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Sample records for bla process cber

  1. Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CBER is the Center within FDA that regulates biological products for human use under applicable federal laws, including the Public Health Service Act and the Federal...

  2. CBERS-2B Brazilian remote sensing satellite to help to monitor the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Gilberto Luis Sanches [TBG Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the results of CBERS-2B' Brazilian Remote Sensing Satellite to help to monitor the Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline. The CBERS-2B is the third satellite launched in 2007 by the CBERS Program (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) and the innovation was the HRC camera that produces high resolution images. It will be possible to obtain one complete coverage of the country every 130 days. In this study, 2 images from different parts of the Bolivia- Brazil Gas Pipeline were selected. Image processing involved the geometric registration of CBERS-2B satellite images with airborne images, contrast stretch transform and pseudo color. The analysis of satellite and airborne images in a GIS software to detect third party encroachment was effective to detect native vegetation removal, street construction, growth of urban areas, farming and residential/industrial land development. Very young, the CBERS-2B is a good promise to help to inspect the areas along the pipelines. (author)

  3. Next generation hyper resolution wide swath and multi-channel optical payload for CBERS series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weigang

    2017-11-01

    The China-Brazilian Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) program, (also called ZY-1) the result of a space technology agreement between China and Brazil, was officially signed in 1988 after the first joint work report produced by National Institute for Space Research (INPE) and the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST). During the 26 years of its existence, the program of cooperation between China and Brazil in space has achieved the successful launch of three satellites. It has become a unique example of cooperation in cutting edge technology between emerging nations. CBERS satellite is the first generation data-transferring remote sensing satellite developed by China. CBERS satellite data are widely applied to crop yield estimation, exploration of land and resources, urban planning, environmental protection and monitoring, disaster reduction, and other fields. CBERS series is just like Landsat series of USA and SPOT series of France.

  4. Discussion on the fusing methods for HR and CCD images of CBERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhangsheng; Zhao Yingjun

    2010-01-01

    CBERS-02B multi-spectral CCD data are different from HR panchromatic data in resolution, which causes difficulty in image fusion. With the method of Pansharping, HPF, Brovey transform, IHS transform, principal component transform, Gram Schmidt (GS) transform and wavelet transform, the authors have tested the fusion methods for CCD data and HR data of CBERS, and the fusion results are discussed and evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. (authors)

  5. Application of CBERS-1 to monitoring of geological hazards in china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Y.

    China is a country with a great variety of wide and frequent geological disasters which is the most serious natural disasters bring damage to national economical construction and people's life and property and causes an annual direct economic loss over 200 hundred million Chinese yuan to China. In recent 20 years great work has been done to apply remote sensing to investigation and monitoring earthquake, collapse, landslide, mud-rock flow, river-band cave-in, lava collapse, earth crevise, ground coal bunker spontaneous combustion, and great contribution has been done for the control. The successful launch and operation of the China-Brazil Resources Satellite& "CBERS -1" provides us an even more convenient tool. In present paper it introduces the applications of CBERS remote sensing in monitoring of large scale slide in Yigong Tibet and in Yangyuan Shanxi for earthquake calamities combined with meteorological remote sensing data. The results demonstrate that CBERS data could get in time and accurate geo-disasters monitoring information and show us the actual happenings which supply reliable basis for control and release measures to the disaster. CBERS has played an unique important role in fighting against the slide disaster and sending relief to the area and the resulted floods. It is bond to play an active role to promote growth of Chinese national economy. Keywords: CBERS; Geological Hazards; Monimonitoring

  6. Exterior orientation of CBERS-2B imagery using multi-feature control and orbital data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato Junior, J.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.

    2013-05-01

    The major contribution of this paper relates to the practical advantages of combining Ground Control Points (GCPs), Ground Control Lines (GCLs) and orbital data to estimate the exterior orientation parameters of images collected by CBERS-2B (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) HRC (High-resolution Camera) and CCD (High-resolution CCD Camera) sensors. Although the CBERS-2B is no longer operational, its images are still being used in Brazil, and the next generations of the CBERS satellite will have sensors with similar technical features, which motivates the study presented in this paper. The mathematical models that relate the object and image spaces are based on collinearity (for points) and coplanarity (for lines) conditions. These models were created in an in-house developed software package called TMS (Triangulation with Multiple Sensors) with multi-feature control (GCPs and GCLs). Experiments on a block of four CBERS-2B HRC images and on one CBERS-2B CCD image were performed using both models. It was observed that the combination of GCPs and GCLs provided better bundle block adjustment results than conventional bundle adjustment using only GCPs. The results also demonstrate the advantages of using primarily orbital data when the number of control entities is reduced.

  7. Discriminação de variedades de citros em imagens CCD/CBERS-2 Discrimination of citrus varieties using CCD/CBERS-2 satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Del'Arco Sanches

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar as imagens CCD/CBERS-2 quanto à possibilidade de discriminarem variedades de citros. A área de estudo localiza-se em Itirapina (SP e, para este estudo, foram utilizadas imagens CCD de três datas (30/05/2004, 16/08/2004 e 11/09/2004. Um modelo que integra os elementos componentes da cena citrícola sensoriada é proposto com o objetivo de explicar a variabilidade das respostas das parcelas de citros em imagens orbitais do tipo CCD/CBERS-2. Foram feitas classificações pelos algoritmos Isoseg e Maxver e, de acordo com o índice kappa, concluiu-se que é possível obterem-se exatidões qualificadas como muito boas, sendo que as melhores classificações foram conseguidas com imagens da estação seca.This paper was aimed at evaluating the possibility of discriminating citrus varieties in CCD imageries from CBERS-2 satellite ("China-Brazil Earth Resouces Satellite". The study area is located in Itirapina, São Paulo State. For this study, three CCD images from 2004 were acquired (May 30, August 16, and September 11. In order to acquire a better understanding and for explaining the variability of the spectral behavior of the citrus areas in orbital images (like as the CCD/CBERS-2 images a model that integrates the elements of the citrus scene is proposed and discussed. The images were classified by Isoseg and MaxVer classifiers. According to kappa index, it was possible to obtain classifications qualified as 'very good'. The best results were obtained with the images from the dry season.

  8. Deviations in CBERS-4 Satellite Direction Components From The Electromagnetic Disturbance of Communication Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, A.; Fernandes, C.

    2017-10-01

    The CBERS-4 is a low Earth orbit satellite, with a set of antennas S-band/UHF for communication almost omni-direcional. For the electromagnetic radiation from transmission antennas, was developed a model of electromagnetic disturbance considering the antennas theory and the laws of the conservation energy-momentum. Was propagated the orbit of the CBERS-4 satellite considering your state vector from the March 14, 2016, at 11h 14m 15.23s using the equation of motion in the form of cartesian components. From the state vector of the CBERS-4 satellite was possible to propagate the orbit for different periods, without disturbance (considering just the problem of two bodies) and with a disturbance of electromagnetic origin. The model of reaction of electromagnetic acceleration on the satellite depends on only the type of antenna. Quadrifilar and parabolic propeller antennas were considered in this paper. Using the equation of motion of the satellite based on the method of Runge-Kutta of fourth and fifth degree, the effect disturber this modeling was applied on the CBERS-4 considering the mass of satellite, characteristics of antenna, power irradiated and gain maximum of antenna. The final analysis discusses the values of components in the direction (radial, cross and normal) and the coordinates X-Y-Z considering the case disturbed to both antennas.

  9. Identifying Spatial Units of Human Occupation in the Brazilian Amazon Using Landsat and CBERS Multi-Resolution Imagery

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    Maria Isabel Sobral Escada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Every spatial unit of human occupation is part of a network structuring an extensive process of urbanization in the Amazon territory. Multi-resolution remote sensing data were used to identify and map human presence and activities in the Sustainable Forest District of Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, west of Pará, Brazil. The limits of spatial units of human occupation were mapped based on digital classification of Landsat-TM5 (Thematic Mapper 5 image (30m spatial resolution. High-spatial-resolution CBERS-HRC (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite-High-Resolution Camera images (5 m merged with CBERS-CCD (Charge Coupled Device images (20 m were used to map spatial arrangements inside each populated unit, describing intra-urban characteristics. Fieldwork data validated and refined the classification maps that supported the categorization of the units. A total of 133 spatial units were individualized, comprising population centers as municipal seats, villages and communities, and units of human activities, such as sawmills, farmhouses, landing strips, etc. From the high-resolution analysis, 32 population centers were grouped in four categories, described according to their level of urbanization and spatial organization as: structured, recent, established and dependent on connectivity. This multi-resolution approach provided spatial information about the urbanization process and organization of the territory. It may be extended into other areas or be further used to devise a monitoring system, contributing to the discussion of public policy priorities for sustainable development in the Amazon.

  10. The Brazilian wide field imaging camera (WFI) for the China/Brazil earth resources satellite: CBERS 3 and 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaduto, L. C. N.; Carvalho, E. G.; Modugno, R. G.; Cartolano, R.; Evangelista, S. H.; Segoria, D.; Santos, A. G.; Stefani, M. A.; Castro Neto, J. C.

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the optical system developed for the Wide Field imaging Camera - WFI that will be integrated to the CBERS 3 and 4 satellites (China Brazil Earth resources Satellite). This camera will be used for remote sensing of the Earth and it is aimed to work at an altitude of 778 km. The optical system is designed for four spectral bands covering the range of wavelengths from blue to near infrared and its field of view is +/-28.63°, which covers 866 km, with a ground resolution of 64 m at nadir. WFI has been developed through a consortium formed by Opto Electrônica S. A. and Equatorial Sistemas. In particular, we will present the optical analysis based on the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) obtained during the Engineering Model phase (EM) and the optical tests performed to evaluate the requirements. Measurements of the optical system MTF have been performed using an interferometer at the wavelength of 632.8nm and global MTF tests (including the CCD and signal processing electronic) have been performed by using a collimator with a slit target. The obtained results showed that the performance of the optical system meets the requirements of project.

  11. Detection of P. aeruginosa harboring bla CTX-M-2, bla GES-1 and bla GES-5, bla IMP-1 and bla SPM-1 causing infections in Brazilian tertiary-care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Nosocomial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa presenting resistance to beta-lactam drugs are one of the most challenging targets for antimicrobial therapy, leading to substantial increase in mortality rates in hospitals worldwide. In this context, P. aeruginosa harboring acquired mechanisms of resistance, such as production of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBLs) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have the highest clinical impact. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the presence of genes codifying for MBLs and ESBLs among carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa isolated in a Brazilian 720-bed teaching tertiary care hospital. Methods Fifty-six carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were evaluated for the presence of MBL and ESBL genes. Strains presenting MBL and/or ESBL genes were submitted to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for genetic similarity evaluation. Results Despite the carbapenem resistance, genes for MBLs (blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1) were detected in only 26.7% of isolates. Genes encoding ESBLs were detected in 23.2% of isolates. The blaCTX-M-2 was the most prevalent ESBL gene (19.6%), followed by blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 detected in one isolate each. In all isolates presenting MBL phenotype by double-disc synergy test (DDST), the blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1 genes were detected. In addition, blaIMP-1 was also detected in three isolates which did not display any MBL phenotype. These isolates also presented the blaCTX-M-2 gene. The co-existence of blaCTX-M-2 with blaIMP-1 is presently reported for the first time, as like as co-existence of blaGES-1 with blaIMP-1. Conclusions In this study MBLs production was not the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenems, suggesting the occurrence of multidrug efflux pumps, reduction in porin channels and production of other beta-lactamases. The detection of blaCTX-M-2,blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 reflects the recent emergence of ESBLs among antimicrobial resistant P. aeruginosa and the extraordinary

  12. Detection of P. aeruginosa harboring bla CTX-M-2, bla GES-1 and bla GES-5, bla IMP-1 and bla SPM-1 causing infections in Brazilian tertiary-care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polotto Milena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nosocomial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa presenting resistance to beta-lactam drugs are one of the most challenging targets for antimicrobial therapy, leading to substantial increase in mortality rates in hospitals worldwide. In this context, P. aeruginosa harboring acquired mechanisms of resistance, such as production of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBLs and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs have the highest clinical impact. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the presence of genes codifying for MBLs and ESBLs among carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa isolated in a Brazilian 720-bed teaching tertiary care hospital. Methods Fifty-six carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were evaluated for the presence of MBL and ESBL genes. Strains presenting MBL and/or ESBL genes were submitted to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for genetic similarity evaluation. Results Despite the carbapenem resistance, genes for MBLs (blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1 were detected in only 26.7% of isolates. Genes encoding ESBLs were detected in 23.2% of isolates. The blaCTX-M-2 was the most prevalent ESBL gene (19.6%, followed by blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 detected in one isolate each. In all isolates presenting MBL phenotype by double-disc synergy test (DDST, the blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1 genes were detected. In addition, blaIMP-1 was also detected in three isolates which did not display any MBL phenotype. These isolates also presented the blaCTX-M-2 gene. The co-existence of blaCTX-M-2 with blaIMP-1 is presently reported for the first time, as like as co-existence of blaGES-1 with blaIMP-1. Conclusions In this study MBLs production was not the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenems, suggesting the occurrence of multidrug efflux pumps, reduction in porin channels and production of other beta-lactamases. The detection of blaCTX-M-2,blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 reflects the recent emergence of ESBLs among antimicrobial resistant P. aeruginosa and

  13. Occurrence of Enterobacter hormaechei carrying blaNDM-1 and blaKPC-2 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Biwei; Feng, Yu; McNally, Alan; Zong, Zhiyong

    2018-02-01

    Three carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates of the Enterobacter cloacae complex (ECC) were recovered from different patients in a hospital. All 3 isolates carried 2 carbapenemase genes bla KPC-2 and bla NDM-1 . A study was performed to characterize their relatedness and to investigate possible links among the patients. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the isolates were Enterobacter hormaechei and belonged to ST177 of the ECC. There were 19-142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the isolates, suggesting that the isolates were likely from a central reservoir, which might have existed for some time. bla KPC-2 and bla NDM-1 were carried on 2 different IncF-type plasmids in the isolates. The 3 bla NDM-1 -carrying plasmids were almost identical and were self-transmissible, while the bla KPC-2 -carrying plasmids were only transmissible in the presence of the bla NDM-1 -carrying plasmid. The source of and direct links among them were not identified, suggesting a hospital transmission of a common multidrug resistant strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of blaOXA-51, blaOXA-58, blaDIM-1 and blaVIM carbapenemase genes in hospital enterobacteriaceae isolates from Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe the results of a molecular epidemiological survey of 15 carbapenemase-encoding genes from a recent collection of clinical isolates. The most salient findings revealed that (i) 60% of the isolates harbored multiple carbapenemase genes, (ii) the blaDIM-1 gene that has only been reported in...

  15. Detection of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa harboring bla GES-1 and bla GES-11 in Recife, Brazil

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    Valdemir Vicente da Silva Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important pathogen globally, presents several resistance mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the presence of bla GES in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from various clinical specimens from patients admitted to three different hospitals in Recife, Brazil. The Guiana extended spectrum beta-lactamase (GES enzymes are responsible for conferring broad spectrum resistance to beta-lactam drugs, including the carbapenems. METHODS: A total of 100 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing to identify bla GES, bla KPC, bla SPM-1, bla IMP, and bla VIM. Additionally, PCR products positive for bla GES were sequenced. The clonal profiles of these same isolates were then determined by means of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR analysis. RESULTS: PCR analysis revealed that four isolates harbored bla GES; DNA sequencing showed that two harbored bla GES-1 and two bla GES-11. Beta-lactamase genes bla SPM-1, bla IMP, bla VIM, and bla KPC were investigated; none of these genes was detected. Automated susceptibility testing methods (Vitek®2, bioMérieux showed that the bla GES-1-positive isolates were only susceptible to polymyxin B. The patterns obtained with ERIC-PCR methods showed clonal relationship between the two isolates that harbored bla GES-11, whereas different clonal profiles were found in the isolates harboring bla GES-1. CONCLUSIONS: We detected the presence of bacterial isolates positive for two different variants of the enzyme GES in three different hospitals from Recife, Brazil. These enzymes have a great capacity for dissemination among Gram-negative bacteria and confer broad-spectrum resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and to the carbapenems.

  16. Prevalence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Northeast India

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    Arijit Bora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to determine the presence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes in extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing Escherichia coli (E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae at a tertiary care referral hospital in Northeast India. Materials and Methods: A total of 270 E. coli and 219 K. pneumoniae isolates were recovered during the period between August 2009 and July 2010. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was performed to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern. Screening and phenotypic confirmatory test for ESBL production were performed using standard disc diffusion methods. Each of the initial ESBL screening test isolate was investigated for the presence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes via polymerase chain reaction (PCR using gene-specific primers. Results: Phenotypic confirmatory test able to detect ESBL production in 73.58% of E. coli and 67.24% of K. pneumoniae. However, PCR amplification showed the presence of one or more ESBL genes in each of the initial ESBL screening positive isolate. Among three ESBL genotypes, the most prevalent genotype was found to be blaCTX-M in E. coli (88.67% and blaTEM in K. pneumoniae (77.58% ESBL producing isolates. Majority of ESBL producing isolates possess more than one ESBL genes. Conclusion: This study constituted a primer report on high prevalence of blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in ESBL producing isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae and denotes the need of more extensive studies on these antibiotic genes to determine the magnitude of the problem of antibiotic resistance exiting in this locality.

  17. ZrO2/bamboo leaves ash (BLA) Catalyst in Biodiesel Conversion of Rice Bran Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, Is; Taushiyah, Ana; Badriatun Najah, Fitri; Azmi, Ulil

    2018-04-01

    Preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of ZrO2/bamboo leaves ash (BLA) catalyst for conversion of rice bran oil to biodiesel have been investigated. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation method of ZrOCl2 as ZrO2 precursor with BLA at a theoretical content of 20% wt. followed by calcination. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst material were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and surface acidity measurement. Activity test of materials in biodiesel conversion of rice bran oil was used by reflux method and microwave (MW) assisted method. Reaction variables studied in the investigation were the effect of catalyst weight and time of MW irradiation compared with the use reflux method. The results showed that ZrO2/BLA catalyst exhibited competitively effective and efficient processes for the production of biodiesel. The reflux method demonstrated an higher conversion (%) compared to MW method, however MW method showed the better reusable properties.

  18. Orientação de imagens CBERS-2B usando o modelo rigoroso de colinearidade com dados orbitais

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    José Marcato Junior

    Full Text Available Atualmente, o imageamento orbital é uma das principais técnicas de coleta de informações geoespaciais. Embora os sistemas orbitais sejam equipados com sensores de orientação direta (GNSS, giroscópios, sensores de estrelas, dentre outros, nem sempre as imagens corrigidas a partir dos dados (efemérides e atitude provenientes destes sensores apresentam a acurácia requerida para certas aplicações. Uma das alternativas para solucionar este problema é a orientação dessas imagens considerando as informações de órbita (efemérides e atitude com o uso adicional de pontos de apoio. O objetivo principal deste trabalho consiste em avaliar experimentalmente o modelo de colinearidade com dados orbitais no processo de orientação de imagens CBERS-2B. Este modelo foi implementado no programa TMS (Triangulação MultiSsensor, seguindo a abordagem de triangulação multissensor. Foram realizados experimentos com imagens do nível 1 (com apenas correção radiométrica coletadas pelos sensores CCD e HRC. Nos casos estudados verificou-se que a utilização das informações de órbita possibilita a orientação de imagens CBERS-2B com um número reduzido de pontos de apoio.

  19. Detection of bla KPC-2 in Proteus mirabilis in Brazil

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    Adriane Borges Cabral

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC-producing isolates pose a major worldwide public health problem today. METHODS : A carbapenem-resistant Proteus mirabilis clinical isolate was investigated for plasmid profiles and the occurrence of β-lactamase genes. RESULTS : The isolate exhibited resistance to ertapenem and imipenem and was susceptible to meropenem, polymyxin, and tigecycline. Five plasmids were identified in this isolate. DNA sequencing analysis revealed the presence of bla KPC-2 and bla TEM-1 genes. An additional PCR using plasmid DNA confirmed that bla KPC-2 was present in one of these plasmids. Conclusions: We report the detection of bla KPC-2 in P. mirabilis in Brazil for the first time. This finding highlights the continuous transfer of bla KPC between bacterial genera, which presents a serious challenge to the prevention of infection by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

  20. Abundance of carbapenemase genes (blaKPC, blaNDM and blaOXA-48) in wastewater effluents from Tunisian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Emna; Subirats, Jessica; Sànchez-Melsió, Alexandre; Mansour, Hedi Ben; Borrego, Carles M; Balcázar, José Luis

    2017-10-01

    Carbapenems are β-lactam antibiotics with a broad spectrum of activity and are usually considered the last resort for the treatment of severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. The clinically most significant carbapenemases are KPC, NDM, and OXA-48-like enzymes, whose genes have been increasingly reported worldwide in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, we quantified the abundance of these genes in wastewater effluents from different Tunisian hospitals. The bla NDM and bla OXA-48 -like genes were detected at similar concentrations in all hospital wastewater effluents. In contrast, the bla KPC gene was detected at lower concentration than other genes and it was only detected in three of the seven effluents analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this study quantified for the first time the abundance of bla KPC , bla NDM , and bla OXA-48 -like genes in wastewater effluents from Tunisian hospitals, highlighting the widespread distribution of these carbapenemase genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. First Report of blaCTX-M-28 in Enterobacteriaceae Isolates in the United Arab Emirates

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    Mubarak Alfaresi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The CTX-M family of extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL enzymes is comprised of over 60 blaCTX-M gene variants with the predominance of blaCTX-M-15 in many regions. In this report, we present the first description of blaCTX-M-28 in the United Arab Emirates. Methods. Forty-five non-duplicate ESBL producing isolates identified in a secondary care facility in the United Arab Emirates from June to July 2016 were studied. Gene sequencing was performed and DNA sequences were annotated using the BLAST program to identify the gene subtypes. Results. The majority of the ESBL positive isolates were E. coli (n/N=39/45; 86.6% followed by K. pneumoniae (n=5 and K. oxytoca (n=1. All isolates harboured blaCTX-M and blaTEM genes, 18 had blaSHV, and 2 were blaVIM positive. Thirty-seven isolates (82.2% were positive for blaCTX-M-28. Other blaCTX-M genes identified include blaCTX-M-167 (n=2; isolates #1 and 26 and one each for blaCTX-M-38, blaCTX-M-163, and blaCTX-M-198. No blaCTX-M-15 was identified. The predominant blaTEM subtype was blaTEM-171 (n=8 followed by one of each of blaTEM-120, blaTEM-163, and blaTEM-206. The blaSHV subtypes were blaSHV-148 and blaSHV-187. Conclusion. The findings indicate the first description of blaCTX-M-28 in a setting where blaCTX-M-15 was previously predominant.

  2. Caracterização dos Genes de metalo-beta-lactamase blaNDM, blaSPM e blaIMP em Pseudomonas aeruginosa Resistentes a Carbapenens

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    Carolina Jahn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e objetivo: P. aeruginosa é responsável por causar grande variedade de infecções agudas e crônicas. A resistência aos carbapenêmicos está se tornando um problema terapêutico mundial e a produção de metalo-beta-lactamases (MBL tem surgido como um dos mecanismos responsáveis por esta resistência. Objetivou-se identificar as cepas produtoras de MBL e verificar a presença dos genes codificador blaNDM, blaSPM e blaIMP em isolados de P. aeruginosa resistentes aos carbapenens. Métodos: Foram analisadas 16 cepas de P. aeruginosa, isoladas de diferentes sítios de indivíduos atendidos pelo Hospital do Vale do Rio Pardo-RS, no período de março 2014 a fevereiro de 2015. A identificação bioquímica foi realizada segundo protocolo da ANVISA e o antibiograma pelo método de ágar difusão em disco. A triagem fenotípica foi feita pelo teste modificado de aproximação de discos utilizando o EDTA como inibidor e a presença dos genes através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase. Resultados: O setor clínico com maior prevalência de isolamento de P. aeruginosa resistente aos carbapenens é a unidade de terapia intensiva (50%. Em relação aos espécimes clínicos, 62,5% dos isolados foram identificados no trato respiratório inferior. Através do teste fenotípico, 50% das amostras analisadas mostraram ser produtora da enzima MBL. Através da técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase foi possível identificar a presença de um dos três genes propostos, sendo eles blaSPM. Conclusão: Os isolados de P. aeruginosa mostraram serem produtores de MBL e apresentaram o gene de resistência blaSPM nesta espécie no interior do Rio Grande do Sul. Palavras Chaves: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; metalo-beta-lactamases; blaNDM, blaIMP, e blaSPM .

  3. Bla g 1 allergen levels in Zagreb area household dust.

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    Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena

    2011-03-01

    Cockroach allergy is a health problem in many parts of the world. In urban environments, indoor exposure to cockroach allergens involves a risk of asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Bla g 1, a major allergen of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) in 30 house samples, collected at random from Zagreb area households, Croatia. Dust samples were collected on cellulose filters by vacuuming living rooms floors. After extraction, Bla g 1 was detected using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the thirty households had detectable Bla g 1 levels, and only in one was its concentration higher than 2.0 U g(-1), the threshold associated with sensitisation. The Bla g 1 ELISA proved highly sensitive, with the detection limit of 0.12 U g(-1). The within- and between-assay imprecision was 8.9 % and 14.4 %, respectively, and accuracy 85 % to 120 %. Low Bla g 1 levels in the household dust support previously reported low prevalence of skin sensitisation to B. germanica among Zagreb residents. Further monitoring should reveal if there are differences in cockroach allergen exposure and sensitisation between households from other geographic areas in Croatia.

