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Sample records for black african black

  1. Otosclerosis among South African indigenous blacks | Tshifularo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To report cases of clinical otosclerosis histologically confirmed among indigenous South African blacks. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Referral tertiary center, MEDUNSA, Garankuwa Hospital, South Africa. Subjects: All fifteen indigenous South African blacks diagnosed with clinical otosclerosis at ...

  2. Black Students, Black Colleges: An African American College Choice Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Patricia M.; Antonio, Anthony Lising; Trent, James W.

    1997-01-01

    Explores African Americans' college choice decisions, based on a national sample of 220,757 freshmen. Independent of gender, family income, or educational aspiration, the most powerful predictors for choosing historically black colleges and universities are geography, religion, the college's academic reputation, and relatives' desires. The top…

  3. African American film sound: scoring blackness

    OpenAIRE

    Doughty, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    The term ‘black music’ has long been a cause for contention. What do we mean by music being ‘black’, or more specifically in the case of this chapter, African American? The music industry has typically marketed products via the categorization of specific genres: for example, jazz, blues, soul, funk and rap. These generic types are often classified as ‘black music’. Philip Tagg vehemently debates the suitability of such an essentializing label, as he correctly argues that aesthetic practice is...

  4. High risk of metabolic syndrome among black South African women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) globally. The prevalence of MetS is higher in black women compared to black men from South Africa. Aim: To compare the prevalence of MetS between black South African men and women with SMI ...

  5. Systemic lupus erythematosus in a black South African child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is poorly described among black children in Africa despite being more frequent among some black adult populations than their white counterparts. The first black South African child with SLE is documented. The patient was a 10-year-old girl who had fever, facial rash (with complement ...

  6. Systemic lupus erythematosus South African child a black

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-19

    Jan 19, 1991 ... Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is poorly described among black children in Africa despite being more frequent among some black adult populations than their white counter- parts. The first black South African child with SLE is docu- mented. The patient was a 10-year-old girl who had fever, facial rash ...

  7. Overview of prostate cancer in indigenous black Africans and blacks of African ancestry in diaspora 1935-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoha, G A O

    2007-09-01

    To carry out an overview of prostate cancer in indigenous back Africans in sub-Saharan Africa and blacks of African ancestry in diaspora. Review of all published literature on prostate cancer on indigenous black Africans and Africans in diaspora was carried out through medline and index medicus searches. Published data of prostate cancer in indigenous black Africans and black men in diaspora from 1935-2007 were included in the review. Abstracts of articles identified were assessed, read and analysed to determine their possible suitability and relevance to the title under review. After establishing relevance from the abstract, the entire paper was read, and the significant points included in the review. Prostate cancer incidence and magnitude in black Africans was grossly misunderstood and underestimated in the past. Prostate cancer incidence is on the increase and currently is perhaps the most common urological malignancy affecting black Africans. Its incidence and clinical characteristics is similar to that of the Africans in diaspora but different from all other races. There currently exists significant evidence which suggests a common enhancing genetic predisposition in black men to prostate cancer. There is very urgent need for further investigation of this phenomenon through randomised controlled multicentre studies involving indigenous black Africans and black men in diaspora.

  8. An analysis of the performance of Black African junior provincial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cricketers in this study were cat- egorised as white (W), black African (BA) or coloured/Indian (C/I). 1. Whenever the category 'black' is mentioned alone, it refers to C/I and B/A. 1. After apartheid, the South African government and Cricket South. Africa (CSA) ... regression analysis was used to compare the percentage change.

  9. Black African Parents' Experiences of an Educational Psychology Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Zena

    2014-01-01

    The evidence base that explores Black African parents' experiences of an Educational Psychology Service (EPS) is limited. This article describes an exploratory mixed methods research study undertaken during 2009-2011, that explored Black African parents' engagement with a UK EPS. Quantitative data were gathered from the EPS preschool database and…

  10. Huntington\\'s disease: Genetic heterogeneity in black African patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huntington\\'s disease: Genetic heterogeneity in black African patients. D S Magazi, A Krause, V Bonev, M Moagi, Z Iqbal, M Dludla, C H van der Meyden. Abstract. Objective. Huntington's disease (HD) has been reported to occur rarely in black patients. A new genetic variant– Huntington's disease-like 2 (HDL2) – occurring ...

  11. Eating disorders in black South African females | Szabo | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eating disorders are generally associated with westernised white populations. Isolated cases of anorexia nervosa have been described in blacks in Africa. A series of cases is presented documenting the existence of eating disorders in young black South African women. This has implications in terms of both conceptualising ...

  12. Book review: Femi Abodunrin, Black African Literature in English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book review: Femi Abodunrin, Black African Literature in English 1991-2001: Critical Appreciation and Reception; Mkuki na Nyota Publishers, Dar es Salaam, 2007, 236 pp. ISBN 9987449182/ISBN 13:978-9987-449-18-7.

  13. Tobacco smoking in black and white South Africans | Peltzer | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoking in black and white South Africans. K. Peltzer. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal: 2001 78(3): 115-118). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i3.9074 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Examining African self-consciousness and Black racial identity as predictors of Black men's psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Martin R; Mahalik, James R

    2005-02-01

    This study investigated African self-consciousness and Black racial identity as predictors of psychological distress and self-esteem for Black men. One hundred thirty Black men from a college and community sample completed the African Self-Consciousness Scale, the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-B, the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Canonical correlation analysis found 2 significant roots with the 1st root indicating that Black men whose attitudes reflected Preencounter and Immersion racial identity attitudes and who do not resist against anti-African/Black forces reported greater psychological distress and less esteem. Results from the 2nd root suggested that Black men whose attitudes reflect greater Internalization racial identity attitudes, greater resistance to anti-African/Black forces, and less identification with Blacks reported greater self-esteem. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Black Atlantic as reversal: A reappraisal of African and black theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Engdahl

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will try to do three things. Firstly, pay attention to the notion of Black Atlantic as coined by Paul Gilroy, which in effect could signify a reversal of colonialism and slavery. Secondly, revisit the 1970s and the debate about the relevance of Black theology vis-à-vis African theology, using John Mbiti’s article ‘An African Views American Black Theology’ as entry point. Here, I will discuss contributions also made by Desmond Tutu and James Cone. Thirdly, starting with the premise that both theologies are relevant and soul mates today, which would (probably be confirmed by all the above mentioned at this point in time, an assessment of current voices will be made, that is, Tinyiko Maluleke and Vuyani Vellem on black and African ecclesiologies from a South African perspective, and Lawrence Burnley on the fate of the Black Church in the United States.

  16. Retinal detachment in black South Africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhegmatogenous retinal detachments seen in black patients attending King Edward VIII Hospital. Ophthalmology Clinic over a 5-year period from January. 1987 to December 1991 were reviewed. Penetrating trauma and diabetic retinopathy were excluded. There were 114 detachments in 112 patients, which gave.

  17. Acculturative Experiences of Black-African International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boafo-Arthur, Susan

    2014-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the number of international students pursuing higher education in the U.S. since 2001. Upon arrival, students are often beset with feelings of isolation and alienation, which are characteristic of adjusting to a new culture. African International students, specifically Black-African international students,…

  18. The growth ofSouth African rural black children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or British human biology or anthropology journals that are not normally read by South African medical practi- tioners. This paper is intended to redress that situation and provide the current status of the growth of. South African rural black children. Materials and methods. SaIIlples. The samples consisted of two groups of rural ...

  19. Black Lesbian Bodies: Reflections on a Queer South African Archive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Homosexuality is unAfrican' has become a common response to the presence of gay and lesbian groups in South Africa. Contrary to the fact that homosexuality can be traced back to the sixteenth century in Africa, widespread beliefs abound that homosexuality is a Western import. Black South African lesbians are ...

  20. a photoreceptor gene mutation in an indigenous black african family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mutations known to create or destroy a DdeI or MspI restriction enzyme site, respectively. Of the patients studied, 45 were from ADRP families and 19 were classified as simplex cases. Of these southern African families with a history of RD,. 14 were of ethnic black African origin, 5 of Asian origin and 26 of mixed ancestry ...

  1. The Self-Concept Level of Black Adolescents with and without African Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Francis; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored the self-concept level of Black adolescents with and without African names, and of their parents, using the Terrell and Taylor Black Ideology Scale and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Adolescents with African names demonstrated significantly higher scores on the Black self-concept scales than did those without African names.…

  2. Assessing peripheral arteries in South African black women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing peripheral arteries in South African black women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. ... Palpation of the pedal pulses, Doppler derived ankle brachial systolic blood pressure indices, photo plethysmographic-derived toe brachial systolic blood pressure indices and antero-posterior radiographs of both feet. Results.

  3. Cardiovascular risk factor profile of black Africans undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a growing epidemic on the African continent. It remains uncertain whether the risk factors identified as contributing to CAD in white populations contribute to a similar extent to CAD incidence in black populations. No data of the local population exists that is based on the ...

  4. Dietary iron overload in southern African rural blacks | Friedman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey conducted in rural southern African black subjects indicated that dietary iron overload remains a major health problem. A full blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum concentrations of iron, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), 1'-glutamyltransferase (GGn and serological screening ...

  5. Anthropometric and biochemical profiles of black south african women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines anthropometric and biochemical profiles and the association between these parameters in pre-menopausal, post-pubertal black South African women. A representative sample of 500 participants, randomly selected in Mangaung, Bloemfontein in the Free State Province, using township maps obtained ...

  6. Undeletions in Black South African English | Mesthrie | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 34 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me ... in Black South African English. R Mesthrie. Abstract. No Abstract.

  7. Congenital anomalies in rural black South African neonates - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital anomalies in rural black South African neonates - a silent epidemic? P. A. Venter, A. L. Christianson, C. M. Hutamo, M. P. Makhura, G. S. Gericke. Abstract. Study objective. To ascertain the incidence and spectrum of congenital anomalies in neonates born in a rural hospital. Design. This was a prospective, ...

  8. Longstanding hydrocele in adult Black Africans: Is preoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Longstanding hydrocele is very common among adult Black Africans. Preoperative scrotal ultrasound is widely used for adult patients presenting with hydrocele, with the main aim to rule out more serious underlying pathologies like malignancy or testicular torsion. This paper analyzes the findings and the ...

  9. Transformation in cricket: The Black African experience | Dove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The small number of black African (BA) cricket players progressing through the talent development pathways to the elite level has been a constant concern for Cricket South Africa (CSA). Previous attempts to accelerate the development of BA players have not produced the desired results. A description of the ...

  10. Global Norms and local requirements for Black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Norms and local requirements for Black South African English ('BSAE')? -- A pilot study of teachers' assessment and perceptions of learner texts ... reports on the pilot study of a still-ongoing research project which investigates teachers' language perceptions and language use in mainly BSAE-using classrooms.

  11. GalAactosaemia in black South African children | Ojwang | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the most common form of galactosaemia in black children in the KwaZulu Natal region. Cases of galactokinase or epimerase enzyme deficiency appear to be present. Further investigation is required to establish the occurrence and prevalence of the latter in affected individuals in this region. East African Medical Journal, ...

  12. Post-apartheid transnationalism in black South African literature: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Mtutuzeli Matshoba, Njabulo Ndebele and Zakes Mda to Phaswane Mpe,” with the thread splicing them together being a grounding of these authors' writings in the philosophy or worldview of Afrikan Humanism. Keywords: Black South African English literature, consciousness, identity, post-apartheid, transnationalism.

  13. Towards a Corpus of Black South African English | de Klerk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the proposed structure and design for a corpus of Xhosa English, which should ultimately form part of a larger corpus of Black South African English (BSAE). The planned corpus (which already comprises 100 000 transcribed words) is exclusively based on spoken spontaneous Xhosa English, and full ...

  14. The impact of black economic empowerment (BEE) on South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L.P. Krüger is Professor of Operations, Project and Quality Management, University of South Africa. E-mail: krugelp@unisa.ac. ..... The impact of black economic empowerment (BEE) on South African businesses. Table 5: Industry type. Industry description. Frequency Percentage Industry description. Frequency Percentage.

  15. Tooth width predictions in a sample of Black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M I; Seedat, A K; Hlongwa, P

    2007-07-01

    Space analysis during the mixed dentition requires prediction of the mesiodistal widths of the unerupted permanent canines and premolars and prediction tables and equations may be used for this purpose. The Tanaka and Johnston prediction equations, which were derived from a North American White sample, is one example which is widely used. This prediction equation may be inapplicable to other race groups due to racial tooth size variability. Therefore the purpose of this study was to derive prediction equations that would be applicable to Black South African subjects. One hundred and ten pre-treatment study casts of Black South African subjects were analysed from the Department of Orthodontics' records at the University of Limpopo. The sample was equally divided by gender with all subjects having Class I molar relationship and relatively well aligned teeth. The mesiodistal widths of the maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars were measured with a digital vernier calliper and compared with the measurements predicted with the Tanaka and Johnston equations. The relationship between the measured and predicted values were analysed by correlation and regression analyses. The results indicated that the Tanaka and Johnston prediction equations were not fully applicable to the Black South African sample. The equations tended to underpredict the male sample, while slight overprediction was observed in the female sample. Therefore, new equations were formulated and proposed that would be accurate for Black subjects.

  16. Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

  17. Black African Immigrant College Students' Perceptions of Belonging at a Predominately White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Aleixo, Marina B.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of college-age Blacks in the United States are Black African immigrants. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the researchers interviewed 12 undergraduate Black African immigrant college students attending a predominately White institution (PWI) about their experiences and perceptions of belonging. Findings suggest…

  18. Retinal detachment in black South Africans | Peters | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhegmatogenous retinal detachments seen in black patients attending King Edward VIII Hospital Ophthalmology Clinic over a 5-year period from January 1987 to December 1991 were reviewed. Penetrating trauma and diabetic retinopathy were excluded. There were 114 detachments in 112 patients, which gave incidence ...

  19. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses.......Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance...

  20. Black South African farm workers' beliefs about HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magcai, Dintletse Maria; du Plessis, Emmerentia; Pienaar, Abel Jakobus

    2013-01-01

    Black South African farm workers' context of an isolated lifestyle and lack of education and resources might lead to unique beliefs that influence their understanding and behavior regarding HIV infection. An exploration and description of these beliefs can inform suggestions for a belief-sensitive approach for HIV-prevention programs. A participative rural appraisal research method was implemented, following a qualitative, explorative, and descriptive approach. A culturally sensitive mode of interviewing, namely lekgotla, was used as a strategy to collect data. The results indicated that Black South African farm workers have specific beliefs about HIV. Most of the beliefs protect them from being infected, but some marginal beliefs can put them at risk of being infected. Clinical considerations, which health care professionals can incorporate in HIV-prevention programs, were formulated based on the results, relevant literature, and conclusions. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics of astigmatism in Black South African high school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics of astigmatism in Black South African high school children. Afri Health Sci.2017;17(4):1160-1171. https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v17i4.25. Introduction. Uncorrected refractive error including astigmatism is a common vision anomaly in school-aged children,1-2 caus- es visual impairment (VI) and is the second ...

  2. South African managers' perceptions of black economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this regard, South African businesses are subject to a whole array of mandatory regulations which specifically influence their operational capabilities and competitiveness to compete effectively and efficiently in both national and global markets. In a survey among 500 individual managers in South African businesses ...

  3. An exploration of black South African lovestyles

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.A. The purpose of this study was to add, through the lens of social and crosscultural psychology, to the much needed body of knowledge of African intimate relationships. Western romantic relationships are generally characterised by intense attraction and emotional attachment, idealisation of the other, sexual attraction and the want for total acceptance by the other. African love is less well known but seemingly tied up in culture bound collectivism as well as other social phenomenon. Th...

  4. Internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans, US-born Caribbean Blacks, and foreign-born Caribbean Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzon, Dawne M; McLean, Jamila S

    2017-02-01

    The tripartite model of racism includes personally mediated racism, institutionalized racism, and the less-oft studied internalized racism. Internalized racism - or negative beliefs about one's racial group - results from cultural racism that is endemic in American society. In this project, we studied whether these negative stereotypes are associated with mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Using secondary data from the National Survey of American Life, we investigated the association between internalized racism and mental health (measured by depressive symptoms and serious psychological distress (SPD)) among these two groups. We also explored whether ethnicity/nativity and mastery moderate the association between internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Internalized racism was positively associated with depressive symptoms and SPD among all Black subgroups. However, internalized racism was a weaker predictor of SPD among foreign-born Caribbean Blacks than US-born Caribbean Blacks and US-born African-Americans. Additionally, higher mastery was protective against distress associated with internalized racism. Internalized racism is an important yet understudied determinant of mental health among Blacks. Future studies should take into account additional heterogeneity within the Black population (e.g. African-born individuals) and other potential protective mechanisms in addition to mastery (e.g. self-esteem and racial identity).

  5. Why Not Academia?--The Streamlined Career Choice Process of Black African Women Engineers: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlambo, Yeukai Angela

    2017-01-01

    Black African women are grossly underrepresented as academic staff in engineering programs at South African universities. The problem is exacerbated at historically White institutions (HWI) where Black women are simply absent as engineering research and teaching staff. The absence of Black African women in the academy occurs despite Black African…

  6. Transformation in cricket: the black African experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African sport today.[1]. Since South Africa's return to international cricket in 1991 and the unification of the cricket bodies, firstly, as the United Cricket Board of South Africa and .... Poor or no equipment was cited as having a negative psychological effect on ... support from a parent and/or significant individual from the cricket.

  7. TRANSATLANTIC DIALOGUES: AFRICANITY, BLACKNESS AND IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deolinda Adão

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the aesthetic and ideological dialogs between Pan­-African movements, such as the Harlem Renaissance, the French Negri­tude movement, and the artistic, particularly the literary production of the student of the Casa do Império in general and that of Francisco José Ten­reiro in particular.

  8. TRANSATLANTIC DIALOGUES: AFRICANITY, BLACKNESS AND IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Deolinda Adão

    2011-01-01

    The article explores the aesthetic and ideological dialogs between Pan­-African movements, such as the Harlem Renaissance, the French Negri­tude movement, and the artistic, particularly the literary production of the student of the Casa do Império in general and that of Francisco José Ten­reiro in particular.

  9. Motor neuron disease in blacks | Cosnett | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motor neuron disease in blacks. JE Cosnett, PLA Bill, AI Bhigjee. Abstract. A series of 86 black, Indian and white patients with motor neuron disease were analysed retrospectively. Although the material does not allow statistically valid conclusions, there are sufficient cases among blacks to allow two prima facie observations ...

  10. [Localization and registration of the hinge axis in black Africans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, K D; N'Guessan, K S; N'Dindin, C; Bamba, A

    2003-06-01

    The study of the cinematic method using "SAM" and "Quick Axis of FAG" added to mandibular condyle palpation for the hinge axis limited points, show that the Black Africans mandibular condyle rotation axis position is higher (3.5 mm) and backer (2 mm) than the Caucasians. The axial points are located to between 11 and 12 mm in front of the tragus and between 7 and 8 mm below on the perpendicular line to the furrow defining the tragus superior side to the Ectocanthus.

  11. Pamidronate treatment for osteogenesis imperfecta in black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B D; Isaac, N; Mabele, O; Khiba, S; Nkayi, A; Mokoena, T

    2016-05-25

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a heritable disorder of bone connective tissue. Type III has a high incidence in the black pop-ulation of South Africa. Affected people experience numerous fractures, bone pain and progressive disability. Until the introduction of bisphosphonates to reduce fracture incidence, treatment revolved around orthopaedic and supportive care. Objective. To assess the subjective attitude of patients towards pamidronate treatment. Thirty black patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type III treated at Universitas Hospital were approached and 26 were included in this study. Patients or their parents were interviewed using a standardised researcher-administered questionnaire, either in person or by telephone. Most patients reported a reduction in symptoms, a feeling of increased wellbeing, increased strength and rated the pamidronate treatment highly. The intravenous route of administration and the side-effects experienced were bearable. Overall all patients would recommend this treatment to other affected persons. This is first study to look at bisphosphonate treatment for osteogenesis imperfecta type III in black South Africans. The treatment is well tolerated and highly rated by the patients. Reported improvements and side-effects are similar to those reported in other populations. Using this form of treatment in this population is supported by these findings.

  12. Job-hopping amongst African Black senior management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanyile C.C. Nzukuma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study focuses on understanding labour turnover trends amongst African Black senior managers in South Africa. There is a perception that turnover amongst African Black senior managers is higher than average. There is also a perception that African Black senior managers are only motivated by financial rewards when considering job change.Research purpose: The study focused on understanding why African Black senior managers have a propensity to change jobs and how organisations can resolve the trend.Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the push and pull factors for African Black senior managers in organisations.Research design, approach and method: The research was conducted in two phases, namely as part of a qualitative study and a quantitative study: Creswell (2003 refers to this approach as triangulation. The target population was African Black senior managers on the database of a large Human Resources Consultancy, The South African Rewards Association and the Association of Black Actuaries and Investment Professionals (ABSIP (n = 2600. A total of 208 usable responses were received.Main findings: The main findings and contribution to the field of study was that African Black senior managers do not trust organisations with their career development. They would rather take control of their own career development by moving from organisation to organisation to build their repertoire of skills and competence. They want to be in charge of their careers. This finding has profound implications for organisations employing African Black managers in the senior cadre.Practical/managerial implications: Managers of African Black senior managers need to create attractive employee value propositions that address the main findings. Contribution/value-add: The research shows that African Black senior managers generally seek corporate environments that encourage a sense of belonging and with a clear career growth plan.

  13. Black Carbon and West African Monsoon precipitation: observations and simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Huang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We have recently investigated large-scale co-variability between aerosol and precipitation and other meteorological variables in the West African Monsoon (WAM region using long term satellite observations and reanalysis data. In this study we compared the observational results to a global model simulation including only direct radiative forcing of black carbon (BC. From both observations and model simulations we found that in boreal cold seasons anomalously high African aerosols are associated with significant reductions in cloud amount, cloud top height, and surface precipitation. These results suggest that the observed precipitation reduction in the WAM region is caused by radiative effect of BC. The result also suggests that the BC effect on precipitation is nonlinear.

  14. Black carbon and West African Monsoon precipitation. Observations and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Adams, A.; Zhang, C.; Wang, C.

    2009-01-01

    We have recently investigated large-scale co-variability between aerosol and precipitation and other meteorological variables in the West African Monsoon (WAM) region using long term satellite observations and reanalysis data. In this study we compared the observational results to a global model simulation including only direct radiative forcing of black carbon (BC). From both observations and model simulations we found that in boreal cold seasons anomalously high African aerosols are associated with significant reductions in cloud amount, cloud top height, and surface precipitation. These results suggest that the observed precipitation reduction in the WAM region is caused by radiative effect of BC. The result also suggests that the BC effect on precipitation is nonlinear. (orig.)

  15. Precipitation and characterisation of lignin obtained from South African kraft mill black liquor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available International Conference on Chemical Thermodynamics and South African Institution of Chemical Engineering Conference, Durban, South Africa, 27 July - 1 August 2014 Precipitation and characterisation of lignin obtained from South African kraft mill black...

  16. Leaving Home: The Challenges of Black-African International Students Prior to Studying Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Elizabeth Frances; Hyams-Ssekasi, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Much of the literature on international students centres on their experiences once they arrive in their host countries. This study explores the preparations of Black-African students for leaving their home countries to study abroad. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 50 Black-African students studying at one British university. The…

  17. LP (a) levels and apo (a) phenotypes in urban black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glycoprotein, apolipoprptein (apo (a», which bears a strong resemblance to plasminogen! Lp (a) exhibits both ... Lp (a) values and apo (a) phenotypes in a group of black urban South African men. Methods. Subjects. Plasma samples from black South African men working at a lead acid battery plant in the Eastern Cape were ...

  18. Black Americans, Africa and History: A Reassessment of the Pan-African and Identity Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Tunde

    1998-01-01

    Examines the paradigm of Pan-Africanism and the identity construct in the historic and cultural contexts of blacks outside of Africa, critiquing theories on the African identity construct. Suggests that black American identity is too complex for this simplification and must be considered within the context of world acculturation. Contains 34…

  19. Job-hopping amongst African Black senior management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanyile C.C. Nzukuma

    2011-11-01

    Research purpose: The study focused on understanding why African Black senior managers have a propensity to change jobs and how organisations can resolve the trend. Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the push and pull factors for African Black senior managers in organisations. Research design, approach and method: The research was conducted in two phases, namely as part of a qualitative study and a quantitative study: Creswell (2003 refers to this approach as triangulation. The target population was African Black senior managers on the database of a large Human Resources Consultancy, The South African Rewards Association and the Association of Black Actuaries and Investment Professionals (ABSIP (n = 2600. A total of 208 usable responses were received. Main findings: The main findings and contribution to the field of study was that African Black senior managers do not trust organisations with their career development. They would rather take control of their own career development by moving from organisation to organisation to build their repertoire of skills and competence. They want to be in charge of their careers. This finding has profound implications for organisations employing African Black managers in the senior cadre. Practical/managerial implications: Managers of African Black senior managers need to create attractive employee value propositions that address the main findings. Contribution/value-add: The research shows that African Black senior managers generally seek corporate environments that encourage a sense of belonging and with a clear career growth plan.

  20. A study to evaluate the performance of black South African urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. A suitable tool is needed to assess child development in South Africa (SA). Using Western normed tools presents difficulties. Aim. To determine whether the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (Bayley-III) can be used on black African urban infants in SA. Method. One hundred and twenty-two black African ...

  1. Otosclerosis And Tgf-Β1 Gene In Black South Africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limited literature is available on the epidemiology and genetics of otosclerosis among SA Blacks in which it is extremely rare. We undertook this study as we had documented cases of clinical oval window otosclerosis confirmed surgically among South African Blacks. South African Medical Journal Vol. 98 (9) 2008: pp. 720- ...

  2. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Design In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. Participants 94 women aged 33–91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Setting Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012–2013. Results There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Conclusions Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma

  3. I Too Have a Voice: The Literacy Experiences of Black Boys Engaging with and Responding to African American Literature Depicting Black Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Merle B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how the use of African American literature that depicts Black males influences the reading comprehension and the reading motivation of Black boys as demonstrated through oral, written, and creative expressions. Studies have been conducted using children's literature with Black boys to examine their social interaction with the…

  4. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  5. Institutional factors that affect black South African students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Black students account for over 72% of enrolments in higher education, but only a small percentage of them choose Early Childhood Education (ECE) as a field of study and complete the qualification. The purpose of this study was to examine, from the perspective of black ECE students, why so few of them enrol in this ...

  6. An investigation into the causes of absconding among black African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that various determinants affect black women's decision to abscond from biomedical breast cancer treatments. These determinants were based on social and cuttural peculiarities. However, these findings did not explain the difference in absconding rates between black cervical (30%) and breast cancer ...

  7. Black and african students: individuals present, absent voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Maria de Amorim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe and analyze some data from an extension project and research titled “The narratives of the self and the effects of affirmative action policies to black students who need of affirmative action and Africans." We have as central issues of our work the following questions: What do the students who need of affirmative action and not unitholders know about the quotas? What do the various African groups who are at university know about the quotas and their experience as a student in the Alagoas’ State? In methodological terms, we use some procedures and instruments of action research to raise our diagnostic procedures and social intervention. It is concluded after investigation that the affirmative action policies in college should be the subject of constant debate whether in academia or in society. There is ignorance on the part of students who need of affirmative action, not unitholders and africans student about the racial quotas, the policies of affirmative action and the collective human rights achievements and socio-historical character.

  8. The Canonical Black Body: Alternative African American Religions and the Disruptive Politics of Sacrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Tucker Edmonds

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available “The Canonical Black Body” argues that central to the study of African American religions is a focus on the black body and the production and engagement of canons on the sacred black body within the black public sphere. Furthermore, this essay suggests that, by paying attention to alternative African American religions in the twentieth century, we can better engage the relationship between African American religion and the long history of creating these canons on the black body, debating their relationship to black freedom, and circulating the canons to contest the oppressive, exclusive practices of modern democracy. Through a critical engagement of the fields of Black Theology and New Religious Movements and using the resources offered by Delores Williams’ accounts of variety and experience and Vincent Wimbush’s category of signifying, this essay will argue for how a return to the body provides resources and tools for not only theorizing African American religions but thinking about the production and creation of competing black publics, including the important role of alternative black sacred publics.

  9. Perceptions of prostate cancer in Black African and Black Caribbean men: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Vibe Hjelholt; Armes, Jo; Ream, Emma

    2012-05-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is common and affects Black African and Caribbean men disproportionately more than White men. It is known that PC awareness is low in these groups, but knowledge is lacking about other factors that may deter Black men from seeking information about, or getting tested for, PC. The aim of this review was to appraise research on knowledge and perceptions of PC among Black men. Four medical and social science databases were systematically searched, and reference lists of relevant papers were hand searched. Non-English publications were excluded. Qualitative findings were synthesised using comparative thematic analysis to which quantitative findings were integrated. Thirteen qualitative studies and 20 cross-sectional surveys were included. All except two were conducted in the USA. The analysis identified individual, cultural and social factors likely to impact on Black men's awareness of, and willingness to be tested for, PC. Black men's awareness of personal risk of PC varied greatly between studies. Misunderstandings regarding methods of diagnosis and treatment were widespread. PC testing and treatment were perceived as a threat to men's sense of masculinity. Mistrust of the health-care system, limited access to health care and lack of trusting relationships with health professionals were also prominent. The factors impacting on Black men's awareness of PC may contribute to late PC diagnosis and should be taken into account when communicating with Black men seeking prostate care. Further, the review demonstrated a need for high-quality studies in countries other than the USA to determine the relevance of the review findings for Black men in other nations and continents. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  11. Black Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  12. Barriers to alcohol and other drug treatment use among Black African and Coloured South Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There are racial disparities in the use of alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment services in South Africa but little is known about the factors contributing to these disparities. This study aimed to redress this gap through identifying differences in barriers to AOD treatment use among Black African and Coloured persons from Cape Town, South Africa. The Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization was used as an analytic framework. Methods A case-control design was used to compare 434 individuals with AOD problems who had accessed treatment with 555 controls who had not accessed treatment on a range of variables. Logistic regression procedures were employed to examine the unique profile of variables associated with treatment utilization for Black African and Coloured participants. Results After controlling for the influence of treatment need and predisposing factors on treatment use, several barriers to treatment were identified. Greater awareness of treatment options and fewer geographic access and affordability barriers were strongly associated with an increased likelihood of AOD treatment use for both race groups. However, Black African persons were more vulnerable to the effects of awareness and geographic access barriers on treatment use. Stigma consciousness was only associated with AOD treatment utilization for Coloured participants. Conclusion Differences in barriers to AOD treatment use were found among Black African and Coloured South Africans. Targeted interventions that address the unique profile of barriers experienced by each race group are needed to improve AOD treatment use by these underserved groups. Several strategies for improving the likelihood of treatment entry are suggested. PMID:23683119

  13. "Combing" through Representations of Black Girls' Hair in African American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda M.; McNair, Jonda C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we share findings from a content analysis of six picturebooks about hair. The picturebooks selected feature Black female protagonists and are written by African American females. Our content analysis examines the ways in which Black hair is theorized and represented to children (from diverse backgrounds) very early on in their…

  14. "A Grammar for Black Education beyond Borders": Exploring Technologies of Schooling in the African Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Jarvis Ray

    2016-01-01

    Education has been a technology used to sustain black abjection across the African Diaspora. Employing Mills' Racial Contract and Althusser's theory of the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA) through a racial lens, this article will discuss how white supremacist education has been used to promote the misrecognition of black subjects as sub-human.…

  15. Malignant melanoma of the skin in black South Africans: A 15-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acral lentiginous melanomas develop on palmar, plantar and subungual skin and are, with few exceptions, the only form of melanoma occurring in black people. Most South African black patients present late for treatment, are in an advanced stage of the disease, and are therefore candidates for palliative rather than ...

  16. Private Sector Investment in Black Education and Training: Rescuing South African Capitalism from Apartheid's Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Andre

    1989-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the factors contributing to increased involvement by South African business and industry in Black education and training; (2) the Urban Foundation's commitment to non-formal education in Black communities; (3) intervention by American corporations; and (4) the dramatic failure of capitalist initiatives. Contains 55 references. (SV)

  17. Pedagogy of Self-Development: The Role the Black Church Can Have on African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Carlos R.; Grant, Cosette M.; Beachum, Floyd D.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the Black Church has been an institutional stronghold in the Black community and has thereby sustained a cultural ethos that has enabled African Americans to combat racial prejudice and hostility for generations. Therefore, this article will unearth Yosso's notion of alternative capital that students of color have at their disposal…

  18. African American Homeschool Parents' Motivations for Homeschooling and Their Black Children's Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the motivations of African American parents for choosing homeschooling for their children and the academic achievement of their Black homeschool students. Their reasons for homeschooling are similar to those of homeschool parents in general, although some use homeschooling to help their children understand Black culture and…

  19. Loss of maternal measles antibody in black South African infants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loss of maternal measles antibody in black South African infants in the first year of life implications for age of vaccination. P Kiepiela, H. M. Coovadia, W.E.K. Loening, P. Coward, S.S. Abdool Karim ...

  20. FastStats: Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2015, Table P-1c [ ...

  1. Leaving home: the challenges of Black-African international students prior to studying overseas

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Elizabeth F.; Hyams-Ssekasi, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Much of the literature on international students centres on their experiences once they arrive in their host countries. This study explores the preparations of Black-African students for leaving their home countries to study abroad. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 50 Black-African students studying at one British university. The students spoke of the complex and frustrating process of obtaining visas and applying to university abroad and the tensions they felt in leaving thei...

