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Sample records for black african caribbean

  1. Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

  2. Internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans, US-born Caribbean Blacks, and foreign-born Caribbean Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzon, Dawne M; McLean, Jamila S

    2017-02-01

    The tripartite model of racism includes personally mediated racism, institutionalized racism, and the less-oft studied internalized racism. Internalized racism - or negative beliefs about one's racial group - results from cultural racism that is endemic in American society. In this project, we studied whether these negative stereotypes are associated with mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Using secondary data from the National Survey of American Life, we investigated the association between internalized racism and mental health (measured by depressive symptoms and serious psychological distress (SPD)) among these two groups. We also explored whether ethnicity/nativity and mastery moderate the association between internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Internalized racism was positively associated with depressive symptoms and SPD among all Black subgroups. However, internalized racism was a weaker predictor of SPD among foreign-born Caribbean Blacks than US-born Caribbean Blacks and US-born African-Americans. Additionally, higher mastery was protective against distress associated with internalized racism. Internalized racism is an important yet understudied determinant of mental health among Blacks. Future studies should take into account additional heterogeneity within the Black population (e.g. African-born individuals) and other potential protective mechanisms in addition to mastery (e.g. self-esteem and racial identity).

  3. Rules of engagement: predictors of Black Caribbean immigrants' engagement with African American culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nancy; Watson, Natalie N; Wang, Zhenni; Case, Andrew D; Hunter, Carla D

    2013-10-01

    The cultural context in the United States is racialized and influences Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation processes, but what role it plays in Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation into specific facets of American society (e.g., African American culture) has been understudied in the field of psychology. The present study extends research on Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturative process by assessing how this group's experience of the racial context (racial public regard, ethnic public regard, and cultural race-related stress) influences its engagement in African American culture (i.e., adoption of values and behavioral involvement). Data were collected from 93 Black participants of Caribbean descent, ranging in age from 13 to 45 and analyzed using a stepwise hierarchical regression. The findings highlighted that when Black Caribbean-descended participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their racial group they were more likely to engage in African American culture. In contrast, when participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their ethnic group (e.g., Haitian) they were less likely to engage in African American culture. Furthermore, among participants experiencing low levels of cultural race-related stress, the associations between racial public regard and engagement with African American culture were amplified. However, for participants experiencing high cultural race-related stress, their engagement in African American culture did not change as a function of racial public regard. These findings may suggest that, for Black Caribbean immigrants, the experience of the racial context influences strategies that serve to preserve or bolster their overall social status and psychological well-being in the United States. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Use of professional and informal support by African Americans and Caribbean blacks with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Amanda Toler; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Neighbors, Harold W; Chatters, Linda M; Jackson, James S

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the use of professional services and informal support among African Americans and Caribbean blacks with a lifetime mood, anxiety, or substance use disorder. Data were from the National Survey of American Life. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test the utilization of professional services only, informal support only, both, or neither. Analyses controlled for sociodemographic characteristics, disorder-related variables, and family network variables. The analytic sample included 1,096 African Americans and 372 Caribbean blacks. Forty-one percent used both professional services and informal support, 14% relied on professional services only, 23% used informal support only, and 22% did not seek help. There were no significant differences in help seeking between African Americans and Caribbean blacks. Having co-occurring mental and substance use disorders, having a severe disorder in the past 12 months, having more people in the informal helper network, and being female increased the likelihood of using professional services and informal supports. When men sought help, they were more likely to rely on informal helpers. Marital status, age, and socioeconomic status were also significantly related to help seeking. The significant proportion of black Americans with a mental disorder who relied on informal support alone, professional services alone, or no help at all suggests potential unmet need in this group. However, the reliance on informal support also may be evidence of a strong protective role that informal networks play in the lives of African Americans and Caribbean blacks.

  5. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Design In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. Participants 94 women aged 33–91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Setting Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012–2013. Results There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Conclusions Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma

  6. Discrimination and social anxiety disorder among African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites.

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    Levine, Debra Siegel; Himle, Joseph A; Abelson, Jamie M; Matusko, Niki; Dhawan, Nikhil; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between discrimination and social anxiety disorder (SAD) in a sample of African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites using the National Survey of American Life, the most comprehensive study of psychopathology among American blacks to date (N = 6082). Previous work has highlighted a strong association between discrimination and mental health symptoms (Keith, Lincoln, Taylor, and Jackson [Sex Roles 62:48-59, ]; Kessler, Mickelson, and Williams [J Health Soc Behav 40:208-230, 1999]; Soto, Dawson-Andoh, and BeLue [J Anxiety Disord 25:258-265, ]). However, few studies have examined the effects of particular types of discrimination on specific anxiety disorders or among different black subgroups. In this study, logistic regression analyses indicated that everyday but not major experiences of discrimination are associated with SAD for African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites. This study adds to the extant literature by demonstrating that specific types of discrimination may be uniquely associated with SAD for different ethnic/racial groups.

  7. Complementary and alternative medicine for mental disorders among African Americans, black Caribbeans, and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Amanda T; Bullard, Kai M; Taylor, Robert J; Chatters, Linda M; Baser, Raymond E; Perron, Brian E; Jackson, James S

    2009-10-01

    This study examined racial and ethnic differences in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of mental and substance use disorders. Data were from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) and the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). The analytic sample included 631 African Americans and 245 black Caribbeans from the NSAL and 1,393 non-Hispanic whites from the NCS-R who met criteria for a mood, anxiety, or substance use disorder in the past 12 months. Logistic regression was used to examine racial and ethnic differences in the use of any CAM and in the use of CAM only versus the use of CAM plus services in another treatment sector. Thirty-four percent of respondents used some form of CAM. Whites were more likely than blacks to use any CAM, although there was no racial or ethnic difference in CAM use only versus CAM use plus traditional services. A higher proportion of blacks than whites used prayer and other spiritual practices. Among those with a mood disorder, black Caribbeans were less likely than African Americans to use any CAM. Findings of this study were similar to those of previous studies that examined physical illness in relation to CAM use in terms of its overall prevalence, the predominant use of CAM in conjunction with traditional service providers, and racial and ethnic differences in the use of CAM. The use of prayer was a major factor in differences between blacks and whites in CAM use; however, there were also differences among black Americans that warrant further research.

  8. An Intersectional Approach for Understanding Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-being among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

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    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black adolescents. The results indicated main effects such that perceived discrimination was ...

  9. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-03-13

    Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. 94 women aged 33-91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012-2013. There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma, raise awareness, increase discussion of breast cancer and promote

  10. Factors Leading African Americans and Black Caribbeans to Use Social Work Services for Treating Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tyrone C.; Robinson, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    This secondary analysis of 5,000 African Americans and black Caribbeans explored how their use of social work services to address mental and substance use disorders was associated with the disorder involved as well as their perceived need for services, belief system, family resources, proximity to services, social-structural factors, and…

  11. Importance of Religion and Spirituality in the Lives of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the importance of spirituality and religion in daily life (i.e., only religion, only spirituality, both religion and spirituality, and neither religion nor spirituality) among a nationally representative sample of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites. A majority in each group felt they were both important…

  12. An intersectional approach for understanding perceived discrimination and psychological well-being among African American and Caribbean Black youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Sellers, Robert M; Jackson, James S

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life, which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black adolescents. The results indicated main effects such that perceived discrimination was linked to increased depressive symptoms and decreased self-esteem and life satisfaction. Additionally, there were significant interactions for ethnicity, gender, and race. Specifically, older Caribbean Black female adolescents exhibited higher depressive symptoms and lower life satisfaction in the context of high levels of perceived discrimination compared with older African American male adolescents.

  13. Perceptions of prostate cancer in Black African and Black Caribbean men: a systematic review of the literature.

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    Pedersen, Vibe Hjelholt; Armes, Jo; Ream, Emma

    2012-05-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is common and affects Black African and Caribbean men disproportionately more than White men. It is known that PC awareness is low in these groups, but knowledge is lacking about other factors that may deter Black men from seeking information about, or getting tested for, PC. The aim of this review was to appraise research on knowledge and perceptions of PC among Black men. Four medical and social science databases were systematically searched, and reference lists of relevant papers were hand searched. Non-English publications were excluded. Qualitative findings were synthesised using comparative thematic analysis to which quantitative findings were integrated. Thirteen qualitative studies and 20 cross-sectional surveys were included. All except two were conducted in the USA. The analysis identified individual, cultural and social factors likely to impact on Black men's awareness of, and willingness to be tested for, PC. Black men's awareness of personal risk of PC varied greatly between studies. Misunderstandings regarding methods of diagnosis and treatment were widespread. PC testing and treatment were perceived as a threat to men's sense of masculinity. Mistrust of the health-care system, limited access to health care and lack of trusting relationships with health professionals were also prominent. The factors impacting on Black men's awareness of PC may contribute to late PC diagnosis and should be taken into account when communicating with Black men seeking prostate care. Further, the review demonstrated a need for high-quality studies in countries other than the USA to determine the relevance of the review findings for Black men in other nations and continents. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. HIV-related stigma among African, Caribbean, and Black youth in Windsor, Ontario.

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    Mihan, Robert; Kerr, Jelani; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    HIV-related stigma has been shown to undermine prevention, care, treatment, and the well-being of people living with HIV. A disproportion burden of HIV infection, as well as elevated levels of HIV-related stigma, is evidenced in sub-Saharan African (SSA) and African-diasporic populations. This study explores factors that influence HIV-related stigma among 16- to 25-year-old youth residing in a Canadian city who identify as African, Caribbean, or Black. Stigma, as rooted in cultural norms and beliefs and related social institutions, combined with insights from research on stigma in SSA and African-diasporic populations, guided the development of a path analytic structural equation model predicting levels of HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes. The model was tested using survey responses of 510 youth to estimate the direct and indirect influences of ethno-religious identity, religious service attendance, time in Canada, HIV/AIDS knowledge, HIV-testing history, sexual health service contact, and gender on HIV-related stigma. Statistically significant negative associations were found between levels of stigma and knowledge and HIV-testing history. Ethno-religious identity and gender had both direct and indirect effects on stigma. African-Muslim participants had higher levels of stigma, lower knowledge, and were less likely to have been tested for HIV infection than other ethno-religious groups. Male participants had higher levels of stigma and lower knowledge than women. Time in Canada had only indirect effects on stigma, with participants in Canada for longer periods having higher knowledge and less likely to have been tested than more recent arrivals. While the strength of the effect of knowledge on stigmatizing attitudes in this research is consistent with other research on stigma and evaluations of stigma-reduction programs, the path analytic results provide additional information about how knowledge and HIV-testing function as mediators of non

  15. Sexual Networking and Partner Characteristics Among Single, African, Caribbean, and Black Youth in Windsor, Ontario.

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    Kerr, Jelani; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Bynum, Shalanda; Mihan, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The disproportionate HIV burden shared by African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) populations in Canada has not been explained by unique sexual behaviors in this population. This study investigates partner selection and sexual networking as potential contributors to HIV vulnerability. The study examines variations in the characteristics of sexual partners and sexual networking across groups based on differences in ethno-religious identity, gender, and length of Canadian residency among single, 16- to 27-year old, heterosexual-identified, ACB individuals living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Respondent-driven sampling maximized the representativeness of the sample of 250 (45 % male; 55 % female) youth with penile-vaginal intercourse experience who completed surveys. Logistic regression and analysis of variance compared groups with respect to number of lifetime partners, concurrency of sexual relationships, non-relational and age disparate partnering, and intra-ethnic sexual networking. For vulnerability associated with number of partners, concurrency and non-relational sex, women, newcomers to Canada, and African-Muslim participants were at lower vulnerability for HIV infection than their comparator groups. For vulnerability associated with sexual networking within a group with higher HIV prevalence, women and newcomers to Canada were at higher vulnerability to HIV infection than their comparator groups. There were insufficient data on age disparate partnering to support analysis. These results point to the importance of considering characteristics of partners and sexual networking both in further research and in developing policies and programs to curtail the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

  16. The influence of religion on organ donation and transplantation among the Black Caribbean and Black African population--a pilot study in the United Kingdom.

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    Davis, Cynthia; Randhawa, Gurch

    2006-01-01

    Currently the demand for transplant organs, particularly kidneys, far outstrips the supply in the United Kingdom. This problem is particularly severe for the Black African and Black Caribbean populations who have a higher predisposition to end-stage renal failure. Several commentators have suggested that religious and cultural traditions may be the major determinant preventing Black Africans and Black Caribbeans from donating organs. An exploratory qualitative study using focus groups was undertaken with the aim of examining the influence of religion, among other things, on the extent and direction of public attitudes toward organ donation in a cross-section of the Black African and Black Caribbean populations in Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham. In almost every focus group, religion and faith were expressed as issues that could prevent Black people from becoming organ donors. Organ donation was debated with caution on the basis of how their religious experience had influenced them. This finding suggests that the church and faith leaders could play a greater role in raising awareness of organ donation in these communities. Religious leaders can reach large numbers of people in a short space of time and will assist members of any group to understand more fully the religious stance on the subject matter. This education, in the long term, may lead to more people becoming organ donors.

  17. The impact of goal-striving stress on physical health of white Americans, African Americans, and Caribbean blacks.

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    Sellers, Sherrill L; Neighbors, Harold W; Zhang, Rong; Jackson, James S

    2012-01-01

    To contribute to the growing understanding of U.S. black-white health disparities by examining psychosocial stress as an important contributor to physical health problems. Data are from the National Survey of American Life, an integrated national household probability sample of White Americans, African Americans, and Caribbean blacks. Regression analysis was used to assess associations between goal-striving stress and hypertension, BMI, physical health problems, and self-rated health. After accounting for sociodemographic factors and three additional stressors--personal problems, lifetime racial discrimination, and everyday racial discrimination-goal-striving stress was a significant predictor of hypertension, physical health problems, and diminished self-rated health. Ethnicity moderated the relationship; the negative association between goal-striving stress and physical health problems was strongest for Caribbean blacks. This study extends the research on goal-striving stress and adds to a growing literature documenting relationships between social processes and disease.

  18. Black African and Caribbean British Communities' Perceptions of Memory Problems: "We Don't Do Dementia.".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharne Berwald

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify and explore the barriers to help-seeking for memory problems, specifically within UK Black African and Caribbean communities.We purposively recruited participants from community groups and subsequent snowball sampling, to achieve a maximum variation sample and employed thematic analysis. Our qualitative semi-structured interviews used a vignette portraying a person with symptoms of dementia, and we asked what they or their family should do. We stopped recruiting when no new themes were arising.We recruited 50 people from a range of age groups, country of origin, time in the UK, religion and socio-economic background. Some of the barriers to presentation with dementia have been reported before, but others were specific to this group and newly identified. Many people recognised forgetfulness but neither that it could be indicative of dementia, nor the concept of dementia as applying to them. Dementia was viewed as a white person's illness. Participants felt there was little point in consulting a doctor for forgetfulness. Many thought that seeing a GP was only for severe problems. Some said that their culture was secretive and highly valued privacy of personal affairs and therefore did not want to discuss what they regarded as a private and stigmatising problem with a GP. Participants did not appreciate their GP could refer to memory services who have more time and expertise. They were concerned about harm from medication and compulsory institutionalisation. Care should be from the family. Any intervention should emphasise the legitimacy of seeing a doctor early for memory concerns, that dementia is a physical illness which also occurs in the Black community, that help and time are available from memory services whose role is to prolong independence and support families in caring.

  19. Examining the relationship between the endorsement of racial/ethnic stereotypes and excess body fat composition in a national sample of African Americans and black Caribbeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lauren J; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2013-01-01

    Using the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative household survey of non-institutionalized US Blacks, our study examined whether the endorsement of racial/ ethnic stereotypes was associated with excess body fat composition among African Americans (n = 3,265) and Black Caribbeans (n = 1,332) living in the United States. We used ordinary least squares and multinomial logistic regression analyses controlling for potential confounders. Results from the linear regression suggested that the endorsement of racial/ethnic stereotypes was associated with increased body mass index and weight among African American males (b = .57, P females (b = .50 P Black Caribbeans. Future studies should examine the relationship between internalized discrimination and endorsements of negative racial/ethnic stereotypes and excess fat accumulation among ethnically heterogeneous samples of Blacks.

  20. Determinants of usual source of care disparities among African American and Caribbean Black men: findings from the National Survey of American Life.

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    Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Mohottige, Dinushika; Chantala, Kim; Hastings, Julia F; Neighbors, Harold W; Snowden, Lonnie

    2011-02-01

    The Aday-Andersen model was used as a framework for investigating the contribution of immigration status (i.e., nativity and acculturation), socioeconomic factors, health care access, health status, and health insurance to usual source of health care (USOC) in a nationally representative sample of African American (n=551) and Caribbean Black men (n=1,217). We used the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative household survey of non-institutionalized U.S. Blacks to conduct descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Older age, more health conditions, neighborhood medical clinic access, and health insurance were associated with higher odds of reporting a USOC. Odds were lower for men with lower-middle incomes and poorer mental health status. Having health insurance was associated with higher odds of reporting a USOC for African American men but lower odds among Caribbean Black men. Odds were higher in the presence of more health conditions for African American men than for Caribbean Black men. Health care reform policies aimed solely at increasing health insurance may not uniformly eliminate USOC disparities disfavoring U.S. and foreign-born non-Hispanic Black men.

  1. Determinants of Usual Source of Care Disparities among African American and Caribbean Black Men: Findings from the national Survey of american life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Mohottige, Dinushika; Chantala, Kim; Hastings, Julia F.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Snowden, Lonnie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The Aday-Andersen model was used as a framework for investigating the contribution of immigration status (i.e., nativity and acculturation), socioeconomic factors, health care access, health status, and health insurance to usual source of health care (USOC) in a nationally representative sample of African American (n5551) and Caribbean Black men (n51,217). Methods We used the 2001–2003 National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative household survey of non-institutionalized U.S. Blacks to conduct descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Results Older age, more health conditions, neighborhood medical clinic access, and health insurance were associated with higher odds of reporting a USOC. Odds were lower for men with lower-middle incomes and poorer mental health status. Having health insurance was associated with higher odds of reporting a USOC for African American men but lower odds among Caribbean Black men. Odds were higher in the presence of more health conditions for African American men than for Caribbean Black men. Conclusions Health care reform policies aimed solely at increasing health insurance may not uniformly eliminate USOC disparities disfavoring U.S. and foreign-born non-Hispanic Black men. PMID:21317513

  2. Dietary intake in Black British adults; an observational assessment of nutritional composition and the role of traditional foods in UK Caribbean and West African diets.

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    Goff, Louise M; Timbers, Louise; Style, Hannah; Knight, Annemarie

    2015-08-01

    Acculturation to the UK diet may contribute to the increased burden of non-communicable diseases in Black British communities. The present study aimed to assess nutritional composition and the contribution that traditional foods make to dietary intake in a group of UK-residing Caribbean and West African adults and to explore differences according to ethnicity and duration of residence. Observational study. Dietary intake was assessed using multiple, standardised triple-pass 24 h recalls and analysed using a nutritional composition database. Associations between sociodemographic variables and duration of residence with dietary intake were assessed using ANCOVA. London, UK, October 2011-December 2012. UK adults of Caribbean (n 50) or West African (n 83) ancestry, aged 18-75 years. The Caribbean participants were older and more likely to be born in the UK. After adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity, those who had been resident in the UK for the longest duration had significantly higher intakes of energy (Ptraditional cultural foods compared with the Caribbean diet, which was more reliant on 'Westernised' foods such as sugar-sweetened beverages. These results are novel in demonstrating dietary acculturation in UK adults of Caribbean and West African ancestry. We have provided detailed data regarding the role of traditional foods, presenting dietary information that may guide in individualising care for patients from these communities and improve the cultural sensitivity of public health strategies.

  3. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    Full Text Available African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health. We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39 of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154 = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance

  4. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Jenkinson, Jesse I R; Earnshaw, Valerie; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health). We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39) of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154) = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance health.

  5. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H.; Jenkinson, Jesse I. R.; Earnshaw, Valerie; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2016-01-01

    African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health). We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39) of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154) = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance health. PMID

  6. Extended Family and Friendship Support Networks are both Protective and Risk Factors for Major Depressive Disorder, and Depressive Symptoms Among African Americans and Black Caribbeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chae, David H.; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores relationships between lifetime and 12 month DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), depressive symptoms and involvement with family and friends within a national sample of African American and Black Caribbean adults (n=5,191). MDD was assessed using the DSM-IV World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) and depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D and the K6. Findings indicated that among both populations close supportive ties with family members and friends are associated with lower rates of depression and major depressive disorder. For African Americans, closeness to family members was important for both 12 month and lifetime MDD; and both family and friend closeness were important for depressive symptoms. For Caribbean Blacks, family closeness had more limited associations with outcomes and was directly associated with psychological distress only. Negative interactions with family (conflict, criticisms), however, were associated with higher MDD and depressive symptoms among both African Americans and Black Caribbeans. PMID:25594791

  7. Chronic Medical Conditions and Major Depressive Disorder: Differential Role of Positive Religious Coping among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the main and buffering effects of positive religious coping on the association between the number of chronic medical conditions and major depressive disorder (MDD) among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites. This cross-sectional study used data from the National Survey of American Life, 2001 and 2003. This study enrolled 3,570 African Americans, 1,438 Caribbean Blacks and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Number of chronic conditions and positive religious coping were independent variables, 12-month MDD was the outcome and socio-economic characteristics were controls. We fitted the following three ethnic-specific logistic regressions for data analysis. In Model I, we included the number of chronic conditions and controls. In Model II, we added the main effect of religious coping. In Model III, we included an interaction between religious coping and number of chronic conditions. Based on Model I, number of chronic conditions was associated with higher odds of 12-month MDD among all race/ethnic groups. Model II showed a significant and negative association between religious coping and MDD among Caribbean Blacks (odds ratio [OR] =0.55, 95% confidence Interval [CI] =0.39-0.77), but not African Americans or Hispanic Whites. Model III suggested that, only among Caribbean Blacks, the effect of chronic medical conditions on MDD is smaller in the presence of high positive religious coping (OR for interaction = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.55-0.96). Although the association between multiple chronic conditions and MDD may exist regardless of race and ethnicity, race/ethnicity may shape how positive religious coping buffers this association. This finding sheds more light onto race and ethnic differences in protective effects of religiosity on mental health of populations.

  8. Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Differences Between Caribbean Black and African American Patients as Measured by Spectral Domain OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rohini; Dhrami-Gavazi, Elona; Al-Aswad, Lama; Ciarleglio, Adam; Cioffi, George A; Blumberg, Dana M

    2015-01-01

    There are well-established differences in optic nerve morphology between patients of African and European descent. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning has demonstrated these differences with respect to optic disc area (DA), average cup-disc ratio, cup volume, and nerve fiber layer thickness. However, the term "African descent" describes a heterogenous group with considerable variability. This study evaluates differences in optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) parameters as measured by Cirrus HD-OCT between Caribbean black and African American patients. A total of 25 African American subjects and 25 Caribbean black subjects with normal ocular examinations were consecutively recruited to this study. All patients received imaging of the optic nerve and nerve fiber layer with Cirrus HD-OCT. Optic nerve and RNFL parameters were evaluated for statistically significant differences using a t test. A mixed effect model for correlated data was then created to adjust outcome variables for (1) repeated measures and (2) optic nerve size. Two one-sided t tests were then utilized to determine equivalence. After adjustment for DA, RNFL thickness, cup volume, DA, inferior nerve fiber layer, and vertical cup-disc ratio demonstrated statistically significant equivalence between the 2 groups (P value fiber layer quadrant was significantly different between the 2 groups and may merit further investigation. Findings of this study suggest that optic nerve and RNFL morphology is markedly similar between Caribbean blacks and African Americans once adjusted for optic nerve size but cannot be considered equivalent in all measures, particularly in the superior nerve fiber layer.

  9. An integrative review exploring black men of African and Caribbean backgrounds, their fears of prostate cancer and their attitudes towards screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis, Obrey; Worsley, Aaron

    2018-02-09

    Evidence suggests that black men are disproportionately more affected than any other ethnicity by prostate cancer. The aim of this review is to identify studies exploring black men of African and Caribbean descent, their fears of prostate cancer and their attitudes towards screening. Four databases were searched and reference lists of relevant papers were hand searched. The inclusion criteria were studies exploring attitudes towards screening and fear of prostate cancer in black men of African and Caribbean backgrounds, peer-reviewed research, qualitative studies, surveys, questionnaires and English language publications. Qualitative findings were synthesized using a thematic framework to which quantitative findings were integrated. Of the 16 papers, 10 were quantitative and 6 were qualitative, all of which were conducted in the United States of America. Poorer and less educated black men were reluctant to seek help for prostate cancer. They may not visit their doctors for fear of intrusion into their personal lives. Moreover, they were fearful of being emasculated as a result of the digital rectal examination. The review identifies a paucity of UK literature on black men's fears and perceptions of prostate cancer. Further studies are needed in the United Kingdom to address this gap in the literature. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Prostate cancer disparities in Black men of African descent: a comparative literature review of prostate cancer burden among Black men in the United States, Caribbean, United Kingdom, and West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reams R Renee

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American men have the highest prostate cancer morbidity and mortality rates than any other racial or ethnic group in the US. Although the overall incidence of and mortality from prostate cancer has been declining in White men since 1991, the decline in African American men lags behind White men. Of particular concern is the growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry in the Caribbean Islands, United Kingdom and West Africa. This higher incidence of prostate cancer observed in populations of African descent may be attributed to the fact that these populations share ancestral genetic factors. To better understand the burden of prostate cancer among men of West African Ancestry, we conducted a review of the literature on prostate cancer incidence, prevalence, and mortality in the countries connected by the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Results Several published studies indicate high prostate cancer burden in Nigeria and Ghana. There was no published literature for the countries Benin, Gambia and Senegal that met our review criteria. Prostate cancer morbidity and/or mortality data from the Caribbean Islands and the United Kingdom also provided comparable or worse prostate cancer burden to that of US Blacks. Conclusion The growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry follows the path of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. To better understand and address the global prostate cancer disparities seen in Black men of West African ancestry, future studies should explore the genetic and environmental risk factors for prostate cancer among this group.

  11. A systematic literature review of diabetes self-management education features to improve diabetes education in women of Black African/Caribbean and Hispanic/Latin American ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Enza; Chan, Vivian Wing-Sheung; Manuel, Lisa; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-08-01

    This systematic literature review aims to identify diabetes self-management education (DSME) features to improve diabetes education for Black African/Caribbean and Hispanic/Latin American women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We conducted a literature search in six health databases for randomized controlled trials and comparative studies. Success rates of intervention features were calculated based on effectiveness in improving glycosolated hemoglobin (HbA1c), anthropometrics, physical activity, or diet outcomes. Calculations of rate differences assessed whether an intervention feature positively or negatively affected an outcome. From 13 studies included in our analysis, we identified 38 intervention features in relation to their success with an outcome. Five intervention features had positive rate differences across at least three outcomes: hospital-based interventions, group interventions, the use of situational problem-solving, frequent sessions, and incorporating dietitians as interventionists. Six intervention features had high positive rate differences (i.e. ≥50%) on specific outcomes. Different DSME intervention features may influence broad and specific self-management outcomes for women of African/Caribbean and Hispanic/Latin ethnicity. With the emphasis on patient-centered care, patients and care providers can consider options based on DSME intervention features for its broad and specific impact on outcomes to potentially make programming more effective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cross-sectional study of ethnic differences in physical fitness among children of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Kerry, S R; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Brage, S; Westgate, K L; Ekelund, U; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2016-06-20

    Little is known about levels of physical fitness in children from different ethnic groups in the UK. We therefore studied physical fitness in UK children (aged 9-10 years) of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin. Cross-sectional study. Primary schools in the UK. 1625 children (aged 9-10 years) of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin in the UK studied between 2006 and 2007. A step test assessed submaximal physical fitness from which estimated VO2 max was derived. Ethnic differences in estimated VO2 max were estimated using multilevel linear regression allowing for clustering at school level and adjusting for age, sex and month as fixed effects. The study response rate was 63%. In adjusted analyses, boys had higher levels of estimated VO2 max than girls (mean difference 3.06 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 2.66 to 3.47, pfitness than white Europeans and black African-Caribbeans in the UK. This ethnic difference in physical fitness is at least partly explained by ethnic differences in physical activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Associations between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and depression among HIV-positive African, Caribbean, and Black women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona

    2013-02-01

    Abstract African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) women are greatly overrepresented in new HIV infections in comparison with Canada's general population. Social and structural factors such as HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination converge to increase vulnerability to HIV infection among ACB women by reducing access to HIV prevention services. Stigma and discrimination also present barriers to treatment, care, and support and may contribute to mental health problems. We administered a cross-sectional survey to HIV-positive ACB women (n=173) across Ontario in order to examine the relationships between HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination, and depression. One-third of participants reported moderate/severe depression scores using the Beck Depression Inventory Fast-Screen guidelines. Hierarchical block regression, moderation, and mediation analyses were conducted to measure associations between independent (HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination), moderator/mediator (social support, resilient coping), and dependent (depression) variables. Findings included: (1) HIV-related stigma was associated with increased depression; (2) resilient coping was associated with reduced depression but did not moderate the influence of HIV-related stigma on depression; and (3) the effects of HIV-related stigma on depression were partially mediated through resilient coping. HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination were significantly correlated with one another and with depression, highlighting the salience of examining multiple intersecting forms of stigma. Generalizability of findings may be limited due to nonrandom sampling. Findings emphasize the importance of multi-component interventions, including building resilient coping skills, mental health promotion and assessment, and stigma reduction programs.

  14. An Intersectional Approach for Understanding Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life,…

  15. Are ethnic and gender specific equations needed to derive fat free mass from bioelectrical impedance in children of South asian, black african-Caribbean and white European origin? Results of the assessment of body composition in children study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Nightingale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children aged 8-10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500. Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z; B: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z; C: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z+weight}. RESULTS: Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A. The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A. Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations

  16. Are Ethnic and Gender Specific Equations Needed to Derive Fat Free Mass from Bioelectrical Impedance in Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean and White European Origin? Results of the Assessment of Body Composition in Children Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Claire M.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Owen, Christopher G.; Donin, Angela S.; Newton, Sian L.; Furness, Cheryl A.; Howard, Emma L.; Gillings, Rachel D.; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM) from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. Methods Cross-sectional study of children aged 8–10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500). Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z); B: FFM = linear combination(height2/Z); C: FFM = linear combination(height2/Z+weight)}. Results Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A). The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM) and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A). Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. Conclusions Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations can

  17. Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations - Phase III. International Lawyers and Economists against Poverty (ILEAP) is an initiative that aims to help African and Caribbean countries derive full benefit from integration into the global economy. Its work is premised on the recognition that while significant ...

  18. Theorising African Caribbean Absences in Multicultural Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at the learning of African Caribbean pupils in art and design classrooms in the United Kingdom. It proceeds from the proposition that African Caribbean pupils, as the descendants of enslaved peoples whose cultural lineage has been blurred by the skewed relationship with the white majority group, are uniquely disadvantaged in the…

  19. Mental health advocacy and African and Caribbean men: good practice principles and organizational models for delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbigging, Karen; McKeown, Mick; French, Beverley

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Advocacy has a critical role to play in addressing concerns about access to appropriate mental health care and treatment for African and Caribbean men. Aim  To investigate good practice principles and organizational models for mental health advocacy provision for African and Caribbean men. Study design  The study consisted of: (i) A systematic literature review. Bibliographic and internet searching was undertaken from 1994 to 2006. The inclusion criteria related to mental health, advocacy provision for African and Caribbean men. (ii) Four focus groups with African and Caribbean men to explore needs for and experiences of mental health advocacy. (iii) An investigation into current advocacy provision through a survey of advocacy provision in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. (iv) Twenty‐two qualitative stakeholder interviews to investigate the operation of mental health advocacy for this client group. The study was undertaken in partnership with two service user‐led organizations and an African Caribbean mental health service. Results  Primary research in this area is scant. Mainstream mental health advocacy services are often poor at providing appropriate services. Services developed by the Black Community and voluntary sector are grounded in different conceptualizations of advocacy and sharper understanding of the needs of African and Caribbean men. The lack of sustainable funding for these organizations is a major barrier to the development of high‐quality advocacy for this group, reflecting a lack of understanding about their distinctive role. Conclusions  The commissioning and provision of mental health advocacy needs to recognize the distinct experiences of African and Caribbean men and develop capacity in the range of organizations to ensure equitable access. PMID:21645185

  20. Mental health advocacy and African and Caribbean men: good practice principles and organizational models for delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbigging, Karen; McKeown, Mick; French, Beverley

    2013-03-01

    Advocacy has a critical role to play in addressing concerns about access to appropriate mental health care and treatment for African and Caribbean men. To investigate good practice principles and organizational models for mental health advocacy provision for African and Caribbean men. The study consisted of: (i) A systematic literature review. Bibliographic and internet searching was undertaken from 1994 to 2006. The inclusion criteria related to mental health, advocacy provision for African and Caribbean men. (ii) Four focus groups with African and Caribbean men to explore needs for and experiences of mental health advocacy. (iii) An investigation into current advocacy provision through a survey of advocacy provision in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. (iv) Twenty-two qualitative stakeholder interviews to investigate the operation of mental health advocacy for this client group. The study was undertaken in partnership with two service user-led organizations and an African Caribbean mental health service. Primary research in this area is scant. Mainstream mental health advocacy services are often poor at providing appropriate services. Services developed by the Black Community and voluntary sector are grounded in different conceptualizations of advocacy and sharper understanding of the needs of African and Caribbean men. The lack of sustainable funding for these organizations is a major barrier to the development of high-quality advocacy for this group, reflecting a lack of understanding about their distinctive role. The commissioning and provision of mental health advocacy needs to recognize the distinct experiences of African and Caribbean men and develop capacity in the range of organizations to ensure equitable access. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. How doctors' communication style and race concordance influence African-Caribbean patients when disclosing depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A; Realpe, A; Vail, L; Buckingham, C D; Erby, L H; Roter, D

    2015-10-01

    To determine the impact of doctors' communication style and doctor-patient race concordance on UK African-Caribbeans' comfort in disclosing depression. 160 African-Caribbean and 160 white British subjects, stratified by gender and history of depression, participated in simulated depression consultations with video-recorded doctors. Doctors were stratified by black or white race, gender and a high (HPC) or low patient-centred (LPC) communication style, giving a full 2×2×2 factorial design. Afterwards, participants rated aspects of doctors' communication style, their comfort in disclosing depression and treatment preferences Race concordance had no impact on African-Caribbeans' comfort in disclosing depression. However a HPC versus LPC communication style made them significantly more positive about their interactions with doctors (p=0.000), their overall comfort (p=0.003), their comfort in disclosing their emotional state (p=0.001), and about considering talking therapy (p=0.01); but less positive about considering antidepressant medication (p=0.01). Doctors' communication style was shown to be more important than patient race or race concordance in influencing African Caribbeans' depression consultation experiences. Changing doctors' communication style may help reduce disparities in depression care. Practitioners should cultivate a HPC style to make African-Caribbeans more comfortable when disclosing depression, so that it is less likely to be missed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Internalization of the Thin Ideal as a Predictor of Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating in African, African-American, and Afro-Caribbean Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Stefanie C.; Crump, Stacey; Madhere, Serge; Schutz, William

    2009-01-01

    This study, conducted at a historically Black university, evaluated the impact of awareness and internalization of the Western thin ideal of beauty on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia in African-American, African, and Caribbean women. The relationship between internalization of the thin ideal and disordered eating was…

  3. Toward a Caribbean psychology: an African-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Marcia Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Although the Americas and Caribbean region are purported to comprise different ethnic groups, this article’s focus is on people of African descent, who represent the largest ethnic group in many countries. The emphasis on people of African descent is related to their family structure, ethnic identity, cultural, psychohistorical, and contemporary psychosocial realities. This article discusses the limitations of Western psychology for theory, research, and applied work on people of African descent in the Americas and Caribbean region. In view of the adaptations that some people of African descent have made to slavery, colonialism, and more contemporary forms of cultural intrusions, it is argued that when necessary, notwithstanding Western psychology’s limitations, Caribbean psychologists should reconstruct mainstream psychology to address the psychological needs of these Caribbean people. The relationship between theory and psychological interventions for the optimal development of people of African descent is emphasized throughout this article. In this regard, the African-centered and constructionist viewpoint is argued to be of utility in addressing the psychological growth and development of people of African descent living in the Americas and Caribbean region.

  4. Religious Involvement among Caribbean Blacks in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.; Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Joe, Sean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined demographic and denominational differences in religious involvement (i.e., organizational, non-organizational, subjective) among Caribbean Blacks (Black Caribbeans) residing in the U.S. using data from the National Survey of American Life. Caribbean Blacks who were born in the U.S. had lower levels of religious involvement than those who immigrated and respondents originating from Haiti (as compared to Jamaica) had higher levels of religious involvement, while persons from Trinidad-Tobago reported lower service attendance than did Jamaicans. Older persons, women and married persons generally demonstrated greater religious involvement than their counterparts, while highly educated respondents expressed lower levels of self-rated religiosity. Denominational differences indicated that Baptists reported high levels of religious involvement; however, in several cases, Pentecostals and Seventh Day Adventists reported greater involvement. PMID:21927509

  5. Racial and Ego Identity Development in Black Caribbean College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses among 255 Black Caribbean college students in the Northeast United States. Findings indicated that racial identity attitudes were predictive of ego identity statuses. Specifically, preencounter racial identity attitudes were predictive of lower scores…

  6. Investigating the influence of African American and African Caribbean race on primary care doctors' decision making about depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A; Vail, L; Buckingham, C D; Kidd, J; Weich, S; Roter, D

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores differences in how primary care doctors process the clinical presentation of depression by African American and African-Caribbean patients compared with white patients in the US and the UK. The aim is to gain a better understanding of possible pathways by which racial disparities arise in depression care. One hundred and eight doctors described their thought processes after viewing video recorded simulated patients presenting with identical symptoms strongly suggestive of depression. These descriptions were analysed using the CliniClass system, which captures information about micro-components of clinical decision making and permits a systematic, structured and detailed analysis of how doctors arrive at diagnostic, intervention and management decisions. Video recordings of actors portraying black (both African American and African-Caribbean) and white (both White American and White British) male and female patients (aged 55 years and 75 years) were presented to doctors randomly selected from the Massachusetts Medical Society list and from Surrey/South West London and West Midlands National Health Service lists, stratified by country (US v.UK), gender, and years of clinical experience (less v. very experienced). Findings demonstrated little evidence of bias affecting doctors' decision making processes, with the exception of less attention being paid to the potential outcomes associated with different treatment options for African American compared with White American patients in the US. Instead, findings suggest greater clinical uncertainty in diagnosing depression amongst black compared with white patients, particularly in the UK. This was evident in more potential diagnoses. There was also a tendency for doctors in both countries to focus more on black patients' physical rather than psychological symptoms and to identify endocrine problems, most often diabetes, as a presenting complaint for them. This suggests that doctors in both countries

  7. Correlates of bone mineral density among postmenopausal women of African Caribbean ancestry: Tobago women's health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Deanna D; Cauley, Jane A; Bunker, Clareann H; Baker, Carol E; Patrick, Alan L; Beckles, Gloria L A; Wheeler, Victor W; Zmuda, Joseph M

    2008-07-01

    Population dynamics predict a drastic growth in the number of older minority women, and resultant increases in the number of fractures. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is an important risk factor for fracture. Many studies have identified the lifestyle and health-related factors that correlate with BMD in Whites. Few studies have focused on non-Whites. The objective of the current analyses is to examine the lifestyle, anthropometric and health-related factors that are correlated with BMD in a population based cohort of Caribbean women of West African ancestry. We enrolled 340 postmenopausal women residing on the Caribbean Island of Tobago. Participants completed a questionnaire and had anthropometric measures taken. Hip BMD was measured by DXA. We estimated volumetric BMD by calculating bone mineral apparent density (BMAD). BMD was >10% and >25% higher across all age groups in Tobagonian women compared to US non-Hispanic Black and White women, respectively. In multiple linear regression models, 35-36% of the variability in femoral neck and total hip BMD respectively was predicted. Each 16-kg (one standard deviation (SD)) increase in weight was associated with 5% higher BMD; and weight explained over 10% of the variability of BMD. Each 8-year (1 SD) increase in age was associated with 5% lower BMD. Current use of both thiazide diuretics and oral hypoglycemic medication were associated with 4-5% higher BMD. For femoral neck BMAD, 26% of the variability was explained by a multiple linear regression model. Current statin use was associated with 5% higher BMAD and a history of breast feeding or coronary heart disease was associated with 1-1.5% of higher BMAD. In conclusion, African Caribbean women have the highest BMD on a population level reported to date for women. This may reflect low European admixture. Correlates of BMD among Caribbean women of West African ancestry were similar to those reported for U.S. Black and White women.

  8. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvert Melanie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009 from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%. 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1% (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean. Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD 0.18, median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR 0.848 to 1 and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18, median 1 (IQR 1 to 1. Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. Conclusions The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.

  9. Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and generational…

  10. An investigation into African-Caribbean academic success in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Rhamie, Jasmine; Hallam, Susan

    2002-01-01

    While, there is a history of academic under-achievement among African-Caribbeans in the United Kingdom, some African-Caribbeans progress successfully through under-graduate and on to postgraduate studies. This research investigates the factors contributing to such academic success. Fourteen African-Caribbean professionals, male and female, aged between 23 and 40 years old, who had undertaken most of their compulsory education in United Kingdom schools, were interviewed. The findings suggest t...

  11. The African Heritage in Spanish Caribbean Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Ian I.

    1981-01-01

    Uses Fanon's concept of the Manichean colonial situation and his Dialectical Theory of Identification to explore images of African heritage in the works of two mulatto Cuban poets, Gabriel de la Concepcion Valdez (1809-1844) and Nicolas Guillen (born 1902). (GC)

  12. The politics of representing the African diaspora in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Yelvington

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Roots of Jamaican Culture. MERVYN C. ALLEYNE. London: Pluto Press, 1988. xii + 186 pp. (Paper US$ 15.95 Guinea's Other Suns: The African Dynamic in Trinidad Culture. MAUREEN WARNER-LEWIS. Foreword by Rex Nettleford. Dover MA: The Majority Press, 1991. xxii + 207 pp. (Paper US$ 9.95 A recent trend in anthropology is defined by the interest in the role of historical and political configurations in the constitution of local cultural practices. Unfortunately, with some notable individual exceptions, this is the same anthropology which has largely ignored the Caribbean and its "Islands of History."1 Of course, this says much, much more about the way in which anthropology constructs its subject than it says about the merits of the Caribbean case and the fundamental essence of these societies, born as they were in the unforgiving and defining moment of pervasive, persuasive, and pernicious European construction of "Otherness." As Trouillot (1992:22 writes, "Whereas anthropology prefers 'pre-contact' situations - or creates 'no-contact' situations - the Caribbean is nothing but contact." If the anthropological fiction of pristine societies, uninfluenced and uncontaminated by "outside" and more powerful structures and cultures cannot be supported for the Caribbean, then many anthropologists do one or both of the two anthropologically next best things: they take us on a journey that finds us exploding the "no-contact" myth over and over (I think it is called "strawpersonism", suddenly discovering political economy, history, and colonialism, and/or they end up constructing the "pristine" anyway by emphasizing those parts of a diaspora group's pre-Caribbean culture that are thought to remain as cultural "survivals."

  13. Otosclerosis among South African indigenous blacks | Tshifularo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To report cases of clinical otosclerosis histologically confirmed among indigenous South African blacks. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Referral tertiary center, MEDUNSA, Garankuwa Hospital, South Africa. Subjects: All fifteen indigenous South African blacks diagnosed with clinical otosclerosis at ...

  14. Breast cancer screening and health behaviors among African American and Caribbean Women in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbers, Samantha; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2006-02-01

    A telephone-based survey regarding breast cancer screening practices among 300 African American and Caribbean women age 40 and over in New York City revealed that while U.S.-born women had significantly different sociodemographic profiles (in terms of insurance status, marital status, educational attainment), they were no more likely to have had a mammogram than the foreign-born women. Adjusting for insurance status and source of care, women with a provider recommendation were 8 times more likely ever to have had a mammogram (AOR 8.01, 95%CI: 3.74-17.14). Among foreign-born Caribbean women in the U.S. for less than half their lives, only 52% ever had a provider recommend a mammogram, compared with 77% of U.S.-born women. The findings confirm previous reports of the importance of physician recommendation in increasing mammography screening among urban Black women, and suggest that efforts to reach Caribbean-born women with breast cancer screening messages should emphasize the important role of providers.

  15. Black Students, Black Colleges: An African American College Choice Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Patricia M.; Antonio, Anthony Lising; Trent, James W.

    1997-01-01

    Explores African Americans' college choice decisions, based on a national sample of 220,757 freshmen. Independent of gender, family income, or educational aspiration, the most powerful predictors for choosing historically black colleges and universities are geography, religion, the college's academic reputation, and relatives' desires. The top…

  16. African dust and the demise of Caribbean Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Eugene A.; Smith, Garriet W.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Betzer, Peter; Hayes, Marshall L.; Garrison, Virginia; Barber, Richard T.

    2000-10-01

    The vitality of Caribbean coral reefs has undergone a continual state of decline since the late 1970s, a period of time coincidental with large increases in transatlantic dust transport. It is proposed that the hundreds of millions of tons/year of soil dust that have been crossing the Atlantic during the last 25 years could be a significant contributor to coral reef decline and may be affecting other ecosystems. Benchmark events, such as near synchronous Caribbean-wide mortalities of acroporid corals and the urchin Diadema in 1983, and coral bleaching beginning in 1987, correlate with the years of maximum dust flux into the Caribbean. Besides crustal elements, in particular Fe, Si, and aluminosilicate clays, the dust can serve as a substrate for numerous species of viable spores, especially the soil fungus Aspergillus. Aspergillus sydowii, the cause of an ongoing Caribbean-wide seafan disease, has been cultured from Caribbean air samples and used to inoculate sea fans.

  17. Common roots: a contextual review of HIV epidemics in black men who have sex with men across the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Gregorio A; Jeffries, William L; Peterson, John L; Malebranche, David J; Lane, Tim; Flores, Stephen A; Fenton, Kevin A; Wilson, Patrick A; Steiner, Riley; Heilig, Charles M

    2012-07-28

    Pooled estimates from across the African diaspora show that black men who have sex with men (MSM) are 15 times more likely to be HIV positive compared with general populations and 8·5 times more likely compared with black populations. Disparities in the prevalence of HIV infection are greater in African and Caribbean countries that criminalise homosexual activity than in those that do not criminalise such behaviour. With the exception of US and African epidemiological studies, most studies of black MSM mainly focus on outcomes associated with HIV behavioural risk rather than on prevalence, incidence, or undiagnosed infection. Nevertheless, black MSM across the African diaspora share common experiences such as discrimination, cultural norms valuing masculinity, concerns about confidentiality during HIV testing or treatment, low access to HIV drugs, threats of violence or incarceration, and few targeted HIV prevention resources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experiences of and responses to HIV among African and Caribbean communities in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardezi, F; Calzavara, L; Husbands, W; Tharao, W; Lawson, E; Myers, T; Pancham, A; George, C; Remis, R; Willms, D; McGee, F; Adebajo, S

    2008-07-01

    African and Caribbean communities in Canada and other developed countries are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This qualitative study of African and Caribbean communities in Toronto sought to understand HIV-related stigma, discrimination, denial and fear, and the effects of multiple intersecting factors that influence responses to the disease, prevention practices and access to treatment and support services. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 HIV-positive men and women and focus groups were conducted with 74 men and women whose HIV status was negative or unknown. We identified a range of issues faced by African and Caribbean people that may increase the risk for HIV infection, create obstacles to testing and treatment and lead to isolation of HIV-positive people. Our findings suggest the need for greater sensitivity and knowledge on the part of healthcare providers; more culturally specific support services; community development; greater community awareness; and expanded efforts to tackle housing, poverty, racism and settlement issues.

  19. Darker Skin Tone Increases Perceived Discrimination among Male but Not Female Caribbean Black Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-12-12

    Among most minority groups, males seem to report higher levels of exposure and vulnerability to racial discrimination. Although darker skin tone may increase exposure to racial discrimination, it is yet unknown whether skin tone similarly influences perceived discrimination among male and female Caribbean Black youth. The current cross-sectional study tests the role of gender on the effects of skin tone on perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth. Data came from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), 2003-2004, which included 360 Caribbean Black youth (ages 13 to 17). Demographic factors (age and gender), socioeconomic status (SES; family income, income to needs ratio, and subjective SES), skin tone, and perceived everyday discrimination were measured. Linear regressions were used for data analysis. In the pooled sample, darker skin tone was associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth ( b = 0.48; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.07-0.89). A significant interaction was found between gender and skin tone ( b = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.49-1.86), suggesting a larger effect of skin tone on perceived discrimination for males than females. In stratified models, darker skin tone was associated with more perceived discrimination for males ( b = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.69-0.72) but not females ( b = 0.06; 95% CI = -0.42-0.55). Similar to the literature documenting male gender as a vulnerability factor to the effects of racial discrimination, we found that male but not female Caribbean Black youth with darker skin tones perceive more discrimination.

  20. Darker Skin Tone Increases Perceived Discrimination among Male but Not Female Caribbean Black Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among most minority groups, males seem to report higher levels of exposure and vulnerability to racial discrimination. Although darker skin tone may increase exposure to racial discrimination, it is yet unknown whether skin tone similarly influences perceived discrimination among male and female Caribbean Black youth. Objective: The current cross-sectional study tests the role of gender on the effects of skin tone on perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth. Methods: Data came from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A, 2003–2004, which included 360 Caribbean Black youth (ages 13 to 17. Demographic factors (age and gender, socioeconomic status (SES; family income, income to needs ratio, and subjective SES, skin tone, and perceived everyday discrimination were measured. Linear regressions were used for data analysis. Results: In the pooled sample, darker skin tone was associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination among Caribbean Black youth (b = 0.48; 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 0.07–0.89. A significant interaction was found between gender and skin tone (b = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.49–1.86, suggesting a larger effect of skin tone on perceived discrimination for males than females. In stratified models, darker skin tone was associated with more perceived discrimination for males (b = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.69–0.72 but not females (b = 0.06; 95% CI = −0.42–0.55. Conclusion: Similar to the literature documenting male gender as a vulnerability factor to the effects of racial discrimination, we found that male but not female Caribbean Black youth with darker skin tones perceive more discrimination.

  1. Engaging African and Caribbean Immigrants in HIV Testing and Care in a Large US City: Lessons Learned from the African Diaspora Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakwa, Helena A; Wahome, Rahab; Goines, Djalika S; Jabateh, Voffee; Green, Arraina; Bessias, Sophia; Flanigan, Timothy P

    2017-08-01

    The lifting in 2010 of the HIV entry ban eliminated an access point for HIV testing of the foreign-born. The African Diaspora Health Initiative (ADHI) was developed to examine alternative pathways to testing for African and Caribbean persons. The ADHI consists of Clinics Without Walls (CWW) held in community settings. HIV testing is offered to participants along with hypertension and diabetes screening. A survey is administered to participants. Descriptive data were analyzed using SAS 9.2. Between 2011 and 2015, 4152 African and Caribbean individuals participated in 352 CWW. Participants were mostly (67.7 %) African. HIV rates were lowest in Caribbean women (0.4 %) and highest in Caribbean men (8.4 %). Efforts to engage African and Caribbean communities in HIV testing are important given the elimination of the HIV entry ban and continued immigration to the US from areas of higher prevalence. The ADHI offers a successful model of engagement.

  2. African American film sound: scoring blackness

    OpenAIRE

    Doughty, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    The term ‘black music’ has long been a cause for contention. What do we mean by music being ‘black’, or more specifically in the case of this chapter, African American? The music industry has typically marketed products via the categorization of specific genres: for example, jazz, blues, soul, funk and rap. These generic types are often classified as ‘black music’. Philip Tagg vehemently debates the suitability of such an essentializing label, as he correctly argues that aesthetic practice is...