  4. MELHORIA DO PROCESSO DE CORREÇÃO GEOMÉTRICA DE IMAGENS CBERS-CCD PELO USO DE AMOSTRAS GEORREFERENCIADAS CLASSIFICADAS

    OpenAIRE

    Castejon, Emiliano Ferreira; Fonseca, Leila Maria Garcia; Forster, Carlos Henrique Quartucci

    2015-01-01

    As imagens da série de satélites CBERS são distribuídas gratuitamente, mas para que seja possível utilizá-las, é necessário aplicar um método de correção geométrica. É proposta uma melhoria do processo de correção automática de forma a selecionar as melhores amostras de referência a partir das quais é possível definir pontos de controle usados para o cálculo dos parâmetros do modelo usado na correção. Para demonstrar a eficácia, o método proposto é aplicado em um conjunto de imagens CBERS usa...

  5. Prevalence of bla SHV genes in clinical isolates of Klebsiella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five bacterial strains (4 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 1 Escherichia coli) representative of pathogenic species and resistant to β-lactam antibiotics are investigated to isolate the genes responsible of β--lactamase activity. The use of engineering techniques enables us to show the widespread of blaSHV genes particularly in ...

  6. Characteristics of β-lactamases and their genes (blaA and blaB in Yersinia intermedia and Y. frederiksenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sachin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of β-lactamases in Y. enterocolitica has been reported to vary with serovars, biovars and geographical origin of the isolates. An understanding of the β-lactamases in other related species is important for an overall perception of antibiotic resistance in yersiniae. The objective of this work was to study the characteristics of β-lactamases and their genes in strains of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii, isolated from clinical and non-clinical sources in India. Results The enzymes, Bla-A (a constitutive class A penicillinase and Bla-B (an inducible class C cephalosporinase were found to be present in all the clinical and non-clinical strains of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii by double disc diffusion method. The results showed differential expression of Bla-A as indicated by presence/absence of synergy whereas expression of Bla-B was quite consistent. The presence of these enzymes was also reflected in the high minimum inhibitory concentrations, MIC50 (126–1024 mg/L and MIC90 (256–1024 mg/L of β-lactam antibiotics against these species. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP revealed heterogeneity in both blaA and blaB genes of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii. The blaA gene of Y. intermedia shared significant sequence identity (87–96% with blaA of Y. enterocolitica biovars 1A, 1B and 4. The sequence identity of blaA of Y. frederiksenii with these biovars was 77–79%. The sequence identity of blaB gene of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii was more (85% with that of Y. enterocolitica biovars 1A, 1B and 2 compared to other species viz., Y. bercovieri, Y. aldovae and Y. ruckeri. Isoelectric focusing data further revealed that both Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii produced Bla-A (pI 8.7 and "Bla-B like" (pI 5.5–7.1 enzymes. Conclusion Both Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii showed presence of blaA and blaB genes and unequivocal expression of the two β-lactamases. Limited heterogeneity

  7. Assessing the Relative Ecological Importance and Deforestation Risks of Unprotected Areas in Western Brazil Using Landsat, CBERS and Quantum GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Sevilla, C.; Lanclos, A.; Carson, C.; Larson, J.; Sankaran, M.; Saad, M.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to understanding Brazilian policies and currently utilized methodologies, the measurement of the impacts of deforestation is essential for enhancing techniques to reduce deforestation in the future. Adverse impacts of deforestation include biodiversity loss, increased carbon dioxide emissions, and a reduced rate of evapotranspiration, all of which contribute directly or indirectly to global warming. With the continual growth in population in developing countries such as Brazil, increased demands are placed on infrastructural development and food production. As a result, forested areas are cleared for agricultural production. Recently, exploration for hydrocarbons in Western Brazil has also intensified as a means to stimulate the economy, as abundant oil and gas is believed to be found in these regions. Unfortunately, hydrocarbon-rich regions of Western Brazil are also home to thousands of species. Many of these regions are as of yet untapped but are at risk of ecological disruption as a result of impending human activity. This project utilized Landsat 5 TM to monitor deforestation in a subsection of the Brazilian states of Rondônia and Amazonas. A risk map identifying areas susceptible to future deforestation, based on factors such as proximity to roads, bodies of water, cities, and proposed hydrocarbon activities such as pipeline construction, was created. Areas at higher risk of clearance were recommended to be a target for enhanced monitoring and law enforcement. In addition, an importance map was created based on biodiversity and location of endangered species. This map was used to identify potential areas for future protection. A Chinese-Brazilian satellite, CBERS 2B CCD was also utilized for comparison. The NDVI model was additionally replicated in Quantum GIS, an open source software, so that local communities and policymakers could benefit without having to pay for expensive ArcGIS software. The capabilities of VIIRS were also investigated to

  8. Análise de mapas de represas publicados na web usando imagens orbitais CCD/CBERS no estado de Minas Gerais Analysis of dams maps published on the web by using orbital CCD/CBERS images in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ferreira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, bancos de dados públicos e gratuitos disponíveis na World Wide Web (WEB foram utilizados para avaliar as áreas das superfícies dos espelhos d'água das represas de Furnas e do Funil, no Estado de Minas Gerais. O objetivo foi comparar as informações obtidas nos bancos da WEB com os valores das áreas calculadas a partir de imagens do sensor CCD a bordo dos satélites CBERS2 e CBERS2B. A área da represa de Furnas obtida a partir das imagens CCD/CBERS2B, ano 2008, foi de 1.138 km², mas nos bancos de dados consultados esta área estava entre 1.182 e 1.503 km². A represa do Funil, construída em 2003, com superfície de espelho d'água de 29,37 km² e uma ilha com área de 1,93 km² não aparecem nos bancos Atlas, Geominas, IGAM e IBGE. Os resultados mostraram algumas discrepâncias nos bancos de dados publicados na WEB, tais como diferenças em áreas e supressão ou extrapolação de limites do espelho d'água. Concluiu-se que, até o momento, os responsáveis por algumas publicações de bancos de dados no Estado de Minas Gerais não tiveram rigor suficiente com as atualizações. As imagens CCD/CBERS, que também são dados públicos disponíveis na WEB, mostraram ser produtos adequados para verificar, atualizar e melhorar as informações publicadas.In this work some public databases from the World Wide Web (WEB were used to find the area of the Furnas and Funil Dams in Minas Gerais State. The purpose of this work was to compare the WEB public databases values and the real values obtained from the CCD camera images on board CBERS2 and CBERS2B satellites. The Furnas Dam area obtained from CCD/ CBERS2B images, in 2008, was 1.138 km², but in the consulted databases this area ranged from 1.182 to 1.503 km². The dam of the Funil, built in 2003, with a water surface of 29.37 km² and an island with 1.93 km² area, did not appear in Atlas, Geominas, IGAM and IBGE databases. The results revealed some problems in the WEB public

  9. Genetic characterization of blaNDM-harboring plasmids in carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli from Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Sugawara

    Full Text Available The bacterial enzyme New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase hydrolyzes almost all β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are drugs of last resort for severe bacterial infections. The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that carry the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene, blaNDM, poses a serious threat to public health. In this study, we genetically characterized eight carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from a tertiary care hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. The eight isolates belonged to five multilocus-sequence types and harbored multiple antimicrobial-resistance genes, resulting in resistance against nearly all of the antimicrobial agents tested, except colistin and fosfomycin. Nine plasmids harboring blaNDM genes were identified from these isolates. Multiple blaNDM genes were found in the distinct Inc-replicon types of the following plasmids: an IncA/C2 plasmid harboring blaNDM-1 (n = 1, IncX3 plasmids harboring blaNDM-4 (n = 2 or blaNDM-7 (n = 1, IncFII plasmids harboring blaNDM-4 (n = 1 or blaNDM-5 (n = 3, and a multireplicon F plasmid harboring blaNDM-5 (n = 1. Comparative analysis highlighted the diversity of the blaNDM-harboring plasmids and their distinct characteristics, which depended on plasmid replicon types. The results indicate circulation of phylogenetically distinct strains of carbapenem-resistant E. coli with various plasmids harboring blaNDM genes in the hospital.

  10. Emergence and Evolution of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae with both blaKPC and blaCTX-M Integrated in the Chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihua; Wang, Guiqing; Sebra, Robert; Zhuge, Jian; Yin, Changhong; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E; Schuetz, Audrey N; Dimitrova, Nevenka; Fallon, John T

    2017-07-01

    The extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)- and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae represent serious and urgent threats to public health. In a retrospective study of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae , we identified three clinical isolates, CN1, CR14, and NY9, carrying both bla CTX-M and bla KPC genes. The complete genomes of these three K. pneumoniae isolates were de novo assembled by using both short- and long-read whole-genome sequencing. In CR14 and NY9, bla CTX-M and bla KPC were carried on two different plasmids. In contrast, CN1 had one copy of bla KPC-2 and three copies of bla CTX-M-15 integrated in the chromosome, for which the bla CTX-M-15 genes were linked to an insertion sequence, IS Ecp1 , whereas the bla KPC-2 gene was in the context of a Tn 4401a transposition unit conjugated with a PsP3-like prophage. Intriguingly, downstream of the Tn 4401a-bla KPC-2 -prophage genomic island, CN1 also carried a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)- cas array with four spacers targeting a variety of K. pneumoniae plasmids harboring antimicrobial resistance genes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that there were two subtypes of type I-E CRISPR- cas in K. pneumoniae strains and suggested that the evolving CRISPR- cas , with its acquired novel spacer, induced the mobilization of antimicrobial resistance genes from plasmids into the chromosome. The integration and dissemination of multiple copies of bla CTX-M and bla KPC from plasmids to chromosome depicts the complex pandemic scenario of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae Additionally, the implications from this study also raise concerns for the application of a CRISPR- cas strategy against antimicrobial resistance. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Effects of Optogenetic inhibition of BLA on Sleep Brief Optogenetic Inhibition of the Basolateral Amygdala in Mice Alters Effects of Stressful Experiences on Rapid Eye Movement Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Mayumi; Wellman, Laurie L; Fitzpatrick Bs, Mairen E; Hallum Bs, Olga; Sutton Bs, Amy M; Lonart, György; Sanford, Larry D

    2017-04-01

    Stressful events can directly produce significant alterations in subsequent sleep, in particular rapid eye movement sleep (REM); however, the neural mechanisms underlying the process are not fully known. Here, we investigated the role of the basolateral nuclei of the amygdala (BLA) in regulating the effects of stressful experience on sleep. We used optogenetics to briefly inhibit glutamatergic cells in BLA during the presentation of inescapable footshock (IS) and assessed effects on sleep, the acute stress response, and fear memory. c-Fos expression was also assessed in the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), both regions involved in coping with stress, and in brain stem regions implicated in the regulation of REM. Compared to control mice, peri-shock inhibition of BLA attenuated an immediate reduction in REM after IS and produced a significant overall increase in REM. Moreover, upon exposure to the shock context alone, mice receiving peri-shock inhibition of BLA during training showed increased REM without altered freezing (an index of fear memory) or stress-induced hyperthermia (an index of acute stress response). Inhibition of BLA during REM under freely sleeping conditions enhanced REM only when body temperature was high, suggesting the effect was influenced by stress. Peri-shock inhibition of BLA also led to elevated c-Fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala and mPFC and differentially altered c-Fos activity in the selected brain stem regions. Glutamatergic cells in BLA can modulate the effects of stress on REM and can mediate effects of fear memory on sleep that can be independent of behavioral fear. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Predominance of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates carrying blaIMP and blaVIM metallo-β-lactamases in a major hospital in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toval, Francisco; Guzmán-Marte, Anel; Madriz, Vivian; Somogyi, Teresita; Rodríguez, César; García, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the molecular basis of the resistance to carbapenems in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovered from a tertiary-level health facility in San José, Costa Rica. A total of 198 non-duplicated isolates were evaluated for their susceptibility to β-lactams, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. The production of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), the presence of MBL encoding genes (blaIMP, blaVIM and blaGIM-1) and the occurrence of these genes within class 1 integrons were investigated. In addition, an ERIC2 PCR fingerprinting method was used to elucidate the distribution of the detected MBL genes within the strain collection. Of the 198 isolates tested, 125 (63.1 %) were categorized as carbapenem-resistant. The majority (88.8 %) of the carbapemen-resistant isolates also showed resistance to ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin. Among the carbapenem-resistant isolates, 102 (81.6 %) showed MBL activity. Strikingly, both blaIMP and blaVIM genes were simultaneously detected in most (94.1 %) of the 102 MBL producers. Five carbapenem-resistant MBL producers were positive only for blaIMP genes. Almost 70 % of the isolates examined harboured the intI1 gene, accompanied by the sul1 and qacEΔ1 genes in 136 (99 %) and 122 (89 %) isolates, respectively. The majority (94.4 %) of the carbapenem-resistant isolates carried the intI1 gene, in contrast to 26 % of the carbapenem-susceptible isolates. Ninety-three out of 96 (96.9 %) isolates carrying both blaIMP and blaVIM genes also harboured the intI1, sul1 and qacEΔ1 genes. Gene cassettes from carbapenem-susceptible and MBL-negative carbapenem-resistant isolates encoded aminoglycoside-resistance enzymes (aadA2, aadA4 and aadA6) as well as orfD and qacF genes. RAPD analysis distributed 126 of the isolates in 29 clusters. Eighty of the 90 blaIMP (+) blaVIM (+) isolates were sorted into 16

  13. Emergence of blaNDM-7-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Gabon, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussounda, Mesmin; Diene, Seydina M; Dos Santos, Sandra; Goudeau, Alain; François, Patrice; van der Mee-Marquet, Nathalie

    2017-02-01

    Reports of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Africa remain rare and assess mostly bla OXA-48 -producing isolates from Mediterranean countries and South Africa. We identified bla NDM-7 -producing Enterobacteriaceae in Gabon in 2016. The isolates contained bla NDM-7 IncX3 plasmids that were unusual and similar to the one described in a colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae SZ04 isolate from China.

  14. Investigation of diversity of plasmids carrying the blaTEM-52 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielak, Eliza Maria; Bergenholtz, Rikke D.; Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diversity of plasmids that carry blaTEM-52 genes among Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica originating from animals, meat products and humans. METHODS: A collection of 22 blaTEM-52-encoding plasmids was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism...... of self-transfer to a plasmid-free E. coli recipient. CONCLUSIONS: The blaTEM-52 gene found in humans could have been transmitted on transferable plasmids originating from animal sources. Some of the blaTEM-52 plasmids carry replicons that differ from the classical ones. Two novel replicons were detected...

  15. Emergence and Evolution of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae with both blaKPC and blaCTX-M Integrated in the Chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Weihua; Wang, Guiqing; Sebra, Robert; Zhuge, Jian; Yin, Changhong; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E.; Schuetz, Audrey N.; Dimitrova, Nevenka; Fallon, John T.

    2017-01-01

    The extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)- and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae represent serious and urgent threats to public health. In a retrospective study of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae, we identified three clinical isolates, CN1, CR14, and NY9, carrying both blaCTX-M and blaKPC genes. The complete genomes of these three K. pneumoniae isolates were de novo assembled by using both short- and long-read whole-genome sequencing. In CR14 and NY9, bla...

  16. Evolution of IncA/C blaCMY-₂-carrying plasmids by acquisition of the blaNDM-₁ carbapenemase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Villa, Laura; Poirel, Laurent; Bonnin, Rémy A; Nordmann, Patrice

    2012-02-01

    The bla(NDM-1) gene has been reported to be often located on broad-host-range plasmids of the IncA/C type in clinical but also environmental bacteria recovered from the New Delhi, India, area. IncA/C-type plasmids are the main vehicles for the spread of the cephalosporinase gene bla(CMY-2), frequently identified in the United States, Canada, and Europe. In this study, we completed the sequence of IncA/C plasmid pNDM-KN carrying the bla(NDM-1) gene, recovered from a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from Kenya. This sequence was compared with those of three IncA/C-type reference plasmids from Escherichia coli, Yersinia ruckeri, and Photobacterium damselae. Comparative analysis showed that the bla(NDM-1) gene was located on a widely diffused plasmid scaffold known to be responsible for the spread of bla(CMY-2)-like genes and consequently for resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Considering that IncA/C plasmids possess a broad host range, this scaffold might support a large-scale diffusion of the bla(NDM-1) gene among Gram-negative rods.

  17. Enterobacter cloacae Complex Isolates Harboring blaNMC-A or blaIMI-Type Class A Carbapenemase Genes on Novel Chromosomal Integrative Elements and Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, David A; Mataseje, Laura F; Davidson, Ross; Delport, Johannes A; Fuller, Jeff; Hoang, Linda; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Levett, Paul N; Roscoe, Diane L; Willey, Barbara M; Mulvey, Michael R

    2017-05-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates submitted to a reference laboratory from 2010 to 2015 were screened by PCR for seven common carbapenemase gene groups, namely, KPC, NDM, OXA-48, VIM, IMP, GES, and NMC-A/IMI. Nineteen of the submitted isolates (1.7%) were found to harbor Ambler class A bla NMC-A or bla IMI -type carbapenemases. All 19 isolates were resistant to at least one carbapenem but susceptible to aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, and ciprofloxacin. Most isolates (17/19) gave positive results with the Carba-NP test for phenotypic carbapenemase detection. Isolates were genetically diverse by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis macrorestriction analysis, multilocus sequence typing, and hsp60 gene analysis. The genes were found in various Enterobacter cloacae complex species; however, bla NMC-A was highly associated with Enterobacter ludwigii Whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis revealed that all NMC-A ( n = 10), IMI-1 ( n = 5), and IMI-9 ( n = 2) producers harbored the carbapenemase gene on EludIMEX-1-like integrative mobile elements (EcloIMEXs) located in the identical chromosomal locus. Two novel genes, bla IMI-5 and bla IMI-6 , were harbored on different IncFII-type plasmids. Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates harboring bla NMC-A/IMI -type carbapenemases are relatively rare in Canada. Though mostly found integrated into the chromosome, some variants are located on plasmids that may enhance their mobility potential. © Crown copyright 2017.

  18. Detection of blaOXA-23-like and blaNDM-1 in Acinetobacter baumannii from the Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mahdy, Taghrid S; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Shibl, Atef M

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is currently considered as one of the most common successful pathogens in the healthcare system due to its ability to quickly develop resistance. Ten carbapenem-resistant A. calcoaceticus-baumannii complex were isolated from the eastern region, Saudi Arabia in 2014. All isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, however, 8 of 10 isolates were tigecycline resistant. Susceptibility test was also carried out for three aminoglycosides, resistance to gentamicin was 80%, amikacin was 90%, and tobramycin was 50%. Colistin susceptibility was seen in all isolates. The 10 isolates harbored bla OXA-23-like and ISAba1 and 9 of them also carried bla ADC . Three isolates of 10 harbored bla NDM-1 coding for NDM metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) with coexistence of bla ADC together with either bla GES or bla TEM or both. Those three isolates exhibited negative Etest MBL screening test. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed the high clonal variability of the isolates, although two isolates were indistinguishable. The risk of dissemination of carbapenem resistance through presence of ISAba1 upstream of OXA-23-like in all isolates raises the concern about emergence of higher carbapenem prevalence rates in the future in our region. This study also demonstrated the importance of molecular surveillance to provide accurate and reliable data about the resistance rates of A. baumannii. Finally, the high incidence of NDM-1 among our isolates requires a routine surveillance to monitor the future prevalence of this enzyme in the region.

  19. The spread of bla OXA-48 and bla OXA-244 carbapenemase genes among Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter spp. isolated in Moscow, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursova, Nadezhda K; Astashkin, Eugeny I; Knyazeva, Anastasia I; Kartsev, Nikolay N; Leonova, Ekaterina S; Ershova, Olga N; Alexandrova, Irina A; Kurdyumova, Natalia V; Sazikina, Svetlana Yu; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Svetoch, Edward A; Dyatlov, Ivan A

    2015-11-02

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is a great problem of healthcare worldwide. Study of the spread for bla OXA-48-like genes coding epidemically significant carbapenemases among hospital pathogens is important for the regional and global epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. Antibacterial resistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 95) from 54 patients, P. mirabilis (n = 32) from 20 patients, Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 6) from four patients, and Enterobacter cloacae (n = 4) from four patients were collected from January, 2013 to October, 2014 in neurosurgical intensive care unit (ICU) of the Burdenko Neurosurgery Institute, Moscow. Characteristics of the isolates were done using susceptibility tests, PCR detection of the resistance genes, genotyping, conjugation, DNA sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis. Major strains under study were multi drug resistant (MDR), resistant to three or more functional classes of drugs simultaneously-98.9 % K. pneumoniae, 100 % P. mirabilis, one E. aerogenes isolate, and one E. cloacae isolate. Molecular-genetic mechanism of MDR in K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis isolates were based on carrying of epidemic extended-spectrum beta-lactamase bla CTX-M-15 gene (87.2 and 90.6 % accordingly), carbapenemase bla OXA-48-like gene (55.3 and 23.3 % accordingly), and class 1 (54.8 and 31.3 % accordingly) and class 2 (90.6 % P. mirabilis) integrons. The bla OXA-48-like-positive K. pneumoniae were collected during whole two-year surveillance period, while P. mirabilis and Enterobacter spp. carrying bla OXA-48-like genes were detected only after four and 18 months after the research start, respectively. The bla OXA-48-like gene acquisition was shown for P. mirabilis isolates collected from five patients and for E. cloacae isolate collected from one patient during their stay in the ICU, presumably from bla OXA-48-like-positive K. pneumoniae. The source of the bla OXA-244 gene acquired by E

  20. Yersinia enterocolitica and Photorhabdus asymbiotica β-lactamases BlaA are exported by the twin-arginine translocation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriefer, Eva-Maria; Hoffmann-Thoms, Stephanie; Schmid, Franz X; Schmid, Annika; Heesemann, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    In general, β-lactamases of medically important Gram-negative bacteria are Sec-dependently translocated into the periplasm. In contrast, β-lactamases of Mycobacteria spp. (BlaC, BlaS) and the Gram-negative environmental bacteria Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (L2) and Xanthomonas campestris (Bla(XCC-1)) have been reported to be secreted by the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system. Yersinia enterocolitica carries 2 distinct β-lactamase genes (blaA and blaB) encoding BlaA(Ye) and the AmpC-like β-lactamase BlaB, respectively. By using the software PRED-TAT for prediction and discrimination of Sec from Tat signal peptides, we identified a functional Tat signal sequence for Yersinia BlaA(Ye). The Tat-dependent translocation of BlaA(Ye) could be clearly demonstrated by using a Y. enterocolitica tatC-mutant and cell fractionation. Moreover, we could demonstrate a unique unusual temperature-dependent activity profile of BlaA(Ye) ranging from 15 to 60 °C and a high 'melting temperature' (T(M)=44.3°) in comparison to the related Sec-dependent β-lactamase TEM-1 (20-50°C, T(M)=34.9 °C). Strikingly, the blaA gene of Y. enterocolitica is present in diverse environmental Yersinia spp. and a blaA homolog gene could be identified in the closely related Photorhabdus asymbiotica (BlaA(Pa); 69% identity to BlaA(Ye)). For BlaA(Pa) of P. asymbiotica, we could also demonstrate Tat-dependent secretion. These results suggest that Yersinia BlaA-related β-lactamases may be the prototype of a large Tat-dependent β-lactamase family, which originated from environmental bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Decreased Fitness and Virulence in ST10 Escherichia coli Harboring blaNDM-5 and mcr-1 against a ST4981 Strain with blaNDM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawei Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although coexistence of blaNDM-5 and mcr-1 in Escherichia coli has been reported, little is known about the fitness and virulence of such strains. Three carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (GZ1, GZ2, and GZ3 successively isolated from one patient in 2015 were investigated for microbiological fitness and virulence. GZ1 and GZ2 were also resistant to colistin. To verify the association between plasmids and fitness, growth kinetics of the transconjugants were performed. We also analyzed genomic sequences of GZ2 and GZ3 using PacBio sequencing. GZ1 and GZ2 (ST10 co-harbored blaNDM-5 and mcr-1, while GZ3 (ST4981 carried only blaNDM-5. GZ3 demonstrated significantly more rapid growth (P < 0.001 and overgrew GZ2 with a competitive index of 1.0157 (4 h and 2.5207 (24 h. Increased resistance to serum killing and mice mortality was also identified in GZ3. While GZ2 had four plasmids (IncI2, IncX3, IncHI2, IncFII, GZ3 possessed one plasmid (IncFII. The genetic contexts of blaNDM-5 in GZ2 and GZ3 were identical but inserted into different backbones, IncX3 (102,512 bp and IncFII (91,451 bp, respectively. The growth was not statistically different between the transconjugants with mcr-1 or blaNDM-5 plasmid and recipient (P = 0.6238. Whole genome sequence analysis revealed that 28 virulence genes were specific to GZ3, potentially contributing to increased virulence of GZ3. Decreased fitness and virulence in a mcr-1 and blaNDM-5 co-harboring ST10 E. coli was found alongside a ST4981 strain with only blaNDM-5. Acquisition of mcr-1 or blaNDM-5 plasmid did not lead to considerable fitness costs, indicating the potential for dissemination of mcr-1 and blaNDM-5 in Enterobacteriaceae.