  2. Risk factor profile of coronary artery disease in black South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Dolman, Robin Claire; Jerling, Johann Carl; Pieters, Marlien; Ntyintyane, L.; Raal, F.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factor profile of coronary artery disease (CAD) in black South Africans. The study was motivated by the increased prevalence of CAD in South Africa, probably as a result of urbanisation. Despite this increase, however, very little is known regarding the cause, risk factor profile and clinical presentations of CAD in the black South African population. Design: A case control study was performed investigating 40 (33 men, 7 women) ...

  3. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-03-13

    Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. 94 women aged 33-91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012-2013. There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma, raise awareness, increase discussion of breast cancer and promote

  4. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in South African Blacks | Lewis | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has been considered rare among the Black population of southern Africa. We report 7 patients with the disease who presented during a 14-month period. Current concepts in the approach to the diagnosis and treatment of HCM are discussed. It is possible that with greater awareness of ...

  5. GALACTOSAEMIA IN BLACK SOUTH AFRICAN CHILDREN P.J. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999-05-01

    May 1, 1999 ... patients had complete absence of GALT activity. Two infants who displayed acute toxicity symptoms and positive urine galactose, exhibited normal GALT activity. Conclusion: GALT deficiency is the most common form of galactosaemia in black children in the KwaZulu Natal region. Cases of galactokinase or ...

  6. Iron status and cardiovascular disease risk in black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometric indices, iron indices, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipid profiles were measured using standard procedures in 1 262 apparently healthy black ... p < 0.01) and were not retained when adjustment was made for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption and C-reactive protein in the analysis.

  7. High prevalence of primary dyslipidaemia in black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa (SA), premature deaths due to heart and blood vessel diseases in people of working age (35 - 64 years) have been predicted to increase by 41% between 2007 ... To assess the burden and prevalence of dyslipidaemia in the SA black population at Dr George Mukhari Hospital in the north region of Gauteng.

  8. Scriptions of the Choral: The Historiography of Black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay focusses on two moments in the historiography of black choralism. The work on choralism by the first generation ethnomusicologists, specifically Percival R. Kirby, provides an opportunity to re-evaluate their scholarship as well as revisit the charge of their collaboration with segregationist/apartheid thought.

  9. The dining and tipping behaviour of Black South Africans: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on these motives, different black dining segments were identified and an OSI (Occasionalists, Socialisers and Indulgers) typology of diners proposed. The dining and tipping behaviour of these dining segments are furthermore infl uenced by several factors, with clear implications for both the server and restaurateurs.

  10. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  11. The housing careers of black middle-class residents in a South African metropolitan area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marais, Lochner; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.; Napier, Mark; Cloete, Jan; Lenka, Molefi

    2018-01-01

    Under apartheid, black African households could not own land or homes in most
    major urban centres in South Africa. This limited residential mobility and locked many households into state rental accommodation in townships. Homeownership for all South Africans was restored in the mid-1980 s and

  12. "Black Like Me": Reframing Blackness for Decolonial Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, George J. Sefa

    2018-01-01

    From a particular vantage point, as an African-born scholar with a politics to affirm my Black subjectivity and Indigeneity in a diasporic context, my article engages a (re)theorization of Blackness for decolonial politics. Building on existing works of how Black scholars, themselves, have theorized Blackness, and recognizing the fluid,…

  13. Black Air: African American Contributions to Airpower before Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Charles Lindbergh across the Atlantic, inspired many young Americans to fly, both white and Black. However, racial hatred and discrimination was so...year at a reception in New York, when General Charles de Gaulle, spotting Bullard in his legion uniform and his medals, pulled him out of the crowd...armorers, medics, cooks, and logisticians were necessary for support. 2 1LT Charles E. Francis, Tuskegee

  14. Black Musics, African Lives, and the National Imagination in Modern Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Hankins, Sarah Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Black Musics, African Lives, and the National Imagination in Modern Israel,” explores the forms and functions of African and Afro-diasporic musics amidst heated public debate around ethnic identity and national membership. Focusing on musical-political activity among Ethiopian Israeli citizens, Sudanese and Eritrean refugees, and West African labor migrants in Tel Aviv, I examine how diverse types of musicking, from nightclub DJing and live performance to church services and protest concert...

  15. [Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT): our experience in African blacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, S M; Agboton, G; Dieng, M; Ndiaye Sow, M N; Diakhate, M; Gueye, N N; Seck, C M; Lam, A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate in the short and medium term, intraocular pressure results after selective laser trabeculoplasty in black patients with chronic open angle glaucoma or isolated ocular hypertension. We conducted a retrospective study with a mean 12.5-month follow-up in black patients who underwent SLT. Inclusion criteria were: an open iridocorneal angle greater than or equal to Schaeffer grade 3, data recorded and available on trabecular pigmentation, data on SLT parameters available, and intraocular pressure by Goldmann applanation tonometry recorded.A positive result was defined as a post-laser IntraOcular Pressure (IOP) less than 21 mmHg after 1-month follow-up. The main motivation was the reduction of number of eye drops used. Performed first was a treatment of the inferior 180° (3:00-9:00), possibly supplemented by a second session at 15 days or 1 month if a pressure decrease was noted after the first session. IOP results were evaluated prior to SLT, immediately following SLT and then depending on the drop in pressure. Statistical analysis was performed using the EPI.info 7 software. A total of 69 eyes of 40 patients treated with SLT were identified. The mean IOP prior to SLT was 18.3 mmHg ± 4. Our results showed 90% of patients who positively responded to the treatment (10% failure) with a mean IOP decrease of 2.3 ± 1 mmHg, that is 13%, by the second week. The mean pressure decrease continued to 4.78 ± 1 mmHg for patients (30%) in the group treated for 360°, that is 27% in the same period of time. SLT permitted discontinuation of a prostaglandin in 60% (42 cases). Eyes on triple-drug therapy went from 23 before SLT to 5 following SLT (a 26% decline), eyes on two medications went from 32 to 16 (24% decline). In result association tests, only pigmentation of the angle and visual field stage had a statistically significant probability. In our experience, SLT is indicated in black patients to potentiate less effective treatments, to

  16. Lower Lateral Cartilages: An Anatomic and Morphological Study in Noses of Black Southern Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Cameron N D; van Wyk, F Carl; Joubert, Gina; Seedat, Riaz Y

    2017-03-01

    The anatomy of the nose of different ethnic groups has been widely researched in order to facilitate a better understanding of the individual nose as a foundation for improving surgical outcomes. The only anatomical research of the lower lateral cartilages (LLCs) available to the surgeon working with an African patient is to extrapolate data from studies already published on African Americans. The aim of this descriptive cadaveric study was to assess the normal anatomy of the LLCs in noses of Black South Africans and compare this to data from studies on noses from Caucasian, Asian, Korean, and African-American populations. Ninety lower lateral cartilages of 45 cadavers of Black South Africans who did not have previous surgery or trauma to the nose were dissected. The morphological shapes and 12 standard anatomical measurements were recorded. The results were analyzed and compared to data in the literature from studies on lower lateral cartilages of Caucasian, Asian, Korean, and African-American populations. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of overall cartilage dimensions, distance from nasal rim, and morphological shapes, compared to all previously studied groups, including the African-American population. There were significant differences in cartilage dimensions between males and females. This translates to clinically significant data that is useful during reconstructive and aesthetic nasal surgery on patients with a Southern African background. This study sets norms for alar cartilages in Black Southern Africans.

  17. Use of professional and informal support by African Americans and Caribbean blacks with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Amanda Toler; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Neighbors, Harold W; Chatters, Linda M; Jackson, James S

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the use of professional services and informal support among African Americans and Caribbean blacks with a lifetime mood, anxiety, or substance use disorder. Data were from the National Survey of American Life. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test the utilization of professional services only, informal support only, both, or neither. Analyses controlled for sociodemographic characteristics, disorder-related variables, and family network variables. The analytic sample included 1,096 African Americans and 372 Caribbean blacks. Forty-one percent used both professional services and informal support, 14% relied on professional services only, 23% used informal support only, and 22% did not seek help. There were no significant differences in help seeking between African Americans and Caribbean blacks. Having co-occurring mental and substance use disorders, having a severe disorder in the past 12 months, having more people in the informal helper network, and being female increased the likelihood of using professional services and informal supports. When men sought help, they were more likely to rely on informal helpers. Marital status, age, and socioeconomic status were also significantly related to help seeking. The significant proportion of black Americans with a mental disorder who relied on informal support alone, professional services alone, or no help at all suggests potential unmet need in this group. However, the reliance on informal support also may be evidence of a strong protective role that informal networks play in the lives of African Americans and Caribbean blacks.

  18. Rules of engagement: predictors of Black Caribbean immigrants' engagement with African American culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nancy; Watson, Natalie N; Wang, Zhenni; Case, Andrew D; Hunter, Carla D

    2013-10-01

    The cultural context in the United States is racialized and influences Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation processes, but what role it plays in Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation into specific facets of American society (e.g., African American culture) has been understudied in the field of psychology. The present study extends research on Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturative process by assessing how this group's experience of the racial context (racial public regard, ethnic public regard, and cultural race-related stress) influences its engagement in African American culture (i.e., adoption of values and behavioral involvement). Data were collected from 93 Black participants of Caribbean descent, ranging in age from 13 to 45 and analyzed using a stepwise hierarchical regression. The findings highlighted that when Black Caribbean-descended participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their racial group they were more likely to engage in African American culture. In contrast, when participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their ethnic group (e.g., Haitian) they were less likely to engage in African American culture. Furthermore, among participants experiencing low levels of cultural race-related stress, the associations between racial public regard and engagement with African American culture were amplified. However, for participants experiencing high cultural race-related stress, their engagement in African American culture did not change as a function of racial public regard. These findings may suggest that, for Black Caribbean immigrants, the experience of the racial context influences strategies that serve to preserve or bolster their overall social status and psychological well-being in the United States. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  20. The influence of religion on organ donation and transplantation among the Black Caribbean and Black African population--a pilot study in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Cynthia; Randhawa, Gurch

    2006-01-01

    Currently the demand for transplant organs, particularly kidneys, far outstrips the supply in the United Kingdom. This problem is particularly severe for the Black African and Black Caribbean populations who have a higher predisposition to end-stage renal failure. Several commentators have suggested that religious and cultural traditions may be the major determinant preventing Black Africans and Black Caribbeans from donating organs. An exploratory qualitative study using focus groups was undertaken with the aim of examining the influence of religion, among other things, on the extent and direction of public attitudes toward organ donation in a cross-section of the Black African and Black Caribbean populations in Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham. In almost every focus group, religion and faith were expressed as issues that could prevent Black people from becoming organ donors. Organ donation was debated with caution on the basis of how their religious experience had influenced them. This finding suggests that the church and faith leaders could play a greater role in raising awareness of organ donation in these communities. Religious leaders can reach large numbers of people in a short space of time and will assist members of any group to understand more fully the religious stance on the subject matter. This education, in the long term, may lead to more people becoming organ donors.

  1. Black economic empowerment in the South African coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    South Africa has experienced great change and progress in the ten years since the end of apartheid and the inauguration of its first democratic government. Back in 1994, many were concerned about whether such a young and fragile democracy could survive. The new government needed to unify the country, while bringing about the significant change necessary to address the massive racial inequality at the heart of the apartheid system. The article explains actions and initiatives taken under the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) programme, one of which is the establishment of Eyesizwe Coal. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  2. Insulinoma in a black South African : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huddle, K.R.L.; Mannell, A.; Hale, M.J.; Denath, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    A 69-year-old black woman with an insulinoma presented with recurrent episodes of sweating and confusion culminating in two episodes of hypoglycaemic coma. The diagnosis was confirmed by finding an inappropriately elevated serum insulin level in the presence of hypoglycaemia after a fast of 14 hours. Computed tomography revealed a large tumour in the head of the pancreas. Removal of the tumour necessitated partial resection of the head and body of the pancreas, which in turn necessitated certain repair and drainage procedures. Postoperative complications, while not insignificant, were acceptable. At 1-year follow-up the patient is well. 4 figs., 4 refs

  3. Black Cohosh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have had hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer or for pregnant women or nursing mothers. Black cohosh should not be confused with blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) , which has different effects and may not be safe. Black cohosh has ...

  4. High risk of metabolic syndrome among black South African women with severe mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamima Saloojee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI globally. The prevalence of MetS is higher in black women compared to black men from South Africa. Aim: To compare the prevalence of MetS between black South African men and women with SMI taking antipsychotic medication. Further, this prevalence was compared to the prevalence in a matched control group of black South African men and women without SMI. Setting: A general hospital psychiatric unit. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of MetS in a group of multi-ethnic participants with SMI treated with antipsychotic medication and a matched control group without SMI, applying the 2009 Joint Interim Statement (JIS criteria. Here, we included only the black African participants to compare MetS prevalence between men and women. Results: There were 232 participants in the group with SMI (male 155 and female 77 and without SMI (male 156 and female 76. The prevalence of MetS was more than three times higher in women with SMI compared to men with SMI (37.7% vs. 10.3%, p < 0.001. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of MetS in men or women between the groups with and without SMI. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, female gender (odds ratio [OR] 7.66, advancing age (OR 1.08 and longer duration of illness (OR = 1.15 were significant risk factors for MetS in SMI. Conclusion: In black South Africans with SMI on antipsychotic medication, there is a higher prevalence and risk for MetS in women compared to men.

  5. Barriers to HIV testing for migrant black Africans in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakoya, A.; Reynolds, R.; Caswell, G.; Shiripinda, I.

    2008-01-01

    Migrant black Africans are disproportionately affected by HIV in Western Europe; we discuss the barriers to HIV testing for sub-Saharan migrants, with particular emphasis on the UK and the Netherlands. Cultural, social and structural barriers to testing, such as access to testing and care, fear of

  6. Attitude Of Self Ear Cleaning In Black Africans: Any Benefit? | Afolabi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wax removal compromises the integrity of the ear's defenses. It is a leading cause of otitis externa, Otomycosis and impaired hearing. Aims of the study are to assess the knowledge and implication of self ear cleaning among black Africans. Material and methods: A prospective study carried out at the Tundun-wada ...

  7. Evaluation of African black pear pulp and oil as ingredients in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bakery fat is important ingrredient that affects the rheological properties of bread crumb. In this work, African black peer pulp and pulp oil were used as substitutions to commercial bakery fat 0%, 25%,50%,75% and 100% levels of substitution. The results obtained show that significant difference (p>0.05) occur between the ...

  8. Black Hegemony, a Significant Influence in the School Success of High-Achieving African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jean C.

    This is an interpretive study of the influence of Black Hegemony on the academic success of three successful African Americans: Clifton L. Taulbert, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Margaret Morgan Lawrence. All three spent their youth in southern communities strongly influenced by Jim Crow laws and customs, and their academic accomplishments were…

  9. Cardiovascular Disease Risk amongst African Black Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Need for Population Specific Stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA enhances the risk of cardiovascular disease to a similar extent as diabetes. Whereas atherogenesis remains poorly elucidated in RA, traditional and nontraditional risk factors associate similarly and additively with CVD in RA. Current recommendations on CVD risk stratification reportedly have important limitations. Further, reported data on CVD and its risk factors derive mostly from data obtained in the developed world. An earlier epidemiological health transition is intrinsic to persons living in rural areas and those undergoing urbanization. It is therefore conceivable that optimal CVD risk stratification differs amongst patients with RA from developing populations compared to those from developed populations. Herein, we briefly describe current CVD and its risk factor profiles in the African black population at large. Against this background, we review reported data on CVD risk and its potential stratification amongst African black compared to white patients with RA. Routinely assessed traditional and nontraditional CVD risk factors were consistently and independently related to atherosclerosis in African white but not black patients with RA. Circulating concentrations of novel CVD risk biomarkers including interleukin-6 and interleukin-5 adipokines were mostly similarly associated with both endothelial activation and atherosclerosis amongst African black and white RA patients.

  10. African American College Student Retention and the Ecological Psychology of Historically Black Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. Christopher, II

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the dominant historic, economic, political, and social issues which affect the retention of African American college students through studies on ecological psychology. Considers the behaviors demonstrated by historically Black colleges which translate into effective retention policies or practices for predominantly White institutions.…

  11. Snuff use and the risk for hypertension among black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snuff use and the risk for hypertension among black South African women. ... Little is known about the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the use of snuff in developing countries. This study therefore sought to ... Data analysis included chi-square statistics, t-tests, ANOVA and multiple logistic regression analysis.

  12. Primary familial hypercholesterolaemia in a South African black. A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingerden, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    A case of familial hypercholesterolaemia is presented. This is to the best of our knowledge the first report of such a case in a South African black. The modes of presentation and inheritance are discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed

  13. Angiogenic imbalance as a contributor to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia among black African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeme, Allen; Buga, Geoffrey A; Mammen, MaryKutty; Namugowa, Ambrose V

    2017-06-01

    The pathogenesis of preeclampsia remains unclear despite extensive research. Altered angiogenic balance has been hypothesized to play a significant role in the clinical manifestations of this syndrome. However this imbalance has not been investigated extensively among black African women. The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal levels of the angiogenic factors soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFLT1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) among black African women with preeclampsia. A case control study was conducted in the Mthatha hospital complex in South Africa including 51 women with preeclampsia and 82 women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Blood samples were drawn from participants and serum was used to assess sFLT1, and PlGF levels quantified using specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Non- parametric statistics were used for analysis. Black African women with preeclampsia were found to have significantly lower levels of PlGF (90.3 ± 8.9 pg/ml versus 172.8 ± 20.2 pg/ml; p preeclampsia among black African women as reported in other populations.

  14. Do African Lives Matter to Black Lives Matter? Youth Uprisings and the Borders of Solidarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Krystal

    2018-01-01

    Despite experiencing a proliferation of youth-led mobilizations in recent years, Africa remains peripheral to the analysis of the U.S.-centered Movement for Black Lives (M4BL). This article explores points of convergence and tension between African uprisings and the M4BL, with a focus on two movements at the intersection of education and activism:…

  15. The Extension of the Progressive Aspect in Black South African English

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooy, Bertus

    2006-01-01

    The extension of the progressive aspect to stative verbs has been identified as a characteristic feature of New Varieties of English across the world, including the English of black South Africans (BSAfE). This paper examines the use of the progressive aspect in BSAfE, by doing a comparative analysis of three corpora of argumentative student…

  16. Black Tribal African Religion with Some Emphasis on Christianity and Islam in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Marian

    This 6th grade social studies unit delves into the belief systems and external religious, cultural practices of Black Africans. It is part of a series of guides developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. Study is focused upon the Ashanti tribe of Ghana knowing that although the multiplicity of tribes have…

  17. Food of the Little Swift Apus affinis and African Black Swift Apus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food habits of the Little Swift Apus affinis and African Black Swift Apus barbatus were quantified at Kimberley, Northern Cape province and Makapansgat, Limpopo province, South Africa. As previously documented for other species, both of these swifts took a wide variety of aerial arthropods including spiders as well as ...

  18. Plasma clot lysis time and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in black Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Zelda; Pieters, Marlien; Jerling, Johann C; Kruger, Annamarie; Rijken, Dingeman C

    2012-01-01

    Studies in populations of European descent show longer plasma clot lysis times (CLT) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) than in controls. No data are available on the association between CVD risk factors and fibrinolytic potential in black Africans, a group undergoing rapid urbanisation with increased CVD prevalence. We investigated associations between known CVD risk factors and CLT in black Africans and whether CLTs differ between rural and urban participants in light of differences in CVD risk.Data from 1000 rural and 1000 urban apparently healthy black South Africans (35-60 years) were cross-sectionally analysed.Increased PAI-1(act), BMI, HbA1c, triglycerides, the metabolic syndrome, fibrinogen concentration, CRP, female sex and positive HIV status were associated with increased CLTs, while habitual alcohol consumption associated with decreased CLT. No differences in CLT were found between age and smoking categories, contraceptive use or hyper- and normotensive participants. Urban women had longer CLT than rural women while no differences were observed for men.CLT was associated with many known CVD risk factors in black Africans. Differences were however observed, compared to data from populations of European descent available in the literature, suggesting possible ethnic differences. The effect of urbanisation on CLT is influenced by traditional CVD risk factors and their prevalence in urban and rural communities.

  19. Precipitation and valorisation of lignin obtained from South African Kraft mill black liquor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, Mpho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available . In this thesis, the isolation and recovery of lignin from kraft mill black liquor was examined, an in-depth characterisation of the polymer was undertaken, and finally, a method for the potential valorisation of the lignin from a South African kraft mill...

  20. Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women

    OpenAIRE

    Loutfy, Mona; Tharao, Wangari; Logie, Carmen; Aden, Muna A; Chambers, Lori A; Wu, Wei; Abdelmaseh, Marym; Calzavara, Liviana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora). However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effe...

  1. Stigma, lack of knowledge and prevalence maintain HIV risk among Black Africans in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Mark; Dickson, Nigel; Mhlanga, Fungai; Ludlam, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    The AfricaNZ Health project aimed explore HIV risks in Black African communities in NZ with a view to informing HIV infection prevention and health promotion programs. AfricaNZ Health was completed in two phases. The first developed desk estimates of the resident Black African population in New Zealand, and Africans living with HIV. The second comprised two arms: an anonymous survey administered at African community events and a series of focus groups around the country. High levels of knowledge and positive attitudes about HIV were more often found in older than younger age groups. Condom use was higher in the younger group than in older age groups. Traditional attitudes still inform some beliefs about HIV. Stigma about HIV and anyone at risk for HIV remains very high among Africans. Western sexual identity constructs are not meaningful. A culturally informed strategy for risk and stigma reduction is urgently needed. The existing prevention and care infrastructure, informed by MSM experiences, must address increased risk to Black African new settlers, but this is not a reason to discriminate or further stigmatise an already vulnerable population. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. The politics of black patients' identity: ward-rounds on the 'black side' of a South African psychiatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, L

    1991-06-01

    There are many macrosocial studies of the political organisation of health and mental health care in South Africa, and the maldistribution of resources by race is well known. Little attention, however, has been given to the minutiae of the negotiation of power in the clinical setting. This article, which reports on part of a larger study of aspects of culture in South African psychiatry, focuses on interactions in ward-rounds on the 'Black side' of a South African psychiatric hospital. Through analysis of cases, the complexity of interpreting what transpires in such a setting and the central role that the concept of culture has in debates amongst staff members are demonstrated. Close analysis demonstrates the inadequacy of models which seek to locate the institutional racism of apartheid psychiatry in the motives of individual clinicians. Clinicians may simultaneously reproduce and subvert aspects of apartheid practice. A consideration of the social positioning of the clinician both as a South African and as a practitioner of psychiatry is central to the development of psychiatry in a post-apartheid South Africa.

  3. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness ... that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen ( ...

  4. [Neurological manifestations of Gougerot and Sjögren disease: a Black African case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, M; Sama, H D; Nagbé, Y; Kumako, V; Bissa, H; Agoda-Koussema, L K; Balo, K P; Grunitzky, E K

    2015-10-01

    Primitive Gougerot-Sjögren syndrome (PGSS) is a systemic autoimmune exocrinopathy in which twenty percent of affected patients develop neurological manifestations. It has been little described in the Black African literature. We report a case of PGSS in a 64-year-old Black woman as revealed by neurological manifestations in an inflammatory context. Central neuropathy was present and the patient fulfilled at least four of the six Vitali American-European diagnostic criteria. There were abnormal aspects on the sylvian artery and hyperintense lesions of periventricular predominance. PGSS is a serious disease which we must consider when we encounter any unexplained neurological manifestations especially those associated with vasculitic lesions.

  5. De-racialising exploitation: 'Black Economic Empowerment' in the South African wine sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Sandra; DuToit, Andries; Ponte, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    In November 2003, the South African wine industry held its first consultative conference on ‘Black Empowerment’. The press reported to the world that the industry was at last entering ‘the new South Africa’. For years, it had been a byword for white power and black exploitation – famous for the grim working conditions, poor wages, degrading institutions, and authoritarian, racist white farmers. In contrast to the past, when talk of change was the prerogative of white and male industry insider...

  6. Time and Quest of Identity of the African-American Character: George Schuyler's Black No More

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Naji Shanbooj Alolaiwi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine the theme of “passing,” viewed as a metaphor of race that marks a step forward from the painful reality of the Middle Passage to “passing,” as both physical reality and metaphor, and to find out the underlying causes of the passing character in George Schyler's Black No More in the light of social and historical dimensions. The study investigates the aspects of “passing”  manifested by the African-American who is often viewed as an “appendage” to the rest of society, blacks have struggled to attain the success, equality, and overall collective consciousness of the American society, while simultaneously creating and maintaining and identity of their own. Blacks have been and continue to be socially, economically, educationally, and politically disenfranchised and therefore cannot completely find unity within an American system that continuously seeks to reaffirm their inferiority.

  7. Complementary and alternative medicine for mental disorders among African Americans, black Caribbeans, and whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Amanda T; Bullard, Kai M; Taylor, Robert J; Chatters, Linda M; Baser, Raymond E; Perron, Brian E; Jackson, James S

    2009-10-01

    This study examined racial and ethnic differences in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of mental and substance use disorders. Data were from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) and the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). The analytic sample included 631 African Americans and 245 black Caribbeans from the NSAL and 1,393 non-Hispanic whites from the NCS-R who met criteria for a mood, anxiety, or substance use disorder in the past 12 months. Logistic regression was used to examine racial and ethnic differences in the use of any CAM and in the use of CAM only versus the use of CAM plus services in another treatment sector. Thirty-four percent of respondents used some form of CAM. Whites were more likely than blacks to use any CAM, although there was no racial or ethnic difference in CAM use only versus CAM use plus traditional services. A higher proportion of blacks than whites used prayer and other spiritual practices. Among those with a mood disorder, black Caribbeans were less likely than African Americans to use any CAM. Findings of this study were similar to those of previous studies that examined physical illness in relation to CAM use in terms of its overall prevalence, the predominant use of CAM in conjunction with traditional service providers, and racial and ethnic differences in the use of CAM. The use of prayer was a major factor in differences between blacks and whites in CAM use; however, there were also differences among black Americans that warrant further research.

  8. Black Consciousness, Self-Esteem, and Satisfaction with Physical Appearance among African-American Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lori R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The extent to which black consciousness and self-esteem are associated with satisfaction with physical appearance is explored for 152 African-American female college students. Satisfaction with overall physical appearance and black consciousness have a moderate relationship. A strong relationship exists for self-esteem and satisfaction with facial…

  9. Resistance and Assent: How Racial Socialization Shapes Black Students' Experience Learning African American History in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Theodore E.

    2016-01-01

    African American history is often taught poorly in high school U.S. history courses. However, we know little about how Black students perceive and experience this situation. I use a refined racial socialization framework and interview data with 32 Black college students in the Northeast to investigate how familial racial socialization shapes their…

  10. Mortality among blacks or African Americans with HIV infection--United States, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Azfar-e-Alam; Hu, Xiaohong; Hall, H Irene

    2015-02-06

    A primary goal of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy is to reduce HIV-related health disparities, including HIV-related mortality in communities at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As a group, persons who self-identify as blacks or African Americans (referred to as blacks in this report), have been affected by HIV more than any other racial/ethnic population. Forty-seven percent of persons who received an HIV diagnosis in the United States in 2012 and 43% of all persons living with diagnosed HIV infection in 2011 were black. Blacks also experienced a low 3-year survival rate among persons with HIV infection diagnosed during 2003-2008. CDC and its partners have been pursuing a high-impact prevention approach and supporting projects focusing on minorities to improve diagnosis, linkage to care, and retention in care, and to reduce disparities in HIV-related health outcomes. To measure trends in disparities in mortality among blacks, CDC analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System. The results of that analysis indicated that among blacks aged ≥13 years the death rate per 1,000 persons living with diagnosed HIV decreased from 28.4 in 2008 to 20.5 in 2012. Despite this improvement, in 2012 the death rate per 1,000 persons living with HIV among blacks was 13% higher than the rate for whites and 47% higher than the rate for Hispanics or Latinos. These data demonstrate the need for implementation of interventions and public health strategies to further reduce disparities in deaths.

  11. Black Lives Matter: Teaching African American Literature and the Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    In theorizing how we should pedagogically approach African American literature, especially in courses for undergraduates, I argue that we have to move away from questions of what was or even what is African American literature and, instead, find ways to teach African American literature in both its historical contexts--artistic and political--and…

  12. Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Mona; Tharao, Wangari; Logie, Carmen; Aden, Muna A; Chambers, Lori A; Wu, Wei; Abdelmaseh, Marym; Calzavara, Liviana

    2015-01-01

    Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora). However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma experienced by this population. The Cochrane methodology was used to develop a search strategy in consultation with a librarian scientist. Databases searched included the Cochrane Library, Ovid EMBASE, PsycInfo, and 10 others. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for potential relevance and conducted the Cochrane grading of RCTs to assess risk of bias and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Eligible papers were selected if they employed an intervention design with African/Black diasporic women living with HIV as the target population and had a primary outcome of stigma reduction. Of the five studies that met all of the eligibility criteria, four demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions in reducing HIV-related stigma. Only two of the five studies were designed specifically for HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. Limitations included the absence of interventions addressing other forms of stigma and discrimination (e.g. gender discrimination, racism, heterosexism). Our findings suggest that there are limited interventions designed to address multiple forms of stigma, including gender and racial discrimination, experienced by HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women.

  13. Discrimination and social anxiety disorder among African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Debra Siegel; Himle, Joseph A; Abelson, Jamie M; Matusko, Niki; Dhawan, Nikhil; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between discrimination and social anxiety disorder (SAD) in a sample of African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites using the National Survey of American Life, the most comprehensive study of psychopathology among American blacks to date (N = 6082). Previous work has highlighted a strong association between discrimination and mental health symptoms (Keith, Lincoln, Taylor, and Jackson [Sex Roles 62:48-59, ]; Kessler, Mickelson, and Williams [J Health Soc Behav 40:208-230, 1999]; Soto, Dawson-Andoh, and BeLue [J Anxiety Disord 25:258-265, ]). However, few studies have examined the effects of particular types of discrimination on specific anxiety disorders or among different black subgroups. In this study, logistic regression analyses indicated that everyday but not major experiences of discrimination are associated with SAD for African-Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites. This study adds to the extant literature by demonstrating that specific types of discrimination may be uniquely associated with SAD for different ethnic/racial groups.

  14. Common roots: a contextual review of HIV epidemics in black men who have sex with men across the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Gregorio A; Jeffries, William L; Peterson, John L; Malebranche, David J; Lane, Tim; Flores, Stephen A; Fenton, Kevin A; Wilson, Patrick A; Steiner, Riley; Heilig, Charles M

    2012-07-28

    Pooled estimates from across the African diaspora show that black men who have sex with men (MSM) are 15 times more likely to be HIV positive compared with general populations and 8·5 times more likely compared with black populations. Disparities in the prevalence of HIV infection are greater in African and Caribbean countries that criminalise homosexual activity than in those that do not criminalise such behaviour. With the exception of US and African epidemiological studies, most studies of black MSM mainly focus on outcomes associated with HIV behavioural risk rather than on prevalence, incidence, or undiagnosed infection. Nevertheless, black MSM across the African diaspora share common experiences such as discrimination, cultural norms valuing masculinity, concerns about confidentiality during HIV testing or treatment, low access to HIV drugs, threats of violence or incarceration, and few targeted HIV prevention resources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Longstanding hydrocele in adult Black Africans: Is preoperative scrotal ultrasound justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorie, Chukwudi O.; Pisters, Louis L.; Liu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Background: Longstanding hydrocele is very common among adult Black Africans. Preoperative scrotal ultrasound is widely used for adult patients presenting with hydrocele, with the main aim to rule out more serious underlying pathologies like malignancy or testicular torsion. This paper analyzes the findings and the necessity of automatic ordering of scrotal ultrasound in cases of longstanding hydrocele in adult Black Africans. Materials and Methods: 102 consecutive patients with longstanding scrotal hydrocele were investigated clinically and all patients also had routine preoperative scrotal ultrasound. Results: Overall, none of our patients had any serious underlying pathology associated with their hydrocele. 97% of the patients had simple hydrocele on ultrasound. Hydrocele is more common on the right (P=0.04) and is more bilateral in elderly patients (P=0.0002). Conclusions: Routine preoperative scrotal ultrasound does not seem to be justified in longstanding hydroceles. This is especially important considering the fact that most hydroceles are benign in origin and nature. PMID:22083049

  16. Professor Bennie van der Walt: a bridge between white Afrikaners and black Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Turaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article honours Professor Bennie van der Walt as a bridge builder between white Afrikaners and black Africans as well as a renowned Christian scholar. Historical Western colonialism in South Africa divided its citizens against each other by means of white racism and apartheid. The whites in general were pitched against the blacks on the basis of white racism and its doctrine of apartheid. This doctrine of separation of races kept the white Afrikaners from the Bantu Africans. However, apartheid as a form of political, social, cultural and religious racism is now history in South Africa. The role which Professor Van der Walt played in bridging the gap between this racial divide is highly commendable and needs to be acknowledged and appreciated, hence the primary objective of this article in honour of his 71st birthday. Furthermore, the article discusses the immense contributions of Professor Bennie van der Walt to Christian scholarship in Africa.

  17. INCREASING DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION OF SOUTH AFRICAN WINES: IDENTIFYING THE KEY MARKET SEGMENTS OF THE “BLACK DIAMONDS”

    OpenAIRE

    Ndanga, Leah Z.B.; Louw, Andre; van Rooyen, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Although South Africans are not predominantly wine drinkers, the industry is looking for ways to develop the local market to balance exports. The black middle class, increasingly referred to as the Black Diamonds are the most powerful marketing trend in the last 10 years as they have emerged as the strongest buying influence in the economy and making inroads in understanding this market presents a good opportunity. The study asserts that the key factors influencing the South African consumers...

  18. An Intersectional Approach for Understanding Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-being among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black adolescents. The results indicated main effects such that perceived discrimination was ...