  3. 'We are doing our best': African and African-Caribbean fatherhood, health and preventive primary care services, in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Stewart, Mel; Liles, Clive; Wildman, Stuart

    2012-03-01

    Recent policy pronouncements emphasise the importance of engaging fathers with preventive primary care services. However, in England, there is a paucity of literature which examines African and African-Caribbean fathers' experiences of service provision. This paper reports a study that investigated African and African-Caribbean fathers' beliefs about fatherhood, health and preventive primary care services, with the aim of addressing the deficit in the literature. Nine focus groups involving 46 African and African-Caribbean fathers, recruited using purposive sampling, were undertaken between October 2008-January 2009. Fatherhood was seen as a core aspect of the participants' identities. The fathers enacted these identities in a number of ways, such as caring for and protecting children, which were influenced by spirituality, relationships with women, paid work and racism. The fathers had concerns about their bodies, medical conditions, physical activity and forms of consumption. However, their primary focus was on maintaining and improving the well-being of their children. This resulted in them neglecting their own health needs as they had to meet the obligations of family life and paid work. The fathers reported limited contact with preventive primary care services and were unaware of their purpose, function and availability. They identified ethnicity as a positive asset, and felt their families and communities had particular strengths. However they acknowledged that structural constraints, including racism, influenced their perceptions of and access to local health services. The engagement of African and African-Caribbean fathers needs to be addressed more specifically in policy as part of a broader programme of action to tackle health inequalities. In addition, child health services could build on fathers' commitment to children's well-being through practice that addresses fathers' as well as mothers' needs in families. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Does the increased rate of schizophrenia diagnosis in African-Caribbean men in the UK shown by the AESOP study reflect cultural bias in healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaage, Millie; Agius, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The UK-based AESOP study conducted over a two-year period in three UK sites simultaneously (London, Nottingham, and Bristol), is the largest study to date to conduct a first contact case-control study of psychosis. The study found that rates of schizophrenia were markedly elevated in both African-Caribbean and Black African people, in both sexes and across all age groups. English language literature published up to 2016 was searched. The initial search included: PubMed, The Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. A second search was conducted using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and keywords. Studies selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers. The search yielded eight results, all of which supported the conclusion of an increased incidence of schizophrenia in Black African and Black Caribbean population in the AESOP study. England is a multicultural landscape; multiplicity of cultures makes diagnosis difficult. The lessons we must learn from the AESOP study is the need for transcultural training and the removal of blinding to ethnicity when a large epidemiological study is conducted - psychiatrists need to be cognisant of cultures and aware of the context of symptoms.

  5. Overview of prostate cancer in indigenous black Africans and blacks of African ancestry in diaspora 1935-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoha, G A O

    2007-09-01

    To carry out an overview of prostate cancer in indigenous back Africans in sub-Saharan Africa and blacks of African ancestry in diaspora. Review of all published literature on prostate cancer on indigenous black Africans and Africans in diaspora was carried out through medline and index medicus searches. Published data of prostate cancer in indigenous black Africans and black men in diaspora from 1935-2007 were included in the review. Abstracts of articles identified were assessed, read and analysed to determine their possible suitability and relevance to the title under review. After establishing relevance from the abstract, the entire paper was read, and the significant points included in the review. Prostate cancer incidence and magnitude in black Africans was grossly misunderstood and underestimated in the past. Prostate cancer incidence is on the increase and currently is perhaps the most common urological malignancy affecting black Africans. Its incidence and clinical characteristics is similar to that of the Africans in diaspora but different from all other races. There currently exists significant evidence which suggests a common enhancing genetic predisposition in black men to prostate cancer. There is very urgent need for further investigation of this phenomenon through randomised controlled multicentre studies involving indigenous black Africans and black men in diaspora.

  6. An analysis of the performance of Black African junior provincial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cricketers in this study were cat- egorised as white (W), black African (BA) or coloured/Indian (C/I). 1. Whenever the category 'black' is mentioned alone, it refers to C/I and B/A. 1. After apartheid, the South African government and Cricket South. Africa (CSA) ... regression analysis was used to compare the percentage change.

  7. Black African Parents' Experiences of an Educational Psychology Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Zena

    2014-01-01

    The evidence base that explores Black African parents' experiences of an Educational Psychology Service (EPS) is limited. This article describes an exploratory mixed methods research study undertaken during 2009-2011, that explored Black African parents' engagement with a UK EPS. Quantitative data were gathered from the EPS preschool database and…

  8. Tobacco smoking in black and white South Africans | Peltzer | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoking in black and white South Africans. K. Peltzer. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal: 2001 78(3): 115-118). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i3.9074 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Co-morbid Non-communicable Diseases and Associated Health Service Use in African and Caribbean Immigrants with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masindi, Khatundi-Irene; Jembere, Nathaniel; Kendall, Claire E; Burchell, Ann N; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Loutfy, Mona; Raboud, Janet; Rourke, Sean B; Luyombya, Henry; Antoniou, Tony

    2017-12-05

    We sought to characterize non-communicable disease (NCD)-related and overall health service use among African and Caribbean immigrants living with HIV between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2013. We conducted two population-based analyses using Ontario's linked administrative health databases. We studied 1525 persons with HIV originally from Africa and the Caribbean. Compared with non-immigrants with HIV (n = 11,931), African and Caribbean immigrants had lower rates of hospital admissions, emergency department visits and non-HIV specific ambulatory care visits, and higher rates of health service use for hypertension and diabetes. Compared with HIV-negative individuals from these regions (n = 228,925), African and Caribbean immigrants with HIV had higher rates of health service use for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [rate ratio (RR) 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-2.34] and malignancy (RR 1.20; 95% CI 1.19-1.43), and greater frequency of hospitalizations for mental health illness (RR 3.33; 95% CI 2.44-4.56), diabetes (RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.09-1.71) and hypertension (RR 1.85; 95% CI 1.46-2.34). African and Caribbean immigrants with HIV have higher rates of health service use for certain NCDs than non-immigrants with HIV. The evaluation of health services for African and Caribbean immigrants with HIV should include indicators of NCD care that disproportionately affect this population.

  10. High risk of metabolic syndrome among black South African women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) globally. The prevalence of MetS is higher in black women compared to black men from South Africa. Aim: To compare the prevalence of MetS between black South African men and women with SMI ...

  11. Systemic lupus erythematosus in a black South African child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is poorly described among black children in Africa despite being more frequent among some black adult populations than their white counterparts. The first black South African child with SLE is documented. The patient was a 10-year-old girl who had fever, facial rash (with complement ...

  12. Systemic lupus erythematosus South African child a black

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-19

    Jan 19, 1991 ... Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is poorly described among black children in Africa despite being more frequent among some black adult populations than their white counter- parts. The first black South African child with SLE is docu- mented. The patient was a 10-year-old girl who had fever, facial rash ...

  13. 'The full has never been told': building a theory of sexual health for heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Candice N; Delgado-Romero, Edward A; Mosley, Della V; Huynh, Sophia

    2016-08-01

    Research on Black sexual health often fails to represent the heterogeneity of Black ethnic groups. For people of Caribbean descent in the USA, ethnicity is a salient cultural factor that influences definitions and experiences of sexual health. Most research on people of Caribbean descent focuses on the relatively high rate of STIs, but sexual health is defined more broadly than STI prevalence. Psychological and emotional indicators and the voice of participants are important to consider when exploring the sexual health of a minority culture. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent define and understand sexual health for themselves. Eleven men who self-identified as Black, Caribbean and heterosexual participated in three focus groups and were asked to define sexual health, critique behaviours expertly identified as healthy and address what encourages and discourages sexual health in their lives. Findings point to six dimensions of sexual health for heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent. These include: heterosexually privileged, protective, contextual, interpersonal, cultural and pleasurable dimensions. There were some notable departures from current expert definitions of sexual health. Recommendations for further theory development are provided.

  14. Discrimination, internalized racism, and depression: A comparative study of African American and Afro-Caribbean adults in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Kristine M.; James, Drexler

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests that both perceptions of discrimination and internalized racism (i.e., endorsement of negative stereotypes of one’s racial group) are associated with poor mental health. Yet, no studies to date have examined their effects on mental health with racial/ethnic minorities in the US in a single study. The present study examined: (a) the direct effects of everyday discrimination and internalized racism on risk of DSM-IV criteria of past-year major depressive disorder (MDD); (b) the interactive effects of everyday discrimination and internalized racism on risk of past-year MDD; and (c) the indirect effect of everyday discrimination on risk of past-year MDD via internalized racism. Further, we examined whether these associations differed by ethnic group membership. We utilized nationally representative data of Afro-Caribbean (N = 1,418) and African American (N = 3,570) adults from the National Survey of American Life. Results revealed that experiencing discrimination was associated with increased odds of past-year MDD among the total sample. Moreover, for Afro-Caribbeans, but not African Americans, internalized racism was associated with decreased odds of meeting criteria for past-year MDD. We did not find an interaction effect for everyday discrimination by internalized racism, nor an indirect effect of discrimination on risk of past-year MDD through internalized racism. Collectively, our findings suggest a need to investigate other potential mechanisms by which discrimination impacts mental health, and examine further the underlying factors of internalized racism as a potential self-protective strategy. Lastly, our findings point to the need for research that draws attention to the heterogeneity within the U.S. Black population. PMID:28405176

  15. Genome-wide ancestry of 17th-century enslaved Africans from the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Hannes; Avila-Arcos, Maria C.; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo

    2015-01-01

    Between 1500 and 1850, more than 12 million enslaved Africans were transported to the New World. The vast majority were shipped from West and West-Central Africa, but their precise origins are largely unknown. We used genome-wide ancient DNA analyses to investigate the genetic origins of three...... enslaved Africans whose remains were recovered on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin. We trace their origins to distinct subcontinental source populations within Africa, including Bantu-speaking groups from northern Cameroon and non-Bantu speakers living in present-day Nigeria and Ghana. To our knowledge......, these findings provide the first direct evidence for the ethnic origins of enslaved Africans, at a time for which historical records are scarce, and demonstrate that genomic data provide another type of record that can shed new light on long-standing historical questions....

  16. Religious participation and DSM IV major depressive disorder among Black Caribbeans in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Nguyen, Ann W

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between religious involvement and 12-month and lifetime DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) within a nationally representative sample of Black Caribbean adults. MDD was assessed using the DSM-IV World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI). Religious involvement included measures of religious coping, organizational and nonorganizational involvement, and subjective religiosity. Study findings indicate that religious involvement is associated with 12-month and lifetime prevalence of MDD. Multivariate relationships between religious involvement and MDD indicate lower prevalence of 12-month and lifetime MDD among persons who use religious coping and characterize themselves as being religious (for lifetime prevalence only); persons who frequently listen to religious radio programs report higher lifetime MDD. Lower rates of 12-month and lifetime MDD are noted for persons who attend religious services at least once a week (as compared to both higher and lower levels of attendance), indicating a curvilinear relationship. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research on religion and mental health concerns, conceptual models of the role of religion in mental health (e.g., prevention, resource mobilization) that specify multiple and often divergent pathways and mechanisms of religious effects on health outcomes, and the role of religion among Caribbean Blacks.

  17. Book review: Femi Abodunrin, Black African Literature in English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book review: Femi Abodunrin, Black African Literature in English 1991-2001: Critical Appreciation and Reception; Mkuki na Nyota Publishers, Dar es Salaam, 2007, 236 pp. ISBN 9987449182/ISBN 13:978-9987-449-18-7.

  18. Acculturative Experiences of Black-African International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boafo-Arthur, Susan

    2014-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the number of international students pursuing higher education in the U.S. since 2001. Upon arrival, students are often beset with feelings of isolation and alienation, which are characteristic of adjusting to a new culture. African International students, specifically Black-African international students,…

  19. The growth ofSouth African rural black children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or British human biology or anthropology journals that are not normally read by South African medical practi- tioners. This paper is intended to redress that situation and provide the current status of the growth of. South African rural black children. Materials and methods. SaIIlples. The samples consisted of two groups of rural ...

  20. Black Lesbian Bodies: Reflections on a Queer South African Archive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Homosexuality is unAfrican' has become a common response to the presence of gay and lesbian groups in South Africa. Contrary to the fact that homosexuality can be traced back to the sixteenth century in Africa, widespread beliefs abound that homosexuality is a Western import. Black South African lesbians are ...

  1. a photoreceptor gene mutation in an indigenous black african family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mutations known to create or destroy a DdeI or MspI restriction enzyme site, respectively. Of the patients studied, 45 were from ADRP families and 19 were classified as simplex cases. Of these southern African families with a history of RD,. 14 were of ethnic black African origin, 5 of Asian origin and 26 of mixed ancestry ...

  2. Huntington\\'s disease: Genetic heterogeneity in black African patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huntington\\'s disease: Genetic heterogeneity in black African patients. D S Magazi, A Krause, V Bonev, M Moagi, Z Iqbal, M Dludla, C H van der Meyden. Abstract. Objective. Huntington's disease (HD) has been reported to occur rarely in black patients. A new genetic variant– Huntington's disease-like 2 (HDL2) – occurring ...

  3. Eating disorders in black South African females | Szabo | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eating disorders are generally associated with westernised white populations. Isolated cases of anorexia nervosa have been described in blacks in Africa. A series of cases is presented documenting the existence of eating disorders in young black South African women. This has implications in terms of both conceptualising ...

  4. Mechanisms involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govia, Ishtar O.

    The mental health of ethnic minorities in the United States is of urgent concern. The accelerated growth of groups of ethnic minorities and immigrants in the United States and the stressors to which they are exposed, implores academic researchers to investigate more deeply health disparities and the factors that exacerbate or minimize such inequalities. This dissertation attended to that concern. It used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), the first survey with a national representative sample of Black Caribbeans, to explore mechanisms that involved in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans in the United States. In a series of three studies, the dissertation investigated the role and consequence of (1) chronic discrimination, immigration factors, and closeness to ethnic and racial groups; (2) personal control and social support; and (3) family relations and social roles in the psychological distress of Black Caribbeans. Study 1 examined how the associations between discrimination and psychological distress were buffered or exacerbated by closeness to ethnic group and closeness to racial group. It also examined how these associations differed depending on immigration factors. Results indicated that the buffering or exacerbating effect of ethnic and racial group closeness varied according to the type of discrimination (subtle or severe) and were more pronounced among those born in the United States. Using the stress process framework, Study 2 tested moderation and mediation models of the effects of social support and personal control in the association between discrimination and distress. Results from a series of analyses on 579 respondents suggested that personal control served as a mediator in this relationship and that emotional support exerted a direct distress deterring function. Study 3 investigated sex differences in the associations between social roles, intergenerational family relationship perceptions and distress. Results

  5. Barriers and facilitators to healthy lifestyle and acceptability of a dietary and physical activity intervention among African Caribbean prostate cancer survivors in the UK: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Vanessa; Lane, J Athene; Martin, Richard M; Persad, Raj; Chinegwundoh, Frank; Njoku, Victoria; Sutton, Eileen

    2017-10-15

    Diet and lifestyle may have a role in delaying prostate cancer progression, but little is known about the health behaviours of Black British prostate cancer survivors despite this group having a higher prostate cancer mortality rate than their White counterparts. We explored the barriers and facilitators to dietary and lifestyle changes and the acceptability of a diet and physical activity intervention in African Caribbean prostate cancer survivors. We conducted semistructured in-depth interviews and used thematic analysis to code and group the data. We recruited 14 African Caribbean prostate cancer survivors via letter or at oncology follow-up appointments using purposive and convenience sampling. A prostate cancer diagnosis did not trigger dietary and lifestyle changes in most men. This lack of change was underpinned by five themes: precancer diet and lifestyle, evidence, coping with prostate cancer, ageing, and autonomy. Men perceived their diet and lifestyle to be healthy and were uncertain about the therapeutic benefits of these factors on prostate cancer recurrence. They considered a lifestyle intervention as unnecessary because their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was kept under control by the treatments they had received. They believed dietary and lifestyle changes should be self-initiated and motivated, but were willing to make additional changes if they were perceived to be beneficial to health. Nonetheless, some men cited advice from health professionals and social support in coping with prostate cancer as facilitators to positive dietary and lifestyle changes. A prostate cancer diagnosis and ageing also heightened men's awareness of their health, particularly in regards to their body weight. A dietary and physical activity intervention framed as helping men to regain fitness and aid post-treatment recovery aimed at men with elevated PSA may be appealing and acceptable to African Caribbean prostate cancer survivors. © Article author(s) (or their

  6. Not of African Descent: Dental Modification among Indigenous Caribbean People from Canímar Abajo, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roksandic, Mirjana; Alarie, Kaitlynn; Rodríguez Suárez, Roberto; Huebner, Erwin; Roksandic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Dental modifications in the Caribbean are considered to be an African practice introduced to the Caribbean archipelago by the influx of enslaved Africans during colonial times. Skeletal remains which exhibited dental modifications are by default considered to be Africans, African descendants, or post-contact indigenous people influenced by an African practice. Individual E-105 from the site of Canímar Abajo (Cuba), with a direct 14C AMS date of 990-800 cal BC, provides the first unequivocal evidence of dental modifications in the Antilles prior to contact with Europeans in AD 1492. Central incisors showing evidence of significant crown reduction (loss of crown volume regardless of its etiology) were examined macroscopically and with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine if the observed alterations were due to deliberate modification or other (unintentional) factors considered: postmortem breakage, violent accidental breakage, non-dietary use of teeth, and wear caused by habitual or repeated actions. The pattern of crown reduction is consistent with deliberate dental modification of the type commonly encountered among African and African descendent communities in post-contact Caribbean archaeological assemblages. Six additional individuals show similar pattern of crown reduction of maxillary incisors with no analogous wear in corresponding mandibular dentition.

  7. Not of African Descent: Dental Modification among Indigenous Caribbean People from Canímar Abajo, Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Roksandic

    Full Text Available Dental modifications in the Caribbean are considered to be an African practice introduced to the Caribbean archipelago by the influx of enslaved Africans during colonial times. Skeletal remains which exhibited dental modifications are by default considered to be Africans, African descendants, or post-contact indigenous people influenced by an African practice. Individual E-105 from the site of Canímar Abajo (Cuba, with a direct 14C AMS date of 990-800 cal BC, provides the first unequivocal evidence of dental modifications in the Antilles prior to contact with Europeans in AD 1492. Central incisors showing evidence of significant crown reduction (loss of crown volume regardless of its etiology were examined macroscopically and with a scanning electron microscope (SEM to determine if the observed alterations were due to deliberate modification or other (unintentional factors considered: postmortem breakage, violent accidental breakage, non-dietary use of teeth, and wear caused by habitual or repeated actions. The pattern of crown reduction is consistent with deliberate dental modification of the type commonly encountered among African and African descendent communities in post-contact Caribbean archaeological assemblages. Six additional individuals show similar pattern of crown reduction of maxillary incisors with no analogous wear in corresponding mandibular dentition.

  8. HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean communities in the Netherlands: Manifestations, consequences and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stutterheim, S.E.; Bos, A.E.R.; Shiripinda, I.; Bruin, de M.; Pryor, J.B.; Schaalma, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean diaspora communities in the Netherlands was investigated. Interviews with HIV-positive and HIV-negative community members demonstrated that HIV-related stigma manifests as social distance, physical distance, words and silence. The psychological

  9. HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean communities in the Netherlands: manifestations, consequences and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stutterheim, S.E.; Bos, A.E.R.; Shiripinda, I.; de Bruin, M.; Pryor, J.B.; Schaalma, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean diaspora communities in the Netherlands was investigated. Interviews with HIV-positive and HIV-negative community members demonstrated that HIV-related stigma manifests as social distance, physical distance, words and silence. The psychological

  10. Beliefs Contributing to HIV-related Stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean Communities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stutterheim, S.E.; Bos, A.E.R.; Kesteren, van N.M.C.; Shiripinda, I.; Pryor, J.B.; Bruin, de M.; Schaalma, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the first diagnosis, people living with HIV (PLWH) around the world continue to report stigmatizing experiences. In this study, beliefs contributing to HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean diaspora communities and their cultural context were explored through

  11. "I know he controls cancer": the meanings of religion among Black Caribbean and White British patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffman, Jonathan; Morgan, Myfanwy; Edmonds, Polly; Speck, Peter; Higginson, Irene J

    2008-09-01

    There is evidence that religion and spirituality affect psychosocial adjustment to cancer. However, little is known about the perceptions and meanings of religion and spirituality among Black and minority ethnic groups living with cancer in the UK. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 26 Black Caribbean and 19 White British patients living in South London boroughs with advanced cancer to explore how religion and spirituality influenced their self-reported cancer experience. Twenty-five Black Caribbean patients and 13/19 White British patients volunteered views on the place of religion or God in their life. Spirituality was rarely mentioned. Christianity was the only religion referred to. Strength of religious belief appeared to be more pronounced among Black Caribbean patients. Three main themes emerged from patients' accounts: the ways in which patients believed religion and belief in God helped them comprehend cancer; how they felt their faith and the emotional and practical support provided by church communities assisted them to live with the physical and psychological effects of their illness and its progression; and Black Caribbean patients identified the ways in which the experience of cancer promoted religious identity. We identified that patients from both ethnic groups appeared to derive benefit from their religious faith and belief in God. However, the manner in which these were understood and expressed in relation to their cancer was culturally shaped. We recommend that when health and social care professionals perform an assessment interview with patients from different cultural backgrounds to their own, opportunities are made for them to express information about their illness that may include religious and spiritual beliefs since these may alter perceptions of their illness and symptoms and thereby influence treatment decisions.

  12. South African managers' perceptions of black economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this regard, South African businesses are subject to a whole array of mandatory regulations which specifically influence their operational capabilities and competitiveness to compete effectively and efficiently in both national and global markets. In a survey among 500 individual managers in South African businesses ...

  13. Prevalence and correlates of everyday discrimination among black Caribbeans in the United States: the impact of nativity and country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Mouzon, Dawne M; Keith, Verna M; Chae, David H; Chatters, Linda M

    2017-07-01

    Black Caribbeans in the United States have been the victims of major discrimination (e.g. unfairly fired, denied a promotion, denied housing). What is not known is the degree to which they also experience more routine forms of everyday discrimination such as receiving poor restaurant service, being perceived as dishonest, and being followed in stores. This paper investigates the distribution and correlates of everyday discrimination among a national sample of black Caribbeans in the U.S. This analysis used the black Caribbean sub-sample (n = 1,621) of the National Survey of American Life. Demographic and immigration status correlates of ten items from the Everyday Discrimination Scale were investigated: being treated with less courtesy, treated with less respect, receiving poor restaurant service, being perceived as not smart, being perceived as dishonest, being perceived as not as good as others, and being feared, insulted, harassed, or followed in stores. Roughly one out of ten black Caribbeans reported that, on a weekly basis, they were treated with less courtesy and other people acted as if they were better than them, were afraid of them, and as if they were not as smart. Everyday discrimination was more frequent for black Caribbeans who were male, never married, divorced/separated, earned higher incomes, and who were second or third generation immigrants. Black Caribbeans attributed the majority of the discrimination they experienced to their race. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide an in-depth investigation of everyday discrimination among the black Caribbean population. It provides the frequency, types and correlates of everyday discrimination reported by black Caribbeans in the United States. Understanding the frequency and types of discrimination is important because of the documented negative impacts of everyday discrimination on physical and mental health.

  14. Fungal Spore Concentrations and Ergosterol Content in Aerosol Samples in the Caribbean During African Dust Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Figueroa, G.; Bolaños-Rosero, B.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Fungal spores are a major component of primary biogenic aerosol particles that are emitted to the atmosphere, are ubiquitous, and play an important role in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, climate, and public health. Every year, during summer months, African dust (AD) particles are transported to the Caribbean region causing an increase in the concentrations of particulate matter in the atmosphere. AD is one of the most important natural sources of mineral particulate matter at the global scale, and many investigations suggest that it has the ability to transport dust-associated biological particles through long distances. The relationship between AD incursions and the concentration of fungal spores in the Caribbean region is poorly understood. In order to investigate the effects of AD incursions on fungal spore's emissions, fungal spore concentrations were monitored using a Burkard spore trap at the tropical montane cloud forest of Pico del Este at El Yunque National Forest, Puerto Rico. The presence of AD was supported with satellite images of aerosol optical thickness, and with the results from the air masses backward trajectories calculated with the NOAA HYSPLIT model. Basidiospores and Ascospores comprised the major components of the total spore's concentrations, up to a maximum of 98%, during both AD incursions and background days. A considerably decrease in the concentration of fungal spores during AD events was observed. Ergosterol, biomarker for measuring fungal biomass, concentrations were determined in aerosols that were sampled at a marine site, Cabezas de San Juan Nature Reserve, in Fajardo Puerto Rico, and at an urban site, Facundo Bueso building at the University of Puerto Rico. Additional efforts to understand the relationship between the arrival of AD to the Caribbean and a decrease in spore's concentrations are needed in order to investigate changes in local spore's vs the contribution of long-range spores transported within the AD.

  15. Intergenerational differences in smoking among West Indian, Haitian, Latin American, and African blacks in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tod G. Hamilton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due in large part to increased migration from Africa and the Caribbean, black immigrants and their descendants are drastically changing the contours of health disparities among blacks in the United States. While prior studies have examined health variation among black immigrants by region of birth, few have explored the degree of variation in health behaviors, particularly smoking patterns, among first- and second- generation black immigrants by ancestral heritage. Using data from the 1995–2011 waves of the Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS, we examine variation in current smoking status among first-, second-, and third/higher- generation black immigrants. Specifically, we investigate these differences among all black immigrants and then provide separate analyses for individuals with ancestry from the English-speaking Caribbean (West Indies, Haiti, Latin America, and Africa—the primary sending regions of black immigrants to the United States. We also explore differences in smoking behavior by gender. The results show that, relative to third/higher generation blacks, first-generation black immigrants are less likely to report being current smokers. Within the first-generation, immigrants who migrated after age 13 have a lower probability of smoking relative to those who migrated at or under age 13. Disparities in smoking prevalence among the first-generation by age at migration are largest among black immigrants from Latin America. The results also suggest that second-generation immigrants with two foreign-born parents are generally less likely to smoke than the third/higher generation. We find no statistically significant difference in smoking between second-generation immigrants with mixed nativity parents and the third or higher generation. Among individuals with West Indian, Haitian, Latin American, and African ancestry, the probability of being a current smoker increases with each successive generation

  16. Engaging black sub-Saharan African communities and their gatekeepers in HIV prevention programs: Challenges and strategies from England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Nyashanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: HIV infection is a sensitive issue in black communities [Serrant-Green L. Black Caribbean men, sexual health decisions and silences. Doctoral thesis. Nottingham School of Nursing, University of Nottingham; 2004]. Statistics show black sub-Saharan African (BSSA communities disproportionately constitute two-thirds of people with HIV [Heath Protection Agency. Health protection report: latest infection reports-GOV.UK; 2013]. African communities constitute 30% of people accessing HIV treatment in the United Kingdom yet represent less than 1% of the population [Health Protection Agency. HIV in the United Kingdom: 2012 report; 2012], [Department of Health. DVD about FGM. 2012. Available from fgm@dh.gsi.gov.uk.]. This article explores the sociocultural challenges in engaging BSSA communities in HIV prevention programs in England and possible strategies to improve their involvement. Methods: Twelve focus group discussions and 24 semistructured interviews were conducted in a 2-year period with participants from the BSSA communities and sexual health services in the West Midlands, England. The research was supported by the Ubuntu scheme, a sexual health initiative working with African communities in Birmingham, England. Results: Ineffective engagement with African communities can hinder the effectiveness of HIV prevention programs. Skills and strategies sensitive to BSSA culture are important for successful implementation of prevention programs. HIV prevention programs face challenges including stigma, denial, and marginalized views within BSSA communities. Conclusion: Networking, coordination, and cultural sensitivity training for health professionals are key strategies for engaging BSSA communities in HIV prevention programs.

  17. The Self-Concept Level of Black Adolescents with and without African Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Francis; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored the self-concept level of Black adolescents with and without African names, and of their parents, using the Terrell and Taylor Black Ideology Scale and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Adolescents with African names demonstrated significantly higher scores on the Black self-concept scales than did those without African names.…

  18. An exploration of black South African lovestyles

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.A. The purpose of this study was to add, through the lens of social and crosscultural psychology, to the much needed body of knowledge of African intimate relationships. Western romantic relationships are generally characterised by intense attraction and emotional attachment, idealisation of the other, sexual attraction and the want for total acceptance by the other. African love is less well known but seemingly tied up in culture bound collectivism as well as other social phenomenon. Th...

  19. Assessing peripheral arteries in South African black women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing peripheral arteries in South African black women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. ... Palpation of the pedal pulses, Doppler derived ankle brachial systolic blood pressure indices, photo plethysmographic-derived toe brachial systolic blood pressure indices and antero-posterior radiographs of both feet. Results.

  20. Cardiovascular risk factor profile of black Africans undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a growing epidemic on the African continent. It remains uncertain whether the risk factors identified as contributing to CAD in white populations contribute to a similar extent to CAD incidence in black populations. No data of the local population exists that is based on the ...

  1. Dietary iron overload in southern African rural blacks | Friedman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey conducted in rural southern African black subjects indicated that dietary iron overload remains a major health problem. A full blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum concentrations of iron, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), 1'-glutamyltransferase (GGn and serological screening ...

  2. Anthropometric and biochemical profiles of black south african women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines anthropometric and biochemical profiles and the association between these parameters in pre-menopausal, post-pubertal black South African women. A representative sample of 500 participants, randomly selected in Mangaung, Bloemfontein in the Free State Province, using township maps obtained ...

  3. Undeletions in Black South African English | Mesthrie | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 34 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me ... in Black South African English. R Mesthrie. Abstract. No Abstract.

  4. Congenital anomalies in rural black South African neonates - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital anomalies in rural black South African neonates - a silent epidemic? P. A. Venter, A. L. Christianson, C. M. Hutamo, M. P. Makhura, G. S. Gericke. Abstract. Study objective. To ascertain the incidence and spectrum of congenital anomalies in neonates born in a rural hospital. Design. This was a prospective, ...

  5. Longstanding hydrocele in adult Black Africans: Is preoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Longstanding hydrocele is very common among adult Black Africans. Preoperative scrotal ultrasound is widely used for adult patients presenting with hydrocele, with the main aim to rule out more serious underlying pathologies like malignancy or testicular torsion. This paper analyzes the findings and the ...

  6. Transformation in cricket: The Black African experience | Dove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The small number of black African (BA) cricket players progressing through the talent development pathways to the elite level has been a constant concern for Cricket South Africa (CSA). Previous attempts to accelerate the development of BA players have not produced the desired results. A description of the ...

  7. Global Norms and local requirements for Black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Norms and local requirements for Black South African English ('BSAE')? -- A pilot study of teachers' assessment and perceptions of learner texts ... reports on the pilot study of a still-ongoing research project which investigates teachers' language perceptions and language use in mainly BSAE-using classrooms.

  8. GalAactosaemia in black South African children | Ojwang | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the most common form of galactosaemia in black children in the KwaZulu Natal region. Cases of galactokinase or epimerase enzyme deficiency appear to be present. Further investigation is required to establish the occurrence and prevalence of the latter in affected individuals in this region. East African Medical Journal, ...

  9. Post-apartheid transnationalism in black South African literature: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Mtutuzeli Matshoba, Njabulo Ndebele and Zakes Mda to Phaswane Mpe,” with the thread splicing them together being a grounding of these authors' writings in the philosophy or worldview of Afrikan Humanism. Keywords: Black South African English literature, consciousness, identity, post-apartheid, transnationalism.

  10. Towards a Corpus of Black South African English | de Klerk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the proposed structure and design for a corpus of Xhosa English, which should ultimately form part of a larger corpus of Black South African English (BSAE). The planned corpus (which already comprises 100 000 transcribed words) is exclusively based on spoken spontaneous Xhosa English, and full ...

  11. The impact of black economic empowerment (BEE) on South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L.P. Krüger is Professor of Operations, Project and Quality Management, University of South Africa. E-mail: krugelp@unisa.ac. ..... The impact of black economic empowerment (BEE) on South African businesses. Table 5: Industry type. Industry description. Frequency Percentage Industry description. Frequency Percentage.

  12. Examining African self-consciousness and Black racial identity as predictors of Black men's psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Martin R; Mahalik, James R

    2005-02-01

    This study investigated African self-consciousness and Black racial identity as predictors of psychological distress and self-esteem for Black men. One hundred thirty Black men from a college and community sample completed the African Self-Consciousness Scale, the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-B, the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Canonical correlation analysis found 2 significant roots with the 1st root indicating that Black men whose attitudes reflected Preencounter and Immersion racial identity attitudes and who do not resist against anti-African/Black forces reported greater psychological distress and less esteem. Results from the 2nd root suggested that Black men whose attitudes reflect greater Internalization racial identity attitudes, greater resistance to anti-African/Black forces, and less identification with Blacks reported greater self-esteem. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Sexual dysfunction in climacteric women of African descent from the Colombian Caribbean region = Disfunción sexual en mujeres climatéricas afrodescendientes del Caribe Colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monterrosa Castro, Alvaro De Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After the United States and Brazil, Colombia is the third American country with the greatest population of African descent. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD in climacteric women of African descent. Methods: Cross sectional study carried out with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, in healthy women, whose mother and father were of black race, living in municipalities from the Colombian Caribbean region, who volunteered to anonymously participate in the study, and were recruited in their communities. Higher scores correlated with better sexuality. Results: 461 women were studied; 305 (66.2% with sexual activity; 70.8% were premenopausal and 29.2%, postmenopausal. Average scores of the domains were: Sexual desire (4.1 ± 1.1, sexual arousal (4.4 ± 1.0, lubrication (4.9 ± 1.0, orgasm (4.7 ± 1.0, satisfaction (5.3 ± 1.0 and pain (4.3 ± 1.5. Average total score was 27.7 ± 4.7. Prevalence of SD was 38.4%. Smoking (OR: 3.3 [IC95%: 1.0-10.6; p = 0.041] and arterial hypertension (OR: 2.2 [IC95%:1.1-4.4; p = 0.026] increased the risk of SD, while schooling higher than ten years (OR: 0.4 [IC95%: 0.2-0.8; p = 0.003] decreased it. Prevalence of SD increased with the change in the menopausal status (p <0,001. All domains deteriorated, except pain, with the transition to the postmenopausal status (p <0.001. Conclusion: In females of African descent from the Colombian Caribbean region, one third of the premenopausal and half of the postmenopausal have SD.

  14. The Black Atlantic as reversal: A reappraisal of African and black theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Engdahl

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will try to do three things. Firstly, pay attention to the notion of Black Atlantic as coined by Paul Gilroy, which in effect could signify a reversal of colonialism and slavery. Secondly, revisit the 1970s and the debate about the relevance of Black theology vis-à-vis African theology, using John Mbiti’s article ‘An African Views American Black Theology’ as entry point. Here, I will discuss contributions also made by Desmond Tutu and James Cone. Thirdly, starting with the premise that both theologies are relevant and soul mates today, which would (probably be confirmed by all the above mentioned at this point in time, an assessment of current voices will be made, that is, Tinyiko Maluleke and Vuyani Vellem on black and African ecclesiologies from a South African perspective, and Lawrence Burnley on the fate of the Black Church in the United States.

  15. Transformation in cricket: the black African experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African sport today.[1]. Since South Africa's return to international cricket in 1991 and the unification of the cricket bodies, firstly, as the United Cricket Board of South Africa and .... Poor or no equipment was cited as having a negative psychological effect on ... support from a parent and/or significant individual from the cricket.

  16. TRANSATLANTIC DIALOGUES: AFRICANITY, BLACKNESS AND IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deolinda Adão

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the aesthetic and ideological dialogs between Pan­-African movements, such as the Harlem Renaissance, the French Negri­tude movement, and the artistic, particularly the literary production of the student of the Casa do Império in general and that of Francisco José Ten­reiro in particular.

  17. TRANSATLANTIC DIALOGUES: AFRICANITY, BLACKNESS AND IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Deolinda Adão

    2011-01-01

    The article explores the aesthetic and ideological dialogs between Pan­-African movements, such as the Harlem Renaissance, the French Negri­tude movement, and the artistic, particularly the literary production of the student of the Casa do Império in general and that of Francisco José Ten­reiro in particular.

  18. Retinal detachment in black South Africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhegmatogenous retinal detachments seen in black patients attending King Edward VIII Hospital. Ophthalmology Clinic over a 5-year period from January. 1987 to December 1991 were reviewed. Penetrating trauma and diabetic retinopathy were excluded. There were 114 detachments in 112 patients, which gave.

  19. Retinal detachment in black South Africans | Peters | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhegmatogenous retinal detachments seen in black patients attending King Edward VIII Hospital Ophthalmology Clinic over a 5-year period from January 1987 to December 1991 were reviewed. Penetrating trauma and diabetic retinopathy were excluded. There were 114 detachments in 112 patients, which gave incidence ...

  20. Tooth width predictions in a sample of Black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M I; Seedat, A K; Hlongwa, P

    2007-07-01

    Space analysis during the mixed dentition requires prediction of the mesiodistal widths of the unerupted permanent canines and premolars and prediction tables and equations may be used for this purpose. The Tanaka and Johnston prediction equations, which were derived from a North American White sample, is one example which is widely used. This prediction equation may be inapplicable to other race groups due to racial tooth size variability. Therefore the purpose of this study was to derive prediction equations that would be applicable to Black South African subjects. One hundred and ten pre-treatment study casts of Black South African subjects were analysed from the Department of Orthodontics' records at the University of Limpopo. The sample was equally divided by gender with all subjects having Class I molar relationship and relatively well aligned teeth. The mesiodistal widths of the maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars were measured with a digital vernier calliper and compared with the measurements predicted with the Tanaka and Johnston equations. The relationship between the measured and predicted values were analysed by correlation and regression analyses. The results indicated that the Tanaka and Johnston prediction equations were not fully applicable to the Black South African sample. The equations tended to underpredict the male sample, while slight overprediction was observed in the female sample. Therefore, new equations were formulated and proposed that would be accurate for Black subjects.

  1. Ethnic identities, social capital and health inequalities: factors shaping African-Caribbean participation in local community networks in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; McLean, Carl

    2002-08-01

    This paper examines the impact of ethnic identity on the likelihood of peoples' participation in local community networks, in the context of recent policy emphasis on the participation of marginalised communities in such networks as a means of reducing health inequalities. Conceptually, the paper is located against the background of debates about possible links between health and social capital--defined in terms of grassroots participation in local community networks--and an interest in the way in which social exclusion impacts on social capital. The paper draws on lengthy semi-structured, open-ended interviews with 25 African-Caribbean residents of a deprived multi-ethnic area of a south England town. While African-Caribbean identity played a central role in peoples' participation in inter-personal networks, this inter-personal solidarity did not serve to unite people at the local community level beyond particular face-to-face networks. Levels of participation in voluntary organisations and community activist networks were low. Informants regarded this lack of African-Caribbean unity within the local community as a problem, saying that it placed African-Caribbean people at a distinct disadvantage--furthering their social exclusion through limiting their access to various local community resources. The paper examines the way in which the construction of ethnic identities--within a context of institutionalised racism at both the material and symbolic levels--makes it unlikely that people will view local community organisations or networks as representative of their interests or needs, or be motivated to participate in them. Our findings highlight the limitations of policies which simply call for increased community participation by socially excluded groups, in the absence of specific measures to address the obstacles that stand in the way of such participation.

  2. Black South African farm workers' beliefs about HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magcai, Dintletse Maria; du Plessis, Emmerentia; Pienaar, Abel Jakobus

    2013-01-01

    Black South African farm workers' context of an isolated lifestyle and lack of education and resources might lead to unique beliefs that influence their understanding and behavior regarding HIV infection. An exploration and description of these beliefs can inform suggestions for a belief-sensitive approach for HIV-prevention programs. A participative rural appraisal research method was implemented, following a qualitative, explorative, and descriptive approach. A culturally sensitive mode of interviewing, namely lekgotla, was used as a strategy to collect data. The results indicated that Black South African farm workers have specific beliefs about HIV. Most of the beliefs protect them from being infected, but some marginal beliefs can put them at risk of being infected. Clinical considerations, which health care professionals can incorporate in HIV-prevention programs, were formulated based on the results, relevant literature, and conclusions. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics of astigmatism in Black South African high school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics of astigmatism in Black South African high school children. Afri Health Sci.2017;17(4):1160-1171. https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v17i4.25. Introduction. Uncorrected refractive error including astigmatism is a common vision anomaly in school-aged children,1-2 caus- es visual impairment (VI) and is the second ...

  4. Black African Immigrant College Students' Perceptions of Belonging at a Predominately White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Aleixo, Marina B.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of college-age Blacks in the United States are Black African immigrants. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the researchers interviewed 12 undergraduate Black African immigrant college students attending a predominately White institution (PWI) about their experiences and perceptions of belonging. Findings suggest…

  5. Perceptions of prostate cancer fatalism and screening behavior between United States-born and Caribbean-born Black males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobran, Ewan K; Wutoh, Anthony K; Lee, Euni; Odedina, Folakemi T; Ragin, Camille; Aiken, William; Godley, Paul A

    2014-06-01

    Cancer fatalism is believed to be a major barrier for cancer screening in Black males. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare perceptions of prostate cancer (CaP) fatalism and predictors of CaP screening with Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing between U.S.-born and Caribbean-born Black males. The Powe Fatalism Inventory and the Personal Integrative Model of CaP Disparity Survey were used to collect the following data from males in South Florida. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the statistically significant predictors of CaP screening. A total of 211 U.S.-born and Caribbean-born Black males between ages 39-75 were recruited. Nativity was not a significant predictor of CaP screening with PSA testing within the last year (Odds ratio [OR] = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26, 2.48, p = 0.70). Overall, higher levels of CaP fatalism were not a significant predictor of CaP screening with PSA testing within the last year (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 0.48, 3.91, p = 0.56). The study results suggest that nativity did not influence CaP screening with PSA testing. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the association between CaP screening behavior and levels of CaP fatalism.

  6. The experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women in STEM: Voices to inform work with Black females in STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Beverly A. King

    This grounded theory case study examines the experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women and their membership in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) training and careers. The shortage of Science and Math teachers in 48 of 50 States heightens the need for those trained in STEM. Females of African phenotype have persistently been underrepresented in STEM. However, this trend does not appear to have held for Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women. The current study explores issues related to STEM participation for these women by addressing the overarching question: What key factors from the lived experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women in STEM careers can be used to inform work with females of African phenotype in their pursuit of STEM education and STEM careers? Five women were identified for inclusion in the study's purposive sample. The study draws upon assertions and implications about the relevance of self-identity and collective-identity for membership in STEM. Data for the study was gathered through qualitative interviews, surveys, and observations. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze emergent themes related to participants' responses to the research questions. Two models, the STEM Attainment Model (SAM) and the Ecological Model of Self-Confidence and Bi-Directional Effect, are proposed from evaluation of the identified information. Socio-cultural values and learned strategies were determined to influence self-confidence which is identified as important for persistence in STEM training and careers for females of African phenotype. Evidence supports that the influences of parents, country of origin, neighborhood communities, schools and teachers are factors for persistence. Through the voices of these women, recommendations are offered to the gatekeepers of STEM academic pathways and ultimately STEM careers.

  7. Why Not Academia?--The Streamlined Career Choice Process of Black African Women Engineers: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlambo, Yeukai Angela

    2017-01-01

    Black African women are grossly underrepresented as academic staff in engineering programs at South African universities. The problem is exacerbated at historically White institutions (HWI) where Black women are simply absent as engineering research and teaching staff. The absence of Black African women in the academy occurs despite Black African…

  8. Precipitation and characterisation of lignin obtained from South African kraft mill black liquor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available International Conference on Chemical Thermodynamics and South African Institution of Chemical Engineering Conference, Durban, South Africa, 27 July - 1 August 2014 Precipitation and characterisation of lignin obtained from South African kraft mill black...

  9. Caribbean Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kris

    1991-01-01

    The Caribbean is a rich breeding ground for African-derived music. A synopsis is given of the music of the following countries and styles: (1) Jamaica; (2) Trinidad and Tobago; (3) Calypso; (4) steel pan; (5) Haiti; (6) Dominican Republic; (7) Cuba; (8) Puerto Rico; and (9) other islands. (SLD)

  10. Whole genome structural analysis of Caribbean hair sheep reveals quantitative link to west african ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair sheep of Caribbean origin have become an important part of the U.S. sheep industry. Lack of wool eliminates a number of health concerns and drastically reduces the cost of production. More importantly, Caribbean hair sheep demonstrate robust performance even in the presence of drug resistant ga...

  11. Barriers to alcohol and other drug treatment use among Black African and Coloured South Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There are racial disparities in the use of alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment services in South Africa but little is known about the factors contributing to these disparities. This study aimed to redress this gap through identifying differences in barriers to AOD treatment use among Black African and Coloured persons from Cape Town, South Africa. The Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization was used as an analytic framework. Methods A case-control design was used to compare 434 individuals with AOD problems who had accessed treatment with 555 controls who had not accessed treatment on a range of variables. Logistic regression procedures were employed to examine the unique profile of variables associated with treatment utilization for Black African and Coloured participants. Results After controlling for the influence of treatment need and predisposing factors on treatment use, several barriers to treatment were identified. Greater awareness of treatment options and fewer geographic access and affordability barriers were strongly associated with an increased likelihood of AOD treatment use for both race groups. However, Black African persons were more vulnerable to the effects of awareness and geographic access barriers on treatment use. Stigma consciousness was only associated with AOD treatment utilization for Coloured participants. Conclusion Differences in barriers to AOD treatment use were found among Black African and Coloured South Africans. Targeted interventions that address the unique profile of barriers experienced by each race group are needed to improve AOD treatment use by these underserved groups. Several strategies for improving the likelihood of treatment entry are suggested. PMID:23683119

  12. Black Cinderella: Multicultural Literature and School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses diversity issues evident in fairy tales and explores the pedagogical implications for adding counter-narratives in the school curriculum. Critical Race Theory is employed. In order to uncover contradictory discourses of race within Black cultures, four Africana (African, African American, and Caribbean) Cinderella tale types…

  13. Black Carbon and West African Monsoon precipitation: observations and simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Huang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We have recently investigated large-scale co-variability between aerosol and precipitation and other meteorological variables in the West African Monsoon (WAM region using long term satellite observations and reanalysis data. In this study we compared the observational results to a global model simulation including only direct radiative forcing of black carbon (BC. From both observations and model simulations we found that in boreal cold seasons anomalously high African aerosols are associated with significant reductions in cloud amount, cloud top height, and surface precipitation. These results suggest that the observed precipitation reduction in the WAM region is caused by radiative effect of BC. The result also suggests that the BC effect on precipitation is nonlinear.

  14. Black carbon and West African Monsoon precipitation. Observations and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Adams, A.; Zhang, C.; Wang, C.

    2009-01-01

    We have recently investigated large-scale co-variability between aerosol and precipitation and other meteorological variables in the West African Monsoon (WAM) region using long term satellite observations and reanalysis data. In this study we compared the observational results to a global model simulation including only direct radiative forcing of black carbon (BC). From both observations and model simulations we found that in boreal cold seasons anomalously high African aerosols are associated with significant reductions in cloud amount, cloud top height, and surface precipitation. These results suggest that the observed precipitation reduction in the WAM region is caused by radiative effect of BC. The result also suggests that the BC effect on precipitation is nonlinear. (orig.)

  15. [Localization and registration of the hinge axis in black Africans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, K D; N'Guessan, K S; N'Dindin, C; Bamba, A

    2003-06-01

    The study of the cinematic method using "SAM" and "Quick Axis of FAG" added to mandibular condyle palpation for the hinge axis limited points, show that the Black Africans mandibular condyle rotation axis position is higher (3.5 mm) and backer (2 mm) than the Caucasians. The axial points are located to between 11 and 12 mm in front of the tragus and between 7 and 8 mm below on the perpendicular line to the furrow defining the tragus superior side to the Ectocanthus.

  16. Job-hopping amongst African Black senior management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanyile C.C. Nzukuma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study focuses on understanding labour turnover trends amongst African Black senior managers in South Africa. There is a perception that turnover amongst African Black senior managers is higher than average. There is also a perception that African Black senior managers are only motivated by financial rewards when considering job change.Research purpose: The study focused on understanding why African Black senior managers have a propensity to change jobs and how organisations can resolve the trend.Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the push and pull factors for African Black senior managers in organisations.Research design, approach and method: The research was conducted in two phases, namely as part of a qualitative study and a quantitative study: Creswell (2003 refers to this approach as triangulation. The target population was African Black senior managers on the database of a large Human Resources Consultancy, The South African Rewards Association and the Association of Black Actuaries and Investment Professionals (ABSIP (n = 2600. A total of 208 usable responses were received.Main findings: The main findings and contribution to the field of study was that African Black senior managers do not trust organisations with their career development. They would rather take control of their own career development by moving from organisation to organisation to build their repertoire of skills and competence. They want to be in charge of their careers. This finding has profound implications for organisations employing African Black managers in the senior cadre.Practical/managerial implications: Managers of African Black senior managers need to create attractive employee value propositions that address the main findings. Contribution/value-add: The research shows that African Black senior managers generally seek corporate environments that encourage a sense of belonging and with a clear career growth plan.

  17. Temporal Relationships Between African Dust and Chlorophyll-a in the Eastern Caribbean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Andujar, N. X.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Torres-Delgado, E.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal African Dust (AD) transports soluble iron to oligotrophic Caribbean waters, and when bioavailable, it could increase marine primary productivity (PP). Recently, the region has experienced the proliferation of unusually high quantities of Sargassum, an iron-absorbing macroalgae inhabiting the air-sea interface, which possess ecological and economic challenges and whose driving factors are still uncertain. AD events reach Puerto Rico (PR) mostly during boreal summer months. This is also the season when chlorophyll-α (CHL) concentrations are highest, when the algae starts to bloom, and when sediment plumes from the Orinoco River (ORP) also reach nutrient discharge maxima.This study seeks to better understand the temporal relationships between increases in chlorophyll-α and the presence of african dust events in the region. Aerosol data collected at the Cabezas de San Juan Atmospheric Observatory was used to identify AD events between January 2005 and December 2015. Light scattering coefficients were measured with an integrating Nephelometer, while light absorption coefficients were obtained from either the Particle Soot/Absorption Photometer (PSAP) or the Continuous Light Absorption Photometer (CLAP). Spectral properties suggesting AD events were cross-referenced with surface dust concentration image models and source-attributed air masses corresponding to dusty periods using Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectories (HYSPLIT). For all years with spectral data, modeled monthly wet dust deposition was correlated (r=0.64) with mean CHL concentrations from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Daily dust mass column densities from NASA's MERRA-2 model were also correlated (r2= 0.53) to sea surface iron concentrations from NASA's Ocean Biogeochemical Model. We present the 2010 case study, which coincides with the start of the Sargassum bloom and shows CHL peaks occurring a month before ORPs but during the AD season

  18. Estimation of CT-derived abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots from anthropometry in Europeans, South Asians and African Caribbeans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie V Eastwood

    Full Text Available South Asians and African Caribbeans experience more cardiometabolic disease than Europeans. Risk factors include visceral (VAT and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT adipose tissue, which vary with ethnicity and are difficult to quantify using anthropometry.We developed and cross-validated ethnicity and gender-specific equations using anthropometrics to predict VAT and SAT.669 Europeans, 514 South Asians and 227 African Caribbeans (70 ± 7 years underwent anthropometric measurement and abdominal CT scanning. South Asian and African Caribbean participants were first-generation migrants living in London. Prediction equations were derived for CT-measured VAT and SAT using stepwise regression, then cross-validated by comparing actual and predicted means.South Asians had more and African Caribbeans less VAT than Europeans. For basic VAT prediction equations (age and waist circumference, model fit was better in men (R(2 range 0.59-0.71 than women (range 0.35-0.59. Expanded equations (+ weight, height, hip and thigh circumference improved fit for South Asian and African Caribbean women (R(2 0.35 to 0.55, and 0.43 to 0.56 respectively. For basic SAT equations, R(2 was 0.69-0.77, and for expanded equations it was 0.72-0.86. Cross-validation showed differences between actual and estimated VAT of <7%, and SAT of <8% in all groups, apart from VAT in South Asian women which disagreed by 16%.We provide ethnicity- and gender-specific VAT and SAT prediction equations, derived from a large tri-ethnic sample. Model fit was reasonable for SAT and VAT in men, while basic VAT models should be used cautiously in South Asian and African Caribbean women. These equations will aid studies of mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease in later life, where imaging data are not available.

