black holes in the physical universe? Answer: Yes, astrophysical black holes have been found at least in some galac...

  17. Area spectrum of slowly rotating black holes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the area spectrum for rotating black holes which are Kerr and BTZ black holes. For slowly rotating black holes, we use the Maggiore's idea combined with Kunstatter's method to derive their area spectra, which are equally spaced.

  18. Black holes in an expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Gary W; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2010-04-02

    An exact solution representing black holes in an expanding universe is found. The black holes are maximally charged and the universe is expanding with arbitrary equation of state (P = w rho with -1 black hole temperature.

  19. Use of Professional and Informal Support by Black Men with Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Amanda Toler; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M

    2011-07-01

    This study utilized data from the National Survey of American Life to investigate the use of professional services and informal support among African American and Caribbean black men with a lifetime mood, anxiety, or substance use disorder. Thirty-three percent used both professional services and informal support, 14% relied on professional services only, 24% used informal support only, and 29% did not seek help. African American men were more likely than to rely on informal support alone. Having co-occurring mental and substance disorders, experiencing an episode in the past 12 months, and having more people in the informal network increased the likelihood of using professional services and informal supports. Marital status, age, and socioeconomic status were also significantly related to help-seeking. The results suggests potential unmet need. However, the reliance on informal support also suggests a strong protective role that informal networks play in the lives of black men.

  20. Twistors and Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Neitzke, A; Vandoren, S; Neitzke, Andrew; Pioline, Boris; Vandoren, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by black hole physics in N=2, D=4 supergravity, we study the geometry of quaternionic-Kahler manifolds M obtained by the c-map construction from projective special Kahler manifolds M_s. Improving on earlier treatments, we compute the Kahler potentials on the twistor space Z and Swann space S in the complex coordinates adapted to the Heisenberg symmetries. The results bear a simple relation to the Hesse potential \\Sigma of the special Kahler manifold M_s, and hence to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for BPS black holes. We explicitly construct the ``covariant c-map'' and the ``twistor map'', which relate real coordinates on M x CP^1 (resp. M x R^4/Z_2) to complex coordinates on Z (resp. S). As applications, we solve for the general BPS geodesic motion on M, and provide explicit integral formulae for the quaternionic Penrose transform relating elements of H^1(Z,O(-k)) to massless fields on M annihilated by first or second order differential operators. Finally, we compute the exact radial wave function ...

  1. Transient Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, T M

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...

  2. Black hairy tongue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-08-21

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient's re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment.

  3. Close relationships between Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E

    2001-02-01

    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans.

  4. Black Component of Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Grobov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism of primordial black hole formation with specific mass spectrum is discussed. It is shown that these black holes could contribute to the energy density of dark matter. Our approach is elaborated in the framework of universal extra dimensions.

  5. Black holes in brane worlds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Modgil; S Panda; S Sengupta

    2004-03-01

    A Kerr metric describing a rotating black hole is obtained on the three brane in a five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum brane world by considering a rotating five-dimensional black string in the bulk. We examine the causal structure of this space-time through the geodesic equations.

  6. Educating Black Males with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shawn Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Much of the scholarship on Black males in the educational literature focuses on the achievement gap; their underrepresentation in gifted and advanced placement programs; their overrepresentation in special education programs and their high rates of school suspensions and expulsions. Although overrepresented in special education, Black males with…

  7. Black-Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....

  8. ATLAS simulated black hole event

    CERN Multimedia

    Pequenão, J

    2008-01-01

    The simulated collision event shown is viewed along the beampipe. The event is one in which a microscopic-black-hole was produced in the collision of two protons (not shown). The microscopic-black-hole decayed immediately into many particles. The colors of the tracks show different types of particles emerging from the collision (at the center).

  9. Nonlinear Electrodynamics and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Breton, N; Breton, Nora; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    It is addressed the issue of black holes with nonlinear electromagnetic field, focussing mainly in the Born-Infeld case. The main features of these systems are described, for instance, geodesics, energy conditions, thermodynamics and isolated horizon aspects. Also are revised some black hole solutions of alternative nonlinear electrodynamics and its inconveniences.

  10. Investment, Macroeconomic Stability and Growth: The Latin American Experience Investment, Macroeconomic Stability and Growth: The Latin American Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Rojas

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of factor accumulation, economic policies, and economic and political uncertainties on growth performance of Latin American countries in the last three decades. We extend the work of Corbo and Rojas (1992 in two directions suggested by recent work in this area. First, we extend the model by considering term of trade effects and an additional measure of distortion, the black marker premium. Second, we provide further evidence of the channels through which economic policies affect growth by endogenizing the investment rate. The main conclusions are that the terms of trade affect growth directly, and indirectly through its effect in the investment rate: the black market premium is more a measure of macroeconomic instability than of the degree of oppenness; and stability of economic policies can affect growth directly through the law of motion for growth and indirectly through investment rates. Investment, Macroeconomic Stability and Growth: The Latin American Experience

  11. Years of potential life lost among a Native American population.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, M C; Michalek, A M; Cummings, K M; Hanley, J; Snyder, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of years of potential life lost (YPLL) can aid in monitoring changes in premature mortality among various population groups. While premature mortality has been shown to differ among blacks and whites, patterns of YPLL have not been well established among other racial groups. The Seneca Nation of Indians (SNI) is a Native American group residing primarily in western New York State (NYS). A review of SNI necrology records revealed that 55 percent (510 of 924) of the deaths bet...