  19. Factors affecting behaviours that address HIV risk among Black and White South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    K. Peltzer

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction among 150 Black and 150 White South Africans chosen by systematic random sampling. Main outcome measures included sexual behaviour and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of condom use, behavioural norms, attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS health beliefs, and HIV risk behaviour. Bivariate analysis gave positive significant relations among being single, age, ...

  20. A description of body growth and composition of South African Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes changes occurring in the live weight and body composition of male and female South African Black ostriches over a growing period of 285 days. Forty-five birds were given four diets with different protein (ca. 180 and ca. 120 g/kg feed) and energy (ca. 8.5 and ca. 13.5 MJ ME/kg feed) levels on a free ...

  1. An investigation into the causes of absconding among black African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preference for attemative (indigenous African) healing options. South African state hospitals currently routinely collect .... Who wilt take care of my children should I die? In the light of such questions, the following factors were ... the wound begins to heal and close. In many cases these treatments are accompanied by strict ...

  2. Metabolic syndrome in Black people of the African diaspora: the paradox of current classification, definition and criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Trudy; Schuster, Dara; Osei, Kwame

    2009-01-01

    According to the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, African Americans have a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome than do Whites. Recent reports in Blacks in other regions have confirmed these observations, but the rates vary. This lower rate of metabolic syndrome in Blacks can be partly ascribed to the lower prevalent rates of some major components of metabolic syndrome, namely serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Blacks. This is in contrast with the higher prevalence of obesity (waist circumference) and blood pressure that meet National Cholesterol Education Program criteria in Blacks. Despite these seemingly favorable lipids and lipoprotein profiles, Blacks continue to have higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity, even in the absence of diabetes, than do Whites. Insulin resistance is more prevalent in Blacks than in Whites. However, the relationships among insulin resistance and CVD risk factors such as hypertension, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides are weak in contrast with Whites. The paradox of more favorable lipid profile and conversely the higher rates of unfavorable blood pressure in Blacks calls into question the validity of the current criteria for metabolic syndrome in Blacks. Thus, it can be argued that each of the components of the metabolic syndrome carry different CVD risk factors in Blacks. The greater CVD mortality and morbidity in Blacks appear to be multifactorial. With the emerging epidemic of noncommunicable diseases, chronic kidney diseases due to both diabetes and hypertension have emerged as major CVD risks that are associated with increasing mortality and morbidity in Blacks. We need to emphasize specific components of metabolic syndrome, specifically blood pressure and chronic kidney disease, that carry higher CVD risk with associated greater morbidity and mortality for primary prevention of CVD and type 2 diabetes in Blacks. To this end, we

  3. Black-white unions: West Indians and African Americans compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model, S; Fisher, G

    2001-05-01

    In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.

  4. Overweight, obesity and underweight in rural black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 25, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  6. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  7. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  8. The importance of biographic research: a South African black nurses' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhlongo, T P

    1999-09-01

    This article is an attempt to highlight the importance of biographic research to South African nursing. The writer believes that a particular attention should be paid to the contributions of South African Black/African nurse practitioners. South Africa has produced remarkable African nurses: they range from nurse Professors and Head of the University Nursing Departments to clinical nursing specialists and nursing administrators. The writer--having used the biographical approach in his Doctoral thesis--will highlight some practical and professional issues around biographic research. For the purpose of this publication, however, discussion will be confined to defining biographic research, reviewing different types of biographies, and discussing the value of the biographical research. Furthermore, the writer will identify some biographic concepts, examine their relationships, draw inferences and (hopefully) emerge with an increased understanding of the impact of biography as scientific concept.

  9. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  10. Quantum black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Calmet, Xavier; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Written by foremost experts, this short book gives a clear description of the physics of quantum black holes. The reader will learn about quantum black holes in four and higher dimensions, primordial black holes, the production of black holes in high energy particle collisions, Hawking radiation, black holes in models of low scale quantum gravity and quantum gravitational aspects of black holes.

  11. brain fag symptoms among black south african university students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated brain fag symptoms in South African university students. A Cultural Orientation Scale, a Student Stress Scale, and a Self Reporting Questionnaire were administered to collect data on socioeconomic background, cultural orientation, stress events, neurotic disorder and brain fag symptoms. The sample ...

  12. Eating disorders in black South African females | Szabo | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 85, No 6 (1995) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  13. a photoreceptor gene mutation in an indigenous black african family

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clearly, within the next decade effective gene therapy for some forms of RD in humans will be possible, bVt once again these will be mutation-specific, so it is essential to identify the retinal disease-causing genes in each and every southern. African RD patient. This research was supported by grants from the RP Foundation.

  14. Sen Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Southern African Blacks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEN virus (SENV), or its variants (SENV-D and SENV-H), have been detected in the serum of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), acute or chronic benign hepatic diseases, and healthy individuals in a number of countries. No information has hitherto been available in sub-Saharan African populations.

  15. Black parental involvement in education | Singh | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Schools Act of 1996 (SASA) provides formal power in education to parents as well as communities. SASA creates the expectation for parents to be meaningful partners in school governance. It envisages a system where school-based educators would collaborate with the parents to ensure quality ...

  16. South African managers' perceptions of black economic empowerment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in South African companies in various industries in 2010 (see the acknowledgements at the end). The purpose was ..... mcccxxviiiWood and wood products, furniture, paper and paper products, printing mcccxxix34 mcccxxx ... mccclxvWholesale & retail trade; repair of motor vehicles, motor cycles and personal & household ...

  17. Towards Producing Black Nobel Laureates Affiliated with ``African Universities''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth, Jude

    While Africa has produced a handful Nobel laureate in literature and peace, it has continued to shy away from producing any in the other categories. The reason is not farfetched; our university system is not up to standard. It is saddening that in this century, African countries place emphasis on certificates and not on knowledge. This has made the continent produce students that lack the intellectual capability, experimental ability, fundamental training, creativity, and motivation to excel except they get a foreign training. It is this backdrop that precipitated the research into the methods of teaching and research in universities across Africa. The study is designed to identify the problems and proffer solution to them. Two important questions immediately come to mind. (1) What factors account for the difficulty in producing Nobel laureates affiliated with African universities? (2) What strategies could be adopted to improve teaching and research in African universities? Several factors were investigated which revolve around funding, the competence of the lecturers, quality of students admitted, attitude of the students, parents and government. Nigerian universities were investigated and important deductions were made. During the study an inquiry was made on the method of instruction at various universities, from result obtained, the study therefore concluded that adequate funding, the presence of erudite scholars and brilliant minds will produce future Nobel laureate affiliated with the continent. The study therefore recommended admission and employment of only students and lecturers who have got a thing for academics into the universities and adequate funding of universities and research centres.

  18. Field Plot Techniques for Black Sigatoka Evaluation in East African Highland Bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro, JU.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of plants per experimental unit and number of replications for the efficient and precise assessment of black sigatoka leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis in East African Highland bananas were determined. Two representative cultivars were used. Host response to black sigatoka infection was measured by recording the youngest leaf with necrotic spots. The number of plants per experimental unit was determined, using the methods of maximum curvature and comparison of variances, while the number of replications was estimated by Hatheway's method. The optimum experimental plot size was 3 plants (18 m2 for the beer banana cultivar 'Igitsiri', and 30 plants (180 m2 for the cooking banana cultivar 'Igisahira Gisanzwe', using the comparison of variances method. However, the optimum plot size was 15 plants (90 m2 for both cultivars using the method of maximum curvature. The latter statistical method was preferred because of the low precision of the estimates in the former method. Unreplicated trials with plots of 15 plants could be adequate to assess black sigatoka response in East African bananas if uniform disease pressure exists.

  19. The histocompatibility (HLA) antigen distribution in diabetes in southern African Blacks (Xhosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, B R; Jackson, W P; DuToit, E D; Botha, M C

    1980-01-01

    The frequency distributions of HLA antigens in 25 juvenile-onset diabetics (JOD) and 56 maturity-onset diabetics (MOD) belonging to a southern African black tribe (Xhosa) were compared with those of 153 non-diabetic Xhosa blacks. Unlike the findings in white JODs, there was no increase of B8 or B15 nor a reduced frequency of B7 but an apparently, significantly increased frequency of Bw35 and A2 in both Xhosa JODs and Xhosa MODs respectively. This is the first ethnic group in which an HLA antigen marker has been found for MOD. Furthermore, these findings suggest that diabetes, both JOD and MOD, in white people is a different genetic disease from the diabetes among the Xhosa tribe.

  20. Unpacking the downside of sustentasie on African theology and theologians: a need for contextual black theology as a liberative ingredient for the black Reformed churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Baloyi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The practice of the black church being a follower of the leading white church is a continuous process in the Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid Afrika (or Reformed Churches in South Africa in English. This makes it difficult to contextualise Reformed Theology to address African challenges and problems. There are many reasons for the subordination of the black theologians, but for the sake of this article, I identified the issue of sustentasie1 as one of the causes. The lack of financial independence implies that the black church2 cannot determine their destiny by revising, transforming and even Africanising their theology to fit into their context and challenges, since that would mean they are biting the hand that feeds them. This article will argue that it is time that Africans stop being a theological duplication of the Western theologies and that they take responsibility to ensure that their theology addresses the immediate situation of the Black Reformed people (contextualised with or without the support from the white church.

  1. Estrogen alone and health outcomes in black women by African ancestry: a secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebowski, Rowan T; Barrington, Wendy; Aragaki, Aaron K; Manson, JoAnn E; Sarto, Gloria; OʼSullivan, Mary J; Wu, Daniel; Cauley, Jane A; Qi, Lihong; Wallace, Robert L; Prentice, Ross L

    2017-02-01

    In postmenopausal black women in the Women's Health Initiative randomized trial, estrogen alone reduced breast cancers but its comprehensive influence on health outcomes in black women is unknown. Therefore, we examined this issue in the Women's Health Initiative overall and by African ancestry. A total of 1,616 black women with prior hysterectomy, including 1,061 with percent African ancestry determination, at 40 US centers were randomly assigned to conjugated equine estrogen (0.625 mg/d) or placebo for 7.2 years' (median) intervention with 13 years' cumulative follow-up. Coronary heart disease (CHD) and breast cancer were primary efficacy and safety outcomes, respectively. A global index also included stroke, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, pulmonary embolism, and death. Black women in the estrogen-alone group compared with black women in the placebo group had fewer breast cancers (17 vs 40, hazard ratio [HR] 0.47, 95% CI 0.26-0.82). In women with more than 80% African ancestry, breast cancer HR was lower (0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.86, trend P = 0.04 for ancestry effect). Most other outcomes including CHD, stroke, hip fracture, and the global index were null with estrogen use in black women; a global index effect was more favorable in younger black women (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.43-0.98). In black postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy, estrogen alone significantly reduced breast cancer incidence with no adverse influence on CHD, venous thromboembolism, or all-cause mortality. Favorable estrogen-alone global index effects in younger black women warrant further study.

  2. The Black Man in American Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framingham Public Schools, MA.

    GRADE OR AGES: Junior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: The black man in American society. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are four major parts each with an overview. The four parts concern a) the African heritage of the black man, b) the American exploitation of the black man, c) the black man's contribution to American society, d) the…

  3. Increasing Domestic Consumption of South African Wines: Exploring the market potential of the “Black Diamonds”

    OpenAIRE

    Ndanga, Leah Z.B.; Louw, Andre; van Rooyen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Although South Africans are not predominantly wine drinkers, the industry is looking for ways to develop the local market to balance exports. The black middle class, increasingly referred to as the Black Diamonds are the most powerful marketing trend in the last 10 years as they have emerged as the strongest buying influence in the economy and making inroads in understanding this market presents a good opportunity. The data used in this paper was collected from an integration of a consumer be...

  4. The Association of Endothelin-1 with Markers of Arterial Stiffness in Black South African Women: The SABPA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Susara du Plooy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited data exist regarding endothelin-1 (ET-1, a vasoactive contributor in vascular tone, in a population subjected to early vascular deterioration. We compared ET-1 levels and explored its association with markers of arterial stiffness in black and white South Africans. Methodology. This cross-sectional substudy included 195 black (men: n=99; women: n=95 and 197 white (men: n=99; women: n=98 South Africans. Serum ET-1 levels were measured as well as markers of arterial stiffness (blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and arterial compliance. ET-1 levels were higher in black men and white women compared to their counterparts after adjusting for C-reactive protein. In both single and partial (adjusting for body mass index and gamma glutamyl transferase regression analyses ET-1 correlated with age, interleukin-6, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and pulse wave velocity in black women. In multivariate regression analyses the independent association of ET-1 with systolic blood pressure (Adj. R2=0.13; β=0.28, p<0.01 and pulse pressure (Adj. R2=0.11; β=0.27, p<0.01 was confirmed in black women only. ET-1 additionally associated with interleukin-6 in black women (p<0.01. Conclusion. Our result suggests that ET-1 and its link with subclinical arteriosclerosis are potentially driven by low-grade inflammation as depicted by the association with interleukin-6 in the black female cohort.

  5. The State of Black Education: The Politics of Educating African American Students at Colleges and Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earnest N. Bracey, Ph.D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In terms of higher education for African American students, the “school-to-prison pipeline” or Prison Industrial Complex must be totally dismantled in order to focus entirely on academic performance at colleges and universities and HBCUs. Additionally, mentors should be identified to tutor and guide and help black youngsters overcome their fear of learning and going to school, so that our whole society can benefit and improve academically. Finally, in this respect, we-the-people can move our nation forward by graduating people of color at higher institutions of learning, while providing them with a more productive life, and social advancement.

  6. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.

    1980-01-01

    In years 1920 as a result of quantum mechanics principles governing the structure of ordinary matter, a sudden importance for a problem raised a long time ago by Laplace: what happens when a massive body becomes so dense that even light cannot escape from its gravitational field. It is difficult to conceive how could be avoided in the actual universe the accumulation of important masses of cold matter having been submitted to gravitational breaking down followed by the formation of what is called to day a black hole [fr

  7. Protection from Cardiovascular Disease Due to Increased High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in African Black Populations: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudberg, Nicholas J; Goedecke, Julia H; Lecour, Sandrine

    2016-10-20

    The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa has increased over the last decade. Despite this, African Black populations present with relatively low incidences of coronary heart disease and ischemic heart disease, which may be attributed to their lower total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, compared with White populations. Commensurate with these lower lipid levels, it was believed that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations would be higher in Black populations compared with their White counterparts. This is based on data from previous studies of African and African American populations; however, recent studies conducted in Africa found similar or lower HDL-C concentrations in Black compared with White individuals. Current research, therefore, suggests that HDL-C may not be a good indicator of cardiovascular risk and future research should focus on HDL quality (vs quantity), by measuring HDL functionality and subclass.

  8. Black American and Nigerian Pentecostalism: A Black Religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Black American and Nigerian Pentecostalism: A Black Religious Schizophrenia, 1910-2010. ... in American and African Pentecostalism as is related to social crisis, the dislocation of masses brought on by economic deprivation, urbanization, the break up of traditional society and consequence loss of traditional values.

  9. Body mass index adjustments to increase the validity of body fatness assessment in UK Black African and South Asian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudda, M T; Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Fewtrell, M S; Haroun, D; Lum, S; Williams, J E; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Wells, J C K; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2017-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) (weight per height 2 ) is the most widely used marker of childhood obesity and total body fatness (BF). However, its validity is limited, especially in children of South Asian and Black African origins. We aimed to quantify BMI adjustments needed for UK children of Black African and South Asian origins so that adjusted BMI related to BF in the same way as for White European children. We used data from four recent UK studies that made deuterium dilution BF measurements in UK children of White European, South Asian and Black African origins. A height-standardized fat mass index (FMI) was derived to represent BF. Linear regression models were then fitted, separately for boys and girls, to quantify ethnic differences in BMI-FMI relationships and to provide ethnic-specific BMI adjustments. We restricted analyses to 4-12 year olds, to whom a single consistent FMI (fat mass per height 5 ) could be applied. BMI consistently underestimated BF in South Asians, requiring positive BMI adjustments of +1.12 kg m - 2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83, 1.41 kg m - 2 ; PAfricans, requiring negative BMI adjustments for Black African children. However, these were complex because there were statistically significant interactions between Black African ethnicity and FMI (P=0.004 boys; P=0.003 girls) and also between FMI and age group (PAfricans. Ethnic-specific adjustments, increasing BMI in South Asians and reducing BMI in Black Africans, can improve the accuracy of BF assessment in these children.

  10. Pattern of skin infections in black Africans of Sierra Leone (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bari Arfan ul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical differences among human populations may lead to variable prevalence of skin disorders in different ethnicities. Skin infections are one of the important curable and largely preventable categories of skin disorders in the communities. Aim: The purpose of the study was to see the patterns of skin infections in black Africans of Sierra Leone and to compare with other ethnic populations. Materials and Methods: Local blacks of all age groups presenting in Dermatology out patient department of Pak Field Hospital (established as a part of UN peacekeeping mission in Sierra Leone were included (from Nov 2004 to Oct 2005. Relevant clinical history and physical examination was done. Laboratory investigations were carried out when indicated. Skin diseases were broadly classified into two major categories i.e., infective and noninfective. Among infective, sexually transmitted infections were again separated. Nonblack settlers in the area and UN troops were not included in the study. Data was recorded and analyzed by Microsoft Excel program. Results: 3011 patients belonging to different local tribes having a variety of skin disorders were seen. Patients were of all ages and both sexes ranging from one month to 73 years of age. The Infective skin disorders were seen in 61.7% patients and most prevalent were superficial fungal infections (41.2% followed by, sexually transmitted infections (9.9% and parasitic infections (6.5%. Bacterial and viral infections were rare and so was the scabies. More than 90% parasitic infections were onchocerciasis with full spectrum of cutaneous manifestations. Conclusion: Pattern of skin infections in blacks varies considerably from other ethnic races. Environmental factors, geographical location and free existence of vector for onchocerciasis in West African region, possibly have a significant influence in this variable prevalence.

  11. Coronary heart disease and risk factors in Black South Africans: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loock, Magriet; Steyn, Krisela; Becker, Piet; Fourie, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) was uncommon in Black people living in Africa before 1970. Since then CHD risk factor levels have increased, while CHD rates have remained low. This case-control study aims to assess the relationship between CHD and known risk factors in urban Black South Africans. Eighty-nine cases with CHD and 356 controls attending the Kalafong hospital were recruited between 1982 and 1986 and followed up until 1994. Family and personal medical histories were recorded, along with a clinical examination and special investigations to assess risk factor profiles, clinical presentation and target organ damage. The relationship of the risk factors, target organ damage, and the development of CHD was assessed by using a stepwise multiple logistic regression procedure. Far more cases than controls had a family and personal medical history and risk factors related to CHD. Those relating to the development of CHD were family history of myocardial infarction (odds ratio [OR] 17.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.48-54.51), hypertension (OR 8.38, 95% CI 3.66-19.17), family history of hypertension (OR 4.33, 95% CI 2.21-8.52), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.24-7.22), and type 2 diabetes (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.19-6.68). Hypercholesterolemia was marginally associated (OR 2.53, 95% CI .92-6.89). Evidence is provided that an association exists between CHD and the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in urban Black South Africans. A relationship between genetic factors and the development of CHD was also identified in this population group.

  12. Are life satisfaction and self-esteem distinct constructs? A black South African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, Margaret S; Maluka, Constance S

    2005-10-01

    As part of a longitudinal project on Quality of Life, a study was undertaken to extend the applicability of the 5-item Satisfaction With Life Scale, developed in the USA, in South Africa. Data on basic sociodemographic characteristics, the scale, and the 10-item Rosenberg Self-esteem scale were available for 360 Black South Africans (151 men and 209 women), ages 21 to 83 years (M = 38.6 yr., SD = 10.3). Factor analysis applied to scale scores gave two factors, accounting for 71% of the variance. Factor I was loaded by 10 Self-esteem items and Factor II by four of the five Life Satisfaction items. Coefficient alpha was .77 for the Satisfaction With Life Scale and .97 for the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Life Satisfaction was related to Self-esteem (r = .17, p Life Satisfaction and Self-esteem appear to be distinct, unitary constructs, but responses to Item 5 on the Satisfaction With Life Scale require cautious interpretation and may contribute to the weak r, although so may the collectivist culture of Black South Africans.

  13. Making Blackness, Making Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Too often the acknowledgment that race is a social construction ignores exactly how this construction occurs. By illuminating the way in which the category of blackness and black individuals are made, we can better see how race matters in America. Antidiscrimination policy, social science research, and the state's support of its citizens can all be improved by an accurate and concrete definition of blackness. Making Blackness, Making Policy argues that blackness and black people are literally...

  14. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Black holes; numerical relativity; nonlinear sigma. Abstract. Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. ... Theoretical and Computational Studies Group, Southampton College, Long Island University, Southampton, NY 11968, USA ...

  15. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  16. Muscle fatigue induced by a soccer match-play simulation in amateur Black South African players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert I; Ryan, Bennett; Todd, Andrew I

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a soccer-specific fatigue protocol on the temporal changes in torque producing abilities of the thigh within African soccer players. Twenty amateur Black South African soccer players performed the SAFT(90) soccer match-play simulation protocol, while isokinetic measurements were obtained pre-exercise (T0), after the 1st half (T45), after half time (T60) and after the 2nd half (T105). During SAFT(90) performance, significant overall concentric quadriceps peak torque changes were observed (1.05 rad · s(-1) = 16.6%, 3.14 rad · s(-1) = 9.5%). Eccentric hamstring peak torque also decreased significantly over time (1.05 rad · s(-1) = 17.4%, 3.14 rad · s(-1) = 18.5%), with significant reductions occurring during both halves. The functional strength ratio (eccH:conQ) at 3.14 rad · s(-1) was observed to significantly decrease by 10.1% overall. The indicated time-dependent changes in Black South African players have implications for competitive performance and increased predisposition to hamstring muscle injuries. Because of muscle fatigue, the hamstrings may have insufficient eccentric strength during the late swing phase when sprinting, resulting in eccentric overload and damage to the muscle. The changes in strength found in the current study help explain the increased predisposition to hamstring strains during the latter stages of both halves of match-play as reported by epidemiological studies.

  17. An intersectional approach for understanding perceived discrimination and psychological well-being among African American and Caribbean Black youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Sellers, Robert M; Jackson, James S

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life, which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black adolescents. The results indicated main effects such that perceived discrimination was linked to increased depressive symptoms and decreased self-esteem and life satisfaction. Additionally, there were significant interactions for ethnicity, gender, and race. Specifically, older Caribbean Black female adolescents exhibited higher depressive symptoms and lower life satisfaction in the context of high levels of perceived discrimination compared with older African American male adolescents.

  18. Personality and well-being in Black and White South African emerging adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Alewyn Nel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background In the last ten years, the South African Personality Inventory (SAPI has been developed as an indigenous measurement of personality for the multi-cultural environment of South Africa. The aim of the SAPI is to assess personality in an unbiased and equivalent way. For the purpose of this study, we used an 82-item version of the SAPI which measures nine factors (Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Facilitating, Integrity, Intellect, Openness, Relationship Harmony and Soft-heartedness. Participants and procedure A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the SAPI, the General Health Questionnaire and the Brief Multidimensional Student Life Satisfaction Scale. A purposive sample was drawn from Black and White emerging adults (N = 990. We assessed the relationship between personality aspects and well-being across groups in a multiple group structural equation model (SEM using the SPSS and AMOS programs. Results Black emerging adults showed evidence of more individualistic-inclined personality features, while the White emerging adults seem to demonstrate more collectivistic features. In terms of health, the White emerging adults experience more life satisfaction than their Black counterparts. Conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, facilitating and openness predict well-being among emerging adults. Conclusions This study contributes to expanding the nomological network of the SAPI, and it enhances knowledge pertaining to the link between personality and well-being of emerging adults in South Africa. Understanding which factors contribute to poor mental health and lack of life satisfaction may lead to innovation programmes for emerging adults to assist them in dealing with negative health outcomes possibly associated with living in multicultural contexts.

  19. Intergenerational differences in smoking among West Indian, Haitian, Latin American, and African blacks in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tod G. Hamilton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due in large part to increased migration from Africa and the Caribbean, black immigrants and their descendants are drastically changing the contours of health disparities among blacks in the United States. While prior studies have examined health variation among black immigrants by region of birth, few have explored the degree of variation in health behaviors, particularly smoking patterns, among first- and second- generation black immigrants by ancestral heritage. Using data from the 1995–2011 waves of the Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS, we examine variation in current smoking status among first-, second-, and third/higher- generation black immigrants. Specifically, we investigate these differences among all black immigrants and then provide separate analyses for individuals with ancestry from the English-speaking Caribbean (West Indies, Haiti, Latin America, and Africa—the primary sending regions of black immigrants to the United States. We also explore differences in smoking behavior by gender. The results show that, relative to third/higher generation blacks, first-generation black immigrants are less likely to report being current smokers. Within the first-generation, immigrants who migrated after age 13 have a lower probability of smoking relative to those who migrated at or under age 13. Disparities in smoking prevalence among the first-generation by age at migration are largest among black immigrants from Latin America. The results also suggest that second-generation immigrants with two foreign-born parents are generally less likely to smoke than the third/higher generation. We find no statistically significant difference in smoking between second-generation immigrants with mixed nativity parents and the third or higher generation. Among individuals with West Indian, Haitian, Latin American, and African ancestry, the probability of being a current smoker increases with each successive generation

  20. Do Cultural Attitudes Matter? The Role of Cultural Orientation on Academic Self-Concept among Black/African College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendi S.; Chung, Y. Barry

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between academic self-concept and noncognitive variables (i.e., Africentric cultural orientation, academic class level, gender, and involvement in culturally relevant school and community activities) among Black/African college students. Results indicated that Africentric cultural orientation and academic…

  1. Pan-Africanism, the Mystique of World Black Unity: An Afro-American Scholar's Sojourn in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Robert

    1977-01-01

    The author explores the ideology of Pan-Africanism in terms of the social and economic position of Blacks in the United States. He briefly describes his visit to Africa (Senegal and Nigeria) and the effects that this experience has had in forming his political viewpoint. (MC)

  2. Factors Leading African Americans and Black Caribbeans to Use Social Work Services for Treating Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tyrone C.; Robinson, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    This secondary analysis of 5,000 African Americans and black Caribbeans explored how their use of social work services to address mental and substance use disorders was associated with the disorder involved as well as their perceived need for services, belief system, family resources, proximity to services, social-structural factors, and…

  3. 'Just talking about it opens your heart': meaning-making among Black African migrants and refugees living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Mark; Brown, Derek Brian; Fouché, Christa; Poindexter, Cynthia C; Scott, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Meaning-making has emerged as a core construct in addressing trauma, loss or crisis. This paper considers how diasporic Black Africans living with HIV, who come from interdependent collectivist cultures where the norm is one of implicit support, extend their meaning-making strategies when faced with a diagnosis of HIV. In this qualitative study, 13 Black African migrants and refugees living with HIV in New Zealand were interviewed and the transcripts analysed. After their diagnosis, participants began a journey of reconceptualising situational and global meaning. They extended their meaning-making strategies to include a community of like others to gain explicit support. Caregivers in host countries must understand the meaning-making processes of HIV-positive Black African migrants in order to provide competent services that lead to good social and health outcomes. All healthcare and social services workers should regularly assess Black African migrants and refugees living with HIV for positive social connectedness as well as medication adherence and more specific health concerns.

  4. Importance of Religion and Spirituality in the Lives of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the importance of spirituality and religion in daily life (i.e., only religion, only spirituality, both religion and spirituality, and neither religion nor spirituality) among a nationally representative sample of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites. A majority in each group felt they were both important…

  5. Obesity Status and Body Satisfaction: Are There Differences between African American College Females at Black and White Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C. S.; Bonds, Jennifer R.

    2006-01-01

    The goals of this project were to 1) assess obesity status and body satisfaction among African American college students, and 2) to compare differences in these variables between students at a predominantly white university (PWU) and a historically black college and university (HBCU). Four hundred and two undergraduate females completed a…

  6. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  7. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  8. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  9. [Examination of the enzymatic functions of the normal liver in black Africans (Apropos of 50 Senegalese cases)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankale, M; Diop, B; Agbetra, M; Seck, I; Noujaim, S; Jacqueson, M

    1977-01-01

    In order to establish the hepatic enzymogram in healthy African black people, four enzymes have been studied in 50 apparently healthy male Africans: transaminases (GOT, GPT), alcaline phosphatases, ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). The findings do not show any difference with the usually admitted levels in European countries, except for alcaline phosphatases which are situated at the upper limit of the normal.

  10. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Black Eye: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Black eye Black eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A black eye is caused by bleeding under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a ... 13, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-black-eye/basics/ART-20056675 . Mayo ...

  12. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  13. Cloacolithiasis and intestinal lymphosarcoma in an African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L; Field, Cara L; Stedman, Nancy L; MacLean, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    A 13-yr-old male African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented thrice over 7 mo with gastrointestinal obstruction secondary to cloacolithiasis. Clinical signs consistently resolved with cloacolith removal and supportive care. However, 10 mo after initial presentation, it presented with similar signs, plus significant weight loss. No cloacolith was found, and it subsequently died. Significant gross findings included bilateral cecal masses, colonic perforation, and marked secondary coelomitis, multifocal tan to pale hepatic nodules, and pale kidneys with miliary white foci. Histopathologic diagnoses were intestinal lymphosarcoma with hepatic and renal metastases, secondary intestinal rupture, and subacute severe bacterial coelomitis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first full report of either cloacolithiasis or lymphosarcoma in a penguin.

  14. Studies of the chronological course of wisdom tooth eruption in a Black African population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olze, Andreas; van Niekerk, Piet; Schulz, Ronald; Schmeling, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    The importance of forensic age estimation in living subjects has grown over the last few years. In dental age estimation, tooth eruption is a parameter of developmental morphology that can be analyzed by either clinical examination or by evaluation of dental X-rays. In the present study, we determined the stage of wisdom tooth eruption in 410 male and 106 female Black South African subjects of known age (12-26 years) based on radiological evidence from 516 conventional orthopantomograms. Four eruption stages were determined (no emergence, alveolar emergence, gingival emergence, complete emergence). Statistical scores were determined for the individual stages separately for both sexes. The data presented here can be utilized for forensic estimation of the minimum and most probable ages of investigated persons.

  15. Children’s Environmental Health Disparities: Black and African American Children and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    The burdens of asthma fall more heavily on Black children: in 2001-2005, Black children, regardless of family income, reported higher rates of asthma. It is twice as likely to hospitalize and four times as likely to kill them, compared to White children.

  16. Black racial identity as a mediator of cardiovascular reactivity to racism in African-American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Vernessa R; Cobb, Renia E B; Hopkins, Reginald; Smith, Christine E

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the ability of Black racial identity to mediate cardiovascular reactivity to racism. The Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity (MMRI), which consists of four dimensions, salience, centrality, regard, and ideology was used to define Black racial identity. The subdimensions of ideology are oppressed minority, nationalist, humanist, and assimilationist racial identities. Heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, and blood pressure were measured in 72 African-American men as they viewed a videotaped scene depicting racial profiling and a neutral scene. We hypothesized that individuals with high levels of Black-oriented identities (centrality, public regard, private regard, oppressed minority, and nationalist) would be less stressed by the racial profiling scenes than those low in these identities. In addition, we predicted that individuals with high levels of non-Black-oriented identities (assimilationist, humanist) would be more stressed by the racial profiling scenes than those with low levels of these identities. Private regard, humanist, and assimilationist racial identities were significantly associated with increased cardiovascular reactivity to the scenes. Specifically, private regard significantly predicted cardiac output and stroke volume responses to the scenes. In addition, assimilationist and humanist racial identities were associated with greater blood output and faster heart rates in response to the scenes. Although private regard (Black oriented) and assimilationist and humanist (non- Black oriented) racial identities showed elevated cardiovascular reactivity to the scenes, the underlying mechanisms of these associations may differ.

  17. HIV-related stigma among African, Caribbean, and Black youth in Windsor, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihan, Robert; Kerr, Jelani; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    HIV-related stigma has been shown to undermine prevention, care, treatment, and the well-being of people living with HIV. A disproportion burden of HIV infection, as well as elevated levels of HIV-related stigma, is evidenced in sub-Saharan African (SSA) and African-diasporic populations. This study explores factors that influence HIV-related stigma among 16- to 25-year-old youth residing in a Canadian city who identify as African, Caribbean, or Black. Stigma, as rooted in cultural norms and beliefs and related social institutions, combined with insights from research on stigma in SSA and African-diasporic populations, guided the development of a path analytic structural equation model predicting levels of HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes. The model was tested using survey responses of 510 youth to estimate the direct and indirect influences of ethno-religious identity, religious service attendance, time in Canada, HIV/AIDS knowledge, HIV-testing history, sexual health service contact, and gender on HIV-related stigma. Statistically significant negative associations were found between levels of stigma and knowledge and HIV-testing history. Ethno-religious identity and gender had both direct and indirect effects on stigma. African-Muslim participants had higher levels of stigma, lower knowledge, and were less likely to have been tested for HIV infection than other ethno-religious groups. Male participants had higher levels of stigma and lower knowledge than women. Time in Canada had only indirect effects on stigma, with participants in Canada for longer periods having higher knowledge and less likely to have been tested than more recent arrivals. While the strength of the effect of knowledge on stigmatizing attitudes in this research is consistent with other research on stigma and evaluations of stigma-reduction programs, the path analytic results provide additional information about how knowledge and HIV-testing function as mediators of non

  18. [Early resumption of food intake after cesarean section in black African women: liquid versus solid food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoumenou, E; Denakpo, J L; Assouto, P; Tchaou, B; Lokossou, T; Chobli, M

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of early resumption of solid versus liquid food intake after emergency cesarean section in black African women, in terms of gastrointestinal complications and maternal satisfaction. A total of 120 patients were randomly distributed into two groups of 60 each. In group L, liquid food intake in the form of sweetened citronella drink was allowed at will starting 6 six hours after the procedure but no solid food was allowed for 24 hours. In group S, normal solid food intake was resumed six hours after the procedure. The two study groups were not significantly different with regard to age, medical history, ASA class, obstetrical status, indications for cesarean section, anesthetic protocol, mean procedural duration, and postoperative analgesia. Study variables included tolerance of food intake, gastro-intestinal complications, time necessary to resume full activity and patient satisfaction. Overall, 6% of patients reported complications involving nausea, vomiting and bloating. There was no statistical difference between the two groups. Normal intestinal transit resumed earlier in group S but the difference was not significant. Auscultation of the abdomen at 16 hours after the procedure demonstrated presence of peristalsis in 59 patients in group S and 51 in group L (p = 0.008). The maternal satisfaction rate was 92% in group S and 43% in group L (p food in case of future cesarean. Early solid food intake after cesarean in black African women is as well tolerated as early liquid feeding. Resumption of solid food intake allows earlier rehabilitation and improves patient satisfaction.