  19. Leaving Home: The Challenges of Black-African International Students Prior to Studying Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Elizabeth Frances; Hyams-Ssekasi, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Much of the literature on international students centres on their experiences once they arrive in their host countries. This study explores the preparations of Black-African students for leaving their home countries to study abroad. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 50 Black-African students studying at one British university. The…

  20. LP (a) levels and apo (a) phenotypes in urban black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glycoprotein, apolipoprptein (apo (a», which bears a strong resemblance to plasminogen! Lp (a) exhibits both ... Lp (a) values and apo (a) phenotypes in a group of black urban South African men. Methods. Subjects. Plasma samples from black South African men working at a lead acid battery plant in the Eastern Cape were ...

  1. Black Americans, Africa and History: A Reassessment of the Pan-African and Identity Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Tunde

    1998-01-01

    Examines the paradigm of Pan-Africanism and the identity construct in the historic and cultural contexts of blacks outside of Africa, critiquing theories on the African identity construct. Suggests that black American identity is too complex for this simplification and must be considered within the context of world acculturation. Contains 34…

  2. Job-hopping amongst African Black senior management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanyile C.C. Nzukuma

    2011-11-01

    Research purpose: The study focused on understanding why African Black senior managers have a propensity to change jobs and how organisations can resolve the trend. Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the push and pull factors for African Black senior managers in organisations. Research design, approach and method: The research was conducted in two phases, namely as part of a qualitative study and a quantitative study: Creswell (2003 refers to this approach as triangulation. The target population was African Black senior managers on the database of a large Human Resources Consultancy, The South African Rewards Association and the Association of Black Actuaries and Investment Professionals (ABSIP (n = 2600. A total of 208 usable responses were received. Main findings: The main findings and contribution to the field of study was that African Black senior managers do not trust organisations with their career development. They would rather take control of their own career development by moving from organisation to organisation to build their repertoire of skills and competence. They want to be in charge of their careers. This finding has profound implications for organisations employing African Black managers in the senior cadre. Practical/managerial implications: Managers of African Black senior managers need to create attractive employee value propositions that address the main findings. Contribution/value-add: The research shows that African Black senior managers generally seek corporate environments that encourage a sense of belonging and with a clear career growth plan.

  3. A study to evaluate the performance of black South African urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. A suitable tool is needed to assess child development in South Africa (SA). Using Western normed tools presents difficulties. Aim. To determine whether the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (Bayley-III) can be used on black African urban infants in SA. Method. One hundred and twenty-two black African ...

  4. Otosclerosis And Tgf-Β1 Gene In Black South Africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limited literature is available on the epidemiology and genetics of otosclerosis among SA Blacks in which it is extremely rare. We undertook this study as we had documented cases of clinical oval window otosclerosis confirmed surgically among South African Blacks. South African Medical Journal Vol. 98 (9) 2008: pp. 720- ...

  5. Systemic lupus erythematosus in an African Caribbean population: incidence, clinical manifestations, and survival in the Barbados National Lupus Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Cindy; Hennis, Anselm J M; Hambleton, Ian R; Nicholson, George D; Liang, Matthew H

    2012-08-01

    To assess the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcomes of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the predominantly African Caribbean population of Barbados. A national registry of all patients diagnosed with SLE was established in 2007. Complete case ascertainment was facilitated by collaboration with the island's sole rheumatology service, medical practitioners, and the lupus advocacy group. Informed consent was required for inclusion. Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009, there were 183 new cases of SLE (98% African Caribbean) affecting 172 women and 11 men for unadjusted annual incidence rates of 12.21 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 10.46-14.18) and 0.84 (95% CI 0.42-1.51) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Excluding pediatric cases (ages <18 years), the unadjusted incidence rate among women was 15.14 per 100,000 person-years. The principal presenting manifestations were arthritis (84%), nephritis (47%), pleuritis (41.5%), malar rash (36.4%), and discoid lesions (33.1%). Antinuclear antibody positivity was 95%. The overall 5-year survival rate was 79.9% (95% CI 69.6-87.1), decreasing to 68% in patients with nephritis. A total of 226 persons with SLE were alive at the end of the study for point prevalences of 152.6 (95% CI 132.8-174.5) and 10.1 (95% CI 5.4-17.2) per 100,000 among women and men, respectively. Rates of SLE in Barbadian women are among the highest reported to date, with clinical manifestations similar to African American women and high mortality. Further study of this population and similar populations of West African descent might assist our understanding of environmental, genetic, and health care issues underpinning disparities in SLE. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Long-range Transported African Dust in the Caribbean Region: Dust Concentrations and Water-soluble Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Figueroa, G.; Avilés-Piñeiro, G. M.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

    2017-12-01

    Long-range transported African dust (LRTAD) particles reach the Caribbean region every year during the summer months causing an increase in PM10 concentrations and by consequence degradation of air quality. During African dust (AD) incursions at the Caribbean region, PM10 concentration could exceeds the exposure limit of 50 µg/m³ 24-hour mean established by the World Health Organization (WHO). To have a better understanding of the impacts of AD particles to climate and public health at the Caribbean region it is necessary to study and determine the spatial and temporal distribution of dust particles. In order to address this, aerosols samples were collected during and absence of AD incursions during the summer of 2017 using a Hi-Volume (Hi-Vol) sampler for total suspended particles (TSP) at two sampling stations in Puerto Rico. The first station is a marine site located at Cabezas de San Juan (CSJ) Nature Reserve in Fajardo, and the second station is an urban site located at the Facundo Bueso (FB) building at the University of Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras. Aerosol samples were collected using Whatman 41 grade filters from which we determined the concentration of dust particles and the water-soluble ions (e.g., Na+, NH4+, Ca+2, Cl-, SO4-2) in the presence and absence of LRTAD particles. Saharan Air Layer (SAL) imagery, the results from the air mass backward trajectories calculated with the NOAA Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT), and the spectral coefficients from measurements at CSJ were used to monitor and confirm the presence of air masses coming from North Africa. Average dust concentrations using the Stacked-Filter Units (SFUs) at CSJ are around 4 μg/m3. LRTAD concentrations and ionic speciation results using the Hi-Vol for the marine and urban sites will be presented at the conference.

  7. Black and african students: individuals present, absent voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Maria de Amorim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe and analyze some data from an extension project and research titled “The narratives of the self and the effects of affirmative action policies to black students who need of affirmative action and Africans." We have as central issues of our work the following questions: What do the students who need of affirmative action and not unitholders know about the quotas? What do the various African groups who are at university know about the quotas and their experience as a student in the Alagoas’ State? In methodological terms, we use some procedures and instruments of action research to raise our diagnostic procedures and social intervention. It is concluded after investigation that the affirmative action policies in college should be the subject of constant debate whether in academia or in society. There is ignorance on the part of students who need of affirmative action, not unitholders and africans student about the racial quotas, the policies of affirmative action and the collective human rights achievements and socio-historical character.

  8. HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean communities in the Netherlands: manifestations, consequences and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R; Shiripinda, Iris; de Bruin, Marijn; Pryor, John B; Schaalma, Herman P

    2012-01-01

    HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean diaspora communities in the Netherlands was investigated. Interviews with HIV-positive and HIV-negative community members demonstrated that HIV-related stigma manifests as social distance, physical distance, words and silence. The psychological consequences of HIV-related stigma among those diagnosed with HIV reported were emotional pain, sadness, loneliness, anger, frustration and internalised stigma. The social consequences included decreased social network size, limited social support and social isolation, and resulted from not only enacted stigma but also self-imposed social withdrawal. Also, poor treatment adherence was a health-related consequence. People living with HIV employed both problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies to mitigate the negative consequences of stigma. Problem-focused coping strategies included selective disclosure, disengagement, affiliating with similar others, seeking social support and, to a lesser extent, activism. Emotion-focused strategies included distraction, positive reappraisal, religious coping, external attributions, disidentification and acceptance. HIV-related stigma clearly permeates African and Afro-Caribbean communities in the Netherlands, and should be targeted for intervention.

  9. Pamidronate treatment for osteogenesis imperfecta in black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B D; Isaac, N; Mabele, O; Khiba, S; Nkayi, A; Mokoena, T

    2016-05-25

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a heritable disorder of bone connective tissue. Type III has a high incidence in the black pop-ulation of South Africa. Affected people experience numerous fractures, bone pain and progressive disability. Until the introduction of bisphosphonates to reduce fracture incidence, treatment revolved around orthopaedic and supportive care. Objective. To assess the subjective attitude of patients towards pamidronate treatment. Thirty black patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type III treated at Universitas Hospital were approached and 26 were included in this study. Patients or their parents were interviewed using a standardised researcher-administered questionnaire, either in person or by telephone. Most patients reported a reduction in symptoms, a feeling of increased wellbeing, increased strength and rated the pamidronate treatment highly. The intravenous route of administration and the side-effects experienced were bearable. Overall all patients would recommend this treatment to other affected persons. This is first study to look at bisphosphonate treatment for osteogenesis imperfecta type III in black South Africans. The treatment is well tolerated and highly rated by the patients. Reported improvements and side-effects are similar to those reported in other populations. Using this form of treatment in this population is supported by these findings.

  10. Artists in and out of the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Price

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Caribbean Art. VEERLE POUPEYE. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998. 224 pp. (Paper US$ 14.95 Transforming the Crown: African, Asian and Caribbean Artists in Britain, 1966-1996. MORA J. BEAUCHAMP-BYRD & M. FRANKLIN SIRMANS (eds.. New York: Caribbean Cultural Center, 1998. 177 pp. (Paper US$ 39.95, £31.95 "Caribbean" (like "Black British" culture is (as a Dutch colleague once said of postmodernism a bit of a slippery fish. One of the books under review here presents the eclectic artistic productions of professional artists with Caribbean identities of varying sorts - some of them lifelong residents of the region (defined broadly to stretch from Belize and the Bahamas to Curacao and Cayenne, some born in the Caribbean but living elsewhere, and others from far-away parts of the world who have lingered or settled in the Caribbean. The other focuses on artists who trace their cultural heritage variously to Lebanon, France, Malaysia, Spain, China, England, Guyana, India, the Caribbean, the Netherlands, the Philippines, and the whole range of societies in West, East, and Central Africa, all of whom meet under a single ethnic label in galleries in New York and London. Clearly, the principles that vertebrate Caribbean Art and Transforming the Crown are built on the backs of ambiguities, misperceptions, ironies, and ethnocentric logics (not to mention their stronger variants, such as racism. Yet far from invalidating the enterprise, they offer an enlightening inroad to the social, cultural, economic, and political workings of artworlds that reflect globally orchestrated pasts of enormous complexity.

  11. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangelhoff, Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Jamaica is among the Caribbean islands that Columbus claimed for Spain. In response to its rich diversity of peoples: Europeans, Asians, Chinese, Indians and Africans, the motto of Jamaica is: Out of Many, One People."Jamaican music is as varied as the people who inhabit the island... [M]uch folk music retains features and functions of black African music, blended with elements of European (primarily British music" (Lewin & Gordon, 2007-2011. Jamaican musical genres, such as ska, rocksteady, reggae, and dancehall, are popular and influential internationally.The classical music tradition in Jamaica dates back to the 18th century.

  12. Uncovering Genealogies of the Margins: Black Supplementary Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Diane; Mirza, Heidi Safia

    1997-01-01

    Adopts a genealogical approach to a small-scale study of Black supplementary schools, extra schooling organized by the African-Caribbean community in the United Kingdom. Finds evidence of a new female-centered social movement in the organization of the schools and of the effectiveness of parental involvement among the Black working class. (DSK)

  13. Cultural (De)Coding and Racial Identity among Women of the African Diaspora in U.S. Adult Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Johnson, Kayon K.

    2013-01-01

    Over time, research has suggested there are sometimes tensions arising from differences in the way African Americans and Black Caribbean immigrants in the United States perceive each other as part of the African diaspora. In this autoethnographic study, I explore personal experiences with cross-cultural misperceptions between Black female students…

  14. Loss of maternal measles antibody in black South African infants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loss of maternal measles antibody in black South African infants in the first year of life implications for age of vaccination. P Kiepiela, H. M. Coovadia, W.E.K. Loening, P. Coward, S.S. Abdool Karim ...

  15. FastStats: Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2015, Table P-1c [ ...

  16. The Canonical Black Body: Alternative African American Religions and the Disruptive Politics of Sacrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Tucker Edmonds

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available “The Canonical Black Body” argues that central to the study of African American religions is a focus on the black body and the production and engagement of canons on the sacred black body within the black public sphere. Furthermore, this essay suggests that, by paying attention to alternative African American religions in the twentieth century, we can better engage the relationship between African American religion and the long history of creating these canons on the black body, debating their relationship to black freedom, and circulating the canons to contest the oppressive, exclusive practices of modern democracy. Through a critical engagement of the fields of Black Theology and New Religious Movements and using the resources offered by Delores Williams’ accounts of variety and experience and Vincent Wimbush’s category of signifying, this essay will argue for how a return to the body provides resources and tools for not only theorizing African American religions but thinking about the production and creation of competing black publics, including the important role of alternative black sacred publics.

  17. Victimization experiences, substance misuse, and mental health problems in relation to risk for lethality among African American and African Caribbean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Bushra; Stockman, Jamila K; Bertrand, Desiree R; Campbell, Doris W; Callwood, Gloria B; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of intimate partner victimization experiences, mental health (MH), and substance misuse problems with the risk for lethality among women of African descent. Data for this cross-sectional study were derived from a large case-control study examining the relationship between abuse status and health consequences. Women were recruited from primary care, prenatal, or family planning clinics in Baltimore and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Logistic regression was used to generate the study findings. Among 543 abused women, physical and psychological abuse by intimate partners, comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms, and PTSD-only problems significantly increased the likelihood of lethality risk. However, victims' substance misuse and depression-only problems were not associated with the risk for lethality. In addition, PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between severe victimization experiences and risk for lethality. Practitioners should pay attention to victimization experiences and MH issues when developing treatment and safety plans. Policies to fund integrated services for African American and African Caribbean women with victimization and related MH issues, and training of providers to identify at-risk women may help reduce the risk for lethality in intimate partner relationships.

  18. Leaving home: the challenges of Black-African international students prior to studying overseas

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Elizabeth F.; Hyams-Ssekasi, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Much of the literature on international students centres on their experiences once they arrive in their host countries. This study explores the preparations of Black-African students for leaving their home countries to study abroad. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 50 Black-African students studying at one British university. The students spoke of the complex and frustrating process of obtaining visas and applying to university abroad and the tensions they felt in leaving thei...

  19. Risk factor profile of coronary artery disease in black South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Dolman, Robin Claire; Jerling, Johann Carl; Pieters, Marlien; Ntyintyane, L.; Raal, F.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factor profile of coronary artery disease (CAD) in black South Africans. The study was motivated by the increased prevalence of CAD in South Africa, probably as a result of urbanisation. Despite this increase, however, very little is known regarding the cause, risk factor profile and clinical presentations of CAD in the black South African population. Design: A case control study was performed investigating 40 (33 men, 7 women) ...

  20. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  1. The housing careers of black middle-class residents in a South African metropolitan area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marais, Lochner; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.; Napier, Mark; Cloete, Jan; Lenka, Molefi

    2018-01-01

    Under apartheid, black African households could not own land or homes in most
    major urban centres in South Africa. This limited residential mobility and locked many households into state rental accommodation in townships. Homeownership for all South Africans was restored in the mid-1980 s and

  2. "Combing" through Representations of Black Girls' Hair in African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda M.; McNair, Jonda C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we share findings from a content analysis of six picturebooks about hair. The picturebooks selected feature Black female protagonists and are written by African American females. Our content analysis examines the ways in which Black hair is theorized and represented to children (from diverse backgrounds) very early on in their…

  3. "A Grammar for Black Education beyond Borders": Exploring Technologies of Schooling in the African Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Jarvis Ray

    2016-01-01

    Education has been a technology used to sustain black abjection across the African Diaspora. Employing Mills' Racial Contract and Althusser's theory of the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA) through a racial lens, this article will discuss how white supremacist education has been used to promote the misrecognition of black subjects as sub-human.…

  4. Malignant melanoma of the skin in black South Africans: A 15-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acral lentiginous melanomas develop on palmar, plantar and subungual skin and are, with few exceptions, the only form of melanoma occurring in black people. Most South African black patients present late for treatment, are in an advanced stage of the disease, and are therefore candidates for palliative rather than ...

  5. Private Sector Investment in Black Education and Training: Rescuing South African Capitalism from Apartheid's Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Andre

    1989-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the factors contributing to increased involvement by South African business and industry in Black education and training; (2) the Urban Foundation's commitment to non-formal education in Black communities; (3) intervention by American corporations; and (4) the dramatic failure of capitalist initiatives. Contains 55 references. (SV)

  6. Pedagogy of Self-Development: The Role the Black Church Can Have on African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Carlos R.; Grant, Cosette M.; Beachum, Floyd D.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the Black Church has been an institutional stronghold in the Black community and has thereby sustained a cultural ethos that has enabled African Americans to combat racial prejudice and hostility for generations. Therefore, this article will unearth Yosso's notion of alternative capital that students of color have at their disposal…

  7. African American Homeschool Parents' Motivations for Homeschooling and Their Black Children's Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the motivations of African American parents for choosing homeschooling for their children and the academic achievement of their Black homeschool students. Their reasons for homeschooling are similar to those of homeschool parents in general, although some use homeschooling to help their children understand Black culture and…

  8. Black Musics, African Lives, and the National Imagination in Modern Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Hankins, Sarah Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Black Musics, African Lives, and the National Imagination in Modern Israel,” explores the forms and functions of African and Afro-diasporic musics amidst heated public debate around ethnic identity and national membership. Focusing on musical-political activity among Ethiopian Israeli citizens, Sudanese and Eritrean refugees, and West African labor migrants in Tel Aviv, I examine how diverse types of musicking, from nightclub DJing and live performance to church services and protest concert...

  9. Seasonal radiogenic isotopic variability of the African dust outflow to the tropical Atlantic Ocean and across to the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwini; Abouchami, W.; Galer, S. J. G.; Singh, Satinder Pal; Fomba, K. W.; Prospero, J. M.; Andreae, M. O.

    2018-04-01

    In order to assess the impact of mineral dust on climate and biogeochemistry, it is paramount to identify the sources of dust emission. In this regard, radiogenic isotopes have recently been used successfully for tracing North African dust provenance and its transport across the tropical Atlantic to the Caribbean. Here we present two time series of radiogenic isotopes (Pb, Sr and Nd) in dusts collected at the Cape Verde Islands and Barbados in order to determine the origin of the dust and examine the seasonality of westerly dust outflow from Northern Africa. Aerosol samples were collected daily during two campaigns - February 2012 (winter) and June-July 2013 (summer) - at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) on the island of São Vicente (16.9°N, 24.9°W). A one-year-long time series of aerosols from Barbados (13.16°N, 59.43°W) - a receptor region in the Caribbean - was sampled at a lower, monthly resolution. Our results resolve a seasonal isotopic signal at Cape Verde shown by daily variations, with a larger radiogenic isotope variability in winter compared to that in summer. This summer signature is also observed over Barbados, indicating similar dust provenance at both locations, despite different sampling years. This constrains the isotope fingerprint of Saharan Air Layer (SAL) dust that is well-mixed during its transport. This result provides unequivocal evidence for a permanent, albeit of variable strength, long-range transport of African dust to the Caribbean and is in full agreement with atmospheric models of North African dust emission and transport across the tropical Atlantic in the SAL. The seasonal isotopic variability is related to changes in the dust source areas - mainly the Sahara and Sahel regions - that are active all-year-round, albeit with variable contributions in summer versus the winter months. Our results provide little support for much dust contributed from the Bodélé Depression in Chad - the "dustiest" place on Earth

  10. Lower Lateral Cartilages: An Anatomic and Morphological Study in Noses of Black Southern Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Cameron N D; van Wyk, F Carl; Joubert, Gina; Seedat, Riaz Y

    2017-03-01

    The anatomy of the nose of different ethnic groups has been widely researched in order to facilitate a better understanding of the individual nose as a foundation for improving surgical outcomes. The only anatomical research of the lower lateral cartilages (LLCs) available to the surgeon working with an African patient is to extrapolate data from studies already published on African Americans. The aim of this descriptive cadaveric study was to assess the normal anatomy of the LLCs in noses of Black South Africans and compare this to data from studies on noses from Caucasian, Asian, Korean, and African-American populations. Ninety lower lateral cartilages of 45 cadavers of Black South Africans who did not have previous surgery or trauma to the nose were dissected. The morphological shapes and 12 standard anatomical measurements were recorded. The results were analyzed and compared to data in the literature from studies on lower lateral cartilages of Caucasian, Asian, Korean, and African-American populations. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of overall cartilage dimensions, distance from nasal rim, and morphological shapes, compared to all previously studied groups, including the African-American population. There were significant differences in cartilage dimensions between males and females. This translates to clinically significant data that is useful during reconstructive and aesthetic nasal surgery on patients with a Southern African background. This study sets norms for alar cartilages in Black Southern Africans.

  11. Understanding and Developing Black Popular Music Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James Briggs

    1983-01-01

    Enumerates types of black popular music (work songs, spirituals, gospel music, blues, race records, rock and roll, soul, funk, disco, Caribbean, and African) and discusses collection development (current, retrospective, monographs, periodicals, sheet music, motion picture film, photographs, oral history), cataloging, and preservation. A 229-item…

  12. Race, health, and the African Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigner, Clarence

    Health inequalities exist throughout the African Diaspora and are viewed in this article as largely color-coded. In developed, developing, and undeveloped nations today, "racial" stratification is consistently reflected in an inability to provide adequate health regardless of national policy or ideology. For instance, African Americans experience less than adequate health care very similar to Blacks in Britain, in spite of each nations differing health systems. Latin America's Africana Negra communities experience poorer health similar to Blacks throughout the Caribbean. The African continent itself is arguably the poorest on earth. A common history of racism correlates with health disparities across the African Diaspora.

  13. Black Lives Matter: Teaching African American Literature and the Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    In theorizing how we should pedagogically approach African American literature, especially in courses for undergraduates, I argue that we have to move away from questions of what was or even what is African American literature and, instead, find ways to teach African American literature in both its historical contexts--artistic and political--and…

  14. Motor neuron disease in blacks | Cosnett | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motor neuron disease in blacks. JE Cosnett, PLA Bill, AI Bhigjee. Abstract. A series of 86 black, Indian and white patients with motor neuron disease were analysed retrospectively. Although the material does not allow statistically valid conclusions, there are sufficient cases among blacks to allow two prima facie observations ...

  15. Perceptions and experiences of epilepsy among patients from black ethnic groups in South London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonecha, Shaneil; Noble, Adam J; Morgan, Myfanwy; Ridsdale, Leone

    2015-09-01

    The National Institute of Clinical Excellence suggested black ethnic minorities with epilepsy have different cultural, communicative and health-care needs. However, little is known about these despite increasing migration of black African and Caribbean people to Europe. This study aims to explore perceptions and experiences of epilepsy among black African and Caribbean people in South London. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 11 participants, to examine their beliefs and perceptions of living with epilepsy. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, codes generated and thematic analysis undertaken. African participants described supernatural causes for epilepsy and experienced considerable stigma whereas Caribbean participants described epilepsy as a 'normal illness'. However, both African and Caribbean participants experienced social restrictions arising from their epilepsy. The findings of higher levels of perceived stigma and social restriction seen in African participants may be a continuation of beliefs reported in participants' country of origin. There is also evidence that views regarding epilepsy transition through generations vary depending on place of birth. Practical Implications Health-care professionals need to be aware of and engage with the particular beliefs and concerns of black African and Caribbean people to achieve equity in health outcomes.

  16. Gender and Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Obesity and Depression Among Black Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between obesity and major depression disorder (MDD) in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents in the USA. The study also tested the effects of ethnicity and gender as possible moderators. Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL)-Adolescents, a representative household mental health survey of Black adolescents in the USA. Participants consisted of 1170 Black adolescents (810 African Americans and 360 Caribbean Blacks). Obesity was defined determined by the cutoff points based on the body mass index (BMI) appropriate for age and gender. Twelve-month MDD was measured using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). In the first step, the association between obesity and MDD in the pooled sample, controlling for the main effects of gender and ethnicity. In the next steps, two interactions were tested: (1) obesity and ethnicity and (2) obesity and gender. Although any associations between obesity and MDD in the pooled sample of Blacks were not found, there was a significant interaction between ethnicity and obesity on MDD. Upon testing the associations across intersections of ethnicity and gender, a positive association was found among Caribbean Black females but not Caribbean Black males, African American males, or African American female. The link between BMI and MDD among Blacks depends on ethnicity and gender, and risk of comorbid depression among Black youth with obesity is highest among Caribbean Black females.

  17. I Too Have a Voice: The Literacy Experiences of Black Boys Engaging with and Responding to African American Literature Depicting Black Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Merle B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how the use of African American literature that depicts Black males influences the reading comprehension and the reading motivation of Black boys as demonstrated through oral, written, and creative expressions. Studies have been conducted using children's literature with Black boys to examine their social interaction with the…

  18. Sex Ratio at Birth and Racial Differences: Why Do Black Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    KEY WORDS: Birth, Race, Sex ratio, Sub-Saharan black women. 1Dr. Amadu Jacky ... in the majority of countries or societies in the world. .... Caribbean nations with majority Black populations is 1.03, the same as the average for all of Africa and for African. Americans. 1. The two important questions then that will be asked in ...

  19. An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica in a captive colony of African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Griffin, Matt; Verma, Ashutosh; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda; Beierschmitt, Amy; Beeler-Marfisi, Janet; Arauz, Maziel; Illanes, Oscar

    2013-10-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic gram-negative pathogen that causes mesenteric lymphadenitis, terminal ileitis, acute gastroenteritis, and septicemia in domestic animals and primates. In 2012, 46 captive African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) died during an outbreak of acutely fatal enteric disease over a period of 1 mo on the island of St Kitts. The affected monkeys presented with a history of mucohemorrhagic diarrhea, marked dehydration, and depression. Fifteen bacterial isolates were recovered from the spleen, liver, and lungs of affected monkeys. All isolates were identified as Y. enterocolitica by biochemical analysis and sequence comparison of the 16S rRNA gene. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of the recovered isolates revealed homogeneity among the recovered bacteria, and all isolates gave a random amplified polymorphic DNA pattern resembling that given by genotype D under serotypes O:7,8. This outbreak represents the first isolation and characterization of Y. enterocolitica as the causative agent of fatal enteric disease in primates in the Caribbean.

  20. An investigation into the causes of absconding among black African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preference for attemative (indigenous African) healing options. South African state hospitals currently routinely collect .... Who wilt take care of my children should I die? In the light of such questions, the following factors were ... the wound begins to heal and close. In many cases these treatments are accompanied by strict ...

  1. Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women

    OpenAIRE

    Loutfy, Mona; Tharao, Wangari; Logie, Carmen; Aden, Muna A; Chambers, Lori A; Wu, Wei; Abdelmaseh, Marym; Calzavara, Liviana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora). However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effe...

  2. Black-white unions: West Indians and African Americans compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model, S; Fisher, G

    2001-05-01

    In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.

  3. The Role of African Dust Particles on Cloud Chemistry and Microphysics in a Tropical Montane Cloud Forest in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Delgado, E.; Valle-Diaz, C. J.; Baumgardner, D.; McDowell, W. H.; Gonzalez, G.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Huge amounts of African dust travels thousands of kilometers from the Sahara and Sahel regions to the Caribbean, northern South America and southern North America. However, not much is understood about how the aging process that takes place during transport changes dust properties, and how it affects cloud's composition and microphysics. In order to improve our understanding of the role of long-range transported African dust (LRTAD) in cloud formation processes we had field campaigns measuring dust physical and chemical properties in summers of 2013, 2014 and 2015, as part of the Puerto Rico African Dust and Cloud Study (PRADACS), and of the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO). Measurements were performed at the tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) of Pico del Este (PE, 1051 masl) and at the nature reserve of Cabezas de San Juan (CSJ, 60 masl). In both ground stations we monitored meteorological parameters (e.g., temperature, wind speed, wind direction). At CSJ, we measured light absorption and scattering at three wavelengths (467, 528 and 652 nm). At PE we collected cloud and rainwater for chemical analyses and monitored cloud microphysical properties (e.g., liquid water content, droplet size distribution, droplet number concentration, effective diameter and median volume diameter). Summer 2015 was the first attempt to characterize microphysical properties of the summer period (June to August) at PE, where dust is in its higher concentrations of the year. Samples were classified using data from models and satellites together with CSJ measurements as low or high dust influenced. Soluble ions, insoluble trace metals, pH, conductivity, total and dissolved organic carbon and total and dissolved nitrogen were measured for cloud and rainwater. Enrichment factor analysis was used to determine sea and crustal contribution of species by sample, as well as the neutralization factor and fractional acidity. Some preliminary results show cloud water conductivity for low

  4. Institutional factors that affect black South African students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Black students account for over 72% of enrolments in higher education, but only a small percentage of them choose Early Childhood Education (ECE) as a field of study and complete the qualification. The purpose of this study was to examine, from the perspective of black ECE students, why so few of them enrol in this ...

  5. An investigation into the causes of absconding among black African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that various determinants affect black women's decision to abscond from biomedical breast cancer treatments. These determinants were based on social and cuttural peculiarities. However, these findings did not explain the difference in absconding rates between black cervical (30%) and breast cancer ...

  6. Stigma, lack of knowledge and prevalence maintain HIV risk among Black Africans in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Mark; Dickson, Nigel; Mhlanga, Fungai; Ludlam, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    The AfricaNZ Health project aimed explore HIV risks in Black African communities in NZ with a view to informing HIV infection prevention and health promotion programs. AfricaNZ Health was completed in two phases. The first developed desk estimates of the resident Black African population in New Zealand, and Africans living with HIV. The second comprised two arms: an anonymous survey administered at African community events and a series of focus groups around the country. High levels of knowledge and positive attitudes about HIV were more often found in older than younger age groups. Condom use was higher in the younger group than in older age groups. Traditional attitudes still inform some beliefs about HIV. Stigma about HIV and anyone at risk for HIV remains very high among Africans. Western sexual identity constructs are not meaningful. A culturally informed strategy for risk and stigma reduction is urgently needed. The existing prevention and care infrastructure, informed by MSM experiences, must address increased risk to Black African new settlers, but this is not a reason to discriminate or further stigmatise an already vulnerable population. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Severe physical violence and Black women's health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Krim K; Sears, Karen Powell; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the association between intimate partner violence and the mental and physical health status of US Caribbean Black and African American women. We used 2001 to 2003 cross-sectional data from the National Survey of American Life-the most detailed study to date of physical and mental health disorders of Americans of African descent. We assessed participants' health conditions by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (Washington, DC; American Psychological Association) Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We found differences in health conditions between abused African American and Caribbean Black women. There were increased risks for lifetime dysthymia, alcohol dependence, drug abuse, and poor perceived health for African American victims of partner abuse, and binge eating disorder was associated with partner violence among Caribbean Black women. Severe intimate partner violence was associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes for US Black women, with different patterns between African American and Caribbean Blacks. Understanding intimate partner violence experiences of US Black women requires recognition of key intragroup differences, including nativity and immigrant status, and their differential relationships to women's health.

  8. Overweight, obesity and underweight in rural black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 25, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Substance Abuse Among Blacks Across the Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Krim K; Mouzon, Dawne M; Govia, Ishtar O; Matusko, Niki; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Abelson, Jamie M; Jackson, James S

    2016-07-28

    Lower rates of substance abuse are found among Black Americans compared to Whites, but little is known about differences in substance abuse across ethnic groups within the black population. We examined prevalence rates of substance abuse among Blacks across three geographic regions (US, Jamaica, Guyana). The study also sought to ascertain whether length of time, national context and major depressive episodes (MDE) were associated with substance abuse. We utilized three different data sources based upon probability samples collected in three different countries. The samples included 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 US Caribbean Black adults from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL). An additional 1,142 Guyanese Blacks and 1,176 Jamaican Blacks living in the Caribbean region were included from the 2005 NSAL replication extension study, Family Connections Across Generations and Nations (FCGN). Mental disorders were based upon DSM-IV criteria. For the analysis, we used descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression analytic procedures. Prevalence of substance abuse varied by national context, with higher rates among Blacks within the United States compared to the Caribbean region. Rates of substance abuse were lower overall for women, but differ across cohorts by nativity and length of time in the United States, and in association with major depressive episode. The study highlights the need for further examination of how substance abuse disparities between US-based and Caribbean-based populations may become manifested.

  10. Barriers to HIV testing for migrant black Africans in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakoya, A.; Reynolds, R.; Caswell, G.; Shiripinda, I.

    2008-01-01

    Migrant black Africans are disproportionately affected by HIV in Western Europe; we discuss the barriers to HIV testing for sub-Saharan migrants, with particular emphasis on the UK and the Netherlands. Cultural, social and structural barriers to testing, such as access to testing and care, fear of

  11. Attitude Of Self Ear Cleaning In Black Africans: Any Benefit? | Afolabi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wax removal compromises the integrity of the ear's defenses. It is a leading cause of otitis externa, Otomycosis and impaired hearing. Aims of the study are to assess the knowledge and implication of self ear cleaning among black Africans. Material and methods: A prospective study carried out at the Tundun-wada ...

  12. Evaluation of African black pear pulp and oil as ingredients in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bakery fat is important ingrredient that affects the rheological properties of bread crumb. In this work, African black peer pulp and pulp oil were used as substitutions to commercial bakery fat 0%, 25%,50%,75% and 100% levels of substitution. The results obtained show that significant difference (p>0.05) occur between the ...

  13. Black Hegemony, a Significant Influence in the School Success of High-Achieving African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jean C.

    This is an interpretive study of the influence of Black Hegemony on the academic success of three successful African Americans: Clifton L. Taulbert, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Margaret Morgan Lawrence. All three spent their youth in southern communities strongly influenced by Jim Crow laws and customs, and their academic accomplishments were…

  14. Cardiovascular Disease Risk amongst African Black Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Need for Population Specific Stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA enhances the risk of cardiovascular disease to a similar extent as diabetes. Whereas atherogenesis remains poorly elucidated in RA, traditional and nontraditional risk factors associate similarly and additively with CVD in RA. Current recommendations on CVD risk stratification reportedly have important limitations. Further, reported data on CVD and its risk factors derive mostly from data obtained in the developed world. An earlier epidemiological health transition is intrinsic to persons living in rural areas and those undergoing urbanization. It is therefore conceivable that optimal CVD risk stratification differs amongst patients with RA from developing populations compared to those from developed populations. Herein, we briefly describe current CVD and its risk factor profiles in the African black population at large. Against this background, we review reported data on CVD risk and its potential stratification amongst African black compared to white patients with RA. Routinely assessed traditional and nontraditional CVD risk factors were consistently and independently related to atherosclerosis in African white but not black patients with RA. Circulating concentrations of novel CVD risk biomarkers including interleukin-6 and interleukin-5 adipokines were mostly similarly associated with both endothelial activation and atherosclerosis amongst African black and white RA patients.

  15. African American College Student Retention and the Ecological Psychology of Historically Black Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. Christopher, II

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the dominant historic, economic, political, and social issues which affect the retention of African American college students through studies on ecological psychology. Considers the behaviors demonstrated by historically Black colleges which translate into effective retention policies or practices for predominantly White institutions.…

  16. Snuff use and the risk for hypertension among black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snuff use and the risk for hypertension among black South African women. ... Little is known about the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the use of snuff in developing countries. This study therefore sought to ... Data analysis included chi-square statistics, t-tests, ANOVA and multiple logistic regression analysis.

  17. Primary familial hypercholesterolaemia in a South African black. A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingerden, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    A case of familial hypercholesterolaemia is presented. This is to the best of our knowledge the first report of such a case in a South African black. The modes of presentation and inheritance are discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed

  18. Angiogenic imbalance as a contributor to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia among black African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeme, Allen; Buga, Geoffrey A; Mammen, MaryKutty; Namugowa, Ambrose V

    2017-06-01

    The pathogenesis of preeclampsia remains unclear despite extensive research. Altered angiogenic balance has been hypothesized to play a significant role in the clinical manifestations of this syndrome. However this imbalance has not been investigated extensively among black African women. The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal levels of the angiogenic factors soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFLT1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) among black African women with preeclampsia. A case control study was conducted in the Mthatha hospital complex in South Africa including 51 women with preeclampsia and 82 women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Blood samples were drawn from participants and serum was used to assess sFLT1, and PlGF levels quantified using specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Non- parametric statistics were used for analysis. Black African women with preeclampsia were found to have significantly lower levels of PlGF (90.3 ± 8.9 pg/ml versus 172.8 ± 20.2 pg/ml; p preeclampsia among black African women as reported in other populations.

  19. Do African Lives Matter to Black Lives Matter? Youth Uprisings and the Borders of Solidarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Krystal

    2018-01-01

    Despite experiencing a proliferation of youth-led mobilizations in recent years, Africa remains peripheral to the analysis of the U.S.-centered Movement for Black Lives (M4BL). This article explores points of convergence and tension between African uprisings and the M4BL, with a focus on two movements at the intersection of education and activism:…

  20. The Extension of the Progressive Aspect in Black South African English

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooy, Bertus

    2006-01-01

    The extension of the progressive aspect to stative verbs has been identified as a characteristic feature of New Varieties of English across the world, including the English of black South Africans (BSAfE). This paper examines the use of the progressive aspect in BSAfE, by doing a comparative analysis of three corpora of argumentative student…

  1. Black Tribal African Religion with Some Emphasis on Christianity and Islam in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Marian

    This 6th grade social studies unit delves into the belief systems and external religious, cultural practices of Black Africans. It is part of a series of guides developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. Study is focused upon the Ashanti tribe of Ghana knowing that although the multiplicity of tribes have…

  2. Food of the Little Swift Apus affinis and African Black Swift Apus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food habits of the Little Swift Apus affinis and African Black Swift Apus barbatus were quantified at Kimberley, Northern Cape province and Makapansgat, Limpopo province, South Africa. As previously documented for other species, both of these swifts took a wide variety of aerial arthropods including spiders as well as ...

  3. Plasma clot lysis time and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in black Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Zelda; Pieters, Marlien; Jerling, Johann C; Kruger, Annamarie; Rijken, Dingeman C

    2012-01-01

    Studies in populations of European descent show longer plasma clot lysis times (CLT) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) than in controls. No data are available on the association between CVD risk factors and fibrinolytic potential in black Africans, a group undergoing rapid urbanisation with increased CVD prevalence. We investigated associations between known CVD risk factors and CLT in black Africans and whether CLTs differ between rural and urban participants in light of differences in CVD risk.Data from 1000 rural and 1000 urban apparently healthy black South Africans (35-60 years) were cross-sectionally analysed.Increased PAI-1(act), BMI, HbA1c, triglycerides, the metabolic syndrome, fibrinogen concentration, CRP, female sex and positive HIV status were associated with increased CLTs, while habitual alcohol consumption associated with decreased CLT. No differences in CLT were found between age and smoking categories, contraceptive use or hyper- and normotensive participants. Urban women had longer CLT than rural women while no differences were observed for men.CLT was associated with many known CVD risk factors in black Africans. Differences were however observed, compared to data from populations of European descent available in the literature, suggesting possible ethnic differences. The effect of urbanisation on CLT is influenced by traditional CVD risk factors and their prevalence in urban and rural communities.

  4. Precipitation and valorisation of lignin obtained from South African Kraft mill black liquor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, Mpho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available . In this thesis, the isolation and recovery of lignin from kraft mill black liquor was examined, an in-depth characterisation of the polymer was undertaken, and finally, a method for the potential valorisation of the lignin from a South African kraft mill...

  5. Their Modernity Matters Too: The Invisible Links Between Black Atlantic Identity Formations in the Caribbean and Consumer Capitalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadeloupe, F.E.

    2009-01-01

    Much work in the field of Black Atlantic studies has highlighted the lives and philosophies of liberation of black savants such as W. E. B. DuBois and Claude McKay. These and other black intellectuals, who combined anti-capitalist critique with the struggle against anti-black racism, have been

  6. Their modernity matters too: the invisible links between Black Atlantic identity formations in the Caribbean and consumer capitalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadeloupe, F.

    2009-01-01

    Much work in the field of Black Atlantic studies has highlighted the lives and philosophies of liberation of black savants such as W. E. B. DuBois and Claude McKay. These and other black intellectuals, who combined anti-capitalist critique with the struggle against anti-black racism, have been

  7. High risk of metabolic syndrome among black South African women with severe mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamima Saloojee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI globally. The prevalence of MetS is higher in black women compared to black men from South Africa. Aim: To compare the prevalence of MetS between black South African men and women with SMI taking antipsychotic medication. Further, this prevalence was compared to the prevalence in a matched control group of black South African men and women without SMI. Setting: A general hospital psychiatric unit. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of MetS in a group of multi-ethnic participants with SMI treated with antipsychotic medication and a matched control group without SMI, applying the 2009 Joint Interim Statement (JIS criteria. Here, we included only the black African participants to compare MetS prevalence between men and women. Results: There were 232 participants in the group with SMI (male 155 and female 77 and without SMI (male 156 and female 76. The prevalence of MetS was more than three times higher in women with SMI compared to men with SMI (37.7% vs. 10.3%, p < 0.001. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of MetS in men or women between the groups with and without SMI. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, female gender (odds ratio [OR] 7.66, advancing age (OR 1.08 and longer duration of illness (OR = 1.15 were significant risk factors for MetS in SMI. Conclusion: In black South Africans with SMI on antipsychotic medication, there is a higher prevalence and risk for MetS in women compared to men.

  8. brain fag symptoms among black south african university students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated brain fag symptoms in South African university students. A Cultural Orientation Scale, a Student Stress Scale, and a Self Reporting Questionnaire were administered to collect data on socioeconomic background, cultural orientation, stress events, neurotic disorder and brain fag symptoms. The sample ...

  9. Eating disorders in black South African females | Szabo | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 85, No 6 (1995) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  10. a photoreceptor gene mutation in an indigenous black african family

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clearly, within the next decade effective gene therapy for some forms of RD in humans will be possible, bVt once again these will be mutation-specific, so it is essential to identify the retinal disease-causing genes in each and every southern. African RD patient. This research was supported by grants from the RP Foundation.

  11. Sen Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Southern African Blacks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEN virus (SENV), or its variants (SENV-D and SENV-H), have been detected in the serum of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), acute or chronic benign hepatic diseases, and healthy individuals in a number of countries. No information has hitherto been available in sub-Saharan African populations.

  12. Black parental involvement in education | Singh | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Schools Act of 1996 (SASA) provides formal power in education to parents as well as communities. SASA creates the expectation for parents to be meaningful partners in school governance. It envisages a system where school-based educators would collaborate with the parents to ensure quality ...

  13. South African managers' perceptions of black economic empowerment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in South African companies in various industries in 2010 (see the acknowledgements at the end). The purpose was ..... mcccxxviiiWood and wood products, furniture, paper and paper products, printing mcccxxix34 mcccxxx ... mccclxvWholesale & retail trade; repair of motor vehicles, motor cycles and personal & household ...

  14. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in South African Blacks | Lewis | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has been considered rare among the Black population of southern Africa. We report 7 patients with the disease who presented during a 14-month period. Current concepts in the approach to the diagnosis and treatment of HCM are discussed. It is possible that with greater awareness of ...

  15. GALACTOSAEMIA IN BLACK SOUTH AFRICAN CHILDREN P.J. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999-05-01

    May 1, 1999 ... patients had complete absence of GALT activity. Two infants who displayed acute toxicity symptoms and positive urine galactose, exhibited normal GALT activity. Conclusion: GALT deficiency is the most common form of galactosaemia in black children in the KwaZulu Natal region. Cases of galactokinase or ...

  16. Iron status and cardiovascular disease risk in black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometric indices, iron indices, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipid profiles were measured using standard procedures in 1 262 apparently healthy black ... p < 0.01) and were not retained when adjustment was made for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption and C-reactive protein in the analysis.

  17. High prevalence of primary dyslipidaemia in black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa (SA), premature deaths due to heart and blood vessel diseases in people of working age (35 - 64 years) have been predicted to increase by 41% between 2007 ... To assess the burden and prevalence of dyslipidaemia in the SA black population at Dr George Mukhari Hospital in the north region of Gauteng.

  18. Scriptions of the Choral: The Historiography of Black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay focusses on two moments in the historiography of black choralism. The work on choralism by the first generation ethnomusicologists, specifically Percival R. Kirby, provides an opportunity to re-evaluate their scholarship as well as revisit the charge of their collaboration with segregationist/apartheid thought.

  19. The dining and tipping behaviour of Black South Africans: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on these motives, different black dining segments were identified and an OSI (Occasionalists, Socialisers and Indulgers) typology of diners proposed. The dining and tipping behaviour of these dining segments are furthermore infl uenced by several factors, with clear implications for both the server and restaurateurs.

  20. The importance of biographic research: a South African black nurses' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhlongo, T P

    1999-09-01

    This article is an attempt to highlight the importance of biographic research to South African nursing. The writer believes that a particular attention should be paid to the contributions of South African Black/African nurse practitioners. South Africa has produced remarkable African nurses: they range from nurse Professors and Head of the University Nursing Departments to clinical nursing specialists and nursing administrators. The writer--having used the biographical approach in his Doctoral thesis--will highlight some practical and professional issues around biographic research. For the purpose of this publication, however, discussion will be confined to defining biographic research, reviewing different types of biographies, and discussing the value of the biographical research. Furthermore, the writer will identify some biographic concepts, examine their relationships, draw inferences and (hopefully) emerge with an increased understanding of the impact of biography as scientific concept.

  1. Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Mona; Tharao, Wangari; Logie, Carmen; Aden, Muna A; Chambers, Lori A; Wu, Wei; Abdelmaseh, Marym; Calzavara, Liviana

    2015-01-01

    Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora). However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma experienced by this population. The Cochrane methodology was used to develop a search strategy in consultation with a librarian scientist. Databases searched included the Cochrane Library, Ovid EMBASE, PsycInfo, and 10 others. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for potential relevance and conducted the Cochrane grading of RCTs to assess risk of bias and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Eligible papers were selected if they employed an intervention design with African/Black diasporic women living with HIV as the target population and had a primary outcome of stigma reduction. Of the five studies that met all of the eligibility criteria, four demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions in reducing HIV-related stigma. Only two of the five studies were designed specifically for HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. Limitations included the absence of interventions addressing other forms of stigma and discrimination (e.g. gender discrimination, racism, heterosexism). Our findings suggest that there are limited interventions designed to address multiple forms of stigma, including gender and racial discrimination, experienced by HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women.

  2. Towards Producing Black Nobel Laureates Affiliated with ``African Universities''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth, Jude

    While Africa has produced a handful Nobel laureate in literature and peace, it has continued to shy away from producing any in the other categories. The reason is not farfetched; our university system is not up to standard. It is saddening that in this century, African countries place emphasis on certificates and not on knowledge. This has made the continent produce students that lack the intellectual capability, experimental ability, fundamental training, creativity, and motivation to excel except they get a foreign training. It is this backdrop that precipitated the research into the methods of teaching and research in universities across Africa. The study is designed to identify the problems and proffer solution to them. Two important questions immediately come to mind. (1) What factors account for the difficulty in producing Nobel laureates affiliated with African universities? (2) What strategies could be adopted to improve teaching and research in African universities? Several factors were investigated which revolve around funding, the competence of the lecturers, quality of students admitted, attitude of the students, parents and government. Nigerian universities were investigated and important deductions were made. During the study an inquiry was made on the method of instruction at various universities, from result obtained, the study therefore concluded that adequate funding, the presence of erudite scholars and brilliant minds will produce future Nobel laureate affiliated with the continent. The study therefore recommended admission and employment of only students and lecturers who have got a thing for academics into the universities and adequate funding of universities and research centres.

  3. Black Air: African American Contributions to Airpower before Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Charles Lindbergh across the Atlantic, inspired many young Americans to fly, both white and Black. However, racial hatred and discrimination was so...year at a reception in New York, when General Charles de Gaulle, spotting Bullard in his legion uniform and his medals, pulled him out of the crowd...armorers, medics, cooks, and logisticians were necessary for support. 2 1LT Charles E. Francis, Tuskegee

  4. [Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT): our experience in African blacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, S M; Agboton, G; Dieng, M; Ndiaye Sow, M N; Diakhate, M; Gueye, N N; Seck, C M; Lam, A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate in the short and medium term, intraocular pressure results after selective laser trabeculoplasty in black patients with chronic open angle glaucoma or isolated ocular hypertension. We conducted a retrospective study with a mean 12.5-month follow-up in black patients who underwent SLT. Inclusion criteria were: an open iridocorneal angle greater than or equal to Schaeffer grade 3, data recorded and available on trabecular pigmentation, data on SLT parameters available, and intraocular pressure by Goldmann applanation tonometry recorded.A positive result was defined as a post-laser IntraOcular Pressure (IOP) less than 21 mmHg after 1-month follow-up. The main motivation was the reduction of number of eye drops used. Performed first was a treatment of the inferior 180° (3:00-9:00), possibly supplemented by a second session at 15 days or 1 month if a pressure decrease was noted after the first session. IOP results were evaluated prior to SLT, immediately following SLT and then depending on the drop in pressure. Statistical analysis was performed using the EPI.info 7 software. A total of 69 eyes of 40 patients treated with SLT were identified. The mean IOP prior to SLT was 18.3 mmHg ± 4. Our results showed 90% of patients who positively responded to the treatment (10% failure) with a mean IOP decrease of 2.3 ± 1 mmHg, that is 13%, by the second week. The mean pressure decrease continued to 4.78 ± 1 mmHg for patients (30%) in the group treated for 360°, that is 27% in the same period of time. SLT permitted discontinuation of a prostaglandin in 60% (42 cases). Eyes on triple-drug therapy went from 23 before SLT to 5 following SLT (a 26% decline), eyes on two medications went from 32 to 16 (24% decline). In result association tests, only pigmentation of the angle and visual field stage had a statistically significant probability. In our experience, SLT is indicated in black patients to potentiate less effective treatments, to

  5. [Neurological manifestations of Gougerot and Sjögren disease: a Black African case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, M; Sama, H D; Nagbé, Y; Kumako, V; Bissa, H; Agoda-Koussema, L K; Balo, K P; Grunitzky, E K

    2015-10-01

    Primitive Gougerot-Sjögren syndrome (PGSS) is a systemic autoimmune exocrinopathy in which twenty percent of affected patients develop neurological manifestations. It has been little described in the Black African literature. We report a case of PGSS in a 64-year-old Black woman as revealed by neurological manifestations in an inflammatory context. Central neuropathy was present and the patient fulfilled at least four of the six Vitali American-European diagnostic criteria. There were abnormal aspects on the sylvian artery and hyperintense lesions of periventricular predominance. PGSS is a serious disease which we must consider when we encounter any unexplained neurological manifestations especially those associated with vasculitic lesions.

  6. De-racialising exploitation: 'Black Economic Empowerment' in the South African wine sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Sandra; DuToit, Andries; Ponte, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    In November 2003, the South African wine industry held its first consultative conference on ‘Black Empowerment’. The press reported to the world that the industry was at last entering ‘the new South Africa’. For years, it had been a byword for white power and black exploitation – famous for the grim working conditions, poor wages, degrading institutions, and authoritarian, racist white farmers. In contrast to the past, when talk of change was the prerogative of white and male industry insider...