  2. Occurrence of bla genes encoding carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii from Intensive Care Unit in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniyan, Jayanthi Siva; Sundaram, Jeya Meenakshi

    2018-01-01

    ICU shows increasing incidence of infection associated with the use of invasive procedures for the diagnostic purpose as well as the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species are "very successful" pathogen and the emergence of the Metallo-β-Lactamases (MBL) is becoming a therapeutic challenge. To isolate the Nonfermenting Gram negative bacilli from the ICU samples. To identify the metallo betalactamase producers and to detect the bla gene presence among the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii . The Nonfermenting Gram negative bacilli isolates from the ICU samples were taken over for 5 years (2009-2014) in a tertiary care hospital. The isolates of Pseudomonas species and Acinetobacter species were confirmed by API analyser and processed according to standard procedures. Detection of the MBL producers were done by E strip method and subjected for bla gene detection by PCR method. In our study a total of 195 isolates of NFGNB were obtained from various ICU. Of these MBL producers, 26 % were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 25 % were Acinetobacter baumannii . The subtypes of bla VIM MBL producing P.aeruginosa were 26%. The predominant gene coding for MBL activity in A.baumannii were found to be bla OXA gene 11.9%. The gene accession numbers were KF975367, KF975372. We have to control the development and dissemination of these superbugs among the ICU's.

  3. Transcriptional analysis of bla NDM-1 and copy number alteration under carbapenem stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepjyoti Paul

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New Delhi metallo beta-lactamase is known to compromise carbapenem therapy and leading to treatment failure. However, their response to carbapenem stress is not clearly known. Here, we have investigated the transcriptional response of bla NDM-1 and plasmid copy number alteration under carbapenem exposure. Methods Three bla NDM-1 harboring plasmids representing three incompatibility types (IncFIC, IncA/C and IncK were inoculated in LB broth with and without imipenem, meropenem and ertapenem. After each 1 h total RNA was isolated, immediately reverse transcribed into cDNA and quantitative real time PCR was used for transcriptional expression of bla NDM-1. Horizontal transferability and stability of the plasmids encoding bla NDM-1 were also determined. Changes in copy number of bla NDM-1 harboring plasmids under the exposure of different carbapenems were determined by real time PCR. Clonal relatedness among the isolates was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Results Under carbapenem stress over an interval of time there was a sharp variation in the transcriptional expression of bla NDM-1 although it did not follow a specific pattern. All bla NDM-1 carrying plasmids were transferable by conjugation. These plasmids were highly stable and complete loss was observed between 92nd to 96th serial passages when antibiotic pressure was withdrawn. High copy number of bla NDM-1 was found for IncF type plasmids compared to the other replicon types. Conclusion This study suggests that the single dose of carbapenem pressure does not significantly influence the expression of bla NDM-1 and also focus on the stability of this gene as well as the change in copy number with respect to the incompatible type of plasmid harboring resistance determinant.

  4. Dissemination of blaOXA-58 in Proteus mirabilis isolates from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Felix; Pfennigwerth, Niels; Gerigk, Sonja; Gohlke, Frank; Oberdorfer, Klaus; Purr, Ingvill; Wohanka, Nikolaus; Roggenkamp, Andreas; Gatermann, Sören G; Kaase, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Characterization of Proteus mirabilis isolates harbouring bla OXA-58 with emphasis on the genetic environment of this resistance determinant. Strains of P. mirabilis ( n  =   37) isolated from different patients were tested for the presence of bla OXA-58 . The genetic context of bla OXA-58 was determined by WGS of two strains and Sanger sequencing. Clonality of the strains was assessed by PFGE. Susceptibility testing was performed by microdilution according to EUCAST. Four strains isolated in different geographical regions of Germany were positive for bla OXA-58 , and WGS showed that this resistance gene was harboured on a plasmid. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of two nearly identical plasmids, 6219 and 6208 bp in size, in all four strains. Upstream of bla OXA-58 an IS Aba 3-like transposase gene was located. The P. mirabilis strains were not clonally related according to PFGE. MICs of meropenem for three of the strains were only just above the EUCAST breakpoint and the Carba NP test was positive for only two of the strains. To our knowledge, this is the first description of bla OXA-58 in the species P. mirabilis . The resistance gene is harboured by almost identical plasmids in strains not clonally related and from different geographical regions. Apart from an IS Aba 3-like transposase gene upstream of bla OXA-58 the genetic context is different from bla OXA-58 harboured on plasmids in the genus Acinetobacter . With MICs of meropenem well below the EUCAST breakpoint or only just above it and equivocal or false negative results from the Carba NP test, bla OXA-58 can be easily overlooked in P. mirabilis . © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Diversity and evolution of blaZ from Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, John E.; Christensen, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    and sequences retrieved from public databases were compared. A phylogenetic tree showed that blaZ exists in three evolutionary lines: one group was of plasmid origin, one group was of chromosomal origin and one intermediate group. Sixty-nine sequence types were demonstrated. They translated into 11 BlaZ protein...... types. The major types all contained strains of both human and bovine origin, and more than one Staphylococcus species, demonstrating a shared gene pool. In a comparison of S. aureus and CoNS obtained from five Danish cattle herds, the same type of blaZ was only detected in one case. Conclusions...

  6. Detection of bla-IMP-1 and bla-IMP-2 Genes Among Metallo-β-lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Burn Patients in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pourbabaee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nosocomial pathogen which especially causes infections among burn patients. Carbapenems are extensively used for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. The emergence of carbapenemases producing isolates is an outcome of increased utilization of carbapenems. The aim of this study was to determine the bla-IMP-1 and bla-IMP-2 genes in metallo-β-lactamase (MBL -producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients in Isfahan. Material and Methods: A total of 150 P. aeruginosa were isolated from burn patients hospitalized in Imam-Mousakazem hospital in Isfahan. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using disk diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Double Disk Synergy Test (DDST was carried out for screening of MBL production in imipenem-resistant strains. PCR assays were used for detection of bla-IMP-1 and bla-IMP-2 genes among metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. The purified PCR products were sequenced. Results: Of 150 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, %100 identified as multi-drug resistant strains. The most resistance rates were seen against ciprofloxacin, tobromycin, meropenem and imipenem. All of 144 imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were MBL producing by DDST test. Twenty-nine (19.3% and 8(5.3% MBL producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates harbored bla-IMP-1 and bla-IMP-2 genes respectively. Conclusions: According to results of this study high level resistance to imipenem and MBl genes carriage was seen among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patient infections in our region.

  7. 76 FR 4360 - Guidance for Industry on Process Validation: General Principles and Practices; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... and Development (HFM-40), Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), Food and Drug...] Guidance for Industry on Process Validation: General Principles and Practices; Availability AGENCY: Food... of Drug Information, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New...

  8. Differential Binding of Co(II) and Zn(II) to Metallo-beta-Lactamase Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, M.; Breece, R; Hajdin, C; Bender, K; Hu, Z; Costello, A; Bennett, B; Tierney, D; Crowder, M

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to probe the structure, mechanism, and biochemical properties of metallo-{beta}-lactamase Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis, the enzyme was overexpressed, purified, and characterized. Metal analyses demonstrated that recombinant Bla2 tightly binds 1 equiv of Zn(II). Steady-state kinetic studies showed that mono-Zn(II) Bla2 (1Zn-Bla2) is active, while di-Zn(II) Bla2 (ZnZn-Bla2) was unstable. Catalytically, 1Zn-Bla2 behaves like the related enzymes CcrA and L1. In contrast, di-Co(II) Bla2 (CoCo-Bla2) is substantially more active than the mono-Co(II) analogue. Rapid kinetics and UV-vis, 1H NMR, EPR, and EXAFS spectroscopic studies show that Co(II) binding to Bla2 is distributed, while EXAFS shows that Zn(II) binding is sequential. To our knowledge, this is the first documented example of a Zn enzyme that binds Co(II) and Zn(II) via distinct mechanisms, underscoring the need to demonstrate transferability when extrapolating results on Co(II)-substituted proteins to the native Zn(II)-containing forms.

  9. First report of blaNDM-1-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolated in Lebanon from civilians wounded during the Syrian war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafei, Rayane; Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer; Eveillard, Matthieu; Lemarié, Carole; Mallat, Hassan; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Kempf, Marie

    2014-04-01

    The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been observed worldwide. We describe the first detection of A. baumannii carrying the blaNDM-1 gene in Lebanon, isolated from Syrian patients wounded during the civil war. Four carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated in 2012 in the Tripoli Government Hospital, Lebanon, from civilians wounded during the Syrian war, were analysed. Susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion testing, and resistance to carbapenems was confirmed by Etest. The presence of blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaOXA-143-like, and blaNDM was investigated by PCR. Clonal relationships were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and blaOXA-51 sequence-based typing. All isolates harboured the blaNDM-1 gene and were negative for other tested carbapenemases. They all belonged to the sequence type 85 and formed a single cluster by PFGE. Finally, blaOXA-51-like gene sequencing revealed the presence of the blaOXA-94 variant in all four isolates. These findings show that Syria constitutes a reservoir for NDM-1-producing bacteria. These results also highlight the need for effective measures to stop the threatening spread of such strains. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Dissemination of metallo-β-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Egypt: mutation in blaVIM-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Hany; Hanora, Amro; Abdalla, Salah; Shaeky, Alaa; Saad, Alaa

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected from Suez Canal University Hospital in Ismailia, Egypt. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and phenotypic and genotypic screening for MBLs were performed on 147 isolates of P. aeruginosa. MICs were determined by agar dilution method for carbapenem that was ≥2 μg/mL for meropenem. MBL genes were detected by multiplex and monoplex PCR for P. aeruginosa-harbored plasmids. Mutation profile of sequenced MBL genes was screened using online software Clustal Omega. Out of 147 P. aeruginosa, 39 (26.5%) were carbapenem-resistant isolates and 25 (64%) were confirmed to be positive for MBLs. The susceptibility rate of P. aeruginosa toward polymyxin B and norfloxacin was 99% and 88%, respectively. Identification of collected isolates by API analysis and constructed phylogenetic tree of 16S rRNA showed that the isolates were related to P. aeruginosa species. The frequency of blaGIM-1, blaSIM-1, and blaSPM-1 was 52%, 48%, and 24%, respectively. BlaVIM and blaIMP-like genes were 20% and 4% and the sequences confirm the isolate to be blaVIM-1, blaVIM-2, blaVIM-4, and blaIMP-1. Three mutations were identified in blaVIM-4 gene. Our study emphasizes the high occurrence of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa-producing MBL enzymes. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Dissemination of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with new plasmid-borne bla(OXA-72) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shu-Chen; Yang, Su-Pen; Lee, Yi-Tzu; Chuang, Han-Chuan; Chen, Chien-Pei; Chang, Chi-Ling; Chen, Te-Li; Lu, Po-Liang; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2013-07-13

    The systemic surveillance of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (IRAB) from multicenters in Taiwan revealed the emergence of isolates with bla(OXA-72). This study described their genetic makeup, mechanism of spread, and contribution to carbapenem resistance. Two hundred and ninety-one non-repetitive isolates of A. baumannii were collected from 10 teaching hospitals from different geographical regions in Taiwan from June 2007 to September 2007. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution. Clonality was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Plasmid was extracted and digested by restriction enzymes, and subsequently analyzed by electrophoresis and Southern blot for bla(OXA-72). The flanking regions of bla(OXA-72) were determined by inverse PCR. The contribution of bla(OXA-72) to imipenem MIC was determined by transforming plasmids carrying bla(OXA-72) into imipenem-susceptible A. baumannii. Among 142 IRAB in Taiwan, 27 harbored bla(OXA-72); 22 originated from Southern Taiwan, 5 from Central Taiwan, and none from Northern Taiwan. There were two major clones. The bla(OXA-72) was identified in the plasmids of all isolates. Two genetic structures flanking plasmid-borne bla(OXA-72) were identified and shared identical sequences in certain regions; the one described in previous literature was present in only one isolate, and the new one was present in the remaining isolates. Introduction of bla(OXA-72) resulted in an increase of imipenem MIC in the transformants. The overexpression of bla(OXA-72) mRNA in response to imipenem further supported the contribution of bla(OXA-72). In conclusion, isolates with new plasmid-borne blaOXA-72 were found to be disseminated successfully in Southern Taiwan. The spread of the resistance gene depended on clonal spread and dissemination of a new plasmid. Bla(OXA-72) in these isolates directly led to their imipenem-resistance.

  12. Incidence of blaNDM-1 gene in Escherichia coli isolates at a tertiary care referral hospital in Northeast India

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    A Bora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Increasing reports on New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 producing Escherichia coli constitute a serious threat to global health since it is found to be highly resistant to most of the currently available antibiotics including carbapenems. This study has been performed to find out the incidence blaNDM-1 in E. coli isolates recovered from the various clinical samples at a tertiary care referral hospital in Northeast India. Materials and Methods: A total of 270 non-duplicated E. coli isolates were recovered from the various clinical samples at a tertiary care referral hospital in Northeast India. All isolates with reduced susceptibility to meropenem or ertapenem (diameter of zones of inhibition, ≤21 mm were further phenotypically confirmed for carbapenemase production by modified Hodge test. All screened isolates were also subjected to the polymerase chain reaction detection of blaNDM-1 gene and additional bla genes coding for transmission electron microscopy, SHV, CTX-M, and AmpC. Results: Out of 270 E. coli isolates, 14 were screened for carbapenemase production on the basis of their reduced susceptibility to meropenem or ertapenem. All screened isolates were found to be positive for blaNDM-1 . Each of the blaNDM-1 possessing isolate was also positive for two or more additional bla genes, such as blaTEM , blaCTX-M and blaAmpC . Phylogenetic analysis showed very less variation in blaNDM-1 gene with respect to blaNDM-1 possessing E. coli isolates from other parts of India and abroad. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the incidence of blaNDM-1 in E. coli isolates with a reduced susceptibility to meropenem or ertapenem.

  13. First Identification of a Patient Colonized With Klebsiella pneumoniae Carrying blaNDM-1 in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Shin Wu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1 is a novel type of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL. Enterobacteriaceae carrying this NDM-1 encoding gene, blaNDM-1, have been identified worldwide. Bacteria carrying blaNDM-1 are not only resistant to carbapenem, but also highly resistant to many classes of antibiotics, which indicate the importance of prompt identification of these bacteria and implementation of strict infection control measures to prevent their transmission. Here, we report the first identification and management of a patient colonized with Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaNDM-1 in Taiwan, who returned from New Delhi where he had been hospitalized for a gun-shot injury.

  14. Isolation, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile and Detection of Sul1, blaTEM, and blaSHV in Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Resistant Bacteria Isolated From Retail Sausages in Kampar, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Lih-Shin; She, Li-Yen; Chew, Choy-Hoong

    2016-10-01

    Due to the overuse of antibiotics in livestock as a growth-promoting agent, the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria is becoming a concern. In this study, we aimed to detect the presence and discover the molecular determinants of foodborne bacteria in retail sausages resistant towards the antibacterial agent amoxicillin-clavulanate. Two grams of sausages were chopped into small pieces and transferred into sterile Luria-Bertani (LB) enrichment broths overnight before they were plated on MacConkey agar petri dishes. The bacteria isolated were then screened for amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance, and an antimicrobial susceptibility test of each isolate was performed by using the disc diffusion method. Double synergy and phenotypic tests were carried out to detect the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). API 20E kit was used to identify the Enterobacteriaceae . All isolates were further examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for resistant genes bla OXA-1, bla OXA-10, plasmid-mediated AmpC ( bla CMY and bla DHA), and the chromosome-mediated AmpC, Sul 1, bla TEM, and bla SHV genes. A total of 18 amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant isolates were obtained from seven different types of retail sausages. Only half of them were identified as Enterobacteriaceae , but none were ESBL-producers. All the 18 isolated strains demonstrated resistance towards amoxicillin-clavulanate, penicillin and oxacillin (100%), cefotaxime (71.4%), cefpodoxime (66.7%), and ampicillin (83.3%). bla TEM was the most frequently detected β-lactamase gene. Both plasmid- and chromosomal-bound bla TEM genes were detected in all of the isolated Enterobacteriaceae . bla SHV and Sul 1 accounted for 22.2% and 11.1% of the amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant isolates, respectively, whereas bla AMPC, bla CMY, bla DHA, bla OXA-1, and bla OXA-10 were not found in any of the isolates. The only one ESBL-producing bacteria detected in this study was Chryseobacterium meningosepticum , which

  15. Isolation, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile and Detection of Sul1, blaTEM, and blaSHV in Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Resistant Bacteria Isolated From Retail Sausages in Kampar, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Lih-Shin; She, Li-Yen; Chew, Choy-Hoong

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to the overuse of antibiotics in livestock as a growth-promoting agent, the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria is becoming a concern. Objectives In this study, we aimed to detect the presence and discover the molecular determinants of foodborne bacteria in retail sausages resistant towards the antibacterial agent amoxicillin-clavulanate. Methods Two grams of sausages were chopped into small pieces and transferred into sterile Luria-Bertani (LB) enrichment broths overnight before they were plated on MacConkey agar petri dishes. The bacteria isolated were then screened for amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance, and an antimicrobial susceptibility test of each isolate was performed by using the disc diffusion method. Double synergy and phenotypic tests were carried out to detect the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). API 20E kit was used to identify the Enterobacteriaceae. All isolates were further examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for resistant genes blaOXA-1, blaOXA-10, plasmid-mediated AmpC (blaCMY and blaDHA), and the chromosome-mediated AmpC, Sul1, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes. Results A total of 18 amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant isolates were obtained from seven different types of retail sausages. Only half of them were identified as Enterobacteriaceae, but none were ESBL-producers. All the 18 isolated strains demonstrated resistance towards amoxicillin-clavulanate, penicillin and oxacillin (100%), cefotaxime (71.4%), cefpodoxime (66.7%), and ampicillin (83.3%). blaTEM was the most frequently detected β-lactamase gene. Both plasmid- and chromosomal-bound blaTEM genes were detected in all of the isolated Enterobacteriaceae. blaSHV and Sul1 accounted for 22.2% and 11.1% of the amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant isolates, respectively, whereas blaAMPC, blaCMY, blaDHA, blaOXA-1, and blaOXA-10 were not found in any of the isolates. The only one ESBL-producing bacteria detected in this study was Chryseobacterium

  16. Prevalencia de bacterias Gram negativas portadoras del gen blaKPC en hospitales de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Pacheco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las enzimas carbapenemasas de tipo KPC tienen gran capacidad de diseminación, son causantes de epidemias y se asocian a mayor mortalidad y estancia hospitalaria. En Colombia se han venido reportando cada vez más desde 2007, pero se desconoce la prevalencia hospitalaria. Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia hospitalaria del gen blaKPC. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la presencia del gen blaKPC y su ‘clonalidad’ en aislamientos de enterobacterias y Pseudomonas aeruginosa de pacientes hospitalizados. Resultados. De los 424 aislamientos evaluados durante el periodo de estudio, 273 cumplieron con criterios de elegibilidad, 31,1 % fue positivo para el gen blaKPC y, al ajustar por ‘clonalidad’, la positividad fue de 12,8 %. El gen blaKPC se encontró con mayor frecuencia en Klebsiella pneumoniae seguido de P. aeruginosa y otras enterobacterias. A pesar de que la unidad de cuidados intensivos aportó el mayor número de aislamientos, no se encontró un patrón más prevalente del gen blaKPC en las ellas que en las otras salas. El aparato respiratorio fue el sitio anatómico de origen con la mayor prevalencia. No se presentó estacionalidad en la frecuencia de los aislamientos portadores del gen blaKPC. Conclusión. Este estudio reveló la alta prevalencia del gen blaKPC en diferentes microorganismos aislados en varias instituciones hospitalarias del país. La extraordinaria capacidad de propagación del gen blaKPC, las dificultades del diagnóstico y la limitada disponibilidad de antibióticos plantean la apremiante necesidad de fortalecer los sistemas de vigilancia epidemiológica y ajustar oportunamente las políticas institucionales de uso racional de antibióticos con el fin de contener su diseminación a otras instituciones de salud del país.

  17. Prevalencia de bacterias Gram negativas portadoras del gen blaKPC en hospitales de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson Pacheco; Lyda Osorio; Adriana M. Correa; Maria Virginia Villegas

    2014-01-01

    Introducción. Las enzimas carbapenemasas de tipo KPC tienen gran capacidad de diseminación, son causantes de epidemias y se asocian a mayor mortalidad y estancia hospitalaria. En Colombia se han venido reportando cada vez más desde 2007, pero se desconoce la prevalencia hospitalaria. Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia hospitalaria del gen blaKPC. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la presencia del gen blaKPC y su ‘clonalidad’ en aislamientos de enterobacterias y Pseudomonas aeruginosa de p...

  18. Blaženje podnebnih sprememb z uporabo geoinženiringa

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi se osredotočamo na vrednotenje dveh znanosti, znanosti o podnebnih spremembah in znanosti o geoinženiringu, katerega osnovni namen je blaženje podnebnih sprememb. Diplomska naloga je razdeljena na dva dela. V prvem delu podrobneje razglabljamo o znanosti in politiki podnebnih sprememb ter njihovem orodju (o t.i. klimatskih modelih), s katerim operiramo in napovedujemo razvoj podnebnih sprememb, na podlagi katerih se sprejemajo radikalne družbenopolitične odločitve za blažen...

  19. Identifying Spatial Units of Human Occupation in the Brazilian Amazon Using Landsat and CBERS Multi-Resolution Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Dal’Asta, Ana Paula; Brigatti, Newton; Amaral, Silvana; Escada, Maria Isabel Sobral; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Every spatial unit of human occupation is part of a network structuring an extensive process of urbanization in the Amazon territory. Multi-resolution remote sensing data were used to identify and map human presence and activities in the Sustainable Forest District of Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), west of Pará, Brazil. The limits of spatial units of human occupation were mapped based on digital classification of Landsat-TM5 (Thematic Mapper 5) image (30m spatial resolution). High-spatial-...

  20. Emergence of carbapenem resistant Escherichia coli isolates producing blaNDM and blaOXA-48-like carried on IncA/C and IncL/M plasmids at two Iranian university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solgi, Hamid; Giske, Christian G; Badmasti, Farzad; Aghamohammad, Shadi; Havaei, Seyed Asghar; Sabeti, Shahram; Mostafavizadeh, Kamyar; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh

    2017-11-01

    The emergence of carbapenem resistance among Escherichia coli is a serious threat to public health. The objective of this study was to investigate resistance genes and clonality of carbapenem resistant E. coli in Iran. Between February 2015 and July 2016, a total of 32 non-duplicate E. coli isolates that were ertapenem resistant or intermediate (R/I-ETP) were collected from patient clinical or surveillance cultures (rectal swabs) at two university hospitals. Resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. Conjugation experiments, PCR-based replicon typing, PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. PCR assays showed, among the 32 isolates, twenty-nine strains produced carbapenemase genes. The predominant carbapenemase was bla OXA-48 (82.8%), followed by bla NDM-1 (31%), bla NDM-7 (6.9%) and bla OXA-181 (3.4%). Seven of the bla NDM positive isolates co-harbored bla OXA-48 carbapenemases. The bla NDM and bla OXA-48 were found in IncA/C and IncL/M conjugative plasmids, respectively. The bla CTX-M-15 , qnrA and intI1 genes were also present in most isolates. The PFGE revealed genetic diversity among the 28 E. coli isolates, which belonged to six minor PFGE clusters and 14 isolates were singletons. The 26 isolates were distributed into 18 STs, of which two were dominant (ST648 and ST167). We identified one bla NDM-1 -positive ST131 E. coli isolates that harbor the bla CTX-M-15 and bla TEM genes. Horizontal transfer of IncA/C and IncL/M plasmids has likely facilitated the spread of the bla OXA-48 and bla NDM genes among E. coli. Their clonal diversity and the presence of faecal carriers in isolates suggest an endemic spread of OXA-48 and NDM. Therefore, it emphasizes the critical importance of monitoring and controlling the spread of carbapenem resistant E. coli. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Functional blaKPC-2 sequences are present in United States beef cattle feces regardless of antibiotic use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, using quantitative PCR (qPCR) we detected blaKPC-2 in metagenomic DNA (mgDNA) prepared from the feces of 36 lots beef cattle "raised without antibiotics" (RWA) and 36 lots raised "conventionally" (CONV). Since a small internal fragment of the blaKPC-2 gene was targeted we sought to confirm...