  19. Blood pressure tracking in urban black South African children: birth to twenty cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagura, Juliana; Adair, Linda S; Musa, Mogi G; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2015-07-15

    Hypertension is an emerging public health problem in South Africa. Recent evidence from longitudinal studies has shown that hypertension in adulthood can be traced back to childhood. There is scarcity of longitudinal data on paediatric blood pressure (BP) particularly in African populations. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of hypertension and evaluate BP tracking between childhood and late adolescence among South African black Children. This study utilized data from the Birth to Twenty cohort, which is comprised of children born in Soweto, Johannesburg in 1990 (N = 3273, 78.5% black). Data on BP and anthropometry were collected at six follow-up periods between ages 5 and 18 years. Blood pressure status was classified using the Fourth report on National High Blood pressure program in children and adolescents. Pearson correlation coefficients and relative risk ratios (RR) were used to describe tracking of BP between childhood and late adolescence. The overall point prevalence ranged from 9.2 to 16.4% for prehypertension and 8.4 to 24.4% for hypertension. Tracking coefficients ranged from 0.20 to 0.57 for SBP and 0.17- 0.51 for DBP in both sexes over the 14 years of measurement. The proportion of children who maintained an elevated BP status between childhood, adolescence and age 18 years ranged from 36.1% at age 5 years to 56.3% at age 13 years. Risk of having elevated BP at 18 years ranged from; RR: 1.60 (95 % CI: 1.29-2.00) at 5 years to RR: 2.71 (95 % CI: 2.32-3.17) at 14 years of age. This study reports high prevalence of elevated BP which tracks from early childhood into late adolescence. These findings emphasize the importance of early identification of children at risk of developing elevated BP and related risk factors plus timely intervention to prevent hypertension in adulthood.

  20. Socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural determinants of obesity in black South African women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklesfield, Lisa K; Lambert, Estelle V; Hume, David John; Chantler, Sarah; Pienaar, Paula R; Dickie, Kasha; Goedecke, Julia H; Puoane, Thandi

    2013-01-01

    Summary Abstract South Africa (SA) is undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition and has the highest prevalence of obesity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with black women being the most affected (obesity prevalence 31.8%). Although genetic factors are important, socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural factors, as well as the influence of socio-economic status, more likely explain the high prevalence of obesity in black SA women. This review examines these determinants in black SA women, and compares them to their white counterparts, black SA men, and where appropriate, to women from SSA. Specifically this review focuses on environmental factors influencing obesity, the influence of urbanisation, as well as the interaction with socio-cultural and socio-economic factors. In addition, the role of maternal and early life factors and cultural aspects relating to body image are discussed. This information can be used to guide public health interventions aimed at reducing obesity in black SA women. PMID:24051701

  1. Cancer incidence profile in sub-Saharan African-born blacks in the United States: Similarities and differences with US-born non-Hispanic blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhanie, Genet A; Fedewa, Stacey A; Adissu, Hibret; DeSantis, Carol E; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2017-08-15

    Sub-Saharan African-born blacks (ABs) are one of the fastest-growing populations in the United States. However, to the authors' knowledge, data regarding the cancer burden in this group are lacking, which would inform targeted cancer prevention and control. The authors calculated age-standardized proportional incidence ratios (PIRs) comparing the frequency of the top 15 cancers in ABs with that of US-born non-Hispanic blacks (USBs) by sex and region of birth using incidence data for 2000 through 2012 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER 17) program. Compared with USBs, ABs had significantly higher PIRs of infection-related cancers (liver, stomach, and Kaposi sarcoma), blood cancers (leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma), prostate cancer, and thyroid cancers (females only). For example, the PIR for Kaposi sarcoma in AB versus USB women was 12.06 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 5.23-18.90). In contrast, ABs had lower PIRs for smoking-related and colorectal cancers (eg, for lung cancer among men, the PIR was 0.30 [95% CI, 0.27-0.34]). Furthermore, cancer occurrence in ABs versus USBs varied by region of birth. For example, the higher PIRs for liver cancer noted among male ABs (PIR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.79-5.35) and for thyroid cancer in female ABs (PIR, 3.03; 95% CI, 2.03-4.02) were confined to Eastern African-born blacks, whereas the higher PIR for prostate cancer (PIR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.78, 2.02) was confined to Western African-born blacks. The cancer incidence profile of ABs is different from that of USBs and varies by region of birth, suggesting differences in environmental, cultural, social, and genetic factors. The findings of the current study could stimulate etiologic research and help to inform targeted interventions. Cancer 2017;123:3116-24. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. Azadirachta indica reduces black sigatoka in east african highland banana by direct antimicrobial effects against Mycosphaerella fijiensis without inducing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumakech, Alfred; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Collinge, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Black Sigatoka is a major disease of East African highland cooking bananas in Uganda. Aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Capsicum annuum have shown the potential to reduce Black Sigatoka in banana plantlets. The mechanisms by which plant extracts confer protection...... expression was compared in susceptible (cv. Musakala, genomic group AAA-EA) and resistant (cv. Kayinja, genomic group ABB) banana cultivars. Additionally, Musakala treated with A indica extract at 1 day before inoculation (DBI) was tested for induction of defence-related genes at 0, 10 and 20 days after...

  3. Ten Myths, Half-Truths and Misunderstandings About Black History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffins, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Common myths and misconceptions about Blacks in American history and evidence that refutes them are presented. Issues addressed include Black enslavement patterns, social status within the Black community based on skin color, the legality of slaves learning to read, resistance to slavery, African influences in modern Black culture, Black names and…

  4. Brane world black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahay, Anurag; Sengupta, Gautam

    2007-01-01

    Five dimensional neutral rotating black rings are described from a Randall-Sundrum brane world perspective in the bulk black string framework. To this end we consider a rotating black string extension of a five dimensional black ring into the bulk of a six dimensional Randall-Sundrum brane world with a single four brane. The bulk solution intercepts the four brane in a five dimensional black ring with the usual curvature singularity on the brane. The bulk geodesics restricted to the plane of rotation of the black ring are constructed and their projections on the four brane match with the usual black ring geodesics restricted to the same plane. The asymptotic nature of the bulk geodesics are elucidated with reference to a bulk singularity at the AdS horizon. We further discuss the description of a brane world black ring as a limit of a boosted bulk black 2 brane with periodic identification

  5. Black plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, L

    1997-01-01

    Many African-Americans are reluctant to participate in clinical trials of any type, citing the Federal government's unethical syphilis experiments in the Tuskegee Study. African-Americans are also more predisposed to choose alternative treatments over mainstream therapies. These attitudes contribute to the rise in infection rates in this population that now accounts for 41 percent of all reported cases. It is essential that African-Americans participate in HIV research at every level.

  6. The impact of goal-striving stress on physical health of white Americans, African Americans, and Caribbean blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Sherrill L; Neighbors, Harold W; Zhang, Rong; Jackson, James S

    2012-01-01

    To contribute to the growing understanding of U.S. black-white health disparities by examining psychosocial stress as an important contributor to physical health problems. Data are from the National Survey of American Life, an integrated national household probability sample of White Americans, African Americans, and Caribbean blacks. Regression analysis was used to assess associations between goal-striving stress and hypertension, BMI, physical health problems, and self-rated health. After accounting for sociodemographic factors and three additional stressors--personal problems, lifetime racial discrimination, and everyday racial discrimination-goal-striving stress was a significant predictor of hypertension, physical health problems, and diminished self-rated health. Ethnicity moderated the relationship; the negative association between goal-striving stress and physical health problems was strongest for Caribbean blacks. This study extends the research on goal-striving stress and adds to a growing literature documenting relationships between social processes and disease.

  7. Discospondylitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in an African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Cara L; Beaufrère, Hugues; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Rademacher, Nathalie; MacLean, Robert

    2012-12-01

    A 22-year-old female African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus), housed indoors with other African and rockhopper penguins, was presented acutely with lethargy, ataxia, and hind limb weakness after a molt. The penguin would assume a hunched position and, when resting, sat on its hocks or lay on its keel. Physical and neurologic examination revealed hind limb paraparesis, proprioceptive deficits, and tiptoe walking. Results of a complete blood cell count and biochemical analysis revealed mild heterophilic leukocytosis, anemia, mild hypoalbuminemia, hypokalemia, and hyperuricemia. Results of whole-body radiographs and coelioscopy were unremarkable. Two computed tomographies of the spine at a 3-month interval revealed a lesion at the mobile thoracic vertebra proximal to the synsacrum with associated spinal cord compression. The penguin was treated with itraconazole, doxycycline, and meloxicam, and it initially improved with return to near normal gait and behavior. However, 5 months after the onset of clinical signs, the penguin was euthanatized after a relapse with worsening of the neurologic signs. Postmortem and histopathologic examination revealed focal granulomatous discospondylitis at the penultimate mobile thoracic vertebra, with intralesional bacteria from which Staphylococcus aureus was cultured.

  8. Sexual Networking and Partner Characteristics Among Single, African, Caribbean, and Black Youth in Windsor, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Bynum, Shalanda; Mihan, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The disproportionate HIV burden shared by African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) populations in Canada has not been explained by unique sexual behaviors in this population. This study investigates partner selection and sexual networking as potential contributors to HIV vulnerability. The study examines variations in the characteristics of sexual partners and sexual networking across groups based on differences in ethno-religious identity, gender, and length of Canadian residency among single, 16- to 27-year old, heterosexual-identified, ACB individuals living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Respondent-driven sampling maximized the representativeness of the sample of 250 (45 % male; 55 % female) youth with penile-vaginal intercourse experience who completed surveys. Logistic regression and analysis of variance compared groups with respect to number of lifetime partners, concurrency of sexual relationships, non-relational and age disparate partnering, and intra-ethnic sexual networking. For vulnerability associated with number of partners, concurrency and non-relational sex, women, newcomers to Canada, and African-Muslim participants were at lower vulnerability for HIV infection than their comparator groups. For vulnerability associated with sexual networking within a group with higher HIV prevalence, women and newcomers to Canada were at higher vulnerability to HIV infection than their comparator groups. There were insufficient data on age disparate partnering to support analysis. These results point to the importance of considering characteristics of partners and sexual networking both in further research and in developing policies and programs to curtail the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

  9. Of African Descent? Blackness and the Concept of Origins in Cultural Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Abel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the DNA ancestry-testing industry—based largely in the United States—has experienced a huge upsurge in popularity, thanks partly to rapidly developing technologies and the falling prices of products. Meanwhile, the notion of “genetic genealogy” has been strongly endorsed by popular television documentary shows in the US, particularly vis-à-vis African-American roots-seekers—for whom these products are offered as a means to discover one’s ancestral “ethnic” origins, thereby “reversing the Middle Passage.” Yet personalized DNA ancestry tests have not had the same reception among people of African descent in other societies that were historically affected by slavery. This paper outlines and contextualizes these divergent responses by examining and comparing the cultural and political meanings that are attached to notions of origin, as well as the way that Blackness has been defined and articulated, in three different settings: the United States, France and Brazil.

  10. The Frequency of Cytochrome P450 2E1 Polymorphisms in Black South Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Chelule

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1 gene reportedly modify the metabolic activity of CYP2E1 enzyme, and have been associated with increased susceptibility to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oesophagus in high prevalence areas such as China. To assess the frequency of these polymorphisms in Black South Africans, a population with a high incidence of oesophageal SCC, this study examined genomic DNA from 331 subjects for restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 (RsaI and PstI digestion. The frequency of the CYP2E1 c1/c1 and c1/c3 genotypes was 95% and 5% respectively. The frequency of the CYP2E1 allele distribution was found to be markedly different between Chinese and South African populations; hence it is important to place racial differences into consideration when proposing allelic variants as genetic markers for cancer.

  11. Expression of schizophrenia in black Xhosa-speaking and white English-speaking South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, K; Robertson, B A; Ben-Arie, O; Hodson, P; Tredoux, C

    1998-07-01

    To investigate whether schizophrenia manifests itself differently in Xhosa-speaking South Africans, compared with English-speaking white South Africans. A comparative study of the presentation of schizophrenia in two groups of patients. A sample of 63 patients (43 Xhosa-speaking and 20 English-speaking) admitted to a large psychiatric hospital for the first time with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The Present State Examination (PSE) was used to confirm the clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia. The Relatives' Rating of Symptoms and Social Behaviour (KAS-R) was used to obtain information on the behavioural and emotional expression of schizophrenia. A significantly higher prevalence of aggressive and disruptive behaviour was reported by relatives of Xhosa-speaking patients with schizophrenia of recent onset compared with English-speaking patients. The PSE elicited significantly more delusions of persecution, sexual and fantastic delusions, self-neglect and irritability in the Xhosa-speaking patients. Significant differences in the presentation of schizophrenia, but not its core symptoms, were identified in Xhosa-speaking blacks and English-speaking whites.

  12. Refusal of HIV testing among black Africans attending sexual health clinics in England, 2014: a review of surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hamish; Dabrera, Gavin; Furegato, Martina; Yin, Zheng; Nardone, Anthony; Hughes, Gwenda

    2017-05-01

    Black Africans are one of the key risk groups for HIV in the UK and, among those living with HIV, an estimated 16% and 12% of black African heterosexual men and women, respectively, are undiagnosed and at risk of unknowingly transmitting HIV to their sex partners. Increased HIV test uptake is needed to address this, but there is limited information on how frequently HIV test refusal occurs among those attending sexual health clinics (SHCs). We identified factors associated with HIV test refusal among black African SHC attendees. Data on all SHC attendances in England in 2014 were obtained from the genitourinary medicine clinic activity dataset, the mandatory surveillance system for STIs. Analyses were restricted to attendances by HIV-negative black Africans, and bivariate and multivariable associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and HIV test refusal were assessed. All associations were determined using generalised estimating equations logistic regression, and adjusted ORs (aORs) with 95% CIs are reported. Black Africans made 80 743 attendances at SHCs in 2014 and refused an HIV test on 9021 (11.2%) occasions. HIV test refusal was significantly more likely in women (aOR (95% CI) 1.54 (1.46 to 1.62) vs heterosexual men), and those living in the most deprived areas (1.44 (1.24 to 1.67)), diagnosed with a new STI (1.26 (1.18 to 1.34)) or living in London (1.06 (1.01 to 1.12)). Test refusal was significantly less likely with increasing age (0.99 (0.99 to 0.99)) and men who have sex with men (0.52 (0.43 to 0.63) vs heterosexual men), and in those tested for HIV in the past year (0.85 (0.81 to 0.89)), born outside the UK (0.73 (0.69 to 0.77)) or those attending following partner notification (0.11 (0.03 to 0.38)). Targeted interventions are needed to improve HIV testing uptake and reduce undiagnosed HIV infection among black Africans attending SHCs, especially heterosexuals residing in deprived areas. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  13. Black African and Caribbean British Communities' Perceptions of Memory Problems: "We Don't Do Dementia.".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharne Berwald

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify and explore the barriers to help-seeking for memory problems, specifically within UK Black African and Caribbean communities.We purposively recruited participants from community groups and subsequent snowball sampling, to achieve a maximum variation sample and employed thematic analysis. Our qualitative semi-structured interviews used a vignette portraying a person with symptoms of dementia, and we asked what they or their family should do. We stopped recruiting when no new themes were arising.We recruited 50 people from a range of age groups, country of origin, time in the UK, religion and socio-economic background. Some of the barriers to presentation with dementia have been reported before, but others were specific to this group and newly identified. Many people recognised forgetfulness but neither that it could be indicative of dementia, nor the concept of dementia as applying to them. Dementia was viewed as a white person's illness. Participants felt there was little point in consulting a doctor for forgetfulness. Many thought that seeing a GP was only for severe problems. Some said that their culture was secretive and highly valued privacy of personal affairs and therefore did not want to discuss what they regarded as a private and stigmatising problem with a GP. Participants did not appreciate their GP could refer to memory services who have more time and expertise. They were concerned about harm from medication and compulsory institutionalisation. Care should be from the family. Any intervention should emphasise the legitimacy of seeing a doctor early for memory concerns, that dementia is a physical illness which also occurs in the Black community, that help and time are available from memory services whose role is to prolong independence and support families in caring.

  14. Engaging black sub-Saharan African communities and their gatekeepers in HIV prevention programs: Challenges and strategies from England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Nyashanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: HIV infection is a sensitive issue in black communities [Serrant-Green L. Black Caribbean men, sexual health decisions and silences. Doctoral thesis. Nottingham School of Nursing, University of Nottingham; 2004]. Statistics show black sub-Saharan African (BSSA communities disproportionately constitute two-thirds of people with HIV [Heath Protection Agency. Health protection report: latest infection reports-GOV.UK; 2013]. African communities constitute 30% of people accessing HIV treatment in the United Kingdom yet represent less than 1% of the population [Health Protection Agency. HIV in the United Kingdom: 2012 report; 2012], [Department of Health. DVD about FGM. 2012. Available from fgm@dh.gsi.gov.uk.]. This article explores the sociocultural challenges in engaging BSSA communities in HIV prevention programs in England and possible strategies to improve their involvement. Methods: Twelve focus group discussions and 24 semistructured interviews were conducted in a 2-year period with participants from the BSSA communities and sexual health services in the West Midlands, England. The research was supported by the Ubuntu scheme, a sexual health initiative working with African communities in Birmingham, England. Results: Ineffective engagement with African communities can hinder the effectiveness of HIV prevention programs. Skills and strategies sensitive to BSSA culture are important for successful implementation of prevention programs. HIV prevention programs face challenges including stigma, denial, and marginalized views within BSSA communities. Conclusion: Networking, coordination, and cultural sensitivity training for health professionals are key strategies for engaging BSSA communities in HIV prevention programs.

  15. Stirred cell ultrafiltration of lignin from black liquor generated from South African kraft mills

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration of lignin from black liquor was carried out in a stirred batch cell using polyethersulfone membranes. Parameters such as operating pressure, feed concentration, stirring rate and membrane cut-off size were varied and their effects...

  16. Race in Buenos Aires. Blackness, Whiteness, African Descent and Mestizaje in the White Capital City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Geler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how racial categories are produced and reproduced in Buenos Aires, Argentina’s capital city. To that end, this article focuses on the cases of three Afro-Descendant porteña women who, by local standards, are fully white.  Their stories allow us to explore, in the first place, how categories like “black,” “white,” and others are used and understood in contemporary Buenos Aires and how this use configures two types of blackness (racial blackness and popular blackness and makes it impossible for mestizaje categories to emerge. In the second place, through these cases this article explores how people’s very “ways of being” are at play, creating a discriminatory and oppressive environment for people at risk of not matching the ideal of the nation.

  17. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  18. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  19. Black-Body Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Black-body radiation; thermal radiation; heat; electromagnetic radiation; Stefan's Law; Stefan–Boltzmann Law; Wien's Law; Rayleigh–Jeans Law; black-body spectrum; ultraviolet catastrophe; zero point energy; photon.

  20. Prevalence of neuropathic pain among Black African patients suffering from common low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Dieu-Donné; Nonguierma, Victor; Napon, Christian; Kabré, Abel; Tiéno, Hervé; Guira, Oumar; Kaboré, Jean; Drabo, Joseph Y

    2012-07-01

    To study the prevalence and semiotic characteristics of neuropathic pain in the common low back pain to the Black African subject. This was a prospective cross-sectional survey carried on from April 1 2009 to August 31 2009 in consultations of rheumatology, neurology, and neurosurgery at the University Hospital Yalgado Ouédraogo in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). All patients with a low back pain or a common lomboradiculalgie were included. DN4 questionnaire was used for the diagnosis of neuropathic pain. One hundred and seven patients have been recruited during the study period; Sixty-four (59.80%) were female (sex ratio M/F: 0.67). The average age was 34.11 ± 13.46 years of age with extremes of 20 and 79. The average duration of disease was 48.53 months with extremes of 10 days and 50 years. Eighty-seven patients (81.31%) had a disease duration, which was 3 months longer. Sixty-six patients (61.70%) had a predominant lomboradiculalgie; among the remaining 41, low back pain predominated. Average intensity of pain was 62.81 ± 22.43 (on a scale of 100). A sign of Lasèque was present in the 41 (38.30%) patients. Fifty-three (49.5%) patients had a neuropathic pain. The prevalence of neuropathy signs according to the DN4 questionnaire was as follows: burning (n = 37; 34.58%), painful cold (n = 13; 12.15%), electric shocks (n = 31; 38.97%), pins and needles (n = 34; 31.77%), tingling (n = 35; 32.71%), numbness (n = 45; 42.05%), itching (n = 18; 16.82%), touch hypoesthesia (n = 35; 32.71%), pinprick (n = 33; 30.84%), and tactile allodynia (n = 21; 19.62%). Among the studied variables, the presence of a radiculalgy was statistically associated with neuropathic pain. The lomboradiculalgie of the Black African subject associates neuropathic pain observed in half of patients. Treatment must therefore always take account of this association. However, further studies are needed before any definitive conclusion.

  1. Black Adoption Placement and Research Center at 25: placing African-American children in permanent homes (1983-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Black Adoption Research and Placement Center is a nonprofit organization delivering culturally specific adoption and foster care services. The organization developed as a response to concerns in the African-American community about the high numbers of African-American children entering and not exiting the public foster care system. The organization has undergone significant transformations over its 25-year history in relation to social, political, and economic changes that have altered the ways that the agency finances and delivers services. The history of Black Adoption Research and Placement Center presents an organization that has weathered many challenges because of its strong leadership, its committed governing body, its external relationships, and its internal operations.

  2. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  3. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  4. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I.G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  5. Alcoholism and Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Bertha; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Notes that in America, knowledge base concerning alcoholism is concentrated on drinking patterns of Whites, and that Black Americans often differ in their drinking behavior, resulting in a need to clarify issues regarding alcoholism and Blacks. Provides theoretical information useful in better discerning drinking behavior of Blacks. (Author/NB)

  6. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  7. Genocide and Black Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that the survival of black people is in serious jeopardy as is evidenced in contemporary discussions on the worldwide plight of black people, and that an exhaustive study of the problem in its many dimensions is seriously lacking; the moral and ethical issues of genocide require examination from a black perspective. (JW)

  8. The Social Environmental Elements of Resilience among Vulnerable African American/Black Men Who Have Sex with Men

    OpenAIRE

    Buttram, Mance E.

    2015-01-01

    Resilience theory has been suggested as a strong framework for research on HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM). Among this population, literature indicates that African American/Black MSM are particularly vulnerable to health and social disparities associated with HIV transmission risk. Conceptualizing resilience as a part of one’s social environment, this qualitative study investigates the specific elements of resilience, and the associated contexts and relationships, among ...

  9. The role of diet in cardiovascular disease in black South Africans : both sides of the story / Robin Claire Dolman

    OpenAIRE

    Dolman, Robin Claire

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is becoming one of the leading causes of death in middle and low income countries, with ischaemic heart disease specifically being predicted to be the 4th and 5th causes respectively. The numerous risk factors for the development of CVD have been extensively researched; however, the same wealth of data is not available for the black South African population as there is for Caucasians. Although the same risk factors that are present in Caucasians have b...

  10. 'My child did not like using sun protection': practices and perceptions of child sun protection among rural black African mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunene, Zamantimande; Albers, Patricia N; Lucas, Robyn M; Banwell, Cathy; Mathee, Angela; Wright, Caradee Y

    2017-08-25

    Photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, but immune suppression, photoaging and cataracts occur among individuals with all skin types. To assess practices and acceptability to Black African mothers of sun protection equipment for their children living in a rural area, participants were recruited at the time of their child's 18-month vaccinations. Mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on usual sun behaviours and sun protection practices. They were then provided with sun protection equipment and advice. A follow-up questionnaire was administered two weeks later. Mothers reported that during the week prior to the baseline questionnaire, children spent on average less than 1 hour of time outdoors (most often spent in the shade). Most mothers (97%) liked the sun protection equipment. However, many (78 of 86) reported that their child did not like any of the sun protection equipment and two-thirds stated that the sun protection equipment was not easy to use. Among Black Africans in rural northern South Africa, we found a mismatch between parental preferences and child acceptance for using sun protection when outdoors. A better understanding of the health risks of incidental excess sun exposure and potential benefits of sun protection is required among Black Africans.

  11. Age estimation based on Willems method versus new country-specific method in South African black children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Guy; Lee, Sang-Seob; Uys, Andre; Bernitz, Herman; Cadenas de Llano-Pérula, Maria; Fieuws, Steffen; Thevissen, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    The aims of our study were to develop new maturity scores for dental age estimation in South African black children according to the Willems method, which was developed based on Belgian Caucasian (BC) reference data (Willems et al. J Forensic Sci 46(4):893-895, 2001), and to compare age prediction performance of both methods. A total of 986 panoramic radiographs of healthy South African black (SAB) children (493 males and 493 females) in the age range of 4.14 to 14.99 years (mean age 10.06 years) were selected for obtaining developmental staging scores (according to Demirjian et al. Hum Biol 45(2):211-227, 1973). Willems BC methodology was applied to develop new country-specific maturity scores (Willems SAB). Age prediction performance of Willems BC and Willems SAB was compared. On average, Willems BC renders acceptable results with an overestimation of chronological age of 0.06 years (SD 0.88 years) in SAB children. Compared to Willems SAB, the overall mean absolute error was slightly higher with Willems BC (0.62 and 0.68 years, respectively), but this was not significant in males. Also, the root mean squared error was marginally higher in Willems BC. The new age prediction method developed in South African black children was found to be better compared to Willems BC, although the difference seems to be small and clinically not relevant, especially in males.

  12. The Social Environmental Elements of Resilience among Vulnerable African American/Black Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, Mance E

    Resilience theory has been suggested as a strong framework for research on HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM). Among this population, literature indicates that African American/Black MSM are particularly vulnerable to health and social disparities associated with HIV transmission risk. Conceptualizing resilience as a part of one's social environment, this qualitative study investigates the specific elements of resilience, and the associated contexts and relationships, among a sample of 21 substance-using African American/Black MSM. Data indicate that: 1) elements contributing to resilience are multiple and co-occurring, including inner strengths, social relationships, diversity of experience, religion/spirituality, altruism, and creativity; 2) as an element of resilience, social support was experienced differently among men who did and did not have supportive relationships with other gay and bisexual men, which has implications for social service provision and intervention approaches; and 3) diversity of experiences and relationships is an important influencing factor on expressions of resilience. Social services or interventions that facilitate the development of these elements of resilience will likely be especially beneficial for vulnerable African American/Black MSM.

  13. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  14. Pyridine nucleotide metabolism in the erythrocyte of South African blacks with primary hepatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Y.K.; Hankes, L.V.; Wessels, L.M.

    1982-01-01

    Erthrocytes from African blacks with primary hepatoma were incubated with physiological amounts of nicotinamide-/sup 14/C (NM-/sup 14/C) and it was found that these erythrocytes could synthesize NAD from NM. After 3-hr incubation with NM-/sup 14/C, a large percentage of the /sup 14/C was found in NMN, nicotinamide riboside (NR) and NAD, but was undetectable in nicotinic acid nucleotides (NAMN and NAAD). This suggested that the NAD synthesized from NM was not through the Preiss-Handler pathway. After 6-plus hr incubation, the /sup 14/C found in NAMN and NAAD suggested the NAD synthesized was being broken down and reutilized through Preiss-Handler pathway for synthesis of NAD. This reutilization pathway was confirmed by incubating nicotinic acid-/sup 14/C (NA-/sup 14/C) with erythrocytes. Apparently the metabolites from the breakdown of NAD were deaminated. The metabolism of NM-/sup 14/C was slower than NA-/sup 14/C. However, after 24 hr incubation with NM-/sup 14/C, 72.26% of /sup 14/C was found in NAD. A high percentage of /sup 14/C in NR at the initial incubation and a later drop suggested that NR was another intermediate in the pathway.

  15. Satisfaction with personal and environmental quality of life: a black South African informal settlement perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Westaway

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted with 487 black adult residents of a South African informal settlement (151 men and 336 women to ascertain satisfaction with personal and environmental quality of life. It was hypothesised that: (1 health status and life satisfaction were the underlying dimensions of personal quality of life (PQOL; (2 health status and life satisfaction were more strongly associated with PQOL than environmental quality of life (EQOL; and (3 life satisfaction and satisfaction with EQOL were positively related. Seventy per cent of respondents rated their health as good or better. Age, schooling and employment status were significantly related to health, life satisfaction and PQOL. Reliability (internal consistency coefficients were 0.77 for the 5-item life satisfaction scale and 0.82 for the 12-item EQOL measure. Factor analysis showed that safety and security was the major unmet service need. Health status and life satisfaction explained 38% of the variance in PQOL; health status explained only 4% of the variance in EQOL. Life satisfaction was significantly related to EQOL (r = 0.16, p = 0.01. The results provided support for all three hypotheses. It was concluded that the life satisfaction and EQOL measures had good reliability; there was a definite need for a safety and security programme; and good health was a more important predictor of PQOL than EQOL.

  16. Factors affecting behaviours that address HIV risk among Black and White South Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peltzer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction among 150 Black and 150 White South Africans chosen by systematic random sampling. Main outcome measures included sexual behaviour and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of condom use, behavioural norms, attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS health beliefs, and HIV risk behaviour. Bivariate analysis gave positive significant relations among being single, age, HIV/ AIDS perceived severity, HIV/AIDS prevention barriers and HIV risk behaviour. Further, bivariate analysis gave negative significant relations among age at onset of puberty, age at first vaginal intercourse, correct condom use knowledge, subjective norms, intention to use condoms and HIV risk behaviour. Regression analysis indicated that for subjective norm to use condoms, less intention for condom use, less condom use knowledge and younger age of first vaginal intercourse were predictive for HIV/AIDS risk behaviour. HIV prevention intervention programmes should include the identified factors and cultural diversity.

  17. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatoli, Relebohile; Bila, Nontembeko; Ross, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Partly because of the legacy of apartheid, and despite being a constitutional democracy, South Africa continues to be a deeply divided society, particularly along racial lines. In this context many people with albinism do not fit neatly into black and white categories and are likely to experience social discrimination and marginalisation. Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and 'othering'. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof.

  18. Black South African children's understanding of health and illness: colds, chicken pox, broken arms and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K; Promtussananon, S

    2003-09-01

    To examine the understanding of both health and illness (colds, broken arms, chicken pox, AIDS) in the same black South African children The sample included 60 children (30 were 5-year-olds and 30 were 9-year-olds) selected by simple random sampling from a rural primary school. They were interviewed, using a semi-structured interview schedule, about their understanding of health issues and their exposure to learning about health or sickness. Differences across age in children's expressed understanding of health and illnesses were found. The 9-year-olds were more likely to give objective signs of chicken pox and AIDS than the 5-year-olds. They also knew more about objective symptoms of colds, chicken pox and AIDS, and were more likely to mention non-observable signs of colds and broken arms. Although there were no differences between the two age groups regarding 'knowing' strategies for avoiding illnesses, the older children had a more accurate knowledge about preventive measures than the younger children. The understanding of AIDS followed the same developmental sequence reported for children's understanding of general physical illness. The results have implications for the creation of developmentally appropriate and effective health and AIDS education curricula for primary and elementary grades.

  19. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatoli, Relebohile; Bila, Nontembeko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Partly because of the legacy of apartheid, and despite being a constitutional democracy, South Africa continues to be a deeply divided society, particularly along racial lines. In this context many people with albinism do not fit neatly into black and white categories and are likely to experience social discrimination and marginalisation. Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and ‘othering’. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof. PMID:28730019

  20. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relebohile Phatoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partly because of the legacy of apartheid, and despite being a constitutional democracy, South Africa continues to be a deeply divided society, particularly along racial lines. In this context many people with albinism do not fit neatly into black and white categories and are likely to experience social discrimination and marginalisation.Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and ‘othering’. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof.

  1. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  2. Addressing the problem of obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk in black South African women - time for action!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Julia H

    2017-01-01

    The PhD thesis of Gradidge, entitled 'Factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in an ageing cohort of black women living in Soweto, Johannesburg (Study of Women in and Entering Endocrine Transition [SWEET])', attempts to understand the determinants of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a population of urban-dwelling black South African women. A conceptual framework is presented, which positions obesity as the central risk factor for MetS, and includes the possible influence of socioeconomic status, lifestyle behaviours and body size perceptions, as key determinants of obesity. This commentary focuses on the two main findings of Gradidge's thesis, namely, (i) physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and (ii) body composition and adiponectin, as risk factors for obesity and MetS in black South African women. Despite a high prevalence of obesity (48%), Gradidge showed that 75% of the women taking part in the study were meeting WHO guidelines on physical activity. This commentary suggests that the relationship between physical activity and cardiometabolic risk may be confounded by socioeconomic status. Alternatively, the intensity, and not necessarily the volume, of activity, as well as high rates of sedentary behaviour are posited as important determinants of obesity and MetS in black South African women. Accordingly, this commentary questions the veracity of the WHO guidelines on physical activity in developing countries, where most women meet the guidelines but have very poor cardiorespiratory fitness, are obese and are at high risk of MetS. Gradidge also showed that the most consistent and significant correlate of MetS in this cohort of middle-aged women was low serum levels of adiponectin. This commentary highlights various lifestyle interventions that have been shown to increase adiponectin levels. Finally, the importance of immediate action to address the problem of obesity and MetS is emphasised.