  7. Black economic empowerment in the South African coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    South Africa has experienced great change and progress in the ten years since the end of apartheid and the inauguration of its first democratic government. Back in 1994, many were concerned about whether such a young and fragile democracy could survive. The new government needed to unify the country, while bringing about the significant change necessary to address the massive racial inequality at the heart of the apartheid system. The article explains actions and initiatives taken under the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) programme, one of which is the establishment of Eyesizwe Coal. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  8. Insulinoma in a black South African : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huddle, K.R.L.; Mannell, A.; Hale, M.J.; Denath, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    A 69-year-old black woman with an insulinoma presented with recurrent episodes of sweating and confusion culminating in two episodes of hypoglycaemic coma. The diagnosis was confirmed by finding an inappropriately elevated serum insulin level in the presence of hypoglycaemia after a fast of 14 hours. Computed tomography revealed a large tumour in the head of the pancreas. Removal of the tumour necessitated partial resection of the head and body of the pancreas, which in turn necessitated certain repair and drainage procedures. Postoperative complications, while not insignificant, were acceptable. At 1-year follow-up the patient is well. 4 figs., 4 refs

  9. Treasures ... of black wood, brilliantly polished : five examples of Taino sculpture from the tenth-sixteenth century Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Ostapkowicz; Alex Wiedenhoeft; Christopher Bronk Ramsey; Erika Ribechini; Samuel Wilson; Fiona Brock; Tom Higham

    2011-01-01

    Five wooden sculptures from the pre-contact Caribbean, long held in museum collections, are here dated and given a context for the first time. The examples studied were made from dense Guaiacum wood, carved, polished and inlaid with shell fastened with resin. Dating the heartwood, sapwood and resins takes key examples of ‘Classic’ Ta´ýno art back to the tenth century...

  10. INCREASING DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION OF SOUTH AFRICAN WINES: IDENTIFYING THE KEY MARKET SEGMENTS OF THE “BLACK DIAMONDS”

    OpenAIRE

    Ndanga, Leah Z.B.; Louw, Andre; van Rooyen, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Although South Africans are not predominantly wine drinkers, the industry is looking for ways to develop the local market to balance exports. The black middle class, increasingly referred to as the Black Diamonds are the most powerful marketing trend in the last 10 years as they have emerged as the strongest buying influence in the economy and making inroads in understanding this market presents a good opportunity. The study asserts that the key factors influencing the South African consumers...

  11. Longstanding hydrocele in adult Black Africans: Is preoperative scrotal ultrasound justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorie, Chukwudi O.; Pisters, Louis L.; Liu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Background: Longstanding hydrocele is very common among adult Black Africans. Preoperative scrotal ultrasound is widely used for adult patients presenting with hydrocele, with the main aim to rule out more serious underlying pathologies like malignancy or testicular torsion. This paper analyzes the findings and the necessity of automatic ordering of scrotal ultrasound in cases of longstanding hydrocele in adult Black Africans. Materials and Methods: 102 consecutive patients with longstanding scrotal hydrocele were investigated clinically and all patients also had routine preoperative scrotal ultrasound. Results: Overall, none of our patients had any serious underlying pathology associated with their hydrocele. 97% of the patients had simple hydrocele on ultrasound. Hydrocele is more common on the right (P=0.04) and is more bilateral in elderly patients (P=0.0002). Conclusions: Routine preoperative scrotal ultrasound does not seem to be justified in longstanding hydroceles. This is especially important considering the fact that most hydroceles are benign in origin and nature. PMID:22083049

  12. Professor Bennie van der Walt: a bridge between white Afrikaners and black Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Turaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article honours Professor Bennie van der Walt as a bridge builder between white Afrikaners and black Africans as well as a renowned Christian scholar. Historical Western colonialism in South Africa divided its citizens against each other by means of white racism and apartheid. The whites in general were pitched against the blacks on the basis of white racism and its doctrine of apartheid. This doctrine of separation of races kept the white Afrikaners from the Bantu Africans. However, apartheid as a form of political, social, cultural and religious racism is now history in South Africa. The role which Professor Van der Walt played in bridging the gap between this racial divide is highly commendable and needs to be acknowledged and appreciated, hence the primary objective of this article in honour of his 71st birthday. Furthermore, the article discusses the immense contributions of Professor Bennie van der Walt to Christian scholarship in Africa.

  13. Factors affecting behaviours that address HIV risk among Black and White South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    K. Peltzer

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction among 150 Black and 150 White South Africans chosen by systematic random sampling. Main outcome measures included sexual behaviour and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of condom use, behavioural norms, attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS health beliefs, and HIV risk behaviour. Bivariate analysis gave positive significant relations among being single, age, ...

  14. A description of body growth and composition of South African Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes changes occurring in the live weight and body composition of male and female South African Black ostriches over a growing period of 285 days. Forty-five birds were given four diets with different protein (ca. 180 and ca. 120 g/kg feed) and energy (ca. 8.5 and ca. 13.5 MJ ME/kg feed) levels on a free ...

  15. The politics of black patients' identity: ward-rounds on the 'black side' of a South African psychiatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, L

    1991-06-01

    There are many macrosocial studies of the political organisation of health and mental health care in South Africa, and the maldistribution of resources by race is well known. Little attention, however, has been given to the minutiae of the negotiation of power in the clinical setting. This article, which reports on part of a larger study of aspects of culture in South African psychiatry, focuses on interactions in ward-rounds on the 'Black side' of a South African psychiatric hospital. Through analysis of cases, the complexity of interpreting what transpires in such a setting and the central role that the concept of culture has in debates amongst staff members are demonstrated. Close analysis demonstrates the inadequacy of models which seek to locate the institutional racism of apartheid psychiatry in the motives of individual clinicians. Clinicians may simultaneously reproduce and subvert aspects of apartheid practice. A consideration of the social positioning of the clinician both as a South African and as a practitioner of psychiatry is central to the development of psychiatry in a post-apartheid South Africa.

  16. Black Consciousness, Self-Esteem, and Satisfaction with Physical Appearance among African-American Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lori R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The extent to which black consciousness and self-esteem are associated with satisfaction with physical appearance is explored for 152 African-American female college students. Satisfaction with overall physical appearance and black consciousness have a moderate relationship. A strong relationship exists for self-esteem and satisfaction with facial…

  17. Resistance and Assent: How Racial Socialization Shapes Black Students' Experience Learning African American History in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Theodore E.

    2016-01-01

    African American history is often taught poorly in high school U.S. history courses. However, we know little about how Black students perceive and experience this situation. I use a refined racial socialization framework and interview data with 32 Black college students in the Northeast to investigate how familial racial socialization shapes their…

  18. Time and Quest of Identity of the African-American Character: George Schuyler's Black No More

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Naji Shanbooj Alolaiwi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine the theme of “passing,” viewed as a metaphor of race that marks a step forward from the painful reality of the Middle Passage to “passing,” as both physical reality and metaphor, and to find out the underlying causes of the passing character in George Schyler's Black No More in the light of social and historical dimensions. The study investigates the aspects of “passing”  manifested by the African-American who is often viewed as an “appendage” to the rest of society, blacks have struggled to attain the success, equality, and overall collective consciousness of the American society, while simultaneously creating and maintaining and identity of their own. Blacks have been and continue to be socially, economically, educationally, and politically disenfranchised and therefore cannot completely find unity within an American system that continuously seeks to reaffirm their inferiority.

  19. Social Determinants of Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: Intersection of Ethnicity and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2018-02-15

    Most of the existing sociological and epidemiological literature has focused on the protective effects of high socioeconomic status (SES) on population health through reducing exposure to risk factors and increasing human and material resources that can mitigate adversities. Recent studies, however, have documented poor mental health of high SES Blacks, particularly African American males and Caribbean Black females. The literature also shows a link between perceived discrimination and poor mental health. To better understand the extra costs of upward social mobility for minority populations, this study explored ethnic by gender variations in the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination in an ethnically diverse national sample of Black youth. This study included 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth who were sampled in the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent supplement (NSAL-A). Three SES indicators (financial hardship, family income, and income to needs ratio) were the independent variables. The dependent variable was perceived (daily) discrimination. Age was the covariate. Ethnicity and gender were the focal moderators. Linear regressions were used for data analysis in the pooled sample and also based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Considerable gender by ethnicity variations were found in the patterns of the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination. Financial hardship was a risk factor for perceived discrimination in African American males only. High family income and income to needs ratio were associated with high (but not low) perceived discrimination in African American males and Caribbean Black females. SES indicators were not associated with perceived discrimination for African American females or Caribbean Black males. When it comes to Black youth, high SES is not always protective. Whether SES reduces or increases perceived discrimination among Black youth depends on the

  20. Social Determinants of Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: Intersection of Ethnicity and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing sociological and epidemiological literature has focused on the protective effects of high socioeconomic status (SES on population health through reducing exposure to risk factors and increasing human and material resources that can mitigate adversities. Recent studies, however, have documented poor mental health of high SES Blacks, particularly African American males and Caribbean Black females. The literature also shows a link between perceived discrimination and poor mental health. To better understand the extra costs of upward social mobility for minority populations, this study explored ethnic by gender variations in the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination in an ethnically diverse national sample of Black youth. This study included 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth who were sampled in the National Survey of American Life—Adolescent supplement (NSAL-A. Three SES indicators (financial hardship, family income, and income to needs ratio were the independent variables. The dependent variable was perceived (daily discrimination. Age was the covariate. Ethnicity and gender were the focal moderators. Linear regressions were used for data analysis in the pooled sample and also based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Considerable gender by ethnicity variations were found in the patterns of the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination. Financial hardship was a risk factor for perceived discrimination in African American males only. High family income and income to needs ratio were associated with high (but not low perceived discrimination in African American males and Caribbean Black females. SES indicators were not associated with perceived discrimination for African American females or Caribbean Black males. When it comes to Black youth, high SES is not always protective. Whether SES reduces or increases perceived discrimination among Black youth

  1. Segregation or "Thinking Black"?: Community Activism and the Development Of Black-Focused Schools in Toronto and London, 1968-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: On January 29, 2008 the Toronto District School Board (TDSB) approved a city-wide Africentric elementary school under their Alternative School policy, sparking a contentious debate. Calls for Black-focused schools also arose in 2008 in London in response to the disengagement of African Caribbean youth. The historical record…

  2. Social capital, participation and the perpetuation of health inequalities: obstacles to African-Caribbean participation in 'partnerships' to improve mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora; Mclean, Carl

    2004-11-01

    There has recently been much emphasis on the role of 'partnerships' between local community 'stakeholders' in strategies to redress health inequalities. This paper examines obstacles to participation in such partnerships by African-Caribbean lay people in local initiatives to improve mental health in a town in southern England. We present a 'social psychology of participation' which we use to interpret our data. Our work seeks to illustrate some of the micro-social mechanisms through which social inequalities are perpetuated, using Bourdieu's conceptualization of the role played by various forms of capital (economic, social, cultural and symbolic) in perpetuating social inequalities. Our empirical research consists of a qualitative case study of attitudes to participation in mental-health-related partnerships in a deprived community. In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted with 30 local community 'stakeholders', drawn from the statutory, voluntary, user and lay sectors. While interviewees expressed enthusiasm about the principles of participation, severe obstacles to its effective implementation were evident. These included severe distrust between statutory and community sectors, and reported disillusionment and disempowerment within the African-Caribbean community, as well as low levels of community capacity. Moreover, divergent understandings of the meaning of 'partnership' suggested that it would be difficult to satisfy both community and statutory sectors at once. We suggest that disadvantaged and socially excluded communities are often deprived of the social resources which would provide a solid basis for their participation in partnerships with state health services. In the absence of efforts to remove such obstacles, and to generate the necessary resources for participation, partnerships may be 'set up to fail', leaving social inequalities to prevail.

  3. Acculturation and health status among African-Caribbean, Bangladeshi and White British adolescents--validation and findings from the RELACHS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Lawrence, Amanda; Klineberg, Emily; Woodley-Jones, Davina; Taylor, Stephanie; Stansfeld, Stephen; Viner, Russell; Booy, Robert

    2005-04-01

    This paper reports the validation process for research questions that measure cultural identity in a survey of adolescents from a multi-ethnic urban area. Four questions that tapped preferred cultural origins of friends and clothing were used to classify subjects into categories for cultural identity described by Berry (1980). We assessed face, content and construct validity of these questions by: i) investigating the meaning of cultural identity from an African-Caribbean, Bangladeshi, and White British perspective in three focus groups; ii) asking participants to comment on the questions and their suitability for studies of cultural identity; and iii) using data from the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS) study of adolescents to test hypotheses about associations of acculturation with health outcomes (physical and mental) in order to assess whether these trends are consistent with previous research, and are in accord with trends predicted by the Berry model. Questions about the cultural origins of friends and clothing showed good face and content validity. However, only the questions on friendship choices showed some associations in the predicted directions, with some associations that were unexpected. The most significant findings were that, in comparison with marginalised pupils, for African-Caribbean pupils assimilation was associated with more tiredness (OR=40.7, 3.8-432.8,p<0.001) and traditionalism with less obesity (OR=0.1, 0.02-0.5, p<0.001). For Bangladeshi pupils integration was associated with a lower risk of depression (OR=0.4, 0.2-0.8, p<0.001). Questions on friendship choices can be used to assess cultural identity, but associations with health and health risk behaviours are different for each ethnic group.

  4. The epidemiology of sexually transmitted co-infections in HIV-positive and HIV-negative African-Caribbean women in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remis, Robert S; Liu, Juan; Loutfy, Mona; Tharao, Wangari; Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Perusini, Stephen J; Chieza, Lisungu; Saunders, Megan; Green-Walker, LoriAnn; Kaul, Rupert

    2013-11-17

    HIV disproportionately affects African-Caribbean women in Canada but the frequency and distribution of sexually transmitted infections in this community have not been previously studied. We recruited women based on HIV status through a Toronto community health centre. Participants completed a socio-behavioural questionnaire using Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and provided blood for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B and C, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology, urine for chlamydia and gonorrhea molecular testing and vaginal secretions for bacterial vaginosis (BV) and human papillomavirus (HPV). Differences in prevalence were assessed for statistical significance using chi-square. We recruited 126 HIV-positive and 291 HIV-negative women, with a median age of 40 and 31 years, respectively (p history of HBV vaccination (66.1% vs. 44.0%, p = 0.0001). Classical STIs were rare in both groups; BV prevalence was low and did not vary by HIV status. HSV-2 infection was markedly more frequent in HIV-positive (86.3%) than HIV-negative (46.6%) women (p < 0.0001). Vaginal HPV infection was also more common in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative women (50.8% vs. 22.6%, p < 0.0001) as was infection with high-risk oncogenic HPV types (48.4% vs. 17.3%, p < 0.0001). Classical STIs were infrequent in this clinic-based population of African-Caribbean women in Toronto. However, HSV-2 prevalence was higher than that reported in previous studies in the general Canadian population and was strongly associated with HIV infection, as was infection with hepatitis B and HPV.

  5. Mortality among blacks or African Americans with HIV infection--United States, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Azfar-e-Alam; Hu, Xiaohong; Hall, H Irene

    2015-02-06

    A primary goal of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy is to reduce HIV-related health disparities, including HIV-related mortality in communities at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As a group, persons who self-identify as blacks or African Americans (referred to as blacks in this report), have been affected by HIV more than any other racial/ethnic population. Forty-seven percent of persons who received an HIV diagnosis in the United States in 2012 and 43% of all persons living with diagnosed HIV infection in 2011 were black. Blacks also experienced a low 3-year survival rate among persons with HIV infection diagnosed during 2003-2008. CDC and its partners have been pursuing a high-impact prevention approach and supporting projects focusing on minorities to improve diagnosis, linkage to care, and retention in care, and to reduce disparities in HIV-related health outcomes. To measure trends in disparities in mortality among blacks, CDC analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System. The results of that analysis indicated that among blacks aged ≥13 years the death rate per 1,000 persons living with diagnosed HIV decreased from 28.4 in 2008 to 20.5 in 2012. Despite this improvement, in 2012 the death rate per 1,000 persons living with HIV among blacks was 13% higher than the rate for whites and 47% higher than the rate for Hispanics or Latinos. These data demonstrate the need for implementation of interventions and public health strategies to further reduce disparities in deaths.

  6. Field Plot Techniques for Black Sigatoka Evaluation in East African Highland Bananas

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    Okoro, JU.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of plants per experimental unit and number of replications for the efficient and precise assessment of black sigatoka leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis in East African Highland bananas were determined. Two representative cultivars were used. Host response to black sigatoka infection was measured by recording the youngest leaf with necrotic spots. The number of plants per experimental unit was determined, using the methods of maximum curvature and comparison of variances, while the number of replications was estimated by Hatheway's method. The optimum experimental plot size was 3 plants (18 m2 for the beer banana cultivar 'Igitsiri', and 30 plants (180 m2 for the cooking banana cultivar 'Igisahira Gisanzwe', using the comparison of variances method. However, the optimum plot size was 15 plants (90 m2 for both cultivars using the method of maximum curvature. The latter statistical method was preferred because of the low precision of the estimates in the former method. Unreplicated trials with plots of 15 plants could be adequate to assess black sigatoka response in East African bananas if uniform disease pressure exists.

  7. The histocompatibility (HLA) antigen distribution in diabetes in southern African Blacks (Xhosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, B R; Jackson, W P; DuToit, E D; Botha, M C

    1980-01-01

    The frequency distributions of HLA antigens in 25 juvenile-onset diabetics (JOD) and 56 maturity-onset diabetics (MOD) belonging to a southern African black tribe (Xhosa) were compared with those of 153 non-diabetic Xhosa blacks. Unlike the findings in white JODs, there was no increase of B8 or B15 nor a reduced frequency of B7 but an apparently, significantly increased frequency of Bw35 and A2 in both Xhosa JODs and Xhosa MODs respectively. This is the first ethnic group in which an HLA antigen marker has been found for MOD. Furthermore, these findings suggest that diabetes, both JOD and MOD, in white people is a different genetic disease from the diabetes among the Xhosa tribe.

  8. The State of Black Education: The Politics of Educating African American Students at Colleges and Universities

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    Earnest N. Bracey, Ph.D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In terms of higher education for African American students, the “school-to-prison pipeline” or Prison Industrial Complex must be totally dismantled in order to focus entirely on academic performance at colleges and universities and HBCUs. Additionally, mentors should be identified to tutor and guide and help black youngsters overcome their fear of learning and going to school, so that our whole society can benefit and improve academically. Finally, in this respect, we-the-people can move our nation forward by graduating people of color at higher institutions of learning, while providing them with a more productive life, and social advancement.

  9. Protection from Cardiovascular Disease Due to Increased High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in African Black Populations: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudberg, Nicholas J; Goedecke, Julia H; Lecour, Sandrine

    2016-10-20

    The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa has increased over the last decade. Despite this, African Black populations present with relatively low incidences of coronary heart disease and ischemic heart disease, which may be attributed to their lower total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, compared with White populations. Commensurate with these lower lipid levels, it was believed that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations would be higher in Black populations compared with their White counterparts. This is based on data from previous studies of African and African American populations; however, recent studies conducted in Africa found similar or lower HDL-C concentrations in Black compared with White individuals. Current research, therefore, suggests that HDL-C may not be a good indicator of cardiovascular risk and future research should focus on HDL quality (vs quantity), by measuring HDL functionality and subclass.

  10. Body mass index adjustments to increase the validity of body fatness assessment in UK Black African and South Asian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudda, M T; Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Fewtrell, M S; Haroun, D; Lum, S; Williams, J E; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Wells, J C K; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2017-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) (weight per height 2 ) is the most widely used marker of childhood obesity and total body fatness (BF). However, its validity is limited, especially in children of South Asian and Black African origins. We aimed to quantify BMI adjustments needed for UK children of Black African and South Asian origins so that adjusted BMI related to BF in the same way as for White European children. We used data from four recent UK studies that made deuterium dilution BF measurements in UK children of White European, South Asian and Black African origins. A height-standardized fat mass index (FMI) was derived to represent BF. Linear regression models were then fitted, separately for boys and girls, to quantify ethnic differences in BMI-FMI relationships and to provide ethnic-specific BMI adjustments. We restricted analyses to 4-12 year olds, to whom a single consistent FMI (fat mass per height 5 ) could be applied. BMI consistently underestimated BF in South Asians, requiring positive BMI adjustments of +1.12 kg m - 2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83, 1.41 kg m - 2 ; PAfricans, requiring negative BMI adjustments for Black African children. However, these were complex because there were statistically significant interactions between Black African ethnicity and FMI (P=0.004 boys; P=0.003 girls) and also between FMI and age group (PAfricans. Ethnic-specific adjustments, increasing BMI in South Asians and reducing BMI in Black Africans, can improve the accuracy of BF assessment in these children.

  11. Are life satisfaction and self-esteem distinct constructs? A black South African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, Margaret S; Maluka, Constance S

    2005-10-01

    As part of a longitudinal project on Quality of Life, a study was undertaken to extend the applicability of the 5-item Satisfaction With Life Scale, developed in the USA, in South Africa. Data on basic sociodemographic characteristics, the scale, and the 10-item Rosenberg Self-esteem scale were available for 360 Black South Africans (151 men and 209 women), ages 21 to 83 years (M = 38.6 yr., SD = 10.3). Factor analysis applied to scale scores gave two factors, accounting for 71% of the variance. Factor I was loaded by 10 Self-esteem items and Factor II by four of the five Life Satisfaction items. Coefficient alpha was .77 for the Satisfaction With Life Scale and .97 for the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Life Satisfaction was related to Self-esteem (r = .17, p Life Satisfaction and Self-esteem appear to be distinct, unitary constructs, but responses to Item 5 on the Satisfaction With Life Scale require cautious interpretation and may contribute to the weak r, although so may the collectivist culture of Black South Africans.

  12. [Examination of the enzymatic functions of the normal liver in black Africans (Apropos of 50 Senegalese cases)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankale, M; Diop, B; Agbetra, M; Seck, I; Noujaim, S; Jacqueson, M

    1977-01-01

    In order to establish the hepatic enzymogram in healthy African black people, four enzymes have been studied in 50 apparently healthy male Africans: transaminases (GOT, GPT), alcaline phosphatases, ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). The findings do not show any difference with the usually admitted levels in European countries, except for alcaline phosphatases which are situated at the upper limit of the normal.

  13. Increasing Domestic Consumption of South African Wines: Exploring the market potential of the “Black Diamonds”

    OpenAIRE

    Ndanga, Leah Z.B.; Louw, Andre; van Rooyen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Although South Africans are not predominantly wine drinkers, the industry is looking for ways to develop the local market to balance exports. The black middle class, increasingly referred to as the Black Diamonds are the most powerful marketing trend in the last 10 years as they have emerged as the strongest buying influence in the economy and making inroads in understanding this market presents a good opportunity. The data used in this paper was collected from an integration of a consumer be...

  14. Muscle fatigue induced by a soccer match-play simulation in amateur Black South African players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert I; Ryan, Bennett; Todd, Andrew I

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a soccer-specific fatigue protocol on the temporal changes in torque producing abilities of the thigh within African soccer players. Twenty amateur Black South African soccer players performed the SAFT(90) soccer match-play simulation protocol, while isokinetic measurements were obtained pre-exercise (T0), after the 1st half (T45), after half time (T60) and after the 2nd half (T105). During SAFT(90) performance, significant overall concentric quadriceps peak torque changes were observed (1.05 rad · s(-1) = 16.6%, 3.14 rad · s(-1) = 9.5%). Eccentric hamstring peak torque also decreased significantly over time (1.05 rad · s(-1) = 17.4%, 3.14 rad · s(-1) = 18.5%), with significant reductions occurring during both halves. The functional strength ratio (eccH:conQ) at 3.14 rad · s(-1) was observed to significantly decrease by 10.1% overall. The indicated time-dependent changes in Black South African players have implications for competitive performance and increased predisposition to hamstring muscle injuries. Because of muscle fatigue, the hamstrings may have insufficient eccentric strength during the late swing phase when sprinting, resulting in eccentric overload and damage to the muscle. The changes in strength found in the current study help explain the increased predisposition to hamstring strains during the latter stages of both halves of match-play as reported by epidemiological studies.

  15. Pattern of skin infections in black Africans of Sierra Leone (West Africa

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    Bari Arfan ul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical differences among human populations may lead to variable prevalence of skin disorders in different ethnicities. Skin infections are one of the important curable and largely preventable categories of skin disorders in the communities. Aim: The purpose of the study was to see the patterns of skin infections in black Africans of Sierra Leone and to compare with other ethnic populations. Materials and Methods: Local blacks of all age groups presenting in Dermatology out patient department of Pak Field Hospital (established as a part of UN peacekeeping mission in Sierra Leone were included (from Nov 2004 to Oct 2005. Relevant clinical history and physical examination was done. Laboratory investigations were carried out when indicated. Skin diseases were broadly classified into two major categories i.e., infective and noninfective. Among infective, sexually transmitted infections were again separated. Nonblack settlers in the area and UN troops were not included in the study. Data was recorded and analyzed by Microsoft Excel program. Results: 3011 patients belonging to different local tribes having a variety of skin disorders were seen. Patients were of all ages and both sexes ranging from one month to 73 years of age. The Infective skin disorders were seen in 61.7% patients and most prevalent were superficial fungal infections (41.2% followed by, sexually transmitted infections (9.9% and parasitic infections (6.5%. Bacterial and viral infections were rare and so was the scabies. More than 90% parasitic infections were onchocerciasis with full spectrum of cutaneous manifestations. Conclusion: Pattern of skin infections in blacks varies considerably from other ethnic races. Environmental factors, geographical location and free existence of vector for onchocerciasis in West African region, possibly have a significant influence in this variable prevalence.

  16. Coronary heart disease and risk factors in Black South Africans: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loock, Magriet; Steyn, Krisela; Becker, Piet; Fourie, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) was uncommon in Black people living in Africa before 1970. Since then CHD risk factor levels have increased, while CHD rates have remained low. This case-control study aims to assess the relationship between CHD and known risk factors in urban Black South Africans. Eighty-nine cases with CHD and 356 controls attending the Kalafong hospital were recruited between 1982 and 1986 and followed up until 1994. Family and personal medical histories were recorded, along with a clinical examination and special investigations to assess risk factor profiles, clinical presentation and target organ damage. The relationship of the risk factors, target organ damage, and the development of CHD was assessed by using a stepwise multiple logistic regression procedure. Far more cases than controls had a family and personal medical history and risk factors related to CHD. Those relating to the development of CHD were family history of myocardial infarction (odds ratio [OR] 17.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.48-54.51), hypertension (OR 8.38, 95% CI 3.66-19.17), family history of hypertension (OR 4.33, 95% CI 2.21-8.52), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.24-7.22), and type 2 diabetes (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.19-6.68). Hypercholesterolemia was marginally associated (OR 2.53, 95% CI .92-6.89). Evidence is provided that an association exists between CHD and the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in urban Black South Africans. A relationship between genetic factors and the development of CHD was also identified in this population group.

  17. Ethnicity and attitudes to deceased kidney donation: a survey in Barbados and comparison with Black Caribbean people in the United Kingdom

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    Seed Paul T

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black minority ethnic groups in the UK have relatively low rates of deceased donation and report a higher prevalence of beliefs that are regarded as barriers to donation. However there is little data from migrants' countries of origin. This paper examines community attitudes to deceased kidney donation in Barbados and compares the findings with a survey conducted in a disadvantaged multi-ethnic area of south London. Methods Questionnaires were administered at four public health centres in Barbados and at three private general practices. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to compare attitudinal responses with a prior survey of 328 Caribbean and 808 White respondents in south London. Results Questionnaires were completed by 327 respondents in Barbados (93% response; 42% men and 58% women, with a mean age of 40.4 years (SD 12.6. The main religious groups were Anglican (29% and Pentecostal (24%. Educational levels ranged from 18% not completing 5th form to 12% with university education. Attitudes to the notion of organ donation were favourable, with 73% willing to donate their kidneys after their death and only 5% definitely against this. Most preferred an opt-in system of donation. Responses to nine attitudinal questions identified 18% as having no concerns and 9% as having 4 or more concerns. The highest level of concern (43% was for lack of confidence that medical teams would try as hard to save the life of a person who has agreed to donate organs. There was no significant association between age, gender, education or religion and attitudinal barriers, but greater knowledge of donation had some positive effect on attitudes. Comparison of attitudes to donation in south London and Barbados (adjusting for gender, age, level of education, employment status indicated that a significantly higher proportion of the south London Caribbean respondents identified attitudinal barriers to donation. Conclusions Community attitudes in

  18. Estrogen alone and health outcomes in black women by African ancestry: a secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebowski, Rowan T; Barrington, Wendy; Aragaki, Aaron K; Manson, JoAnn E; Sarto, Gloria; OʼSullivan, Mary J; Wu, Daniel; Cauley, Jane A; Qi, Lihong; Wallace, Robert L; Prentice, Ross L

    2017-02-01

    In postmenopausal black women in the Women's Health Initiative randomized trial, estrogen alone reduced breast cancers but its comprehensive influence on health outcomes in black women is unknown. Therefore, we examined this issue in the Women's Health Initiative overall and by African ancestry. A total of 1,616 black women with prior hysterectomy, including 1,061 with percent African ancestry determination, at 40 US centers were randomly assigned to conjugated equine estrogen (0.625 mg/d) or placebo for 7.2 years' (median) intervention with 13 years' cumulative follow-up. Coronary heart disease (CHD) and breast cancer were primary efficacy and safety outcomes, respectively. A global index also included stroke, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, pulmonary embolism, and death. Black women in the estrogen-alone group compared with black women in the placebo group had fewer breast cancers (17 vs 40, hazard ratio [HR] 0.47, 95% CI 0.26-0.82). In women with more than 80% African ancestry, breast cancer HR was lower (0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.86, trend P = 0.04 for ancestry effect). Most other outcomes including CHD, stroke, hip fracture, and the global index were null with estrogen use in black women; a global index effect was more favorable in younger black women (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.43-0.98). In black postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy, estrogen alone significantly reduced breast cancer incidence with no adverse influence on CHD, venous thromboembolism, or all-cause mortality. Favorable estrogen-alone global index effects in younger black women warrant further study.

  19. Metabolic syndrome in Black people of the African diaspora: the paradox of current classification, definition and criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Trudy; Schuster, Dara; Osei, Kwame

    2009-01-01

    According to the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, African Americans have a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome than do Whites. Recent reports in Blacks in other regions have confirmed these observations, but the rates vary. This lower rate of metabolic syndrome in Blacks can be partly ascribed to the lower prevalent rates of some major components of metabolic syndrome, namely serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Blacks. This is in contrast with the higher prevalence of obesity (waist circumference) and blood pressure that meet National Cholesterol Education Program criteria in Blacks. Despite these seemingly favorable lipids and lipoprotein profiles, Blacks continue to have higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity, even in the absence of diabetes, than do Whites. Insulin resistance is more prevalent in Blacks than in Whites. However, the relationships among insulin resistance and CVD risk factors such as hypertension, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides are weak in contrast with Whites. The paradox of more favorable lipid profile and conversely the higher rates of unfavorable blood pressure in Blacks calls into question the validity of the current criteria for metabolic syndrome in Blacks. Thus, it can be argued that each of the components of the metabolic syndrome carry different CVD risk factors in Blacks. The greater CVD mortality and morbidity in Blacks appear to be multifactorial. With the emerging epidemic of noncommunicable diseases, chronic kidney diseases due to both diabetes and hypertension have emerged as major CVD risks that are associated with increasing mortality and morbidity in Blacks. We need to emphasize specific components of metabolic syndrome, specifically blood pressure and chronic kidney disease, that carry higher CVD risk with associated greater morbidity and mortality for primary prevention of CVD and type 2 diabetes in Blacks. To this end, we

  20. The Link between Mastery and Depression among Black Adolescents; Ethnic and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-05-12

    Although the link between depression and lower levels of mastery is well established, limited information exists on ethnic and gender differences in the association between the two. The current study investigated ethnic, gender, and ethnic by gender differences in the link between major depressive disorder (MDD) and low mastery in the United States. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent supplement (NSAL-A), 2003-2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African-American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17). Demographic factors, socioeconomic status (family income), mastery (sense of control over life), and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between mastery and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity and gender. In the pooled sample, a higher sense of mastery was associated with a lower risk of MDD. This association, however, was significant for African Americans but not Caribbean Blacks. Similarly, among African American males and females, higher mastery was associated with lower risk of MDD. Such association could not be found for Caribbean Black males or females. Findings indicate ethnic rather than gender differences in the association between depression and mastery among Black youth. Further research is needed to understand how cultural values and life experiences may alter the link between depression and mastery among ethnically diverse Black youth.

  1. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

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    Williams Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA.

  2. The Association of Endothelin-1 with Markers of Arterial Stiffness in Black South African Women: The SABPA Study

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    Christine Susara du Plooy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited data exist regarding endothelin-1 (ET-1, a vasoactive contributor in vascular tone, in a population subjected to early vascular deterioration. We compared ET-1 levels and explored its association with markers of arterial stiffness in black and white South Africans. Methodology. This cross-sectional substudy included 195 black (men: n=99; women: n=95 and 197 white (men: n=99; women: n=98 South Africans. Serum ET-1 levels were measured as well as markers of arterial stiffness (blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and arterial compliance. ET-1 levels were higher in black men and white women compared to their counterparts after adjusting for C-reactive protein. In both single and partial (adjusting for body mass index and gamma glutamyl transferase regression analyses ET-1 correlated with age, interleukin-6, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and pulse wave velocity in black women. In multivariate regression analyses the independent association of ET-1 with systolic blood pressure (Adj. R2=0.13; β=0.28, p<0.01 and pulse pressure (Adj. R2=0.11; β=0.27, p<0.01 was confirmed in black women only. ET-1 additionally associated with interleukin-6 in black women (p<0.01. Conclusion. Our result suggests that ET-1 and its link with subclinical arteriosclerosis are potentially driven by low-grade inflammation as depicted by the association with interleukin-6 in the black female cohort.

  3. Do Cultural Attitudes Matter? The Role of Cultural Orientation on Academic Self-Concept among Black/African College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendi S.; Chung, Y. Barry

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between academic self-concept and noncognitive variables (i.e., Africentric cultural orientation, academic class level, gender, and involvement in culturally relevant school and community activities) among Black/African college students. Results indicated that Africentric cultural orientation and academic…

  4. Pan-Africanism, the Mystique of World Black Unity: An Afro-American Scholar's Sojourn in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Robert

    1977-01-01

    The author explores the ideology of Pan-Africanism in terms of the social and economic position of Blacks in the United States. He briefly describes his visit to Africa (Senegal and Nigeria) and the effects that this experience has had in forming his political viewpoint. (MC)

  5. 'Just talking about it opens your heart': meaning-making among Black African migrants and refugees living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Mark; Brown, Derek Brian; Fouché, Christa; Poindexter, Cynthia C; Scott, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Meaning-making has emerged as a core construct in addressing trauma, loss or crisis. This paper considers how diasporic Black Africans living with HIV, who come from interdependent collectivist cultures where the norm is one of implicit support, extend their meaning-making strategies when faced with a diagnosis of HIV. In this qualitative study, 13 Black African migrants and refugees living with HIV in New Zealand were interviewed and the transcripts analysed. After their diagnosis, participants began a journey of reconceptualising situational and global meaning. They extended their meaning-making strategies to include a community of like others to gain explicit support. Caregivers in host countries must understand the meaning-making processes of HIV-positive Black African migrants in order to provide competent services that lead to good social and health outcomes. All healthcare and social services workers should regularly assess Black African migrants and refugees living with HIV for positive social connectedness as well as medication adherence and more specific health concerns.

  6. Obesity Status and Body Satisfaction: Are There Differences between African American College Females at Black and White Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C. S.; Bonds, Jennifer R.

    2006-01-01

    The goals of this project were to 1) assess obesity status and body satisfaction among African American college students, and 2) to compare differences in these variables between students at a predominantly white university (PWU) and a historically black college and university (HBCU). Four hundred and two undergraduate females completed a…

  7. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  8. Trichomonosis in free-ranging Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and African collared dove hybrids (Streptopelia risoria) in the Caribbean and description of ITS-1 region genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmelmayr, R; Stefani, L M; Thrall, M A; Landers, K; Revan, F; Miller, A; Beckstead, R; Gerhold, R

    2012-06-01

    We report the first documented occurrence of an outbreak of trichomonosis in a free-ranging small flock of Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and African collared dove hybrids (Streptopelia risoria) in the Caribbean. In total, 18 birds were examined, including six African collared dove x Eurasian collared dove hybrids and 12 Eurasian collared doves. The affected age class consisted of adults. Sex distribution was equal. With a flock population size of 200 birds, mortality rate for the outbreak was estimated at 15-20%. Living birds were weak, showing evidence of mucus-stained beaks and open-mouth breathing. Caseous ulcerative yellow lesions were restricted to the upper gastrointestinal tract, with the exception of one bird, which had lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract and in the liver. Ninety-four percent (17/18) of the affected birds had multiple extensive lesions. Lesions located on the roof of the oral cavity extended in 33% (6/18) into the orbit and in 11% (2/18) into the braincase. Using wet-mount microscopy, we were able to confirm Trichomonas gallinae in 22% (4/18) of the sampled animals. Fifteen samples submitted for PCR analysis tested positive. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) revealed two distinct genotypes of Trichomonas. One sequence had 100% identity to the prototype T. gallinae isolate, whereas the other sequences had 98-100% identity to recently described Trichomonas-like parabasalid. On the basis of gross and histologic findings, along with the sequence results from the columbids in this report, it is likely that this Trichomonas-like parabasalid is pathogenic.

  9. An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica in a captive colony of African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a zoonotic gram-negative pathogen that causes mesenteric lymphadenitis, terminal ileitis, acute gastroenteritis, and septicemia in domestic animals and primates. In 2012, 46 captive African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) died during an outbreak of acutely fat...

  10. Afro-Caribbean International Students' Ethnic Identity Development: Fluidity, Intersectionality, Agency, and Performativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Zaria T.; Mendoza, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Afro-Caribbean international students (ACIS) often become engrossed in a complex racial and ethnic dialogue wherein they are thrust into homogenous categorizations forcing them to negotiate their Afro-Caribbean self with other identities perceived by others such as African American, first- and second-generation Caribbean immigrant, African, and…

  11. Cloacolithiasis and intestinal lymphosarcoma in an African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L; Field, Cara L; Stedman, Nancy L; MacLean, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    A 13-yr-old male African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented thrice over 7 mo with gastrointestinal obstruction secondary to cloacolithiasis. Clinical signs consistently resolved with cloacolith removal and supportive care. However, 10 mo after initial presentation, it presented with similar signs, plus significant weight loss. No cloacolith was found, and it subsequently died. Significant gross findings included bilateral cecal masses, colonic perforation, and marked secondary coelomitis, multifocal tan to pale hepatic nodules, and pale kidneys with miliary white foci. Histopathologic diagnoses were intestinal lymphosarcoma with hepatic and renal metastases, secondary intestinal rupture, and subacute severe bacterial coelomitis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first full report of either cloacolithiasis or lymphosarcoma in a penguin.

  12. Studies of the chronological course of wisdom tooth eruption in a Black African population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olze, Andreas; van Niekerk, Piet; Schulz, Ronald; Schmeling, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    The importance of forensic age estimation in living subjects has grown over the last few years. In dental age estimation, tooth eruption is a parameter of developmental morphology that can be analyzed by either clinical examination or by evaluation of dental X-rays. In the present study, we determined the stage of wisdom tooth eruption in 410 male and 106 female Black South African subjects of known age (12-26 years) based on radiological evidence from 516 conventional orthopantomograms. Four eruption stages were determined (no emergence, alveolar emergence, gingival emergence, complete emergence). Statistical scores were determined for the individual stages separately for both sexes. The data presented here can be utilized for forensic estimation of the minimum and most probable ages of investigated persons.

  13. [Early resumption of food intake after cesarean section in black African women: liquid versus solid food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoumenou, E; Denakpo, J L; Assouto, P; Tchaou, B; Lokossou, T; Chobli, M

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of early resumption of solid versus liquid food intake after emergency cesarean section in black African women, in terms of gastrointestinal complications and maternal satisfaction. A total of 120 patients were randomly distributed into two groups of 60 each. In group L, liquid food intake in the form of sweetened citronella drink was allowed at will starting 6 six hours after the procedure but no solid food was allowed for 24 hours. In group S, normal solid food intake was resumed six hours after the procedure. The two study groups were not significantly different with regard to age, medical history, ASA class, obstetrical status, indications for cesarean section, anesthetic protocol, mean procedural duration, and postoperative analgesia. Study variables included tolerance of food intake, gastro-intestinal complications, time necessary to resume full activity and patient satisfaction. Overall, 6% of patients reported complications involving nausea, vomiting and bloating. There was no statistical difference between the two groups. Normal intestinal transit resumed earlier in group S but the difference was not significant. Auscultation of the abdomen at 16 hours after the procedure demonstrated presence of peristalsis in 59 patients in group S and 51 in group L (p = 0.008). The maternal satisfaction rate was 92% in group S and 43% in group L (p food in case of future cesarean. Early solid food intake after cesarean in black African women is as well tolerated as early liquid feeding. Resumption of solid food intake allows earlier rehabilitation and improves patient satisfaction.

  14. Blood pressure tracking in urban black South African children: birth to twenty cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagura, Juliana; Adair, Linda S; Musa, Mogi G; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2015-07-15

    Hypertension is an emerging public health problem in South Africa. Recent evidence from longitudinal studies has shown that hypertension in adulthood can be traced back to childhood. There is scarcity of longitudinal data on paediatric blood pressure (BP) particularly in African populations. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of hypertension and evaluate BP tracking between childhood and late adolescence among South African black Children. This study utilized data from the Birth to Twenty cohort, which is comprised of children born in Soweto, Johannesburg in 1990 (N = 3273, 78.5% black). Data on BP and anthropometry were collected at six follow-up periods between ages 5 and 18 years. Blood pressure status was classified using the Fourth report on National High Blood pressure program in children and adolescents. Pearson correlation coefficients and relative risk ratios (RR) were used to describe tracking of BP between childhood and late adolescence. The overall point prevalence ranged from 9.2 to 16.4% for prehypertension and 8.4 to 24.4% for hypertension. Tracking coefficients ranged from 0.20 to 0.57 for SBP and 0.17- 0.51 for DBP in both sexes over the 14 years of measurement. The proportion of children who maintained an elevated BP status between childhood, adolescence and age 18 years ranged from 36.1% at age 5 years to 56.3% at age 13 years. Risk of having elevated BP at 18 years ranged from; RR: 1.60 (95 % CI: 1.29-2.00) at 5 years to RR: 2.71 (95 % CI: 2.32-3.17) at 14 years of age. This study reports high prevalence of elevated BP which tracks from early childhood into late adolescence. These findings emphasize the importance of early identification of children at risk of developing elevated BP and related risk factors plus timely intervention to prevent hypertension in adulthood.

  15. Internalized racism, body fat distribution, and abnormal fasting glucose among African-Caribbean women in Dominica, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Cleve; Tull, Eugene S; Chambers, Earle C; Taylor, Jerome

    2002-03-01

    The current study examined the relationship of internalized racism to glucose intolerance in a population of Afro-Caribbean women aged 18 to 55. Also of interest was whether this relationship would be differentially influenced by the type of body fat distribution or confounded by the level of hostility. A total of 244 women were selected from a systematic sample of households on the island of Dominica, West Indies. Demographic data together with information on internalized racism were collected by questionnaire. Anthropometric information and fasting blood glucose were also measured. Women with high levels of internalized racism exhibited an increased risk of elevated fasting glucose compared to those with low levels of internalized racism (odds ratio (OR) = 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-5.5). There was no difference in mean body mass index (BMI) by level of internalized racism. However those with high internalized racism had a significantly larger waist circumference after adjusting for age, education, hostility, and elevated fasting glucose status. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, education, hostility, and either weight or BMI, internalized racism remained independently associated with elevated fasting glucose. However, once waist circumference was included in the model, the relationship of internalized racism to elevated fasting glucose was not statistically significant. This study demonstrates a significant relationship between internalized racism and abnormal levels of fasting glucose which may be mediated through abdominal fat. The exact nature of the relationship of internalized racism to glucose intolerance may be an important area of future study.

  16. Discospondylitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in an African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Cara L; Beaufrère, Hugues; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Rademacher, Nathalie; MacLean, Robert

    2012-12-01

    A 22-year-old female African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus), housed indoors with other African and rockhopper penguins, was presented acutely with lethargy, ataxia, and hind limb weakness after a molt. The penguin would assume a hunched position and, when resting, sat on its hocks or lay on its keel. Physical and neurologic examination revealed hind limb paraparesis, proprioceptive deficits, and tiptoe walking. Results of a complete blood cell count and biochemical analysis revealed mild heterophilic leukocytosis, anemia, mild hypoalbuminemia, hypokalemia, and hyperuricemia. Results of whole-body radiographs and coelioscopy were unremarkable. Two computed tomographies of the spine at a 3-month interval revealed a lesion at the mobile thoracic vertebra proximal to the synsacrum with associated spinal cord compression. The penguin was treated with itraconazole, doxycycline, and meloxicam, and it initially improved with return to near normal gait and behavior. However, 5 months after the onset of clinical signs, the penguin was euthanatized after a relapse with worsening of the neurologic signs. Postmortem and histopathologic examination revealed focal granulomatous discospondylitis at the penultimate mobile thoracic vertebra, with intralesional bacteria from which Staphylococcus aureus was cultured.

  17. Of African Descent? Blackness and the Concept of Origins in Cultural Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Abel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the DNA ancestry-testing industry—based largely in the United States—has experienced a huge upsurge in popularity, thanks partly to rapidly developing technologies and the falling prices of products. Meanwhile, the notion of “genetic genealogy” has been strongly endorsed by popular television documentary shows in the US, particularly vis-à-vis African-American roots-seekers—for whom these products are offered as a means to discover one’s ancestral “ethnic” origins, thereby “reversing the Middle Passage.” Yet personalized DNA ancestry tests have not had the same reception among people of African descent in other societies that were historically affected by slavery. This paper outlines and contextualizes these divergent responses by examining and comparing the cultural and political meanings that are attached to notions of origin, as well as the way that Blackness has been defined and articulated, in three different settings: the United States, France and Brazil.

  18. The Frequency of Cytochrome P450 2E1 Polymorphisms in Black South Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Chelule

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1 gene reportedly modify the metabolic activity of CYP2E1 enzyme, and have been associated with increased susceptibility to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oesophagus in high prevalence areas such as China. To assess the frequency of these polymorphisms in Black South Africans, a population with a high incidence of oesophageal SCC, this study examined genomic DNA from 331 subjects for restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 (RsaI and PstI digestion. The frequency of the CYP2E1 c1/c1 and c1/c3 genotypes was 95% and 5% respectively. The frequency of the CYP2E1 allele distribution was found to be markedly different between Chinese and South African populations; hence it is important to place racial differences into consideration when proposing allelic variants as genetic markers for cancer.

  19. Expression of schizophrenia in black Xhosa-speaking and white English-speaking South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, K; Robertson, B A; Ben-Arie, O; Hodson, P; Tredoux, C

    1998-07-01

    To investigate whether schizophrenia manifests itself differently in Xhosa-speaking South Africans, compared with English-speaking white South Africans. A comparative study of the presentation of schizophrenia in two groups of patients. A sample of 63 patients (43 Xhosa-speaking and 20 English-speaking) admitted to a large psychiatric hospital for the first time with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The Present State Examination (PSE) was used to confirm the clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia. The Relatives' Rating of Symptoms and Social Behaviour (KAS-R) was used to obtain information on the behavioural and emotional expression of schizophrenia. A significantly higher prevalence of aggressive and disruptive behaviour was reported by relatives of Xhosa-speaking patients with schizophrenia of recent onset compared with English-speaking patients. The PSE elicited significantly more delusions of persecution, sexual and fantastic delusions, self-neglect and irritability in the Xhosa-speaking patients. Significant differences in the presentation of schizophrenia, but not its core symptoms, were identified in Xhosa-speaking blacks and English-speaking whites.

  20. Unpacking the downside of sustentasie on African theology and theologians: a need for contextual black theology as a liberative ingredient for the black Reformed churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Baloyi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The practice of the black church being a follower of the leading white church is a continuous process in the Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid Afrika (or Reformed Churches in South Africa in English. This makes it difficult to contextualise Reformed Theology to address African challenges and problems. There are many reasons for the subordination of the black theologians, but for the sake of this article, I identified the issue of sustentasie1 as one of the causes. The lack of financial independence implies that the black church2 cannot determine their destiny by revising, transforming and even Africanising their theology to fit into their context and challenges, since that would mean they are biting the hand that feeds them. This article will argue that it is time that Africans stop being a theological duplication of the Western theologies and that they take responsibility to ensure that their theology addresses the immediate situation of the Black Reformed people (contextualised with or without the support from the white church.

  1. Personality and well-being in Black and White South African emerging adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Alewyn Nel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background In the last ten years, the South African Personality Inventory (SAPI has been developed as an indigenous measurement of personality for the multi-cultural environment of South Africa. The aim of the SAPI is to assess personality in an unbiased and equivalent way. For the purpose of this study, we used an 82-item version of the SAPI which measures nine factors (Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Facilitating, Integrity, Intellect, Openness, Relationship Harmony and Soft-heartedness. Participants and procedure A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the SAPI, the General Health Questionnaire and the Brief Multidimensional Student Life Satisfaction Scale. A purposive sample was drawn from Black and White emerging adults (N = 990. We assessed the relationship between personality aspects and well-being across groups in a multiple group structural equation model (SEM using the SPSS and AMOS programs. Results Black emerging adults showed evidence of more individualistic-inclined personality features, while the White emerging adults seem to demonstrate more collectivistic features. In terms of health, the White emerging adults experience more life satisfaction than their Black counterparts. Conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, facilitating and openness predict well-being among emerging adults. Conclusions This study contributes to expanding the nomological network of the SAPI, and it enhances knowledge pertaining to the link between personality and well-being of emerging adults in South Africa. Understanding which factors contribute to poor mental health and lack of life satisfaction may lead to innovation programmes for emerging adults to assist them in dealing with negative health outcomes possibly associated with living in multicultural contexts.

  2. Refusal of HIV testing among black Africans attending sexual health clinics in England, 2014: a review of surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hamish; Dabrera, Gavin; Furegato, Martina; Yin, Zheng; Nardone, Anthony; Hughes, Gwenda

    2017-05-01

    Black Africans are one of the key risk groups for HIV in the UK and, among those living with HIV, an estimated 16% and 12% of black African heterosexual men and women, respectively, are undiagnosed and at risk of unknowingly transmitting HIV to their sex partners. Increased HIV test uptake is needed to address this, but there is limited information on how frequently HIV test refusal occurs among those attending sexual health clinics (SHCs). We identified factors associated with HIV test refusal among black African SHC attendees. Data on all SHC attendances in England in 2014 were obtained from the genitourinary medicine clinic activity dataset, the mandatory surveillance system for STIs. Analyses were restricted to attendances by HIV-negative black Africans, and bivariate and multivariable associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and HIV test refusal were assessed. All associations were determined using generalised estimating equations logistic regression, and adjusted ORs (aORs) with 95% CIs are reported. Black Africans made 80 743 attendances at SHCs in 2014 and refused an HIV test on 9021 (11.2%) occasions. HIV test refusal was significantly more likely in women (aOR (95% CI) 1.54 (1.46 to 1.62) vs heterosexual men), and those living in the most deprived areas (1.44 (1.24 to 1.67)), diagnosed with a new STI (1.26 (1.18 to 1.34)) or living in London (1.06 (1.01 to 1.12)). Test refusal was significantly less likely with increasing age (0.99 (0.99 to 0.99)) and men who have sex with men (0.52 (0.43 to 0.63) vs heterosexual men), and in those tested for HIV in the past year (0.85 (0.81 to 0.89)), born outside the UK (0.73 (0.69 to 0.77)) or those attending following partner notification (0.11 (0.03 to 0.38)). Targeted interventions are needed to improve HIV testing uptake and reduce undiagnosed HIV infection among black Africans attending SHCs, especially heterosexuals residing in deprived areas. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  3. Azadirachta indica reduces black sigatoka in east african highland banana by direct antimicrobial effects against Mycosphaerella fijiensis without inducing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumakech, Alfred; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Collinge, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Black Sigatoka is a major disease of East African highland cooking bananas in Uganda. Aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Capsicum annuum have shown the potential to reduce Black Sigatoka in banana plantlets. The mechanisms by which plant extracts confer protection...... expression was compared in susceptible (cv. Musakala, genomic group AAA-EA) and resistant (cv. Kayinja, genomic group ABB) banana cultivars. Additionally, Musakala treated with A indica extract at 1 day before inoculation (DBI) was tested for induction of defence-related genes at 0, 10 and 20 days after...