  2. Australian Indigenous Students' Performance on the PIPS-BLA Reading and Mathematics Scales: 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Irene; Wildy, Helen; Pepper, Vivienne; Faulkner, Joanne; Berman, Ye'Elah

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of literacy and numeracy skills of students as they enter school for the first time is not yet established nation-wide in Australia. However, a large proportion of primary schools have chosen to assess their starting students on the Performance Indicators in Primary Schools-Baseline Assessment (PIPS-BLA). This series of three…

  3. Detection of New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase (Encoded by blaNDM-1 ) in Enterobacter aerogenes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yong; Xiao, Wei-Qiang; Gong, Jiao-Mei; Pan, Jun; Xu, Qing-Xia

    2017-03-01

    The increase in bla NDM -1 in Enterobacteriaceae has become a major concern worldwide. In previous study, we investigated clonal dissemination and mechanisms of resistance to carbapenem in China. We carried out retrospective surveillance for bla NDM -1 among carbapenem-resistant enterobacter strains, which were isolated from patients at our hospital by bacterial strains selection, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, species identification, and molecular detection of resistance gene. We found three bla NDM -1 -positive isolates which were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes in clinical patients in China. The bla NDM -1 -positive Enterobacter aerogenes isolates were first found. It is important to mandate prudent usage of antibiotics and implement infection control measures to control the spread of these resistant bla NDM -1 -positive strains. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Mechanisms Involved in Acquisition of blaNDM Genes by IncA/C2 and IncFIIY Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wailan, Alexander M; Sidjabat, Hanna E; Yam, Wan Keat; Alikhan, Nabil-Fareed; Petty, Nicola K; Sartor, Anna L; Williamson, Deborah A; Forde, Brian M; Schembri, Mark A; Beatson, Scott A; Paterson, David L; Walsh, Timothy R; Partridge, Sally R

    2016-07-01

    blaNDM genes confer carbapenem resistance and have been identified on transferable plasmids belonging to different incompatibility (Inc) groups. Here we present the complete sequences of four plasmids carrying a blaNDM gene, pKP1-NDM-1, pEC2-NDM-3, pECL3-NDM-1, and pEC4-NDM-6, from four clinical samples originating from four different patients. Different plasmids carry segments that align to different parts of the blaNDM region found on Acinetobacter plasmids. pKP1-NDM-1 and pEC2-NDM-3, from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, respectively, were identified as type 1 IncA/C2 plasmids with almost identical backbones. Different regions carrying blaNDM are inserted in different locations in the antibiotic resistance island known as ARI-A, and ISCR1 may have been involved in the acquisition of blaNDM-3 by pEC2-NDM-3. pECL3-NDM-1 and pEC4-NDM-6, from Enterobacter cloacae and E. coli, respectively, have similar IncFIIY backbones, but different regions carrying blaNDM are found in different locations. Tn3-derived inverted-repeat transposable elements (TIME) appear to have been involved in the acquisition of blaNDM-6 by pEC4-NDM-6 and the rmtC 16S rRNA methylase gene by IncFIIY plasmids. Characterization of these plasmids further demonstrates that even very closely related plasmids may have acquired blaNDM genes by different mechanisms. These findings also illustrate the complex relationships between antimicrobial resistance genes, transposable elements, and plasmids and provide insights into the possible routes for transmission of blaNDM genes among species of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Isolation of Enterobacter aerogenes carrying blaTEM-1 and blaKPC-3 genes recovered from a hospital Intensive Care Unit.

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    Pulcrano, Giovanna; Pignanelli, Salvatore; Vollaro, Adriana; Esposito, Matilde; Iula, Vita Dora; Roscetto, Emanuela; Soriano, Amata Amy; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2016-06-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes has recently emerged as an important hospital pathogen. In this study, we showed the emergence of E. aerogenes isolates carrying the blaKPC gene in patients colonized by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Two multiresistant E. aerogenes isolates were recovered from bronchial aspirates of two patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit at the "Santa Maria della Scaletta" Hospital, Imola. The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed the high resistance to carbapenems and double-disk synergy test confirmed the phenotype of KPC and AmpC production. Other investigation revealed that ESBL and blaKPC genes were carried on the conjugative pKpQIL plasmid. This is a relevant report in Italy that describes a nosocomial infection due to the production of KPC beta-lactamases by an E. aerogenes isolate in patients previously colonized by K. pneumoniae carbapenem-resistant. In conclusion, it's necessary a continuous monitoring of multidrug-resistant strains for the detection of any KPC-producing bacteria that could expand the circulation of carbapenem-resistant pathogens. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Clonal spread of blaOXA-72-carrying Acinetobacter baumannii sequence type 512 in Taiwan.

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    Kuo, Han-Yueh; Hsu, Po-Jui; Chen, Jiann-Yuan; Liao, Po-Cheng; Lu, Chia-Wei; Chen, Chang-Hua; Liou, Ming-Li

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report to show an insidious outbreak of armA- and blaOXA-72-carrying Acinetobacter baumannii sequence type 512 (ST512) at a study hospital in northern Taiwan. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that this was a ST512 clone. All of the isolates with ST512 carried a novel 12,056-bp repGR2 in combination with a repGR12-type plasmid. This plasmid, designated pAB-ML, had one copy of the blaOXA-72 gene that was flanked by XerC/XerD-like sites and conferred resistance to carbapenems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. blaGES carrying Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Flávia L. P. C. Pellegrino

    Full Text Available Previous analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa class-1 integrons from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed the blaGES gene in one isolate. We screened isolates of two widespread PFGE genotypes, A and B, at a public hospital in Rio, for the presence of blaGES. The gene was detected in all seven P. aeruginosa isolates belonging to genotype B. Three of the seven genotype-B isolates were resistant to amikacin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid. The other four isolates were resistant to all these agents, except gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. A synergistic effect between ceftazidime and imipenem or clavulanic acid suggested the production of GES-type ESBL.

  8. First case of bacteraemia due to Acinetobacter schindleri harbouring blaNDM-1 in an immunocompromised patient

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    S. Montaña

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinically significant NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter schindleri has not yet been described in the literature. We report the first case of bacteraemia due to an A. schindleri strain harbouring blaNDM-1 recovered from an immunocompromised patient. Our report reinforces the fact that NDM-1 can easily be acquired by Acinetobacter species. Keywords: Acinetobacter schindleri, bacteraemia, blaNDM-1, clinically significant isolate, immunocompromised patient

  9. Delayed identification of Acinetobacter baumannii during an outbreak owing to disrupted blaOXA-51-like by ISAba19.

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    Ahmadi, Amjad; Salimizand, Himen

    2017-07-01

    Early detection of Acinetobacter baumannii, an emerging pathogen in hospital settings, is of interest. The bla OXA-51-like family had been used as a marker to detect A. baumannii. During an infection outbreak, 14 isolates produced a 1.7-kb PCR band instead of 353 bp for this marker. This work sought the reasons behind the increased marker size. Characterisation of isolates was done by API-20NE, gyrB multiplex PCR and 16S-23S rRNA ITS sequencing. The 1.7-kb band generated and the complete bla OXA-51-like variant were sequenced to find the probable integrated element. Susceptibility testing to various antimicrobials was performed by microdilution. bla OXA-like , metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), the ISAba1 element and the presence of ISAba1 adjacent to bla OXA-like were sought. rep-PCR, global clonal (GC) lineage determination and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed to analyse the relationship among isolates. Isolates were characterised as Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex by API-20NE. gyrB multiplex PCR and 16S-23S ITS sequencing verified the isolates as A. baumannii. Sequencing of the 1.7-kb band revealed ISAba19 as the disrupting element. The bla OXA-51 variant was bla OXA-66 , which was elongated to 2.2 kb due to ISAba19. The bla OXA-23-like family was found in 67% of isolates. MBL genes were not detected; however, ISAba1-bla OXA-23-like was characterised in carbapenem-resistant isolates (53%; 8/15). Isolates were divided into three clusters by rep-PCR. All strains were ST2 and all but one belonged to GC II. Identification of A. baumannii based only on bla OXA-51-like is not reliable. Besides bla OXA-51-like , multiplex PCR of gyrB and rpoB could provide rapid and cost-effective results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  10. Chromosomal Amplification of the blaOXA-58 Carbapenemase Gene in a Proteus mirabilis Clinical Isolate.

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    Girlich, Delphine; Bonnin, Rémy A; Bogaerts, Pierre; De Laveleye, Morgane; Huang, Daniel T; Dortet, Laurent; Glaser, Philippe; Glupczynski, Youri; Naas, Thierry

    2017-02-01

    Horizontal gene transfer may occur between distantly related bacteria, thus leading to genetic plasticity and in some cases to acquisition of novel resistance traits. Proteus mirabilis is an enterobacterial species responsible for human infections that may express various acquired β-lactam resistance genes, including different classes of carbapenemase genes. Here we report a Proteus mirabilis clinical isolate (strain 1091) displaying resistance to penicillin, including temocillin, together with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems and susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. Using biochemical tests, significant carbapenem hydrolysis was detected in P. mirabilis 1091. Since PCR failed to detect acquired carbapenemase genes commonly found in Enterobacteriaceae, we used a whole-genome sequencing approach that revealed the presence of bla OXA-58 class D carbapenemase gene, so far identified only in Acinetobacter species. This gene was located on a 3.1-kb element coharboring a bla AmpC -like gene. Remarkably, these two genes were bracketed by putative XerC-XerD binding sites and inserted at a XerC-XerD site located between the terminase-like small- and large-subunit genes of a bacteriophage. Increased expression of the two bla genes resulted from a 6-time tandem amplification of the element as revealed by Southern blotting. This is the first isolation of a clinical P. mirabilis strain producing OXA-58, a class D carbapenemase, and the first description of a XerC-XerD-dependent insertion of antibiotic resistance genes within a bacteriophage. This study revealed a new role for the XerC-XerD recombinase in bacteriophage biology. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Gene blaCTX-M Mutation as Risk Factor of Antibiotic Resistance

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    Devinna Kang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are more than half from all antibiotics used in the world which is belong to β lactam group, but clinical effectiveness of the antibiotics are limited by antibiotic resistance of microorganisms as causative agents from infectious diseases. Several resistance mechanisms for Enterobacteriaceae are mostly caused by enzymatic hydrolysis of antibiotics specific enzymes, called β lactamases. β lactamases represent a large group of enzyme which is genetically and functionally different as extended‑spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL and known as greatest threat of resistence. Plasmid localization from the encoded gene and enzyme distribution among the pathogen increases every year. Most widespread and clinically relevant ESBL are class A ESBL of Temoniera (TEM, Sulphydryl variable (SHV and Cefotaxime (CTX-M types. The purpose of this review was to analyze variant of blaCTX-M gene which cause the most increase incidence of antibiotic resistance. The methods of this review were data-based searching based on Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar, without limitation of index factor by using the keyword “blaCTX-M”, “Extended-spectrum β-lactamase”, and “antibiotic resistance”. The conclusion of the review is CTX-M type ESBL have replaced TEM and SHV type as dominant enzyme in last decade. ESBL produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae have emerged as one of major nosocomial pathogens. Nosocomial infection caused by CTX-M-15 in Klebsiella pneumoniae dramatically increased in recent years.

  12. Virulence of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates harboring bla KPC-2 carbapenemase gene in a Caenorhabditis elegans model.

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    Jean-Philippe Lavigne

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC is a carbapenemase increasingly reported worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae. The aim of this study was to analyze the virulence of several KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. The studied strains were (i five KPC-2 clinical strains from different geographical origins, belonging to different ST-types and possessing plasmids of different incompatibility groups; (ii seven transformants obtained after electroporation of either these natural KPC plasmids or a recombinant plasmid harboring only the bla KPC-2 gene into reference strains K. pneumoniae ATCC10031/CIP53153; and (iii five clinical strains cured of plasmids. The virulence of K. pneumoniae isolates was evaluated in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. The clinical KPC producers and transformants were significantly less virulent (LT50: 5.5 days than K. pneumoniae reference strain (LT50: 4.3 days (p<0.01. However, the worldwide spread KPC-2 positive K. pneumoniae ST258 strains and reference strains containing plasmids extracted from K. pneumoniae ST258 strains had a higher virulence than KPC-2 strains belonging to other ST types (LT50: 5 days vs. 6 days, p<0.01. The increased virulence observed in cured strains confirmed this trend. The bla KPC-2 gene itself was not associated to increased virulence.

  13. Pathogenicity of pan-drug-resistant Serratia marcescens harbouring blaNDM-1.

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    Gruber, Teresa M; Göttig, Stephan; Mark, Laura; Christ, Sara; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Wichelhaus, Thomas A; Hamprecht, Axel

    2015-04-01

    To characterize a pan-drug-resistant Serratia marcescens clinical isolate carrying the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-1. The presence of β-lactamase genes was examined by PCR and sequencing. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by antibiotic gradient test. Transformation assays, transconjugation assays, PFGE and PCR-based replicon typing were used for plasmid analysis. Horizontal gene transfer was evaluated by liquid mating using Escherichia coli J53 as a recipient. Pathogenicity of NDM-1 expressing S. marcescens was analysed using the Galleria mellonella infection model. S. marcescens isolate SM1890 was non-susceptible to all tested antibiotics, with minocycline retaining intermediate activity. blaNDM-1 was located on a 140 kb IncA/C-type plasmid which was transferable to E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by conjugation. The LD50 of the NDM-positive, SM1890 isolate was higher than that of other, NDM-1 negative, S. marcescens strains. The presence of a blaNDM-1-harbouring IncA/C plasmid resulted in marked resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, but had no significant effect on virulence of isogenic strains. Because of the intrinsic resistance of S. marcescens to colistin and reduced susceptibility to tigecycline, treatment options for infections by NDM-1-positive isolates are extremely limited in this species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Characterization of a novel plasmid type and various genetic contexts of bla OXA-58 in Acinetobacter spp. from multiple cities in China.

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    Yiqi Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Several studies have described the epidemiological distribution of blaOXA-58-harboring Acinetobacter baumannii in China. However, there is limited data concerning the replicon types of blaOXA-58-carrying plasmids and the genetic context surrounding blaOXA-58 in Acinetobacter spp. in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve non-duplicated blaOXA-58-harboring Acinetobacter spp. isolates were collected from six hospitals in five different cities between 2005 and 2010. The molecular epidemiology of the isolates was carried out using PFGE and multilocus sequence typing. Carbapenemase-encoding genes and plasmid replicase genes were identified by PCR. The genetic location of blaOXA-58 was analyzed using S1-nuclease method. Plasmid conjugation and electrotransformation were performed to evaluate the transferability of blaOXA-58-harboring plasmids. The genetic structure surrounding blaOXA-58 was determined by cloning experiments. The twelve isolates included two Acinetobacter pittii isolates (belong to one pulsotype, three Acinetobacter nosocomialis isolates (belong to two pulsotypes and seven Acinetobacter baumannii isolates (belong to two pulsotypes/sequence types. A. baumannii ST91 was found to be a potential multidrug resistant risk clone carrying both blaOXA-58 and blaOXA-23. blaOXA-58 located on plasmids varied from ca. 52 kb to ca. 143 kb. All plasmids can be electrotransformed to A. baumannii recipient, but were untypeable by the current replicon typing scheme. A novel plasmid replicase named repAci10 was identified in blaOXA-58-harboring plasmids of two A. pittii isolates, three A. nosocomialis isolates and two A. baumannii isolates. Four kinds of genetic contexts of blaOXA-58 were identified. The transformants of plasmids with structure of IS6 family insertion sequence (ISOur1, IS1008 or IS15-ΔISAba3-like element-blaOXA-58 displayed carbapenem nonsusceptible, while others with structure of intact ISAba3-like element-bla

  15. Survey of Antibiotic Resistance and Frequency of blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-24 Oxacillinase in Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Tracheal Tube Specimens of Patients Hospitalized in Intensive Care Units in Isfahan city

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    M Ghalebi

    2017-04-01

    chi-square tests. Results: All isolates were found resistant to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, meropenem and imipenem and the lowest resistance were seen against colistin (0% and tigecycline (10%, respectively. All isolates were resistant to imipenem using Etest method with MIC ≥ 32 μg / ml. blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-24 genes were detected in 87.5% and 25% of isolates, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the results, treatment of A. baumannii isolates by carbapenems is ineffective and tigecycline or colistin could be used for treatment. Other studies for detection of other mechanisms for carbapenem resistance are recommended.

  16. Iodometric and Molecular Detection of ESBL Production Among Clinical Isolates of E. coli Fingerprinted by ERIC-PCR: The First Egyptian Report Declares the Emergence of E. coli O25b-ST131clone Harboring blaGES.

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    El-Badawy, Mohamed F; Tawakol, Wael M; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A; Mansy, Moselhy S; Shohayeb, Mohamed M; Ashour, Mohammed S

    2017-09-01

    The extensive use of β-lactam antibiotics has led to emergence and spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of 7 different ESBL genes (bla TEM , bla SHV , bla CTX-M , bla VEB , bla PER , bla GES , and bla OXA-10 ) and O25b-ST131 high-risk clone among 61 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Also, one broad-spectrum β-lactamase (bla OXA-1 ) was investigated. This study was also constructed to evaluate iodometric overlay method in detection of ESBL production. Phenotypic identification of E. coli isolates using API 20E revealed 18 distinct biotypes. DNA fingerprinting using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) differentiated all isolates into 2 main phylogenetic groups with 60 distinct genetic profiles. Elevated values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 50 and MIC 90 for third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins were observed. Phenotypic tests revealed that 85.24% of isolates were ESBL producers. The incidence rates of bla TEM , bla SHV , bla CTX-M , bla GES , bla OXA-1 , and bla OXA-10 among E. coli ESBL producer phenotype were 69.23%, 25%, 96.15%, 3.85%, 11.54%, and 48%, respectively. On the other hand, bla VEB and bla PER were not detected. Sequencing of bla TEM and bla SHV revealed that bla TEM-214 and bla SHV-11 were the most prevalent variants. Group characterization of bla CTX-M revealed that bla CTX-M-1 was the most prevalent group of bla CTX-M family. It was found that 30.77% of E. coli ESBL producers belonged to O25b-ST131 clone harboring bla CTX-M-15 . This study concluded that iodometric overlay method was 100% sensitive in detection of ESBL production. To our knowledge, this is the first Egyptian study that declares the emergence of E. coli O25b-ST131 harboring bla GES .

  17. The role of the genetic elements bla oxa and IS Aba 1 in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in carbapenem resistance in the hospital setting.

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    Kobs, Vanessa Cristine; Ferreira, Jéssica Augustini; Bobrowicz, Thaís Alexandra; Ferreira, Leslie Ecker; Deglmann, Roseneide Campos; Westphal, Glauco Adrieno; França, Paulo Henrique Condeixa de

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Acinetobacter genus are key pathogens that cause healthcare-associated infections, and they tend to spread and develop new antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Oxacillinases are primarily responsible for resistance to carbapenem antibiotics. Higher rates of carbapenem hydrolysis might be ascribed to insertion sequences, such as the ISAba1 sequence, near bla OXA genes. The present study examined the occurrence of the genetic elements bla OXA and ISAba1 and their relationship with susceptibility to carbapenems in clinical isolates of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex. Isolates identified over 6 consecutive years in a general hospital in Joinville, Southern Brazil, were evaluated. The investigation of 5 families of genes encoding oxacillinases and the ISAba1 sequence location relative to bla OXA genes was conducted using polymerase chain reaction. All isolates presented the bla OXA-51-like gene (n = 78), and 91% tested positive for the bla OXA-23-like gene (n = 71). The presence of ISAba1 was exclusively detected in isolates carrying the bla OXA-23-like gene. All isolates in which ISAba1 was found upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene (n = 69) showed resistance to carbapenems, whereas the only isolate in which ISAba1 was not located near the bla OXA-23-like gene was susceptible to carbapenems. The ISAba1 sequence position of another bla OXA-23-like-positive isolate was inconclusive. The isolates exclusively carrying the bla OXA-51-like gene (n = 7) showed susceptibility to carbapenems. The presence of the ISAba1 sequence upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene was strongly associated with carbapenem resistance in isolates of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex in the hospital center studied.

  18. The role of the genetic elements bla oxa and IS Aba 1 in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in carbapenem resistance in the hospital setting

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    Vanessa Cristine Kobs

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Members of the Acinetobacter genus are key pathogens that cause healthcare-associated infections, and they tend to spread and develop new antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Oxacillinases are primarily responsible for resistance to carbapenem antibiotics. Higher rates of carbapenem hydrolysis might be ascribed to insertion sequences, such as the ISAba1 sequence, near bla OXA genes. The present study examined the occurrence of the genetic elements bla OXA and ISAba1 and their relationship with susceptibility to carbapenems in clinical isolates of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex. METHODS: Isolates identified over 6 consecutive years in a general hospital in Joinville, Southern Brazil, were evaluated. The investigation of 5 families of genes encoding oxacillinases and the ISAba1 sequence location relative to bla OXA genes was conducted using polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: All isolates presented the bla OXA-51-like gene (n = 78, and 91% tested positive for the bla OXA-23-like gene (n = 71. The presence of ISAba1 was exclusively detected in isolates carrying the bla OXA-23-like gene. All isolates in which ISAba1 was found upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene (n = 69 showed resistance to carbapenems, whereas the only isolate in which ISAba1 was not located near the bla OXA-23-like gene was susceptible to carbapenems. The ISAba1 sequence position of another bla OXA-23-like-positive isolate was inconclusive. The isolates exclusively carrying the bla OXA-51-like gene (n = 7 showed susceptibility to carbapenems. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the ISAba1 sequence upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene was strongly associated with carbapenem resistance in isolates of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex in the hospital center studied.

  19. Detection of blaCTX-M gene among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from water samples in Baghdad

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    Saba R. Khdair

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 50 environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were collected from sewage and tap water in Baghdad, Iraq. The MICs of Cefotaxime and Ceftazidime were determined by using agar dilution method, The MIC ranged from 2 to 256 µg/ml.The results of antibiotic sensitivity test showed that among sewage P. aeruginosa isolates, resistance was observed most often to Ticarcillin (92%, Penicillin G (84%, Ceftazidime (12%, (8% for each of Cefotaxime and Ticarcillin. On the other hand, all tap water isolates were sensitive to Ofloxacin and Levofloxacin, Except (5% of isolates were resistant to Cefotaxime (25% to Ceftazidime and (95% to Ticarcillin. All isolates were tested for Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL production. Ten isolates (20% were found to be ESBL producers. All environmental P. aeruginosa isolates were screened for the presence of the blaCTX-M genes by application PCR, Only (30% of them were positive for this test.

  20. Identificación genotípica de β-lactamasas de espectro espectro extendido (BLEE (blaTEM y blaSHV en Escherichia coli uropatógena

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    Yeffersson Grandas Franco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las infecciones de tracto urinario (ITU son consideradas un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial debido a su incidencia y morbilidad. Entre los agentes causales que se aíslan con mayor frecuencia, se encuentra E. coli, con una prevalencia que va desde 40% al 95%. Actualmente, la problemática de las ITU ha venido en aumento, debido a la aparición de resistencia bacteriana a agentes antimicrobianos, influenciado por la presión selectiva, la preexistencia de genes de resistencia y el uso indiscriminado de antibióticos. Objetivo: Identificar molecularmente β-lactamasas de espectro extendido (blaTEM y blaSHV, en E. coli uropatógena, aislada en pacientes ambulatorios que asisten a un laboratorio clínico de tercer nivel de complejidad. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. En este trabajo se estudiaron 250 cepas de las cuales 120 eran presuntivas de producir β-lactamasas de acuerdo al método de Kirby-bauer que se realizó años anteriores por el semillero de Inmunidad e Infección. Los genes de interés se amplificaron mediante PCR. Se utilizó Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700603 como control positivo. Una vez amplificado el gen se llevó a cabo el corrido electroforético en gel de agarosa donde el producto amplificado fue de 470 pb en el caso de blaSHV y de 1080 pb para blaTEM. Los fenotipos compatibles con producción de β-lactamasas se analizaron por medio de distribución de frecuencia usando el software WHONET 5,6. La distribución de frecuencia de los genes analizados se calculó usando el software MedCalc versión 15.2.2 (Bélgica – Software BBVA. Resultados: De las cepas analizadas, el 52,8% portadoras del gen blaTEM y el 2,8% del gen blaSHV-2. Se encontró co-existencia de los genes blaSHV-2 y blaTEM en el 1,68% del total de las cepas. De todas las cepas presuntivas de producir BLEE (n=120, 94 fueron productoras de BLEE, lo que nos indicaría que las 21 cepas restantes, implementan

  1. Whole genome sequencing of Escherichia coli encoding blaNDM isolated from humans and companion animals in Egypt

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    Companion animals are a source of zoonotic infections and especially important considering the potential of companion animals to harbor antibiotic resistant pathogens. In this study, blaNDM positive Escherichia coli from companion animals, humans, and the environment from Mansoura, Egypt were charac...

  2. blaCTX-M-I group extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing Salmonella typhi from hospitalized patients in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Akinyemi KO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kabiru O Akinyemi,1 Bamidele A Iwalokun,2 Olajide O Alafe,1 Sulaiman A Mudashiru,1 Christopher Fakorede,11Department of Microbiology, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Biochemistry and Nutrition Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, NigeriaPurpose: The global spread of blaCTX-M-I extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Salmonella spp. remains a major threat to treatment and control. Evidence of emergence and spread of this marker are lacking in Nigeria. This study investigated blaCTX-M-I ESBL production among Salmonella isolates from hospitalized patients.Methods: Patients (158 total made up of two groups were evaluated. Group A was composed of 135 patients with persistent pyrexia and group B was composed of 23 gastroenteritis patients and their stool samples. Samples were cultured, and isolates were identified and were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by standard methods. Isolates were further screened for ESBL production, blaCTX-M-I genes and transferability by double disk synergy test, plasmid extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and conjugation experiment.Results: Thirty-five (25.9% Salmonella isolates were identified from group A, of which 74.3% were S. typhi, 22.9% were S. paratyphi and two (5.7% were invasive non-typhoidal S. enteritidis. Nine Plasmodium falciparum infections were recorded, four of which were identified as co-infections with typhoidal Salmonella. Only two (8.7% S. enteritidis samples were obtained from group B (P>0.05. A total of 24 isolates were ESBL-positive, eliciting resistance to five to seven antibiotics, and were multiple-drug resistant. ESBL production due to the blaCTX-M-I gene cluster was detected in eleven (45.8% Salmonella isolates. Nine (81.8% of the eleven blaCTX-M-I ESBL producers were S. typhi and two (18.2% isolates were S. enteritidis. Four of nine S. typhi blaCTX-M-I ESBL-producing strains harbored 23 kb self-transmissible plasmid that was co

  3. Genotypic and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Analysis of ISAba Elements and blaOXA-23-like Genes Including A New Variant

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    Abbas eBahador

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-AB causes serious nosocomial infections, especially in ICU wards of hospitals, worldwide. Expression of blaOXA genes is the chief mechanism of conferring carbapenem resistance among CR-AB. Although some blaOXA genes have been studied among CR-AB isolates from Iran, their blaOXA-23-like genes have not been investigated. We used a multiplex-PCR to detect Ambler class A, B, and D carbapenemases of 85 isolates, and determined that 34 harbored blaOXA-23-like genes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP genotyping, followed by DNA sequencing of blaOXA-23-like amplicons of CR-AB from each AFLP group was used to characterize their blaOXA-23-like genes. We also assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CR-AB isolates, and tested whether they harbored insertion sequences ISAba1 and ISAba4. Sequence comparison with reference strain A. baumannii (NCTC12156 revealed five types of mutations in blaOXA-23-like genes; including one novel variant and four mutants that were already reported from China and the USA. All of the blaOXA-23-like genes mutations were associated with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs against imipenem. ISAba1 and ISAba4 sequences were detected upstream of blaOXA-23 genes in 19% and 7% of isolates, respectively. The isolation of CR-AB with new blaOXA-23 mutations including some that have been reported from the USA and China highlights CR-AB pervasive distribution, which underscores the importance of concerted national and global efforts to control the spread of CR-AB isolates worldwide.