  3. Population Care Management and Team-Based Approach to Reduce Racial Disparities among African Americans/Blacks with Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, Rowena E; Chen, Agnes; Handler, Joel; Platt, Sharon Takeda; Gould, Bernice

    2016-01-01

    At Kaiser Permanente, national Equitable Care Health Outcomes (ECHO) Reports with a baseline measurement of 16 Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set measures stratified by race and ethnicity showed a disparity of 8.1 percentage points in blood pressure (BP) control rates between African- American/black (black) and white members. The aims of this study were to describe a population care management team-based approach to improve BP control for large populations and to explain how a culturally tailored, patient-centered approach can address this racial disparity. These strategies were implemented through: 1) physician-led educational programs on treatment intensification, medication adherence, and consistent use of clinical practice guidelines; 2) building strong care teams by defining individual roles and responsibilities in hypertension management; 3) redesign of the care delivery system to expand access; and 4) programs on culturally tailored communication tools and self-management. At a physician practice level where 65% of patients with hypertension were black, BP control rates (team-based approach closed the gap for blacks with hypertension.

  4. The Brain of the Black (Diceros bicornis and White (Ceratotherium simum African Rhinoceroses: Morphology and Volumetrics from Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhil Bhagwandin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and volumetrics of the understudied brains of two iconic large terrestrial African mammals: the black (Diceros bicornis and white (Ceratotherium simum rhinoceroses are described. The black rhinoceros is typically solitary whereas the white rhinoceros is social, and both are members of the Perissodactyl order. Here, we provide descriptions of the surface of the brain of each rhinoceros. For both species, we use magnetic resonance images (MRI to develop a description of the internal anatomy of the rhinoceros brain and to calculate the volume of the amygdala, cerebellum, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and ventricular system as well as to determine the gyrencephalic index. The morphology of both black and white rhinoceros brains is very similar to each other, although certain minor differences, seemingly related to diet, were noted, and both brains evince the general anatomy of the mammalian brain. The rhinoceros brains display no obvious neuroanatomical specializations in comparison to other mammals previously studied. In addition, the volumetric analyses indicate that the size of the various regions of the rhinoceros brain measured, as well as the extent of gyrification, are what would be predicted for a mammal with their brain mass when compared allometrically to previously published data. We conclude that the brains of the black and white rhinoceros exhibit a typically mammalian organization at a superficial level, but histological studies may reveal specializations of interest in relation to rhinoceros behavior.

  5. The Brain of the Black (Diceros bicornis) and White (Ceratotherium simum) African Rhinoceroses: Morphology and Volumetrics from Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwandin, Adhil; Haagensen, Mark; Manger, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    The morphology and volumetrics of the understudied brains of two iconic large terrestrial African mammals: the black ( Diceros bicornis ) and white ( Ceratotherium simum ) rhinoceroses are described. The black rhinoceros is typically solitary whereas the white rhinoceros is social, and both are members of the Perissodactyl order. Here, we provide descriptions of the surface of the brain of each rhinoceros. For both species, we use magnetic resonance images (MRI) to develop a description of the internal anatomy of the rhinoceros brain and to calculate the volume of the amygdala, cerebellum, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and ventricular system as well as to determine the gyrencephalic index. The morphology of both black and white rhinoceros brains is very similar to each other, although certain minor differences, seemingly related to diet, were noted, and both brains evince the general anatomy of the mammalian brain. The rhinoceros brains display no obvious neuroanatomical specializations in comparison to other mammals previously studied. In addition, the volumetric analyses indicate that the size of the various regions of the rhinoceros brain measured, as well as the extent of gyrification, are what would be predicted for a mammal with their brain mass when compared allometrically to previously published data. We conclude that the brains of the black and white rhinoceros exhibit a typically mammalian organization at a superficial level, but histological studies may reveal specializations of interest in relation to rhinoceros behavior.

  6. Black History, Inc! Investigating the Production of Black History through Walmart's Corporate Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Social and public sites are becoming a popular medium for intellectual consumption of Black history. Given the educational climate in which many students' exposure to Black history may come from outside of schools, the authors examine how Walmart's Black History Month Web site produced simplistic and safe narratives about African American history.

  7. From Black Power to Black Studies: How a Radical Social Movement became an Academic Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    The black power movement helped redefine African Americans' identity and establish a new racial consciousness in the 1960s. As an influential political force, this movement in turn spawned the academic discipline known as Black Studies. Today there are more than a hundred Black Studies degree programs in the United States, many of them located in…

  8. Malignant melanoma of the skin in black South Africans: A 15-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To document the anatomical distribution of melanoma, extent of disease, results of treatment and survival among black patients in the north-eastern part of South Africa. Methods. All available histological material was reviewed. All available addresses of patients were consulted to establish the status of patients treated ...

  9. Precipitation and valorisation of lignin in South African kraft mill black liquor - first stages: Poster

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Namane, M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available environmentally sustainable. The aims objectives of the current project is to precipitate and characterize lignin form kraft black liquor with an attempts to obtain narrow molecular weight lignin that can further be valorised to encourage Biorefineries in South...

  10. Food habits and food preferences of black South African men in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dishes (soft-boiled egg, hard-boiled egg, scrambled egg and French toast) were familiar to the majority (>. 83%) of the black participants. Some 50% to 60% of these participants did not know what an omelette was. All the groups rated all the other egg dishes as high- preference items. The high preference rating for egg.

  11. Does whole-cell pertussis vaccine protect black South African infants?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The whole-cell pertussis vaccine currently used in South Africa has not been adequately evaluated for post-vaccination events and immunogenicity. A trial of this vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP) was undertaken in 115 black babies who received primary vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months of age.

  12. Reclaiming Our Queendom: Black Feminist Pedagogy and the Identity Formation of African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Approaches to rectifying the inequities Black female students encounter in U.S. educational institutions are rarely discussed in the body of research in which these individuals are the foci. In this critical race feminist auto-ethnography, the author used qualitative data from a two-year study of a girls' empowerment program that she established…

  13. Rural black women's agency within intimate partnerships amid the South African HIV epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thege, Britta

    2009-12-01

    In a particular way, the HIV pandemic exposes the prevailing gender relations and the definitions of male and female gender roles, both in intimate relationships and in the wider society. The HIV pandemic reveals the contradictions between women's legal rights and the persistence of women's cultural and sexual subordination. It reflects the impact of poverty, gender roles, culture and religion. Although HIV and AIDS cuts across class, South African rural black women's infection risk seems particularly high since they suffer notably from subordination and socio-economic hardships. Negotiating safer sex in marriage or intimate partnerships is very difficult for them in view of the traditional spaces in which they find themselves, where patriarchal structures are pervasive. Based on data obtained from a case study, this paper examines socio-cultural constraints to rural women's sexual agency in a patriarchal social order. These rules are based on a patriarchal code of respect, which is still pervasive in many aspects of the community under investigation. In terms of gender relations, the patriarchal code of respect is founded on an assumed 'naturalisation' of the two genders and the natural superiority of the male over the female. In terms of sexuality it is translated into male sex-right. The fear of HIV infection is omnipresent and results in unmarried women engaging in the negotiation of their wants and needs. Owing to the patriarchal code of respect, married women are perceived as having no choice in negotiating safer sex and are forced to put their lives at risk in contracting HIV. Unmarried women have greater although not endless choices in this regard. Although the study participants unexpectedly displayed a rather negative perception of other women, in order to strengthen women in their proximal environment the HIV epidemic may be seen as a vehicle for building solidarity among women in the community.

  14. Loneliness and substance use: the influence of gender among HIV+ Black/African American adults 50+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannes, Zachary L; Burrell, Larry E; Bryant, Vaughn E; Dunne, Eugene M; Hearn, Lauren E; Whitehead, Nicole Ennis

    2016-01-01

    Estimates suggest 30% of adults report the highest levels of loneliness. Though men are more likely than women to use illicit substances and engage in heavy drinking, the prevalence of substance use in women is growing and their escalation toward dependence occurs more rapidly. Loneliness and substance use have greater relevance within the HIV+ population, with higher rates of substance misuse than the general population. However, the association between loneliness and substance use within HIV+ individuals remains understudied. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that there would be an association between loneliness and substance moderated by gender in HIV+ older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and January 2014. Study participants included 96 HIV-positive Black/African American men and women recruited through the University of Florida Center for HIV/AIDS Research, Education and Service (UF CARES) in Jacksonville, Florida. Participants completed an interviewer-administered assessment examining mental and behavioral health. Pearson correlations examined associations between loneliness and substance use. Binary logistic regression analyses stratified by gender examined the association between loneliness and substance use while controlling for covariates. Among women, loneliness was associated with illicit drug use, AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.23-9.21, p = .018 and heavy drinking, AOR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.07-5.71, p = .033. No significant associations were found between loneliness and illicit drug use, and heavy drinking in men. Substance use among women in this population may be linked to loneliness. Interventions should be gender specific. Further research into this association is necessary as it will likely have important clinical implications for this population.

  15. [Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in a black African carceral area: Experience of Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloba, Y; Ouattara, K; Soumaré, D; Kanouté, T; Berthé, G; Baya, B; Konaté, B; Keita, M; Diarra, B; Cissé, A; Camara, F S; Diallo, S

    2018-02-01

    Prison constitutes a risk factor for the emergence of multi-drug resistance of tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of this work was to study MDR-TB in a black African carceral center. Prospective study from January to December 2016 at the central house of arrest for men, Bamako. The study population was composed of tuberculous detainee. The suspicion of MDR-TB was done in any tuberculosis case remained positive in the second month of first-line treatment or in contact with an MDR-TB case. Among 1622 detainee, 21 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were notified (1.29%), with an annual incidence of 13 cases/1000 detainee, they were 16 cases of SP-PTB (microscopy smear positive tuberculosis) and five cases of microscopy smear negative tuberculosis. The mean age was 28±7 years, extremes of 18 and 46 years. A negative association was found between the notion of smoking and occupation in the occurrence of tuberculosis (OR=0.036, [95% CI: 0.03-0.04], P=0.03. Among the 21 tuberculosis cases notified, one confirmed case of MDR-TB was detected (4.7%). In the first semester of 2016 cohort, we notified a cure rate of 87.5% (7/8 SP-PTB cases), and the confirmed MDR-TB case on treatment (21-month regimen), evolution enameled of pulmonary and hearing sequelae at seven months treatment. It was the first case of MDR-TB detected in a prison in Mali. Late diagnosis, evolution is enameled of sequelae and side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Interacting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2000-01-01

    We revisit the geometry representing l collinear Schwarzschild black holes. It is seen that the black holes' horizons are deformed by their mutual gravitational attraction. The geometry has a string like conical singularity that connects the holes but has nevertheless a well defined action. Using standard gravitational thermodynamics techniques we determine the free energy for two black holes at fixed temperature and distance, their entropy and mutual force. When the black holes are far apart the results agree with Newtonian gravity expectations. This analyses is generalized to the case of charged black holes. Then we consider black holes embedded in string/M-theory as bound states of branes. Using the effective string description of these bound states and for large separation we reproduce exactly the semi-classical result for the entropy, including the correction associated with the interaction between the holes

  17. Black silicon integrated aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbo; Dickensheets, David L.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the incorporation of nanotextured black silicon as an optical absorbing material into silicon-based micro-optoelectromechanical systems devices to reduce stray light and increase optical contrast during imaging. Black silicon is created through a maskless dry etch process and characterized for two different etch conditions, a cold etch performed at 0°C and a cryogenic etch performed at -110°C. We measure specular reflection at visible wavelengths to be black velvet paint used to coat optical baffles and compare favorably with other methods to produce black surfaces from nanotextured silicon or using carbon nanotubes. We illustrate the use of this material by integrating a black silicon aperture around the perimeter of a deformable focus-control mirror. Imaging results show a significant improvement in contrast and image fidelity due to the effective reduction in stray light achieved with the self-aligned black aperture.

  18. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  19. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Female African American Undergraduate Engineering Students at a Predominantly White and an Historically Black Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frillman, Sharron Ann

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in…

  20. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  1. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. Examining the relationship between the endorsement of racial/ethnic stereotypes and excess body fat composition in a national sample of African Americans and black Caribbeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lauren J; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2013-01-01

    Using the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative household survey of non-institutionalized US Blacks, our study examined whether the endorsement of racial/ ethnic stereotypes was associated with excess body fat composition among African Americans (n = 3,265) and Black Caribbeans (n = 1,332) living in the United States. We used ordinary least squares and multinomial logistic regression analyses controlling for potential confounders. Results from the linear regression suggested that the endorsement of racial/ethnic stereotypes was associated with increased body mass index and weight among African American males (b = .57, P females (b = .50 P Black Caribbeans. Future studies should examine the relationship between internalized discrimination and endorsements of negative racial/ethnic stereotypes and excess fat accumulation among ethnically heterogeneous samples of Blacks.

  4. Prostate cancer disparities in Black men of African descent: a comparative literature review of prostate cancer burden among Black men in the United States, Caribbean, United Kingdom, and West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reams R Renee

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American men have the highest prostate cancer morbidity and mortality rates than any other racial or ethnic group in the US. Although the overall incidence of and mortality from prostate cancer has been declining in White men since 1991, the decline in African American men lags behind White men. Of particular concern is the growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry in the Caribbean Islands, United Kingdom and West Africa. This higher incidence of prostate cancer observed in populations of African descent may be attributed to the fact that these populations share ancestral genetic factors. To better understand the burden of prostate cancer among men of West African Ancestry, we conducted a review of the literature on prostate cancer incidence, prevalence, and mortality in the countries connected by the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Results Several published studies indicate high prostate cancer burden in Nigeria and Ghana. There was no published literature for the countries Benin, Gambia and Senegal that met our review criteria. Prostate cancer morbidity and/or mortality data from the Caribbean Islands and the United Kingdom also provided comparable or worse prostate cancer burden to that of US Blacks. Conclusion The growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry follows the path of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. To better understand and address the global prostate cancer disparities seen in Black men of West African ancestry, future studies should explore the genetic and environmental risk factors for prostate cancer among this group.

  5. Motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans: a qualitative analysis of focus group data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthivhi, T. N.; Olmsted, M. G.; Park, H.; Sha, M.; Raju, V.; Mokoena, T.; Bloch, E. M.; Murphy, E. L.; Reddy, R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background and Objectives South Africa has a markedly skewed representation where the majority of blood (62%) is presently collected from an ethnically White minority. This study seeks to identify culturally specific factors affecting motivation of donors in South Africa. Materials and Methods We performed a qualitative study to evaluate motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans. A total of 13 focus groups, comprising a total of 97 Black South Africans, stratified by age and geographic location were conducted. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using a coding framework by Bednall & Bove. Results Participants made 463 unique comments about motivators focusing primarily on promotional communications (28%), incentives (20%) and prosocial motivation (16%). Participants made 376 comments about deterrents which focused primarily on fear (41%), negative attitudes (14%) and lack of knowledge (10%). Conclusion Although prosocial motivation (altruism) was the most frequently mentioned individual motivator, promotional communication elicited more overall comments by participants. As reported by many authors, fear and lack of awareness were strong deterrents, but scepticism engendered by perceived racial discrimination in blood collection were unique to the South African environment. PMID:26104809

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ABCB1 (MDR1) gene and distinct haplotype profile in a West Black African population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allabi, Aurel C; Horsmans, Yves; Issaoui, Bouchra; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2005-04-01

    The ABCB1 (MDR1) multidrug transporter plays a key role in determining drug bioavailability. Differences in drug response exist among different ethnic groups. However, until now, no haplotype data are available in a Black African population. Exons 2, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14, 17, 21, 26, and the surrounding intronic regions were sequenced using genomic DNA from 111 Beninese subjects to examine 19 intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Linkage disequilibrium analysis and haplotypes were generated using the expectation-maximization algorithm. We identified 12 SNPs, 3 of which were novel: IVS9-57delA, IVS9-8T>A, 1662G>C (exon 14). The most common SNP was IVS14+38A>G. At the MRD1 locus, 53 haplotypes were inferred from the SNP data sets. The 4 SNPs, IVS6+139C>T, IVS9-44A>G, 1236C>T, and 3435C>T, showed strong linkage disequilibrium with each other, confirming the block concept. Moreover, our findings suggest that ABCB1 exonic SNPs are less frequently observed in our population than in African-Americans. Our data are compatible with a close evolutionary relationship in Black Africans from Benin.

  7. Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia P. Steyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544, stratified by gender and age was randomly selected in 2009 from the same areas sampled in 1990. Socio-demographic data and a 24-h dietary recall were obtained by trained field workers. The associations of dietary data with an asset index and degree of urbanization were assessed. Results: Fat intakes were higher in 19–44-year-old men (32% energy (E and women (33.4%E in 2009 compared with 1990 (men: 25.9%E, women: 27.0%E while carbohydrate intakes were lower in 2009 (men 53.2%E, women: 55.5%E than in 1990 (men: 61.3%E; women: 62%E while sugar intake increased significantly (p < 0.01 in women. There were significant positive correlations between urbanization and total fat (p = 0.016, saturated fat (p = 0.001, monounsaturated fat (p = 0.002 and fat as a %E intake (p = 0.046. Urbanization was inversely associated with intake of carbohydrate %E (p < 0.001. Overall micronutrient intakes improved significantly compared with 1990. It should also be noted that energy and macronutrient intakes were all significant in a linear regression model using mean adequacy ratio (MAR as a measure of dietary quality in 2009, as was duration of urbanization. Discussion: The higher fat and lower carbohydrate %E intakes in this population demonstrate a transition to a more urbanized diet over last two decades. These dietary changes reflect the nutrition transitions that typically occur as a longer time is spent in urban centers.

  8. Postprandial lipaemia, metabolic syndrome and LDL particle size in urbanised South African blacks with and without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntyintyane, L M; Panz, V R; Raal, F J; Gill, G V

    2008-02-01

    Postprandial lipaemia, characterised by a rise in triglycerides (TG) after eating, is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Small, dense, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles are implicated in atherogenesis. Little is known about postprandial lipaemia or small, dense LDL particles in urbanised black South Africans. Assess postprandial lipaemia in black CAD patients with and without MetS and measure their fasting and postprandial lipid profiles and LDL particles. Anthropometric data, biochemical variables and LDL particles were measured in 40 patients and 20 control subjects. Twenty three patients met International Diabetes Federation criteria for MetS and were subdivided according to fasting TG concentration either or = 1.7 mmol/l. Postprandial lipaemia was assessed by an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) and area under the curve (AUC). CAD patients with and without MetS had similar fasting lipid profiles, postprandial responses during OFTT and AUCs. MetS patients with fasting TG > or = 1.7 mmol/l had greater postprandial responses (P Postprandial lipaemia was common in black CAD patients, including patients with MetS. Fasting TG concentration was the strongest determinant. Small, dense LDL particles were highly associated with CAD.

  9. Black holes are warm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravndal, F.

    1978-01-01

    Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)

  10. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  11. Black hole candidates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Black hole candidates. In the case of X-ray sources such as Cyg X-1, the mass of the compact object inferred from combined optical and X-ray data, suggest M_compact object > 3.4 M_sun => Black Hole! A remarkable discovery!! Thus X-ray emitting binary systems ...

  12. Black hole Berry phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the

  13. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  14. Black hole levitron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  15. Protecting Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  16. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of ...

  17. Black Boycott: Gainsville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Arthur O.

    1975-01-01

    A case study of the events precipitating a black student boycott in 1969 in Gainesville, Flordia, when school board manuevering to avoid school integration led to the threatened closing of Lincoln High School, a reputable black community school. Also described are the subsequent transformations of Lincoln into a vocational-technical school and…

  18. Neoliberalism and Black Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, John Martin

    1986-01-01

    In contrast to traditional liberals, neoliberals share a commitment to greater economic risk-taking, support for entrepreneurism, a new industrial policy, and a different Federal Role. While New Deal and Great Society liberalism may have been more favorable to blacks, perhaps more balanced and equitable policies for blacks could be developed if…

  19. Christian Action and Black Consciousness Community Programmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many scholars have examined the relationship between Black Theology and Black Consciousness in South Africa in the late 1960s and 1970s. This article analyses another Christian link. It argues that ecumenical organisations (such as the Christian Institute and the South African Council of Churches), foreign churches, ...

  20. Lifshitz topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  1. Legitimizing Blacks in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameliah Shorter-Bourhanou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In its efforts toward improving diversity, the discipline of philosophy has tended to focus on increasing the number of black philosophers. One crucial issue that has received less attention is the extent to which black philosophers are delegitimized in the discipline because their philosophical contributions challenge the status quo. A systematic problem that bars black philosophers from equal and full participation, this delegitimization precludes the emergence of genuine diversity and reveals the importance of interrogating broader attitudes toward black philosophical contributions. In this essay, I argue for radical systematic changes to disciplinary hallmarks of professionalization such as pedagogy, mentoring, publishing, and hiring practices with the aim of legitimizing black philosophers and their contributions.

  2. Some factors in condom use amongst first-year Nigerian University students and black and white South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Oladimeji, Yetunde

    2004-04-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 213 sexually active first-year Nigerian university students and 150 Black and 150 White South African adults. Nigerian students gave 90% correct answers on 6 of the 10 items of a measure of condom knowledge (M = 6.1). The most common mistakes with respect to condom use were ignorance about putting a condom on just before ejaculation (37%), the use of an oil-based lubricant with a condom (29%), and when to take off a condom (28%). For the South African sample utility of the Health Belief Model and Theory of Reasoned Action for HIV prevention could be confirmed by intention to use condoms. Race and preventive benefits were predictive for current condom use. Findings have relevant implications for developing culturally diverse HIV intervention programs if confirmed with larger diverse groups.

  3. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as a star or dispersing altogether. Were we engineers with advanced technology, we might attempt to find that critical amount of energy necessary to form a black hole. However, despite some fears to the contrary, such technology does not exist, so instead we investigate this critical regime numerically. The first step is to pick ...

  4. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    denotes the partial derivatives of . The construction of a numerical method with which ... which configurations form black holes and which disperse (the only two options in this model). The problem in picturing such a space is that it is infinite ..... 4.1 The future: Less symmetry. The work described above all assumes spherical ...

  5. Carcinogenic nitrosamines in traditional beer as the cause of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Viness; Isaacson, Charles; Mothobi, Pride; Hale, Martin; Tomar, Lomas Kumar; Tyagi, Charu; Altini, Mario; Choonara, Yahya Essop; Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-09-21

    Before the 1930s, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oesophagus was almost unknown among black South Africans. From the 1930s the annual frequency rose. A dietary cause was sought, the staple diet of black people having changed from sorghum to maize (corn), with traditional beer being brewed from maize. Carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in traditional beer were suggested as a cause of SCC of the oesophagus, with Fusarium moniliforme, a corn saprophyte, thought to play a role. To confirm the presence of N-nitrosamines in traditional beer and demonstrate a mechanism for the oncogenesis of oesophageal carcinoma. Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography was conducted for the identification of nitrosamines in traditional beer samples, and molecular docking studies were employed to predict the affinity between N-nitrosamines and the S100A2 protein. Carcinogenic N-nitrosamines were identified in all six samples of traditional beer examined (N=18 analyses), and docking studies confirmed a high affinity of the nitrosamine N-nitrosopyrrolidone with the S100A2 protein. This may result in the altered expression of the S100A2 protein, leading to tumour progression and prognosis. It is suggested that carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in traditional beer are a major factor in the causation of SCC of the oesophagus in black South Africans. N-nitrosamines have been shown to produce cancer experimentally, but there has not been conclusive epidemiological evidence that N-nitrosamines are carcinogenic to humans. This study is the first to demonstrate the potential link between N-nitrosamines and a human tumour.

  6. Socio-Demographic and Lifestyle Factors Predict 5-Year Changes in Adiposity among a Group of Black South African Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; Sotunde, Olusola F; Ukegbu, Patricia O; Myburgh, P Hermanus; Wright, Hattie H; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Moss, Sarah J; Kruger, Iolanthé M; Kruger, H Salomé

    2017-09-20

    The rising prevalence of obesity and excessive adiposity are global public health concerns. Understanding determinants of changes in adiposity over time is critical for informing effective evidence-based prevention or treatment. However, limited information is available to achieve this objective. Cultural, demographic, environmental, and behavioral factors including socio-economic status (SES) likely account for obesity development. To this end, we related these variables to anthropometric measures in 1058 black adult Tswana-speaking South Africans who were HIV negative in a prospective study over five years. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference increased in both sexes, whereas triceps skinfold thickness remained the same. Over the five years, women moved to higher BMI categories and more were diagnosed with central obesity. Age correlated negatively, whereas SES, physical activity, energy, and fat intake correlated positively with adiposity markers in women. In men, SES, marital status, physical activity, and being urban predicted increases in adiposity. For women, SES and urbanicity increased, whereas menopause and smoking decreased adiposity. Among men, smokers had less change in BMI than those that never smoked over five years. Our findings suggest that interventions, focusing on the urban living, the married and those with the highest SES-the high-risk groups identified herein-are of primary importance to contain morbidity and premature mortality due to obesity in black South Africans.

  7. Socio-Demographic and Lifestyle Factors Predict 5-Year Changes in Adiposity among a Group of Black South African Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelie Nienaber-Rousseau

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity and excessive adiposity are global public health concerns. Understanding determinants of changes in adiposity over time is critical for informing effective evidence-based prevention or treatment. However, limited information is available to achieve this objective. Cultural, demographic, environmental, and behavioral factors including socio-economic status (SES likely account for obesity development. To this end, we related these variables to anthropometric measures in 1058 black adult Tswana-speaking South Africans who were HIV negative in a prospective study over five years. Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference increased in both sexes, whereas triceps skinfold thickness remained the same. Over the five years, women moved to higher BMI categories and more were diagnosed with central obesity. Age correlated negatively, whereas SES, physical activity, energy, and fat intake correlated positively with adiposity markers in women. In men, SES, marital status, physical activity, and being urban predicted increases in adiposity. For women, SES and urbanicity increased, whereas menopause and smoking decreased adiposity. Among men, smokers had less change in BMI than those that never smoked over five years. Our findings suggest that interventions, focusing on the urban living, the married and those with the highest SES—the high-risk groups identified herein—are of primary importance to contain morbidity and premature mortality due to obesity in black South Africans.

  8. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production

  9. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  10. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  11. Reconsidering the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African proverb about the locust’s head in the context of poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndikho Mtshiselwa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While South Africa attained liberation from the apartheid rule in 1994, the legacy of colonialism and apartheid – in the form of poverty and economic inequality – continues to haunt black South Africans. The aim of this article is to make a case for the equitable sharing of South Africa’s mineral wealth amongst all its citizens with the view to alleviate poverty. Firstly, this article provides a reflection on the Freedom Charter and suggests that the values of the Charter, for instance, the sharing of resources and wealth, are relevant in South Africa today. Secondly, it is argued in the present article that the preferential option for the poor which is upheld in the black theology of liberation is equally relevant in post-apartheid South Africa where many black South Africans remain poor. Thirdly, this article argues that the African proverb, Bana ba motho ba ngwathelana hlogo ya tšie [The siblings share the head of a locust], also echoes the idea of equitable sharing of resources with a view to alleviate poverty. Lastly, the author submits that the idea of equitable sharing of resources and wealth that is echoed in the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African wise saying support the equitable redistribution of the mineral wealth to the benefit of all South Africans.

  12. Determinants of usual source of care disparities among African American and Caribbean Black men: findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Mohottige, Dinushika; Chantala, Kim; Hastings, Julia F; Neighbors, Harold W; Snowden, Lonnie

    2011-02-01

    The Aday-Andersen model was used as a framework for investigating the contribution of immigration status (i.e., nativity and acculturation), socioeconomic factors, health care access, health status, and health insurance to usual source of health care (USOC) in a nationally representative sample of African American (n=551) and Caribbean Black men (n=1,217). We used the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative household survey of non-institutionalized U.S. Blacks to conduct descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Older age, more health conditions, neighborhood medical clinic access, and health insurance were associated with higher odds of reporting a USOC. Odds were lower for men with lower-middle incomes and poorer mental health status. Having health insurance was associated with higher odds of reporting a USOC for African American men but lower odds among Caribbean Black men. Odds were higher in the presence of more health conditions for African American men than for Caribbean Black men. Health care reform policies aimed solely at increasing health insurance may not uniformly eliminate USOC disparities disfavoring U.S. and foreign-born non-Hispanic Black men.

  13. Determinants of Usual Source of Care Disparities among African American and Caribbean Black Men: Findings from the national Survey of american life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Mohottige, Dinushika; Chantala, Kim; Hastings, Julia F.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Snowden, Lonnie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The Aday-Andersen model was used as a framework for investigating the contribution of immigration status (i.e., nativity and acculturation), socioeconomic factors, health care access, health status, and health insurance to usual source of health care (USOC) in a nationally representative sample of African American (n5551) and Caribbean Black men (n51,217). Methods We used the 2001–2003 National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative household survey of non-institutionalized U.S. Blacks to conduct descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Results Older age, more health conditions, neighborhood medical clinic access, and health insurance were associated with higher odds of reporting a USOC. Odds were lower for men with lower-middle incomes and poorer mental health status. Having health insurance was associated with higher odds of reporting a USOC for African American men but lower odds among Caribbean Black men. Odds were higher in the presence of more health conditions for African American men than for Caribbean Black men. Conclusions Health care reform policies aimed solely at increasing health insurance may not uniformly eliminate USOC disparities disfavoring U.S. and foreign-born non-Hispanic Black men. PMID:21317513

  14. Science self-efficacy of African Americans enrolled in freshman level physical science courses in two historically black institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihoda, Belinda Ann

    2011-12-01

    Science education must be a priority for citizens to function and be productive in a global, technological society. African Americans receive fewer science degrees in proportion to the Caucasian population. The primary purposes of this study were to determine the difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American nonscience majors, the difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American science majors, the relationship between science self-efficacy and course grade, the relationship between gender and science self-efficacy score, and the relationship between science self-efficacy score and course withdrawal. This study utilized a Likert survey instrument. All participants were enrolled in freshman level courses in the physical sciences at a historically black institution: a college or university. Participants completed the pretest survey within two weeks after the 12th class day of the semester. Initially, 458 participants completed the pretest survey. The posttest was administered within two weeks before the final exam. Only 245 participants completed the posttest survey. Results indicate that there is a difference in science self-efficacy of science majors and nonscience majors. There was no significant difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American science majors and nonscience majors. There was no significant relationship between science self-efficacy and course grade, gender and science self-efficacy score, and course withdrawal and science self-efficacy score.

  15. Understanding the Black Aesthetic Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Marvin V.

    1988-01-01

    Discussing the importance of the Black aesthetic experience, Curtis examines Black cultural heritage and participatory style, the spiritual, and the creation and recreation of Black music. Advocating multicultural music education in teacher training, he suggests that Black music be studied for its value and contribution to society. Lists five ways…

  16. The Thermodynamics of Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wald Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.

  17. Black Writers' Views of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Loyle

    1979-01-01

    This article argues that the stagnation, pessimism, and self-pity evident in recent Black writing results in part from the alienation of Black writers from the mainstream of Black life, and in part from the illusions that they share with other Blacks who have embraced the American value system. (Author/EB)

  18. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  19. Colliding black hole solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    2005-01-01

    A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)

  20. Black Sea aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacisalihoglu, G.; Eliyakut, F.; Anwari, M.A.; Ataman, O.Y.; Balkas, T.I.; Tuncel, G.; Olmez, I.

    1991-01-01

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m 3 , which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  1. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta I. Winters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relative importance of race and socioeconomic status (SES in determining whether Black and White teenagers report having ever been pregnant. Data gathered from 1999 to 2006 by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention included 1,580 Black and White females aged 15 to 19 years. Results supported the effects of race and SES, with SES having the stronger effect. However, the effects of race and SES differ when controlling for the state of the economy. No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy. In particular, during 2005-2006, the reduction in pregnancy rates for Black minors (15-17 fell below those for White minors within their respective SES categories. Policy implications are discussed in light of these findings.

  2. Illuminating black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O'Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.

  3. Black holes with halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.

  4. Black Friday = Broget Branding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Black Friday er et godt eksempel på, hvordan ikke kun produktbrands og corporate brands rejser på tværs af landegrænser, men også traditioner som Halloween, Valentines Day og i dette tilfælde den ultimative tilbuds-fredag, som i USA går under navnet Black Friday. Men hvad er Black Friday i Danmark......? Essensen ved Black Friday er lave priser, og det er der ved første øjekast ikke mange brandingmuligheder forbundet ved, hvis man forstår branding som en måde at skabe ekstra værdi omkring sit produkt eller sin virksomhed. Som brand bliver man dog alligevel nødt til at forholde sig til konceptet, da det er...