  4. Dietary Modifications, Weight Loss, and Changes in Metabolic Markers Affect Global DNA Methylation in Hispanic, African American, and Afro-Caribbean Breast Cancer Survivors12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette; Zhang, Wenfei; McDonald, Jasmine A; Tsai, Wei Yann; Valdovinos, Cristina; Falci, Laura; Wang, Qiao; Crew, Katherine D; Santella, Regina M; Hershman, Dawn L; Greenlee, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lower levels of global DNA methylation in tissue and blood have been associated with increased cancer risk. Conversely, cross-sectional analyses of healthier lifestyle patterns have been associated with higher levels of global DNA methylation. Objective: In this trial, we explored the associations between changes in lifestyle modifications (diet, weight loss), metabolic markers, and global epigenetic biomarkers in white blood cells. Methods: Study participants were Hispanic, African American, and Afro-Caribbean overweight and sedentary female breast cancer survivors (n = 24) who participated in a larger randomized, crossover, pilot study of a 6-mo weight loss intervention and who had available blood specimens. Anthropometric measures, a food-frequency questionnaire, and peripheral blood were collected at baseline, 6 mo, and 12 mo. Plasma samples were analyzed for metabolic markers (insulin, glucose). We measured DNA methylation of long interspersed nucleotide element 1 (LINE-1) and satellite 2 by pyrosequencing and MethyLight, respectively, and global DNA methylation by the luminometric methylation assay (LUMA). Results: DNA methylation of LINE-1 was statistically significantly elevated at 6 mo [75.5% vs. 78.5% (P DNA methylation (β = 0.19, P = 0.001) and LUMA DNA methylation levels (β = 0.24, P = 0.02), respectively. Similarly, 12-mo changes in dietary measures such as vegetable (β = 0.009, P = 0.048), protein (β = 0.04, P = 0.001), and total caloric (β = 0.05, P = 0.01) intake were positively associated with changes in LUMA DNA methylation, as was intake of fruit positively associated with changes in LINE-1 DNA methylation (β = 0.004, P = 0.02). Conclusions: Our hypothesis-generating results suggest that lifestyle modifications may be associated with changes in global DNA methylation detectable at 6 and 12 mo. These biomarkers may be useful intermediate biomarkers to use in future intervention trials. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  5. "It's for us -newcomers, LGBTQ persons, and HIV-positive persons. You feel free to be": a qualitative study exploring social support group participation among African and Caribbean lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender newcomers and refugees in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Lee-Foon, Nakia; Ryan, Shannon; Ramsay, Hope

    2016-07-02

    Stigma and discrimination harm the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people and contribute to migration from contexts of sexual persecution and criminalization. Yet LGBT newcomers and refugees often face marginalization and struggles meeting the social determinants of health (SDOH) following immigration to countries such as Canada. Social isolation is a key social determinant of health that may play a significant role in shaping health disparities among LGBT newcomers and refugees. Social support may moderate the effect of stressors on mental health, reduce social isolation, and build social networks. Scant research, however, has examined social support groups targeting LGBT newcomers and refugees. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore experiences of social support group participation among LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees in an urban Canadian city. We conducted 3 focus groups with a venue-based sample of LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees (n = 29) who attended social support groups at an ethno-specific AIDS Service Organization. Focus groups followed a semi-structured interview guide and were analyzed using narrative thematic techniques. Participant narratives highlighted immigration stressors, social isolation, mental health issues, and challenges meeting the SDOH. Findings reveal multi-level benefits of social support group participation at intrapersonal (self-acceptance, improved mental health), interpersonal (reduced isolation, friendships), community (reciprocity, reduced stigma and discrimination), and structural (housing, employment, immigration, health care) levels. Findings suggest that social support groups tailored for LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees can address social isolation, community resilience, and enhance resource access. Health care providers can provide support groups, culturally and LGBT competent health services, and resource access to promote LGBT

  6. The European Union’s and Poland’s trade relations with the African, Caribbean and Pacific group of states (ACP in the agri-food products in the years 2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine key trends in the European Union’s trade policy towards the African, Caribbean and Pacific group of states (ACP, as well as to identify main changes in the commodity structure of the European (and Polish agri-food trade. The results showed that for the ACP countries, the European market is perceived as a source of food industry while the EU (including Poland imports from ACP region coffee, tea and cocoa. This confirms a certain specialization of production and trade in ACP countries. Both the European Union and Poland, are net importers of agri- food products from the ACP region.

  7. Additive Effects of Anxiety and Depression on Body Mass Index among Blacks: Role of Ethnicity and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2014-04-01

    Most studies on mental health associates of obesity have focused on depression and less is known about the role of anxiety in obesity. This study compared the additive effects of General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) on Body Mass Index (BMI) across sub-populations of Blacks based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001 - 2003. The participants consisted of 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 Caribbean Blacks. Twelve-month MDD and GAD were determined using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Levels of BMI were categorized based on being equal to or larger than 25, 30, 35, and 40 kg/m(2). We fitted linear regression models specific for our groups, which were defined based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Additionally, age, education, marital status, employment, and region were controlled. Among Caribbean Black men and African American women, lifetime GAD, but not MDD, was associated with high BMI. Among Caribbean Black women, lifetime MDD, but not GAD, was associated with high BMI. Intersection of ethnicity and gender may determine how anxiety and depression are associated with BMI among Blacks. Sub-populations of Blacks (e.g. based on ethnicity and gender) may have specific mental health determinants or consequences of obesity. Future research should investigate how and why the additive effects of anxiety and depression on obesity vary across ethnic and gender groups of Blacks.

  8. Black Adoption Placement and Research Center at 25: placing African-American children in permanent homes (1983-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Black Adoption Research and Placement Center is a nonprofit organization delivering culturally specific adoption and foster care services. The organization developed as a response to concerns in the African-American community about the high numbers of African-American children entering and not exiting the public foster care system. The organization has undergone significant transformations over its 25-year history in relation to social, political, and economic changes that have altered the ways that the agency finances and delivers services. The history of Black Adoption Research and Placement Center presents an organization that has weathered many challenges because of its strong leadership, its committed governing body, its external relationships, and its internal operations.

  9. Prevalence of neuropathic pain among Black African patients suffering from common low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Dieu-Donné; Nonguierma, Victor; Napon, Christian; Kabré, Abel; Tiéno, Hervé; Guira, Oumar; Kaboré, Jean; Drabo, Joseph Y

    2012-07-01

    To study the prevalence and semiotic characteristics of neuropathic pain in the common low back pain to the Black African subject. This was a prospective cross-sectional survey carried on from April 1 2009 to August 31 2009 in consultations of rheumatology, neurology, and neurosurgery at the University Hospital Yalgado Ouédraogo in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). All patients with a low back pain or a common lomboradiculalgie were included. DN4 questionnaire was used for the diagnosis of neuropathic pain. One hundred and seven patients have been recruited during the study period; Sixty-four (59.80%) were female (sex ratio M/F: 0.67). The average age was 34.11 ± 13.46 years of age with extremes of 20 and 79. The average duration of disease was 48.53 months with extremes of 10 days and 50 years. Eighty-seven patients (81.31%) had a disease duration, which was 3 months longer. Sixty-six patients (61.70%) had a predominant lomboradiculalgie; among the remaining 41, low back pain predominated. Average intensity of pain was 62.81 ± 22.43 (on a scale of 100). A sign of Lasèque was present in the 41 (38.30%) patients. Fifty-three (49.5%) patients had a neuropathic pain. The prevalence of neuropathy signs according to the DN4 questionnaire was as follows: burning (n = 37; 34.58%), painful cold (n = 13; 12.15%), electric shocks (n = 31; 38.97%), pins and needles (n = 34; 31.77%), tingling (n = 35; 32.71%), numbness (n = 45; 42.05%), itching (n = 18; 16.82%), touch hypoesthesia (n = 35; 32.71%), pinprick (n = 33; 30.84%), and tactile allodynia (n = 21; 19.62%). Among the studied variables, the presence of a radiculalgy was statistically associated with neuropathic pain. The lomboradiculalgie of the Black African subject associates neuropathic pain observed in half of patients. Treatment must therefore always take account of this association. However, further studies are needed before any definitive conclusion.

  10. The Social Environmental Elements of Resilience among Vulnerable African American/Black Men Who Have Sex with Men

    OpenAIRE

    Buttram, Mance E.

    2015-01-01

    Resilience theory has been suggested as a strong framework for research on HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM). Among this population, literature indicates that African American/Black MSM are particularly vulnerable to health and social disparities associated with HIV transmission risk. Conceptualizing resilience as a part of one’s social environment, this qualitative study investigates the specific elements of resilience, and the associated contexts and relationships, among ...

  11. The role of diet in cardiovascular disease in black South Africans : both sides of the story / Robin Claire Dolman

    OpenAIRE

    Dolman, Robin Claire

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is becoming one of the leading causes of death in middle and low income countries, with ischaemic heart disease specifically being predicted to be the 4th and 5th causes respectively. The numerous risk factors for the development of CVD have been extensively researched; however, the same wealth of data is not available for the black South African population as there is for Caucasians. Although the same risk factors that are present in Caucasians have b...

  12. 'My child did not like using sun protection': practices and perceptions of child sun protection among rural black African mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunene, Zamantimande; Albers, Patricia N; Lucas, Robyn M; Banwell, Cathy; Mathee, Angela; Wright, Caradee Y

    2017-08-25

    Photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, but immune suppression, photoaging and cataracts occur among individuals with all skin types. To assess practices and acceptability to Black African mothers of sun protection equipment for their children living in a rural area, participants were recruited at the time of their child's 18-month vaccinations. Mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on usual sun behaviours and sun protection practices. They were then provided with sun protection equipment and advice. A follow-up questionnaire was administered two weeks later. Mothers reported that during the week prior to the baseline questionnaire, children spent on average less than 1 hour of time outdoors (most often spent in the shade). Most mothers (97%) liked the sun protection equipment. However, many (78 of 86) reported that their child did not like any of the sun protection equipment and two-thirds stated that the sun protection equipment was not easy to use. Among Black Africans in rural northern South Africa, we found a mismatch between parental preferences and child acceptance for using sun protection when outdoors. A better understanding of the health risks of incidental excess sun exposure and potential benefits of sun protection is required among Black Africans.

  13. Age estimation based on Willems method versus new country-specific method in South African black children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Guy; Lee, Sang-Seob; Uys, Andre; Bernitz, Herman; Cadenas de Llano-Pérula, Maria; Fieuws, Steffen; Thevissen, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    The aims of our study were to develop new maturity scores for dental age estimation in South African black children according to the Willems method, which was developed based on Belgian Caucasian (BC) reference data (Willems et al. J Forensic Sci 46(4):893-895, 2001), and to compare age prediction performance of both methods. A total of 986 panoramic radiographs of healthy South African black (SAB) children (493 males and 493 females) in the age range of 4.14 to 14.99 years (mean age 10.06 years) were selected for obtaining developmental staging scores (according to Demirjian et al. Hum Biol 45(2):211-227, 1973). Willems BC methodology was applied to develop new country-specific maturity scores (Willems SAB). Age prediction performance of Willems BC and Willems SAB was compared. On average, Willems BC renders acceptable results with an overestimation of chronological age of 0.06 years (SD 0.88 years) in SAB children. Compared to Willems SAB, the overall mean absolute error was slightly higher with Willems BC (0.62 and 0.68 years, respectively), but this was not significant in males. Also, the root mean squared error was marginally higher in Willems BC. The new age prediction method developed in South African black children was found to be better compared to Willems BC, although the difference seems to be small and clinically not relevant, especially in males.

  14. The Social Environmental Elements of Resilience among Vulnerable African American/Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, Mance E

    Resilience theory has been suggested as a strong framework for research on HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM). Among this population, literature indicates that African American/Black MSM are particularly vulnerable to health and social disparities associated with HIV transmission risk. Conceptualizing resilience as a part of one's social environment, this qualitative study investigates the specific elements of resilience, and the associated contexts and relationships, among a sample of 21 substance-using African American/Black MSM. Data indicate that: 1) elements contributing to resilience are multiple and co-occurring, including inner strengths, social relationships, diversity of experience, religion/spirituality, altruism, and creativity; 2) as an element of resilience, social support was experienced differently among men who did and did not have supportive relationships with other gay and bisexual men, which has implications for social service provision and intervention approaches; and 3) diversity of experiences and relationships is an important influencing factor on expressions of resilience. Social services or interventions that facilitate the development of these elements of resilience will likely be especially beneficial for vulnerable African American/Black MSM.

  15. Black racial identity as a mediator of cardiovascular reactivity to racism in African-American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Vernessa R; Cobb, Renia E B; Hopkins, Reginald; Smith, Christine E

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the ability of Black racial identity to mediate cardiovascular reactivity to racism. The Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity (MMRI), which consists of four dimensions, salience, centrality, regard, and ideology was used to define Black racial identity. The subdimensions of ideology are oppressed minority, nationalist, humanist, and assimilationist racial identities. Heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, and blood pressure were measured in 72 African-American men as they viewed a videotaped scene depicting racial profiling and a neutral scene. We hypothesized that individuals with high levels of Black-oriented identities (centrality, public regard, private regard, oppressed minority, and nationalist) would be less stressed by the racial profiling scenes than those low in these identities. In addition, we predicted that individuals with high levels of non-Black-oriented identities (assimilationist, humanist) would be more stressed by the racial profiling scenes than those with low levels of these identities. Private regard, humanist, and assimilationist racial identities were significantly associated with increased cardiovascular reactivity to the scenes. Specifically, private regard significantly predicted cardiac output and stroke volume responses to the scenes. In addition, assimilationist and humanist racial identities were associated with greater blood output and faster heart rates in response to the scenes. Although private regard (Black oriented) and assimilationist and humanist (non- Black oriented) racial identities showed elevated cardiovascular reactivity to the scenes, the underlying mechanisms of these associations may differ.

  16. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Female African American Undergraduate Engineering Students at a Predominantly White and an Historically Black Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frillman, Sharron Ann

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in…

  17. Pyridine nucleotide metabolism in the erythrocyte of South African blacks with primary hepatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Y.K.; Hankes, L.V.; Wessels, L.M.

    1982-01-01

    Erthrocytes from African blacks with primary hepatoma were incubated with physiological amounts of nicotinamide-/sup 14/C (NM-/sup 14/C) and it was found that these erythrocytes could synthesize NAD from NM. After 3-hr incubation with NM-/sup 14/C, a large percentage of the /sup 14/C was found in NMN, nicotinamide riboside (NR) and NAD, but was undetectable in nicotinic acid nucleotides (NAMN and NAAD). This suggested that the NAD synthesized from NM was not through the Preiss-Handler pathway. After 6-plus hr incubation, the /sup 14/C found in NAMN and NAAD suggested the NAD synthesized was being broken down and reutilized through Preiss-Handler pathway for synthesis of NAD. This reutilization pathway was confirmed by incubating nicotinic acid-/sup 14/C (NA-/sup 14/C) with erythrocytes. Apparently the metabolites from the breakdown of NAD were deaminated. The metabolism of NM-/sup 14/C was slower than NA-/sup 14/C. However, after 24 hr incubation with NM-/sup 14/C, 72.26% of /sup 14/C was found in NAD. A high percentage of /sup 14/C in NR at the initial incubation and a later drop suggested that NR was another intermediate in the pathway.

  18. Satisfaction with personal and environmental quality of life: a black South African informal settlement perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Westaway

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted with 487 black adult residents of a South African informal settlement (151 men and 336 women to ascertain satisfaction with personal and environmental quality of life. It was hypothesised that: (1 health status and life satisfaction were the underlying dimensions of personal quality of life (PQOL; (2 health status and life satisfaction were more strongly associated with PQOL than environmental quality of life (EQOL; and (3 life satisfaction and satisfaction with EQOL were positively related. Seventy per cent of respondents rated their health as good or better. Age, schooling and employment status were significantly related to health, life satisfaction and PQOL. Reliability (internal consistency coefficients were 0.77 for the 5-item life satisfaction scale and 0.82 for the 12-item EQOL measure. Factor analysis showed that safety and security was the major unmet service need. Health status and life satisfaction explained 38% of the variance in PQOL; health status explained only 4% of the variance in EQOL. Life satisfaction was significantly related to EQOL (r = 0.16, p = 0.01. The results provided support for all three hypotheses. It was concluded that the life satisfaction and EQOL measures had good reliability; there was a definite need for a safety and security programme; and good health was a more important predictor of PQOL than EQOL.

  19. Factors affecting behaviours that address HIV risk among Black and White South Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peltzer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction among 150 Black and 150 White South Africans chosen by systematic random sampling. Main outcome measures included sexual behaviour and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of condom use, behavioural norms, attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS health beliefs, and HIV risk behaviour. Bivariate analysis gave positive significant relations among being single, age, HIV/ AIDS perceived severity, HIV/AIDS prevention barriers and HIV risk behaviour. Further, bivariate analysis gave negative significant relations among age at onset of puberty, age at first vaginal intercourse, correct condom use knowledge, subjective norms, intention to use condoms and HIV risk behaviour. Regression analysis indicated that for subjective norm to use condoms, less intention for condom use, less condom use knowledge and younger age of first vaginal intercourse were predictive for HIV/AIDS risk behaviour. HIV prevention intervention programmes should include the identified factors and cultural diversity.

  20. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatoli, Relebohile; Bila, Nontembeko; Ross, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Partly because of the legacy of apartheid, and despite being a constitutional democracy, South Africa continues to be a deeply divided society, particularly along racial lines. In this context many people with albinism do not fit neatly into black and white categories and are likely to experience social discrimination and marginalisation. Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and 'othering'. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof.

  1. Black South African children's understanding of health and illness: colds, chicken pox, broken arms and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K; Promtussananon, S

    2003-09-01

    To examine the understanding of both health and illness (colds, broken arms, chicken pox, AIDS) in the same black South African children The sample included 60 children (30 were 5-year-olds and 30 were 9-year-olds) selected by simple random sampling from a rural primary school. They were interviewed, using a semi-structured interview schedule, about their understanding of health issues and their exposure to learning about health or sickness. Differences across age in children's expressed understanding of health and illnesses were found. The 9-year-olds were more likely to give objective signs of chicken pox and AIDS than the 5-year-olds. They also knew more about objective symptoms of colds, chicken pox and AIDS, and were more likely to mention non-observable signs of colds and broken arms. Although there were no differences between the two age groups regarding 'knowing' strategies for avoiding illnesses, the older children had a more accurate knowledge about preventive measures than the younger children. The understanding of AIDS followed the same developmental sequence reported for children's understanding of general physical illness. The results have implications for the creation of developmentally appropriate and effective health and AIDS education curricula for primary and elementary grades.

  2. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatoli, Relebohile; Bila, Nontembeko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Partly because of the legacy of apartheid, and despite being a constitutional democracy, South Africa continues to be a deeply divided society, particularly along racial lines. In this context many people with albinism do not fit neatly into black and white categories and are likely to experience social discrimination and marginalisation. Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and ‘othering’. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof. PMID:28730019

  3. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relebohile Phatoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partly because of the legacy of apartheid, and despite being a constitutional democracy, South Africa continues to be a deeply divided society, particularly along racial lines. In this context many people with albinism do not fit neatly into black and white categories and are likely to experience social discrimination and marginalisation.Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and ‘othering’. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof.

  4. Addressing the problem of obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk in black South African women - time for action!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Julia H

    2017-01-01

    The PhD thesis of Gradidge, entitled 'Factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in an ageing cohort of black women living in Soweto, Johannesburg (Study of Women in and Entering Endocrine Transition [SWEET])', attempts to understand the determinants of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a population of urban-dwelling black South African women. A conceptual framework is presented, which positions obesity as the central risk factor for MetS, and includes the possible influence of socioeconomic status, lifestyle behaviours and body size perceptions, as key determinants of obesity. This commentary focuses on the two main findings of Gradidge's thesis, namely, (i) physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and (ii) body composition and adiponectin, as risk factors for obesity and MetS in black South African women. Despite a high prevalence of obesity (48%), Gradidge showed that 75% of the women taking part in the study were meeting WHO guidelines on physical activity. This commentary suggests that the relationship between physical activity and cardiometabolic risk may be confounded by socioeconomic status. Alternatively, the intensity, and not necessarily the volume, of activity, as well as high rates of sedentary behaviour are posited as important determinants of obesity and MetS in black South African women. Accordingly, this commentary questions the veracity of the WHO guidelines on physical activity in developing countries, where most women meet the guidelines but have very poor cardiorespiratory fitness, are obese and are at high risk of MetS. Gradidge also showed that the most consistent and significant correlate of MetS in this cohort of middle-aged women was low serum levels of adiponectin. This commentary highlights various lifestyle interventions that have been shown to increase adiponectin levels. Finally, the importance of immediate action to address the problem of obesity and MetS is emphasised.

  5. Cancer incidence profile in sub-Saharan African-born blacks in the United States: Similarities and differences with US-born non-Hispanic blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhanie, Genet A; Fedewa, Stacey A; Adissu, Hibret; DeSantis, Carol E; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2017-08-15

    Sub-Saharan African-born blacks (ABs) are one of the fastest-growing populations in the United States. However, to the authors' knowledge, data regarding the cancer burden in this group are lacking, which would inform targeted cancer prevention and control. The authors calculated age-standardized proportional incidence ratios (PIRs) comparing the frequency of the top 15 cancers in ABs with that of US-born non-Hispanic blacks (USBs) by sex and region of birth using incidence data for 2000 through 2012 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER 17) program. Compared with USBs, ABs had significantly higher PIRs of infection-related cancers (liver, stomach, and Kaposi sarcoma), blood cancers (leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma), prostate cancer, and thyroid cancers (females only). For example, the PIR for Kaposi sarcoma in AB versus USB women was 12.06 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 5.23-18.90). In contrast, ABs had lower PIRs for smoking-related and colorectal cancers (eg, for lung cancer among men, the PIR was 0.30 [95% CI, 0.27-0.34]). Furthermore, cancer occurrence in ABs versus USBs varied by region of birth. For example, the higher PIRs for liver cancer noted among male ABs (PIR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.79-5.35) and for thyroid cancer in female ABs (PIR, 3.03; 95% CI, 2.03-4.02) were confined to Eastern African-born blacks, whereas the higher PIR for prostate cancer (PIR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.78, 2.02) was confined to Western African-born blacks. The cancer incidence profile of ABs is different from that of USBs and varies by region of birth, suggesting differences in environmental, cultural, social, and genetic factors. The findings of the current study could stimulate etiologic research and help to inform targeted interventions. Cancer 2017;123:3116-24. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. Differing patterns of brain structural abnormalities between black and white patients with their first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, K D

    2010-07-01

    African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether there are differences in the prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in white and black first-episode psychosis patients.

  7. "I Worship Black Gods": Formation of an African American Lucumi Religious Subjectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Lisanne

    2015-01-01

    In 1959, Christopher Oliana and Walter “Serge” King took a historic journey to pre-revolutionary Cuba that would change the religious trajectory of numerous African Americans, particularly in New York City. They became the first African American initiates into the Afro-Cuban Lucumi orisha tradition opening the way for generations of African Americans who would comprehensively transform their way of life. This dissertation examines the inter-diasporic exchanges between African Americans and th...

  8. Rural black women's agency within intimate partnerships amid the South African HIV epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thege, Britta

    2009-12-01

    In a particular way, the HIV pandemic exposes the prevailing gender relations and the definitions of male and female gender roles, both in intimate relationships and in the wider society. The HIV pandemic reveals the contradictions between women's legal rights and the persistence of women's cultural and sexual subordination. It reflects the impact of poverty, gender roles, culture and religion. Although HIV and AIDS cuts across class, South African rural black women's infection risk seems particularly high since they suffer notably from subordination and socio-economic hardships. Negotiating safer sex in marriage or intimate partnerships is very difficult for them in view of the traditional spaces in which they find themselves, where patriarchal structures are pervasive. Based on data obtained from a case study, this paper examines socio-cultural constraints to rural women's sexual agency in a patriarchal social order. These rules are based on a patriarchal code of respect, which is still pervasive in many aspects of the community under investigation. In terms of gender relations, the patriarchal code of respect is founded on an assumed 'naturalisation' of the two genders and the natural superiority of the male over the female. In terms of sexuality it is translated into male sex-right. The fear of HIV infection is omnipresent and results in unmarried women engaging in the negotiation of their wants and needs. Owing to the patriarchal code of respect, married women are perceived as having no choice in negotiating safer sex and are forced to put their lives at risk in contracting HIV. Unmarried women have greater although not endless choices in this regard. Although the study participants unexpectedly displayed a rather negative perception of other women, in order to strengthen women in their proximal environment the HIV epidemic may be seen as a vehicle for building solidarity among women in the community.

  9. Loneliness and substance use: the influence of gender among HIV+ Black/African American adults 50+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannes, Zachary L; Burrell, Larry E; Bryant, Vaughn E; Dunne, Eugene M; Hearn, Lauren E; Whitehead, Nicole Ennis

    2016-01-01

    Estimates suggest 30% of adults report the highest levels of loneliness. Though men are more likely than women to use illicit substances and engage in heavy drinking, the prevalence of substance use in women is growing and their escalation toward dependence occurs more rapidly. Loneliness and substance use have greater relevance within the HIV+ population, with higher rates of substance misuse than the general population. However, the association between loneliness and substance use within HIV+ individuals remains understudied. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that there would be an association between loneliness and substance moderated by gender in HIV+ older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and January 2014. Study participants included 96 HIV-positive Black/African American men and women recruited through the University of Florida Center for HIV/AIDS Research, Education and Service (UF CARES) in Jacksonville, Florida. Participants completed an interviewer-administered assessment examining mental and behavioral health. Pearson correlations examined associations between loneliness and substance use. Binary logistic regression analyses stratified by gender examined the association between loneliness and substance use while controlling for covariates. Among women, loneliness was associated with illicit drug use, AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.23-9.21, p = .018 and heavy drinking, AOR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.07-5.71, p = .033. No significant associations were found between loneliness and illicit drug use, and heavy drinking in men. Substance use among women in this population may be linked to loneliness. Interventions should be gender specific. Further research into this association is necessary as it will likely have important clinical implications for this population.

  10. [Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in a black African carceral area: Experience of Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloba, Y; Ouattara, K; Soumaré, D; Kanouté, T; Berthé, G; Baya, B; Konaté, B; Keita, M; Diarra, B; Cissé, A; Camara, F S; Diallo, S

    2018-02-01

    Prison constitutes a risk factor for the emergence of multi-drug resistance of tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of this work was to study MDR-TB in a black African carceral center. Prospective study from January to December 2016 at the central house of arrest for men, Bamako. The study population was composed of tuberculous detainee. The suspicion of MDR-TB was done in any tuberculosis case remained positive in the second month of first-line treatment or in contact with an MDR-TB case. Among 1622 detainee, 21 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were notified (1.29%), with an annual incidence of 13 cases/1000 detainee, they were 16 cases of SP-PTB (microscopy smear positive tuberculosis) and five cases of microscopy smear negative tuberculosis. The mean age was 28±7 years, extremes of 18 and 46 years. A negative association was found between the notion of smoking and occupation in the occurrence of tuberculosis (OR=0.036, [95% CI: 0.03-0.04], P=0.03. Among the 21 tuberculosis cases notified, one confirmed case of MDR-TB was detected (4.7%). In the first semester of 2016 cohort, we notified a cure rate of 87.5% (7/8 SP-PTB cases), and the confirmed MDR-TB case on treatment (21-month regimen), evolution enameled of pulmonary and hearing sequelae at seven months treatment. It was the first case of MDR-TB detected in a prison in Mali. Late diagnosis, evolution is enameled of sequelae and side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences in MetS marker prevalence between black African and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple linear regression analysis, independent of covariates, showed that the albumin:creatinine ratio is explained only by glucose in Africans. Conclusion: African women, as a group, present with few MetS risk factors, and glucose is associated with renal function risk in Africans. Keywords: MetS, metabolic syndrome, ...

  12. Motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans: a qualitative analysis of focus group data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthivhi, T. N.; Olmsted, M. G.; Park, H.; Sha, M.; Raju, V.; Mokoena, T.; Bloch, E. M.; Murphy, E. L.; Reddy, R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background and Objectives South Africa has a markedly skewed representation where the majority of blood (62%) is presently collected from an ethnically White minority. This study seeks to identify culturally specific factors affecting motivation of donors in South Africa. Materials and Methods We performed a qualitative study to evaluate motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans. A total of 13 focus groups, comprising a total of 97 Black South Africans, stratified by age and geographic location were conducted. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using a coding framework by Bednall & Bove. Results Participants made 463 unique comments about motivators focusing primarily on promotional communications (28%), incentives (20%) and prosocial motivation (16%). Participants made 376 comments about deterrents which focused primarily on fear (41%), negative attitudes (14%) and lack of knowledge (10%). Conclusion Although prosocial motivation (altruism) was the most frequently mentioned individual motivator, promotional communication elicited more overall comments by participants. As reported by many authors, fear and lack of awareness were strong deterrents, but scepticism engendered by perceived racial discrimination in blood collection were unique to the South African environment. PMID:26104809

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ABCB1 (MDR1) gene and distinct haplotype profile in a West Black African population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allabi, Aurel C; Horsmans, Yves; Issaoui, Bouchra; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2005-04-01

    The ABCB1 (MDR1) multidrug transporter plays a key role in determining drug bioavailability. Differences in drug response exist among different ethnic groups. However, until now, no haplotype data are available in a Black African population. Exons 2, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14, 17, 21, 26, and the surrounding intronic regions were sequenced using genomic DNA from 111 Beninese subjects to examine 19 intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Linkage disequilibrium analysis and haplotypes were generated using the expectation-maximization algorithm. We identified 12 SNPs, 3 of which were novel: IVS9-57delA, IVS9-8T>A, 1662G>C (exon 14). The most common SNP was IVS14+38A>G. At the MRD1 locus, 53 haplotypes were inferred from the SNP data sets. The 4 SNPs, IVS6+139C>T, IVS9-44A>G, 1236C>T, and 3435C>T, showed strong linkage disequilibrium with each other, confirming the block concept. Moreover, our findings suggest that ABCB1 exonic SNPs are less frequently observed in our population than in African-Americans. Our data are compatible with a close evolutionary relationship in Black Africans from Benin.

  14. High Risk of Depression in High-Income African American Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2017-08-25

    Despite the well-established literature on the protective effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on physical and mental health, there are a few reports on poor mental health of blacks with high SES. Using a national sample, this study investigated the association between household income and risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in black youth based on ethnicity, gender, and their intersection. One thousand one hundred seventeen black adolescents (810 African Americans and 360 Caribbean blacks) were included in the current study. Household income was the main predictor. MDD (lifetime, 12-month, and 30-day) was the main outcome. Age was the covariate. Ethnicity and gender were the focal moderators. Logistic regressions were used for data analysis. In the pooled sample, household income was not associated with risk of MDD (lifetime, 12-month, or 30-day). We found significant interactions between income and gender on lifetime and 12-month MDD, suggesting a stronger protective effect of income on MDD for females than males. We also found significant interaction between income and ethnicity on 30-day MDD, suggesting stronger protective effect of income against MDD for Caribbean blacks than African Americans. In African American males, high household income was associated with higher risk of lifetime, 12-month, and 30-day MDD. For Caribbean black males and females, high household income was associated with lower odds of 30-day MDD. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender influence how socioeconomic resources such as income are associated with MDD risk among black youth. Higher household income may be associated with higher risk of MDD for African American males.

  15. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  16. Assessing the association of nativity and acculturation to fast food restaurant use and its relationship to metabolic risk factors among US blacks with Afro-Caribbean ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Eugene S; Taylor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This investigation among Afro-Caribbean adults in the United States Virgin Islands (USVI) examined whether acculturation and preference for dining out accounted for variation by nativity in the frequency of fast food restaurant use, and assessed the relationship of fast food restaurant use to body weight and insulin resistance. A randomly selected sample of 679 Afro-Caribbean adults (aged ≥ 20 years), including 436 who were foreign-born and 243 who were native-born, were recruited on the island of St. Croix, USVI. Information on demographic characteristics, level of acculturation and dietary practices were obtained from participants by questionnaire. Fasting blood samples, which were measured for glucose and insulin, and anthropometric measurements were also collected from participants. Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Relationships between variables were assessed with analysis of variance and logistic regression analyses. In bivariate analyses, birth in the USVI, younger age, being single, greater preference for dining out and higher levels of education and acculturation were significantly (P fast food restaurant use. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, birth in the USVI, younger age and preference for dining out were independently associated with frequent (≥ 2 days/week) fast food restaurant use. The mean level of HOMA insulin resistance among participants increased significantly with more frequent use of fast food restaurants. Among Afro-Caribbean adults in the USVI, fast food restaurant use is positively associated with insulin resistance and varies by nativity, but acculturation does not account for this variation.

  17. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Additive Effects of Socio-economics, Psychiatric Disorders, and Subjective Religiosity on Suicidal Ideation among Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the additive effects of socio-economic factors, number of psychiatric disorders, and religiosity on suicidal ideation among Blacks, based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. With a cross-sectional design, data came from the National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003, which included 3570 African-American and 1621 Caribbean Black adults. Socio-demographics, perceived religiosity, number of lifetime psychiatric disorders and lifetime suicidal ideation were measured. Logistic regressions were fitted specific to groups based on the intersection of gender and ethnicity, while socioeconomics, number of life time psychiatric disorders, and subjective religiosity were independent variables, and lifetime serious suicidal ideation was the dependent variable. Irrespective of ethnicity and gender, number of lifetime psychiatric disorders was a risk factor for lifetime suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] ranging from 2.4 for Caribbean Black women to 6.0 for Caribbean Black men). Only among African-American men (OR = 0.8, 95% confidence interval = 0.7-0.9), perceived religiosity had a residual protective effect against suicidal ideation above and beyond number of lifetime psychiatric disorders. The direction of the effect of education on suicidal ideating also varied based on the group. Residual protective effect of subjective religiosity in the presence of psychiatric disorders on suicidal ideation among Blacks depends on ethnicity and gender. African-American men with multiple psychiatric disorders and low religiosity are at very high risk for suicidal ideation.

  18. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Additive Effects of Socio-economics, Psychiatric Disorders, and Subjective Religiosity on Suicidal Ideation among Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the additive effects of socio-economic factors, number of psychiatric disorders, and religiosity on suicidal ideation among Blacks, based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Methods: With a cross-sectional design, data came from the National Survey of American Life, 2001–2003, which included 3570 African-American and 1621 Caribbean Black adults. Socio-demographics, perceived religiosity, number of lifetime psychiatric disorders and lifetime suicidal ideation were measured. Logistic regressions were fitted specific to groups based on the intersection of gender and ethnicity, while socioeconomics, number of life time psychiatric disorders, and subjective religiosity were independent variables, and lifetime serious suicidal ideation was the dependent variable. Results: Irrespective of ethnicity and gender, number of lifetime psychiatric disorders was a risk factor for lifetime suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] ranging from 2.4 for Caribbean Black women to 6.0 for Caribbean Black men). Only among African-American men (OR = 0.8, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–0.9), perceived religiosity had a residual protective effect against suicidal ideation above and beyond number of lifetime psychiatric disorders. The direction of the effect of education on suicidal ideating also varied based on the group. Conclusions: Residual protective effect of subjective religiosity in the presence of psychiatric disorders on suicidal ideation among Blacks depends on ethnicity and gender. African-American men with multiple psychiatric disorders and low religiosity are at very high risk for suicidal ideation. PMID:26180624

  19. Some factors in condom use amongst first-year Nigerian University students and black and white South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Oladimeji, Yetunde

    2004-04-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 213 sexually active first-year Nigerian university students and 150 Black and 150 White South African adults. Nigerian students gave 90% correct answers on 6 of the 10 items of a measure of condom knowledge (M = 6.1). The most common mistakes with respect to condom use were ignorance about putting a condom on just before ejaculation (37%), the use of an oil-based lubricant with a condom (29%), and when to take off a condom (28%). For the South African sample utility of the Health Belief Model and Theory of Reasoned Action for HIV prevention could be confirmed by intention to use condoms. Race and preventive benefits were predictive for current condom use. Findings have relevant implications for developing culturally diverse HIV intervention programs if confirmed with larger diverse groups.

  20. Science self-efficacy of African Americans enrolled in freshman level physical science courses in two historically black institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihoda, Belinda Ann

    2011-12-01

    Science education must be a priority for citizens to function and be productive in a global, technological society. African Americans receive fewer science degrees in proportion to the Caucasian population. The primary purposes of this study were to determine the difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American nonscience majors, the difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American science majors, the relationship between science self-efficacy and course grade, the relationship between gender and science self-efficacy score, and the relationship between science self-efficacy score and course withdrawal. This study utilized a Likert survey instrument. All participants were enrolled in freshman level courses in the physical sciences at a historically black institution: a college or university. Participants completed the pretest survey within two weeks after the 12th class day of the semester. Initially, 458 participants completed the pretest survey. The posttest was administered within two weeks before the final exam. Only 245 participants completed the posttest survey. Results indicate that there is a difference in science self-efficacy of science majors and nonscience majors. There was no significant difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American science majors and nonscience majors. There was no significant relationship between science self-efficacy and course grade, gender and science self-efficacy score, and course withdrawal and science self-efficacy score.

  1. Population Care Management and Team-Based Approach to Reduce Racial Disparities among African Americans/Blacks with Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, Rowena E; Chen, Agnes; Handler, Joel; Platt, Sharon Takeda; Gould, Bernice

    2016-01-01

    At Kaiser Permanente, national Equitable Care Health Outcomes (ECHO) Reports with a baseline measurement of 16 Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set measures stratified by race and ethnicity showed a disparity of 8.1 percentage points in blood pressure (BP) control rates between African- American/black (black) and white members. The aims of this study were to describe a population care management team-based approach to improve BP control for large populations and to explain how a culturally tailored, patient-centered approach can address this racial disparity. These strategies were implemented through: 1) physician-led educational programs on treatment intensification, medication adherence, and consistent use of clinical practice guidelines; 2) building strong care teams by defining individual roles and responsibilities in hypertension management; 3) redesign of the care delivery system to expand access; and 4) programs on culturally tailored communication tools and self-management. At a physician practice level where 65% of patients with hypertension were black, BP control rates (team-based approach closed the gap for blacks with hypertension.

  2. The Brain of the Black (Diceros bicornis and White (Ceratotherium simum African Rhinoceroses: Morphology and Volumetrics from Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhil Bhagwandin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and volumetrics of the understudied brains of two iconic large terrestrial African mammals: the black (Diceros bicornis and white (Ceratotherium simum rhinoceroses are described. The black rhinoceros is typically solitary whereas the white rhinoceros is social, and both are members of the Perissodactyl order. Here, we provide descriptions of the surface of the brain of each rhinoceros. For both species, we use magnetic resonance images (MRI to develop a description of the internal anatomy of the rhinoceros brain and to calculate the volume of the amygdala, cerebellum, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and ventricular system as well as to determine the gyrencephalic index. The morphology of both black and white rhinoceros brains is very similar to each other, although certain minor differences, seemingly related to diet, were noted, and both brains evince the general anatomy of the mammalian brain. The rhinoceros brains display no obvious neuroanatomical specializations in comparison to other mammals previously studied. In addition, the volumetric analyses indicate that the size of the various regions of the rhinoceros brain measured, as well as the extent of gyrification, are what would be predicted for a mammal with their brain mass when compared allometrically to previously published data. We conclude that the brains of the black and white rhinoceros exhibit a typically mammalian organization at a superficial level, but histological studies may reveal specializations of interest in relation to rhinoceros behavior.

  3. The Brain of the Black (Diceros bicornis) and White (Ceratotherium simum) African Rhinoceroses: Morphology and Volumetrics from Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwandin, Adhil; Haagensen, Mark; Manger, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    The morphology and volumetrics of the understudied brains of two iconic large terrestrial African mammals: the black ( Diceros bicornis ) and white ( Ceratotherium simum ) rhinoceroses are described. The black rhinoceros is typically solitary whereas the white rhinoceros is social, and both are members of the Perissodactyl order. Here, we provide descriptions of the surface of the brain of each rhinoceros. For both species, we use magnetic resonance images (MRI) to develop a description of the internal anatomy of the rhinoceros brain and to calculate the volume of the amygdala, cerebellum, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and ventricular system as well as to determine the gyrencephalic index. The morphology of both black and white rhinoceros brains is very similar to each other, although certain minor differences, seemingly related to diet, were noted, and both brains evince the general anatomy of the mammalian brain. The rhinoceros brains display no obvious neuroanatomical specializations in comparison to other mammals previously studied. In addition, the volumetric analyses indicate that the size of the various regions of the rhinoceros brain measured, as well as the extent of gyrification, are what would be predicted for a mammal with their brain mass when compared allometrically to previously published data. We conclude that the brains of the black and white rhinoceros exhibit a typically mammalian organization at a superficial level, but histological studies may reveal specializations of interest in relation to rhinoceros behavior.

  4. Caribbean contributions to contemporary psychiatric psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, F W; Hutchinson, G

    2012-07-01

    The intellectual exploration of phenomenological and psychiatric discovery that has flowered in the Caribbean in the period of political independence from British colonization is a reflection of the scholarship that has emerged from the academic nurturance by The University of the West Indies. Burgeoning migration of Caribbean people to England in the twentieth century has resulted in high reported rates of psychosis for this migrant population. Caribbean research into this condition has revealed that there exist hostile racial and environmental challenges in Britain that have had a profound pathological effect on the mental health of African Caribbean migrants. These findings have significantly shifted the pendulum of understanding of the aetiology of this condition from a genetic to a biopsychosocial position. Research has also revealed longstanding psychopathological effects of slavery and colonialism in the Caribbean that have had significantly negative long term effects on the mental health of many within the Caribbean population. Current research suggests that there is a need to nurture protective strategies to enhance resilience and social capital, which would ensure the wellness and continued survival of Caribbean people in spite of the many challenges they face.

  5. African American College Students at Predominantly White and Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to more fully understand the socialization experiences of African American college students, and to investigate and/or uncover new information that can offer meaningful insight for transforming institutional barriers that interfere with the success of African American college students. The existing literature…

  6. IsiNgqumo – Introducing a gay Black South African linguistic variety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to sociolinguistic and queer terminology. This paper presents a first discussion of isiNgqumo as a linguistic variety thus far ignored in South African research and argues that from a sociological perspective it constitutes a 'language' for most of its speakers. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 2008, ...

  7. Reconsidering the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African proverb about the locust’s head in the context of poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndikho Mtshiselwa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While South Africa attained liberation from the apartheid rule in 1994, the legacy of colonialism and apartheid – in the form of poverty and economic inequality – continues to haunt black South Africans. The aim of this article is to make a case for the equitable sharing of South Africa’s mineral wealth amongst all its citizens with the view to alleviate poverty. Firstly, this article provides a reflection on the Freedom Charter and suggests that the values of the Charter, for instance, the sharing of resources and wealth, are relevant in South Africa today. Secondly, it is argued in the present article that the preferential option for the poor which is upheld in the black theology of liberation is equally relevant in post-apartheid South Africa where many black South Africans remain poor. Thirdly, this article argues that the African proverb, Bana ba motho ba ngwathelana hlogo ya tšie [The siblings share the head of a locust], also echoes the idea of equitable sharing of resources with a view to alleviate poverty. Lastly, the author submits that the idea of equitable sharing of resources and wealth that is echoed in the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African wise saying support the equitable redistribution of the mineral wealth to the benefit of all South Africans.

  8. Socio-Demographic and Lifestyle Factors Predict 5-Year Changes in Adiposity among a Group of Black South African Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; Sotunde, Olusola F; Ukegbu, Patricia O; Myburgh, P Hermanus; Wright, Hattie H; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Moss, Sarah J; Kruger, Iolanthé M; Kruger, H Salomé

    2017-09-20

    The rising prevalence of obesity and excessive adiposity are global public health concerns. Understanding determinants of changes in adiposity over time is critical for informing effective evidence-based prevention or treatment. However, limited information is available to achieve this objective. Cultural, demographic, environmental, and behavioral factors including socio-economic status (SES) likely account for obesity development. To this end, we related these variables to anthropometric measures in 1058 black adult Tswana-speaking South Africans who were HIV negative in a prospective study over five years. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference increased in both sexes, whereas triceps skinfold thickness remained the same. Over the five years, women moved to higher BMI categories and more were diagnosed with central obesity. Age correlated negatively, whereas SES, physical activity, energy, and fat intake correlated positively with adiposity markers in women. In men, SES, marital status, physical activity, and being urban predicted increases in adiposity. For women, SES and urbanicity increased, whereas menopause and smoking decreased adiposity. Among men, smokers had less change in BMI than those that never smoked over five years. Our findings suggest that interventions, focusing on the urban living, the married and those with the highest SES-the high-risk groups identified herein-are of primary importance to contain morbidity and premature mortality due to obesity in black South Africans.

  9. Socio-Demographic and Lifestyle Factors Predict 5-Year Changes in Adiposity among a Group of Black South African Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelie Nienaber-Rousseau

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity and excessive adiposity are global public health concerns. Understanding determinants of changes in adiposity over time is critical for informing effective evidence-based prevention or treatment. However, limited information is available to achieve this objective. Cultural, demographic, environmental, and behavioral factors including socio-economic status (SES likely account for obesity development. To this end, we related these variables to anthropometric measures in 1058 black adult Tswana-speaking South Africans who were HIV negative in a prospective study over five years. Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference increased in both sexes, whereas triceps skinfold thickness remained the same. Over the five years, women moved to higher BMI categories and more were diagnosed with central obesity. Age correlated negatively, whereas SES, physical activity, energy, and fat intake correlated positively with adiposity markers in women. In men, SES, marital status, physical activity, and being urban predicted increases in adiposity. For women, SES and urbanicity increased, whereas menopause and smoking decreased adiposity. Among men, smokers had less change in BMI than those that never smoked over five years. Our findings suggest that interventions, focusing on the urban living, the married and those with the highest SES—the high-risk groups identified herein—are of primary importance to contain morbidity and premature mortality due to obesity in black South Africans.

  10. Children’s Environmental Health Disparities: Black and African American Children and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    The burdens of asthma fall more heavily on Black children: in 2001-2005, Black children, regardless of family income, reported higher rates of asthma. It is twice as likely to hospitalize and four times as likely to kill them, compared to White children.

  11. Socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural determinants of obesity in black South African women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklesfield, Lisa K; Lambert, Estelle V; Hume, David John; Chantler, Sarah; Pienaar, Paula R; Dickie, Kasha; Goedecke, Julia H; Puoane, Thandi

    2013-01-01

    Summary Abstract South Africa (SA) is undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition and has the highest prevalence of obesity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with black women being the most affected (obesity prevalence 31.8%). Although genetic factors are important, socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural factors, as well as the influence of socio-economic status, more likely explain the high prevalence of obesity in black SA women. This review examines these determinants in black SA women, and compares them to their white counterparts, black SA men, and where appropriate, to women from SSA. Specifically this review focuses on environmental factors influencing obesity, the influence of urbanisation, as well as the interaction with socio-cultural and socio-economic factors. In addition, the role of maternal and early life factors and cultural aspects relating to body image are discussed. This information can be used to guide public health interventions aimed at reducing obesity in black SA women. PMID:24051701

  12. Carcinogenic nitrosamines in traditional beer as the cause of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Viness; Isaacson, Charles; Mothobi, Pride; Hale, Martin; Tomar, Lomas Kumar; Tyagi, Charu; Altini, Mario; Choonara, Yahya Essop; Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-09-21

    Before the 1930s, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oesophagus was almost unknown among black South Africans. From the 1930s the annual frequency rose. A dietary cause was sought, the staple diet of black people having changed from sorghum to maize (corn), with traditional beer being brewed from maize. Carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in traditional beer were suggested as a cause of SCC of the oesophagus, with Fusarium moniliforme, a corn saprophyte, thought to play a role. To confirm the presence of N-nitrosamines in traditional beer and demonstrate a mechanism for the oncogenesis of oesophageal carcinoma. Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography was conducted for the identification of nitrosamines in traditional beer samples, and molecular docking studies were employed to predict the affinity between N-nitrosamines and the S100A2 protein. Carcinogenic N-nitrosamines were identified in all six samples of traditional beer examined (N=18 analyses), and docking studies confirmed a high affinity of the nitrosamine N-nitrosopyrrolidone with the S100A2 protein. This may result in the altered expression of the S100A2 protein, leading to tumour progression and prognosis. It is suggested that carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in traditional beer are a major factor in the causation of SCC of the oesophagus in black South Africans. N-nitrosamines have been shown to produce cancer experimentally, but there has not been conclusive epidemiological evidence that N-nitrosamines are carcinogenic to humans. This study is the first to demonstrate the potential link between N-nitrosamines and a human tumour.

  13. Postprandial lipaemia, metabolic syndrome and LDL particle size in urbanised South African blacks with and without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntyintyane, L M; Panz, V R; Raal, F J; Gill, G V

    2008-02-01

    Postprandial lipaemia, characterised by a rise in triglycerides (TG) after eating, is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Small, dense, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles are implicated in atherogenesis. Little is known about postprandial lipaemia or small, dense LDL particles in urbanised black South Africans. Assess postprandial lipaemia in black CAD patients with and without MetS and measure their fasting and postprandial lipid profiles and LDL particles. Anthropometric data, biochemical variables and LDL particles were measured in 40 patients and 20 control subjects. Twenty three patients met International Diabetes Federation criteria for MetS and were subdivided according to fasting TG concentration either or = 1.7 mmol/l. Postprandial lipaemia was assessed by an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) and area under the curve (AUC). CAD patients with and without MetS had similar fasting lipid profiles, postprandial responses during OFTT and AUCs. MetS patients with fasting TG > or = 1.7 mmol/l had greater postprandial responses (P Postprandial lipaemia was common in black CAD patients, including patients with MetS. Fasting TG concentration was the strongest determinant. Small, dense LDL particles were highly associated with CAD.

  14. Young, black, and connected: Facebook usage among African American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E Bun

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the extent and intensity of Facebook usage among African American college students and investigates their reasons for using Facebook. As expected, 98% of students in the survey had a Facebook account, and a large number of Facebook “friends.” Younger users spent significantly more time on Facebook than older ones. Our findings underscore the importance of cultural influence for African American online users. Displaying photographs and personal interests on Facebook signals racial identity among African American college students. Personality traits, such as self-esteem, trust in people, satisfaction with university life, and racial identity, were not significant predictors on the time spent on Facebook.

  15. Malignant melanoma of the skin in black South Africans: A 15-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 48, No 3 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Black American Men: Moderated-Mediation Effects of Ethnicity and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H; N'cho, Hammad S; Green, Carlton E; Jernigan, Maryam M; Helms, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is related to depression and poor self-esteem among Black men. Poorer self-esteem is also associated with depression. However, there is limited research identifying how self-esteem may mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms for disparate ethnic groups of Black men. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic groups as a moderator of the mediating effects of self-esteem on the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of African American (n = 1201) and Afro-Caribbean American men (n = 545) in the National Survey of American Life. Due to cultural socialization differences, we hypothesized that self-esteem would mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms only for African American men, but not Afro-Caribbean American men. Moderated-mediation regression analyses indicated that the conditional indirect effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms through self-esteem were significant for African American men, but not for Afro-Caribbean men. Our results highlight important ethnic differences among Black men.