  4. Identification and characterization of two novel bla(KLUC resistance genes through large-scale resistance plasmids sequencing.

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    Teng Xu

    Full Text Available Plasmids are important antibiotic resistance determinant carriers that can disseminate various drug resistance genes among species or genera. By using a high throughput sequencing approach, two groups of plasmids of Escherichia coli (named E1 and E2, each consisting of 160 clinical E. coli strains isolated from different periods of time were sequenced and analyzed. A total of 20 million reads were obtained and mapped onto the known resistance gene sequences. As a result, a total of 9 classes, including 36 types of antibiotic resistant genes, were identified. Among these genes, 25 and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs appeared, of which 9 and 12 SNPs are nonsynonymous substitutions in the E1 and E2 samples. It is interesting to find that a novel genotype of bla(KLUC, whose close relatives, bla(KLUC-1 and bla(KLUC-2, have been previously reported as carried on the Kluyvera cryocrescens chromosome and Enterobacter cloacae plasmid, was identified. It shares 99% and 98% amino acid identities with Kluc-1 and Kluc-2, respectively. Further PCR screening of 608 Enterobacteriaceae family isolates yielded a second variant (named bla(KLUC-4. It was interesting to find that Kluc-3 showed resistance to several cephalosporins including cefotaxime, whereas bla(KLUC-4 did not show any resistance to the antibiotics tested. This may be due to a positively charged residue, Arg, replaced by a neutral residue, Leu, at position 167, which is located within an omega-loop. This work represents large-scale studies on resistance gene distribution, diversification and genetic variation in pooled multi-drug resistance plasmids, and provides insight into the use of high throughput sequencing technology for microbial resistance gene detection.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of outbreak-related pseudomonas aeruginosa strains carrying the novel variant blaVIM-17 metallo-beta-lactamase gene.

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    Siarkou, Victoria I; Vitti, Danai; Protonotariou, Efthimia; Ikonomidis, Alexandros; Sofianou, Danai

    2009-04-01

    A study was designed to investigate the molecular epidemiological characteristics of multidrug-resistant outbreak-related Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected in a university hospital in northern Greece. Of 29 nonreplicate P. aeruginosa isolates resistant to carbapenems and ceftazidime, 14 were positive for metallo-beta-lactamase production. PCR analyses with primers specific for bla(VIM) and bla(IMP) revealed that 13 isolates carried a novel bla(VIM-2) gene variant, designated bla(VIM-17), and only 1 isolate carried bla(VIM-2), a gene predominant among P. aeruginosa strains in Greek hospitals. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-digested genomic DNAs showed a close genetic relationship for 12 of 13 bla(VIM-17)-carrying outbreak-related isolates, which were of the O11 serotype; the clonally unrelated isolate carrying bla(VIM-17) was of the O12 serotype. PCR mapping strategies for the detection of class 1 integrons and sequencing approaches revealed the presence of integrons containing one bla(VIM) cassette flanked by two aacA29 cassettes. These integrons were similar but not identical to In59 (GenBank accession number AF263519) initially described in France. All isolates carrying bla(VIM-17), regardless of their genetic profile, had an identical integron, named In59.3, indicating that although the hospital outbreak was mainly due to clonal dissemination, the horizontal transmission of the bla(VIM-17)-containing integron among P. aeruginosa isolates should also have occurred. An outbreak-related isolate and a control strain, both of which carried the bla(VIM-2) gene but which were clonally distinct, had an identical integron, named In59.2, which differed only at the level of the bla(VIM) gene from In59.3 integrons, suggesting a common ancestry. The spread of the bla(VIM-17)-containing integron in clonally unrelated P. aeruginosa isolates without any evidence of plasmid carriage is probably associated with a transposon.

  6. Spatial molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant and New Delhi metallo beta-lactamase (blaNDM)-producing Escherichia coli in the piglets of organized farms in India.

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    Pruthvishree, B S; Vinodh Kumar, O R; Sinha, D K; Malik, Y P S; Dubal, Z B; Desingu, P A; Shivakumar, M; Krishnaswamy, N; Singh, B R

    2017-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 government-organized pig farms between 2014 and 2016 representing seven states of India to understand the epidemiology of carbapenem resistance in the Escherichia coli. In this study, fecal sample (n = 673) from non-diarrheic (n = 501) and diarrheic (n = 172) piglets were processed for isolation of carbapenem resistant E. coli. Of 673, E. coli isolate (n = 112) was genotyped for confirming the carbapenem resistance and associated virulence factors. Of the 112 isolates, 23 were phenotypically resistant to carbapenem and 8 were carrying the New Delhi metallo beta-lactamase (blaNDM) gene. The carbapenem-resistant isolates also produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases and were multidrug resistant. The PCR-based pathotyping revealed the presence of stx1, stx2, eae and hlyA genes. The enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR dendrogram analysis of the isolates yielded three distinct clusters. The statistical analysis revealed no association between carriages of carbapenem-resistant E. coli in different breed of piglets however, location, sex, health status of piglets and age showed significant difference. The spatial analysis with SaTScan helped in identification of carbapenem-resistant clusters. The presence of carbapenem resistant E. coli isolates with virulence genes in the piglet poses a potential public health risk through possible access and spread via the food chain and environment. Efflux pump may also play an important role in carbapenem resistance in piglet E. coli isolates. Furthermore, identification of risk factors in relation to spatial clusters will help in designing preventive strategies for reducing the risk of spread of carbapenem resistant bacteria. 1. Piglets harbor carbapenem resistant E. coli and have great public health significance. 2. Apart from carbapenemase, efflux pump is also important for carbapenem resistance. 3. This is the first report of blaNDM in the piglets from India. © 2017

  7. Caracterização espectral de áreas de gramíneas forrageiras infectadas com a doença "mela-das-sementes da braquiária" por meio de imagens CCD/CBERS-2 Spectral characterization of forage grasses infected with the disease "mela-das-sementes da braquiária" through CCD/CDBERS -2 images

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    José C. Rosatti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Imagens CCD/CBERS-2, nas bandas espectrais CCD2, CCD3 e CCD4, dos anos de 2004 e 2005, de Mirante do Paranapanema - SP, foram transformadas em reflectância de superfície usando o modelo 5S de correção atmosférica e normalizadas radiometricamente. O objetivo principal foi caracterizar espectralmente áreas de pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha em fase de florescimento, isentas e infectadas com a doença "mela-das-sementes da braquiária", possibilitando a sua detecção por meio da comparação entre os valores de reflectância de superfície denominada de Fator de Reflectância Bidirecional de Superfície (FRBS. Teve-se, também, o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia das imagens CCD/CBERS-2 para a obtenção de respostas espectrais de pastagens. Os dosséis sadios e doentes da Brachiaria brizantha foram identificados por meio da análise dos valores de reflectância e dos dados observados no Índice de Estresse Hídrico Acumulativo Relativo da Cultura (ACWSI obtidos na área de estudo. Os resultados indicaram que as principais diferenças foram a diminuição da reflectância na banda CCD3 e o aumento da reflectância na banda CCD4 nas áreas doentes. A metodologia empregada com o uso de dados do sensor CCD/CBERS-2, associados ao ACWSI, mostrou-se eficaz para discriminar dosséis infectados com a "mela-das-sementes da braquiária".CCD/CBERS-2 images in the spectral bands of CCD2, CCD3 and CCD4 of the years 2004 and 2005, from Mirante do Paranapanema - SP (Brazil, were transformed into surface reflectance images using the 5S atmospheric correction model and radiometrically normalized. The main objective was to spectrally characterize pastures of Brachiaria brizantha in the flowering phase, exempt and infected with the disease "mela-das-sementes da braquiária" making it possible its detection through the comparison among the SBRF - Surface Bidirectional Reflectance Factor values. At the same time, it was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the

  8. IncA/C Plasmid Carrying bla(NDM-1), bla(CMY-16), and fosA3 in a Salmonella enterica Serovar Corvallis Strain Isolated from a Migratory Wild Bird in Germany.

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    Villa, L; Guerra, B; Schmoger, S; Fischer, J; Helmuth, R; Zong, Z; García-Fernández, A; Carattoli, A

    2015-10-01

    A Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis strain was isolated from a wild bird in Germany. This strain carried the IncA/C2 pRH-1238 plasmid. Complete sequencing of the plasmid was performed, identifying the blaNDM-1, blaCMY-16, fosA3, sul1, sul2, strA, strB, aac(6')-Ib, aadA5, aphA6, tetA(A), mphA, floR, dfrA7, and merA genes, which confer clinically relevant resistance to most of the antimicrobial classes, including β-lactams with carbapenems, fosfomycin, aminoglycosides, co-trimoxazole, tetracyclines, and macrolides. The strain likely originated from the Asiatic region and was transferred to Germany through the Milvus migrans migratory route. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. mcr-1 and blaKPC-3 in Escherichia coli Sequence Type 744 after Meropenem and Colistin Therapy, Portugal.

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    Tacão, Marta; Tavares, Rafael Dos Santos; Teixeira, Pedro; Roxo, Inês; Ramalheira, Elmano; Ferreira, Sónia; Henriques, Isabel

    2017-08-01

    Escherichia coli Ec36 was recovered from a patient in Portugal after treatment with meropenem and colistin. Besides an IncF plasmid with Tn1441d-bla KPC-3 , already reported in clinical strains in this country, E. coli Ec36 co-harbored an IncX4::mcr-1 gene. Results highlight emerging co-resistance to carbapenems and polymyxins after therapy with drugs from both classes.

  10. The sudden dominance of blaCTX-M harbouring plasmids in Shigella spp. Circulating in Southern Vietnam.

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    Nhu Thi Khanh Nguyen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasmid mediated antimicrobial resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem. The rise of CTX-M class extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs has been well documented in industrialized countries. Vietnam is representative of a typical transitional middle income country where the spectrum of infectious diseases combined with the spread of drug resistance is shifting and bringing new healthcare challenges.We collected hospital admission data from the pediatric population attending the hospital for tropical diseases in Ho Chi Minh City with Shigella infections. Organisms were cultured from all enrolled patients and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Those that were ESBL positive were subjected to further investigation. These investigations included PCR amplification for common ESBL genes, plasmid investigation, conjugation, microarray hybridization and DNA sequencing of a bla(CTX-M encoding plasmid.We show that two different bla(CTX-M genes are circulating in this bacterial population in this location. Sequence of one of the ESBL plasmids shows that rather than the gene being integrated into a preexisting MDR plasmid, the bla(CTX-M gene is located on relatively simple conjugative plasmid. The sequenced plasmid (pEG356 carried the bla(CTX-M-24 gene on an ISEcp1 element and demonstrated considerable sequence homology with other IncFI plasmids.The rapid dissemination, spread of antimicrobial resistance and changing population of Shigella spp. concurrent with economic growth are pertinent to many other countries undergoing similar development. Third generation cephalosporins are commonly used empiric antibiotics in Ho Chi Minh City. We recommend that these agents should not be considered for therapy of dysentery in this setting.

  11. Bacillus licheniformis BlaR1 L3 Loop Is a Zinc Metalloprotease Activated by Self-Proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sépulchre, Jérémy; Amoroso, Ana; Joris, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    In Bacillus licheniformis 749/I, BlaP β-lactamase is induced by the presence of a β-lactam antibiotic outside the cell. The first step in the induction mechanism is the detection of the antibiotic by the membrane-bound penicillin receptor BlaR1 that is composed of two functional domains: a carboxy-terminal domain exposed outside the cell, which acts as a penicillin sensor, and an amino-terminal domain anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane, which works as a transducer-transmitter. The acylation of BlaR1 sensor domain by the antibiotic generates an intramolecular signal that leads to the activation of the L3 cytoplasmic loop of the transmitter by a single-point cleavage. The exact mechanism of L3 activation and the nature of the secondary cytoplasmic signal launched by the activated transmitter remain unknown. However, these two events seem to be linked to the presence of a HEXXH zinc binding motif of neutral zinc metallopeptidases. By different experimental approaches, we demonstrated that the L3 loop binds zinc ion, belongs to Gluzincin metallopeptidase superfamily and is activated by self-proteolysis. PMID:22623956

  12. Determination of a novel integron-located variant (blaOXA -320 ) of Class D β-lactamase in Proteus mirabilis.

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    Cicek, Aysegul Copur; Duzgun, Azer Ozad; Saral, Aysegul; Sandalli, Cemal

    2014-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is one of Gram-negative pathogens encountered in clinical specimens. A clinical isolate (TRP41) of P. mirabilis was isolated from a Turkish patient in Turkey. The isolate was identified using the API 32GN system and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and it was found resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. This isolate was harboring a Class 1 integron gene cassette and its DNA sequence analysis revealed a novel blaOXA variant exhibiting one amino acid substitution (Asn266Ile) from blaOXA-1 . This new variant of OXA was located on Class 1 integron together with aadA1 gene encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. According to sequence records, the new variant was named as blaOXA-320 . Cassette array and size of integron were found as blaOXA-320 -aadA1 and 2086 bp, respectively. The blaOXA-320 gene is not transferable according to conjugation experiment. In this study, we report the first identification of blaOXA-320 -aadA1 gene cassette, a novel variant of Class D β-lactamase, in P. mirabilis from Turkey. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Epidemiological characteristics of blaNDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae and the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in China from 2011 to 2012.

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    Weimei Ou

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of blaNDM-1 (encoding New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 in Enterobacteriaceae and the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex (ABC in China from July 2011 to June 2012.PCR was used to screen for the presence of blaNDM-1 in all organisms studied. For blaNDM-1-positive strains, 16S rRNA analysis and Analytical Profile Index (API strips were used to identify the bacterial genus and species. The ABCs were reconfirmed by PCR detection of blaOXA-51-like. Antibiotic susceptibilities of the bacteria were assessed by determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of them using two-fold agar dilution test, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. Molecular typing was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. S1 nuclease-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE and Southern blot hybridization were conducted to ascertain the gene location of blaNDM-1. Conjugation experiments were conducted to determine the transmission of blaNDM-1-positive strains.Among 2,170 Enterobacteriaceae and 600 ABCs, seven Enterobacteriaceae strains and two A. calcoaceticus isolates from five different cities carried the blaNDM-1 gene. The seven Enterobacteriaceae strains comprised four Klebsiella pneumoniae, one Enterobacter cloacae, one Enterobacter aerogen and one Citrobacter freundii. All seven were non-susceptible to imipenem, meropenem or ertapenem. Two A. calcoaceticus species were resistant to imipenem and meropenem. Three K. pneumoniae showed the same PFGE profiles. The blaNDM-1 genes of eight strains were localized on plasmids, while one was chromosomal.Compared with previous reports, the numbers and species containing the blaNDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae have significantly increased in China. Most of them are able to disseminate the gene, which is cause for concern. Consecutive surveillance should be implemented and should

  14. [Neurons in NAc core and BLA are activated during cocaine context-associated reward memory retrieval in mice].

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    Wang, Jun-Jun; Yao, Wen-Qing; Chen, Yue-Jun; Ma, Lan; Tao, Ye-Zheng

    2014-10-25

    The intense associative memories that develop between cocaine-paired contexts and rewarding stimuli make addiction hard to cure by contributing to cocaine seeking and relapse. So it's of great importance to examine the neurobiological basis of addiction memory. Cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) used in this study is a form of Pavlovian conditioning which can establish associations between drug and contextual factors. c-Fos and Zif268 are commonly used immediate early gene (IEG) makers to identify neurons that are activated after a stimulus or behavioral conditioning. This study was designed to reveal neuronal c-Fos, Zif268 expression pattern in 10 brain regions following cocaine context-associated reward memory retrieval in mice, combining animal behavioral study and immunofluorescence method. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: Saline retrieval, Cocaine retrieval, and No retrieval of cocaine groups. Cocaine retrieval and No retrieval of cocaine underwent CPP training (one side paired with cocaine, and the other side with saline) except that No retrieval of cocaine group didn't undergo CPP test. Saline retrieval group received saline injections (i.p) on both sides. The results showed that: Neuronal c-Fos, Zif268 protein expression levels in nucleus accumbens (NAc) core both were elevated in Cocaine retrieval group compared with those in Saline retrieval (Control) group during cocaine context-associated reward memory retrieval. Zif268 protein expression level in basolateral amygdala (BLA) was also elevated in Cocaine retrieval group compared with that in control mice. Elevation was not seen in other regions such as hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC). Thus, NAc core and BLA were activated during cocaine context-associated reward memory retrieval. The results suggest that neurons that are activated in NAc core and BLA are crucial basis of cocaine context-associated reward memory.

  15. Structural Variabilities in β-Lactamase (blaA of Different Biovars of Yersinia enterocolitica: Implications for β-Lactam Antibiotic and β-Lactamase Inhibitor Susceptibilities.

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    Neelja Singhal

    Full Text Available Yersiniosis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been reported from all continents. The bacterial species is divided into more than fifty serovars and six biovars viz. 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 which differ in geographical distribution, ecological niches and pathogenicity. Most Y.enterocolitica strains harbor chromosomal genes for two β-lactamases, blaA an Ambler class A penicillinase and blaB an Ambler class C inducible cephalosporinase. In the present study, susceptibility to b-lactam antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitor was studied for Y. enterocolitica strains of biovars 1A, 1B, 2 and 4. We observed that β-lactamases were expressed differentially among strains of different biovars. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying such differential expression, the sequences of genes and promoters of blaA were compared. Also, the variants of blaA present in different biovars were modeled and docked with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The mRNA secondary structures of blaA variants were also predicted in-silico. Our findings indicated that neither variations in the promoter regions, nor the secondary structures of mRNA contributed to higher/lower expression of blaA in different biovars. Analysis of H-bonding residues of blaA variants with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid revealed that if amino acid residues of a β-lactamase interacting with amoxicillin and the clavulanic acid were similar, clavulanic acid was effective in engaging the enzyme, accounting for a significant reduction in MIC of amoxicillin-clavulanate. This finding might aid in designing better β-lactamase inhibitors with improved efficiencies in future.

  16. Inhibition of the β-Lactamase BlaMab by Avibactam Improves the In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of Imipenem against Mycobacterium abscessus.

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    Lefebvre, Anne-Laure; Le Moigne, Vincent; Bernut, Audrey; Veckerlé, Carole; Compain, Fabrice; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Kremer, Laurent; Arthur, Michel; Mainardi, Jean-Luc

    2017-04-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus pulmonary infections are treated with a macrolide (clarithromycin or azithromycin), an aminoglycoside (amikacin), and a β-lactam (cefoxitin or imipenem). The triple combination is used without any β-lactamase inhibitor, even though M abscessus produces the broad-spectrum β-lactamase Bla Mab We determine whether inhibition of Bla Mab by avibactam improves the activity of imipenem against M. abscessus The bactericidal activity of drug combinations was assayed in broth and in human macrophages. The in vivo efficacy of the drugs was tested by monitoring the survival of infected zebrafish embryos. The level of Bla Mab production in broth and in macrophages was compared by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting. The triple combination of imipenem (8 or 32 μg/ml), amikacin (32 μg/ml), and avibactam (4 μg/ml) was bactericidal in broth (imipenem was used at 8 and 32 μg/ml, respectively. The triple combination achieved significant intracellular killing, with the bacterial survival rates being 54% and 7% with the low (8 μg/ml) and high (32 μg/ml) dosages of imipenem, respectively. In vivo inhibition of Bla Mab by avibactam improved the survival of zebrafish embryos treated with imipenem. Expression of the gene encoding Bla Mab was induced (20-fold) in the infected macrophages. Inhibition of Bla Mab by avibactam improved the efficacy of imipenem against M. abscessus in vitro , in macrophages, and in zebrafish embryos, indicating that this β-lactamase inhibitor should be clinically evaluated. The in vitro evaluation of imipenem may underestimate the impact of Bla Mab , since the production of the β-lactamase is inducible in macrophages. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification: Rapid and sensitive detection of the antibiotic resistance gene ISAba1-blaOXA-51-like in Acinetobacter baumannii.

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    Mu, Xiaoqin; Nakano, Ryuichi; Nakano, Akiyo; Ubagai, Tsuneyuki; Kikuchi-Ueda, Takane; Tansho-Nagakawa, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Hirotoshi; Kamoshida, Go; Endo, Shiro; Yano, Hisakazu; Ono, Yasuo

    2016-02-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, which are mainly induced by the production of OXA-type β-lactamases, are among the leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Among the β-lactamase genes, the presence of the OXA-51-like gene carrying the upstream insertion sequence, ISAba1, was found to be one of the most prevalent carbapenem resistance mechanisms utilized by these bacteria. Consequently, it is necessary to develop a rapid detection method for ISAba1-blaOXA-51-like sequence for the timely and appropriate antibiotic treatment of A. baumannii infection. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was optimized for ISAba1-blaOXA-51-like detection. The LAMP primer set was designed to recognize distinct sequences in the ISAba1-blaOXA-51-like gene and could amplify the gene within 25 min at an isothermal temperature of 60°C. This LAMP assay was able to detect the ISAba1-blaOXA-51-like gene with high specificity; in addition, no cross-reactivity was observed for other types of β-lactamase producers (OXA-23-like, OXA-40-like, OXA-58-like, and IMP-1), as indicated by the absence of false positive or false negative results. The detection limit for this assay was found to be 10(0)CFU per tube which was 100-fold more sensitive than a polymerase chain reaction assay for ISAba1-blaOXA-51-like detection. Furthermore, the LAMP assay provided swift detection of the ISAba1-blaOXA-51-like gene, even directly from clinical specimens. In summary, we have described a new, rapid assay for the detection of the ISAba1-blaOXA-51-like gene from A. baumannii that could be useful in a clinical setting. This method might facilitate epidemiological studies and allow monitoring of the emergence of drug resistant strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of BLA GABAB receptors in anxiolytic-like effect and aversive memory deficit induced by ACPA

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    Katayoon Kangarlu Haghighi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a psychoactive plant, Cannabis sativa (Marijuana is widely used throughout the world. Several investigations have indicated that administration of Marijuana affects various cognitive and non-cognitive behaviors. These include anxiety-like behaviors and learning and memory deficit. It has been shown that three main cannabinoid receptors [i.e. CB1, CB2 and CB3 are involved in cannabinoids’ functions. CB1 receptors are abundantly expressed in the central nervous system regions such as hippocampus, amygdala, cerebellum and the cortex. Therefore, the neuropsychological functions of endocannabinoids are thought to be more linked to CB1 receptors. Among other brain regions, CB1 is highly expressed in the amygdala which is an integral component of the limbic circuitry. The amygdala plays a major role in the control of emotional behavior, including conditioned fear and anxiety. In present study we examined the possible roles of basolateral amygdala (BLA GABAB receptors in arachydonilcyclopropylamide (ACPA-induced anxiolytic-like effect and aversive memory deficit in adult male mice. Methods: This experimental study was conducted from September 2013 to December 2014 in Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, School of Cognitive Sciences, Tehran and Male albino NMRI mice (Pasture Institute, Iran, weighting 27-30 g, were used. Bilateral guide-cannulae were implanted to allow intra BLA microinjection of the drugs. We used Elevated Plus Maze (EPM to examine memory and anxiety behavior (test-retest protocol. ACPA administrate intra-peritoneal and GABAB agonist and antagonist administrated intra-amygdala. Results: Data showed that pre-test treatment with ACPA induced anxiolytic-like and aversive memory deficit The results revealed that pre-test intra-BLA infusion of baclofen (GABAB receptor agonist impaired the aversive memory while phaclofen (GABAB receptor antagonist improved it. Interestingly, pretreatment with a sub

  19. Detection of the IncX3 plasmid carrying blaKPC-3 in a Serratia marcescens strain isolated from a kidney-liver transplanted patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gona, Floriana; Caio, Carla; Iannolo, Gioacchin; Monaco, Francesco; Di Mento, Giuseppina; Cuscino, Nicola; Fontana, Ignazio; Panarello, Giovanna; Maugeri, Gaetano; Mezzatesta, Maria Lina; Stefani, Stefania; Conaldi, Pier Giulio

    2017-10-01

    Dissemination of resistance to carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae through plasmids is an increasingly important concern in health care worldwide. Here we report the first description of an IncX3 plasmid carrying the blaKPC-3 gene in a strain of Serratia marcescens isolated from a kidney-liver transplanted patient at the transplantation centre ISMETT (Istituto Mediterraneo per i Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione, Palermo, Italy). To localize the transposable element containing the resistance-associated gene Next-Generation Sequencing of the bacterial DNA was performed. S. marcescens was positive for blaKPC-3 and blaSHV-11 genes. The molecular analysis demonstrated that the blaKPC-3 gene of this bacterial strain was located in one copy of the Tn-3-like element Tn4401-a carried in a plasmid that is 53 392 bp in size and showed the typical IncX3 scaffold. Our data demonstrated the presence of a new blaKPC-3 harbouring the IncX3 plasmid in S. marcescens. The possible dissemination among Enterobacteriaceae of this type of plasmid should be monitored and evaluated in terms of clinical risk.