  5. Mobilizing Black America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    and financially for childbirth or parenting. - Adolescent Pregnancy Black female teenagers 15 to 19 years old were 140 percent more likely to have a...on adolescent pregnancy teenage sexual activity, and federally funded programs prevention. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHILD HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT...communities? o Access to Health Care: Does everyone have equal access? o Poverty o Racism o Health Insurance o Black Physicians o Summary o Infant Mortality

  6. Black chrome outgassing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beat, T.

    1979-01-01

    This report covers why black chrome is of interest, why its outgassing is relevant, how the study was conducted, examples of resultant data, and a conclusion. Black chrome is of interest in several areas of activity. Vacuum outgassing characteristics must be known to establish the pumping speed requirements. How much gas is evolved determines the pump speed required. The species of gas evolved determines the type of pump. The outgassing characteristics must be known to determine needed precleaning steps

  7. Quantum black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    't Hooft, G.

    1987-01-01

    No particle theory can be complete without gravity. Einstein's theory of gravity is of the Euler-Lagrange form, but standard quantization procedure fails. In quantum gravity the higher order interactions have a dimensionality different form the fundamental ones, because Newton's constant G has dimensions and the renormalization procedure fails. Another problem with quantum gravity is even more mysterious. Suppose that we had regularized the gravitational forces at the small distance end in the way that the weak intermediate vector boson regularized the fundamental 4-fermion interaction vertex of the weak interactions. Then what we discover is that the gravitational forces are unstable. Given sufficiently large amount of matter, it can collapse under its own weight. Classical general relativity tells us what will happen: a black hole is formed. But how is this formulated in quantum theory. S. Hawking observed that when a field theory is quantized in the background metric of a black hole, the black hole actually emits particles in a completely random thermal way. Apparently black holes are just another form of matter unstable against Hawking decay. Unfortunately this picture cannot be complete. The problem is that the quantum version of black holes has infinite phase space, and other symptoms of a run-away solution. Black holes are the heaviest and most compact forms of matter that can be imagined. A complete particle theory can have nothing but a spectrum of black-hole like objects at it high-energy end. This is why it is believed that a resolution of the black hole problem will in time disclose the complete small-distance structure of our world. 6 references

  8. Charged Galileon black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory

  9. Racial and Ethnic-Related Stressors as Predictors of Perceived Stress and Academic Performance for African American Students at a Historically Black College and University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether racial and ethnic-related stressors were associated with overall levels of perceived stress and academic performance among African American students at a historically Black college and university (HBCU). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test racial and ethnic-related stressors…

  10. Gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health among Black South African men who have sex with men: A further exploration of unexpected findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandfort, T.; Bos, H.; Knox, J.; Reddy, V.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated,

  11. Rural-urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Prioreschi, Alessandra; Nyati, Lukhanyo H; van Heerden, Alastair; Munthali, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Houle, Brian; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A

    2018-03-01

    The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood.

  12. African American Students in a California Community College: Perceptions of Cultural Congruity and Academic Self-Concept within a Black Culture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Tenisha Celita

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the cultural congruity and academic self-concept of African American students in a community college setting who participated in a Black Culture Center. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between cultural congruity and academic self-concept through the following two research…

  13. "We're Here Because We're Black": The Schooling Experiences of French-Speaking African-Canadian Students with Refugee Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Sara; James, Carl E.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the educational experiences of a group of French-speaking Black African-born students who entered Canada as refugees. They were attending a French school and were placed in a separate programme that was designed to meet their particular needs given their limited language skills and level of education. Drawing on critical…

  14. Ultrafiltration and valorisation of lignin in black liquor from South African Kraft mills: A focus on dead-end stirred cell filtration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, PT

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this project is to develop a method that can effectively extract lignin from Kraft black liquors from South African mills in the form that would be suitable for valorisation into high value products. In this study the effects...

  15. Agreement between specific measures of adiposity and associations with high blood pressure in black South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Herculina S; Botha-Ravyse, Chrisna; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Doubell, Maretha; van Rooyen, Johannes M

    2017-11-01

    To derive percentage body fat (%BF) cut-points according to body mass index (BMI) categories for adult black South African women and to investigate the agreement between adiposity classifications according to WHO BMI and %BF cut-points. The secondary aim was to determine the association between these different adiposity measures and high blood pressure. Black women aged 29-65 years (n = 435) from Ikageng, South Africa, were included in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data were collected (weight, height and BMI). %BF using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and blood pressure were measured. There was significant agreement between three %BF categories: low/normal (high blood pressure (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.09-2.81 versus OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.15-3.23, respectively). Despite significant agreement between BMI and %BF categories, considerable misclassification occurred in the overweight range. Participants with excessive %BF had a greater odds of high blood pressure than those in the highest BMI category. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  17. Vital Signs: Racial Disparities in Age-Specific Mortality Among Blacks or African Americans - United States, 1999-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Croft, Janet B; Liu, Yong; Lu, Hua; Eke, Paul I; Giles, Wayne H

    2017-05-05

    Although the overall life expectancy at birth has increased for both blacks and whites and the gap between these populations has narrowed, disparities in life expectancy and the leading causes of death for blacks compared with whites in the United States remain substantial. Understanding how factors that influence these disparities vary across the life span might enhance the targeting of appropriate interventions. Trends during 1999-2015 in mortality rates for the leading causes of death were examined by black and white race and age group. Multiple 2014 and 2015 national data sources were analyzed to compare blacks with whites in selected age groups by sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health behaviors, health-related quality of life indicators, use of health services, and chronic conditions. During 1999-2015, age-adjusted death rates decreased significantly in both populations, with rates declining more sharply among blacks for most leading causes of death. Thus, the disparity gap in all-cause mortality rates narrowed from 33% in 1999 to 16% in 2015. However, during 2015, blacks still had higher death rates than whites for all-cause mortality in all groups aged blacks in age groups deaths among blacks (especially cardiovascular disease and cancer and their risk factors) across the life span and create equal opportunities for health.

  18. Black women’s ‘two-ness’ in african-american literature: can black and white worlds join together? = A dualidade de mulheres negras na literatura afro-americana: os mundos negro e branco podem se unir?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Endoença Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how black women keep contacts with both black and white worlds in novels written by African-American female writers. In Toni Morrison’s (1970 The Bluest Eye, Pecola Breedlove keeps contact with the white world through her assimilationist behavior; in Alice Walker’s (1982 The Color Purple, Celie freezes herself in the black world by playing the role of the nationalist Negro; finally, in Lorraine Hansberry’s (1987 A Raisin in the Sun, Mama Younger joins black and white worlds together when she develops a catalyst agenda, as she moves to a white neighborhood.O artigo discute como mulheres negras mantêm contato com os mundos negro e branco em romances de escritoras afroamericanas. Em O Olho Mais Azul, de Toni Morrison (1970, Pecola Breedlove se alia ao mundo branco pelo comportamento assimilacionista; em A Cor Púrpura, de Alice Walker (1982, Celie se isola no mundo negro ao assumir o papel do Negro nacionalista; por fim, em Uma Cereja ao Sol, de Lorraine Hansberry (1987, Mama Younger aproxima o mundo negro e branco quando se torna catalista, indo morar num bairro branco.

  19. An integrative review exploring black men of African and Caribbean backgrounds, their fears of prostate cancer and their attitudes towards screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis, Obrey; Worsley, Aaron

    2018-02-09

    Evidence suggests that black men are disproportionately more affected than any other ethnicity by prostate cancer. The aim of this review is to identify studies exploring black men of African and Caribbean descent, their fears of prostate cancer and their attitudes towards screening. Four databases were searched and reference lists of relevant papers were hand searched. The inclusion criteria were studies exploring attitudes towards screening and fear of prostate cancer in black men of African and Caribbean backgrounds, peer-reviewed research, qualitative studies, surveys, questionnaires and English language publications. Qualitative findings were synthesized using a thematic framework to which quantitative findings were integrated. Of the 16 papers, 10 were quantitative and 6 were qualitative, all of which were conducted in the United States of America. Poorer and less educated black men were reluctant to seek help for prostate cancer. They may not visit their doctors for fear of intrusion into their personal lives. Moreover, they were fearful of being emasculated as a result of the digital rectal examination. The review identifies a paucity of UK literature on black men's fears and perceptions of prostate cancer. Further studies are needed in the United Kingdom to address this gap in the literature. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Descendants of "Ruth:" Black Girls Coping through the "Black Male Crisis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ayanna F.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the complex relationship between how black male and female identities have been constructed dichotomously in response to the gender framed "crisis" in black America. The ethnographic research study was conducted in an secondary African American History course, located in an urban school district in the southern…

  1. Prevalence and significance of early repolarisation in a black African population: data of 246 individuals with cardiovascular morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Aime; Noah, Dominique Noah; Amougou, Sylvie Ndongo; Saka, Cecile

    2013-08-01

    Early repolarisation (ER) is commonly seen on electrocardiograms (ECG). Recent reports have described the relationship between ER and sudden cardiac death (SCD). The prevalence and significance of ER have not been studied in black Africans. We matched clinical and ECG records of subjects over 18 years of age who consulted a cardiac unit in two medical centres of Douala, Cameroon. A questionnaire focusing on past history of syncope or family history of sudden unexplained death (SUD) was filled in by each subject. A 12-lead ECG was recorded by a trained nurse and analysed by two independent physicians. Of the 752 ECGs recorded, we studied 246 index cases. The mean age of subjects was 45 ± 16 years and 53% were female. Almost 57% had hypertension, 41% had palpitations and 18% reported a history of syncope. ER pattern was found in 20% [slurring in three (3%), notching in 13% and both in three (7%)]. ER subjects were younger than those without (41 ± 16 vs 49 ± 16 years, p = 0.0048). Lead localisation was predominantly the laterals for the slurring pattern, whereas the inferior and lateral leads were equally involved for the notching pattern. Negative T waves in the infero-lateral leads were associated with ER (p = 0.00025). Among the subjects with syncope, 41% displayed ER and 13% did not have ER (p = 0.00014). The notching pattern seemed to be associated with syncope (p = 0.00011). Early repolarisation is frequent in black Africans, especially in the setting of cardiovascular morbidity. Early repolarisation may be associated with a past history of syncope, especially the notched pattern.

  2. Third molar maturity index (I3M) for assessing age of majority: study of a black South African sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakopoulos, N; De Luca, S; Velandia Palacio, L A; Coccia, E; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2018-03-08

    The evaluation of the cutoff value of I 3M  = 0.08 for discriminating black South African minors from adults, and its relationship with chronological age. A sample of 833 panoramic radiographs of healthy black South African subjects (500 females and 333 males), in the age range of 14 to 24 years (mean age 17.67 years in females and 17.42 years in males), was retrospectively evaluated. ICC values were 99.10% (95% CI 97.70 to 99.70%) and 99.20% (95% CI 98.00 to 99.60%), for the intra- and inter-observer reliability, respectively. I 3M decreased as the real age gradually increased in both sexes. According to the logistic regression model, the variable sex was not significant when the probability that an individual is 18 years or older was calculated. The I 3M  = 0.08 was valuable in discriminating between adults and minors. The overall accuracy (ACC = fraction of accurately classified subjects) is 0.90 (95% CI 0.87-0.91); the proportion of correctly classified subjects (Se = sensitivity) is 0.80 (95% CI 0.76-0.84), and specificity (Sp) is 0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97). The PPV (predictive positive value) is 0.96 (95% CI 0.95-0.97), and the negative predictive value is 0.76 (95% CI 0.72-0.80). The results show that I 3M is a valuable method to distinguish subjects who are around legal adult age in South Africa.

  3. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1act) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1act and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, furthermore, wanted to investigate the effect of urbanization, sex, central obesity, increased triglycerides, 4G/5G polymorphism (PAI-1 only) and BMI on the association of alcohol with PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Data from 2010 apparently healthy, randomly collected black South African volunteers from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study were cross-sectionally analyzed. Alcohol consumption was recorded using quantitative food frequency questionnaires and fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis including PAI-1act and fibrinogen. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significantly increased PAI-1act, in the total population as well as in the women separately, and tended to be so in men. This alcohol-related PAI-1act increase was observed in volunteers with increased triglycerides and central obesity but not in volunteers with normal levels and waist circumference. Urbanization, the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI did not affect the association of alcohol with PAI-1act. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fibrinogen concentration. Sex and level of urbanization did not affect the association of alcohol with fibrinogen. Fibrinogen decreased in normal and overweight volunteers but not in obese and centrally obese volunteers following moderate alcohol consumption. Triglyceride levels and waist circumference influence alcohol-related PAI-1act increase potentially through modulating adipocyte and triglyceride-induced PAI-1 production. Obesity prevented alcohol-related fibrinogen decrease possibly by counteracting the anti-inflammatory effect of moderate alcohol consumption.

  4. Surface geometry of 5D black holes and black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Goswami, Rituparno

    2007-01-01

    We discuss geometrical properties of the horizon surface of five-dimensional rotating black holes and black rings. Geometrical invariants characterizing these 3D geometries are calculated. We obtain a global embedding of the 5D rotating black horizon surface into a flat space. We also describe the Kaluza-Klein reduction of the black ring solution (along the direction of its rotation) which, though it is nakedly singular, relates this solution to the 4D metric of a static black hole distorted by the presence of external scalar (dilaton) and vector ('electromagnetic') fields. The properties of the reduced black hole horizon and its embedding in E 3 are briefly discussed

  5. Undoing Racism in America: Help from the Black Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Erika; Vora, Jay A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether a planned engagement of white college students, which had very little contact with African Americans, with members of a black community in a safe, welcoming environment (a black church) would significantly reduce racism. Participant surveys indicated that positive interactions between Blacks and Whites resulted in positive…

  6. The emergence of the Black Methodist Consultation and its possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-04

    Jun 4, 2015 ... Racism is an issue which the activism of the Black Methodist Consultation (BMC) was set to address during the South African apartheid rule, a view which black theologians and church historians generally accept. This observation brought to mind, in turn, the influence that the. Black Consciousness ...

  7. Narrative Significations of Contemporary Black Girlhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda; Sekayi, Dia; Savage, Lorraine; Waller, Ellyn; Picot, Iresha

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how Black girlhood is constructed through fiction. The following research question guided this study: How do writers represent the heterogeneity of urban teenage girls in school-sanctioned African American young adult literature? Five popular narratives that exemplify the contemporary lives of urban African American female…

  8. Black Cinderella: Multicultural Literature and School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses diversity issues evident in fairy tales and explores the pedagogical implications for adding counter-narratives in the school curriculum. Critical Race Theory is employed. In order to uncover contradictory discourses of race within Black cultures, four Africana (African, African American, and Caribbean) Cinderella tale types…

  9. Malabsorption of carbohydrate foods by urban blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, I; Walker, A R; Naik, I; Riedel, L; Daya, B; de Beer, M

    1991-12-07

    Prevalences of non-infective bowel diseases are very low in South African urban blacks compared with the white population. In seeking elucidation, using breath hydrogen measurements in series of black and white subjects, small-bowel transit time was determined, and the malabsorption of maize, wheat, and rice investigated. Median transit times in both ethnic groups were similar. Rice was fully, but wheat incompletely absorbed by both groups. Maize, the staple food of blacks, was incompletely absorbed by them, although completely absorbed by the white subjects. Carbohydrate consumption is high in the black population (60-65% of total energy intake). It is probable that in blacks, despite their now eating a low-fibre diet, an expected increase in large-bowel diseases has been inhibited in part by the protective mechanism of fermentation of malabsorbed maize and wheat.

  10. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  11. Pulsation of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changjun; Lu, Youjun; Shen, You-Gen; Faraoni, Valerio

    2018-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose singularity theorem states that a singularity forms inside a black hole in general relativity. To remove this singularity one must resort to a more fundamental theory. Using a corrected dynamical equation arising in loop quantum cosmology and braneworld models, we study the gravitational collapse of a perfect fluid sphere with a rather general equation of state. In the frame of an observer comoving with this fluid, the sphere pulsates between a maximum and a minimum size, avoiding the singularity. The exterior geometry is also constructed. There are usually an outer and an inner apparent horizon, resembling the Reissner-Nordström situation. For a distant observer the horizon crossing occurs in an infinite time and the pulsations of the black hole quantum "beating heart" are completely unobservable. However, it may be observable if the black hole is not spherical symmetric and radiates gravitational wave due to the quadrupole moment, if any.

  12. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  13. Bringing Black Holes Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmann, John M.

    2003-03-01

    Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.

  14. Coiffured black rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Ross, Simon F.; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2014-08-01

    We describe a new type of hair on supersymmetric black string and black ring solutions, which produces the largest known violation of black hole uniqueness, parameterized by an arbitrary function and hence an infinite number of continuous parameters. The new solutions can have non-trivial density profiles for the electric fields along the horizon, and yet have a geometry that is regular, although generically not infinitely differentiable, at the horizon. Both neutral and charged probes can cross the horizon without experiencing divergent forces. We also find restricted examples, parameterized by a few arbitrary continuous parameters, where the charge densities fluctuate but the metric does not and hence is completely differentiable. Our new class of solutions owes its existence to a mechanism reminiscent of the Q-ball: in the simplest examples the metric has more symmetry than the matter that supports it.

  15. Black hole gravitohydromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...

  16. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  17. Black widow spider envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael E

    2006-11-01

    Black widow spiders are found throughout the continental United States and north into the southern Canadian provinces. Male black widow spiders are of little medical importance. Female black widow spiders can be 20 times larger than males. The female can be identified by the hourglass pattern, red or orange in color, on the ventral aspect of her shiny, globose black abdomen. Black widow spiders control the amount of venom they inject; an estimated 15% of bites to humans are non-envenomating. Cats are very sensitive to the venom and deaths are common. Dogs have severe clinical signs but are considered more resistant than cats. A single bite is capable of delivering a lethal dose of venom to companion animals. There are several toxic components consisting of five or six biologically active proteins. These include a potent mammalian neurotoxin called alpha-latrotoxin, which induces neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals. Acetylcholine, noradrenalin, dopamine, glutamate, and enkephalin systems are all susceptible to the toxin. Onset of clinical signs usually occurs during the first 8 hours post envenomation. The condition is extremely painful in moderate to severe envenomations. Abdominal rigidity without tenderness is a hallmark sign of Latrodectus envenomation. In cats, paralytic signs may occur early and are particularly marked. Hypertension is a significant threat. First aid is of no value in the treatment. The primary treatment for black widow spider envenomation is the administration of specific antivenin, which provides the most permanent and quickest relief of the envenomation syndrome, usually within 30 minutes of infusion. The prognosis of Latrodectus envenomation is uncertain of several days, and complete recovery may take weeks.

  18. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  19. Superfluid Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-13

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  20. Are black holes springlike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-02-01

    A (3 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed Ω+ can be used to define an effective spring constant, k =m Ω+2. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, k =κ , which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: 2 π T =κ -k . Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force F =1 /4 , which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  1. Bulletproof Black Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højer, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst.......Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst....

  2. Virtual Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hawking, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...

  3. Better Physician's 'Black Bags'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The "black bag" is outgrowth of astronaut monitoring technology from NASA's Johnson Space Center. Technically known as the portable medical status system, a highly advanced physician's "black bag" weighs less than 30 pounds, yet contains equipment for monitoring and recording vital signs, electrocardiograms, and electroencephalograms. Liquid crystal displays are used to present 15 digits of data simultaneously for long periods of time without excessive use of battery power. Single printed circuit card contains all circuitry required to measure and display vital signs such as heart and respiration rate, temperature, and blood pressure.

  4. Partons and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susskind, L.; Griffin, P.

    1994-01-01

    A light-front renormalization group analysis is applied to study matter which falls into massive black holes, and the related problem of matter with transplankian energies. One finds that the rate of matter spreading over the black hole's horizon unexpectedly saturates the causality bound. This is related to the transverse growth behavior of transplankian particles as their longitudinal momentum increases. This growth behavior suggests a natural mechanism to implement 't Hooft's scenario that the universe is an image of data stored on a 2 + 1 dimensional hologram-like projection

  5. Black Elite: The New Market for Highly Educated Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Richard B.

    This examination of the collapse in traditional discriminatory patterns in the market for highly qualified black Americans documents the World War II gain of college trained and related high level black workers, investigates the response of black college students and qualified personnel to the new market setting, and explores the factors that…

  6. The frequency of the H402 allele of CFH and its involvement with age-related maculopathy in an aged Black African Xhosa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskind, Ari; Bardien, Soraya; van der Merwe, Lize; Webster, Andrew R

    2008-09-01

    The H402 allele of the CFH gene is an established risk factor for age-related maculopathy (ARMD) in Caucasians, accounting for approximately 60% of the genetic risk at the population level. In general, the advanced forms of ARMD are rare in Black populations in Africa, as well as Black populations who have lived for generations in the United States or the West Indies, although there are reports that the earlier forms such as drusen may not be all that uncommon. The aim of the present study was to estimate the frequency of the C allele of the CFH Y402H variant in an aged South African Black Xhosa population and to describe the evidence of ARMD found.

  7. Lean Mass Appears to Be More Strongly Associated with Bone Health than Fat Mass in Urban Black South African Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotunde, O F; Kruger, H S; Wright, H H; Havemann-Nel, L; Kruger, I M; Wentzel-Viljoen, E; Kruger, A; Tieland, M

    2015-06-01

    To examine the association between body composition (fat mass, lean mass and body mass index, BMI) and bone health (bone mineral density, BMD and fracture risk) in urban black South African women. A cross sectional study examining associations between body composition, dietary intake (food frequency questionnaire), habitual physical activity (Activity energy expenditure (AEE) measured using an accelerometer with combined heart rate monitor and physical activity questionnaire) and bone health (BMD using dual-energy X ray absorptiometry, DXA and fracture risk). Urban community dwellers from Ikageng in the North-West Province of South Africa. One hundred and eighty nine (189) healthy postmenopausal women aged ≥43 years. Fat mass and lean mass were significantly associated with BMD and fracture risk when adjusted for potential confounders. However, lean mass and not fat mass remained significantly associated with femoral neck BMD (β = 0.49, p South African women. Our finding suggests that increasing lean mass rather than fat mass is beneficial to bone health. Our study emphasises the importance of positive lifestyle changes, intake of calcium from dairy and adequate weight to maintain and improve bone health of postmenopausal women.

  8. African American women's infant feeding choices: prenatal breast-feeding self-efficacy and narratives from a black feminist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen M; VandeVusse, Leona

    2011-01-01

    Examining prenatal breast-feeding self-efficacy and infant feeding decisions among African American women using a mixed-method approach. A black feminist philosophy was used to keep women's experiences as the central research focus. The Prenatal Breast-feeding Self-efficacy Scale was used to determine differences between intended breast-feeders and formula users among 59 women. Seventeen narrative interviews were conducted to analyze postpartum accounts of actual feeding practices. Both groups (intended breast- or formula-feeders) demonstrated confidence in their ability to breast-feed. Women planning to breast-feed (M = 82.59, SD = 12.53) scored significantly higher than anticipated formula users (M = 70, SD = 15.45), P = .001 (2-tailed). Four of the six themes emerging from narrative analysis were similar to categories of self-efficacy: performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasions, and physiological reactions. In addition, themes of social embarrassment and feelings of regret were identified. Although African American women in this study rated themselves overall as confident with breast-feeding, several narratives about actual feeding choices indicated ambivalence. Women planning to breast-feed need continued support from their healthcare providers throughout the childbearing year. Furthermore, prenatal and immediate postpartum opportunities may exist for nurses to encourage breast-feeding among individuals who initially plan formula use.

  9. Black strings ending on horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nidal

    2012-12-01

    We construct an approximate static gravitational solution of the Einstein equations, with negative cosmological constant, describing a test black string stretching from the boundary of the Schwarzschild-AdS5 black brane toward the horizon. The construction builds on a derivative expansion method, assuming that the black brane metric changes slowly along the black string direction. We provide a solution up to second order in derivatives, and it implies, in particular, that the black string must shrink to zero size at the horizon of the black brane. In the near-horizon region of the black brane, where the two horizons intersect, we provide an exact solution of a cone that describes two intersecting horizons at different temperatures. Moreover, we show that this solution equally describes a thin and long black droplet.

  10. Reflections on a Black Mirror

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Michael R. R.

    2016-01-01

    A black mirror is an accelerated boundary that produces particles in an exact correspondence to an evaporating black hole. We investigate the spectral dynamics of the particle creation during the formation process.

  11. Black Musicians Leading the Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes the careers and musical achievements of Blacks who were forerunners in jazz, blues, gospel, music, spirituals, band music, classical music, ragtime, and opera. The list was compiled to provide teachers with historical background information for "Black History Month." (AM)

  12. Quantum aspects of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.

  13. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  14. Meer bekend over Black Mold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyvesteijn, R.G.E.; Kohrman, E.

    2008-01-01

    In de vollegrondsrozenteelt zorgde Black Mold in 2007 voor een groot aantal mislukte oculaties. In 2008 waren er aanzienlijk minder problemen. Uit onderzoek is meer bekend over de oorzaak en bestrijding van Black Mold.

  15. Aspects of hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon-at@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-03-26

    We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.

  16. Does race matters in consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products? Insights from black and white South Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Sekyere, Enoch; Jordaan, Henry

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, governments, policy-makers, and managers of private food companies and agribusinesses are interested in understanding how consumers will react to environmentally sustainable attributes and information on food product labels. This study examines consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products from the viewpoint of black and white South Africans. Discrete choice experimental data was collected from black and white consumers to possibly assess cross-ethnic variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable products. Two widely purchased livestock products were chosen for the choice experiment. We found that consumers' preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes vary significantly between black and white South Africans. Our findings revealed that there are profound heterogeneous consumer segments within black and white respondents. The heterogeneity within both sub-samples is better explained at the segment level, rather than at individual level. For both product categories, the findings revealed that there are more distinct consumer segments among black respondents, relative to white respondents. The black respondents consist of water sustainability advocates, carbon reduction advocates, keen environmentalist and environmental neutrals. The white respondents entail keen environmentalist, environmental cynics, and environmental neutrals. The inherent significant variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes across segments and racial groups would help in formulating feasible, and segment-specific environmental sustainability policies and marketing strategies aimed at changing consumers' attitude towards environmentally sustainable products. Demographic targeting of consumer segments, sustainability awareness and segment-specific educational campaigns meant to enhance subjective and objective knowledge on environmental sustainability are important tools for food companies and

  17. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  18. "I Worship Black Gods": Formation of an African American Lucumi Religious Subjectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Lisanne

    2015-01-01

    In 1959, Christopher Oliana and Walter “Serge” King took a historic journey to pre-revolutionary Cuba that would change the religious trajectory of numerous African Americans, particularly in New York City. They became the first African American initiates into the Afro-Cuban Lucumi orisha tradition opening the way for generations of African Americans who would comprehensively transform their way of life. This dissertation examines the inter-diasporic exchanges between African Americans and th...

  19. Differences in MetS marker prevalence between black African and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple linear regression analysis, independent of covariates, showed that the albumin:creatinine ratio is explained only by glucose in Africans. Conclusion: African women, as a group, present with few MetS risk factors, and glucose is associated with renal function risk in Africans. Keywords: MetS, metabolic syndrome, ...

  20. Newborn Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  1. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  2. Scholarly Black Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Shahryar

    2017-04-01

    Fake and unethical publishers' activities are known by most of the readers of Science and Engineering Ethics. This letter tries to draw the readers' attention to the hidden side of some of these publishers' business. Here the black market of scholarly articles, which negatively affects the validity and reliability of research in higher education, as well as science and engineering, will be introduced.

  3. Twistors and Black Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neitzke, A.; Pioline, B.; Vandoren, S.

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by black hole physics in N = 2,D = 4 supergravity, we study the geometry of quaternionic-K¨ahler manifolds Mobtained by the c-map construction from projective special Kähler manifolds Ms. Improving on earlier treatments, we compute the Käahler potentials on the twistor space Z and Swann

  4. on black ironbark (Eucalyptus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Eucalyptus sideroxylon). B. Buys. Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X5017,. Stellenbosch, 7600 Republic of South Africa. Received May /984; accepted 28 November /986. Black ironbark trees secrete nectar during the night. Argentine ants collected 42% of the nectar before honeybees started foraging in the ...

  5. Trichomicosis pubis: black variety.

    OpenAIRE

    Neri, I; Frassetto, A; Pasquinelli, G; Patrizi, A

    1994-01-01

    A case of a 25 year old man with the black variety of trichomicosis pubis is presented on account of its extreme rareity. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that trichomicosis pubis is caused by bacterial colonisation of the pubic hair and shows that bacteria are able to penetrate cuticular horny cells directly through their free plasma membrane.

  6. Suburban Black Lives Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-McCoy, R. L'Heureux

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the range of experiences and meanings of Black life in suburban space. Drawing from educational, historical, and sociological literatures, I argue that an underconsideration of suburban space has left many portraits of educational inequality incomplete. The article outlines the emergence of American suburbs and the formation…

  7. Black Psychology. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    This book is the third edition of a resource for advanced students and professionals in black psychology in the form of 41 papers organized under 5 subheadings. The "overview" section includes one classic article and offers a new, world view paper. A "perspectives" section treats Afrocentric, humanistic, historical,…

  8. [Reinvesting in Black Communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, James

    Some of the issues involved in promoting home ownership among blacks and investment in inner city communities are discussed in this paper. The experiences of the Bedford Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation in revitalizing Bedford Stuyvesant are described. Economic barriers to prospective home ownership are identified and strategies and programs…

  9. Black Holes and Entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsten, L.

    2011-01-01

    An unexpected interplay between the seemingly disparate fields of M-theory and Quantum Information has recently come to light. We summarise these developments, culminating in a classification of 4-qubit entanglement from the physics of STU black holes. Based on work done in collaboration with D. Dahanayake, M. J. Duff, H. Ebrahim, A. Marrani and W. Rubens.

  10. Black Holes and Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsten, L.

    2011-07-01

    An unexpected interplay between the seemingly disparate fields of M-theory and Quantum Information has recently come to light. We summarise these developments, culminating in a classification of 4-qubit entanglement from the physics of STU black holes. Based on work done in collaboration with D. Dahanayake, M. J. Duff, H. Ebrahim, A. Marrani and W. Rubens.

  11. [Uncomplicated herniated discs and sciatica: epidemiologic and semiotic aspects in 143 black African subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Dieu-Donné; Eti, Edmond; Daboiko, Jean-Claude; Simon, Frankz; Chuong, Van Tuan; Zué, Marcel Kouakou N

    2007-01-01

    To study the epidemiologic and semiotic characteristics of uncomplicated sciatica in patients in a university hospital in Côte d'Ivoire. This retrospective study included 143 patients with an uncomplicated herniated disc hospitalized in the Cocody University Hospital from 1998 through 2002; patients were excluded if they were excessively sensitive to pain, had related motor deficits, cauda equina syndrome, or were resistant to medical treatment. Patients' average age was 42.5 years (range: 15-81), 58% were women, and mean body mass index (BMI) was 26.16. Ninety-nine (69.2%) reported relatively sedentary work. The disorder was characterized by an antalgic position (in 46.9%), an abnormal Schöber index in 117 (81.8%), the "bell sign" (in 63.6%) and a cough impulse in 58.7%. Lasègue's sign was homolateral at 114 (79.7%), and the average amplitude 42.2 degrees (range: 10 to 80). Paresis of 3/5 or higher was observed in 32 patients (22.4%). Radiography showed a disc disorder in 63% of cases; posterior osteoarthritis in 39.2% and a narrowed lumbar channel in 14 %. Computed tomography was performed for 56 patients and confirmed the presence of a hernia (median: 42,8%; paramedian: 48,2%; foraminal: 8,0%) of L4-l5 in 43 patients (77%); a large hernia, defined by a size greater than half of the rachidian channel, was found in eight (14,3%). After medical treatment, the course was favourable during this hospitalisation. Contrary to preconceived ideas, uncomplicated sciatica of black subjects has the same characteristics as in the white population.

  12. Watchable Wildlife: The Black Bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn L. Rogers

    1992-01-01

    Black bears are the bears people most often encounter. Black bears live in forests over much of North America, unlike grizzlies that live only in Alaska, northern and western Canada, and the northern Rocky Mountains. This brochure presents the latest information on black bear life and how this species responds to an ever-increasing number of campers, hikers, and...

  13. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  14. Uncovering Black Womanhood in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sheree L.; Espino, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing research that outlines the experiences of Blacks and women undergraduates in engineering, little is known about Black women in this field. The purpose of this qualitative study was to uncover how eight Black undergraduate women in engineering understood their race and gender identities in a culture that can be oppressive to…

  15. Warped products and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon-Tae

    2005-01-01

    We apply the warped product space-time scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes

  16. Reading Black Literature With Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jean A.

    This paper is a broad study of the field of black American Literature which outlines the important movements, stereotypes, and trends that have had significant influence upon the literature. The changing stereotypes and archetypes of blacks depicted in American literature from the early concept of blacks as "chattels" to the contemporary concept…

  17. Queering Black Racial Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alandis A.; Quaye, Stephen John

    2017-01-01

    We used queer theory to encourage readers to think differently about previous theories about Black racial identity development. Queer theory facilitates new and deeper understandings of how Black people develop their racial identities, prompting more fluidity and nuance. Specifically, we present a queered model of Black racial identity development…

  18. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  19. Looking for the invisible universe - Black matter, black energy, black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbaz, David

    2016-01-01

    As the discovery of the expansion of the universe and of black holes put the study of cosmology into question again because it now refers to invisible things such as black holes, black energy and black matter, the author proposes an other view on the universe within such a context. He first discusses these three enigmas of black matter, black energy and black holes. In a second part, he addresses, discusses and comments five illusions: the Uranian illusion (questions of the existence of an anti-world, of black matter temperature), the Mercurian illusion (quantum gravity, the string theory), the Martian illusion (a patchwork universe, the illusion of the infinite), the cosmic Maya (the John Wheeler's cup, the holographic universe), and the narcissistic illusion

  20. Black Strings, Black Rings and State-space Manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    State-space geometry is considered, for diverse three and four parameter non-spherical horizon rotating black brane configurations, in string theory and $M$-theory. We have explicitly examined the case of unit Kaluza-Klein momentum $D_1D_5P$ black strings, circular strings, small black rings and black supertubes. An investigation of the state-space pair correlation functions shows that there exist two classes of brane statistical configurations, {\\it viz.}, the first category divulges a degenerate intrinsic equilibrium basis, while the second yields a non-degenerate, curved, intrinsic Riemannian geometry. Specifically, the solutions with finitely many branes expose that the two charged rotating $D_1D_5$ black strings and three charged rotating small black rings consort real degenerate state-space manifolds. Interestingly, arbitrary valued $M_5$-dipole charged rotating circular strings and Maldacena Strominger Witten black rings exhibit non-degenerate, positively curved, comprehensively regular state-space con...