  17. Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms among Black American Men: Moderated-Mediation Effects of Ethnicity and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    N’cho, Hammad S.; Green, Carlton E.; Jernigan, Maryam M.; Helms, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is related to depression and poor self-esteem among Black men. Poorer self-esteem is also associated with depression. However, there is limited research identifying how self-esteem may mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms for disparate ethnic groups of Black men. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic groups as a moderator of the mediating effects of self-esteem on the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of African American (n=1,201) and Afro-Caribbean American men (n=545) in the National Survey of American Life. Due to cultural socialization differences, we hypothesized that self-esteem would mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms only for African American men, but not Afro-Caribbean American men. Moderated-mediation regression analyses indicated that the conditional indirect effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms through self-esteem were significant for African American men, but not for Afro-Caribbean men. Our results highlight important ethnic differences among Black men. PMID:27337623

  18. Stirred cell ultrafiltration of lignin from black liquor generated from South African kraft mills

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration of lignin from black liquor was carried out in a stirred batch cell using polyethersulfone membranes. Parameters such as operating pressure, feed concentration, stirring rate and membrane cut-off size were varied and their effects...

  19. Race in Buenos Aires. Blackness, Whiteness, African Descent and Mestizaje in the White Capital City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Geler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how racial categories are produced and reproduced in Buenos Aires, Argentina’s capital city. To that end, this article focuses on the cases of three Afro-Descendant porteña women who, by local standards, are fully white.  Their stories allow us to explore, in the first place, how categories like “black,” “white,” and others are used and understood in contemporary Buenos Aires and how this use configures two types of blackness (racial blackness and popular blackness and makes it impossible for mestizaje categories to emerge. In the second place, through these cases this article explores how people’s very “ways of being” are at play, creating a discriminatory and oppressive environment for people at risk of not matching the ideal of the nation.

  20. Racial and Ethnic-Related Stressors as Predictors of Perceived Stress and Academic Performance for African American Students at a Historically Black College and University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether racial and ethnic-related stressors were associated with overall levels of perceived stress and academic performance among African American students at a historically Black college and university (HBCU). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test racial and ethnic-related stressors…

  1. Gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health among Black South African men who have sex with men: A further exploration of unexpected findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandfort, T.; Bos, H.; Knox, J.; Reddy, V.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated,

  2. Rural-urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Prioreschi, Alessandra; Nyati, Lukhanyo H; van Heerden, Alastair; Munthali, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Houle, Brian; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A

    2018-03-01

    The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood.

  3. African American Students in a California Community College: Perceptions of Cultural Congruity and Academic Self-Concept within a Black Culture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Tenisha Celita

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the cultural congruity and academic self-concept of African American students in a community college setting who participated in a Black Culture Center. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between cultural congruity and academic self-concept through the following two research…

  4. "We're Here Because We're Black": The Schooling Experiences of French-Speaking African-Canadian Students with Refugee Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Sara; James, Carl E.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the educational experiences of a group of French-speaking Black African-born students who entered Canada as refugees. They were attending a French school and were placed in a separate programme that was designed to meet their particular needs given their limited language skills and level of education. Drawing on critical…

  5. Ultrafiltration and valorisation of lignin in black liquor from South African Kraft mills: A focus on dead-end stirred cell filtration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, PT

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this project is to develop a method that can effectively extract lignin from Kraft black liquors from South African mills in the form that would be suitable for valorisation into high value products. In this study the effects...

  6. Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia P. Steyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544, stratified by gender and age was randomly selected in 2009 from the same areas sampled in 1990. Socio-demographic data and a 24-h dietary recall were obtained by trained field workers. The associations of dietary data with an asset index and degree of urbanization were assessed. Results: Fat intakes were higher in 19–44-year-old men (32% energy (E and women (33.4%E in 2009 compared with 1990 (men: 25.9%E, women: 27.0%E while carbohydrate intakes were lower in 2009 (men 53.2%E, women: 55.5%E than in 1990 (men: 61.3%E; women: 62%E while sugar intake increased significantly (p < 0.01 in women. There were significant positive correlations between urbanization and total fat (p = 0.016, saturated fat (p = 0.001, monounsaturated fat (p = 0.002 and fat as a %E intake (p = 0.046. Urbanization was inversely associated with intake of carbohydrate %E (p < 0.001. Overall micronutrient intakes improved significantly compared with 1990. It should also be noted that energy and macronutrient intakes were all significant in a linear regression model using mean adequacy ratio (MAR as a measure of dietary quality in 2009, as was duration of urbanization. Discussion: The higher fat and lower carbohydrate %E intakes in this population demonstrate a transition to a more urbanized diet over last two decades. These dietary changes reflect the nutrition transitions that typically occur as a longer time is spent in urban centers.

  7. Ethnic Differences in Separate and Additive Effects of Anxiety and Depression on Self-rated Mental Health Among Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Dejman, Masoumeh; Neighbors, Harold W

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore ethnic differences in the separate and additive effects of anxiety and depression on self-rated mental health (SRMH) of Blacks in the USA. With a cross-sectional design, we used data from a national household probability sample of African Americans (n = 3570) and Caribbean Blacks (n = 1621) who participated in the National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003. Demographic factors, socio-economic factors, 12-month general anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), and current SRMH were measured. In each ethnic group, three logistic regressions were used to assess the effects of GAD, MDD, and their combinations on SRMH. Among African Americans, GAD and MDD had separate effects on SRMH. Among Caribbean Blacks, only MDD but not GAD had separate effect on SRMH. Among African Americans, when the combined effects of GAD and MDD were tested, GAD but not MDD was associated with SRMH. The separate and additive effects of GAD and MDD on SRMH among Blacks depend on ethnicity. Although single-item SRMH measures are easy methods for the screening of mental health need, community-based programs that aim to meet the need for mental health services among Blacks in the USA should consider within-race ethnic differences in the applicability of such instruments.

  8. Prevalence and significance of early repolarisation in a black African population: data of 246 individuals with cardiovascular morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Aime; Noah, Dominique Noah; Amougou, Sylvie Ndongo; Saka, Cecile

    2013-08-01

    Early repolarisation (ER) is commonly seen on electrocardiograms (ECG). Recent reports have described the relationship between ER and sudden cardiac death (SCD). The prevalence and significance of ER have not been studied in black Africans. We matched clinical and ECG records of subjects over 18 years of age who consulted a cardiac unit in two medical centres of Douala, Cameroon. A questionnaire focusing on past history of syncope or family history of sudden unexplained death (SUD) was filled in by each subject. A 12-lead ECG was recorded by a trained nurse and analysed by two independent physicians. Of the 752 ECGs recorded, we studied 246 index cases. The mean age of subjects was 45 ± 16 years and 53% were female. Almost 57% had hypertension, 41% had palpitations and 18% reported a history of syncope. ER pattern was found in 20% [slurring in three (3%), notching in 13% and both in three (7%)]. ER subjects were younger than those without (41 ± 16 vs 49 ± 16 years, p = 0.0048). Lead localisation was predominantly the laterals for the slurring pattern, whereas the inferior and lateral leads were equally involved for the notching pattern. Negative T waves in the infero-lateral leads were associated with ER (p = 0.00025). Among the subjects with syncope, 41% displayed ER and 13% did not have ER (p = 0.00014). The notching pattern seemed to be associated with syncope (p = 0.00011). Early repolarisation is frequent in black Africans, especially in the setting of cardiovascular morbidity. Early repolarisation may be associated with a past history of syncope, especially the notched pattern.

  9. Third molar maturity index (I3M) for assessing age of majority: study of a black South African sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakopoulos, N; De Luca, S; Velandia Palacio, L A; Coccia, E; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2018-03-08

    The evaluation of the cutoff value of I 3M  = 0.08 for discriminating black South African minors from adults, and its relationship with chronological age. A sample of 833 panoramic radiographs of healthy black South African subjects (500 females and 333 males), in the age range of 14 to 24 years (mean age 17.67 years in females and 17.42 years in males), was retrospectively evaluated. ICC values were 99.10% (95% CI 97.70 to 99.70%) and 99.20% (95% CI 98.00 to 99.60%), for the intra- and inter-observer reliability, respectively. I 3M decreased as the real age gradually increased in both sexes. According to the logistic regression model, the variable sex was not significant when the probability that an individual is 18 years or older was calculated. The I 3M  = 0.08 was valuable in discriminating between adults and minors. The overall accuracy (ACC = fraction of accurately classified subjects) is 0.90 (95% CI 0.87-0.91); the proportion of correctly classified subjects (Se = sensitivity) is 0.80 (95% CI 0.76-0.84), and specificity (Sp) is 0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97). The PPV (predictive positive value) is 0.96 (95% CI 0.95-0.97), and the negative predictive value is 0.76 (95% CI 0.72-0.80). The results show that I 3M is a valuable method to distinguish subjects who are around legal adult age in South Africa.

  10. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1act) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1act and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, furthermore, wanted to investigate the effect of urbanization, sex, central obesity, increased triglycerides, 4G/5G polymorphism (PAI-1 only) and BMI on the association of alcohol with PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Data from 2010 apparently healthy, randomly collected black South African volunteers from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study were cross-sectionally analyzed. Alcohol consumption was recorded using quantitative food frequency questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis including PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significantly increased PAI-1act, in the total population as well as in the women separately, and tended to be so in men. This alcohol-related PAI-1act increase was observed in volunteers with increased triglycerides and central obesity but not in volunteers with normal levels and waist circumference. Urbanization, the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI did not affect the association of alcohol with PAI-1act. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fibrinogen concentration. Sex and level of urbanization did not affect the association of alcohol with fibrinogen. Fibrinogen decreased in normal and overweight volunteers but not in obese and centrally obese volunteers following moderate alcohol consumption. Triglyceride levels and waist circumference influence alcohol-related PAI-1act increase potentially through modulating adipocyte and triglyceride-induced PAI-1 production. Obesity prevented alcohol-related fibrinogen decrease possibly by counteracting the anti-inflammatory effect of moderate alcohol consumption.

  11. Mitochondrial genomics and antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic complications in HIV-infected Black South Africans: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinxadi, Phumla Z; Dave, Joel A; Samuels, David C; Heckmann, Jeannine M; Maartens, Gary; Levitt, Naomi S; Wester, C William; Haas, David W; Hulgan, Todd

    2013-07-01

    Studies suggest that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART)-related metabolic complications and distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP), but there have been few studies in persons of African descent. We explored such associations in South African adults. Clinical and laboratory data and DNA specimens from a cross-sectional study were used. Sequencing and Phylotree determined African mtDNA subhaplogroups. Wilcoxon and regression analyses determined associations between mtDNA subhaplogroups and ART-related complications. The 171 participants represented six major haplogroups: L0 (n=78), L1 (n=3), L2 (n=30), L3 (n=53), L4 (n=1), and L5 (n=6). Analyses were restricted to 161 participants representing L0, L2, and L3: 78% were female; the median age was 36 years. All had been exposed to thymidine analogues, 42% were on lopinavir/ritonavir (lopinavir/r), and 58% were on either efavirenz or nevirapine. Median (IQR) ART duration was 22 (14-36) months. Median fasting triglycerides were 1.60 (1.13-1.75) and 1.04 (0.83-1.45) mmol/liter among L3e1 (n=22) and other subhaplogroups, respectively (p=0.003). Subhaplogroup L3e1 [adjusted OR (aOR) 3.16 (95% CI: 1.11-8.96); p=0.03] and exposure to lopinavir/r [aOR 2.98 (95% CI: 1.02-8.96); p=0.05] were independently associated with hypertriglyceridemia, after adjusting for age, sex, and ART duration. There were no significant associations between mtDNA haplogroups and cholesterol, dysglycemia, hyperlactatemia, or lipoatrophy, or DSP. Subhaplogroup L3e1 and lopinavir/r exposure were independently associated with hypertriglyceridemia in black South Africans on ART. This is the first report to link an African mtDNA variant with hypertriglyceridemia. If replicated, these findings may provide new insights into host factors affecting metabolic complications.

  12. Lean Mass Appears to Be More Strongly Associated with Bone Health than Fat Mass in Urban Black South African Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotunde, O F; Kruger, H S; Wright, H H; Havemann-Nel, L; Kruger, I M; Wentzel-Viljoen, E; Kruger, A; Tieland, M

    2015-06-01

    To examine the association between body composition (fat mass, lean mass and body mass index, BMI) and bone health (bone mineral density, BMD and fracture risk) in urban black South African women. A cross sectional study examining associations between body composition, dietary intake (food frequency questionnaire), habitual physical activity (Activity energy expenditure (AEE) measured using an accelerometer with combined heart rate monitor and physical activity questionnaire) and bone health (BMD using dual-energy X ray absorptiometry, DXA and fracture risk). Urban community dwellers from Ikageng in the North-West Province of South Africa. One hundred and eighty nine (189) healthy postmenopausal women aged ≥43 years. Fat mass and lean mass were significantly associated with BMD and fracture risk when adjusted for potential confounders. However, lean mass and not fat mass remained significantly associated with femoral neck BMD (β = 0.49, p South African women. Our finding suggests that increasing lean mass rather than fat mass is beneficial to bone health. Our study emphasises the importance of positive lifestyle changes, intake of calcium from dairy and adequate weight to maintain and improve bone health of postmenopausal women.

  13. African American women's infant feeding choices: prenatal breast-feeding self-efficacy and narratives from a black feminist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen M; VandeVusse, Leona

    2011-01-01

    Examining prenatal breast-feeding self-efficacy and infant feeding decisions among African American women using a mixed-method approach. A black feminist philosophy was used to keep women's experiences as the central research focus. The Prenatal Breast-feeding Self-efficacy Scale was used to determine differences between intended breast-feeders and formula users among 59 women. Seventeen narrative interviews were conducted to analyze postpartum accounts of actual feeding practices. Both groups (intended breast- or formula-feeders) demonstrated confidence in their ability to breast-feed. Women planning to breast-feed (M = 82.59, SD = 12.53) scored significantly higher than anticipated formula users (M = 70, SD = 15.45), P = .001 (2-tailed). Four of the six themes emerging from narrative analysis were similar to categories of self-efficacy: performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasions, and physiological reactions. In addition, themes of social embarrassment and feelings of regret were identified. Although African American women in this study rated themselves overall as confident with breast-feeding, several narratives about actual feeding choices indicated ambivalence. Women planning to breast-feed need continued support from their healthcare providers throughout the childbearing year. Furthermore, prenatal and immediate postpartum opportunities may exist for nurses to encourage breast-feeding among individuals who initially plan formula use.

  14. Paralysis due to the high tackle - a black spot South African rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high tackle around the neck is illegal but still commonplace in South African rugby. An analysis of 40 rugby players who sustained spinal cord injury during the period 1985 1989 revealed that 8 were injured by a high tackle. The case histories and radiographs of these 8 players were analysed. The majority sustained ...

  15. Xenophobic Attacks On Black Non-South Africans In South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although xenophobia is typically defined as a “hatred or fear of foreigners” (South African Pocket Oxford Dictionary of Current English, 1994) or a “strong fear or dislike of people from other countries” (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, New Edition, 2003), the concept goes beyond this. Research evidences have ...

  16. Do Black Families Value Education? White Teachers, Institutional Cultural Narratives, & Beliefs about African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchner, Laurel; Markowitz, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this article Puchner and Markowitz illustrate a major problem in education and in teacher education, the underlying dynamics of which are a national problem. The problem of negative beliefs about African American families in schools is not a new idea but actually stems from unfounded and untested assumptions about the way the world works and…

  17. A History of Black and Brown: Chicana/o-African American Cultural and Political Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Luis; Widener, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Rather than assume that ethnicity or race necessarily marks the edges of one's culture or politics, the contributors to this dossier highlight the messy, blurry, and often contradictory relationships that arise when Chicana/os and African Americans engage one another. The essays explore the complicated mix of cooperation and conflict that…

  18. Agreement between specific measures of adiposity and associations with high blood pressure in black South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Herculina S; Botha-Ravyse, Chrisna; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Doubell, Maretha; van Rooyen, Johannes M

    2017-11-01

    To derive percentage body fat (%BF) cut-points according to body mass index (BMI) categories for adult black South African women and to investigate the agreement between adiposity classifications according to WHO BMI and %BF cut-points. The secondary aim was to determine the association between these different adiposity measures and high blood pressure. Black women aged 29-65 years (n = 435) from Ikageng, South Africa, were included in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data were collected (weight, height and BMI). %BF using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and blood pressure were measured. There was significant agreement between three %BF categories: low/normal (high blood pressure (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.09-2.81 versus OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.15-3.23, respectively). Despite significant agreement between BMI and %BF categories, considerable misclassification occurred in the overweight range. Participants with excessive %BF had a greater odds of high blood pressure than those in the highest BMI category. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Malignant melanoma of the skin in black South Africans: A 15-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To document the anatomical distribution of melanoma, extent of disease, results of treatment and survival among black patients in the north-eastern part of South Africa. Methods. All available histological material was reviewed. All available addresses of patients were consulted to establish the status of patients treated ...

  20. Precipitation and valorisation of lignin in South African kraft mill black liquor - first stages: Poster

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available environmentally sustainable. The aims objectives of the current project is to precipitate and characterize lignin form kraft black liquor with an attempts to obtain narrow molecular weight lignin that can further be valorised to encourage Biorefineries in South...

  1. Food habits and food preferences of black South African men in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dishes (soft-boiled egg, hard-boiled egg, scrambled egg and French toast) were familiar to the majority (>. 83%) of the black participants. Some 50% to 60% of these participants did not know what an omelette was. All the groups rated all the other egg dishes as high- preference items. The high preference rating for egg.

  2. Does whole-cell pertussis vaccine protect black South African infants?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The whole-cell pertussis vaccine currently used in South Africa has not been adequately evaluated for post-vaccination events and immunogenicity. A trial of this vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP) was undertaken in 115 black babies who received primary vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months of age.

  3. Reclaiming Our Queendom: Black Feminist Pedagogy and the Identity Formation of African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Approaches to rectifying the inequities Black female students encounter in U.S. educational institutions are rarely discussed in the body of research in which these individuals are the foci. In this critical race feminist auto-ethnography, the author used qualitative data from a two-year study of a girls' empowerment program that she established…

  4. Race Attribution Modifies the Association Between Daily Discrimination and Major Depressive Disorder Among Blacks: the Role of Gender and Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Watkins, Daphne C; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2015-06-01

    Although the association between discrimination and depression among Blacks is well-known, we do not know if this effect is influenced by race attribution. In this current study, we investigated the effect modification of race attribution on the association between everyday discrimination and major depressive disorder (MDD) among Blacks in the United States, and whether this effect modification is influenced by the intersection of ethnicity and gender. With a cross-sectional design, this study used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003. The study included a nationally representative sample of Blacks (n = 5,008), composed of 3,570 African Americans and 1,438 Caribbean Blacks. Everyday discrimination, two single-item measures of race attribution (race as the major barrier against upward social mobility, and race as the main cause for being discriminated against) and 12-month MDD were measured. In the first step, we fit logistic regressions to the pooled sample. In the next step, we ran regressions specific to the intersections of ethnicity and gender. Interaction between race attribution and discrimination were also entered into the models. Among Caribbean Black men, the belief that race is a major barrier against one's own upward social mobility modified the association between exposure to daily discrimination and MDD. In this group, the association between discrimination and MDD was weaker among those who believed that race is a major barrier against one's own upward social mobility. Race attribution did not modify the association between discrimination and MDD among African American men, African American women, and Caribbean Black women. The other measure of race attribution (race as the main cause of being discriminated against) did not modify the association between discrimination and MDD in any ethnicity by gender subgroups. Among Caribbean Black men, the link between everyday discrimination and depression may depend on seeing

  5. Discrimination Increases Suicidal Ideation in Black Adolescents Regardless of Ethnicity and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-11-06

    Discrimination is a common experience for Blacks across various developmental periods. Although much is known about the effect of discrimination on suicidal ideation of adults, less is known about the same association in Black youth. We examined the association between discrimination and suicidal ideation in a national sample of Black youth. We also explored gender and ethnic differences in this association. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003-2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (aged 13 to 17 years). Demographic and socioeconomic factors were controls, perceived discrimination was the predictor, and lifetime suicidal ideation was the outcome. Logistic regression was used to test the association between perceived discrimination and suicidal ideation in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity and gender. In the pooled sample of Black youth, higher perceived discrimination was associated with higher odds of suicidal ideation (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.09; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02-1.17). This association was significant net of age, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. We did not find interactions between perceived discrimination and ethnicity or gender on suicidal ideation. Perceived discrimination was associated with suicidal ideation in African Americans (CI = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.01-1.17) and Caribbean Blacks (CI = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.03-1.32), males (CI = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.00-1.25), and females (CI = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.00-1.16). Discrimination jeopardizes the mental health of Black youth. In a universal pattern, discrimination is associated with suicidal ideation in Black youth. More research is needed on this topic.

  6. Discrimination Increases Suicidal Ideation in Black Adolescents Regardless of Ethnicity and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discrimination is a common experience for Blacks across various developmental periods. Although much is known about the effect of discrimination on suicidal ideation of adults, less is known about the same association in Black youth. Aim: We examined the association between discrimination and suicidal ideation in a national sample of Black youth. We also explored gender and ethnic differences in this association. Methods: We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescents (NSAL-A, 2003–2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (aged 13 to 17 years. Demographic and socioeconomic factors were controls, perceived discrimination was the predictor, and lifetime suicidal ideation was the outcome. Logistic regression was used to test the association between perceived discrimination and suicidal ideation in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity and gender. Results: In the pooled sample of Black youth, higher perceived discrimination was associated with higher odds of suicidal ideation (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.09; 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.02−1.17. This association was significant net of age, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. We did not find interactions between perceived discrimination and ethnicity or gender on suicidal ideation. Perceived discrimination was associated with suicidal ideation in African Americans (CI = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.01−1.17 and Caribbean Blacks (CI = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.03−1.32, males (CI = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.00−1.25, and females (CI = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.00−1.16. Conclusion: Discrimination jeopardizes the mental health of Black youth. In a universal pattern, discrimination is associated with suicidal ideation in Black youth. More research is needed on this topic.

  7. Neighborhood Safety and Major Depressive Disorder in a National Sample of Black Youth; Gender by Ethnic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-02-23

    Adolescence is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among Black youth. In addition to stress related to their developmental transition, social factors such as a perceived unsafe neighborhood impose additional risks. We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between perceived neighborhood safety and major depressive disorder (MDD) among a national sample of Black youth. We used data from the National Survey of American Life - Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003-2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17). Demographic factors, perceived neighborhood safety, and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between neighborhood safety and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity by gender groups. In the pooled sample of Black youth, those who perceived their neighborhoods to be unsafe were at higher risk of MDD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.02-1.51). The perception that one's neighborhood is unsafe was associated with a higher risk of MDD among African American males (OR=1.41; 95% CI = 1.03-1.93) but not African American females or Caribbean Black males and females. In conclusion, perceived neighborhood safety is not a universal psychological determinant of MDD across ethnic by gender groups of Black youth; however, policies and programs that enhance the sense of neighborhood safety may prevent MDD in male African American youth.

  8. Neighborhood Safety and Major Depressive Disorder in a National Sample of Black Youth; Gender by Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among Black youth. In addition to stress related to their developmental transition, social factors such as a perceived unsafe neighborhood impose additional risks. We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between perceived neighborhood safety and major depressive disorder (MDD) among a national sample of Black youth. We used data from the National Survey of American Life - Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003–2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17). Demographic factors, perceived neighborhood safety, and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between neighborhood safety and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity by gender groups. In the pooled sample of Black youth, those who perceived their neighborhoods to be unsafe were at higher risk of MDD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.02-1.51). The perception that one’s neighborhood is unsafe was associated with a higher risk of MDD among African American males (OR=1.41; 95% CI = 1.03–1.93) but not African American females or Caribbean Black males and females. In conclusion, perceived neighborhood safety is not a universal psychological determinant of MDD across ethnic by gender groups of Black youth; however, policies and programs that enhance the sense of neighborhood safety may prevent MDD in male African American youth. PMID:28241490

  9. Neighborhood Safety and Major Depressive Disorder in a National Sample of Black Youth; Gender by Ethnic Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among Black youth. In addition to stress related to their developmental transition, social factors such as a perceived unsafe neighborhood impose additional risks. We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between perceived neighborhood safety and major depressive disorder (MDD among a national sample of Black youth. We used data from the National Survey of American Life - Adolescents (NSAL-A, 2003–2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17. Demographic factors, perceived neighborhood safety, and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between neighborhood safety and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity by gender groups. In the pooled sample of Black youth, those who perceived their neighborhoods to be unsafe were at higher risk of MDD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.02-1.51. The perception that one’s neighborhood is unsafe was associated with a higher risk of MDD among African American males (OR=1.41; 95% CI = 1.03–1.93 but not African American females or Caribbean Black males and females. In conclusion, perceived neighborhood safety is not a universal psychological determinant of MDD across ethnic by gender groups of Black youth; however, policies and programs that enhance the sense of neighborhood safety may prevent MDD in male African American youth.

  10. Additive Effects of Anxiety and Depression on Body Mass Index among Blacks: Role of Ethnicity and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:: Most studies on mental health associates of obesity have focused on depression and less is known about the role of anxiety in obesity.. Objectives:: This study compared the additive effects of General Anxiety Disorder (GAD and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD on Body Mass Index (BMI across sub-populations of Blacks based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender.. Methods:: Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL, 2001 - 2003. The participants consisted of 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 Caribbean Blacks. Twelve-month MDD and GAD were determined using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Levels of BMI were categorized based on being equal to or larger than 25, 30, 35, and 40 kg/m2. We fitted linear regression models specific for our groups, which were defined based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Additionally, age, education, marital status, employment, and region were controlled.. Results:: Among Caribbean Black men and African American women, lifetime GAD, but not MDD, was associated with high BMI. Among Caribbean Black women, lifetime MDD, but not GAD, was associated with high BMI.. Conclusions:: Intersection of ethnicity and gender may determine how anxiety and depression are associated with BMI among Blacks. Sub-populations of Blacks (e.g. based on ethnicity and gender may have specific mental health determinants or consequences of obesity. Future research should investigate how and why the additive effects of anxiety and depression on obesity vary across ethnic and gender groups of Blacks..

  11. Additive Effects of Anxiety and Depression on Body Mass Index among Blacks: Role of Ethnicity and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Most studies on mental health associates of obesity have focused on depression and less is known about the role of anxiety in obesity. Objectives: This study compared the additive effects of General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) on Body Mass Index (BMI) across sub-populations of Blacks based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Methods: Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001 - 2003. The participants consisted of 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 Caribbean Blacks. Twelve-month MDD and GAD were determined using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Levels of BMI were categorized based on being equal to or larger than 25, 30, 35, and 40 kg/m2. We fitted linear regression models specific for our groups, which were defined based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Additionally, age, education, marital status, employment, and region were controlled. Results: Among Caribbean Black men and African American women, lifetime GAD, but not MDD, was associated with high BMI. Among Caribbean Black women, lifetime MDD, but not GAD, was associated with high BMI. Conclusions: Intersection of ethnicity and gender may determine how anxiety and depression are associated with BMI among Blacks. Sub-populations of Blacks (e.g. based on ethnicity and gender) may have specific mental health determinants or consequences of obesity. Future research should investigate how and why the additive effects of anxiety and depression on obesity vary across ethnic and gender groups of Blacks. PMID:24936480

  12. Carribean migration and the construction of a black diaspora identity in Paul Marshall's Brown Girl, Brownstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S. Chin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses the novel 'Brown girl, brownstones' (1959 by Paule Marshall. Author argues that this novel offers a complex and nuanced understanding of how Caribbean migration impacts upon cultural identity, and how this cultural identity is dynamically produced, rather than static. He describes how the novel deals with Barbadian migrants to the US in the 1930s and 1940s, and further elaborates on how through this novel Marshall problematizes common dichotomies, such as between the public and the private, and between racial (black and ethnic (Caribbean identity. Furthermore, he indicates that Marshall through her representation of the Barbadian community, foregrounds the central role of women in the production of Caribbean identity in the US. In this, he shows, Bajan women's talk from the private sphere is very important. Further, the author discusses how the Barbadian identity is broadened to encompass Caribbean and African Americans in the novel, thus creating transnational black diaspora connections, such as by invoking James Baldwin and Marcus Garvey.

  13. Hematocrit and stroke in black Africans under tropical climate and meteorological influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Mbenza, B; Phanzu-Mbete, L B; M'Buyamba-Kabangu, J R; Tonduangu, K; Mvunzu, M; Muvova, D; Lukoki-Luila, E; Bayekula, M; Odio, W; Kintoki, V; Mbala-Mukendi, M; Tshiamala, P; Kilembi, M; Katalay, L; Lelo-Tshinkwela, M; Ndoma, E K; Mpaka, M

    1999-04-01

    To assess the relationship between hematocrit and risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke in conjunction with meteorological variations. Prospective study of a series of Africans living in Kinshasa, Congo, followed up for 5 years. A total of 1,032 unselected patients consecutively admitted to hospitals for acute stroke. Main outcome measures. Fatal and non-fatal ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes. The association of hematocrit with stroke morbidity and mortality and meteorological variables were evaluated by simple or multiple linear regression and logistic regression. Patients were aged 53.7 +/- 12.1 years. Hematocrit was mostly correlated with mean ambient air temperature (r = 0.124; p 40% presented the highest levels of systolic blood pressure, fibrinogen, body temperature, resting heart rate, duration of coma and incidence of all stroke types and ischemic stroke (p 40% was associated with stroke mortality (Odds ratio, 6.2, 4.5-8.6; p 28 degrees C, atmospheric pressure 975-977 mm Hg and body temperature > 37 degrees C respectively. Our study suggests that higher hematocrit is associated with an increased risk of stroke morbidity and mortality, particularly ischemic stroke at noon. This risk is probably mediated by increased susceptibility of African older hypertensive subjects to meteorological variations.

  14. Microalbuminuria and the metabolic syndrome in non-diabetic black Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpechi, Ikechi G; Pascoe, Michael D; Swanepoel, Charles R; Rayner, Brian L

    2007-12-01

    It is recognised that the metabolic syndrome promotes the development of cardiovascular disease. Although several studies have shown a relationship between the metabolic syndrome and kidney disease, few of these have used non-diabetic subjects, especially in the African population. This was a cross-sectional study of subjects of African origin, using the metabolic syndrome (MS) criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) third Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III). Subjects with impaired fasting glucose, with two-hour glucose >or= 11.1 mmol/L after a glucose tolerance test, were excluded. Spot urine for albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. Microalbuminuria was defined as ACR between 3-30 mg/mmol. There was a significant decline in GFR and a significant increase in ACR with increasing number of MS traits. ACR increased four-fold between subjects with no MS traits and those with four or more traits. In subjects with the metabolic syndrome, there was a significant correlation between ACR and systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and fasting glucose. Estimated GFR correlated significantly and inversely with body mass index (BMI) and serum leptin. These observations raise major clinical and public health concerns for developing countries, where both the metabolic syndrome and kidney disease are being reported more and more frequently. The potential economic impact is huge.

  15. Comparison of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate in screening for chronic kidney disease in asymptomatic black Africans: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuse, Geoffrey; Maina, Daniel; Mwangi, Jane; Wambua, Caroline; Kanyua, Alice; Kagotho, Elizabeth; Amayo, Angela; Ojwang, Peter; Erasmus, Rajiv

    2017-12-20

    Several equations have been developed to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The common equations used were derived from populations predominantly comprised of Caucasians with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Some of the equations provide a correction factor for African-Americans due to their relatively increased muscle mass and this has been extrapolated to black Africans. Studies carried out in Africa in patients with CKD suggest that using this correction factor for the black African race may not be appropriate. However, these studies were not carried out in healthy individuals and as such the extrapolation of the findings to an asymptomatic black African population is questionable. We sought to compare the proportion of asymptomatic black Africans reported as having reduced eGFR using various eGFR equations. We further compared the association between known risk factors for CKD with eGFR determined using the different equations. We used participant and laboratory data collected as part of a global reference interval study conducted by the Committee of Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL) under the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). Serum creatinine values were used to calculate eGFR using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG), re-expressed 4 variable modified diet in renal disease (4v-MDRD), full age spectrum (FAS) and chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration equations (CKD-EPI). CKD classification based on eGFR was determined for every participant. A total of 533 participants were included comprising 273 (51.2%) females. The 4v-MDRD equation without correction for race classified the least number of participants (61.7%) as having an eGFR equivalent to CKD stage G1 compared to 93.6% for CKD-EPI with correction for race. Only age had a statistically significant linear association with eGFR across all equations after performing multiple regression analysis. The multiple correlation coefficients for CKD risk factors were higher for

  16. ‘My child did not like using sun protection’: practices and perceptions of child sun protection among rural black African mothers

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    Zamantimande Kunene

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, but immune suppression, photoaging and cataracts occur among individuals with all skin types. Methods To assess practices and acceptability to Black African mothers of sun protection equipment for their children living in a rural area, participants were recruited at the time of their child’s 18-month vaccinations. Mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on usual sun behaviours and sun protection practices. They were then provided with sun protection equipment and advice. A follow-up questionnaire was administered two weeks later. Results Mothers reported that during the week prior to the baseline questionnaire, children spent on average less than 1 hour of time outdoors (most often spent in the shade. Most mothers (97% liked the sun protection equipment. However, many (78 of 86 reported that their child did not like any of the sun protection equipment and two-thirds stated that the sun protection equipment was not easy to use. Conclusions Among Black Africans in rural northern South Africa, we found a mismatch between parental preferences and child acceptance for using sun protection when outdoors. A better understanding of the health risks of incidental excess sun exposure and potential benefits of sun protection is required among Black Africans.

  17. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university

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    Relebohile Phatoli

    2015-05-01

    Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and ‘othering’. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof.

  18. Surgical Removal of a Ventricular Foreign Body in a Captive African Black-footed Penguin ( Spheniscus demersus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Jiménez, Paula A; Trent, Ava M; Bueno, Irene

    2016-03-01

    Anterior gastrointestinal tract obstruction by a foreign body has been reported in several avian species, most commonly in captive birds. It is often associated with behavioral issues that lead to compulsive consumption of bedding materials or bright moving objects. In penguins, foreign bodies are most commonly identified at necropsy and often are found in the ventriculus because of anatomic characteristics of the species. A captive African black-footed penguin ( Spheniscus demersus ) was diagnosed with a ventricular foreign body. The anatomic and physiologic differences that should be taken into account when surgically removing a ventricular foreign body in a penguin are described. These differences include the caudal location in the coelom and the large size of the ventriculus in proportion to the penguin's body size; the presence of a simple stomach, uniform in thickness and lacking muscular development; a simple gastrointestinal cycle (gastric contraction); and variability in pH of stomach contents. No complications were observed after surgery, and the bird recovered completely. Management of foreign bodies in birds should be based on the clinical signs of the individual bird, the species affected and its anatomic characteristics, the nature and location of the foreign body, available tools, and the preference and experience of the surgeon. This particular case demonstrates that the most indicated and preferred method is not always possible and that knowledge of biologic, anatomic, and physiologic differences of the species may allow the use of an alternative and more invasive approach with favorable outcomes.

  19. Masekitlana re-membered: A performance-based ethnography of South African black children’s pretend play

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    Esther Ofenste Phetlhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The extensive empirical research inspired by Piaget and Vygotsky’s theories of make-believe play has been criticised for restricting data to western, urban, middle-class children. We seek to redress this bias by researching a traditional black South African Pedi children’s game Masekitlana. Our data relies on embodied memories enacted by Mapelo (one of the authors, and interviews of two other informants. The analytical framework draws upon ‘emergent methods’ in ethnography such as performance ethnography, autoethnography and memory elicitation through ‘bodynotes’ within a Vygotskyian orientation to play. The findings show that Masekitlana shares features common to all pretend play, but others unique to it  including: i extended monologue, ii metacommunicative frames for realistic thinking, and iii a complex relation between social and solitary play. These findings support Vygotsky. However, ‘the long childhood’ of Masekitlana suggests that the stages theory of Piaget, as well as  Vygotskyian ideas that have come down to us via Cole & Scribner and Valsiner, require revision in the light of Bruner’s two modes of cognition, and Veresov’s reinterpretation of the theatre movement, within which Vygotsky’s central ideas are embedded.

  20. Gender Expression and Mental Health in Black South African Men Who Have Sex with Men: Further Explorations of Unexpected Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo G M; Bos, Henny; Reddy, Vasu

    2018-02-20

    Unlike studies conducted in Western countries, two studies among Black South African men who have sex with men (MSM) found no support for the association between gender nonconformity and mental distress, even though gender-nonconforming men experienced more discrimination and discrimination was associated with mental distress (Cook, Sandfort, Nel, & Rich, 2013; Sandfort, Bos, Knox, & Reddy, 2016). In Sandfort et al., gender nonconformity was assessed as a continuous variable, validated by comparing scores between a categorical assessment of gender presentation (masculine, feminine, no preference). Using the same dataset, we further explored this topic by (1) testing differences between gender expression groups in sexual minority stressors, resilience factors, and mental distress; (2) testing whether the impact of elevated discrimination in the feminine group was counterbalanced by lower scores on other stressors or higher scores on resilience factors; and (3) exploring whether relationships of stressors and resilience factors with mental distress varied between gender expression groups. Controlling for demographics, we found several differences between the gender expression groups in the stressors and resilience factors, but not in mental distress. We found no support for the idea that the lack of differences in mental distress between the gender expression groups was a consequence of factors working in opposite directions. However, internalized homophobia had a differential impact on depression in feminine men compared to masculine men. In our discussion of these findings, we explored the meaning of our participants' self-categorization as it might relate to gender instead of sexual identities.

  1. Gatekeeping and its impact on father involvement among Black South Africans in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

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    Makusha, Tawanda; Richter, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Involved and caring fatherhood contributes to the health and wellbeing of children, women and men. The corollary is also true - men, women and children are affected when fathers are not involved or supportive of their children. Many factors affect fathers' involvement, including women's attitudes, the history and nature of the relationship between mother and father, and the cultural context. This study explores gatekeeping and its impact on father involvement among Black South Africans in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Among married couples, gatekeeping occurs with respect to childcare and housework through women's attempts to validate their maternal identity according to socially and culturally constructed gender roles. Among unmarried, non-resident parents, women control father-child contact and involvement, with mothers and/or their families either facilitating or inhibiting father involvement. In this context, we found that cultural gatekeeping had a huge impact on father involvement, with the non-payment of inhlawulo or lobola regulating father-child involvement. In a country like South Africa, where there is high non-marital fertility and father-child non-residence, future research, parenting and family programmes should focus on strategies that encourage positive paternal involvement as well as maternal and cultural support for father involvement, regardless of parental relationship and residence status.

  2. Uncovering Black/African American and Latina/o students' motivation to learn science: Affordances to science identity development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfood, Denise Marcia

    The following dissertation reports on a qualitative exploration that serves two main goals: (1) to qualitatively define and highlight science motivation development of Black/African American and Latina/o students as they learn science in middle school, high school, and in college and (2) to reveal through personal narratives how successful entry and persistence in science by this particular group is linked to the development of their science identities. The targeted population for this study is undergraduate students of color in science fields at a college or university. The theoretical frameworks for this study are constructivist theory, motivation theory, critical theory, and identity theories. The methodological approach is narrative which includes students' science learning experiences throughout the course of their academic lives. I use The Science Motivation Questionnaire II to obtain baseline data to quantitatively assess for motivation to learn science. Data from semi-structured interviews from selected participants were collected, coded, and configured into a story, and emergent themes reveal the important role of science learning in both informal and formal settings, but especially in informal settings that contribute to better understandings of science and the development of science identities for these undergraduate students of color. The findings have implications for science teaching in schools and teacher professional development in science learning.

  3. The frequency of the H402 allele of CFH and its involvement with age-related maculopathy in an aged Black African Xhosa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskind, Ari; Bardien, Soraya; van der Merwe, Lize; Webster, Andrew R

    2008-09-01

    The H402 allele of the CFH gene is an established risk factor for age-related maculopathy (ARMD) in Caucasians, accounting for approximately 60% of the genetic risk at the population level. In general, the advanced forms of ARMD are rare in Black populations in Africa, as well as Black populations who have lived for generations in the United States or the West Indies, although there are reports that the earlier forms such as drusen may not be all that uncommon. The aim of the present study was to estimate the frequency of the C allele of the CFH Y402H variant in an aged South African Black Xhosa population and to describe the evidence of ARMD found.

  4. Ethnicity modifies the additive effects of anxiety and drug use disorders on suicidal ideation among black adults in the United States

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    Shervin Assari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to test if ethnicity moderates the additive effects of lifetime psychiatric disorders on serious suicidal thoughts among a nationally representative sample of Black adults in the United States. Methods: For this study, we used data of 5,181 Black adults (3,570 African Americans and 1,621 Caribbean Blacks who participated in the National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003. Five lifetime psychiatric disorders (i.e., major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse disorder, and drug abuse were considered as the independent variables. Lifetime serious suicidal ideation was considered as the dependent variable. Logistic regressions were used to determine if ethnicity modifies the effects of each psychiatric disorder on serious suicide ideation. Ethnicity was conceptualized as the possible moderator and socio-demographics (i.e., age, gender, education level, employment, marital status and country region were control variables. Results: Among African Americans, major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse disorder were associated with higher odds of suicidal thoughts. Among Caribbean Blacks, major depressive disorder and drug abuse disorder were associated with higher odds of suicidal thoughts. In the pooled sample, there was a significant interaction between ethnicity and anxiety disorder and a marginally significant interaction between ethnicity and drug abuse. Conclusions: Based on our study, suicidality due to psychiatric disorders among Black adults in the United States may depend on ethnicity. General anxiety disorder seems to be a more important risk factor for suicidal ideation among African Americans while drug abuse may contribute more to the risk of suicidal thoughts among Caribbean Blacks.

  5. Does race matters in consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products? Insights from black and white South Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Sekyere, Enoch; Jordaan, Henry

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, governments, policy-makers, and managers of private food companies and agribusinesses are interested in understanding how consumers will react to environmentally sustainable attributes and information on food product labels. This study examines consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products from the viewpoint of black and white South Africans. Discrete choice experimental data was collected from black and white consumers to possibly assess cross-ethnic variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable products. Two widely purchased livestock products were chosen for the choice experiment. We found that consumers' preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes vary significantly between black and white South Africans. Our findings revealed that there are profound heterogeneous consumer segments within black and white respondents. The heterogeneity within both sub-samples is better explained at the segment level, rather than at individual level. For both product categories, the findings revealed that there are more distinct consumer segments among black respondents, relative to white respondents. The black respondents consist of water sustainability advocates, carbon reduction advocates, keen environmentalist and environmental neutrals. The white respondents entail keen environmentalist, environmental cynics, and environmental neutrals. The inherent significant variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes across segments and racial groups would help in formulating feasible, and segment-specific environmental sustainability policies and marketing strategies aimed at changing consumers' attitude towards environmentally sustainable products. Demographic targeting of consumer segments, sustainability awareness and segment-specific educational campaigns meant to enhance subjective and objective knowledge on environmental sustainability are important tools for food companies and

  6. Low Family Support and Risk of Obesity among Black Youth: Role of Gender and Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-05-12

    Most studies on the role of family environment in developing risk of obesity among youth have focused on parenting behaviors that are directly involved in energy balance in regional, non-representative White samples. Using a national sample of ethnically diverse Black youth, the current study tested the association between low family support and risk of obesity. We also tested the heterogeneity of this association based on gender, ethnicity, and their intersection. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), a national survey of Black adolescents in the United States. The study enrolled 1170 African American and Caribbean Black 13-17 year old youth. Obesity was defined based on the cutoff points of body mass index (BMI) appropriate for age and gender of youth. Family support was measured using a five-item measure that captured emotional and tangible social support. Age, gender, and ethnicity were also measured. Logistic regressions were utilized in the pooled sample, and also based on gender, ethnicity, and their intersection, to test the link between low family support and risk for obesity. In the pooled sample, low family support was not associated with an increased risk of obesity (OR = 1.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.96-1.89). The association between low family support and risk of obesity was, however, significant among African American females (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.01-2.55). There was no association for African American males (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.82-1.92), Caribbean Black males (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.01-54.85), and Caribbean Black females (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.42-1.44). In conclusion, policies and programs that enable African American families to provide additional family support may prevent obesity among African American female youth. Future research should test the efficacy of promoting family support as a tool for preventing obesity among African American female youth.

  7. Selection, Language Heritage, and the Earnings Trajectories of Black Immigrants in the United States

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    Hamilton, Tod G.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean surpass the earnings of U.S.-born blacks approximately one decade after arriving in the United States. Using data from the 1980–2000 U.S. censuses and the 2005–2007 American Community Surveys on U.S.-born black and non-Hispanic white men as well as black immigrant men from all the major sending regions of the world, I evaluate whether selective migration and language heritage of immigrants’ birth countries account for the documented earnings crossover. I validate the earnings pattern of black immigrants documented in previous studies, but I also find that the earnings of most arrival cohorts of immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean, after residing in the United States for more than 20 years, are projected to converge with or slightly overtake those of U.S.-born black internal migrants. The findings also show three arrival cohorts of black immigrants from English-speaking African countries are projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born black internal migrants. No arrival cohort of black immigrants is projected to surpass the earnings of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites. Birth-region analysis shows that black immigrants from English-speaking countries experience more rapid earnings growth than immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. The arrival-cohort and birth-region variation in earnings documented in this study suggest that selective migration and language heritage of black immigrants’ birth countries are important determinants of their initial earnings and earnings trajectories in the United States. PMID:24854004

  8. Caribbean landscapes and their biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the Caribbean have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the Caribbean and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our Caribbean geographic focus is on the insular Caribbean and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...

  9. When Lions Write History: Black History Textbooks, African-American Educators, & the Alternative Black Curriculum in Social Studies Education, 1890-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.

    2014-01-01

    The African proverb, "Until the lions have their historians, tales of the hunt shall always glorify the hunter," is used to metaphorically describe how dominant groups inscribe power through historical narrative. In this article the author discusses how African-American educators between the years of 1890-1940 conceptualized citizenship…

  10. [Uncomplicated herniated discs and sciatica: epidemiologic and semiotic aspects in 143 black African subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Dieu-Donné; Eti, Edmond; Daboiko, Jean-Claude; Simon, Frankz; Chuong, Van Tuan; Zué, Marcel Kouakou N

    2007-01-01

    To study the epidemiologic and semiotic characteristics of uncomplicated sciatica in patients in a university hospital in Côte d'Ivoire. This retrospective study included 143 patients with an uncomplicated herniated disc hospitalized in the Cocody University Hospital from 1998 through 2002; patients were excluded if they were excessively sensitive to pain, had related motor deficits, cauda equina syndrome, or were resistant to medical treatment. Patients' average age was 42.5 years (range: 15-81), 58% were women, and mean body mass index (BMI) was 26.16. Ninety-nine (69.2%) reported relatively sedentary work. The disorder was characterized by an antalgic position (in 46.9%), an abnormal Schöber index in 117 (81.8%), the "bell sign" (in 63.6%) and a cough impulse in 58.7%. Lasègue's sign was homolateral at 114 (79.7%), and the average amplitude 42.2 degrees (range: 10 to 80). Paresis of 3/5 or higher was observed in 32 patients (22.4%). Radiography showed a disc disorder in 63% of cases; posterior osteoarthritis in 39.2% and a narrowed lumbar channel in 14 %. Computed tomography was performed for 56 patients and confirmed the presence of a hernia (median: 42,8%; paramedian: 48,2%; foraminal: 8,0%) of L4-l5 in 43 patients (77%); a large hernia, defined by a size greater than half of the rachidian channel, was found in eight (14,3%). After medical treatment, the course was favourable during this hospitalisation. Contrary to preconceived ideas, uncomplicated sciatica of black subjects has the same characteristics as in the white population.

  11. Gender and Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Body Image Dissatisfaction and Binge Eating Disorder among Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blostein, Freida; Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-08-01

    The research on binge eating has overwhelmingly focused on Whites. We aimed to study gender and ethnic differences in the association between body image dissatisfaction and binge eating in a nationally representative sample of Black adults in the USA. This cross-sectional study used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2003-2004. Self-identified Caribbean Black (n = 1621) and African American (3570) adults aged 18 and older were enrolled. The independent variable was body dissatisfaction measured with two items. Using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI), outcome was lifetime binge eating without hierarchy according to the DSM-IV criteria. Covariates included age, socioeconomic factors (i.e., education and marital status), and body mass index. Ethnicity and gender were focal moderators. Logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Despite comparable prevalence of lifetime binge eating (5 vs 4 %, p > 0.05), African Americans reported higher body image dissatisfaction than Caribbean Blacks (36 vs 29 %, p > 0.05). In the pooled sample, body dissatisfaction was a strong predictor of lifetime binge eating disorders. There was a significant interaction (p = 0.039) between ethnicity and body image dissatisfaction on binge eating, suggesting a stronger association between body image dissatisfaction and lifetime binge eating for Caribbean Blacks (OR = 11.65, 95 % 6.89-19.72) than African Americans (OR = 6.72, 95 % CI 3.97-11.37). Gender did not interact with body image dissatisfaction on binge eating. Ethnic variation in the link between body image dissatisfaction and binge eating may be due to within-race cultural differences in body image between African Americans and Caribbean Blacks. This may include different definitions, norms, and expectations regarding the body size. Findings suggest that ethnicity may bias relevance of body image dissatisfaction as a diagnostic criterion for

  12. Effects of biomarkers of oxidative stress damage on prevalence and severity of visual disability among black Central Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Mbenza, B; Muaka, M Mvitu; Yokobo, E Cibanda; Phemba, I Longo; Mokondjimobe, E; Gombet, T; Ndembe, D Kibokela; Mona, D Tulomba; Masamba, S Wayiza

    2012-01-01

    Because of the demographic transition, lifestyle changes, urbanization, and nutrition transition, Central Africans are at higher risk of ocular diseases associated with oxidative stress and visual disability. This study aimed to estimate the normal values of oxidant status defined by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), 8-Isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and to determine their pathogenic role in the prevalence and the severity of visual disability among these black Africans. This was a cross-sectional study, run in a case-control study randomly selected from Kinshasa province, DR Congo. The study included 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (cases) matched for sex and age to 50 healthy non diabetic controls. Logistic regression models were used to identify independent determinants of visual disability. The presence rates were 8.5% for blindness, 20.5% for visual impairment and 29% for visual disability including blindness and visual impairment. After adjusted for taro leaves intake, red beans intake, T2DM, aging, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, we identified low education level (OR=3.3 95%CI 1.5-7.2; p=0.003), rural-urban migration (OR=2.6 95% CI 1.2-5.6; p=0.017), and high Ox-LDL (OR=2.3 95% CI 1.1-4.7; p=0.029) as the important independent determinants of visual disability. After adjusted for education, intake of red beans, intake of taro leaves, triglycerides, and T2DM, we identified no intake of safou fruit (OR=50.7 95% CI 15.2-168.5; pvisual disability. After adjusted for education level, no intake of red beans, no intake of Taro leaves, triglycerides, and T2DM, we identified no intake of Safou fruit (OR=43.1 95% CI 13.7-135.4; pvisual disability. Visual disability remains a public health problem in Central Africa. Antioxidant supplement, fruit intake, nutrition education, control of migration, and blocking of oxidative stress are crucial steps for delayed development of vision loss.