  12. When Charged Black Holes Merge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    Most theoretical models assume that black holes arent charged. But a new study shows that mergers of charged black holes could explain a variety of astrophysical phenomena, from fast radio bursts to gamma-ray bursts.No HairThe black hole no hair theorem states that all black holes can be described by just three things: their mass, their spin, and their charge. Masses and spins have been observed and measured, but weve never measured the charge of a black hole and its widely believed that real black holes dont actually have any charge.That said, weve also never shown that black holes dont have charge, or set any upper limits on the charge that they might have. So lets suppose, for a moment, that its possible for a black hole to be charged. How might that affect what we know about the merger of two black holes? A recent theoretical study by Bing Zhang (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) examines this question.Intensity profile of a fast radio burst, a sudden burst of radio emission that lasts only a few milliseconds. [Swinburne Astronomy Productions]Driving TransientsZhangs work envisions a pair of black holes in a binary system. He argues that if just one of the black holes carries charge possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere then it may be possible for the system to produce an electromagnetic signal that could accompany gravitational waves, such as a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst!In Zhangs model, the inspiral of the two black holes generates a global magnetic dipole thats perpendicular to the plane of the binarys orbit. The magnetic flux increases rapidly as the separation between the black holes decreases, generating an increasingly powerful magnetic wind. This wind, in turn, can give rise to a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst, depending on the value of the black holes charge.Artists illustration of a short gamma-ray burst, thought to be caused by the merger of two compact objects. [ESO/A. Roquette]Zhang calculates lower limits on the charge

  13. Black holes and the multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Garriga, Jaume; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive blac...

  14. String-Corrected Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubeny, Veronika; Maloney, Alexander; Rangamani, Mukund

    2005-02-07

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect -- the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive! The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  15. Seeking the Self-consciousness of Black Woman from the Point of View of“Womanism”in Everyday Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门薇薇

    2012-01-01

      Alice Walker is one of the prominent American writers in American women’ s literature and black literature in 1950s-1960s. The short story Everyday Use was published early in her writing career. She displays the differences in the behav⁃iors and minds of the mother and her two daughters during the process of seeking the self-consciousness of black woman from the point of view of“ womanism”. This paper attempts to explore the awakening of their heritage and self-consciousness in or⁃der to deepen the understanding and thoughts on the theme of the text.

  16. Incarceration and Black-White inequality in Homeownership: A state-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Turney, Kristin

    2015-09-01

    Rising incarceration rates in the United States, as well as the concentration of incarceration among already marginalized individuals, has led some scholars to suggest that incarceration increases economic inequality among American men. But little is known about the consequences of incarceration for wealth, about incarceration's contribution to Black-White disparities in wealth, or about the broader effects of incarceration on communities. In this article, we use state-level panel data (from 1985 to 2005) to examine the relationship between incarceration rates and the Black-White gap in homeownership, a distinct and important measure of wealth. Results, which are robust to an array of model specifications and robustness checks, show that incarceration rates diminish homeownership rates among Blacks and, in doing so, widen Black-White inequalities in homeownership. Therefore, the findings suggest that the consequences of incarceration extend beyond the offender and may increase inequality in household wealth.

  17. The treatment of black widow spider envenomation with antivenin latrodectus mactans: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerman, Steven R; Daubert, G Patrick; Clark, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    Black widow spiders (Latrodectus mactans) are found throughout the US. Though bites are relatively uncommon, they pose a significant health problem with over 2500 reported to American poison control centers annually. Black widow spider bites cause a characteristic envenomation syndrome consisting of severe pain, muscle cramping, abdominal pain, and back pain. The significant pain associated with envenomation is often refractory to traditional analgesics. Antivenom (Antivenin Latrodectus mactans) is available and effective, but is often withheld because of a fear of acute hypersensitivity reactions. We report four cases of symptomatic black widow spider envenomation. One of the reported cases was managed without antivenom, and, in contrast, three were treated successfully with Antivenin Latrodectus mactans. We believe that these cases demonstrate safe and effective use of black widow antivenom. This article presents the rationale for use of antivenom in these cases, and a nonsystematic review of the pertinent literature.

  18. Complicated Contradictions Amid Black Feminism and Millennial Black Women Teachers Creating Curriculum for Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachae, Tiffany M.

    2016-01-01

    Millennial Black women teachers wrestle with two simultaneous burdens: disrupting the racist and sexist status quo of schooling through curriculum, and employing tactics to survive school politics among their majority White women colleagues. This article describes how the "Sisters of Promise" (SOP) curriculum aligned with Black feminism…

  19. Magnetic fields around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, David A. G.

    Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our

  20. Bubbles, convexity and the Black--Scholes equation

    CERN Document Server

    Ekström, Erik; 10.1214/08-AAP579

    2009-01-01

    A bubble is characterized by the presence of an underlying asset whose discounted price process is a strict local martingale under the pricing measure. In such markets, many standard results from option pricing theory do not hold, and in this paper we address some of these issues. In particular, we derive existence and uniqueness results for the Black--Scholes equation, and we provide convexity theory for option pricing and derive related ordering results with respect to volatility. We show that American options are convexity preserving, whereas European options preserve concavity for general payoffs and convexity only for bounded contracts.