  20. Persistence of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates Harboring blaOXA-23 and bap for 5 Years.

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    Sung, Ji Youn; Koo, Sun Hoe; Kim, Semi; Kwon, Gye Cheol

    2016-08-28

    The emergence and dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have been reported worldwide, and A. baumannii isolates harboring blaOXA-23 are often resistant to various antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial resistance can be particularly strong for biofilm-forming A. baumannii isolates. We investigated the genetic basis for carbapenem resistance and biofilm-forming ability of multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. Ninety-two MDR A. baumannii isolates were collected from one university hospital located in the Chungcheong area of Korea over a 5-year period. Multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to characterize carbapenemase and bap genes. Clonal characteristics were analyzed using REP-PCR. In addition, imaging and quantification of biofilms were performed using a crystal violet assay. All 92 MDR A. baumannii isolates involved in our study contained the blaOXA-23 and bap genes. The average absorbance of biomass in Bap-producing strains was much greater than that in non-Bap-producing strains. In our study, only three REP-PCR types were found, and the isolates showing type A or type B were found more than 60 times among unique patients during the 5 years of surveillance. These results suggest that the isolates have persisted and colonized for 5 years, and biofilm formation ability has been responsible for their persistence and colonization.

  1. Characterization of ST258 Colistin-Resistant, blaKPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Greek Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidi, Angeliki; Katsiari, Maria; Likousi, Sofia; Palla, Eleftheria; Roussou, Zoi; Nikolaou, Charikleia; Maguina, Asimina; Platsouka, Evangelia D

    2016-07-01

    The emergence of colistin resistance may further contribute to treatment failure of infection caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae. The colistin resistance rates were determined and colistin-resistant carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (COL-R CP-Kp) were characterized over an 18-month period in a Greek hospital. Out of 135 carbapenemase producers, 19 isolates (14%) were categorized as resistant to colistin. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the COL-R CP-Kp isolates revealed that all were MDR blaKPC producers and, excluding one isolate of MLST ST383, belonged to the international clonal lineage ST258. Furthermore, PCR amplification and sequencing of the mgrB locus revealed nucleotide sequences of different sizes and insertions of IS1- and IS5-like mobile elements. The majority (63%) of the COL-R blaKPC producers was recovered from patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and clinical data indicated that all patients should have acquired these isolates in the ICU. The findings of the present study underscore a concerning evolution of colistin resistance in a setting of high K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-Kp endemicity, such as Greece. Thus, continuous surveillance, molecular characterization, prudent use of antibiotics, and implementation of infection control measures for K. pneumoniae are urgent.

  2. Characterization of Tn3000, a Transposon Responsible for blaNDM-1 Dissemination among Enterobacteriaceae in Brazil, Nepal, Morocco, and India.

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    Campos, Juliana Coutinho; da Silva, Maria José Félix; dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Nascimento; Barros, Elaine Menezes; Pereira, Mayne de Oliveira; Seco, Bruna Mara Silva; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Leiroz, Leonardo Kalab; de Oliveira, Théo Gremen Mimary; de Faria-Júnior, Célio; Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Barth, Afonso Luís; Sampaio, Suely Carlos Ferreira; Zavascki, Alexandre Prehn; Poirel, Laurent; Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello

    2015-12-01

    In Enterobacteriaceae, the blaNDM genes have been found in many different genetic contexts, and a wide diversity of plasmid scaffolds bearing those genes has been found. In August 2013, we identified NDM-1-producing Escherichia coli and Enterobacter hormaechei strains from a single rectal swab sample from a patient hospitalized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who had no history of travel abroad. Complete DNA sequencing using the Illumina platform and annotation of the two plasmids harboring the blaNDM-1 gene, one from each strain, showed that they belonged to incompatibility groups IncFIIK and IncX3 and harbored a novel transposon named Tn3000. Similar genetic structures have been identified among other isolates in Brazil but also on plasmids from other continents. Our findings suggest that the blaNDM-1 gene may be transmitted by Tn3000 in different parts of the world. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Double Copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a on an IncX3 Plasmid in Klebsiella pneumoniae Successful Clone ST512 from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Daniela; Villa, Laura; Feudi, Claudia; Pires, João; Bonura, Celestino; Mammina, Caterina; Endimiani, Andrea; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    A carbapenem-resistant sequence type 512 (ST512) Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase 3 (KPC-3)-producing K. pneumoniae strain showing a novel variant plasmid content was isolated in Palermo, Italy, in 2014. ST512 is a worldwide successful clone associated with the spread of bla(KPC) genes located on the IncFIIk pKpQIL plasmid. In our ST512 strain, the bla(KPC-3) gene was unusually located on an IncX3 plasmid, whose complete sequence was determined. Two copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a caused by intramolecular transposition events were detected in the plasmid. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Complete sequencing of the bla(NDM-1)-positive IncA/C plasmid from Escherichia coli ST38 isolate suggests a possible origin from plant pathogens.

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    Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Matsui, Mari; Yamane, Kunikazu; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Ohnishi, Makoto; Hishinuma, Akira; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Kuroda, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    The complete sequence of the plasmid pNDM-1_Dok01 carrying New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) was determined by whole genome shotgun sequencing using Escherichia coli strain NDM-1_Dok01 (multilocus sequence typing type: ST38) and the transconjugant E. coli DH10B. The plasmid is an IncA/C incompatibility type composed of 225 predicted coding sequences in 195.5 kb and partially shares a sequence with bla(CMY-2)-positive IncA/C plasmids such as E. coli AR060302 pAR060302 (166.5 kb) and Salmonella enterica serovar Newport pSN254 (176.4 kb). The bla(NDM-1) gene in pNDM-1_Dok01 is terminally flanked by two IS903 elements that are distinct from those of the other characterized NDM-1 plasmids, suggesting that the bla(NDM-1) gene has been broadly transposed, together with various mobile elements, as a cassette gene. The chaperonin groES and groEL genes were identified in the bla(NDM-1)-related composite transposon, and phylogenetic analysis and guanine-cytosine content (GC) percentage showed similarities to the homologs of plant pathogens such as Pseudoxanthomonas and Xanthomonas spp., implying that plant pathogens are the potential source of the bla(NDM-1) gene. The complete sequence of pNDM-1_Dok01 suggests that the bla(NDM-1) gene was acquired by a novel composite transposon on an extensively disseminated IncA/C plasmid and transferred to the E. coli ST38 isolate.

  5. Complete sequence of the IncA/C1 plasmid pCf587 carrying blaPER-2 from Citrobacter freundii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Melina; Girlich, Delphine; Dabos, Laura; Power, Pablo; Naas, Thierry; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2018-02-20

    The bla PER-2 harboring plasmid pCf587 (191,541 bp) belongs to lineage IncA/C 1 and is closely related to pRA1. It contains a large resistance island including the bla PER-2 gene between two copies of IS Kox2 -like elements, the toxin-antitoxin module pemK-pemI, several other resistance genes inserted within a Tn 2 transposon, a Tn 21 -like structure, and a class 1 integron. pCf587 belongs into ST 13, a new pMLST. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Phenotypic and molecular detection of the bla KPC gene in clinical isolates from inpatients at hospitals in São Luis, MA, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Patricia Cristina Saldanha; Monteiro, Andrea Souza; Marques, Sirlei Garcia; Monteiro, Sílvio Gomes; Monteiro-Neto, Valério; Coqueiro, Martina Márcia Melo; Marques, Ana Cláudia Garcia; de Jesus Gomes Turri, Rosimary; Santos, Simone Gonçalves; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma

    2016-12-07

    Bacteria that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) are resistant to broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics. The objective of this study was to phenotypically and genotypically characterize the antibiotic susceptibility to carbapenems of 297 isolates recovered from clinical samples obtained from inpatients at 16 hospitals in São Luis (Maranhão, Brazil). The study was conducted using phenotypic tests and molecular methods, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR. The nonparametric chi-square test of independence was used to evaluate the associations between the bacterial bla KPC gene and the modified Hodge test, and the chi-square adherence test was used to assess the frequency of carbapenemases and their association with the bla KPC gene. The most frequently isolated species were Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 128; 43.0%), K. pneumoniae (n = 75; 25.2%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 42; 14.1%). Susceptibility assays showed that polymixin B was active against 89.3% of the bacterial isolates. The Acinetobacter spp. and K. pneumoniae strains were susceptible to amikacin and tigecycline, and Pseudomonas spp. were sensitive to gentamicin and amikacin. Among the 297 isolates, 100 (33.7%) were positive for the bla KPC gene, including non-fermentative bacteria (A. baumannii) and Enterobacteriaceae species. Among the isolates positive for the bla KPC gene, K. pneumoniae isolates had the highest positivity rate of 60.0%. The bla KPC gene variants detected included KPC-2, which was found in all isolates belonging to species of the Enterobacteriaceae family. KPC-2 and KPC-3 were observed in A. baumannii isolates. Importantly, the bla KPC gene was also detected in three Raoultella isolates and one isolate of the Pantoea genus. ERIC-PCR patterns showed a high level of genetic diversity among the bacterial isolates; it was capable of distinguishing 34 clones among 100 strains

  7. Investigation of Extensively Drug-Resistant blaOXA-23-Producing Acinetobacter baumannii Spread in a Greek Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidi, Angeliki; Katsiari, Maria; Palla, Eleftheria; Likousi, Sofia; Roussou, Zoi; Nikolaou, Charikleia; Platsouka, Evangelia D

    2017-06-01

    A rapid increase was observed in the incidence of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR Aba) isolates in a Greek hospital during 2014. To investigate the causes of this rise, the antimicrobial resistance profiles of all carbapenem-resistant (CARB-R) Aba isolates recovered during 2014-2015 were determined. Selected XDR Aba isolates (n = 13) were characterized by molecular methods. XDR Aba (48 isolates) represented 21.4% of the 224 CARB-R Aba recovered during the study period. The 13 selected XDR Aba isolates were positive for the blaOXA-23, the intrinsic blaOXA-51, and the adeB gene of the AdeABC efflux pump, and all belonged to the 3LST ST101, corresponding to the international clone II. Three bloodstream isolates possessed two amino acid substitutions (A138T+A226V) in the deduced amino acid sequences of the pmrB gene, which may be implicated in colistin resistance. This study demonstrates that this clone still evolves by obtaining an ever-increasing arsenal of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The clinical characteristics of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients with XDR Aba were reviewed retrospectively. Infected ICU patients with XDR Aba displayed higher death rates compared with infected ICU patients susceptible to colistin and tigecycline CARB-R Aba, although there were no statistically significant differences. Conclusively, continuous surveillance and molecular characterization of XDR Aba, combined with strict infection control measures are mandatory for combating nosocomial infections caused by this organism.

  8. Correlation of phenotypic tests with the presence of the blaZ gene for detection of beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Adriano Martison; Martins, Katheryne Benini; Silva, Vanessa Rocha da; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common and most important staphylococcal species associated with urinary tract infections. The objective of the present study was to compare and to evaluate the accuracy of four phenotypic methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus spp. Seventy-three strains produced a halo with a diameter ≤28mm (penicillin resistant) and all of them were positive for the blaZ gene. Among the 28 susceptible strain (halo ≥29mm), 23 carried the blaZ gene and five did not. The zone edge test was the most sensitive (90.3%), followed by MIC determination (85.5%), but the specificity of the former was low (40.0%). The nitrocefin test was the least sensitive (28.9%). However, the nitrocefin test together with the disk diffusion method showed the highest specificity (100%). The present results demonstrated that the zone edge test was the most sensitive phenotypic test for detection of beta-lactamase, although it is still not an ideal test to detect this type of resistance since its specificity was low. However, the inhibition halo diameter of the penicillin disk can be used together with the zone edge test since the same disk is employed in the two tests. Combined analysis of the two tests shows a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 100%, proving better sensitivity, especially for S. saprophyticus. This is a low-cost test of easy application and interpretation that can be used in small and medium-sized laboratories where susceptibility testing is usually performed by the disk diffusion method. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlation of phenotypic tests with the presence of the blaZ gene for detection of beta-lactamase

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    Adriano Martison Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus are the most common and most important staphylococcal species associated with urinary tract infections. The objective of the present study was to compare and to evaluate the accuracy of four phenotypic methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in Staphylococcus spp. Seventy-three strains produced a halo with a diameter ≤28 mm (penicillin resistant and all of them were positive for the blaZ gene. Among the 28 susceptible strain (halo ≥29 mm, 23 carried the blaZ gene and five did not. The zone edge test was the most sensitive (90.3%, followed by MIC determination (85.5%, but the specificity of the former was low (40.0%. The nitrocefin test was the least sensitive (28.9%. However, the nitrocefin test together with the disk diffusion method showed the highest specificity (100%. The present results demonstrated that the zone edge test was the most sensitive phenotypic test for detection of beta-lactamase, although it is still not an ideal test to detect this type of resistance since its specificity was low. However, the inhibition halo diameter of the penicillin disk can be used together with the zone edge test since the same disk is employed in the two tests. Combined analysis of the two tests shows a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 100%, proving better sensitivity, especially for S. saprophyticus. This is a low-cost test of easy application and interpretation that can be used in small and medium-sized laboratories where susceptibility testing is usually performed by the disk diffusion method.

  10. A Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolate Harboring Two Copies of blaIMP-34 Encoding a Metallo-β-Lactamase.

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    Tatsuya Tada

    Full Text Available A carbapenem-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, NCGM1984, was isolated in 2012 from a hospitalized patient in Japan. Immunochromatographic assay showed that the isolate was positive for IMP-type metallo-β-lactamase. Complete genome sequencing revealed that NCGM1984 harbored two copies of blaIMP-34, located at different sites on the chromosome. Each blaIMP-34 was present in the same structures of the class 1 integrons, tnpA(ISPa7-intI1-qacG-blaIMP-34-aac(6'-Ib-qacEdelta1-sul1-orf5-tniBdelta-tniA. The isolate belonged to multilocus sequence typing ST235, one of the international high-risk clones. IMP-34, with an amino acid substitution (Glu126Gly compared with IMP-1, hydrolyzed all β-lactamases tested except aztreonam, and its catalytic activities were similar to IMP-1. This is the first report of a clinical isolate of an IMP-34-producing P. aeruginosa harboring two copies of blaIMP-34 on its chromosome.

  11. Complete nucleotide sequence of pGA45, a 140,698-bp incFIIY plasmid encoding blaIMI-3-mediated carbapenem resistance, from river sediment

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    Bingjun eDang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmid pGA45 was isolated from the sediment of Haihe River using E. coli CV601 (gfp-tagged as recipients and indigenous bacteria from sediment as donors. This plasmid confers reduced susceptibility to imipenem which belongs to carbapenem group. Plasmid pGA45 was fully sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. The complete sequence of plasmid pGA45 was 140,698 bp in length with an average G+C content of 52.03%. Sequence analysis shows that pGA45 belongs to incFIIY group and harbors a backbone region shares high homology and gene synteny to several other incF plasmids including pNDM1_EC14653, pYDC644, pNDM-Ec1GN574, pRJF866, pKOX_NDM1 and pP10164-NDM. In addition to the backbone region, plasmid pGA45 harbors two notable features including one blaIMI-3-containing region and one type VI secretion system region. The blaIMI-3-containing region is responsible for bacteria carbapenem resistance and the type VI secretion system region is probably involved in bacteria virulence, respectively. Plasmid pGA45 represents the first complete nucleotide sequence of the blaIMI-harboring plasmid from environment sample and the sequencing of this plasmid provided insight into the architecture used for the dissemination of blaIMI carbapenemase genes.

  12. Complete Sequence of Four Multidrug-Resistant MOBQ1 Plasmids Harboring blaGES-5 Isolated from Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens Persisting in a Hospital in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, David; Taylor, Geoffrey; Fuller, Jeff; Bryce, Elizabeth; Embree, Joanne; Gravel, Denise; Katz, Kevin; Kibsey, Pamela; Kuhn, Magdalena; Langley, Joanne; Mataseje, Laura; Mitchell, Robyn; Roscoe, Diane; Simor, Andrew; Thomas, Eva; Turgeon, Nathalie; Mulvey, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The usefulness of carbapenems for gram-negative infections is becoming compromised by organisms harboring carbapenemases, enzymes which can hydrolyze the drug. Currently KPC (class A), NDM (class B), and OXA-48 types (class D) are the most globally widespread carbapenemases. However, among the GES-type class A extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) there are variants that hydrolyze carbapenems, with blaGES-5 being the most common. Two Escherichia coli and two Serratia marcescens harboring blaGES-5 on plasmids were isolated by the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) from four different patients in a single hospital over a 2-year period. Complete sequencing of the blaGES-5 plasmids indicated that all four had nearly identical backbones consisting of genes for replication, partitioning, and stability, but contained variant accessory regions consisting of mobile elements and antimicrobial resistance genes. The plasmids were of a novel replicon type, but belonged to the MOBQ1 group based on relaxase sequences, and appeared to be mobilizable, but not self-transmissible. Considering the time periods of bacterial isolation, it would appear the blaGES-5 plasmid has persisted in an environmental niche for at least 2 years in the hospital. This has implications for infection control and clinical care when it is transferred to clinically relevant gram-negative organisms.

  13. Low Frequency of Ceftazidime-Avibactam Resistance among Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Carrying blaKPC Collected in U.S. Hospitals from 2012 to 2015.

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    Castanheira, Mariana; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Sader, Helio S

    2017-03-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates have been increasingly reported worldwide, and therapeutic options to treat infections caused by these organisms are limited. We evaluated the activity of ceftazidime-avibactam and comparators against 456 Enterobacteriaceae isolates carrying bla KPC collected from 79 U.S. hospitals during 2012 to 2015. Overall, ceftazidime-avibactam (MIC 50/90 , 0.5/2 μg/ml; 99.3% susceptible) and tigecycline (MIC 50/90 , 0.5/1 μg/ml; 98.9% susceptible at ≤2 μg/ml) were the most active agents. Only 80.5% and 59.0% of isolates were susceptible to colistin and amikacin, respectively. All three isolates (0.7%) displaying resistance to ceftazidime-avibactam ( K. pneumoniae ; MICs, ≥16 μg/ml) were evaluated using whole-genome sequencing analysis and relative quantification of expression levels of porins and efflux pump. Two isolates carried metallo-β-lactamase genes, bla NDM-1 or bla VIM-4 , among other β-lactam resistance mechanisms, and one displayed a premature stop codon in ompK35 and decreased expression of ompK36 Ceftazidime-avibactam was active against 100.0 and 99.3% of isolates carrying bla KPC-3 ( n = 221) and bla KPC-2 ( n = 145), respectively. Isolates carrying bla KPC were more commonly recovered from pneumonia ( n = 155), urinary tract ( n = 93), and skin/soft tissue ( n = 74) infections. Ceftazidime-avibactam (97.8 to 100.0% susceptible) was consistently active against isolates from all infection sites. K. pneumoniae (83.3% of the collection) susceptibility rates were 99.2% for ceftazidime-avibactam, 98.9% for tigecycline, and 80.1% for colistin. Ceftazidime-avibactam susceptibility did not vary substantially when comparing isolates from intensive care unit (ICU) patients to those from non-ICU patients. Ceftazidime-avibactam was active against this large collection of isolates carrying bla KPC and represents a valuable addition to the armamentarium currently available for the

  14. Norwegian patients and retail chicken meat share cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and IncK/blaCMY-2 resistance plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, E S; Wester, A L; Ahrenfeldt, J; Mo, S S; Slettemeås, J S; Steinbakk, M; Samuelsen, Ø; Grude, N; Simonsen, G S; Løhr, I H; Jørgensen, S B; Tofteland, S; Lund, O; Dahle, U R; Sunde, M

    2017-06-01

    In 2012 and 2014 the Norwegian monitoring programme for antimicrobial resistance in the veterinary and food production sectors (NORM-VET) showed that 124 of a total of 406 samples (31%) of Norwegian retail chicken meat were contaminated with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to compare selected cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from humans and poultry to determine their genetic relatedness based on whole genome sequencing (WGS). Escherichia coli representing three prevalent cephalosporin-resistant multi-locus sequence types (STs) isolated from poultry (n=17) were selected from the NORM-VET strain collections. All strains carried an IncK plasmid with a bla CMY-2 gene. Clinical E. coli isolates (n=284) with AmpC-mediated resistance were collected at Norwegian microbiology laboratories from 2010 to 2014. PCR screening showed that 29 of the clinical isolates harboured both IncK and bla CMY-2 . All IncK/bla CMY-2 -positive isolates were analysed with WGS-based bioinformatics tools. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 2.5 Mbp of shared genome sequences showed close relationship, with fewer than 15 SNP differences between five clinical isolates from urinary tract infections (UTIs) and the ST38 isolates from poultry. Furthermore, all of the 29 clinical isolates harboured IncK/bla CMY-2 plasmid variants highly similar to the IncK/bla CMY-2 plasmid present in the poultry isolates. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that clonal transfer of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from chicken meat to humans may occur, and may cause difficult-to-treat infections. Furthermore, these E. coli can be a source of AmpC-resistance plasmids for opportunistic pathogens in the human microbiota. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. First detection of bla TEM, SHV and CTX-M among Gram negative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-04-08

    Apr 8, 2015 ... many antibiotics substances, particularly those of β-lactam class with regard to ... Therefore, this study aimed to contribute to clear bacterial resistance .... The study focused on bacterial resistance and no process determined.

  16. Detection of Ampicillin Resistance Genes (bla in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli with Polymerase Chain Reaction Method

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    Tiana Milanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a rod negative Gram which could be pathogenic, if its value increases or located in outer gastrointestinal tract. Pathogenic E. coli will produce enterotoxin which will cause diarrhoea or infection in urine tract. Ampicilin was one of particular antibiotics to overcome infection. Ampicilin nowadays is no longer used as primary medicine, because of its resistance case. The aim of this research is to detect the presence of gene which is responsible to ampicilin resistant E. coli. We used isolated midstream urine from cystitis object in Hasan Sadikin Hospital (RSHS as samples. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method (colony-PCR and DNA-PCR were done to invenstigate the antibiotic resistency. Based on the result of antibiotic susceptibility testing to ampicillin, E. coli samples were resistant to ampicilin. Elektroforegram products of colony-PCR and DNA-PCR showed that the resistance case of ampicilin caused by bla gene (199 bp. Selective and rational antibiotic treatment is required to prevent ampicillin resistance in patients with symptoms

  17. Use of WGS data for investigation of a long-term NDM-1-producing Citrobacter freundii outbreak and secondary in vivo spread of blaNDM-1 to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette M; Hansen, Frank; Linde Nielsen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Objectives An outbreak of NDM-1-producing Citrobacter freundii and possible secondary in vivo spread of blaNDM-1 to other Enterobacteriaceae were investigated. Methods From October 2012 to March 2015, meropenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were detected in 45 samples from seven patients at Aalborg...... of recent travel abroad and the source of the blaNDM-1 plasmid was unknown. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of an NDM-1-producing C. freundii outbreak and secondary in vivo spread of an IncA/C2 plasmid with blaNDM-1 to other Enterobacteriaceae....

  18. Coexistence of blaOXA-23 with armA in quinolone-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii from a Chinese university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Luan, Guangxin; Wang, Yanhong; Chang, Yaowen; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Jingni; Deng, Shanshan; Ling, Baodong; Jia, Xu

    2016-03-01

    A total of 101 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were collected to determine the mechanisms of quinolone resistance and investigate the occurrence of carbapenem and high-level aminoglycoside resistance genes among quinolone-resistant strains. Among 77 quinolone-resistant A. baumannii harbored mutations of gyrA and parC, 41 isolates, which belonged to European clone II, had resistance to aminoglycosides and carbapenems due to the expression of armA and acquisition of blaOXA-23. Most of sequence type belonged to clonal complex 92. These results suggested hospital dissemination of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii carrying blaOXA-23, armA, and mutations of quinolone resistance-determining regions in western China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of IncN plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 and qnr genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella from animals, the environment and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolejska, Monika; Villa, Laura; Hasman, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    were compared using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), plasmid multilocus sequence typing (pMLST) and hybridization with repN, qnrS1, qnrB19 or blaCTX-M-1 probes. Plasmids pKT58A and pHHA45 were sequenced using the 454-Genome Sequencer FLX platform on a library constructed from plasmid...... DNA purified from the respective E. coli transformants.Results Three types of IncN plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1, qnrS1 and qnrB19 genes were identified in strains isolated from the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Denmark, Italy and the Netherlands, corresponding to pMLST sequence type (ST) 1, ST3...

  20. pIMP-PH114 carrying bla IMP-4 in a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain is closely related to other multidrug-resistant IncA/C2 plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pak-Leung; Lo, Wai-U; Chan, Jane; Cheung, Yuk-Yam; Chow, Kin-Hung; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Lin, Chi-Ho; Que, Tak-Lun

    2014-02-01

    The IncA/C plasmids are broad host-range vehicles which have been associated with wide dissemination of CMY-2 among Enterobacteriaceae of human and animal origins. Acquired metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) such as the IMP-type enzymes are increasingly reported in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria worldwide, particularly in Enterobacteriaceae. We described the complete sequence of the first IMP-4-encoding IncA/C2 plasmid, pIMP-PH114 (151,885 bp), from a sequence type 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain that was recovered from a patient who was hospitalized in the Philippines. pIMP-PH114 consists of a backbone from the IncA/C2 plasmids, with the insertion of a novel Tn21-like class 1 integron composite structure (containing the cassette array bla IMP-4-qacG-aacA4-catB3, followed by a class C β-lactamase bla DHA-1 and the mercury resistance operon, merRTPCADE) and a sul2-floR encoding region. Phylogenetic analysis of the IncA/C repA sequences showed that pIMP-PH114 formed a subgroup with other IncA/C plasmids involved in the international spread of CMY-2, TEM-24 and NDM-1. Identical bla IMP-4 arrays have been described among different Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter spp. in China, Singapore and Australia but the genetic context is different. The broad host range of IncA/C plasmids may have facilitated dissemination of the bla IMP-4 arrays among different diverse groups of bacteria.