  1. Mitochondrial genomics and antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic complications in HIV-infected Black South Africans: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinxadi, Phumla Z; Dave, Joel A; Samuels, David C; Heckmann, Jeannine M; Maartens, Gary; Levitt, Naomi S; Wester, C William; Haas, David W; Hulgan, Todd

    2013-07-01

    Studies suggest that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART)-related metabolic complications and distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP), but there have been few studies in persons of African descent. We explored such associations in South African adults. Clinical and laboratory data and DNA specimens from a cross-sectional study were used. Sequencing and Phylotree determined African mtDNA subhaplogroups. Wilcoxon and regression analyses determined associations between mtDNA subhaplogroups and ART-related complications. The 171 participants represented six major haplogroups: L0 (n=78), L1 (n=3), L2 (n=30), L3 (n=53), L4 (n=1), and L5 (n=6). Analyses were restricted to 161 participants representing L0, L2, and L3: 78% were female; the median age was 36 years. All had been exposed to thymidine analogues, 42% were on lopinavir/ritonavir (lopinavir/r), and 58% were on either efavirenz or nevirapine. Median (IQR) ART duration was 22 (14-36) months. Median fasting triglycerides were 1.60 (1.13-1.75) and 1.04 (0.83-1.45) mmol/liter among L3e1 (n=22) and other subhaplogroups, respectively (p=0.003). Subhaplogroup L3e1 [adjusted OR (aOR) 3.16 (95% CI: 1.11-8.96); p=0.03] and exposure to lopinavir/r [aOR 2.98 (95% CI: 1.02-8.96); p=0.05] were independently associated with hypertriglyceridemia, after adjusting for age, sex, and ART duration. There were no significant associations between mtDNA haplogroups and cholesterol, dysglycemia, hyperlactatemia, or lipoatrophy, or DSP. Subhaplogroup L3e1 and lopinavir/r exposure were independently associated with hypertriglyceridemia in black South Africans on ART. This is the first report to link an African mtDNA variant with hypertriglyceridemia. If replicated, these findings may provide new insights into host factors affecting metabolic complications.

  2. Statistical mechanics of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, B.; Leblanc, Y.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black-hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed

  3. Over spinning a black hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-09-22

    A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.

  4. Growth of Primordial Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomohiro

    Primordial black holes have important observational implications through Hawking evaporation and gravitational radiation as well as being a candidate for cold dark matter. Those black holes are assumed to have formed in the early universe typically with the mass scale contained within the Hubble horizon at the formation epoch and subsequently accreted mass surrounding them. Numerical relativity simulation shows that primordial black holes of different masses do not accrete much, which contrasts with a simplistic Newtonian argument. We see that primordial black holes larger than the 'super-horizon' primordial black holes have decreasing energy and worm-hole like struture, suggesting the formation through quamtum processes.

  5. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  6. f(R) Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Taeyoon; Myung, Yun Soo; Son, Edwin J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the $f(R)$-Maxwell black hole imposed by constant curvature and its all thermodynamic quantities, which may lead to the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-AdS black hole by redefining Newtonian constant and charge. Further, we obtain the $f(R)$-Yang-Mills black hole imposed by constant curvature, which is related to the Einstein-Yang-Mills black hole in AdS space. Since there is no analytic black hole solution in the presence of Yang-Mills field, we obtain asymptotic solutions. Then, we confirm th...

  7. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    Full Text Available African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health. We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39 of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154 = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance

  8. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Jenkinson, Jesse I R; Earnshaw, Valerie; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health). We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39) of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154) = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance health.

  9. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H.; Jenkinson, Jesse I. R.; Earnshaw, Valerie; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2016-01-01

    African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health). We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39) of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154) = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance health. PMID

  10. African American College Students at Predominantly White and Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to more fully understand the socialization experiences of African American college students, and to investigate and/or uncover new information that can offer meaningful insight for transforming institutional barriers that interfere with the success of African American college students. The existing literature…

  11. IsiNgqumo – Introducing a gay Black South African linguistic variety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to sociolinguistic and queer terminology. This paper presents a first discussion of isiNgqumo as a linguistic variety thus far ignored in South African research and argues that from a sociological perspective it constitutes a 'language' for most of its speakers. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 2008, ...

  12. Rotating black hole and quintessence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations for quintessential matter surrounding a black hole, which has an additional parameter (ω) due to the quintessential matter, apart from the mass (M). In turn, we employ the Newman-Janis complex transformation to this spherical quintessence black hole solution and present a rotating counterpart that is identified, for α = -e 2 ≠ 0 and ω = 1/3, exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when α = 0. Interestingly, for a given value of parameter ω, there exists a critical rotation parameter (a = a E ), which corresponds to an extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, while for a < a E , it describes a nonextremal black hole with Cauchy and event horizons, and no black hole for a > a E . We find that the extremal value a E is also influenced by the parameter ω and so is the ergoregion. (orig.)

  13. Internal structure of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Full text: We review recent progress that sheds light on the internal structure of general black holes. We first summarize properties of general multi-charged rotating black holes both in four and five dimensions. We show that the asymptotic boundary conditions of these general asymptotically flat black holes can be modified such that a conformal symmetry emerges. These subtracted geometries preserve the thermodynamic properties of the original black holes and are of the Lifshitz type, thus describing 'a black hole in the asymptotically conical box'. Recent efforts employ solution generating techniques to construct interpolating geometries between the original black hole and their subtracted geometries. Upon lift to one dimension higher, these geometries lift to AdS 3 times a sphere, and thus provide a microscopic interpretation of the black hole entropy in terms of dual two-dimensional conformal field theory. (author)

  14. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer is predicted to contribute towards colorectal cancer in young South African blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramsay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A disproportionately large number of young (<50 years black patients present with colorectal cancer (CRC in South Africa. Although a phenomenon previously described elsewhere in Africa, its specificmolecular basis,whether sporadic or hereditary, has not been established. Molecular analysis of these tumours could link them to the features known to be associated with specific types of hereditary colorectal cancer, specifically through examination of levels of microsatellite instability, promoter methylation and the presence or absence of KRAS and BRAF mutations. The molecular features of cancer tissue samples from 44 CRC cases of black and white patients in South Africa were accordingly retrospectively analysed without knowledge of family history. Compared with samples from older blacks (>50 years, those from young black patients presented more often with a low methylation phenotype (CIMP-L and high levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-H. Furthermore, as determined by real-time PCR using probe technology, the tissues from35%of young blacks showed mutations within exon 1 of the KRAS gene. The BRAF-V600E mutation was only evident in the case of a single young black patient. Based on these results it seems likely that a proportion of CRC cases in young black patients from South Africa develop through the accumulation of mutations resulting in a mismatch repair deficiency linked to MSI-H and, possibly, germline mutations in the mismatch repair genes. The features in these patients are consistent with a diagnosis of the Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC syndrome. This finding has important implications for patient management and suggests that family members may be at high risk for CRC.

  15. Extended Family and Friendship Support Networks are both Protective and Risk Factors for Major Depressive Disorder, and Depressive Symptoms Among African Americans and Black Caribbeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chae, David H.; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores relationships between lifetime and 12 month DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), depressive symptoms and involvement with family and friends within a national sample of African American and Black Caribbean adults (n=5,191). MDD was assessed using the DSM-IV World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) and depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D and the K6. Findings indicated that among both populations close supportive ties with family members and friends are associated with lower rates of depression and major depressive disorder. For African Americans, closeness to family members was important for both 12 month and lifetime MDD; and both family and friend closeness were important for depressive symptoms. For Caribbean Blacks, family closeness had more limited associations with outcomes and was directly associated with psychological distress only. Negative interactions with family (conflict, criticisms), however, were associated with higher MDD and depressive symptoms among both African Americans and Black Caribbeans. PMID:25594791

  16. ‘My child did not like using sun protection’: practices and perceptions of child sun protection among rural black African mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamantimande Kunene

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, but immune suppression, photoaging and cataracts occur among individuals with all skin types. Methods To assess practices and acceptability to Black African mothers of sun protection equipment for their children living in a rural area, participants were recruited at the time of their child’s 18-month vaccinations. Mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on usual sun behaviours and sun protection practices. They were then provided with sun protection equipment and advice. A follow-up questionnaire was administered two weeks later. Results Mothers reported that during the week prior to the baseline questionnaire, children spent on average less than 1 hour of time outdoors (most often spent in the shade. Most mothers (97% liked the sun protection equipment. However, many (78 of 86 reported that their child did not like any of the sun protection equipment and two-thirds stated that the sun protection equipment was not easy to use. Conclusions Among Black Africans in rural northern South Africa, we found a mismatch between parental preferences and child acceptance for using sun protection when outdoors. A better understanding of the health risks of incidental excess sun exposure and potential benefits of sun protection is required among Black Africans.

  17. Comparison of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate in screening for chronic kidney disease in asymptomatic black Africans: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuse, Geoffrey; Maina, Daniel; Mwangi, Jane; Wambua, Caroline; Kanyua, Alice; Kagotho, Elizabeth; Amayo, Angela; Ojwang, Peter; Erasmus, Rajiv

    2017-12-20

    Several equations have been developed to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The common equations used were derived from populations predominantly comprised of Caucasians with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Some of the equations provide a correction factor for African-Americans due to their relatively increased muscle mass and this has been extrapolated to black Africans. Studies carried out in Africa in patients with CKD suggest that using this correction factor for the black African race may not be appropriate. However, these studies were not carried out in healthy individuals and as such the extrapolation of the findings to an asymptomatic black African population is questionable. We sought to compare the proportion of asymptomatic black Africans reported as having reduced eGFR using various eGFR equations. We further compared the association between known risk factors for CKD with eGFR determined using the different equations. We used participant and laboratory data collected as part of a global reference interval study conducted by the Committee of Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL) under the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). Serum creatinine values were used to calculate eGFR using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG), re-expressed 4 variable modified diet in renal disease (4v-MDRD), full age spectrum (FAS) and chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration equations (CKD-EPI). CKD classification based on eGFR was determined for every participant. A total of 533 participants were included comprising 273 (51.2%) females. The 4v-MDRD equation without correction for race classified the least number of participants (61.7%) as having an eGFR equivalent to CKD stage G1 compared to 93.6% for CKD-EPI with correction for race. Only age had a statistically significant linear association with eGFR across all equations after performing multiple regression analysis. The multiple correlation coefficients for CKD risk factors were higher for

  18. Caged black holes: Black holes in compactified spacetimes. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kol, Barak; Sorkin, Evgeny; Piran, Tsvi

    2004-01-01

    In backgrounds with compact dimensions there may exist several phases of black objects including a black hole and a black string. The phase transition between them raises questions and touches on fundamental issues such as topology change, uniqueness, and cosmic censorship. No analytic solution is known for the black hole, and moreover one can expect approximate solutions only for very small black holes, while phase transition physics happens when the black hole is large. Hence we turn to numerical solutions. Here some theoretical background to the numerical analysis is given, while the results will appear in a subsequent paper. The goals for a numerical analysis are set. The scalar charge and tension along the compact dimension are defined and used as improved order parameters which put both the black hole and the black string at finite values on the phase diagram. The predictions for small black holes are presented. The differential and the integrated forms of the first law are derived, and the latter (Smarr's formula) can be used to estimate the 'overall numerical error'. Field asymptotics and expressions for physical quantities in terms of the numerical values are supplied. The techniques include the 'method of equivalent charges', free energy, dimensional reduction, and analytic perturbation for small black holes

  19. Young, black, and connected: Facebook usage among African American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E Bun

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the extent and intensity of Facebook usage among African American college students and investigates their reasons for using Facebook. As expected, 98% of students in the survey had a Facebook account, and a large number of Facebook “friends.” Younger users spent significantly more time on Facebook than older ones. Our findings underscore the importance of cultural influence for African American online users. Displaying photographs and personal interests on Facebook signals racial identity among African American college students. Personality traits, such as self-esteem, trust in people, satisfaction with university life, and racial identity, were not significant predictors on the time spent on Facebook.

  20. Substance Abuse Among Blacks Across the Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Krim K; Mouzon, Dawne M; Govia, Ishtar O; Matusko, Niki; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Abelson, Jamie M; Jackson, James S

    2016-07-28

    Lower rates of substance abuse are found among Black Americans compared to Whites, but little is known about differences in substance abuse across ethnic groups within the black population. We examined prevalence rates of substance abuse among Blacks across three geographic regions (US, Jamaica, Guyana). The study also sought to ascertain whether length of time, national context and major depressive episodes (MDE) were associated with substance abuse. We utilized three different data sources based upon probability samples collected in three different countries. The samples included 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 US Caribbean Black adults from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL). An additional 1,142 Guyanese Blacks and 1,176 Jamaican Blacks living in the Caribbean region were included from the 2005 NSAL replication extension study, Family Connections Across Generations and Nations (FCGN). Mental disorders were based upon DSM-IV criteria. For the analysis, we used descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression analytic procedures. Prevalence of substance abuse varied by national context, with higher rates among Blacks within the United States compared to the Caribbean region. Rates of substance abuse were lower overall for women, but differ across cohorts by nativity and length of time in the United States, and in association with major depressive episode. The study highlights the need for further examination of how substance abuse disparities between US-based and Caribbean-based populations may become manifested.

  1. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  2. Forging a Black identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Chevannes

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Rastafarians: sounds of cultural dissonance [revised and updated editionj. LEONARD E. BARRETT, SR. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988. xviii + 302 pp. (Paper US$ 11.95 Rasta and resistance: from Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney. HORACE CAMPBELL. Trenton NJ: Africa World Press, 1987. xiii + 236 pp. (Cloth US$32.95, Paper US$ 10.95 Garvey's children: the legacy of Marcus Garvey. TONY SEWELL. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1990. 128 pp. (Paper £ 17.95 The central theme linking these three titles is the evolution of a black identity among English-speaking Caribbean peoples, in particular Jamaicans. Consequently all three authors cover the two most important historical phenomena in Caribbean black nationalism, namely Garveyism and Rastafari, one focusing on the former and the other two focusing on the latter.

  3. Black Holes and Firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polchinski, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Our modern understanding of space, time, matter, and even reality itself arose from the three great revolutions of the early twentieth century: special relativity, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. But a century later, this work is unfinished. Many deep connections have been discovered, but the full form of a unified theory incorporating all three principles is not known. Thought experiments and paradoxes have often played a key role in figuring out how to fit theories together. For the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics, black holes have been an important arena. I will talk about the quantum mechanics of black holes, the information paradox, and the latest version of this paradox, the firewall. The firewall points to a conflict between our current theories of spacetime and of quantum mechanics. It may lead to a new understanding of how these are connected, perhaps based on quantum entanglement.

  4. Surgical Removal of a Ventricular Foreign Body in a Captive African Black-footed Penguin ( Spheniscus demersus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Jiménez, Paula A; Trent, Ava M; Bueno, Irene

    2016-03-01

    Anterior gastrointestinal tract obstruction by a foreign body has been reported in several avian species, most commonly in captive birds. It is often associated with behavioral issues that lead to compulsive consumption of bedding materials or bright moving objects. In penguins, foreign bodies are most commonly identified at necropsy and often are found in the ventriculus because of anatomic characteristics of the species. A captive African black-footed penguin ( Spheniscus demersus ) was diagnosed with a ventricular foreign body. The anatomic and physiologic differences that should be taken into account when surgically removing a ventricular foreign body in a penguin are described. These differences include the caudal location in the coelom and the large size of the ventriculus in proportion to the penguin's body size; the presence of a simple stomach, uniform in thickness and lacking muscular development; a simple gastrointestinal cycle (gastric contraction); and variability in pH of stomach contents. No complications were observed after surgery, and the bird recovered completely. Management of foreign bodies in birds should be based on the clinical signs of the individual bird, the species affected and its anatomic characteristics, the nature and location of the foreign body, available tools, and the preference and experience of the surgeon. This particular case demonstrates that the most indicated and preferred method is not always possible and that knowledge of biologic, anatomic, and physiologic differences of the species may allow the use of an alternative and more invasive approach with favorable outcomes.

  5. Masekitlana re-membered: A performance-based ethnography of South African black children’s pretend play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Ofenste Phetlhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The extensive empirical research inspired by Piaget and Vygotsky’s theories of make-believe play has been criticised for restricting data to western, urban, middle-class children. We seek to redress this bias by researching a traditional black South African Pedi children’s game Masekitlana. Our data relies on embodied memories enacted by Mapelo (one of the authors, and interviews of two other informants. The analytical framework draws upon ‘emergent methods’ in ethnography such as performance ethnography, autoethnography and memory elicitation through ‘bodynotes’ within a Vygotskyian orientation to play. The findings show that Masekitlana shares features common to all pretend play, but others unique to it  including: i extended monologue, ii metacommunicative frames for realistic thinking, and iii a complex relation between social and solitary play. These findings support Vygotsky. However, ‘the long childhood’ of Masekitlana suggests that the stages theory of Piaget, as well as  Vygotskyian ideas that have come down to us via Cole & Scribner and Valsiner, require revision in the light of Bruner’s two modes of cognition, and Veresov’s reinterpretation of the theatre movement, within which Vygotsky’s central ideas are embedded.

  6. Gender Expression and Mental Health in Black South African Men Who Have Sex with Men: Further Explorations of Unexpected Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo G M; Bos, Henny; Reddy, Vasu

    2018-02-20

    Unlike studies conducted in Western countries, two studies among Black South African men who have sex with men (MSM) found no support for the association between gender nonconformity and mental distress, even though gender-nonconforming men experienced more discrimination and discrimination was associated with mental distress (Cook, Sandfort, Nel, & Rich, 2013; Sandfort, Bos, Knox, & Reddy, 2016). In Sandfort et al., gender nonconformity was assessed as a continuous variable, validated by comparing scores between a categorical assessment of gender presentation (masculine, feminine, no preference). Using the same dataset, we further explored this topic by (1) testing differences between gender expression groups in sexual minority stressors, resilience factors, and mental distress; (2) testing whether the impact of elevated discrimination in the feminine group was counterbalanced by lower scores on other stressors or higher scores on resilience factors; and (3) exploring whether relationships of stressors and resilience factors with mental distress varied between gender expression groups. Controlling for demographics, we found several differences between the gender expression groups in the stressors and resilience factors, but not in mental distress. We found no support for the idea that the lack of differences in mental distress between the gender expression groups was a consequence of factors working in opposite directions. However, internalized homophobia had a differential impact on depression in feminine men compared to masculine men. In our discussion of these findings, we explored the meaning of our participants' self-categorization as it might relate to gender instead of sexual identities.

  7. Gatekeeping and its impact on father involvement among Black South Africans in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makusha, Tawanda; Richter, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Involved and caring fatherhood contributes to the health and wellbeing of children, women and men. The corollary is also true - men, women and children are affected when fathers are not involved or supportive of their children. Many factors affect fathers' involvement, including women's attitudes, the history and nature of the relationship between mother and father, and the cultural context. This study explores gatekeeping and its impact on father involvement among Black South Africans in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Among married couples, gatekeeping occurs with respect to childcare and housework through women's attempts to validate their maternal identity according to socially and culturally constructed gender roles. Among unmarried, non-resident parents, women control father-child contact and involvement, with mothers and/or their families either facilitating or inhibiting father involvement. In this context, we found that cultural gatekeeping had a huge impact on father involvement, with the non-payment of inhlawulo or lobola regulating father-child involvement. In a country like South Africa, where there is high non-marital fertility and father-child non-residence, future research, parenting and family programmes should focus on strategies that encourage positive paternal involvement as well as maternal and cultural support for father involvement, regardless of parental relationship and residence status.

  8. Uncovering Black/African American and Latina/o students' motivation to learn science: Affordances to science identity development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfood, Denise Marcia

    The following dissertation reports on a qualitative exploration that serves two main goals: (1) to qualitatively define and highlight science motivation development of Black/African American and Latina/o students as they learn science in middle school, high school, and in college and (2) to reveal through personal narratives how successful entry and persistence in science by this particular group is linked to the development of their science identities. The targeted population for this study is undergraduate students of color in science fields at a college or university. The theoretical frameworks for this study are constructivist theory, motivation theory, critical theory, and identity theories. The methodological approach is narrative which includes students' science learning experiences throughout the course of their academic lives. I use The Science Motivation Questionnaire II to obtain baseline data to quantitatively assess for motivation to learn science. Data from semi-structured interviews from selected participants were collected, coded, and configured into a story, and emergent themes reveal the important role of science learning in both informal and formal settings, but especially in informal settings that contribute to better understandings of science and the development of science identities for these undergraduate students of color. The findings have implications for science teaching in schools and teacher professional development in science learning.

  9. Quantification of systemic renin-angiotensin system peptides of hypertensive black and white African men established from the RAS-Fingerprint®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM van Rooyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to make use of a quantitative and qualitative approach comparing the systemic renin-angiotensin system (RAS of hypertensive black and white African men by using RAS equilibrium analysis. Materials and methods: This sub-study involved 23 black (n = 15 and white (n = 8 hypertensive men aged 39.5–41 years, living in the North West Province of South Africa. The RAS-Fingerprinting was determined with LC-MS/MS quantification of angiotensin peptides. Blood pressure and other variables were determined with known methods. Results: The main finding of this study was the significant lower Ang I (<5.0 and 45.1 pg/ml; p = 0.005 and Ang II (15.6 and 123.9 pg/ml; p ⩽ 0.001 encountered in the hypertensive black African men compared to their white counterparts. Levels of Ang 1-5 (downstream metabolite of Ang 1-7 (1.8 and 3.0 pg/ml, were detected in black and white hypertensive men, respectively. Conclusions: The observed differences between circulating RAS components, which are reflected via equilibrium angiotensin levels, point to a distinctive molecular regulation of the RAAS in the two study cohorts. The increased peripheral resistance observed in hypertensive black individuals might take over a dominant role in control of blood pressure in this study population. A novel highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method resolved the issue of peptide recovery variations during sample preparation by using internal standards for each individual angiotensin metabolite.

  10. Malignant melanoma of the skin in black South Africans: A 15-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 48, No 3 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Mobilizing Black America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    or just for a walk in the park. They offer an ear if the youngster simply needs someone to talk to. When it comes to a discussion of economic...neighborhoods and making it unsafe for decent people to walk the streets. One method that several schools have used to support the community in this...children with their studies. By their very presence these men show that education is not sissy .’ 3 6 Once we have succeeded in keeping black Americans

  12. Beyond the black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boslough, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book is about the life and work of Stephen Hawking. It traces the development of his theories about the universe and particularly black holes, in a biographical context. Hawking's lecture 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics' is presented as an appendix. In this, he discusses the possibility of achieving a complete, consistent and unified theory of the physical interactions which would describe all possible observations. (U.K.)

  13. Black Sea challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    In this month's European column, Jean-Francois Drevet examines the issues that arise for Europe from the Black Sea region. The Black Sea is increasingly becoming a crucial place of transit for hydrocarbon imports from the Caspian and Russia into the European Union. The considerable increase in this traffic raises both environmental problems (the risk of oil slicks) and issues of security of supply, on account of the economic and political fragility of some of the bordering or neighbouring states (Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia/Chechnya etc.). This is why, as Jean-Francois Drevet stresses, the European Union has been trying since the mid-1990's to claim a role in the management of the affairs of the region. With two bordering states (Rumania and Bulgaria) joining the EU in 2007, cooperation in the Black Sea has become a priority within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, and this column delineates a number of the obstacles that still have to be surmounted. (author)

  14. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  15. Chronic Medical Conditions and Major Depressive Disorder: Differential Role of Positive Religious Coping among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the main and buffering effects of positive religious coping on the association between the number of chronic medical conditions and major depressive disorder (MDD) among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites. This cross-sectional study used data from the National Survey of American Life, 2001 and 2003. This study enrolled 3,570 African Americans, 1,438 Caribbean Blacks and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Number of chronic conditions and positive religious coping were independent variables, 12-month MDD was the outcome and socio-economic characteristics were controls. We fitted the following three ethnic-specific logistic regressions for data analysis. In Model I, we included the number of chronic conditions and controls. In Model II, we added the main effect of religious coping. In Model III, we included an interaction between religious coping and number of chronic conditions. Based on Model I, number of chronic conditions was associated with higher odds of 12-month MDD among all race/ethnic groups. Model II showed a significant and negative association between religious coping and MDD among Caribbean Blacks (odds ratio [OR] =0.55, 95% confidence Interval [CI] =0.39-0.77), but not African Americans or Hispanic Whites. Model III suggested that, only among Caribbean Blacks, the effect of chronic medical conditions on MDD is smaller in the presence of high positive religious coping (OR for interaction = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.55-0.96). Although the association between multiple chronic conditions and MDD may exist regardless of race and ethnicity, race/ethnicity may shape how positive religious coping buffers this association. This finding sheds more light onto race and ethnic differences in protective effects of religiosity on mental health of populations.

  16. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  17. Optic Nerve Head and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Differences Between Caribbean Black and African American Patients as Measured by Spectral Domain OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rohini; Dhrami-Gavazi, Elona; Al-Aswad, Lama; Ciarleglio, Adam; Cioffi, George A; Blumberg, Dana M

    2015-01-01

    There are well-established differences in optic nerve morphology between patients of African and European descent. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning has demonstrated these differences with respect to optic disc area (DA), average cup-disc ratio, cup volume, and nerve fiber layer thickness. However, the term "African descent" describes a heterogenous group with considerable variability. This study evaluates differences in optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) parameters as measured by Cirrus HD-OCT between Caribbean black and African American patients. A total of 25 African American subjects and 25 Caribbean black subjects with normal ocular examinations were consecutively recruited to this study. All patients received imaging of the optic nerve and nerve fiber layer with Cirrus HD-OCT. Optic nerve and RNFL parameters were evaluated for statistically significant differences using a t test. A mixed effect model for correlated data was then created to adjust outcome variables for (1) repeated measures and (2) optic nerve size. Two one-sided t tests were then utilized to determine equivalence. After adjustment for DA, RNFL thickness, cup volume, DA, inferior nerve fiber layer, and vertical cup-disc ratio demonstrated statistically significant equivalence between the 2 groups (P value fiber layer quadrant was significantly different between the 2 groups and may merit further investigation. Findings of this study suggest that optic nerve and RNFL morphology is markedly similar between Caribbean blacks and African Americans once adjusted for optic nerve size but cannot be considered equivalent in all measures, particularly in the superior nerve fiber layer.

  18. Mortality among African American women with sarcoidosis: data from the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukey, M H; Berman, J S; Boggs, D A; White, L F; Rosenberg, L; Cozier, Y C

    2013-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that disproportionately affects black females.  Few studies have specifically addressed causes of death in this population. To assess rates and causes of death among women with sarcoidosis in a prospective cohort study of U.S. black women. The Black Women's Health Study is a follow-up study of 59,000 U.S. black women aged 21-69 (median age 38) at entry in 1995.  Data on demographic and lifestyle factors and medical conditions, including sarcoidosis, were obtained through biennial questionnaires.  Deaths and causes of death from 1995 through 2009 among study subjects were identified from National Death Index data. We assessed mortality rates among women with and without a history of sarcoidosis.  Poisson regression models were used to estimate age-adjusted mortality rates. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for mortality and 95% confidence intervals. A total of 121 deaths occurred among 1,192 women with a history of sarcoidosis and 2813 deaths among women without sarcoidosis.  Mortality was greater at every age among women with sarcoidosis and the overall multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio was 2.44 (95% CI 2.03-2.93, p<0.0001). Of the deaths among women with sarcoidosis, 24.7% were directly attributable to sarcoidosis. In the Black Women's Health Study, women with sarcoidosis were more than twice as likely to die as women without the disease, with many of the deaths directly attributable to sarcoidosis.  Sarcoidosis is an important cause of premature death among black women with the disease.

  19. Paralysis due to the high tackle - a black spot South African rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high tackle around the neck is illegal but still commonplace in South African rugby. An analysis of 40 rugby players who sustained spinal cord injury during the period 1985 1989 revealed that 8 were injured by a high tackle. The case histories and radiographs of these 8 players were analysed. The majority sustained ...

  20. Xenophobic Attacks On Black Non-South Africans In South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although xenophobia is typically defined as a “hatred or fear of foreigners” (South African Pocket Oxford Dictionary of Current English, 1994) or a “strong fear or dislike of people from other countries” (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, New Edition, 2003), the concept goes beyond this. Research evidences have ...

  1. Do Black Families Value Education? White Teachers, Institutional Cultural Narratives, & Beliefs about African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchner, Laurel; Markowitz, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this article Puchner and Markowitz illustrate a major problem in education and in teacher education, the underlying dynamics of which are a national problem. The problem of negative beliefs about African American families in schools is not a new idea but actually stems from unfounded and untested assumptions about the way the world works and…

  2. A History of Black and Brown: Chicana/o-African American Cultural and Political Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Luis; Widener, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Rather than assume that ethnicity or race necessarily marks the edges of one's culture or politics, the contributors to this dossier highlight the messy, blurry, and often contradictory relationships that arise when Chicana/os and African Americans engage one another. The essays explore the complicated mix of cooperation and conflict that…

  3. Black holes in realistic branes: Black string-like objects?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D., E-mail: bazeia@fisica.ufpb.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Hoff da Silva, J.M., E-mail: hoff@feg.unesp.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), 09210-170, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2013-04-25

    A realistic model describing a black string-like object in an expanding Universe is analyzed in the context of the McVittie's solution of the Einstein field equations. The bulk metric near the brane is provided analogously to previous solutions for black strings. In particular, we show that at least when the Hubble parameter on the brane is positive, a black string-like object seems to play a fundamental role in the braneworld scenario, generalizing the standard black strings in the context of a dynamical brane.

  4. Becoming Black: Rap and Hip Hop, Race, Gender, Identity, and the Politics of ESL Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Awad El Karim M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines how a group of continental Francophone African youth at a French high school in Ottawa, Canada "become Black" as they enter a world that already constructs them as Black. These students learn Black English, which they access in hip-hop culture and linguistic styles. Discusses the impact of becoming Black on…

  5. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of..., 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor) and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC (transferees) filed an application for the partial the transfer of licenses...

  6. Black Father Involvement in Gifted Education: Thoughts from Black Fathers on Increasing/Improving Black Father-Gifted Teacher Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Tarek C.; Henfield, Malik S.

    2011-01-01

    Black fathers are important advocates in addressing the underrepresentation of Black students in gifted programs, as well as the achievement gaps between Black and White students. Black fathers increasingly understand the important role that Black mothers have traditionally played in supporting their gifted children's school experiences. As a…

  7. Black doctors and discrimination under South Africa's apartheid regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digby, Anne

    2013-04-01

    This article discusses an under-researched group and provides an analytical overview of the comparative experiences of African, Indian and Coloured doctors at South African universities during the apartheid era. It probes diversity of experience in training and practice as well as gendered differentiation amongst black students before going on to discuss the careers and political activism of black doctors as well as the impact of recent transformational change on their position. It briefly assesses how singular this South African experience was.

  8. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  9. Quantum effects in black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    A strict definition of black holes is presented and some properties with regard to their mass are enumerated. The Hawking quantum effect - the effect of vacuum instability in the black hole gravitational field, as a result of shich the black hole radiates as a heated body is analyzed. It is shown that in order to obtain results on the black hole radiation it is sufficient to predetermine the in-vacuum state at a time moment in the past, when the collapsing body has a large size, and its gravitational field can be neglected. The causes and the place of particle production by the black hole, and also the space-time inside the black hole, are considered

  10. Particle creation by black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    In the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles. This thermal emission leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance: any primordial black hole of mass less than about 10 15 g would have evaporated by now. Although these quantum effects violate the classical law that the area of the event horizon of a black hole cannot decrease, there remains a Generalized Second Law: S + 1/4 A never decreases where S is the entropy of matter outside black holes and A is the sum of the surface areas of the event horizons. This shows that gravitational collapse converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. It is tempting to speculate that this might be the reason why the Universe contains so much entropy per baryon. (orig.) [de

  11. Investigating Black ASL: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toliver-Smith, Andrea; Gentry, Betholyn

    2017-01-01

    The authors reviewed the literature regarding linguistic variations seen in American Sign Language. These variations are influenced by region and culture. Features of spoken languages have also influenced sign languages as they intersected, e.g., Black ASL has been influenced by African American English. A literature review was conducted to…

  12. Understanding and Developing Black Popular Music Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James Briggs

    1983-01-01

    Enumerates types of black popular music (work songs, spirituals, gospel music, blues, race records, rock and roll, soul, funk, disco, Caribbean, and African) and discusses collection development (current, retrospective, monographs, periodicals, sheet music, motion picture film, photographs, oral history), cataloging, and preservation. A 229-item…

  13. Origin of supermassive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S. G.

    2007-01-01

    The origin of supermassive black holes in the galactic nuclei is quite uncertain in spite of extensive set of observational data. We review the known scenarios of galactic and cosmological formation of supermassive black holes. The common drawback of galactic scenarios is a lack of time and shortage of matter supply for building the supermassive black holes in all galaxies by means of accretion and merging. The cosmological scenarios are only fragmentarily developed but propose and pretend to...

  14. Destroying extremal magnetized black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M.

    2017-07-01

    The gedanken experiment by Wald to destroy a black hole using a test particle in the equatorial plane is adapted to the case of extremal magnetized black holes. We find that the presence of external magnetic fields resulting from the "Ernst magnetization" permits a test particle to have strong enough energy to destroy the black hole. However, the corresponding effective potentials show that such particles would never reach the horizon.