  13. Obesity Among U.S.- and Foreign-Born Blacks by Region of Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil K; Elo, Irma T; Ford, Nicole D; Siegel, Karen R

    2015-08-01

    Large, recent migration streams from the non-Hispanic Caribbean islands and Africa have increased the share of U.S. blacks born outside of the U.S. Little is known about health patterns in these foreign-born populations. The purpose of this study is to compare obesity levels among self-identified U.S. blacks across birth regions and examine potential explanations for subgroup differences. Data were from the 2000-2013 National Health Interview Surveys. Three birthplace subgroups were examined: individuals born in the U.S., Caribbean/South America, and Africa, aged 25-59 years. Data were analyzed in 2013-2014. Compared to U.S.-born participants, foreign-born participants had significantly lower obesity (BMI ≥30) odds. The AORs were 0.51 (Caribbean/South American-born, 95% CI=0.44, 0.58) and 0.41 (African-born, 95% CI=0.34, 0.50) with reference to U.S.-born individuals. Education, income, and cigarette smoking did not explain the favorable weight pattern of the foreign born. Among the foreign born, those residing in the U.S. for ≥15 years had 51% (95% CI=10%, 108%) higher obesity odds compared with those residing for <5 years. No statistically significant differences in obesity odds between those born in the Caribbean/South America and Africa were detected. Foreign-born blacks generally had lower obesity levels compared to their U.S.-born counterparts, which was not explained by SES or smoking behaviors. Despite this advantage, obesity prevalence among foreign-born black women was around 30%, suggesting that obesity poses a significant health risk this population. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantification of systemic renin-angiotensin system peptides of hypertensive black and white African men established from the RAS-Fingerprint®

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    JM van Rooyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to make use of a quantitative and qualitative approach comparing the systemic renin-angiotensin system (RAS of hypertensive black and white African men by using RAS equilibrium analysis. Materials and methods: This sub-study involved 23 black (n = 15 and white (n = 8 hypertensive men aged 39.5–41 years, living in the North West Province of South Africa. The RAS-Fingerprinting was determined with LC-MS/MS quantification of angiotensin peptides. Blood pressure and other variables were determined with known methods. Results: The main finding of this study was the significant lower Ang I (<5.0 and 45.1 pg/ml; p = 0.005 and Ang II (15.6 and 123.9 pg/ml; p ⩽ 0.001 encountered in the hypertensive black African men compared to their white counterparts. Levels of Ang 1-5 (downstream metabolite of Ang 1-7 (1.8 and 3.0 pg/ml, were detected in black and white hypertensive men, respectively. Conclusions: The observed differences between circulating RAS components, which are reflected via equilibrium angiotensin levels, point to a distinctive molecular regulation of the RAAS in the two study cohorts. The increased peripheral resistance observed in hypertensive black individuals might take over a dominant role in control of blood pressure in this study population. A novel highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method resolved the issue of peptide recovery variations during sample preparation by using internal standards for each individual angiotensin metabolite.

  15. Novel APOB missense variants, A224T and V925L, in a black South African woman with marked hypocholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sharon A; Hooper, Amanda J; Mantiri, George A; Marais, David; Tanyanyiwa, Donald M; McKnight, James; Burnett, John R

    2016-01-01

    One genetic cause of markedly low plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein (apo) B and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol is familial hypobetalipoproteinemia. We aimed to determine the molecular basis for the marked hypocholesterolemia consistent with heterozygous familial hypobetalipoproteinemia in a black female subject of Xhosa lineage. Coding regions of APOB, MTTP, PCSK9,ANGPTL3, SAR1B and APOC3 were sequenced, and APOE was genotyped. COS-7 cells were transfected with plasmids containing apoB variants. Western blotting was used to detect cellular and secreted apoB, and co-immunoprecipitation performed to assess binding with the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). Sequence analysis of the APOB gene revealed her to be heterozygous for two novel variants, c.751G>A (A224T) and c.2854G>C (V925L). She was also homozygous for the APOEε2 allele, and did not carry a PCSK9 loss-of-function mutation. Although Ala(224) is within the postulated MTP binding region in apoB, it is not conserved among mammalian species. Subsequent genotyping showed that Ala224Thr is found in a southern African population (n=654) with an allele frequency of 1.15% and is not associated with plasma lipid levels. Val(925), like Ala(224), is within the N-terminal 1000 amino acids required for lipoprotein assembly, but was not found in the population screen. However, in vitro studies showed that apoB V925L did not affect apoB48 production or secretion nor have a deleterious effect on MTP interaction with apoB. Taken together, this suggests that the hypocholesterolemia in our case may be a result of being homozygous for APOEε2 with a low baseline cholesterol. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Empiric treatment based on Helicobacter pylori serology cannot substitute for early endoscopy in the management of dyspeptic rural black Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, S J; Salvador, B; Nainkin, J; Majiki, S; Stevens, H; Atherstone, A

    2000-11-01

    Evidence that chronic gastric Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is an aetiological factor in dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma and lymphoma has led to the suggestion that all serologically positive dyspeptic patients should be treated empirically with antibiotics to eradicate the infection, without endoscopic diagnosis. The following study was performed to determine whether such a policy would prove to be of benefit in rural Africa, where endoscopic facilities are lacking and infection rates high. Four district clinics were visited and 97 consecutive patients with persistent upper gastro-intestinal symptoms studied. After history-taking and physical examination, a blood sample was taken for HP serology (IgG anti-HP EIA) and endoscopy was performed. In comparison with similar studies in westernised countries HP was considerably more common (80%), and similar to that reported for the background population (83-86%), but peptic ulceration (17%) and gastric cancer (1%) were not. HP status and antibody levels failed to predict the presence of serious disease; patients with 'alarm' signs (78%), cancer (78%) and peptic ulcers (81%) had similar seropositivity rates to patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (81%). Interestingly, many patients with distal oesophagitis were seronegative (40%). Haemoglobin concentrations and nutritional status were similar in HP-positive and negative patients. On the basis of published decision analysis strategies, empiric treatment of HP-positive patients with uncomplicated dyspepsia could be expected to produce symptomatic relief in 50% of cases, but would have delayed the diagnosis of 3 cases of cancer if patients over the age of 45 were included. The lack of association between HP serology and upper gastro-intestinal disease indicates that serological investigation cannot substitute for endoscopy in the management of black Africans with dyspepsia, and that empiric anti-HP therapy cannot be justified.

  17. The Dialectics of African Education and Western Discourses: Counter-Hegemonic Perspectives. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Handel Kashope, Ed.; Abdi, Ali A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "The Dialectics of African Education and Western Discourses" addresses how continental Africans who have worked or are currently working in the Canadian academy address their dual legacy of African and Euro-American knowledge paradigms. Reflecting a range of approaches to hegemonic Euro-American paradigms that can be summarized as…

  18. Forging a Black identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Chevannes

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Rastafarians: sounds of cultural dissonance [revised and updated editionj. LEONARD E. BARRETT, SR. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988. xviii + 302 pp. (Paper US$ 11.95 Rasta and resistance: from Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney. HORACE CAMPBELL. Trenton NJ: Africa World Press, 1987. xiii + 236 pp. (Cloth US$32.95, Paper US$ 10.95 Garvey's children: the legacy of Marcus Garvey. TONY SEWELL. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1990. 128 pp. (Paper £ 17.95 The central theme linking these three titles is the evolution of a black identity among English-speaking Caribbean peoples, in particular Jamaicans. Consequently all three authors cover the two most important historical phenomena in Caribbean black nationalism, namely Garveyism and Rastafari, one focusing on the former and the other two focusing on the latter.

  19. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Profiles > Black/African American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 ... to receive late or no prenatal care. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  20. HIV prevention for Black women: structural barriers and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Peter A; Williams, Charmaine C; Massaquoi, Notisha; Brown, Marsha; Logie, Carmen

    2008-08-01

    Black women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in North America. The purpose of this investigation was to explore Black Canadian women's perspectives on HIV risk and prevention. Four 90-minute focus groups (n=26) and six key informant interviews were conducted in Toronto with Black women of African and Caribbean descent and low socioeconomic status. Data analysis revealed a number of potent barriers to existing HIV preventive interventions: stigma, cultural disconnections, lack of engagement of Black religious institutions, and multiple intersecting forms of discrimination. Recommended HIV prevention opportunities included the Black church, mainstreaming, health care providers, and ethno-specific agencies. HIV prevention strategies for North American Black women, rather than focusing on HIV and individual risk behaviors, may benefit from a primary focus on social and structural factors (e.g., promoting gender equality, economic opportunity, women-controlled prevention technologies and combating racism in health care) thereby integrating HIV prevention into the larger context of community health and survival.

  1. The Influence of Religious Attendance on Smoking Among Black Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Janice V; Parker, Lauren J; Beadle-Holder, Michelle; Ezema, Ashley; Bruce, Marino A; Thorpe, Roland J

    2017-04-16

    Cigarette smoking poses a major public health problem that disproportionately affects Blacks and men. Religious attendance has been shown to be positively associated with health promotion and disease prevention among the Black population. In light of this evidence, this study examined if a similar relationship could be found for religious attendance and smoking in Black men. The National Survey of American Life (NSAL) study sampled 1,271 African American men and 562 Black Caribbean men. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between religious attendance and cigarette smoking. After adjusting for age, marital status, household income, education, foreign born status, importance of prayer and major stress, men who reported attending religious services almost every day (odds ratio (OR) = 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.07, 0.62) and weekly (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.29, 0.77) had lower odds of being a current smoker compared to men who reported never attending religious services. Conclusions/Importance: Findings suggest a health benefit in attending religious services on cigarette smoking among Black men in a nationally representative sample. In spite of lower church attendance in Black men in general, our results demonstrate that religious service attendance may still serve as a buffer against cigarette use. Given the emergent attention on faith-based health promotion among men, this conclusion is relevant and timely.

  2. Black women’s ‘two-ness’ in african-american literature: can black and white worlds join together? = A dualidade de mulheres negras na literatura afro-americana: os mundos negro e branco podem se unir?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Endoença Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how black women keep contacts with both black and white worlds in novels written by African-American female writers. In Toni Morrison’s (1970 The Bluest Eye, Pecola Breedlove keeps contact with the white world through her assimilationist behavior; in Alice Walker’s (1982 The Color Purple, Celie freezes herself in the black world by playing the role of the nationalist Negro; finally, in Lorraine Hansberry’s (1987 A Raisin in the Sun, Mama Younger joins black and white worlds together when she develops a catalyst agenda, as she moves to a white neighborhood.O artigo discute como mulheres negras mantêm contato com os mundos negro e branco em romances de escritoras afroamericanas. Em O Olho Mais Azul, de Toni Morrison (1970, Pecola Breedlove se alia ao mundo branco pelo comportamento assimilacionista; em A Cor Púrpura, de Alice Walker (1982, Celie se isola no mundo negro ao assumir o papel do Negro nacionalista; por fim, em Uma Cereja ao Sol, de Lorraine Hansberry (1987, Mama Younger aproxima o mundo negro e branco quando se torna catalista, indo morar num bairro branco.

  3. African and African American Children's and Adolescent Literature in the Classroom: A Critical Guide. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian, Ed.; Napoli, Mary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The essays in this collection discuss multicultural issues in children's and adolescent literature, focusing particularly on African and African American cultures. They challenge everyone's understanding of what, in an age of globalization, multicultural texts really are. Cumulatively, these essays illustrate multicultural literature's power to…

  4. Chronic medical conditions and major depressive disorder: Differential role of positive religious coping among african americans, caribbean blacks and non-hispanic whites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the association between multiple chronic conditions and MDD may exist regardless of race and ethnicity, race/ethnicity may shape how positive religious coping buffers this association. This finding sheds more light onto race and ethnic differences in protective effects of religiosity on mental health of populations.

  5. Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.C.den

    1980-01-01

    The present paper comprises a review of the Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia. Six species, belonging to four genera and three families are treated, including Pseudocorynactis caribbeorum gen. nov. spec. nov., a species with tentacular acrospheres containing the largest spirocysts ever

  6. An analysis of stereotype threat in African American engineering students at predominantly White, ethnically diverse, and historically Black colleges and universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, David M.

    The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The researcher collected demographic and survey data using the Stereotype Vulnerability Scale (SVS). The study was offered to the entire population of African American engineering students at each college using an online survey. Results were analyzed using MANOVA and Pearson's correlational statistical analyses to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that little differences exist between students' scores on an assessment of stereotype vulnerability, with a few areas showing that HBCUs and ethnically diverse universities are doing a similar job in addressing perceptions of their African American engineering students. Finding also revealed that the percentage of African American students at a university did not correlate with the scores on the SVS accept on questions related to the personal feelings students have about their race. The strongest findings related to the differences in male and female students across the universities. African American female engineering students appeared to perceive more stereotype threat than did their male counterparts; although, this fining was not statistically significant. Overall, no statistically significant differences were found between students' perceptions of stereotype threat at the three types of universities. Future research should expand the number of survey participants at the current universities, add more HBCUs to the study population, run similar experiments in different parts of the country, compare stereotype threat in private and elite universities, use ethnically diverse universities as models for minority student development, and use new or improved survey instruments

  7. Caribbean development: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sutton

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reviews development in the Caribbean, especially since 1990 to the present, and highlights future development prospects. Author discusses 2 reports from 2005 on present developments problems in the Caribbean region: the economics-focussed 'A time to choose: Caribbean development in the 21st century' by the World Bank, and the UN ECLAC report 'The Millennium Development Goals: a Latin American and Caribbean perspective', with a broader, also social and political, development agenda. He relates what both reports recommend for the Caribbean on the basis of their evaluations of past development. The World Bank report advocates a move toward the services sector, including tourism, offshore education, ICT services, and health services as most viable. The ECLAC report notes some social and political advances in comparison to other developing countries, but also remaining problems and inequalities. The author finds that the World Bank report's neoliberal, one-size-fits-all approach is not mindful of specific Caribbean realities, while the ECLAC study is more sensitive to local realities, and espouses a mixed economy. He thus considers the ECLAC approach preferable, but argues that it needs to go further, as it excludes Cuba and Haiti as atypical states.

  8. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T.

    2010-01-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy. PMID:22822291

  9. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T

    2010-03-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy.

  10. Home to Hargeisa: Migritude, Pan-Africanism, and the Politics of Movement from Banjo to Black Mamba Boy

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Christopher Ian

    2015-01-01

    French literary theorist Jacques Chevrier argues that immigration is at the heart of contemporary African literature. He calls this new corpus of African literature migritude. Migritude literature provides both a new and sophisticated way of understanding immigration in the era of global capitalism and a critical engagement with it; it lends new perspective to the study of African literature itself by bringing to the fore conditions of diaspora, movement, and migration. Further, these younger...

  11. Perceptions of body size, obesity threat and the willingness to lose weight among black South African adults: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okop, Kufre Joseph; Mukumbang, Ferdinand C; Mathole, Thubelihle; Levitt, Naomi; Puoane, Thandi

    2016-04-29

    The obesity epidemic is associated with rising rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among adults, particularly in countries undergoing rapid urbanisation and nutrition transition. This study explored the perceptions of body size, obesity risk awareness, and the willingness to lose weight among adults in a resource-limited urban community to inform appropriate community-based interventions for the prevention of obesity. This is a descriptive qualitative study. Semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with purposively selected black men and women aged 35-70 years living in an urban South African township. Weight and height measurements were taken, and the participants were classified into optimal weight, overweight and obese groups based on their body mass index (Kg/m(2)). Participants were asked to discuss on perceived obesity threat and risk of cardiovascular disease. Information on body image perceptions and the willingness to lose excess body weight were also discussed. Discussions were conducted in the local language (isiXhosa), transcribed and translated into English. Data was analysed using the thematic analysis approach. Participants generally believed that obesity could lead to health conditions such as heart attack, stroke, diabetes, and hypertension. However, severity of obesity was perceived differently in the groups. Men in all groups and women in the obese and optimal weight groups perceived obesity to be a serious threat to their health, whereas the overweight women did not. Obese participants who had experienced chronic disease conditions indicated strong perceptions of risk of obesity and cardiovascular disease. Obese participants, particularly men, expressed willingness to lose weight, compared to the men and women who were overweight. The belief that overweight is 'normal' and not a disease, subjective norms, and inaccessibility to physical activity facilities, negatively influenced participants' readiness to lose weight. Low

  12. Third molar maturity index (I3M) for assessing age of majority in a black African population in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavrić, Jelena; Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Brkić, Hrvoje; Gregov, Jelena; Viva, Serena; Rey, Laura; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of legal age, also known as age of majority, is a controversial issue as there are few body biomarkers or evidence during late adolescence differentiating a subject from being a minor or adult. The third molar was recognized as a suitable site for age examination in late adolescence. We analyzed the development of the left mandibular third molar by the third molar maturity index (I3M) and a specific cut-off value of I3M = 0.08, established by Cameriere et al. in 2008 and used it for discriminating between minors and adult black Africans from Gaborone, Botswana. A final sample of panoramic radiographs (OPTs) of 1294 people (582 males and 712 females) aged between 13 and 23 years was evaluated. The real age decreased as I3M gradually increased. There was no statistically significant difference in the third molar development evaluated using I3M between males and females (p > 0.05) across different I3M classes. Results of 2 × 2 contingency tables for different cut-off values indicated that I3M = 0.08 was useful in discriminating between adults and minors. Precisely, for I3M = 0.08, the values of accuracy or overall fraction of correctly classified were 0.91 in males with a 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) of 0.88 to 0.93 and 0.92 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 0.93) in females. Values of sensitivity of the test or the proportion of participants being 18 years and older were 0.88 (95 % CI, 0.87 to 0.90) in males and 0.88 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 0.93) in females, while values of specificity or proportion of individuals younger than 18 who have I3M age of 18 years in Botswana. Further studies should address the usefulness of this method and specific cut-off for different adolescent populations.

  13. Discrimination, arrest history, and major depressive disorder in the U.S. Black population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Deidre M; Lighty, Quenesha; Yang, Lawrence H; Greenspoon, Michelle; Miles, Rashun J; Slonim, Tzachi; Isaac, Kathleen; Brown, Monique J

    2014-09-30

    Everyday discrimination contributes negatively to depressive symptomatology among Blacks in the US and being arrested could add to this depression. Using data from the National Survey on American Life, the present study determined the association between an arrest history and major depressive disorder (MDD), while accounting for discrimination among African Americans, US-born Afro-Caribbeans and first-generation Black immigrants. Findings from logistic regression analyses adjusted for discrimination suggested an arrest history is associated with 12-month MDD (Adjusted OR=1.47; 95% CI=1.02-2.10) and lifetime MDD (Adjusted OR=1.56 CI=1.17-2.09). Accounting for drug and alcohol dependence attenuated the association between arrest history and 12-month MDD, but not lifetime MDD. The associations between arrest history and both 12-month and lifetime MDD, and discrimination and lifetime MDD varied by ethnic/immigrant group. Specifically, while the association between arrest history and MDD (both 12-month and lifetime) was strongest among US-born Afro-Caribbeans, evidence consistent with the immigrant paradox, the association between discrimination and lifetime MDD was particularly relevant for first-generation Black immigrants, suggesting discrimination may hinder the protection of first-generation status. Mental health prevention and treatment programs should target the stress associated with being arrested and experiencing discrimination among US Blacks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adapting an Evidence-Based HIV Intervention for At-Risk African American College Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities Who Use Alcohol and Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla Marie Sawyer-Kurian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of the high prevalence of HIV incidence among African American adolescent and adult women along with substance use and risky sexual behavior among university students necessitates the development of a HIV intervention specifically addressing culture, gender, and college factors for female African American university students. The woman-focused HIV intervention was chosen for adaptation because it has been shown to be efficacious with reducing risk for African American women who use alcohol and drugs, and has been successfully adapted 7 times. The target population was African American college women enrolled at a historically Black university who use alcohol and other drugs, and who engaged in risky sex behaviors. To understand and assess the needs of this population, we conducted four focus groups with African American college women, two in-depth interviews with faculty, and a combination of in-depth interviews and focus groups with student affairs and health staff that were analyzed using content analysis. From this analysis, several themes emerged that were used to adapt the intervention. Emerging themes included challenges related to identity and societal stereotypes, lack of knowledge about sexual health (i.e., negotiating safer sex and the function of female and male anatomies, high incidents of pregnancy, negative consequences related to alcohol and marijuana use, and the need to incorporate testimonies from college students, media enhancements, and role-plays to convey intervention messages. After the preliminary adaptation, 11 college women reviewed the adapted intervention and provided positive feedback. Plans for future research are discussed.

  15. Black Like Me: How Idealized Images of Caucasian Women Affect Body Esteem and Mood States of African-American Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Cynthia M.

    Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…

  16. Experiences of racial discrimination and relation to sexual risk for HIV among a sample of urban black and African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, E; Santana, M C; Bowleg, L; Welles, S L; Horsburgh, C R; Raj, A

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to examine racial discrimination and relation to sexual risk for HIV among a sample of urban black and African American men. Participants of this cross-sectional study were black and African American men (N = 703) between the ages of 18 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of reported racial discrimination to the following: (1) sex trade involvement, (2) recent unprotected sex, and (3) reporting a number of sex partners in the past 12 months greater than the sample average. The majority of the sample (96%) reported racial discrimination. In adjusted analyses, men reporting high levels of discrimination were significantly more likely to report recent sex trade involvement (buying and/or selling) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) range = 1.7-2.3), having recent unprotected vaginal sex with a female partner (AOR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.0), and reporting more than four sex partners in the past year (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI, 1.1-1.9). Findings highlight the link between experiences of racial discrimination and men's sexual risk for HIV.

  17. A preliminary factor analytic investigation into the firstorder factor structure of the Fifteen Factor Plus (15FQ+ on a sample of Black South African managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seretse Moyo

    2011-10-01

    Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to undertake a factor analytic investigation of the first-order factor structure of the 15FQ+. Motivation for the study: The construct validity of the 15FQ+, as a measure of personality, is necessary even though it is insufficient to justify its use in personnel selection. Research design, approach and method: The researchers evaluated the fit of the measurement model, which the structure and scoring key of the 15FQ+ implies, in a quantitative study that used an ex post facto correlation design through structural equation modelling. They conducted a secondary data analysis. They selected a sample of 241 Black South African managers from a large 15FQ+ database. Main findings: The researchers found good measurement model fit. The measurement model parameter estimates were worrying. The magnitude of the estimated model parameters suggests that the items generally do not reflect the latent personality dimensions the designers intended them to with a great degree of precision. The items are reasonably noisy measures of the latent variables they represent. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should use the 15FQ+ carefully on Black South African managers until further local research evidence becomes available. Contribution/value-add: The study is a catalyst to trigger the necessary additional research we need to establish convincingly the psychometric credentials of the 15FQ+ as a valuable assessment tool in South Africa.

  18. [Mixed connective tissue disease: prevalence and clinical characteristics in African black, study of 7 cases in Gabon and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missounga, Landry; Ba, Josaphat Iba; Nseng Nseng Ondo, Ingrid Rosalie; Nziengui Madjinou, Maria Ines Carine; Malekou, Doris; Mouendou Mouloungui, Emeline Gracia; Nzengue, Emmanuel Ecke; Boguikouma, Jean Bruno; Kombila, Moussavou

    2017-01-01

    The literature reports that mixed connective tissue disease seems more frequent in the black population and among Asians. This study aims to determine the prevalence of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) among connective tissue disorders and all rheumatologic pathologies in a hospital population in Gabon as well as to describe the clinical features of this disease. We conducted a retrospective study by reviewing the medical records of patients treated for mixed connective tissue disease (Kasukawa criteria) and other entities of connective tissue disorders (ACR criteria) in the Division of Rheumatology at the University Hospital in Libreville between January 2010 and December 2015. For each case of MCTD the parameters studied were articular and extra-articular manifestations, anti-U1RNP antibodies levels, patient's evolution. Over a period of 6 years, data were collected by medical records of 7 patients out of 6050 patients and 67 cases of connective tissue disorders, reflecting a prevalence of 0.11% and 10.44% respectively. the 7 patients were women (100%), with an average age of 39.5 years. Articular manifestations included: polyarthritis, myalgias, chubby fingers and Raynaud's phenomenon in 87.5%, 87.5%, 28.6% and 14% respectively. The 7 patients had high anti-U1RNP antibodies levels, ranging between 5 and 35N (N≤ 7 IU). A case of death due to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was certified. This is the largest case series of MCTD reported in Black Africa. The disease seems to be rare among the black Africans; the reason could be genetic. The demographic and clinical aspects appear similar to those in Caucasians, Asians and Blacks except for a low frequency of Raynaud?s phenomenon among Blacks.

  19. Vital Signs: Racial Disparities in Age-Specific Mortality Among Blacks or African Americans - United States, 1999-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Croft, Janet B; Liu, Yong; Lu, Hua; Eke, Paul I; Giles, Wayne H

    2017-05-05

    Although the overall life expectancy at birth has increased for both blacks and whites and the gap between these populations has narrowed, disparities in life expectancy and the leading causes of death for blacks compared with whites in the United States remain substantial. Understanding how factors that influence these disparities vary across the life span might enhance the targeting of appropriate interventions. Trends during 1999-2015 in mortality rates for the leading causes of death were examined by black and white race and age group. Multiple 2014 and 2015 national data sources were analyzed to compare blacks with whites in selected age groups by sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health behaviors, health-related quality of life indicators, use of health services, and chronic conditions. During 1999-2015, age-adjusted death rates decreased significantly in both populations, with rates declining more sharply among blacks for most leading causes of death. Thus, the disparity gap in all-cause mortality rates narrowed from 33% in 1999 to 16% in 2015. However, during 2015, blacks still had higher death rates than whites for all-cause mortality in all groups aged blacks in age groups deaths among blacks (especially cardiovascular disease and cancer and their risk factors) across the life span and create equal opportunities for health.

  20. "Black Like Me": Reframing Blackness for Decolonial Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, George J. Sefa

    2018-01-01

    From a particular vantage point, as an African-born scholar with a politics to affirm my Black subjectivity and Indigeneity in a diasporic context, my article engages a (re)theorization of Blackness for decolonial politics. Building on existing works of how Black scholars, themselves, have theorized Blackness, and recognizing the fluid,…

  1. Adolescent experiences of violence and relation to violence perpetration beyond young adulthood among an urban sample of Black and African American males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Lawrence, Danielle A; Santana, M C; Welles, C Seth L; Horsburgh, C Robert; Silverman, Jay G; Rich, John A; Raj, Anita

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if experiences of physical violence during early and late adolescence (12-21 years) places urban Black males at increased risk for interpersonal violence perpetration beyond young adulthood (30 years and older). Participants of this cross-sectional study were Black and African American men (N = 455) between the ages of 30 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the Northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of adolescent experiences of violence to: (1) past 6 month street violence involvement and (2) past year intimate partner violence perpetration. Ten percent of the sample reported that they experienced adolescent victimization. Men reporting adolescent victimization were significantly more likely to report past 6-month street violence involvement (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.7-6.3) and past 6 month intimate partner violence perpetration (AOR = 2.8, 95 % CI = 1.8-5.4) compared to men who did not report such victimization. Study findings suggest that in order to prevent adulthood perpetration of violence, more work is needed to address experiences of victimization among young Black males, particularly violence experienced during adolescence.

  2. A hermeneutic phenomenological study of the experiences of female African American undergraduate engineering students at a predominantly White and an historically Black institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frillman, Sharron Ann

    2011-12-01

    This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, a traditionally White institution. Interviews provided insights into the "lived" experiences of these young women and the factors they believe have contributed to their success in their respective engineering programs. Data analysis involved coding each participant's responses to interview questions using Atlas.ti, a powerful qualitative data analysis tool. This generated 181 codes that were further categorized into nine emergent themes, indicating the potential for extensive associations among the variables. The emergent themes are as follows: (1) Demographic information/special circumstances, (2) Personal attributes and characteristics, (3) Personal insights, (4) Sense of mission, (5) Sources of negative stress, (6) Success strategies, (7) Various forms of support, (8) Would/would not have made it to where she is now, and (9) Being African American and female in engineering. Analysis of these themes and their relationships led to the development of the Frillman Model of Emergent Themes in Female African American Engineering Students. Success. In addressing similarities and differences, three overriding theme categories emerged. These were: (1) Four personhood themes and dual social identity theme; (2) Environmental input and response theme; and (3) Outcome emergent theme of Would/Would not have made it to where she is now. Recommendations were made for future research to expand upon this exploratory study.

  3. Caribbean health Policy Briefing

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Caribbean health. Diversity in local food production to combat obesity. Did you know? • The World Health Organization recommends that children should eat 400 g of fruit and vegetables per day. • Drip irrigation can provide the entire water requirements for vegetable crops using 40-50% less water. • About 60% of the ...

  4. IDRC in the Caribbean

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since the early 1970s, IDRC has supported the efforts of researchers in the English-speaking Caribbean to reduce poverty and inequality, restore degraded coastal ecosystems, and protect communities against disease and natural disasters. Research has helped to improve farming and fishing practices and tackle.

  5. DAR, a new RhD variant involving exons 4, 5, and 7, often in linkage with ceAR, a new Rhce variant frequently found in African blacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemker, M. B.; Ligthart, P. C.; Berger, L.; van Rhenen, D. J.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Wijk, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    The highly polymorphic Rh system is encoded by 2 homologous genes RHD and RHCE. Gene rearrangements, deletions, or point mutations may cause partial D and CE antigens. In this study, a new RHD variant, DAR, and a new RHCE variant, ceAR, are described in 4 Dutch African Blacks. Serologically, DAR

  6. Career Aspirations versus Career Actualizations of African American Executive Level Administrators in Higher Education at Historically Black Colleges and Universities in a State in the Southeast: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Kristen LeToria

    2013-01-01

    Despite affirmative action, gender inequities persist at institutions of higher learning in the United States. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the perceptions of African American women serving in executive-level leadership positions at historically black colleges and universities in a state the Southeast. Participants…

  7. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer is predicted to contribute towards colorectal cancer in young South African blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramsay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A disproportionately large number of young (<50 years black patients present with colorectal cancer (CRC in South Africa. Although a phenomenon previously described elsewhere in Africa, its specificmolecular basis,whether sporadic or hereditary, has not been established. Molecular analysis of these tumours could link them to the features known to be associated with specific types of hereditary colorectal cancer, specifically through examination of levels of microsatellite instability, promoter methylation and the presence or absence of KRAS and BRAF mutations. The molecular features of cancer tissue samples from 44 CRC cases of black and white patients in South Africa were accordingly retrospectively analysed without knowledge of family history. Compared with samples from older blacks (>50 years, those from young black patients presented more often with a low methylation phenotype (CIMP-L and high levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-H. Furthermore, as determined by real-time PCR using probe technology, the tissues from35%of young blacks showed mutations within exon 1 of the KRAS gene. The BRAF-V600E mutation was only evident in the case of a single young black patient. Based on these results it seems likely that a proportion of CRC cases in young black patients from South Africa develop through the accumulation of mutations resulting in a mismatch repair deficiency linked to MSI-H and, possibly, germline mutations in the mismatch repair genes. The features in these patients are consistent with a diagnosis of the Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC syndrome. This finding has important implications for patient management and suggests that family members may be at high risk for CRC.

  8. African Retentions in Blues and Jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Eddie S.

    1979-01-01

    The perseverance of African musical characteristics among American Blacks is an historic reality. African retentions have been recorded in Black music of the antebellum period. Various African scales and rhythms permeate Black American music today as evidenced in the retentions found in blues and jazz. (RLV)

  9. Excerpt from Negro Comrades of the Crown: African Americans and the British Empire Fight the U.S. before Emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Horne

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Negro Comrades of the Crown unveils the amazing history of the alliances that African Americans in search of individual and group freedom forged throughout the antebellum decades with the British Empire. Black soldiers were recruited by the British, who had their own imperial and diplomatic interests, in opposing the United States. Whether in the War of 1812, in raids from Spanish Florida, in the Caribbean, or in opposing the secession of Texas from Mexico, they eagerly joined in battles against the slave republic and its citizens.

  10. Rectal prolapse associated with a healed pelvic fracture in a pregnant free-ranging African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis. Part 2 : surgery and necropsy : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olivier

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The oedematous and traumatised protruding section of the rectal tissue of an adult free-ranging female African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis was surgically amputated. Immediately before completion of surgery, the rhinoceros died of anaesthetic-related cardiac arrest. At necropsy a deformed pelvis and sacrum associated with a healed fracture of the left ileal wing were noted. New bone formation in and around the left ventral sacral foramina may have resulted in neuropathy of particularly the 3rd and 4th left ventral sacral nerves, which (in the horse supply the majority of the nerve fibres innervating the caudal rectum and anus. The cause of the injury is not known, although back injuries, presumably sustained during mating by bulls, have been recorded in white rhinoceros. An encounter with elephants could also have been responsible for the injury in this case.

  11. Reconstructing the population genetic history of the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Moreno-Estrada

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean basin is home to some of the most complex interactions in recent history among previously diverged human populations. Here, we investigate the population genetic history of this region by characterizing patterns of genome-wide variation among 330 individuals from three of the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, two mainland (Honduras, Colombia, and three Native South American (Yukpa, Bari, and Warao populations. We combine these data with a unique database of genomic variation in over 3,000 individuals from diverse European, African, and Native American populations. We use local ancestry inference and tract length distributions to test different demographic scenarios for the pre- and post-colonial history of the region. We develop a novel ancestry-specific PCA (ASPCA method to reconstruct the sub-continental origin of Native American, European, and African haplotypes from admixed genomes. We find that the most likely source of the indigenous ancestry in Caribbean islanders is a Native South American component shared among inland Amazonian tribes, Central America, and the Yucatan peninsula, suggesting extensive gene flow across the Caribbean in pre-Columbian times. We find evidence of two pulses of African migration. The first pulse--which today is reflected by shorter, older ancestry tracts--consists of a genetic component more similar to coastal West African regions involved in early stages of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The second pulse--reflected by longer, younger tracts--is more similar to present-day West-Central African populations, supporting historical records of later transatlantic deportation. Surprisingly, we also identify a Latino-specific European component that has significantly diverged from its parental Iberian source populations, presumably as a result of small European founder population size. We demonstrate that the ancestral components in admixed genomes can be traced back to distinct sub

  12. Reconstructing the Population Genetic History of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gravel, Simon; Zakharia, Fouad; McCauley, Jacob L.; Byrnes, Jake K.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia A.; Martínez, Ricardo J.; Hedges, Dale J.; Morris, Richard W.; Eng, Celeste; Sandoval, Karla; Acevedo-Acevedo, Suehelay; Norman, Paul J.; Layrisse, Zulay; Parham, Peter; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Burchard, Esteban González; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Martin, Eden R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    The Caribbean basin is home to some of the most complex interactions in recent history among previously diverged human populations. Here, we investigate the population genetic history of this region by characterizing patterns of genome-wide variation among 330 individuals from three of the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola), two mainland (Honduras, Colombia), and three Native South American (Yukpa, Bari, and Warao) populations. We combine these data with a unique database of genomic variation in over 3,000 individuals from diverse European, African, and Native American populations. We use local ancestry inference and tract length distributions to test different demographic scenarios for the pre- and post-colonial history of the region. We develop a novel ancestry-specific PCA (ASPCA) method to reconstruct the sub-continental origin of Native American, European, and African haplotypes from admixed genomes. We find that the most likely source of the indigenous ancestry in Caribbean islanders is a Native South American component shared among inland Amazonian tribes, Central America, and the Yucatan peninsula, suggesting extensive gene flow across the Caribbean in pre-Columbian times. We find evidence of two pulses of African migration. The first pulse—which today is reflected by shorter, older ancestry tracts—consists of a genetic component more similar to coastal West African regions involved in early stages of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The second pulse—reflected by longer, younger tracts—is more similar to present-day West-Central African populations, supporting historical records of later transatlantic deportation. Surprisingly, we also identify a Latino-specific European component that has significantly diverged from its parental Iberian source populations, presumably as a result of small European founder population size. We demonstrate that the ancestral components in admixed genomes can be traced back to distinct sub

  13. Reconstructing the population genetic history of the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gravel, Simon; Zakharia, Fouad; McCauley, Jacob L; Byrnes, Jake K; Gignoux, Christopher R; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia A; Martínez, Ricardo J; Hedges, Dale J; Morris, Richard W; Eng, Celeste; Sandoval, Karla; Acevedo-Acevedo, Suehelay; Norman, Paul J; Layrisse, Zulay; Parham, Peter; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Burchard, Esteban González; Cuccaro, Michael L; Martin, Eden R; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2013-11-01

    The Caribbean basin is home to some of the most complex interactions in recent history among previously diverged human populations. Here, we investigate the population genetic history of this region by characterizing patterns of genome-wide variation among 330 individuals from three of the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola), two mainland (Honduras, Colombia), and three Native South American (Yukpa, Bari, and Warao) populations. We combine these data with a unique database of genomic variation in over 3,000 individuals from diverse European, African, and Native American populations. We use local ancestry inference and tract length distributions to test different demographic scenarios for the pre- and post-colonial history of the region. We develop a novel ancestry-specific PCA (ASPCA) method to reconstruct the sub-continental origin of Native American, European, and African haplotypes from admixed genomes. We find that the most likely source of the indigenous ancestry in Caribbean islanders is a Native South American component shared among inland Amazonian tribes, Central America, and the Yucatan peninsula, suggesting extensive gene flow across the Caribbean in pre-Columbian times. We find evidence of two pulses of African migration. The first pulse--which today is reflected by shorter, older ancestry tracts--consists of a genetic component more similar to coastal West African regions involved in early stages of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The second pulse--reflected by longer, younger tracts--is more similar to present-day West-Central African populations, supporting historical records of later transatlantic deportation. Surprisingly, we also identify a Latino-specific European component that has significantly diverged from its parental Iberian source populations, presumably as a result of small European founder population size. We demonstrate that the ancestral components in admixed genomes can be traced back to distinct sub-continental source

  14. Gender Nonconformity, Discrimination, and Mental Health Among Black South African Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Further Exploration of Unexpected Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo; Bos, Henny; Knox, Justin; Reddy, Vasu

    2016-04-01

    Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated, and to explore more in-depth how gender nonconformity relates to health. Cook et al. found that feminine men were not more likely to be depressed despite the observation that they were more likely to be discriminated against and that discrimination increased the likelihood of depression. This is in contrast to what studies among gay and bisexual men in Western countries have consistently shown. In the current study, 196 Black South African MSM (ages between 18 and 40; M age, 26.65 years) were surveyed. Assessments included stressors (identity confusion, internalized homophobia, and sexual orientation-based discrimination) and resilience factors (openness about one's sexual orientation, social support, and identification with the gay community). We observed that gender-nonconforming men were not more likely to be depressed despite having experienced more discrimination, which was associated with depression. The same relationships were observed when considering anxiety as the mental health outcome. We found an indirect negative effect of gender nonconformity on depression through internalized homophobia, suggesting that, in this population, internalized homophobia masks the effect of discrimination on mental distress. Implications for the sexual minority stress model, used to guide our analyses, are discussed. Further research is needed to disentangle the complex relationship between gender nonconformity and mental health among MSM populations.

  15. Gender Nonconformity, Discrimination, and Mental Health among Black South African Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Further Exploration of Unexpected Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo; Bos, Henny; Knox, Justin; Reddy, Vasu

    2015-01-01

    Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated, and to explore more in-depth how gender nonconformity relates to health. Cook et al. found that feminine men were not more likely to be depressed despite the observation that they were more likely to be discriminated against and that discrimination increased the likelihood of depression. This is in contrast to what studies among gay and bisexual men in Western countries have consistently shown. In the current study, 196 Black South African MSM (ages between 18 and 40; mean age, 26.65 years) were surveyed. Assessments included stressors (identity confusion, internalized homophobia, and sexual orientation-based discrimination) and resilience factors (openness about one’s sexual orientation, social support, and identification with the gay community). We observed that gender-nonconforming men were not more likely to be depressed despite having experienced more discrimination, which was associated with depression. The same relationships were observed when considering anxiety as the mental health outcome. We found an indirect negative effect of gender nonconformity on depression through internalized homophobia, suggesting that, in this population, internalized homophobia masks the effect of discrimination on mental distress. Implications for the sexual minority stress model, used to guide our analyses, are discussed. Further research is needed to entangle the complex relationship between gender nonconformity and mental health among MSM populations. PMID:26067298

  16. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Zelda; Rijken, Dingeman C; Hoekstra, Tiny; Conradie, Karin R; Jerling, Johann C; Pieters, Marlien

    2013-01-01

    Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT). We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009) but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central) obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%). Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  17. Relationship between estimated cardiovascular disease risk and insulin resistance in a black African population living with HIV: a cross-sectional study from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumegni, Steve Raoul; Bigna, Jean Joel; Ama Moor Epse Nkegoum, Vicky Jocelyne; Nansseu, Jobert Richie; Assah, Felix K; Jingi, Ahmadou Musa; Guewo-Fokeng, Magellan; Leumi, Steve; Katte, Jean-Claude; Dehayem, Mesmin Y; Mfeukeu Kuate, Liliane; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2017-08-11

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic diseases are growing concerns among patients with HIV infection as a consequence of the improving survival of this population. We aimed to assess the relationship between CVD risk and insulin resistance in a group of black African individuals with HIV infection. This cross-sectional study involved patients with HIV infection aged 30-74 years and followed up at the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon. Absolute CVD risk was calculated using the Framingham and the DAD CVD risk equations while the HOMA-IR index was used to assess insulin resistance (index ≥2.1). A total of 452 patients (361 women; 80%) were screened. The mean age was 44.4 years and most of the respondents were on antiretroviral therapy (88.5%). The median 5-year cardiovascular risk was 0.7% (25th-75th percentiles: 0.2-2.0) and 0.6% (0.3-1.3) according to the Framingham and DAD equations respectively. Of all participants, 47.3% were insulin resistant. The Framingham equation derived absolute CVD risk was significantly associated with insulin resistance; while no linear association was found using the DAD equation. The relationship between cardiovascular risk and insulin resistance in black African patients with HIV infection seems to depend on the cardiovascular risk equation used. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelda de Lange

    Full Text Available Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT. We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009 but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%. Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  19. Mortality among African American women with sarcoidosis: data from the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukey, M H; Berman, J S; Boggs, D A; White, L F; Rosenberg, L; Cozier, Y C

    2013-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that disproportionately affects black females.  Few studies have specifically addressed causes of death in this population. To assess rates and causes of death among women with sarcoidosis in a prospective cohort study of U.S. black women. The Black Women's Health Study is a follow-up study of 59,000 U.S. black women aged 21-69 (median age 38) at entry in 1995.  Data on demographic and lifestyle factors and medical conditions, including sarcoidosis, were obtained through biennial questionnaires.  Deaths and causes of death from 1995 through 2009 among study subjects were identified from National Death Index data. We assessed mortality rates among women with and without a history of sarcoidosis.  Poisson regression models were used to estimate age-adjusted mortality rates. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for mortality and 95% confidence intervals. A total of 121 deaths occurred among 1,192 women with a history of sarcoidosis and 2813 deaths among women without sarcoidosis.  Mortality was greater at every age among women with sarcoidosis and the overall multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio was 2.44 (95% CI 2.03-2.93, p<0.0001). Of the deaths among women with sarcoidosis, 24.7% were directly attributable to sarcoidosis. In the Black Women's Health Study, women with sarcoidosis were more than twice as likely to die as women without the disease, with many of the deaths directly attributable to sarcoidosis.  Sarcoidosis is an important cause of premature death among black women with the disease.

  20. Within-group Ethnic Differences of Black Male STEM Majors and Factors Affecting Their Persistence in College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Y. Williamson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined how familial and institutional factors interact with the academic experiences of a diverse group of Black males enrolled as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM majors at one university. Ogbu’s (1998 Cultural-Ecological Theory of Minority School Performance, a theoretical framework, posits that the manner by which a group achieves minority status, coupled with community and family educational values, impacts academic achievement. Immigrants, voluntary minorities, perform better academically than involuntary minorities (nonimmigrants because they are more accepting of and more likely to adapt to the White middle-class norms upon which schools in the United States are based (Ogbu, 1994, 2004. While the data overall are positive for the sample, when viewed by ethnic group, it was evident the African and Caribbean students are more academically integrated to campus than African American students. The African students, more so than any other ethnic group, are connecting, interacting, and forming relationships with faculty outside of the classroom; conversely, African American students in this study reported having the least amount of effective connections with faculty. This research study found that for the Black male STEM students in this project (a their families are a pivotal force, (b academic experiences vary across ethnicities, (c faculty mediate student success, and (d there is a lack of interactions between ethnic groups (Black Distance on campus.

  1. Breakage is the norm: use of condoms and lubrication in anal sex among Black South African men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Matthew; Sandfort, Theo; Collier, Kate; Lane, Tim; Reddy, Vasu

    2017-04-01

    This paper explores condom use and lubrication practices among Black men who have sex with men in South African townships. Results are from 81 in-depth individual interviews conducted among a purposive sample from four townships surrounding Pretoria as part of a larger qualitative study. Awareness that condoms should be used to have safer anal sex was ubiquitous. Fewer men reported that lubricants should be used to facilitate anal intercourse. Partner pressure and partner distrust were the most common barriers cited for not using condoms and lubricants. Knowledge about condom-lubricant compatibility was rare. Condom problems were a norm, with widespread expectations of condom failure. Men's subjectivities - their perceptions of and preferences for specific brands, types and flavours of condoms and lubricants - influenced engagement with such safer-sex technologies. However, what was available in these settings was often neither what men needed nor preferred. Findings show the need to enhance access to appropriate and comprehensive: safer-sex supplies, health services and health education, and underline the importance of efforts to develop targeted programmes relevant to experiences of men who have sex with men in the South African context.

  2. Staging reproductive aging using Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop + 10 in black urban African women in the Study of Women Entering and in Endocrine Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaff, Nicole G; Snyman, Tracy; Norris, Shane A; Crowther, Nigel J

    2014-11-01

    There has been limited research on accurate staging of the menopausal transition in sub-Saharan African women. Our aim was to assess the usefulness of the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop + 10 (STRAW + 10) criteria in staging ovarian aging in black South African women, examining whether obesity has any effect on the menopausal transition. The study enrolled 702 women aged 40 to 60 years. STRAW + 10 criteria were used to categorize the stages of reproductive aging. The Menopause Rating Scale was used to measure the prevalence of vasomotor symptoms. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol levels were used as supportive criteria for staging. Human immunodeficiency virus status was assessed using a point-of-care method. Reported age at final menstrual period (FMP) was higher in women interviewed within 4 years of FMP (mean [SD], 49.0 [3.80] y) than in women interviewed 10 years or more after FMP (mean [SD], 42.0 [4.06] y; P menopause symptoms. Obesity (body mass index ≥35.0 kg/m) was associated with severe vasomotor symptoms. Reporting of age at FMP is unreliable in women interviewed 4 years or more after the event. STRAW + 10 seems accurate in staging reproductive aging, as confirmed by the strong association of FSH and estradiol levels with the menopausal transition stage. STRAW + 10 may be appropriate for use in resource-limited settings in the absence of biomarkers. Biocultural methods may be useful in assessing the menopausal transition in culturally diverse women.

  3. Virtual Black Spaces: An Anthropological Exploration of African American Online Communities' Racial and Political Agency amid Virtual Universalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, Kamela S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the strategic practice of virtual racial embodiment, as a case study of African Americans attempting to complicate current constructions of race and social justice in new media. I suggest that dominant racial constructions online teeter between racial stereotypes and the absence of race. Virtual racial classification and…

  4. Defensive Localism in White and Black: A Comparative History of European-American and African-American Youth Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Compares European American and African American youth gangs in four historical periods (seaboard, immigrant, racially changing, and hypersegregated cities), showing that differences can be traced to race-specific effects of labor, housing, and consumer markets, government policies, local politics, and organized crime on their communities.…

  5. Rodents of the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup; Raghavan, Maanasa

    2014-01-01

    The Capromyidae (hutias) are endemic rodents of the Caribbean and represent a model of dispersal for non-flying mammals in the Greater Antilles. This family has experienced severe extinctions during the Holocene and its phylogenetic affinities with respect to other caviomorph relatives are still ...... (Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica) hutias. Recent divergences among these western hutias suggest Plio-Pleistocene dispersal waves associated with glacial cycles....

  6. Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors among African American women: the Black cosmetologists promoting health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldon Rai-nesha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women have higher rates of breast cancer mortality than their white counterparts. Studies have suggested that this is partly caused by discovery of cancer at a later stage, highlighting the importance of encouraging early detection of breast cancer in this population. To guide the creation of a breast cancer education intervention and help focus other health educators' and clinicians' health promotion efforts, this study explored whether a cohort of African American women living in San Diego would demonstrate the possession of adequate baseline knowledge about breast cancer screening and adherence to widely recommended screening guidelines. Methods African American women (N = 1,055 from San Diego, California participated in a beauty salon-based survey about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices. Women's ages ranged from 20 to 94 years, with average age of 42.20 (SD = 13.53 years. Thirty-four percent reported completing college and/or some graduate school training, and 52% reported having some college or post high school formal training. Seventy-five percent of the sample reported working outside their home. Participating cosmetologists and their salons were recruited to the study through word-of-mouth referral by highly respected African American community leaders. Results Salon clients reported low rates of adherence to recommended breast cancer screening guidelines. Of the 1,055 participants, 31% reporting performing breast self-exam every month. Of those participants 40 and older, 57% reported having had a clinical breast exam and 43% reported having had a mammogram in the past year. Knowledge of breast cancer was associated with adherence to screening guidelines. While women recognized the serious health threat that breast cancer poses and that early detection of breast cancer is important, only 30% of women reported feeling well informed about the disease. Many participants

  7. Trends in incidence and early outcomes in a Black Afro-Caribbean population from 1999 to 2012: Etude Réalisée en Martinique et Centrée sur l'Incidence des Accidents Vasculaires Cérébraux II Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olindo, Stephane; Chausson, Nicolas; Mejdoubi, Mehdi; Jeannin, Severine; Rosillette, Karine; Saint-Vil, Martine; Signate, Aissatou; Edimonana-Kaptue, Mireille; Larraillet, Veronique; Cabre, Philippe; Smadja, Didier; Joux, Julien

    2014-11-01

    Seldom studies are available on trends in stroke incidence in blacks. We aimed to evaluate whether stroke risk prevention policies modified first-ever stroke incidence and outcomes in the black Afro-Caribbean population of Martinique. Etude Réalisée en Martinique et Centrée sur l'Incidence des Accidents Vasculaires Cérébraux (ERMANCIA) I and II are 2 sequential prospective population-based epidemiological studies. There have assessed temporal trends in first-ever stroke incidence, risk factors, pathological types, and early outcomes in the black Afro-Caribbean population of Martinique comparing two 12-month periods (1998-1999 and 2011-2012). Crude and age-standardized incidence and 30-day outcomes for stroke in the 2 study periods were compared using Poisson regression. We identified 580 and 544 first-ever strokes in the 2 studies. World age-standardized incidence rates decreased by 30.6% in overall (111 [95% confidence interval, 102-120] versus 77 [95% confidence interval, 70-84]). Rate decline was greater in women than in men (34% versus 26%) particularly in women aged 65 to 74 years (-69%) and 75 to 84 years (-43%). Frequencies of hypertension and diabetes mellitus were unchanged, whereas dyslipidemia, smoking, and atrial fibrillation significantly increased. Only ischemic stroke types showed significant rate reduction in overall and in women, incidence rate ratio (95% confidence intervals) of 0.69 (0.50-0.97) and 0.61 (0.42-0.88), respectively. The overall 30-day case-fatality ratio remained stable (19.3%/17.6%), whereas a better 30-day outcome was found (modified Rankin Score, ≤2 in 47%/37.6%; P=0.03). Over 13 years, there has been a significant decrease (30.6%) in the age-specific first-ever stroke incidence in our Afro-Carribean population. Although prevention policies seem effective, we need to focus on new risk factors limitation and on male population adherence to prevention program. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  9. Black skin, 'cowboy' masculinity: a genealogy of homophobia in the African nationalist movement in Zimbabwe to 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epprecht, Marc

    2005-05-01

    This paper examines the intellectual and social origins of racialist homophobia in contemporary Zimbabwean political discourse, exemplified by President Robert Mugabe's anti-homosexual speeches since the mid-1990s. It challenges the notions that such homophobia is either essential to African patriarchy or simple political opportunism. Tracing overt expressions of intolerance towards male-male sexuality back to the colonial period, it focuses on ways in which notions of appropriate, respectable, exclusive heterosexuality within the 'cowboy' culture of White Southern Rhodesia trickled into, or were interpreted in, the African nationalist movement. It concludes that understanding this history could improve efforts to address concerns around sexual health in Zimbabwe and elsewhere in the region, particularly silences around same-sex sexuality in HIV/AIDS education and prevention.

  10. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Modiehi Heather Sedibe; Pedro T. Pisa; Alison B. Feeley; Titilola M. Pedro; Kathleen Kahn; Shane A. Norris

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to ...