  1. Outbreak of a novel Enterobacter sp. carrying blaCTX-M-15 in a neonatal unit of a tertiary care hospital in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshana, Stephen E; Gerwing, Lisa; Minde, Mercy; Hain, Torsten; Domann, Eugen; Lyamuya, Eligius; Chakraborty, Trinad; Imirzalioglu, Can

    2011-09-01

    Enterobacter hormaechei and Cronobacter sakazakii are amongst the most important causes of outbreaks of neonatal sepsis associated with powdered milk. In this study, we report for the first time an outbreak of a novel Enterobacter sp. harbouring bla(CTX-M-15) in a neonatal unit in Tanzania. Seventeen Gram-negative enteric isolates from neonatal blood cultures were studied. Antibiotic susceptibility was assessed by disc diffusion testing, and the presence of the bla(CTX-M-15) gene was established by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Identification by biochemical profiling was followed by nucleotide sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), rpoB and hsp60 alleles. Environmental sampling was done and control measures were established. Isolates were initially misidentified based on their fermentation characteristics and agglutination as Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi. All isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, except for ciprofloxacin and carbapenems, and were found to harbour bla(CTX-M-15) on a 291-kb narrow-range plasmid. PFGE analysis indicated the clonal outbreak of a single strain, infecting 17 neonates with a case fatality rate of 35%. The same strain was isolated from a milk bucket. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA, rpoB and hsp60 sequences permitted no definitive identification, clustering the strains in the Enterobacter cloacae complex with similarities of 92-98.8%. The data describe an outbreak of a novel bla(CTX-M-15)-positive, multiresistant Enterobacter strain in an African neonatal unit that can easily be misidentified taxonomically. These data highlight the need for constant surveillance of bacteria harbouring extended-spectrum β-lactamases as well as improvements in hygiene measures in developing countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of bla OXA-23 -producing carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a single institution over a 65-month period in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Nian-Zhi; Liu, Xiong; Bao, Chun-Mei; Chen, Su-Ming; Cui, En-Bo; Zhang, Ju-Ling; Huang, Jie; Chen, Fang-Hong; Li, Tao; Qu, Fen; Wang, Hui

    2017-01-05

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii poses a significant threat to hospitalized patients, as few therapeutic options remain. Thus, we investigated the molecular epidemiology and mechanism of resistance of carbapenem-resistant A.baumannii isolates in Beijing, China. Carbapenem-resistant A.baumannii isolates (n = 101) obtained between June 2009 and November 2014 were used. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PCR assays for class C and D β-lactamase were performed on all isolates. S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Southern blot hybridization were performed to identify the resistance gene location. All 101 A.baumannii isolates were highly resistant to frequently used antimicrobials, and were considered multidrug resistant. A total of 12 sequence types (STs) were identified, including 10 reported STs and 2 novel STs. Eighty-seven isolates were classified to clonal complex 92 (CC92), among which ST191 and ST195 were the most common STs. The bla OXA-23 gene was positive in most (n = 95) of the A.baumannii isolates. Using S1-nuclease digestion PFGE and Southern blot hybridization, 3 patterns of plasmids carrying bla OXA-23 were confirmed. ST191 and ST195 (both harboring bla OXA-23 ) caused outbreaks during the study period, and this is the first report of outbreaks caused by ST191 and ST195 in north China. bla OXA-23 -producing A.baumannii ST191 and ST 195 isolates can disseminate in a hospital and are potential nosocomial outbreak strains. Surveillance of imipenem-resistant A.baumannii and antimicrobial stewardship should be strengthened.

  3. E. coli encoding blaNDM-5 associated with community-acquired UTI cases with unusual MIC creep like phenomenon against Imipenem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajamer, Varsha Rani; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha; Paul, Deepjyoti; Deshamukhya, Chandrayee; Singh, Ashish Kr; Pradhan, Nilu; Tiwari, Hare Krishna

    2018-05-15

    Carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli are of major clinical concern. The present study aimed to identify NDM-5 producing E.coli associated with community-acquired urinary tract infection, co-harboring ESBL genes and a pattern of imipenem MIC creep. A total of 973 urine samples were collected from females of age between 18-49 diagnosed with UTI. Isolates were identified by standard microbiological procedures. Presence of bla NDM and ESBL genes was determined by PCR assay and sequencing.PCR based replicon typing was performed. Plasmid stability of all bla producers and their transformants study were analyzed by serial passages and MIC creep phenomenon was analysed by studying revertants. Among 34 bla NDM-5 positive E.coli isolates, 21 isolates co harbored bla CTX-M-15 , followed by multiple combinations of genes. The study revealed diverse types of plasmids type viz; HI1, I1, FIA+FIB, FIA and Y. The strains showed progressive plasmid loss after 31 passages.Twenty-eight isolates mostly had MIC value of 0.5μg/ml and 1μg/ml against imipenem, ertapenem and meropenem. However, on studying the MIC creep activity; the MIC was found elevated from 0.5ug/ml to 64μg/ml and from 1μg/ml to 128μg/ml. While analyzing the revertants, MIC of most of the NDM positive isolates was reduced to 16μg/ml after the 30th serial passages. This study observed a unique phenotype of NDM producers which is not been reported earlier. In the current study, the observed phenomenon poses a global threat as these pathogens may evade phenotypic screening by routine laboratories. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. High-level fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198 epidemic clone with IncA/C conjugative plasmid carrying bla(CTX-M-25) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyl, Dariusz; Kern-Zdanowicz, Izabela; Domańska-Blicharz, Katarzyna; Zając, Magdalena; Hoszowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-30

    Multidrug resistant Salmonella Kentucky strains have been isolated from turkeys in Poland since 2009. Multiple mutations within chromosomal genes gyrA and parC were responsible for high-level ciprofloxacin resistance. One of the isolates was extended spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL) positive: the strain 1643/2010 carried a conjugative 167,779 bps plasmid of IncA/C family. The sequence analysis revealed that it carried a blaCTX-M-25 gene and an integron with another β-lactamase encoding gene-blaOXA-21. This is the first known report of a CTX-M-25 encoding gene both in Poland and in Salmonella Kentucky world-wide, as well as in the IncA/C plasmid. Analysis of the integron showed a novel arrangement of gene cassettes-aacA4, aacC-A1 and blaOXA-21 where the latter might result from an intergeneric gene transfer. The study confirmed Salmonella Kentucky population isolated in Poland belongs to global epidemics of high level fluoroquinolone resistant clone ST198 that can carry rare β-lactamase genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in a farrowing farm: ST1121 clone harboring IncHI2 plasmid contributes to the dissemination of blaCMY-2

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    Hui eDeng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During a regular monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in a farrowing farm in Southern China, 117 Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from sows and piglets. Compared with the isolates from piglets, the isolates from sows exhibited higher resistance rates to the tested cephalosporins. Correspondingly, the total detection rate of the blaCMY-2/blaCTX-M genes in the sow isolates (34.2% was also significantly higher than that of the piglet isolates (13.6% (p<0.05. The blaCMY-2 gene had a relatively high prevalence (11.1% in the E. coli isolates. MLST and PFGE analysis revealed the clonal spread of ST1121 E. coli in most (7/13 of the blaCMY-2-positive isolates. An indistinguishable IncHI2 plasmid harboring blaCMY-2 was also identified in each of the seven ST1121 E. coli isolates. Complete sequence analysis of this IncHI2 plasmid (pEC5207 revealed that pEC5207 may have originated through recombination of an IncHI2 plasmid with a blaCMY-2-carrying IncA/C plasmid like pCFSAN007427_01. In addtion to blaCMY-2, pEC5207 also carried other resistance determinants for aminoglycosides (aacA7, sulfonamides (sul1, as well as heavy metals ions, such as Cu and Ag. The susceptibility testing showed that the pEC5207 can mediate both antibiotic and heavy metal resistance. This highlights the role of pEC5207 in co-selection of blaCMY-2-positive isolates under the selective pressure of heavy metals, cephalosporins and other antimicrobials. In conclusion, clonal spread of an ST1121 type E. coli strain harboring an IncHI2 plasmid contributed to the dissemination of blaCMY-2 in a farrowing farm in Southern China. We also have determined the first complete sequence analysis of a blaCMY-2-carrying IncHI2 plasmid.

  6. Characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates carrying bla(OXA-23) carbapenemase and 16S rRNA methylase armA genes in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Sofiane; Alsharapy, Samer Ahmed; Touati, Abdelaziz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular support of resistance to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates collected from Yemen hospital. Three A. baumannii were isolated in February 2013 from three patients hospitalized at Al-Thawra University Hospital in Sana'a, Yemen. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion and E-test methods. Carbapenemase production was carried out by the modified Hodge test (MHT) and imipenem-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) methods. Carbapenem, aminoglycoside, and fluoroquinolone resistance determinants were studied by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The epidemiological relatedness of the three strains was studied using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates were resistant to almost all antibiotics tested with very high imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations (>32, >256, and >32 mg/L, respectively). The microbiological tests showed that the three A. baumannii were MHT positive, besides, the activity of β-lactamases was not inhibited by EDTA. All the three isolates contained the naturally occurring bla(OXA-51)-like gene and the bla(OXA-23)-like carbapenemase-encoding gene. The 16S rRNA methylase armA gene was detected in the three isolates. In addition, screening for genes encoding the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) demonstrated that one isolate contained the acetyltransferase gene aac(6')-Ib. Fluoroquinolone resistance was associated with a single mutation Ser83Leu in the quinolone resistance determining region of the gyrA gene in all isolates. The MLST showed that the sequence type (ST) obtained corresponds to ST2 for the three strains. Here we report the first identification of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates harboring the bla(OXA-23)-like gene, AMEs [aac(6')-Ib], and the 16S rRNA methylase (armA) in the Yemen hospital.

  7. A gratuitous β-Lactamase inducer uncovers hidden active site dynamics of the Staphylococcus aureus BlaR1 sensor domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Thomas E; Peng, Jeffrey W

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that active sites of proteins have non-trivial conformational dynamics. These dynamics include active site residues sampling different local conformations that allow for multiple, and possibly novel, inhibitor binding poses. Yet, active site dynamics garner only marginal attention in most inhibitor design efforts and exert little influence on synthesis strategies. This is partly because synthesis requires a level of atomic structural detail that is frequently missing in current characterizations of conformational dynamics. In particular, while the identity of the mobile protein residues may be clear, the specific conformations they sample remain obscure. Here, we show how an appropriate choice of ligand can significantly sharpen our abilities to describe the interconverting binding poses (conformations) of protein active sites. Specifically, we show how 2-(2'-carboxyphenyl)-benzoyl-6-aminopenicillanic acid (CBAP) exposes otherwise hidden dynamics of a protein active site that binds β-lactam antibiotics. When CBAP acylates (binds) the active site serine of the β-lactam sensor domain of BlaR1 (BlaRS), it shifts the time scale of the active site dynamics to the slow exchange regime. Slow exchange enables direct characterization of inter-converting protein and bound ligand conformations using NMR methods. These methods include chemical shift analysis, 2-d exchange spectroscopy, off-resonance ROESY of the bound ligand, and reduced spectral density mapping. The active site architecture of BlaRS is shared by many β-lactamases of therapeutic interest, suggesting CBAP could expose functional motions in other β-lactam binding proteins. More broadly, CBAP highlights the utility of identifying chemical probes common to structurally homologous proteins to better expose functional motions of active sites.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility, risk factors and prevalence of bla cefotaximase, temoneira, and sulfhydryl variable genes among Escherichia coli in community-acquired pediatric urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, Kallyadan V; Veena, Shetty A; Rathika, Shenoy D; Vijaya, Shenoy M; Avinash, Shetty K

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has become an important challenge among pediatric patients with community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, associated risk factors and to survey the frequency of bla cefotaximase (CTX-M), bla temoneira (TEM), and bla sulfhydryl variable (SHV) genotypes in ESBL-producing E. coli isolated from children with community-acquired UTI. This was a prospective study conducted from November 2012 to March 2016 in a tertiary care center. E. coli isolated in urine cultures from children aged ≤18 years was identified and confirmed for ESBL production. ESBL-positive strains were screened for ESBL encoding genes. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare the difference in antibiotic susceptibility with respect to ESBL positive and negative, and binary logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors associated with ESBL production. Among 523 E. coli isolates, 196 (37.5%) were ESBL positive, >90% were resistant to cephalosporins, and 56% were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Least resistance was observed for imipenem, netilmicin, and nitrofurantoin (2%, 8.6%, 15.3%). Association between ESBL production and drug resistance was significant for ceftazidime ( P antibiotics were the common risk factors. ESBL-producing E. coli from community-acquired pediatric UTI carries more than one type of beta-lactamase coding genes correlating their increased antibiotic resistance. Aggressive infection control policy, routine screening for detecting ESBL isolates in clinical samples, and antimicrobial stewardship are the keys to prevent their dissemination in community settings.

  9. Profiles of phenotype resistance to antibiotic other than β-lactams in Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBLs-producers, carrying blaSHV genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Sacha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Extended spectrum β-lactamases production is one of the most common mechanism of resistance to extendedspectrum β-lactam antibiotics is increasing worldwide. Twenty five strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from clinicalspecimens were tested. Based on the phenotypic confirmatory test all these strains were defined as ESBL producers namedESBL(+. The plasmid DNA from each strains was used to investigate the presence of blaSHV genes responsible for extendedspectrum β-lactamases production. Moreover, susceptibility of these strains to antibiotic other than β-lactams in was tested.

  10. Colistin- and Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia coli Harboring mcr-1 and blaNDM-5, Causing a Complicated Urinary Tract Infection in a Patient from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Mediavilla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Colistin is increasingly used as an antibiotic of last resort for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections. The plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was initially identified in animal and clinical samples from China and subsequently reported worldwide, including in the United States. Of particular concern is the spread of mcr-1 into carbapenem-resistant bacteria, thereby creating strains that approach pan-resistance. While several reports of mcr-1 have involved carbapenem-resistant strains, no such isolates have been described in the United States. Here, we report the isolation and identification of an Escherichia coli strain harboring both mcr-1 and carbapenemase gene blaNDM-5 from a urine sample in a patient without recent travel outside the United States. The isolate exhibited resistance to both colistin and carbapenems, but was susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The mcr-1- and blaNDM-5-harboring plasmids were completely sequenced and shown to be highly similar to plasmids previously reported from China. The strain in this report was first isolated in August 2014, highlighting an earlier presence of mcr-1 within the United States than previously recognized.

  11. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification untuk Mendeteksi Gen blaTEM sebagai Penyandi Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase pada Isolat Enterobacteriaceae

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    Bayu A. P. Wilopo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL is a beta-lactamase enzyme that is capable of hydrolyzing penicillin, cephalosporin, and monobactam, and can be inhibited by clavulanic acid. This enzyme is encoded by multiple genes, one of them is blaTEM. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is one of the DNA amplification methods that are frequently used; however, there are other methods that can be used including, among others, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP. LAMP requires simple equipment with quicker and easy-to-read results compared to PCR. This study was a diagnostic test to explore the sensitivity and specificity of LAMP method compared to PCR in detecting blaTEM gene. Furthermore, the concordance between LAMP and PCR methods was assessed. A total of 92 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were examined by PCR and LAMP methods and compared. The result showed that the LAMP method had a sensitivity of 91.4% and a specificity of 91.2% with a concordance value (kappa of 85.4%. In conclusion, LAMP method has a good validity and a very good conformity compared to the PCR method. Therefore, LAMP method can be used as an alternative diagnostic test, especially in limited settings.

  12. Resistencia a los antibióticos beta-lactámicos Carbapenems mediada por el gen blaKPC en Klebsiella pneumoniae

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    Aura Dayana del Carmen Falco Restrepo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  Los carbapenems son antibióticos â-lactamicos de amplio espectro que se utilizan como terapia de primera línea para tratar pacientes con infecciones graves. Actualmente, la resistencia a carbapenems se asocia con la presencia de â-lactamasas capaces de hidrolizar estos antibióticos. La carbapenemasa de clase A más común es KPC, la cual es codificada por el gen blaKPC que generalmente, se encuentra ubicado en plásmidos. La selección y la rápida propagación de aislados de Klebsiella pneumoniae portadores de estas carbapenemasas se ha convertido en un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. Esta mini-revision describe uno de los mecanismos más frecuentes de resistencia a carbapenems como lo son las enzimas carbapenemasas tipo KPC. Además se describen las variantes del gen blaKPC asi como el elemento genético móvil, el transposon Tn4401, el principal responsable de su diseminación entre géneros y especies bacterianas diferentes. Finalmente se hace una pequeña revisión cronológica de los reportes de la enzima KPC a nivel mundial.

  13. Integration of the blaNDM-1 carbapenemase gene into Proteus genomic island 1 (PGI1-PmPEL) in a Proteus mirabilis clinical isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlich, Delphine; Dortet, Laurent; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    To decipher the mechanisms and their associated genetic determinants responsible for β-lactam resistance in a Proteus mirabilis clinical isolate. The entire genetic structure surrounding the β-lactam resistance genes was characterized by PCR, gene walking and DNA sequencing. Genes encoding the carbapenemase NDM-1 and the ESBL VEB-6 were located in a 38.5 kb MDR structure, which itself was inserted into a new variant of the Proteus genomic island 1 (PGI1). This new PGI1-PmPEL variant of 64.4 kb was chromosomally located, as an external circular form in the P. mirabilis isolate, suggesting potential mobility. This is the first known description of the bla(NDM-1) gene in a genomic island structure, which might further enhance the spread of the bla(NDM-1) carbapenemase gene among enteric pathogens. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The influence of stress on fear memory processes

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    I.D. Martijena

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that stressful experiences promote robust emotional memories, which are well remembered. The amygdaloid complex, principally the basolateral complex (BLA, plays a pivotal role in fear memory and in the modulation of stress-induced emotional responses. A large number of reports have revealed that GABAergic interneurons provide a powerful inhibitory control of the activity of projecting glutamatergic neurons in the BLA. Indeed, a reduced GABAergic control in the BLA is essential for the stress-induced influence on the emergence of associative fear memory and on the generation of long-term potentiation (LTP in BLA neurons. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK subfamily of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway in the BLA plays a central role in the consolidation process and synaptic plasticity. In support of the view that stress facilitates long-term fear memory, stressed animals exhibited a phospho-ERK2 (pERK2 increase in the BLA, suggesting the involvement of this mechanism in the promoting influence of threatening stimuli on the consolidation fear memory. Moreover, the occurrence of reactivation-induced lability is prevented when fear memory is encoded under intense stressful conditions since the memory trace remains immune to disruption after recall in previously stressed animals. Thus, the underlying mechanism in retrieval-induced instability seems not to be functional in memories formed under stress. All these findings are indicative that stress influences both the consolidation and reconsolidation fear memory processes. Thus, it seems reasonable to propose that the emotional state generated by an environmental challenge critically modulates the formation and maintenance of long-term fear memory.

  15. Complete sequencing of IncI1 sequence type 2 plasmid pJIE512b indicates mobilization of blaCMY-2 from an IncA/C plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagg, Kaitlin A; Iredell, Jonathan R; Partridge, Sally R

    2014-08-01

    Sequencing of pJIE512b, a 92.3-kb IncI1 sequence type 2 (ST2) plasmid carrying bla(CMY-2), revealed a bla(CMY-2) context that appeared to have been mobilized from an IncA/C plasmid by the insertion sequence IS1294. A comparison with published plasmids suggests that bla(CMY-2) has been mobilized from IncA/C to IncI1 plasmids more than once by IS1294-like elements. Alignment of pJIE512b with the only other available IncI1 ST2 plasmid revealed differences across the backbones, indicating variability within this sequence type. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Multihospital Occurrence of Pan-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 147 with an ISEcp1-Directed blaOXA-181 Insertion in the mgrB Gene in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnevend, Ágnes; Ghazawi, Akela; Hashmey, Rayhan; Haidermota, Aliasgher; Girgis, Safinaz; Alfaresi, Mubarak; Omar, Mohammed; Paterson, David L; Zowawi, Hosam M; Pál, Tibor

    2017-07-01

    The emergence of pan-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains is an increasing concern. In the present study, we describe a cluster of 9 pan-resistant K. pneumoniae sequence type 147 (ST147) isolates encountered in 4 patients over nearly 1 year in 3 hospitals of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The isolates exhibited highly similar genotypes. All produced chromosomally encoded OXA-181, and the majority also produced the NDM-5 carbapenemase. As with the previously described single isolate from the UAE, MS6671, the mgrB was disrupted by a functional, IS Ecp1 -driven bla OXA-181 insertion causing resistance to carbapenems. The mutation was successfully complemented with an intact mgrB gene, indicating that it was responsible for colistin resistance. bla NDM-5 was located within a resistance island of an approximately 100-kb IncFII plasmid carrying ermB , mph (A), bla TEM-1B , rmtB , bla NDM-5 , sul1 , aadA2 , and dfrA12 resistance genes. Sequencing this plasmid (pABC143-NDM) revealed that its backbone was nearly identical to that of plasmid pMS6671E from which several resistance genes, including bla NDM-5 , had been deleted. More extensive similarities of the backbone and the resistance island were found between pABC143C-NDM and the bla NDM-5 -carrying IncFII plasmids of two K. pneumoniae ST147 isolates from South Korea, one of which was colistin resistant, and both also produced OXA-181. Notably, one of these strains was isolated from a patient transferred from the UAE. Our data show that this pan-resistant clone has an alarming capacity to maintain itself over an extended period of time and is even likely to be transmitted internationally. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Serratia marcescens harbouring SME-type class A carbapenemases in Canada and the presence of blaSME on a novel genomic island, SmarGI1-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataseje, L F; Boyd, D A; Delport, J; Hoang, L; Imperial, M; Lefebvre, B; Kuhn, M; Van Caeseele, P; Willey, B M; Mulvey, M R

    2014-07-01

    An increasing prevalence since 2010 of Serratia marcescens harbouring the Ambler class A carbapenemase SME prompted us to further characterize these isolates. Isolates harbouring bla(SME) were identified by PCR and sequencing. Phenotypic analysis for carbapenemase activity was carried out by a modified Hodge test and a modified Carba NP test. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by Etest and Vitek 2. Typing was by PFGE of macrorestriction digests. Whole-genome sequencing of three isolates was carried out to characterize the genomic region harbouring the bla(SME)-type genes. All S. marcescens harbouring SME-type enzymes could be detected using a modified Carba NP test. Isolates harbouring bla(SME) were resistant to penicillins and carbapenems, but remained susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins, as well as fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Isolates exhibited diverse genetic backgrounds, though 57% of isolates were found in three clusters. Analysis of whole-genome sequence data from three isolates revealed that the bla(SME) gene occurred in a novel cryptic prophage genomic island, SmarGI1-1. There has been an increasing occurrence of S. marcescens harbouring bla(SME) in Canada since 2010. The bla(SME) gene was found on a genomic island, SmarGI1-1, that can be excised and circularized, which probably contributes to its dissemination amongst S. marcescens. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Colistin- and Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia coli Harboring mcr-1 and blaNDM-5, Causing a Complicated Urinary Tract Infection in a Patient from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, José R; Patrawalla, Amee; Chen, Liang; Chavda, Kalyan D; Mathema, Barun; Vinnard, Christopher; Dever, Lisa L; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2016-08-30

    Colistin is increasingly used as an antibiotic of last resort for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections. The plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was initially identified in animal and clinical samples from China and subsequently reported worldwide, including in the United States. Of particular concern is the spread of mcr-1 into carbapenem-resistant bacteria, thereby creating strains that approach pan-resistance. While several reports of mcr-1 have involved carbapenem-resistant strains, no such isolates have been described in the United States. Here, we report the isolation and identification of an Escherichia coli strain harboring both mcr-1 and carbapenemase gene blaNDM-5 from a urine sample in a patient without recent travel outside the United States. The isolate exhibited resistance to both colistin and carbapenems, but was susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The mcr-1- and blaNDM-5-harboring plasmids were completely sequenced and shown to be highly similar to plasmids previously reported from China. The strain in this report was first isolated in August 2014, highlighting an earlier presence of mcr-1 within the United States than previously recognized. Colistin has become the last line of defense for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics, in particular carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Resistance to colistin, encoded by the plasmid-borne gene mcr-1, was first identified in animal and clinical samples from China in November 2015 and has subsequently been reported from numerous other countries. In April 2016, mcr-1 was identified in a carbapenem-susceptible Escherichia coli strain from a clinical sample in the United States, followed by a second report from a carbapenem-susceptible E. coli strain originally isolated in May 2015. We report the isolation and identification of

  19. Presence of quinolone resistance to qnrB1 genes and blaOXA-48 carbapenemase in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martínez, J M; Díaz-de Alba, P; Lopez-Cerero; Ruiz-Carrascoso, G; Gomez-Gil, R; Pascual, A

    2014-01-01

    A study is presented on the presence of quinolone resistance qnrB1 genes in clinical isolates belonging to the largest series of infections caused by OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a single-centre outbreak in Spain. Evidence is also provided, according to in vitro results, that there is a possibility of co-transfer of plasmid harbouring blaOXA-48 with an other plasmid harbouring qnrB1 in presence of low antibiotic concentrations of fluoroquinolones, showing the risk of multi-resistance screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Optogenetic stimulation of lateral amygdala input to posterior piriform cortex modulates single-unit and ensemble odor processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eSadrian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory information is synthesized within the olfactory cortex to provide not only an odor percept, but also a contextual significance that supports appropriate behavioral response to specific odor cues. The piriform cortex serves as a communication hub within this circuit by sharing reciprocal connectivity with higher processing regions, such as the lateral entorhinal cortex and amygdala. The functional significance of these descending inputs on piriform cortical processing of odorants is currently not well understood. We have employed optogenetic methods to selectively stimulate lateral and basolateral amygdala (BLA afferent fibers innervating the posterior piriform cortex (pPCX to quantify BLA modulation of pPCX odor-evoked activity. Single unit odor-evoked activity of anaesthetized BLA-infected animals was significantly modulated compared with control animal recordings, with individual cells displaying either enhancement or suppression of odor-driven spiking. In addition, BLA activation induced a decorrelation of odor-evoked pPCX ensemble activity relative to odor alone. Together these results indicate a modulatory role in pPCX odor processing for the BLA complex, which could contribute to learned changes in PCX activity following associative conditioning.