  15. "What Exactly Is a Black?": Interrogating the Reality of Race in Jean Genet's The Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debby Thompson

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available On the dedication page of The Blacks , Genet writes "One evening an actor asked me to write a play for an all-black cast. But what exactly is a black? First of all, what's his color?" Prefiguring major issues and paradoxes of African American cultural studies today, The Blacks insists on the very real ways in which the black/white racial binary, like the very concept of race itself, is lived and socially enforced, and at the same time argues that the binary is ultimately a fiction, made real through performative reification. Genet's "clown show," ambiguously reversing the blackface minstrelsy tradition, dramatizes how racial identity can become internalized and naturalized through cultural myths of interracial rape and colonialist narratives of a "heart of darkness," an imaginary site from which "black essence" arises. These racist performance traditions and narratives are so powerful and resilient that attempts to protest them become subtle and unwitting ways of re-creating them. The Blacks' parody of the minstrel tradition to interrogate all racial identity is so permanently suspended in a dialectic of both reinforcing the black/white binary and invalidating it, that the play's strategies present vital paradigms for the study of other and diverse interrogations of racial ontologies.

  16. The Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa: A Product of The Entire Black World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgwebi Snail

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo ilustra cómo el surgimiento del Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica puede estar diametralmente unido a la emergencia de los movimientos de Conciencia Negra y Black Power en América. Pretende demostrar además cómo, en el contexto africano, el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra fue impulsado por el nacionalismo africano y cómo ese nacionalismo fue moldeado y transformado por pensadores africanos de la década de los 50 y 60 en el Panafricanismo. El artículo también mostrará similitudes y diferencias entre la Negritud Africana y el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra. El texto de nuevo explicará de manera cronológica cómo el Garveyismo, la Conciencia Negra en América y el nacionalismo africano, la personalidad africana y la Negritud en África contribuyeron al surgimiento del Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica. El estudio advierte de que la falta de comprensión de estos antecedentes, podría llevar a la confusión y a una mala interpretación de concepto vital en la historia de África. Finalmente, este trabajo busca hacer hincapié en la historización del desarrollo del por qué el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica no puede estar divorciado del contexto global.____________________ABSTRACT:The paper illustrates how the rise of the Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa can be diametrically tied up with the emergence of the Black Consciousness and Black-Power Movements in America. It goes further to demonstrate how, in the African context, the Black Consciousness Movement was given impetus by African nationalism and how that nationalism was later moulded and shaped by African thinkers of the 1950’s and 1960’s into Pan Africanism. The paper, will also try to show similarities and the disparities between Negritude African personality and the Black Consciousness Movement. The paper will again explain in a chronological manner how Garveyism, Black Consciousness in America and African Nationalism in

  17. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. On black hole horizon fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchin, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the high angular momentum particles 'atmosphere' near the Schwarzschild black hole horizon suggested that strong gravitational interactions occur at invariant distance of the order of 3 √M [2]. We present a generalization of this result to the Kerr-Newman black hole case. It is shown that the larger charge and angular momentum black hole bears, the larger invariant distance at which strong gravitational interactions occur becomes. This invariant distance is of order 3 √((r + 2 )/((r + - r - ))). This implies that the Planckian structure of the Hawking radiation of extreme black holes is completely broken

  19. Black holes and the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Tufts University, 574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA, 02155 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  20. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David

    2016-09-23

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.

  1. Braneworld Black Hole Gravitational Lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jun

    2017-01-01

    A class of braneworld black holes, which I called as Bronnikov–Melnikov–Dehen (BMD) black holes, are studied as gravitational lenses. I obtain the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, and further calculate the angular positions and magnifications of relativistic images as well as the time delay between different relativistic images. I also compare the results with those obtained for Schwarzschild and two braneworld black holes, i.e., the tidal Reissner-Nordström (R-N) and the Casadio–Fabbri–Mazzacurati (CFM) black holes. (paper)

  2. Black report up-date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    In 1984, the Black Report published its results on the incidence of cancer and leukaemia in under 25-year olds in the village of Seascale and the surrounding area near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. Since then the pressure group core, as a result of their own independent research, has discovered ten additional cases of childhood cancer which should have been included in the Black Report and a Further two cases since the Black Report was written. This represents an additional 31% over the initial numbers considered and a review of the Black Report is sought. (UK)

  3. How black holes saved relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda

    2016-02-01

    While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.

  4. Nariai black holes with quintessence

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Sharmanthie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the properties of Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by quintessence matter. The main objective of the paper is to show the existence of Nariai type black hole for special values of the parameters in the theory. The Nariai black hole with the quintessence has the topology $dS_2 \\times S_2$ with $dS_2$ with a different scalar curvature than what would be expected for the Schwarzschild-de Sitter degenerate black hole. Temperature and the entropy for the Schwarzschild-de ...

  5. Children's Reactions to T.V. Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Bradley S.

    1972-01-01

    An assessment of the frequency of exposure of young children, both black and white, to TV series which regularly featured blacks, degree of identification with black performers, attitudes towards blacks on TV and blacks outside of television, among other behaviors. (Author/JM)

  6. Artificial black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt; Volovik, Grigory E

    2009-01-01

    Physicists are pondering on the possibility of simulating black holes in the laboratory by means of various "analog models". These analog models, typically based on condensed matter physics, can be used to help us understand general relativity (Einstein's gravity); conversely, abstract techniques developed in general relativity can sometimes be used to help us understand certain aspects of condensed matter physics. This book contains 13 chapters - written by experts in general relativity, particle physics, and condensed matter physics - that explore various aspects of this two-way traffic.

  7. Magnonic Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Molina, A; Nunez, Alvaro S; Duine, R A

    2017-02-10

    We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons-the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.

  8. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Casadio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce

  9. Drifting black aurorae?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoute-Vanneck, H.; Scourfield, M.W.J.; Nielsen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristics of eastward drifting forms, previously described in the literature as black aurorae, have been identified in low-light level TV camera data. The TV field of view was within the field of view of STARE and that of an all-sky camera. On the basis of these observations the authors propose that these auroral forms are a manifestation of folds or waves on the borders of auroral bands propagating along the dark regions between neighboring auroral bands. Conditions under which the folds or waves occur are compatible with their formation by the Kelvin-Helmholtz electrostatic instability

  10. Black lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal workers` pneumoconiosis (CWP), often called Black Lung Disease is a occupational disease which results from inhalation of coal mine dust which usually contains small amounts of free crystalline silica. This chapter reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and clinical aspects of CWP and how it has been controlled in the USA through the 1969 Coal Mine Act and dust level standards. It describes the sampling methods used. Medical control methods and engineering control of the disease is discussed. Work of the Generic Mineral Technology Center for Respirable Dust is described. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  11. An Intersectional Approach for Understanding Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life,…

  12. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T.

    2010-01-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy. PMID:22822291

  13. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T

    2010-03-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy.

  14. [Mixed connective tissue disease: prevalence and clinical characteristics in African black, study of 7 cases in Gabon and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missounga, Landry; Ba, Josaphat Iba; Nseng Nseng Ondo, Ingrid Rosalie; Nziengui Madjinou, Maria Ines Carine; Malekou, Doris; Mouendou Mouloungui, Emeline Gracia; Nzengue, Emmanuel Ecke; Boguikouma, Jean Bruno; Kombila, Moussavou

    2017-01-01

    The literature reports that mixed connective tissue disease seems more frequent in the black population and among Asians. This study aims to determine the prevalence of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) among connective tissue disorders and all rheumatologic pathologies in a hospital population in Gabon as well as to describe the clinical features of this disease. We conducted a retrospective study by reviewing the medical records of patients treated for mixed connective tissue disease (Kasukawa criteria) and other entities of connective tissue disorders (ACR criteria) in the Division of Rheumatology at the University Hospital in Libreville between January 2010 and December 2015. For each case of MCTD the parameters studied were articular and extra-articular manifestations, anti-U1RNP antibodies levels, patient's evolution. Over a period of 6 years, data were collected by medical records of 7 patients out of 6050 patients and 67 cases of connective tissue disorders, reflecting a prevalence of 0.11% and 10.44% respectively. the 7 patients were women (100%), with an average age of 39.5 years. Articular manifestations included: polyarthritis, myalgias, chubby fingers and Raynaud's phenomenon in 87.5%, 87.5%, 28.6% and 14% respectively. The 7 patients had high anti-U1RNP antibodies levels, ranging between 5 and 35N (N≤ 7 IU). A case of death due to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was certified. This is the largest case series of MCTD reported in Black Africa. The disease seems to be rare among the black Africans; the reason could be genetic. The demographic and clinical aspects appear similar to those in Caucasians, Asians and Blacks except for a low frequency of Raynaud?s phenomenon among Blacks.

  15. Novel APOB missense variants, A224T and V925L, in a black South African woman with marked hypocholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sharon A; Hooper, Amanda J; Mantiri, George A; Marais, David; Tanyanyiwa, Donald M; McKnight, James; Burnett, John R

    2016-01-01

    One genetic cause of markedly low plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein (apo) B and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol is familial hypobetalipoproteinemia. We aimed to determine the molecular basis for the marked hypocholesterolemia consistent with heterozygous familial hypobetalipoproteinemia in a black female subject of Xhosa lineage. Coding regions of APOB, MTTP, PCSK9,ANGPTL3, SAR1B and APOC3 were sequenced, and APOE was genotyped. COS-7 cells were transfected with plasmids containing apoB variants. Western blotting was used to detect cellular and secreted apoB, and co-immunoprecipitation performed to assess binding with the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). Sequence analysis of the APOB gene revealed her to be heterozygous for two novel variants, c.751G>A (A224T) and c.2854G>C (V925L). She was also homozygous for the APOEε2 allele, and did not carry a PCSK9 loss-of-function mutation. Although Ala(224) is within the postulated MTP binding region in apoB, it is not conserved among mammalian species. Subsequent genotyping showed that Ala224Thr is found in a southern African population (n=654) with an allele frequency of 1.15% and is not associated with plasma lipid levels. Val(925), like Ala(224), is within the N-terminal 1000 amino acids required for lipoprotein assembly, but was not found in the population screen. However, in vitro studies showed that apoB V925L did not affect apoB48 production or secretion nor have a deleterious effect on MTP interaction with apoB. Taken together, this suggests that the hypocholesterolemia in our case may be a result of being homozygous for APOEε2 with a low baseline cholesterol. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Empiric treatment based on Helicobacter pylori serology cannot substitute for early endoscopy in the management of dyspeptic rural black Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, S J; Salvador, B; Nainkin, J; Majiki, S; Stevens, H; Atherstone, A

    2000-11-01

    Evidence that chronic gastric Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is an aetiological factor in dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma and lymphoma has led to the suggestion that all serologically positive dyspeptic patients should be treated empirically with antibiotics to eradicate the infection, without endoscopic diagnosis. The following study was performed to determine whether such a policy would prove to be of benefit in rural Africa, where endoscopic facilities are lacking and infection rates high. Four district clinics were visited and 97 consecutive patients with persistent upper gastro-intestinal symptoms studied. After history-taking and physical examination, a blood sample was taken for HP serology (IgG anti-HP EIA) and endoscopy was performed. In comparison with similar studies in westernised countries HP was considerably more common (80%), and similar to that reported for the background population (83-86%), but peptic ulceration (17%) and gastric cancer (1%) were not. HP status and antibody levels failed to predict the presence of serious disease; patients with 'alarm' signs (78%), cancer (78%) and peptic ulcers (81%) had similar seropositivity rates to patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (81%). Interestingly, many patients with distal oesophagitis were seronegative (40%). Haemoglobin concentrations and nutritional status were similar in HP-positive and negative patients. On the basis of published decision analysis strategies, empiric treatment of HP-positive patients with uncomplicated dyspepsia could be expected to produce symptomatic relief in 50% of cases, but would have delayed the diagnosis of 3 cases of cancer if patients over the age of 45 were included. The lack of association between HP serology and upper gastro-intestinal disease indicates that serological investigation cannot substitute for endoscopy in the management of black Africans with dyspepsia, and that empiric anti-HP therapy cannot be justified.

  17. Hematocrit and stroke in black Africans under tropical climate and meteorological influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Mbenza, B; Phanzu-Mbete, L B; M'Buyamba-Kabangu, J R; Tonduangu, K; Mvunzu, M; Muvova, D; Lukoki-Luila, E; Bayekula, M; Odio, W; Kintoki, V; Mbala-Mukendi, M; Tshiamala, P; Kilembi, M; Katalay, L; Lelo-Tshinkwela, M; Ndoma, E K; Mpaka, M

    1999-04-01

    To assess the relationship between hematocrit and risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke in conjunction with meteorological variations. Prospective study of a series of Africans living in Kinshasa, Congo, followed up for 5 years. A total of 1,032 unselected patients consecutively admitted to hospitals for acute stroke. Main outcome measures. Fatal and non-fatal ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes. The association of hematocrit with stroke morbidity and mortality and meteorological variables were evaluated by simple or multiple linear regression and logistic regression. Patients were aged 53.7 +/- 12.1 years. Hematocrit was mostly correlated with mean ambient air temperature (r = 0.124; p 40% presented the highest levels of systolic blood pressure, fibrinogen, body temperature, resting heart rate, duration of coma and incidence of all stroke types and ischemic stroke (p 40% was associated with stroke mortality (Odds ratio, 6.2, 4.5-8.6; p 28 degrees C, atmospheric pressure 975-977 mm Hg and body temperature > 37 degrees C respectively. Our study suggests that higher hematocrit is associated with an increased risk of stroke morbidity and mortality, particularly ischemic stroke at noon. This risk is probably mediated by increased susceptibility of African older hypertensive subjects to meteorological variations.

  18. Microalbuminuria and the metabolic syndrome in non-diabetic black Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpechi, Ikechi G; Pascoe, Michael D; Swanepoel, Charles R; Rayner, Brian L

    2007-12-01

    It is recognised that the metabolic syndrome promotes the development of cardiovascular disease. Although several studies have shown a relationship between the metabolic syndrome and kidney disease, few of these have used non-diabetic subjects, especially in the African population. This was a cross-sectional study of subjects of African origin, using the metabolic syndrome (MS) criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) third Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III). Subjects with impaired fasting glucose, with two-hour glucose >or= 11.1 mmol/L after a glucose tolerance test, were excluded. Spot urine for albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. Microalbuminuria was defined as ACR between 3-30 mg/mmol. There was a significant decline in GFR and a significant increase in ACR with increasing number of MS traits. ACR increased four-fold between subjects with no MS traits and those with four or more traits. In subjects with the metabolic syndrome, there was a significant correlation between ACR and systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and fasting glucose. Estimated GFR correlated significantly and inversely with body mass index (BMI) and serum leptin. These observations raise major clinical and public health concerns for developing countries, where both the metabolic syndrome and kidney disease are being reported more and more frequently. The potential economic impact is huge.

  19. Black Interpretation, Black American Literature, and Grey Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Earl M.

    1981-01-01

    Defines and illustrates language techniques used by Black authors writing to and for Blacks in the 1960s and 1970s. Suggests how language and theme barriers of such literature might be overcome in a contemporary integrated oral interpretation classroom. (PD)

  20. Familial Influences on Poverty Among Young Children in Black Immigrant, U.S.-born Black, and Nonblack Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how familial contexts affect poverty disparities between the children of immigrant and U.S.-born blacks, and among black and nonblack children of immigrants. Despite lower gross child poverty rates in immigrant than in U.S.-born black families, accounting for differences in family structure reveals that child poverty risks among blacks are highest in single-parent black immigrant families. In addition, within two-parent immigrant families, child poverty declines associated with increasing assimilation are greater than the respective declines in single-parent families. The heads of black immigrant households have more schooling than those of native-black households. However, increased schooling has a weaker negative association with child poverty among the former than among the latter. In terms of racial disparities among the children of immigrants, poverty rates are higher among black than nonblack children. This black disadvantage is, however, driven by the outcomes of first-generation children of African and Hispanic-black immigrants. The results also show that although children in refugee families face elevated poverty risks, these risks are higher among black than among nonblack children of refugees. In addition, the poverty-reducing impact associated with having an English-proficient household head is about three times lower among black children of immigrants than among non-Hispanic white children of immigrants. PMID:21491186

  1. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relebohile Phatoli

    2015-05-01

    Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and ‘othering’. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof.

  2. Effects of biomarkers of oxidative stress damage on prevalence and severity of visual disability among black Central Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Mbenza, B; Muaka, M Mvitu; Yokobo, E Cibanda; Phemba, I Longo; Mokondjimobe, E; Gombet, T; Ndembe, D Kibokela; Mona, D Tulomba; Masamba, S Wayiza

    2012-01-01

    Because of the demographic transition, lifestyle changes, urbanization, and nutrition transition, Central Africans are at higher risk of ocular diseases associated with oxidative stress and visual disability. This study aimed to estimate the normal values of oxidant status defined by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), 8-Isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and to determine their pathogenic role in the prevalence and the severity of visual disability among these black Africans. This was a cross-sectional study, run in a case-control study randomly selected from Kinshasa province, DR Congo. The study included 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (cases) matched for sex and age to 50 healthy non diabetic controls. Logistic regression models were used to identify independent determinants of visual disability. The presence rates were 8.5% for blindness, 20.5% for visual impairment and 29% for visual disability including blindness and visual impairment. After adjusted for taro leaves intake, red beans intake, T2DM, aging, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, we identified low education level (OR=3.3 95%CI 1.5-7.2; p=0.003), rural-urban migration (OR=2.6 95% CI 1.2-5.6; p=0.017), and high Ox-LDL (OR=2.3 95% CI 1.1-4.7; p=0.029) as the important independent determinants of visual disability. After adjusted for education, intake of red beans, intake of taro leaves, triglycerides, and T2DM, we identified no intake of safou fruit (OR=50.7 95% CI 15.2-168.5; pvisual disability. After adjusted for education level, no intake of red beans, no intake of Taro leaves, triglycerides, and T2DM, we identified no intake of Safou fruit (OR=43.1 95% CI 13.7-135.4; pvisual disability. Visual disability remains a public health problem in Central Africa. Antioxidant supplement, fruit intake, nutrition education, control of migration, and blocking of oxidative stress are crucial steps for delayed development of vision loss.

  3. Black holes and holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Samir D

    2012-01-01

    The idea of holography in gravity arose from the fact that the entropy of black holes is given by their surface area. The holography encountered in gauge/gravity duality has no such relation however; the boundary surface can be placed at an arbitrary location in AdS space and its area does not give the entropy of the bulk. The essential issues are also different between the two cases: in black holes we get Hawking radiation from the 'holographic surface' which leads to the information issue, while in gauge/gravity duality there is no such radiation. To resolve the information paradox we need to show that there are real degrees of freedom at the horizon of the hole; this is achieved by the fuzzball construction. In gauge/gravity duality we have instead a field theory defined on an abstract dual space; there are no gravitational degrees of freedom at the holographic boundary. It is important to understand the relations and differences between these two notions of holography to get a full understanding of the lessons from the information paradox.

  4. Area spectrum of slowly rotating black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the area spectrum for rotating black holes which are Kerr and BTZ black holes. For slowly rotating black holes, we use the Maggiore's idea combined with Kunstatter's method to derive their area spectra, which are equally spaced.

  5. When Lions Write History: Black History Textbooks, African-American Educators, & the Alternative Black Curriculum in Social Studies Education, 1890-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.

    2014-01-01

    The African proverb, "Until the lions have their historians, tales of the hunt shall always glorify the hunter," is used to metaphorically describe how dominant groups inscribe power through historical narrative. In this article the author discusses how African-American educators between the years of 1890-1940 conceptualized citizenship…

  6. Teaching Black History after Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Karen

    2017-01-01

    This article is a reflection on the teaching of black history after the Obama presidency and at the dawn of the Trump era. It is both an analysis of the state of the academic field and a primer on how to integrate the past few decades of scholarship in black history broadly across standard K-12 curriculum. It demonstrates the importance of…

  7. Black Holes in Our Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    most sensitive scientific instrument ever ... sion, expelling a lot of the mass, but leaving behind a black hole that is at least ... hole, and indeed such a phenomenon may explain the disappear- ance of a star in the galaxy N6946 [21]. The collapse of stars into black holes might account for some of the extraordinarily powerful ...

  8. COMPOSITION OF BLACK BEAR MILK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis of black bear ( Ursus americanus Pallas) milk showed that the total solids, fat and protein were much higher and the lactose lower than...either cow or human milk. In comparison with polar bear (Thalarcotos maritimus ), the black bear milk was lower in fat, protein and total calories. (Author)

  9. Black Component of Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Grobov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism of primordial black hole formation with specific mass spectrum is discussed. It is shown that these black holes could contribute to the energy density of dark matter. Our approach is elaborated in the framework of universal extra dimensions.

  10. Black Holes in Our Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    was discovered in the constellation Cygnus; a bright X-ray emit- ter associated with a twin-star system, and christened Cygnus X-. 1. It has a massive star and a black hole orbiting each other. With an optical telescope it is the companion star of the black hole which is visible, which produces stellar winds blowing away from.

  11. Black holes and quantum mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    t Hooft, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074127888

    2010-01-01

    After a brief review of quantum black hole physics, it is shown how the dynamical properties of a quantum black hole may be deduced to a large extent from Standard Model Physics, extended to scales near the Planck length, and combined with results from perturbative quantum gravity. Together, these

  12. Black-Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....

  13. ATLAS simulated black hole event

    CERN Multimedia

    Pequenão, J

    2008-01-01

    The simulated collision event shown is viewed along the beampipe. The event is one in which a microscopic-black-hole was produced in the collision of two protons (not shown). The microscopic-black-hole decayed immediately into many particles. The colors of the tracks show different types of particles emerging from the collision (at the center).

  14. Motor neuron disease in blacks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-19

    Aug 19, 1989 ... A series of 86 black, Indian and white patients with motor neuron disease were analysed retrospectively. Although the material does not allow statistically valid conclusions, there are sufficient cases among blacks to allow two prima facie observations in this population group: (~ motor neuron disease.

  15. Black Music: A Financial Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburne, Michael R.

    1977-01-01

    The financial relationships among artists, record companies, and music publishers in the recording industry are examined. It is shown that, although Black talent in the recording field has produced millions of dollars annually since the turn of the century, Black artists have been grossly underpaid. (Author/GC)

  16. Resource recovery from black water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.S.

    2010-01-01

    New sanitation systems based on separation at source offer a large potential for resource recovery from wastewater, e.g. energy and nutrients from black water and irrigation water from grey water. This review focuses on the components in source separated black water. The treatment options for the

  17. Black Youths and Illegal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Janice; Pearson, Patricia G.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effect of drugs on black youths, discussing different types of drug involvement, reasons for drug involvement, extent and nature of involvement, drugs and crime, drugs and health issues, drug control strategies, and prevention. Policy implications include prioritizing drug prevention among black youths, providing alternatives to drug…

  18. What, no black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajicek, P.; Israel, W.

    1980-01-01

    Tipler has claimed that the inward flux of negative energy across the horizon which (according to the semi-classical approximation) accompanies the evaporation of a black hole would cause a solar mass black hole to evaporate in less than a second. It is shown that this claim is in error. (orig.)

  19. Statistical black-hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Traditional methods from statistical thermodynamics, with appropriate modifications, are used to study several problems in black-hole thermodynamics. Jaynes's maximum-uncertainty method for computing probabilities is used to show that the earlier-formulated generalized second law is respected in statistically averaged form in the process of spontaneous radiation by a Kerr black hole discovered by Hawking, and also in the case of a Schwarzschild hole immersed in a bath of black-body radiation, however cold. The generalized second law is used to motivate a maximum-entropy principle for determining the equilibrium probability distribution for a system containing a black hole. As an application we derive the distribution for the radiation in equilibrium with a Kerr hole (it is found to agree with what would be expected from Hawking's results) and the form of the associated distribution among Kerr black-hole solution states of definite mass. The same results are shown to follow from a statistical interpretation of the concept of black-hole entropy as the natural logarithm of the number of possible interior configurations that are compatible with the given exterior black-hole state. We also formulate a Jaynes-type maximum-uncertainty principle for black holes, and apply it to obtain the probability distribution among Kerr solution states for an isolated radiating Kerr hole

  20. Marital Happiness of Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Essie M.

    According to a study of 256 black married women between the ages of 26 and 60 living with their spouses, marital happiness is more common among black women than marital unhappiness. This finding is based on the secondary analysis of a sample of data collected in Detroit in 1968-1969. Variables statistically significant to the marital happiness of…

  1. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  2. Motivations, Sacrifices, and Challenges: Black Parents' Decisions to Home School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields-Smith, Cheryl; Williams, Meca

    2009-01-01

    This study examines home schooling among Black parents by providing insight to Black families' beliefs, concerns, and desires for their children's education. To date, the literature remains void of empirical work related to home education among African American families. However, the present study directly addresses this void. Findings…

  3. Political shifts and black theatre in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rangoajane, Francis L.

    2011-01-01

    Oral communication, especially through performance, has always been the basis through which Africans/blacks communicated. This became particularly so under apartheid given the fact that blacks were denied a voice, and theatre gave them that voice. The democratisation of South Africa has not only

  4. Black Greek-Lettered Organizations and Civic Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article discuss the potential impact of Black Greek-Lettered Organizations (BGLOs) in advancing African American civil and political rights. During the antebellum years and Jim Crow era, barriers to Black voting included enslavement, anti-literacy laws, violence and intimidation, grandfather clauses, gerrymandering, literacy requirements,…

  5. Understanding Afrocentrism: Why Blacks Dream of a World without Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    Describes the perceived failure of integration and the growing number of black Americans who are looking at the world from an African perspective instead of from the European-centered perspective that dominates American culture. The article explains Afrocentrism's appeal in giving Blacks an ideological unity, not just on color but as an expression…

  6. Uncovering Genealogies of the Margins: Black Supplementary Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Diane; Mirza, Heidi Safia

    1997-01-01

    Adopts a genealogical approach to a small-scale study of Black supplementary schools, extra schooling organized by the African-Caribbean community in the United Kingdom. Finds evidence of a new female-centered social movement in the organization of the schools and of the effectiveness of parental involvement among the Black working class. (DSK)

  7. "Black gold" grade12-learners: relationship between leisure/sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There tends to be an increase in scholarly literature regarding the leisure and sport participation of high school learners. However, in the South African context there are many black high school learners within townships who might not have access to leisure/recreation and sport facilities. "Black gold" (based on ethnicity and ...

  8. Comparative studies of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) and black pepper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) and black pepper ( Piper guinenses ) extracts at different concentrations on the microbial quality of soymilk and ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... 3.6% black pepper extract in soymilk and kunuzaki had a microbial load of 3.20 × 106d and 2.90 × 106c, respectively.

  9. The Early History of Blacks at Harvard Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Ronald T.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the history of the admission of African Americans at the Harvard Medical School and the racial prejudice that followed. The author reveals how Harvard medical students of the time believed that blacks were intellectually inferior and that having black students at the school would devalue the school and their diplomas. (GR)

  10. Black American Literature and the Problem of Racism, Slavery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem created by racism could be traced to be the major factor behind most Black literature through the ages. In America, this gave rise to a new form of literary expression known as the Black American Literature or African American Literature. The main concern of this sub-genre of literature is to redeem the face of ...

  11. Black hole decay as geodesic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha

    2003-01-01

    We show that a formalism for analyzing the near-horizon conformal symmetry of Schwarzschild black holes using a scalar field probe is capable of describing black hole decay. The equation governing black hole decay can be identified as the geodesic equation in the space of black hole masses. This provides a novel geometric interpretation for the decay of black holes. Moreover, this approach predicts a precise correction term to the usual expression for the decay rate of black holes

  12. Black holes and quantum processes in them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.

    1976-01-01

    The latest achievements in the physics of black holes are reviewed. The problem of quantum production in a strong gravitational field of black holes is considered. Another parallel discovered during investigation of interactions between black holes and between black holes and surrounding media, is also drawn with thermodynamics. A gravitational field of rotating black holes is considered. Some cosmological aspects of evaporation of small black holes are discussed as well as possibilities to observe them

  13. String-Corrected Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubeny, V.

    2005-01-12

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect--the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive. The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  14. The search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torn, K.

    1976-01-01

    Conceivable experimental investigations to prove the existence of black holes are discussed. Double system with a black hole turning around a star-satellite are in the spotlight. X-radiation emmited by such systems and resulting from accretion of the stellar gas by a black hole, and the gas heating when falling on the black hole might prove the model suggested. A source of strong X-radiation observed in the Cygnus star cluster and referred to as Cygnus X-1 may be thus identified as a black hole. Direct registration of short X-ray pulses with msec intervals might prove the suggestion. The lack of appropriate astrophysic facilities is pointed out to be the major difficulty on the way of experimental verifications

  15. Compressibility of rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting the cosmological constant as a pressure, whose thermodynamically conjugate variable is a volume, modifies the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Properties of the resulting thermodynamic volume are investigated: the compressibility and the speed of sound of the black hole are derived in the case of nonpositive cosmological constant. The adiabatic compressibility vanishes for a nonrotating black hole and is maximal in the extremal case--comparable with, but still less than, that of a cold neutron star. A speed of sound v s is associated with the adiabatic compressibility, which is equal to c for a nonrotating black hole and decreases as the angular momentum is increased. An extremal black hole has v s 2 =0.9 c 2 when the cosmological constant vanishes, and more generally v s is bounded below by c/√(2).

  16. Are LIGO's Black Holes Made From Smaller Black Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    The recent successes of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has raised hopes that several long-standing questions in black-hole physics will soon be answerable. Besides revealing how the black-hole binary pairs are built, could detections with LIGO also reveal how the black holes themselves form?Isolation or HierarchyThe first detection of gravitational waves, GW150914, was surprising for a number of reasons. One unexpected result was the mass of the two black holes that LIGO saw merging: they were a whopping 29 and 36 solar masses.On the left of this schematic, two first-generation (direct-collapse) black holes form a merging binary. The right illustrates a second-generation hierarchical merger: each black hole in the final merging binary was formed by the merger of two smaller black holes. [Adapted fromGerosa et al., a simultaneously published paper that also explores the problem of hierarchical mergers and reaches similar conclusions]How do black holes of this size form? One possibility is that they form in isolation from the collapse of a single massive star. In an alternative model, they are created through the hierarchical merger of smaller black holes, gradually building up to the size we observed.A team of scientists led by Maya Fishbach (University of Chicago) suggests that we may soon be able to tell whether or not black holes observed by LIGO formed hierarchically. Fishbach and collaborators argue that hierarchical formation leaves a distinctive signature on the spins of the final black holes and that as soon as we have enough merger detections from LIGO, we can use spin measurements to statistically determine if LIGO black holes were formed hierarchically.Spins from Major MergersWhen two black holes merge, both their original spins and the angular momentum of the pair contribute to the spin of the final black hole that results. Fishbach and collaborators calculate the expected distribution of these final spins assuming that

  17. Regular phantom black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronnikov, K A; Fabris, J C

    2006-06-30

    We study self-gravitating, static, spherically symmetric phantom scalar fields with arbitrary potentials (favored by cosmological observations) and single out 16 classes of possible regular configurations with flat, de Sitter, and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. Among them are traversable wormholes, bouncing Kantowski-Sachs (KS) cosmologies, and asymptotically flat black holes (BHs). A regular BH has a Schwarzschild-like causal structure, but the singularity is replaced by a de Sitter infinity, giving a hypothetic BH explorer a chance to survive. It also looks possible that our Universe has originated in a phantom-dominated collapse in another universe, with KS expansion and isotropization after crossing the horizon. Explicit examples of regular solutions are built and discussed. Possible generalizations include k-essence type scalar fields (with a potential) and scalar-tensor gravity.

  18. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring profile in urban African black and European white untreated hypertensive patients matched for age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polónia, Jorge; Madede, Tavares; Silva, José A; Mesquita-Bastos, José; Damasceno, Albertino

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) profile in never-treated black hypertensive patients living in Africa, Mozambique (20-80 years), versus never-treated white hypertensive patients living in Europe. ABP recordings of untreated black hypertensive patients and white hypertensive patients with 24-h ABP of 130/80 mmHg or more were retrospectively selected from two computerized database records of ABP and matched for age by decades, sex, and BMI. Black hypertensive patients were n=548, 47 ± 12 years, 52% women, BMI=28.0 ± 8.2 kg/m(2), 7% smokers, 7% diabetics; white hypertensive patients were n=604, 47 ± 15 years, 52% women, BMI=27.4 ± 5.1 kg/m(2), 8.4% diabetics, and 18% smokers (Pwhite hypertensive patients showed higher casual blood pressure (BP) 160/104 ± 19/14 versus 149/97 ± 18/12 mmHg, 24-h ABP 146/92 ± 16/13 versus 139/85 ± 11/10 mmHg, daytime ABP 150/95 ± 16/13 versus 143/88 ± 13/11 mmHg, night-time BP 139/84 ± 17/13 versus 130/78 ± 13/10 mmHg (all Pwhite hypertensive patients for all spectra of age distribution. This might be the reason for the worse cardiovascular prognosis described in black hypertensive patients compared with white hypertensive patients.

  19. Identité et marchandisation : Le cas des black memorabilia et black collectibles Identity and Commodification: The Case of Black Memorabilia and Black Collectibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Elmaleh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to raise the issue of the commodification of African American culture, mainly through a certain form of art that has re-emerged with Black memorabilia which paradoxically fit into a black-driven market. However, these items penetrated American culture from 1920 to the 1950s to convey images of black people as lazy, stupid, childlike and happy. This condition of permanent happiness, typified by a broad smile and white teeth, was a fundamental component of this racist and stereotyped imagery. Thus, this article focuses on the thin border between racism and the denunciation of racism, commodification and denunciation of commodification, art and its by-products being always co-opted in the specific logic of private productivity.

  20. Complicated Contradictions Amid Black Feminism and Millennial Black Women Teachers Creating Curriculum for Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachae, Tiffany M.

    2016-01-01

    Millennial Black women teachers wrestle with two simultaneous burdens: disrupting the racist and sexist status quo of schooling through curriculum, and employing tactics to survive school politics among their majority White women colleagues. This article describes how the "Sisters of Promise" (SOP) curriculum aligned with Black feminism…