  11. Cause-of-death disparities in the African diaspora: exploring differences among shared-heritage populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambleton, Ian R; Jeyaseelan, Selvi; Howitt, Christina; Sobers-Grannum, Natasha; Hennis, Anselm J; Wilks, Rainford J; Harris, E Nigel; MacLeish, Marlene; Sullivan, Louis W

    2015-07-01

    We investigated changes in life expectancy (LE) and cause-specific mortality over time, directly comparing African-descent populations in the United States and the Caribbean. We compared LE at birth and cause-specific mortality in 6 disease groups between Caribbean countries with a majority (> 90%) African-descent population and US African Americans. The LE improvement among African Americans exceeded that of Afro-Caribbeans so that the LE gap, which favored the Caribbean population by 1.5 years in 1990, had been reversed by 2009. This relative improvement among African Americans was mainly the result of the improving mortality experience of African American men. Between 2000 and 2009, Caribbean mortality rates in 5 of the 6 disease groups increased relative to those of African Americans. By 2009, mortality from cerebrovascular diseases, cancers, and diabetes was higher in Afro-Caribbeans relative to African Americans, with a diabetes mortality rate twice that of African Americans and 4 times that of White Americans. The Caribbean community made important mortality reductions between 2000 and 2009, but this progress fell short of African American health improvements in the same period, especially among men.

  12. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring profile in urban African black and European white untreated hypertensive patients matched for age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polónia, Jorge; Madede, Tavares; Silva, José A; Mesquita-Bastos, José; Damasceno, Albertino

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) profile in never-treated black hypertensive patients living in Africa, Mozambique (20-80 years), versus never-treated white hypertensive patients living in Europe. ABP recordings of untreated black hypertensive patients and white hypertensive patients with 24-h ABP of 130/80 mmHg or more were retrospectively selected from two computerized database records of ABP and matched for age by decades, sex, and BMI. Black hypertensive patients were n=548, 47 ± 12 years, 52% women, BMI=28.0 ± 8.2 kg/m(2), 7% smokers, 7% diabetics; white hypertensive patients were n=604, 47 ± 15 years, 52% women, BMI=27.4 ± 5.1 kg/m(2), 8.4% diabetics, and 18% smokers (Pwhite hypertensive patients showed higher casual blood pressure (BP) 160/104 ± 19/14 versus 149/97 ± 18/12 mmHg, 24-h ABP 146/92 ± 16/13 versus 139/85 ± 11/10 mmHg, daytime ABP 150/95 ± 16/13 versus 143/88 ± 13/11 mmHg, night-time BP 139/84 ± 17/13 versus 130/78 ± 13/10 mmHg (all Pwhite hypertensive patients for all spectra of age distribution. This might be the reason for the worse cardiovascular prognosis described in black hypertensive patients compared with white hypertensive patients.

  13. A prospective epidemiological study on odontogenic tumours in a black African population, with emphasis on the relative frequency of ameloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginni, F O; Stoelinga, P J W; Ajike, S A; Obuekwe, O N; Olokun, B Aluko; Adebola, R A; Adeyemo, W L; Fasola, O; Adesina, O A; Akinbami, B O; Iwegbu, I O; Ogunmuyiwa, S A; Obimakinde, O S; Uguru, C C

    2015-09-01

    The persistent view in the literature is that the relative frequency of ameloblastomas is higher in the black population than in Caucasians. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of all odontogenic tumours (OT) in a 100% black population and to compare our findings with those of previous studies. A prospective study was undertaken of all patients presenting with OT to all 16 Nigerian departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery over a 4-year period. The following data were obtained: patient demographics, delay to presentation, extent of the lesion, and histological diagnosis. Six hundred and twenty-two cases were studied. A slight male preponderance was observed (male to female ratio 1.17:1). Patients ranged in age from 5 to 89 years, with a peak incidence in the third decade. The relative frequency of OT was 0.99 per million and that of ameloblastoma was 0.76 per million. Ameloblastoma was the most prevalent OT (76.5%), followed by adenomatoid odontogenic tumours (5.6%), odontogenic myxoma (4.5%), and keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT) (3.1%). The relative frequency of ameloblastoma among Nigerians was not different from frequencies reported previously among Caucasian and Tanzanian black populations. KCOTs were, however, rarely diagnosed in Nigerians as compared to the white population in the Western world. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Youth Unemployment in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Parra-Torrado

    2014-01-01

    Global economic shocks coupled with natural disasters left most Caribbean countries with zero to negative growth and high unemployment rates. The Caribbean region was strongly affected by the last great financial crisis, which resulted in a regional average of zero economic growth in 2010. The purpose of this note is to evaluate the nature of youth unemployment in order to propose policy o...

  15. Paule Marshall and the search for the African diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gikandi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Fiction of Paule Marshall: Reconstructions of History, Culture, and Gender. DOROTHY HAMER DENNISTON. Knoxville: University of Tennesee Press, 1995. xxii + 187 pp. (Paper US$ 15.00 Toward Wholeness in Paule Marshall's Fiction. JOYCE PETTIS. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1995. xi + 173 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.50 Black and Female: Essays on Writings by Black Women in the Diaspora. BRITA LINDBERG-SEYERSTED. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press, 1994. 164 pp. (Paper n.p. Literary history has not been very kind to Paule Marshall. Even in the early 1980s when literature produced by African-American women was gaining prominence among general readers and drawing the attention of critics, Marshall was still considered to be an enigmatic literary figure, somehow important in the canon but not one of its trend setters. As Mary Helen Washington observed in an influential afterword to Brown Girl, Brownstones, although Marshall had been publishing novels and short stories since the early 1950s, and was indeed the key link between African-American writers of the 1940s and those of the 1960s, she was just being "discovered" in the 1980s. While there has always been a small group of scholars, most notably Kamau Brathwaite, who have called attention to the indispensable role Marshall has played in the shaping of the literary canon of the African Diaspora, and of her profound understanding of the issues that have affected the complex formation and survival of African-derived cultures in the New World, many critics have found it difficult to locate her within the American, African-American, and Caribbean traditions that are the sources of her imagination and the subject of her major works. Marshall has embraced all these cultures in more profound ways than her more famous contemporaries have, but she has not gotten the accolades that have gone to lesser writers like Alice Walker. It is indeed one of the greatest injustices of

  16. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  17. Fasting insulin sensitivity indices are not better than routine clinical variables at predicting insulin sensitivity among Black Africans: a clamp study in sub-Saharan Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the predictive utility of common fasting insulin sensitivity indices, and non-laboratory surrogates [BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)] in sub-Saharan Africans without diabetes. Methods We measured fasting glucose and insulin, and glucose uptake during 80/mU/m2/min euglycemic clamp in 87 Cameroonians (51 men) aged (SD) 34.6 (11.4) years. We derived insulin sensitivity indices including HOMA-IR, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) and glucose-to-insulin ratio (GIR). Indices and clinical predictors were compared to clamp using correlation tests, robust linear regressions and agreement of classification by sex-specific thirds. Results The mean insulin sensitivity was M = 10.5 ± 3.2 mg/kg/min. Classification across thirds of insulin sensitivity by clamp matched with non-laboratory surrogates in 30-48% of participants, and with fasting indices in 27-51%, with kappa statistics ranging from −0.10 to 0.26. Fasting indices correlated significantly with clamp (/r/=0.23-0.30), with GIR performing less well than fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (both p insulin sensitivity indices are modest predictors of insulin sensitivity measured by euglycemic clamp, and do not perform better than clinical surrogates in this population. PMID:25106496

  18. Injectable and oral contraceptive use and cancers of the breast, cervix, ovary, and endometrium in black South African women: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Margaret; Banks, Emily; Egger, Sam; Canfell, Karen; O'Connell, Dianne; Beral, Valerie; Sitas, Freddy

    2012-01-01

    Oral contraceptives are known to influence the risk of cancers of the female reproductive system. Evidence regarding the relationship between injectable contraceptives and these cancers is limited, especially in black South Africans, among whom injectable contraceptives are used more commonly than oral contraceptives. We analysed data from a South African hospital-based case-control study of black females aged 18-79 y, comparing self-reported contraceptive use in patients with breast (n = 1,664), cervical (n = 2,182), ovarian (n = 182), and endometrial (n = 182) cancer, with self-reported contraceptive use in 1,492 control patients diagnosed with cancers with no known relationship to hormonal contraceptive use. We adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, calendar year of diagnosis, education, smoking, alcohol, parity/age at first birth, and number of sexual partners. Among controls, 26% had used injectable and 20% had used oral contraceptives. For current and more recent users versus never users of oral or injectable contraceptives, the odds ratios (ORs) for breast cancer were significantly increased in users of oral and/or injectable contraceptives (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.28-2.16, pcontraceptives; corresponding ORs for cervical cancer were 1.38 (1.08-1.77, p = 0.01), 1.01 (0.66-1.56, p = 0.96), and 1.58 (1.16-2.15, p = 0.004). There was no significant increase in breast or cervical cancer risk among women ceasing hormonal contraceptive use ≥10 y previously (p = 0.3 and p = 0.9, respectively). For durations of use ≥5 y versus never use, the ORs of ovarian cancer were 0.60 (0.36-0.99, p = 0.04) for oral and/or injectable contraceptive use and 0.07 (0.01-0.49, p = 0.008) for injectable use exclusively; corresponding ORs for endometrial cancer were 0.44 (0.22-0.86, p = 0.02) and 0.36 (0.11-1.26, p = 0.1). In this study, use of oral and of injectable hormonal contraceptives was associated with a

  19. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Light-Intensity Physical Activity Are Independently Associated with Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Urban Black South African Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Kasha; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Chantler, Sarah; Lambert, Estelle V; Goedecke, Julia H

    2016-02-01

    Low levels of physical activity, poor cardiorespiratory fitness, and a sedentary lifestyle have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Few studies have examined their independent associations in an urban black sub-Saharan African population. To examine the independent associations of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and sedentary time on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors for CVD and T2D in black South African women. A subsample (n = 76; 18-45 years) was recruited, as part of a cross-sectional study. Accelerometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, and blood pressure were measured. Light- but not moderate- to vigorous intensity physical activity was inversely associated with trunk fat mass (r = -0.25, P = 0.03). Sedentary time was associated with triglyceride (TG) (r = 0.36, P = 0.01) and TG/HDL-C (r = 0.34, P = 0.04), and these relationships were independent of body fat. Cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with body fat % (r = -0.34, P = 0.02), central fat mass (r = -0.31, P = 0.03), visceral adipose tissue (VAT, r = -0.47, P insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; r = -0.41, P = 0.01). The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HOMA-IR was independent of body fat and physical activity, but not VAT. Cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with sedentary time (r = -0.31, P = 0.03), but not with any of the physical activity variables (P > 0.05). Both physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with reduced total and central fat mass, VAT, and reduced cardiometabolic risk for CVD and T2D. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether the promotion of increasing light physical activity, while reducing sedentary time and increasing cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk for obesity, CVD and T2D.

  20. The Influence of Maternal Dietary Patterns on Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain in Urban Black South African Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie V. Wrottesley

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and subsequent gestational weight gain (GWG are strong predictors of maternal and infant outcomes; however the influence of dietary patterns on BMI-specific GWG is unclear. This study identifies patterns of habitual dietary intake in urban South African women and explores their associations with first trimester BMI and GWG. Habitual dietary intake of 538 pregnant women was assessed using a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and dietary patterns were depicted via principle component analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and BMI-specific GWG were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western, Traditional and Mixed. Western and Mixed diet patterns were associated with 35 g/week (p = 0.021 and 24 g/week (p = 0.041 higher GWG in normal weight and obese women respectively. Additionally, high intakes of a Traditional diet pattern were associated with a reduced odds of excessive weight gain in the total sample (OR: 0.81; p = 0.006 and in normal weight women (OR: 0.68; p = 0.003. Increased intake of a traditional diet pattern—high in whole grains, legumes, vegetables and traditional meats—and decreased intake of refined, high sugar and fat driven diets may reduce GWG (including risk of excessive weight gain in urban South African women.

  1. Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism in Southern African blacks: P gene-associated haplotypes suggest a major mutation in the 5{prime} region of the gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, M.; Stevens, G.; Beukering, J. van [Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA) occurs with a prevalence of 1 in 3900 among Southern African (SA) blacks. The major contributors to morbidity and mortality are skin cancer and decreased visual acuity. Two distinct phenotypes occur, namely individuals with ephelides (darkly pigmented patches) and those without. There is complete concordance with regard to ephelus status among siblings. The disorder is linked to markers on chromosome 15q11.2-q12, and no obligatory cross-overs were observed with polymophic markers at the human homolog, P, of the mouse pink eyed dilute gene, p. Contrary to what has been shown for Caucasoid ty-pos OCA, this condition shows locus homogeneity among SA blacks. The P gene is an excellent candidate for ty-pos OCA and mutations in this gene will confirm its role in causing the common form of albinism in SA. Numerous P gene mutations have been described in other populations. In an attempt to detect mutations, the P gene cDNA was used to search for structural rearrangements or polymorphisms. Six polymorphisms (plR10/Scal, 912/Xbal, 912/HincII, 912/TaqI, 1412/TaqI [two systems] and 1412/HindIII) were detected with subclones of the P cDNA and haplotypes were determined in each family. None were clearly associated with an albinism-related rearrangement. However, strong linkage disequilibrium was observed with alleles at loci toward the 5{prime} region of the gene ({triangle}=0.65, 0.57 and 0.80 for the three polymorphisms detected with the 912 subclone), suggesting a major ty-pos OCA mutation in this region. Haplotype analysis provides evidence for a major mutation associated with the same haplotype in individuals with ephelides (8/12 OCA chromosomes) and those without ephelides (24:30). The presence of other ty-pos OCA associated haplotypes indicates several other less common mutations.

  2. Salt sensitivity: a review with a focus on non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Safiya I.; Freedman, Barry I.; Ellison, David H.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information regarding salt sensitivity particularly as it relates to non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics and to clarify possible etiologies, especially those that might shed light on potential treatment options. In non-Hispanic blacks, there is evidence that endothelial dysfunction, reduced potassium intake, decreased urinary kallikrein excretion, upregulation of sodium channel activity, dysfunction in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) production, and APOL1 gene nephropathy risk variants may cause or contribute to salt sensitivity. Supported treatment avenues include diets high in potassium and soybean protein, the components of which stimulate nitric oxide production. Racial heterogeneity complicates the study of salt sensitivity in Hispanic populations. Caribbean Hispanics, who have a higher proportion of African ancestry, may respond to commonly prescribed anti-hypertensive agents in a way that is characteristic of non-Hispanic black hypertensives. The low-renin hypertensive phenotype commonly seen in non-Hispanic blacks has been linked to salt sensitivity and may indicate an increased risk for salt sensitivity in a portion of the Hispanic population. In conclusion, increased morbidity and mortality associated with salt sensitivity mandates further studies evaluating the efficacy of tailored dietary and pharmacologic treatment in non-Hispanic blacks and determining the prevalence of low renin hypertension and salt sensitivity within the various subgroups of Hispanic Americans. PMID:23428408

  3. Meeting physical activity guidelines is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease in black South African women; a 5.5-year follow-up study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity (PA) have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), but few studies have examined whether meeting international PA guidelines is associated with reduced risk in a black South African (SA) population. The aims of this study were to compare body composition and cardio-metabolic risk factors for CVD and T2D between active and inactive groups (part 1, cross-sectional analysis) and, to determine whether PA level predicts changes in body composition and cardio-metabolic risk factors for CVD and T2D at follow-up after 5.5-years (part 2, longitudinal analysis). Methods Part 1 included a sample of 240 apparently healthy black SA women (26 ± 7 years) who underwent the following measurements at baseline: PA (Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ)), body composition and regional fat distribution (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and computerised tomography), blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations. For part 2, a sub-sample of women (n = 57) underwent the same measurements after a 5.5-year period. Results At baseline, 61% of women were classified as meeting the guidelines for moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) according to GPAQ. Women who were active had significantly lower body weight (p insulin resistance (fasting serum insulin and HOMA-IR, both p = 0.01), and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.041), compared to the inactive group. At follow-up, all body fat measures increased significantly in both groups and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in those who were active at baseline, but did not change in those who were inactive. Conclusions Meeting PA guidelines was associated with decreased risk for CVD and T2D in black SA women, but did not prevent the increase in body fat over time. Interventions promoting physical activity to specifically address obesity in this high

  4. Rethinking the memorial in a Black Belt landscape: Planning, memory and identity of African-Americans in Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giliberti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many old sites are well preserved, many sites of historical and cultural value in the United States are disappearing due to their abandonment. In some cases, the condition of these sites makes restorers’ work very difficult. In other cases, in order to recover blighted local economies, administrations and cultural institutions are adopting strategic spatial plans to attract tourists or accommodate historical theme parks. However, recent scholarly interest in the interaction of history and collective memory has highlighted these sites. Even if the memory of some historical sites is fading quickly, this memory is receiving greater attention than in the past in order to enhance local identity and strengthen the sense of community. This article examines a number of plans and strategies adopted to give shape to the memorial landscape in Alabama, thereby documenting and exploring some key relations between city planning and the commemoration of African-American history.

  5. Understanding relational conditions necessary for effective mentoring of black-owned small businesses: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makatleho J. Matabooe

    2016-03-01

    Research purpose: To identify relational-based conditions for effective mentoring, which can be used to enhance business management skills of owner-managers of black-owned small businesses and eventually improve the survival of these businesses in South Africa. Motivation for the study: By identifying relational-based conditions needed for effective mentoring of black-owned small businesses, recommendations can be put forward that could help achieve harmonious mentoring relationships and ultimately ensure effective mentoring of these businesses. Research design, approach and method: An interpretivism paradigm was adopted and aqualitative research methodology was selected. Semistructured interviews were used to gauge the perceptions of participants about relational issues necessary for effective mentoring. Content and constant comparative analyses were used to analyse data. Main findings: The findings revealed that conditions surrounding the knowledge and expertise of the mentor, experience and age of the mentor, approachability of the mentor, mutual respect, open communication, mutual trust and honesty, passion and patience of the mentor, mentee’s willingness to learn, alignment of expectations, as well as culture sensitivity of the mentor are to be considered for effective mentor–mentee relationship. Practical/managerial implications: Although mentoring is important to develop management skills of owner–managers, it is equally important that the mentor–mentee relationship is nurtured to achieve the desired outcomes of the relationship. Contribution/value-add: The alarming failure rates of small businesses in general and blackowned small businesses in particular could be improved by providing effective mentoring programmes to owner–managers by ensuring harmonious mentor–mentee relationships.

  6. Genetic Diversity in the Lesser Antilles and Its Implications for the Settlement of the Caribbean Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jada Benn Torres

    Full Text Available Historical discourses about the Caribbean often chronicle West African and European influence to the general neglect of indigenous people's contributions to the contemporary region. Consequently, demographic histories of Caribbean people prior to and after European contact are not well understood. Although archeological evidence suggests that the Lesser Antilles were populated in a series of northward and eastern migratory waves, many questions remain regarding the relationship of the Caribbean migrants to other indigenous people of South and Central America and changes to the demography of indigenous communities post-European contact. To explore these issues, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome diversity in 12 unrelated individuals from the First Peoples Community in Arima, Trinidad, and 43 unrelated Garifuna individuals residing in St. Vincent. In this community-sanctioned research, we detected maternal indigenous ancestry in 42% of the participants, with the remainder having haplotypes indicative of African and South Asian maternal ancestry. Analysis of Y-chromosome variation revealed paternal indigenous American ancestry indicated by the presence of haplogroup Q-M3 in 28% of the male participants from both communities, with the remainder possessing either African or European haplogroups. This finding is the first report of indigenous American paternal ancestry among indigenous populations in this region of the Caribbean. Overall, this study illustrates the role of the region's first peoples in shaping the genetic diversity seen in contemporary Caribbean populations.

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant potentials of different solvent-fractions of Dialium indium (African Black velvet tamarind fruit pulp – in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olakunle Bamikole Afolabi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant phytonutrients have been harnessed for their various curative properties both in vitro and in vivo. In this study African black velvet tamarind (ABVT fruit pulp was evaluated for it antioxidant potentials using chloroform and hexane fractions through different antioxidant parameters. In the results; total phenolic contents quantified in mg GAE/dried sample in chloroform and hexane extracts were; 14.57 ±5.85 and 9.78 ±4.61, total flavonoid contents in chloroform and hexane extracts as; 48.58 ±0.00 and 27.35 ±0.00 while the FRAP (µg AAE.g-1 dried sample was lower in chloroform (298.10 ±0.00 than hexane extracts (1029.81 ±0.00. More also, ability of varied concentrations of the extracts (with their IC50 to cause inhibition against Fe2+-induced MDA that was determined by TBARS in rat's brain and liver tissue homogenates, Fe2+-chelating ability and other antioxidant assays, showed an appreciable significant (p <0.05 difference. The various antioxidant properties showed by ABVT has indicated that, if the pulp is incorporated in diet, it could serve as an alternative in managing various ROS-induced degenerative ailments as it has been clearly demonstrated in the protection of brain and liver homogenates from Fe2+-induced oxidative stress. 

  8. PREVALENCE OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA AND PROSTATE CANCER IN AFRICANS AND AFRICANS IN THE DIASPORA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, E D

    2016-01-01

    There have been several publications on population or community prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer from various countries and races but few reports are from Africa on Africans. A review on the prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer in Africans and other races. The current literature on prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer (PC), and benign prostatic hyperplasia co-existing with prostate cancer in Africans and other races is reviewed. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) prevalence in Ghana is responsible for 60% acute retention of urine and 28.6% of haematuria. Worldwide prevalence of BPH varies from 20 - 62% in men over 50 years and this includes USA, UK, Japan and Ghana. Reports from South Africa indicate prevalence of over 50% in adult males of 60 years. BPH co-existing with PC - Reports from USA, UK and Japan and Ghana reveal moderate association of BPH and PC. The co-existence of PC in patients being treated for BPH is 3 - 20% Prostate Cancer prevalence - There is high prevalence in USA, Scandinavian Countries, African Americans (AA) and Caribbean blacks. Ghana, Trinidad & Tobago have reported high prevalence of 6 -10% in men aged 50 years and above but others reported low prevalence in Africans from Africa. The low reporting from Africa of 10 - 40:100,000 is attributable to under reporting, absence of PSA screening/testing, lack of reliable cancer registries and poor medical facilities. Economic Costs of BPH and PC: BPH in the USA national direct costs are estimated at U$4Billion and individual costs of US$1536 annually. In Ghana, individual costs for BPH medications range from US$300 - 550 per year and cost for simple prostatectomy/TURP is estimated at US$1100. For prostate cancer, individual direct costs from Europe range from 6,575 - 12,000 euros, £2818.00 UK and over U$12,000 - 20,000 in USA per annum. In Ghana, individual direct costs ranges, for radical prostatectomy and

  9. The Black Man in American Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framingham Public Schools, MA.

    GRADE OR AGES: Junior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: The black man in American society. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are four major parts each with an overview. The four parts concern a) the African heritage of the black man, b) the American exploitation of the black man, c) the black man's contribution to American society, d) the…

  10. Satellite Teleconferencing in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Hollis C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for, and the development, use, and future trends of, the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment, which utilizes telephone and communications satellite technology teleconferencing to extend educational opportunities to the peoples of the Caribbean. (MBR)

  11. Switching on After Nine: Black gay-identified men's perceptions of sexual identities and partnerships in South African towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantell, Joanne E; Tocco, Jack Ume; Osmand, Thomas; Sandfort, Theo; Lane, Tim

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable diversity, fluidity and complexity in the expressions of sexuality and gender among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some non-gay identified MSM are known colloquially by gay-identified men in Mpumalanga, Province, South Africa, as 'After-Nines' because they do not identify as gay and present as straight during the day but also have sex with other men at night. Based on, key informant interviews and focus group discussions in two districts in Mpumalanga, we explored Black gay-identified men's perceptions of and relationships with After-Nine men, focusing on sexual and gender identities and their social consequences. Gay-identified men expressed ambivalence about their After-Nine partners, desiring them for their masculinity, yet often feeling dissatisfied and exploited in their relationships with them. The exchange of sex for commodities, especially alcohol, was common. Gay men's characterisation of After-Nines as men who ignore them during the day but have sex with them at night highlights the diversity of how same-sex practicing men perceive themselves and their sexual partners. Sexual health promotion programmes targeting 'MSM' must understand this diversity to effectively support the community in developing strategies for reaching and engaging different groups of gay and non-gay identified men.

  12. Brazilian Literature in African Descent Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Soares Fonseca, Maria Nazareth

    2016-01-01

    The essay argues about the meanings given to the terms "black literature," African-Brazilian literature", "Afro-descendant literature" and "black-Brazilian literature" present in anthologies of black African-Brazilian poetry in Brazil. It also discusses the ways these directions are presented in the writers' texts published in the anthologies highlighted in this study.

  13. Urban–rural and gender differences in tobacco and alcohol use, diet and physical activity among young black South Africans between 1998 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasheeta Peer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs have increased in South Africa over the past 15 years. While these usually manifest during mid-to-late adulthood, the development of modifiable risk factors that contribute to NCDs are usually adopted early in life. Objective: To describe the urban–rural and gender patterns of NCD risk factors in black adolescents and young adults (15- to 24-year-olds from two South African Demographic and Health Surveys conducted 5 years apart. Design: An observational study based on interviews and measurements from two cross-sectional national household surveys. Changes in tobacco and alcohol use, dietary intake, physical inactivity, and overweight/obesity among 15- to 24-year-olds as well as urban–rural and gender differences were analysed using logistic regression. The ‘Surveyset’ option in Stata statistical software was used to allow for the sampling weight in the analysis. Results: Data from 3,186 and 2,066 black 15- to 24-year-old participants in 1998 and 2003, respectively, were analysed. In males, the prevalence of smoking (1998: 21.6%, 2003: 19.1% and problem drinking (1998: 17.2%, 2003: 15.2% were high and increased with age, but in females were much lower (smoking – 1998: 1.0%, 2003: 2.1%; problem drinking – 1998: 4.2%, 2003: 5.8%. The predominant risk factors in females were overweight/obesity (1998: 29.9%, 2003: 31.1% and physical inactivity (2003: 46%. Urban youth, compared to their rural counterparts, were more likely to smoke (odds ratio (OR: 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.09–1.75, have high salt intake (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.12–2.78, be overweight/obese (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.14–1.69, or be physically inactive (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12–1.89. However, they had lower odds of inadequate micronutrient intake (OR: 0.46, 95% CI 0.34–0.62, and there was no overall significant urban– rural difference in the odds for problem drinking but among females the odds were higher in

  14. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedibe, Modiehi Heather; Pisa, Pedro T; Feeley, Alison B; Pedro, Titilola M; Kahn, Kathleen; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural ( n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban ( n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114-2.835; p ≤ 0.02), eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106-2.343; p ≤ 0.01), and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007-1.896; p ≤ 0.05) were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For "Year 15" adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099-2.129, p ≤ 0.01), was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299-0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218-0.397; p ≤ 0.00) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324-0.924; p ≤ 0.02) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity.

  15. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modiehi Heather Sedibe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114–2.835; p ≤ 0.02, eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106–2.343; p ≤ 0.01, and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007–1.896; p ≤ 0.05 were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For “Year 15” adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099–2.129, p ≤ 0.01, was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299–0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218–0.397; p ≤ 0.00 was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324–0.924; p ≤ 0.02 was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity.

  16. The combined risks of reduced or increased function variants in cell death pathway genes differentially influence cervical cancer risk and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among black Africans and the Mixed Ancestry population of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Koushik; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Hazra, Annapurna; Dandara, Collet

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most important cancers worldwide with a high incident and mortality rate and is caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). Among sexually active women who get infected with human papillomavirus (HPV), a small fraction progresses to cervical cancer disease pointing to possible roles of additional risk factors in development of the disease which include host genetic factors and other infections such as HSV-2. Since cellular apoptosis plays a role in controlling the spread of virus-infections in cells, gene variants altering the function of proteins involved in cell death pathways might be associated with the clearing of virus infections. Activity altering polymorphisms in FasR (−1377G > A and -670A > G), FasL (−844 T > C) and CASP8 (−652 6 N ins/del) genes have been shown to alter the mechanism of apoptosis by modifying the level of expression of their correspondent proteins. In the present study, we set out to investigate the combined risks of CASP8, FasR, and FasL polymorphisms in cervical cancer, pre-cancerous lesions, HPV infection and HSV-2 infection. Participants were 442 South African women of black African and mixed-ancestry origin with invasive cervical cancer and 278 control women matched by age, ethnicity and domicile status. FasR and FasL polymorphisms were genotyped by TaqMan and CASP8 polymorphism by PCR-RFLP. The results were analysed with R using haplo.stats software version 1.5.2. CASP8 -652 6 N del + FasR-670A was associated with a reduced risk (P = 0.019, Combined Polymorphism Score (CPS) = −2.34) and CASP8 -652 6 N ins + FasR-1377G was associated with a marginal increased risk (P = 0.047, CPS = 1.99) of cervical cancer among black Africans. When compared within the control group, CASP8 -652 6 N ins + FasR-1377A showed a reduced risk (P = 0.023, CPS = −2.28) of HSV-2 infection in both black African and mixed-ancestry population. Our results show that the combined risks of variants in cell death pathway genes

  17. The combined risks of reduced or increased function variants in cell death pathway genes differentially influence cervical cancer risk and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among black Africans and the Mixed Ancestry population of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Koushik; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Hazra, Annapurna; Dandara, Collet

    2015-10-12

    Cervical cancer is one of the most important cancers worldwide with a high incident and mortality rate and is caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). Among sexually active women who get infected with human papillomavirus (HPV), a small fraction progresses to cervical cancer disease pointing to possible roles of additional risk factors in development of the disease which include host genetic factors and other infections such as HSV-2. Since cellular apoptosis plays a role in controlling the spread of virus-infections in cells, gene variants altering the function of proteins involved in cell death pathways might be associated with the clearing of virus infections. Activity altering polymorphisms in FasR (-1377G > A and -670A > G), FasL (-844 T > C) and CASP8 (-652 6 N ins/del) genes have been shown to alter the mechanism of apoptosis by modifying the level of expression of their correspondent proteins. In the present study, we set out to investigate the combined risks of CASP8, FasR, and FasL polymorphisms in cervical cancer, pre-cancerous lesions, HPV infection and HSV-2 infection. Participants were 442 South African women of black African and mixed-ancestry origin with invasive cervical cancer and 278 control women matched by age, ethnicity and domicile status. FasR and FasL polymorphisms were genotyped by TaqMan and CASP8 polymorphism by PCR-RFLP. The results were analysed with R using haplo.stats software version 1.5.2. CASP8 -652 6 N del + FasR-670A was associated with a reduced risk (P = 0.019, Combined Polymorphism Score (CPS) = -2.34) and CASP8 -652 6 N ins + FasR-1377G was associated with a marginal increased risk (P = 0.047, CPS = 1.99) of cervical cancer among black Africans. When compared within the control group, CASP8 -652 6 N ins + FasR-1377A showed a reduced risk (P = 0.023, CPS = -2.28) of HSV-2 infection in both black African and mixed-ancestry population. Our results show that the combined risks of

  18. Injectable and Oral Contraceptive Use and Cancers of the Breast, Cervix, Ovary, and Endometrium in Black South African Women: Case–Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Margaret; Banks, Emily; Egger, Sam; Canfell, Karen; O'Connell, Dianne; Beral, Valerie; Sitas, Freddy

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral contraceptives are known to influence the risk of cancers of the female reproductive system. Evidence regarding the relationship between injectable contraceptives and these cancers is limited, especially in black South Africans, among whom injectable contraceptives are used more commonly than oral contraceptives. Methods and Findings We analysed data from a South African hospital-based case–control study of black females aged 18–79 y, comparing self-reported contraceptive use in patients with breast (n = 1,664), cervical (n = 2,182), ovarian (n = 182), and endometrial (n = 182) cancer, with self-reported contraceptive use in 1,492 control patients diagnosed with cancers with no known relationship to hormonal contraceptive use. We adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, calendar year of diagnosis, education, smoking, alcohol, parity/age at first birth, and number of sexual partners. Among controls, 26% had used injectable and 20% had used oral contraceptives. For current and more recent users versus never users of oral or injectable contraceptives, the odds ratios (ORs) for breast cancer were significantly increased in users of oral and/or injectable contraceptives (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.28–2.16, pcontraceptives; corresponding ORs for cervical cancer were 1.38 (1.08–1.77, p = 0.01), 1.01 (0.66–1.56, p = 0.96), and 1.58 (1.16–2.15, p = 0.004). There was no significant increase in breast or cervical cancer risk among women ceasing hormonal contraceptive use ≥10 y previously (p = 0.3 and p = 0.9, respectively). For durations of use ≥5 y versus never use, the ORs of ovarian cancer were 0.60 (0.36–0.99, p = 0.04) for oral and/or injectable contraceptive use and 0.07 (0.01–0.49, p = 0.008) for injectable use exclusively; corresponding ORs for endometrial cancer were 0.44 (0.22–0.86, p = 0.02) and 0.36 (0.11–1.26, p = 0.1). Conclusions In this study, use of oral and

  19. Injectable and oral contraceptive use and cancers of the breast, cervix, ovary, and endometrium in black South African women: case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Urban

    Full Text Available Oral contraceptives are known to influence the risk of cancers of the female reproductive system. Evidence regarding the relationship between injectable contraceptives and these cancers is limited, especially in black South Africans, among whom injectable contraceptives are used more commonly than oral contraceptives.We analysed data from a South African hospital-based case-control study of black females aged 18-79 y, comparing self-reported contraceptive use in patients with breast (n = 1,664, cervical (n = 2,182, ovarian (n = 182, and endometrial (n = 182 cancer, with self-reported contraceptive use in 1,492 control patients diagnosed with cancers with no known relationship to hormonal contraceptive use. We adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, calendar year of diagnosis, education, smoking, alcohol, parity/age at first birth, and number of sexual partners. Among controls, 26% had used injectable and 20% had used oral contraceptives. For current and more recent users versus never users of oral or injectable contraceptives, the odds ratios (ORs for breast cancer were significantly increased in users of oral and/or injectable contraceptives (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.28-2.16, p<0.001 and separately among those exclusively using oral (1.57, 1.03-2.40, p = 0.04 and exclusively using injectable (OR 1.83, 1.31-2.55, p<0.001 contraceptives; corresponding ORs for cervical cancer were 1.38 (1.08-1.77, p = 0.01, 1.01 (0.66-1.56, p = 0.96, and 1.58 (1.16-2.15, p = 0.004. There was no significant increase in breast or cervical cancer risk among women ceasing hormonal contraceptive use ≥10 y previously (p = 0.3 and p = 0.9, respectively. For durations of use ≥5 y versus never use, the ORs of ovarian cancer were 0.60 (0.36-0.99, p = 0.04 for oral and/or injectable contraceptive use and 0.07 (0.01-0.49, p = 0.008 for injectable use exclusively; corresponding ORs for endometrial cancer were 0

  20. The association between body composition, 25(OH)D, and PTH and bone mineral density in black African and Asian Indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jaya A; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A; Crowther, N J

    2014-06-01

    There are few data on the contribution of body composition to bone mineral density (BMD) in non-Caucasian populations. We therefore studied the contribution of body composition, and possible confounding of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH, to BMD at various skeletal sites in black African (BA) and Asian Indian (AI) subjects. This was a cross-sectional study in Johannesburg, South Africa. BMD, body fat, and lean mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal fat distribution by ultrasound in 714 healthy subjects, aged 18-65 years. Whole-body (subtotal), hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine (lumbar) BMD were significantly higher in BA than AI subjects (P < .001 for all). Whole-body lean mass positively associated with BMD at all sites in both ethnic groups (P < .001 for all) and partially explained the higher BMD in BA females compared with AI females. Whole-body fat mass correlated positively with lumbar BMD in BA (P = .001) and inversely with subtotal BMD in AI subjects (P < .0001). Visceral adiposity correlated inversely with subtotal BMD in the BA (P = .037) and with lumbar BMD in the AI group (P = .005). No association was found between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and BMD. PTH was inversely associated with hip BMD in the BA group (P = .01) and with subtotal (P = .002), hip (P = .001), and femoral BMD (P < .0001) in the AI group. Significant differences in whole-body and site-specific BMD between the BA and AI groups were observed, with lean mass the major contributor to BMD at all sites in both groups. The contribution of other components of body composition differed by site and ethnic group.

  1. Foraging ecology of an endemic shorebird, the African Black Oystercatcher ( Haematopus moquini) on the south-east coast of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Sophie; Bonnevie, Bo; McQuaid, Christopher; Jaquemet, Sébastien

    2009-09-01

    We investigated small-medium (1-300 km) scale variation in the foraging ecology of the African Black Oystercatcher during its breeding season, using traditional diet analysis coupled with carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Fieldwork was conducted between January and March 2006 and 2007, on rocky shores on the south-east coast of South Africa at East London, Kenton and Port Elizabeth. Middens of shelled prey left by adults feeding their chicks were collected from five territories and the abundances of the collected prey on the foraging areas were estimated using quadrats. Blood samples from 45 birds (16 females, 10 males and 19 chicks) and tissues from the predominant prey species on the territory of each breeding pair were collected for isotope analysis. The Manly-Chesson selectivity index revealed that adults feed their chicks preferentially with the limpet Scutellastra cochlear and the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, if available. A slight enrichment in the 15N stable-carbon isotope signature was observed towards the west in both prey and oystercatchers. Differences in isotope signatures between males and females from the same breeding pair indicate sex-related differences in the diet. Both had signatures indicating a mixed diet, but with males exhibiting a signature closer to that of limpets and females closer to that of mussels. In the single case where mussels were rare on the feeding territory, the two members of a pair showed carbon signatures which were identical and very similar to that of limpets. These results indicate dietary partitioning between genders in breeding pairs.

  2. Relative expression of α-smooth muscle actin and matrix metalloproteinases-2 in ameloblastoma of a black African sub-population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adisa, Akinyele O; Udeabor, Samuel E; Adeyemi, Bukola F; Alica, Kubesch; Booms, Patrick; Ghanaati, Shahram; Sader, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastoma although a benign odontogenic tumor, is locally invasive. The abundant presence of myofibroblasts (marked by α-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA]) in the stroma and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in the neoplastic or stromal cells have been linked with the tumor's ability for both local and distant spread. We aim to estimate the relative expression of α-SMA and MMP-2 in ameloblastoma from a black African subgroup to gauge their relative potential for enhancing local invasiveness and hence, their prospects as possible chemotherapeutic targets. Twenty-five formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks of ameloblastoma cases from Nigeria were prepared for antibody processing to α-SMA (Dako Monoclonal Mouse Anti-Human α-SMA antibody clone 1A4) and MMP-2 (Abcam Mouse Monoclonal Anti-MMP-2 antibody [CA-4001/CA719E3C] ab3158). The score for percentage positivity of the tumor cells and the score for staining intensities were then multiplied in order to generate an immunoreactive score. α-smooth muscle actin was only expressed in the fibrous connective tissues adjacent to the tumor islands while MMP-2 was expressed in the ameloblasts, stellate reticulum, and the connective tissues in varying proportions. All the variants analyzed expressed α-SMA mildly or moderately, except for the follicular variant that either did not express α-SMA or expressed it mildly. The highest number of strong immunoreactivity to MMP-2 in the ameloblast region was found in the plexiform variant. Chemotherapeutic targeting of both molecules may, therefore, be a vital step in the control of local ameloblastoma invasiveness.

  3. Does Poor Quality Schooling and/or Teacher Quality Hurt Black South African Students Enrolling for a Degree at the University of KwaZulu-Natal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Murray

    Full Text Available Wealthy schools appoint better qualified teachers, less wealthy schools under qualified teachers. Added to this mix is a powerful teacher's union whose policies attempt to entrench the job security of teachers in the less wealthy schools irrespective of whether they can teach their subjects or not. Can one isolate these effects from that of other socio-demographic factors that may also be affecting the performance of students when they enrol for a degree at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN? An outcome variable that subtracts the number of courses that have been failed from the number of courses that have been passed, dividing this by the total number of years that they have spent studying for a particular degree will be used as a response variable for this paper.The system of secondary education in South Africa is highly polarized. On the one hand, we have a group of mainly Black African students, forming about 80% of the total student population, that come from a vastly under-resourced rural or township based community. On the other hand, we have a group of predominantly White and Indian students who are able to attend a far better resourced set of private schools. Added to this mix, we have 240,000 of South Africa's total number of 390,000 primary and secondary school teachers who belong to a powerful teacher's union which enjoys a strong political alliance with the ruling party in South Africa. With most of their union members teaching in the less wealthy schools in South Africa, `school background' now includes a politically motivated component that focuses on teacher self-interest rather than the education of the child. What sort of effect does school background have on the performance of students when they enter an institution of higher learning? More importantly, can one isolate the effect of school background from that of other possibly confounding factors such as gender, financial aid and the receipt of some form of residence based

  4. Lack of association between antipsychotic-induced Parkinsonismor its subsymptoms and rs4606 SNP of RGS2 gene in African-Caribbeans and the possible role of the medication : The Curacao Extrapyramidal Syndromes study X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hadithy, Asimar F.; Wilffert, Bob; Bruggeman, Richard; Stewart, Roy E.; Brouwers, Jacobus R.; Matroos, Glenn E.; Hoek, Hans W.; van Harten, Peter N.

    Recent studies demonstrate an association between antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism (AIP) and rs4606 SNP of RGS2 gene in Jewish and African-Americans. The current, study investigates the association between rs4606 and AIP or its subsymptoms (rest tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia) in 112

  5. Ten Myths, Half-Truths and Misunderstandings About Black History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffins, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Common myths and misconceptions about Blacks in American history and evidence that refutes them are presented. Issues addressed include Black enslavement patterns, social status within the Black community based on skin color, the legality of slaves learning to read, resistance to slavery, African influences in modern Black culture, Black names and…

  6. Caribbean Crucible: History, Culture, and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelvington, Kevin A.

    2000-01-01

    Reconsiders the Caribbean as an origin-point of the modern global system. Discusses the conquests and colonization of the Caribbean; the slavery system and racial distinctions; the post-emancipation society; and culture, Creolization, and the concept of movement as features of Caribbean society. Provides a bibliography. (CMK)

  7. The Black Hole in Science Ranks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekoala, Elizabeth

    This paper reviews four decades of research on race and education in Great Britain and discusses the deficit theories of underachievement that serve as the structure of most of the studies. Focus is placed on black youth of Caribbean origin and how they perform in British schools. Consideration is also given to constructive frameworks from gender…

  8. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses.......Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance...

  9. Black American and Nigerian Pentecostalism: A Black Religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Black American and Nigerian Pentecostalism: A Black Religious Schizophrenia, 1910-2010. ... in American and African Pentecostalism as is related to social crisis, the dislocation of masses brought on by economic deprivation, urbanization, the break up of traditional society and consequence loss of traditional values.

  10. In and out of love with hip-hop: saliency of sexual scripts for young adult African American women in hip-hop and Black-oriented television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D

    2016-10-01

    Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed.

  11. Factors Associated with Excessive Body Fat in Men and Women: Cross-Sectional Data from Black South Africans Living in a Rural Community and an Urban Township.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kufre Joseph Okop

    Full Text Available To determine the factors associated with excessive body fat among black African men and women living in rural and urban communities of South Africa.This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE study, Cape Town, South Africa conducted in 2009/2010. The study sample included 1220 participants (77.2% women aged 35-70 years, for whom anthropometric measurements were obtained and risk factors documented through face-to-face interviews using validated international PURE study protocols. Sex-specific logistic regression models were used to evaluate socio-demographic, lifestyle and psychological factors associated with three excessive body fat indicators, namely body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and body fat percent (BF%.The prevalence of excessive body fat based on BF%, WC and BMI cut-offs were 96.0%, 86.1%, and 81.6% for women respectively, and 62.2%, 25.9%, and 36.0% for men respectively. The significant odds of excessive body fat among the currently married compared to unmarried were 4.1 (95% CI: 1.3-12.5 for BF% and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.3-2.9 for BMI among women; and 4.9 (95% CI: 2.6-9.6, 3.2 (95% CI: 1.6-6.4 and 3.6 (95% CI: 1.9-6.8 for BF%, WC and BMI respectively among men. Age ≤50 years (compared to age >50 years was inversely associated with excessive BF% in men and women, and less-than-a-college education was inversely associated with excessive BMI and WC in men. Tobacco smoking was inversely associated with all three excessive adiposity indicators in women but not in men. Unemployment, depression, and stress did not predict excessive body fat in men or women.The sex-differences in the socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with the high levels of excessive body fat in urban and rural women and men should be considered in packaging interventions to reduce obesity in these communities.

  12. Prehistoric settlements in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Drewett

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesoamerican archaeology has focused mainly on the ancient civilizations of the mainland, but knowledge of early settlement, society and economy in the Caribbean islands is essential for our understanding of the prehistory of the region as a whole. Institute staff and students are currently working in three islands: Puerto Rico, Tortola and Barbados.

  13. Sidney Mintz and Caribbean Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Baud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Empirical Futures: Anthropologists and Historians Engage the Work of Sidney W. Mintz. George Baca, A isha Khan & Stephan Palmié (eds.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009. v + 232 pp. (Paper US$ 24.95 Three Ancient Colonies: Caribbean Themes and Variations. Sidney W. Mintz. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 2010. xiv + 257 pp. (Cloth US$ 27.95 [First paragraph] There can be no doubt about the importance of U.S. anthropologist Sidney Mintz in the development of Caribbean Studies. His work has influenced both the historiography and anthropology of Caribbean slavery and the emergence of Caribbean peasant societies. Now two books have been published that interrogate the significance of his work. The first is an anthology that tries to build on Mintz’s ideas – as I will argue below, in a circumspect and not fully convincing way. In the second Mintz describes and compares the societies of Jamaica, Haiti, and Puerto Rico, and looks back on his work that started in the 1940s.

  14. A census tract-level examination of social determinants of health among black/African American men with diagnosed HIV infection, 2005-2009--17 US areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanetta Gant

    Full Text Available HIV disproportionately affects black men in the United States: most diagnoses are for black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively referred to as MSM. A better understanding of the social conditions in which black men live and work may better explain why HIV incidence and diagnosis rates are higher than expected in this population.Using data from the National HIV Surveillance System and the US Census Bureau's American Community Survey, we examined the relationships of HIV diagnosis rates and 5 census tract-level social determinants of health variables for 21,948 black MSM and non-MSM aged ≥ 15 years residing in 17 areas in the United States. We examined federal poverty status, marital status, education level, employment status, and vacancy status and computed rate ratios (RRs and prevalence odds ratios (PORs, using logistic regression with zero-inflated negative binomial modeling.Among black MSM, HIV diagnosis rates decreased as poverty increased (RR: 0.54. At the time of HIV diagnosis, black MSM were less likely than black non-MSM to live in census tracts with a higher proportion below the poverty level (POR: 0.81 and with a higher proportion of vacant houses (POR: 0.86. In comparison, housing vacancy was positively associated with HIV diagnosis rates among black non-MSM (RR: 1.65. HIV diagnosis rates were higher for black MSM (RR: 2.75 and non-MSM (RR: 4.90 whose educational level was low. Rates were significantly lower for black MSM (RR: 0.06 and non-MSM (RR: 0.26 as the proportion unemployed and the proportion married increased.This exploratory study found differences in the patterns of HIV diagnosis rates for black MSM and non-MSM and provides insight into the transmission of HIV infection in areas that reflect substantial disadvantage in education, housing, employment, and income.

  15. African American Male College Students Navigate to Achieve: The Relationship among College Adjustment Experiences, Coping, and GPA for Black Males at Two Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Sabrina Denise

    2017-01-01

    African American males face daunting obstacles as they pursue higher education as research has shown. This study sought to better understand the impact of specific factors--social support, racial identity, perceived racial discrimination, coping, and religious coping--on the academic achievement of African American male college student…

  16. The Role of Shame as a Mediator between Anti-Black Racial Identity Attitudes and Negative Affect in a Sample of African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 168 African American undergraduates was surveyed to clarify past findings demonstrating a consistent relationship between endorsing negative attitudes about being African American and experiencing negative affect. Specifically, shame was tested as a mediator between participants' endorsement of preencounter attitudes (i.e., anti-Black…

  17. Common variants and haplotypes in the TF, TNF-a, and TMPRSS6 genes are associated with iron status in a female black South African population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gichohi-Wainaina, W.N.; Boonstra, A.; Swinkels, D.W.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Towers, G.W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is unknown whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), associated with iron status in European and Asian populations, have the same relation within the African population. Objectives: We aimed to investigate associations of reported SNPs with iron markers in a South African

  18. Substance Use, Mental Disorders and Physical Health of Caribbeans at-Home Compared to Those Residing in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krim K. Lacey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the health conditions of domestic Caribbeans with those living in the United States to explore how national context and migration experiences might influence substance use (i.e., alcohol or drug and other mental and physical health conditions. The study is based upon probability samples of non-institutionalized Caribbeans living in the United States (1621, Jamaica (1216 and Guyana (2068 18 years of age and over. Employing descriptive statistics and multivariate analytic procedures, the results revealed that substance use and other physical health conditions and major depressive disorder and mania vary by national context, with higher rates among Caribbeans living in the United States. Context and generation status influenced health outcomes. Among first generation black Caribbeans, residing in the United States for a longer length of time is linked to poorer health outcomes. There were different socio-demographic correlates of health among at-home and abroad Caribbeans. The results of this study support the need for additional research to explain how national context, migratory experiences and generation status contribute to understanding substance use and mental disorders and physical health outcomes among Caribbean first generation and descendants within the United States, compared to those remaining in the Caribbean region.

  19. Impact of parent-child communication interventions on sex behaviors and cognitive outcomes for black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino youth: a systematic review, 1988-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline Y; Lasswell, Sarah M; Lanier, Yzette; Miller, Kim S

    2014-04-01

    We reviewed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI)- behavioral interventions implemented with disproportionately affected black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino youth and designed to improve parent-child communications about sex. We compared their effectiveness in improving sex-related behavior or cognitive outcomes. A search of electronic databases identified peer-reviewed studies published between 1988 and 2012. Eligible studies were U.S.-based parent-child communication interventions with active parent components, experimental and quasiexperimental designs, measurement of youth sexual health outcomes, and enrollment of ≥ 50% black/African-American or Hispanic/Latino youth. We conducted systematic, primary reviews of eligible papers to abstract data on study characteristics and youth outcomes. Fifteen studies evaluating 14 interventions were eligible. Although youth outcome measures and follow-up times varied, 13 of 15 studies (87%) showed at least one significantly improved youth sexual health outcome compared with controls (p parent and child session attendance, promotion of parent/family involvement, sexuality education for parents, developmental and/or cultural tailoring, and opportunities for parents to practice new communication skills with their youth. Parent-child communication interventions that include parents of youth disproportionately affected by HIV/STIs can effectively reduce sexual risk for youth. These interventions may help reduce HIV/STI-related health disparities and improve sexual health outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Women and development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lessons from the seventies and hopes for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizpe, L

    1982-01-01

    The early implicit assumptions that industrialization or, generally, modernization should automatically improve the condition of women have been challenged more and more by research and statistical data. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the theory which held that the cultural assimilation of ethnic groups of Indian and African descent into the national Hispanic or Portuguese cultures implied an improvement in the condition of women has been challenged through ethnographic and historical research. Women in closed corporate communities may have higher status, greater participation in authority, and more support from their children than those in open mestizo communities, where excessive alcohol consumption and abusive sexual relations form an integral part of the psychosocial complex of "machismo." New research has dealt with the forced integration of black women and Indian women, as concubines of the dominant white men, as a mechanism of "mestizaje," i.e., mixing of the population, against which women had no legal or "de facto" defense. Such abuse of women, masked by racial and cultural prejudice, continues in many backward rural areas in Latin America. In discussions of the peasantry and of rural development in Latin America and the Caribbean, women had been largely ignored because agriculture was conceptualized as an exclusively male activity. This androcentric view is reflected in census categories that make the component of women's labor in agriculture invisible or unimportant. Consequently, the statistical percentages have always been unrealistically low in most countries. Detailed observations and surveys conducted during the last decade have shown, to the contrary, that peasant women work longer hours than men and are more liable to increase their time and work load to offset pauperization. The research of Deere and Leon (Colombia) as well as that of other women in different countries of the region confirms that women's subordination precedes capitalism and