  1. Complete Sequence of pSAM7, an IncX4 Plasmid Carrying a Novel blaCTX-M-14b Transposition Unit Isolated from Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae from Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokes, M.O.; Abuoun, M.; Umur, S.; Wu, G.; Partridge, S.R.; Mevius, D.J.; Coldham, N.G.; Fielder, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    The same plasmid carrying blaCTX-M-14b was identified from an Escherichia coli isolate and an Enterobacter cloacae isolate collected from cattle in the United Kingdom by complete plasmid sequencing. This 35,341-bp plasmid, pSAM7, had an IncX4 backbone that is 99% identical to that of pJIE143 from a

  2. Expansion of highly stable bla OXA-10 β-lactamase family within diverse host range among nosocomial isolates of Gram-negative bacilli within a tertiary referral hospital of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Anand Prakash; Dhar, Debadatta; Basumatary, Mridul Kumar; Paul, Deepjyoti; Ingti, Birson; Choudhury, Debarati; Talukdar, Anupam Das; Chakravarty, Atanu; Mishra, Shweta; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha

    2017-04-04

    The current study reports dissemination of highly stable bla OXA-10 family of beta lactamases among diverse group of nosocomial isolates of Gram-negative bacilli within a tertiary referral hospital of the northern part of India. In the current study, a total number of 590 Gram negative isolates were selected for a period of 1 year (i.e. 1st November 2011-31st October 2012). Members of Enterobacteriaceae and non fermenting Gram negative rods were obtained from Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar, India. Screening and molecular characterization of β-lactamase genes was done. Integrase gene PCR was performed for detection and characterization of integrons and cassette PCR was performed for study of the variable regions of integron gene cassettes carrying bla OXA-10 . Gene transferability, stability and replicon typing was also carried out. Isolates were typed by ERIC as well as REP PCR. Twenty-four isolates of Gram-negative bacilli that were harboring bla OXA-10 family (OXA-14, and OXA16) with fact that resistance was to the extended cephalosporins. The resistance determinant was located within class I integron in five diverse genetic contexts and horizontally transferable in Enterobacteriaceae, was carried through IncY type plasmid. MIC values were above break point for all the tested cephalosporins. Furthermore, co-carriage of bla CMY-2 was also observed. Multiple genetic environment of bla OXA-10 in this geographical region must be investigated to prevent dissemination of these gene cassettes within bacterial population within hospital settings.

  3. Whole-genome typing and characterization of blaVIM19-harbouring ST383 Klebsiella pneumoniae by PFGE, whole-genome mapping and WGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabirova, Julia S; Xavier, Basil Britto; Coppens, Jasmine; Zarkotou, Olympia; Lammens, Christine; Janssens, Lore; Burggrave, Ronald; Wagner, Trevor; Goossens, Herman; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi

    2016-06-01

    We utilized whole-genome mapping (WGM) and WGS to characterize 12 clinical carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains (TGH1-TGH12). All strains were screened for carbapenemase genes by PCR, and typed by MLST, PFGE (XbaI) and WGM (AflII) (OpGen, USA). WGS (Illumina) was performed on TGH8 and TGH10. Reads were de novo assembled and annotated [SPAdes, Rapid Annotation Subsystem Technology (RAST)]. Contigs were aligned directly, and after in silico AflII restriction, with corresponding WGMs (MapSolver, OpGen; BioNumerics, Applied Maths). All 12 strains were ST383. Of the 12 strains, 11 were carbapenem resistant, 7 harboured blaKPC-2 and 11 harboured blaVIM-19. Varying the parameters for assigning WGM clusters showed that these were comparable to STs and to the eight PFGE types or subtypes (difference of three or more bands). A 95% similarity coefficient assigned all 12 WGMs to a single cluster, whereas a 99% similarity coefficient (or ≥10 unmatched-fragment difference) assigned the 12 WGMs to eight (sub)clusters. Based on a difference of three or more bands between PFGE profiles, the Simpson's diversity indices (SDIs) of WGM (0.94, Jackknife pseudo-values CI: 0.883-0.996) and PFGE (0.93, Jackknife pseudo-values CI: 0.828-1.000) were similar (P = 0.649). However, the discriminatory power of WGM was significantly higher (SDI: 0.94, Jackknife pseudo-values CI: 0.883-0.996) than that of PFGE profiles typed on a difference of seven or more bands (SDI: 0.53, Jackknife pseudo-values CI: 0.212-0.849) (P = 0.007). This study demonstrates the application of WGM to understanding the epidemiology of hospital-associated K. pneumoniae. Utilizing a combination of WGM and WGS, we also present here the first longitudinal genomic characterization of the highly dynamic carbapenem-resistant ST383 K. pneumoniae clone that is rapidly gaining importance in Europe. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial

  4. Antimicrobial resistance and detection of mecA and blaZ genes in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane C. Soares

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the pheno- and genotypical antimicrobial resistance profile of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS species isolated from dairy cows milk, specially concerning to oxacillin. Of 100 CNS isolates, the S. xylosus was the prevalent species, followed by S. cohnii, S. hominis, S. capitis and S. haemolyticus. Only 6% were phenotypically susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tested in disk diffusion assay. Penicillin and ampicillin resistance rates were significantly higher than others antimicrobials. Four isolates were positive to mecA gene (4%, all represented by the S. xylosus species. The blaZ gene was detected in 16% of the isolates (16/100. It was noticed that all mecA + were also positive to this gene and the presence of both genes was correlated to phenotypic beta-lactamic resistance. We conclude that CNS species from bovine milk presented significantly distinct antimicrobial resistance profiles, evaluated by phenotypic and genotypic tests, which has implications for treatment and management decisions.

  5. Complete Sequence of a F33:A-:B- Conjugative Plasmid Carrying the oqxAB, fosA3 and blaCTX-M-55 Elements from a Foodborne Escherichia coli Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Ho-yin Wong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the complete sequence of pE80, a conjugative IncFII plasmid recovered from an E. coli strain isolated from chicken meat. This plasmid harbors multiple resistance determinants including oqxAB, fosA3, blaCTX-M-55 and blaTEM-1, and is a close variant of the recently reported p42-2 element, which was recovered from E. coli of veterinary source. Recovery of pE80 constitutes evidence that evolution or genetic re-arrangement of IncFII type plasmids residing in animal-borne organisms is an active event, which involves acquisition and integration of foreign resistance elements into the plasmid backbone. Dissemination of these plasmids may further compromise the effectiveness of current antimicrobial strategies.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human-Invasive Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain of the Emerging Sequence Type 213 Harboring a Multidrug Resistance IncA/C Plasmid and a blaCMY-2-Carrying IncF Plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudia; Calva, Edmundo; Calva, Juan J; Wiesner, Magdalena; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Puente, José L; Vinuesa, Pablo

    2015-11-12

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 33676 was isolated in Mexico City, Mexico, from a patient with a systemic infection, and its complete genome sequence was determined using PacBio single-molecule real-time technology. Strain 33676 harbors an IncF plasmid carrying the extended-spectrum cephalosporin gene blaCMY-2 and a multidrug resistance IncA/C plasmid. Copyright © 2015 Silva et al.

  7. First detection of AmpC β-lactamase bla(CMY-2) on a conjugative IncA/C plasmid in a Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolate of food origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruichao; Lin, Dachuan; Chen, Kaichao; Wong, Marcus Ho Yin; Chen, Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important causative agent of gastroenteritis, with the consumption of contaminated seafood being the major transmission route. Resistance to penicillin is common among V. parahaemolyticus strains, whereas cephalosporin resistance remains rare. In an attempt to assess the current prevalence and characteristics of antibiotic resistance of this pathogen in common food samples, a total of 54 (17% of the total samples) V. parahaemolyticus strains were isolated from 318 meat and seafood samples purchased from supermarkets and wet markets in Shenzhen, China, in 2013. These isolates exhibited high-level resistance to ampicillin, yet they were mostly susceptible to other antimicrobials, except for two that were resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The β-lactamase gene blaPER-1 was detectable in one strain, V. parahaemolyticus V43, which was resistant to both third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Compared to other blaPER-1-positive V. parahaemolyticus strains reported in our previous studies, strain V43 was found to harbor an ∼200-kb conjugative plasmid carrying genes that were different from the antimicrobial resistance genes reported from the previous studies. The β-lactamase gene blaCMY-2 was detectable for the first time in another V. parahaemolyticus isolate, V4, which was resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. This blaCMY-2 gene was shown to be located in an ∼150-kb IncA/C-type conjugative plasmid with a genetic structure consisting of traB-traV-traA-ISEcp1-blaCMY-2-blc-sugE-encR-orf1-orf2-orf3-orf4-dsbC-traC, which is identical to that of other IncA/C conjugative plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae, albeit with a different size. These findings indicate that the transmission of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase genes via conjugative plasmids can mediate the development of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in V. parahaemolyticus, thereby posing a potential threat to public health

  8. Transcriptome mapping of pAR060302, a blaCMY-2-positive broad-host-range IncA/C plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kevin S; Danzeisen, Jessica L; Xu, Wayne; Johnson, Timothy J

    2012-05-01

    The multidrug resistance-encoding plasmids belonging to the IncA/C incompatibility group have recently emerged among Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica strains in the United States. These plasmids have a unique genetic structure compared to other enterobacterial plasmid types, a broad host range, and a propensity to acquire large numbers of antimicrobial resistance genes via their accessory regions. Using E. coli strain DH5α harboring the prototype IncA/C plasmid pAR060302, we sought to define the baseline transcriptome of IncA/C plasmids under laboratory growth and in the face of selective pressure. The effects of ampicillin, florfenicol, or streptomycin exposure were compared to those on cells left untreated at logarithmic phase using Illumina platform-based RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Under growth in Luria-Bertani broth lacking antibiotics, much of the backbone of pAR060302 was transcriptionally inactive, including its putative transfer regions. A few plasmid backbone genes of interest were highly transcribed, including genes of a putative toxin-antitoxin system and an H-NS-like transcriptional regulator. In contrast, numerous genes within the accessory regions of pAR060302 were highly transcribed, including the resistance genes floR, bla(CMY-2), aadA, and aacA. Treatment with ampicillin or streptomycin resulted in no genes being differentially expressed compared to controls lacking antibiotics, suggesting that many of the resistance-associated genes are not differentially expressed due to exposure to these antibiotics. In contrast, florfenicol treatment resulted in the upregulation of floR and numerous chromosomal genes. Overall, the transcriptome mapping of pAR060302 suggests that it mitigates the fitness costs of carrying resistance-associated genes through global regulation with its transcriptional regulators.

  9. Expansion of plasmid mediated blaACT-2 among Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with postoperative infection and its transcriptional response under cephalosporin stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birson Ingti, Deepjyoti Paul, Anand Prakash Maurya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Organisms harboring multiple plasmid mediated β-lactamases are major concerns in nosocomial infections. Among these plasmid mediated β-lactamases, ACT (EBC family is a clinically important enzyme capable of hydrolyzing broad spectrum cephalosporins. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ACT determinant along with other co-existing β-lactamase genes in P. aeruginosa strains. Methods: A total of 176 Pseudomonas isolates were phenotypically screened for the presence of AmpC β-lactamase by M3DET Method followed by Molecular detection using PCR assay. Transcriptional evaluation of blaACT-2 gene was analyzed by RT-PCR and its transferability was performed by transformation and conjugation. Results: Present study demonstrates the presence of ACT-2 allele among 12 strains of P. aeruginosa. Co-existence of other β-lactamase genes were encountered among ACT-2 harboring strains which includes CTX-M (n=2, SHV (n=3, TEM (n=2, VEB (n=2, OXA-10 (n=1, CIT (n=2 and DHA (n=3. Fingerprinting by REP PCR revealed the isolates harboring ACT-2 to be distinct and these isolates showed high resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and even to carbapenem group of drugs. This ACT-2 allele was encoded in the plasmid (L/M, FIA, FIB Inc. Group and conjugatively transferable. Transcriptional analysis revealed a significant increase in ACT-2 expression (483 fold when induced by ceftriaxone at 4 µg/ml followed by ceftazidime at 8 µg/ml (31 fold and cefotaxime 4 µg/ml (8 fold. Conclusion: In this study detection of ACT-2 plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamase along with other β-lactamase genes in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa represents a serious therapeutic challenge. Therefore, revision in antimicrobial policy is required for effective treatment of patients infected with pathogen expressing this mechanism. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(2: 75-82

  10. The Effect of Reversible Abolition of Basolateral Amygdala on Hippocampal Dependent Spatial Memory Processes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rashidy-Pour

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many evidences have suggested that the Basolateral Amygdala (BLA are probably involved in emotional learning and modulation of spatial memory processes. The aim of this present study was assessment of the effect of reversible abolition of BLA on spatial memory processes in a place avoidance learning model in a stable environment. Methods and Materials: Long-Evans strain rats (280-320 gr. were selected and cannulae aimed at the BLA were surgically implanted bilaterally. The mice were trained to avoid a 60° segment of the arena by punishing with a mild foot shock upon entering the area. The punished sector was defined by room cues during the place avoidance training, which occurred in a single 30-min session and the avoidance memory was assessed during a 30-min extinction trial after 24 hours. The time of the first entry and the number of entrances into the punished sector during extinction were used to measure the place avoidance memory. Bilateral injections of Tetrodotoxin (5ng/0.6ml per side were used to inactivate the BLA 60 min before acquisition, immediately, 60 and 120 min after training, or 60 min before the retrieval test. Control mice were injected saline at the same time. Results : The results indicated that acquisition, consolidation (immediately, 60 min after training and retrieval of spatial memory in stable arena were impaired (p0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that the Basolateral Amygdala (BLA modulate spatial memory processes in place avoidance learning model in stable arena and this effect in regard to consolidation is time dependent.

  11. Bla-bla-bla: video chat service on the Internet, a market feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgreen, A.; Antioco, M.D.J.; Wetzels, M.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Internet is changing the way that companies carry out their business and, in fact, constitutes an entirely new application domain, which makes product innovation possible. Moreover, it is a new medium for reaching consumers, which is a central preoccupation to organisations in the current

  12. Bla-bla-bla: video chat service on the Internet - a market feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgreen, Adam; Antioco, Michael; Wetzels, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The Internet is changing the way that companies carry out their business and, in fact, constitutes an entirely new application domain, which makes product innovation possible. Moreover, it is a new medium for reaching consumers, which is a central preoccupation to organisations in the current business market. Here interest lies in video chatting on the Internet. This is a type of service that adds video support to chatting using a Web cam and is gradually attracting more Internet users. The p...

  13. Spread of ISCR1 Elements Containing blaDHA-1 and Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Leading to Increase of Flomoxef Resistance in Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Liu, Jien-Wei; Li, Chia-Chin; Chien, Chun-Chih; Tang, Ya-Fen; Su, Lin-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Increasing resistance to quinolones, aminoglycosides, and/or cephamycins in extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae exacerbates the already limited antibiotic treatment options for infections due to these microbes. In this study, the presence of resistance determinants for these antimicrobial agents was examined by PCR among ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) isolates that caused bacteremia. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to differentiate the clonal relationship among the isolates studied. Transferability and the location of the resistance genes were analyzed by conjugation experiments, followed by DNA-DNA hybridization. Among the 94 ESBL-KP isolates studied, 20 isolates of flomoxef-resistant ESBL-KP were identified. They all carried a DHA-1 gene and were genetically diverse. CTX-M genes were found in 18 of the isolates. Among these DHA-1/CTX-M-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, ISCR1 was detected in 13 (72%) isolates, qnr genes (1 qnrA and 17 qnrB genes) were detected in 18 (100%), aac(6′)-Ib-cr was detected in 11 (61%), and 16S rRNA methylase (all armA genes) was detected in 14 (78%). Four transconjugants were available for further analysis, and qnrB4, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, armA, and blaDHA-1 were all identified on these self-transferable blaCTX-M-carrying plasmids. The genetic environments of ISCR1 associated with armA, blaDHA-1, and qnrB4 genes in the four transconjugants were identical. Replicon-type analysis revealed a FIIA plasmid among the four self-transferable plasmids, although the other three were nontypeable. The cotransfer of multiple resistance genes with the ISCR1 element-carrying plasmids has a clinical impact and warrants close monitoring and further study. PMID:21746945

  14. Collateral damage of flomoxef therapy: in vivo development of porin deficiency and acquisition of blaDHA-1 leading to ertapenem resistance in a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing CTX-M-3 and SHV-5 beta-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Chu, Chishih; Liu, Jien-Wei; Chen, Yi-Shung; Chiu, Chiung-Jung; Su, Lin-Hui

    2007-08-01

    The study aimed to characterize the genetic basis of flomoxef and collateral ertapenem resistance in a clinical isolate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) after flomoxef exposure. Four ESBL-KP isolates (Lkp11-14) were recovered sequentially from four episodes of bacteraemia in an elderly patient. Laboratory investigations included genotyping by PFGE, resistance gene analysis by PCR and sequencing, and outer membrane protein analysis by SDS-PAGE. Plasmid analysis by DNA-DNA hybridization, electroporation and conjugation was also performed. Lkp14 was recovered after 21 days of flomoxef therapy. It demonstrated an indistinguishable PFGE pattern when compared with those produced by Lkp11-13. However, resistance to both flomoxef and ertapenem emerged in Lkp14. Molecular characterization revealed that, in addition to the pre-existing ESBL production (CTX-M-3 and SHV-5) and OmpK35 deficiency found in Lkp11-13, Lkp14 had acquired an extra plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase gene (blaDHA-1) and failed to express OmpK36, because of insertional inactivation by an insertion sequence IS5. Other resistance mechanisms, such as production of carbapenem-hydrolysing enzymes or expression of chromosomal efflux, were apparently not involved. Conjugational transfer of the plasmid-mediated blaDHA-1 gene into Lkp11 resulted in a significant increase in the MICs of cephamycins and beta-lactamase inhibitors, but not in those of carbapenems. Lkp14 was apparently derived from the previously flomoxef-susceptible isolates, Lkp11-13. After flomoxef exposure, the in vivo acquisition of the plasmid-mediated blaDHA-1 gene has led to flomoxef resistance in Lkp14, and the concomitant depletion of OmpK36 expression has resulted in a collateral effect of ertapenem resistance and diminished susceptibilities to imipenem and meropenem.

  15. Spread of ISCR1 elements containing blaDHA-₁ and multiple antimicrobial resistance genes leading to increase of flomoxef resistance in extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Liu, Jien-Wei; Li, Chia-Chin; Chien, Chun-Chih; Tang, Ya-Fen; Su, Lin-Hui

    2011-09-01

    Increasing resistance to quinolones, aminoglycosides, and/or cephamycins in extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae exacerbates the already limited antibiotic treatment options for infections due to these microbes. In this study, the presence of resistance determinants for these antimicrobial agents was examined by PCR among ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) isolates that caused bacteremia. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to differentiate the clonal relationship among the isolates studied. Transferability and the location of the resistance genes were analyzed by conjugation experiments, followed by DNA-DNA hybridization. Among the 94 ESBL-KP isolates studied, 20 isolates of flomoxef-resistant ESBL-KP were identified. They all carried a DHA-1 gene and were genetically diverse. CTX-M genes were found in 18 of the isolates. Among these DHA-1/CTX-M-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, ISCR1 was detected in 13 (72%) isolates, qnr genes (1 qnrA and 17 qnrB genes) were detected in 18 (100%), aac(6')-Ib-cr was detected in 11 (61%), and 16S rRNA methylase (all armA genes) was detected in 14 (78%). Four transconjugants were available for further analysis, and qnrB4, aac(6')-Ib-cr, armA, and bla(DHA-1) were all identified on these self-transferable bla(CTX-M)-carrying plasmids. The genetic environments of ISCR1 associated with armA, bla(DHA-1), and qnrB4 genes in the four transconjugants were identical. Replicon-type analysis revealed a FIIA plasmid among the four self-transferable plasmids, although the other three were nontypeable. The cotransfer of multiple resistance genes with the ISCR1 element-carrying plasmids has a clinical impact and warrants close monitoring and further study.

  16. Prevalence of blaZ gene types and the cefazolin inoculum effect among methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus blood isolates and their association with multilocus sequence types and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Y P; Park, S-J; Kim, E S; Bang, K-M; Kim, M-N; Kim, S-H; Lee, S-O; Choi, S-H; Jeong, J-Y; Woo, J H; Kim, Y S

    2015-02-01

    Cefazolin treatment failures have been described for bacteraemia caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) with type A β-lactamase and inoculum effect (InE). We investigated the prevalence of blaZ (β-lactamase) gene types and a cefazolin InE among MSSA blood isolates in South Korea and evaluated their association with specific genotypes. The clinical impact of the cefazolin InE was also evaluated. A total of 220 MSSA isolates were collected from a prospective cohort study of S. aureus bacteraemia. A pronounced InE with cefazolin was defined as a ≥4-fold increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) between a standard and high inoculum, resulting in a non-susceptible MIC. Sequencing of blaZ and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. Clinical outcomes were assessed in 77 patients treated with cefazolin. The blaZ gene was detected in 92 % of the 220 MSSA isolates. Type C β-lactamase was the most common (53 %), followed by type B (20 %) and type A (17 %). Certain genotypes were significantly associated with specific β-lactamase types (notably, ST30 and type A β-lactamase). A pronounced cefazolin InE was observed in 13 % of isolates. Most of these (79 %) expressed type A β-lactamase and ST30 was the predominant (55 %) clone amongst them. Cefazolin treatment failure was not observed in patients infected with strains exhibiting a pronounced InE. These strains had no impact on other clinical outcomes. In conclusion, the prevalence of a pronounced InE with cefazolin could be dependent upon distributions of MSSA genotypes. Cefazolin can likely be used for the treatment of MSSA bacteraemia (except endocarditis), without consideration of an InE.

  17. Characterisation of IncA/C2 plasmids carrying an In416-like integron with the blaVIM-19 gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae ST383 of Greek origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannitsis, Costas C; Dolejska, Monika; Izdebski, Radosław; Giakkoupi, Panagiota; Skálová, Anna; Chudějová, Kateřina; Dobiasova, Hana; Vatopoulos, Alkiviadis C; Derde, Lennie P G; Bonten, Marc J M; Gniadkowski, Marek; Hrabák, Jaroslav

    2016-02-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of three multidrug resistance (MDR) IncA/C-like plasmids from Enterobacteriaceae isolates carrying the VIM-type carbapenemase-encoding integrons In4863 (blaVIM-19-aacA7-dfrA1-ΔaadA1-smr2) or In4873 (blaVIM-1-aacA7-dfrA1-ΔaadA1-smr2) were determined, which are the first In416-like elements identified in Greece. Plasmids pKP-Gr642 and pKP-Gr8143 were from Klebsiella pneumoniae ST383 isolates, whereas plasmid pEcl-Gr4873 was from an Enterobacter cloacae ST88 isolate. Sequencing showed that pKP-Gr642 (162787bp) and pKP-Gr8143 (154395bp) consisted of the type 1 IncA/C2 conserved backbone, the blaCMY-2-like gene-containing region, and the ARI-B (with the sul2 gene) and ARI-A (with a class 1 integron) resistance islands, like the plasmid pUMNK88_161 from the USA. The third plasmid, pEcl-Gr4873 (153958bp), exhibited extensive similarity with the type 2 IncA/C2 plasmid pR55 from France. pEcl-Gr4873 carried only one resistance island of a hybrid transposon structure inserted in a different location to ARI-A in type 1 A/C2 plasmids. In all three plasmids, the In416-like integrons In4863 or In4873 were identified within non-identical class II transposon structures. All three In416-like-carrying regions presented significant similarities with the MDR region of the IncA/C2 plasmid pCC416 from Italy, carrying the prototype In416 integron (blaVIM-4-aacA7-dfrA1-ΔaadA1-smr2). These findings provided the basis for speculations regarding the evolution of IncA/C2 plasmids with In416-like integrons, and confirmed the rapid evolution of some IncA/C2 plasmid lineages. Considering the broad host range of IncA/C2 molecules, it seems that pKP-Gr642, pKP-Gr8143 and pEcl-Gr4873 plasmids might support the diffusion of In416-like integrons among Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  18. Complete sequences of IncHI1 plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 and qnrS1 in equine Escherichia coli provide new insights into plasmid evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolejska, Monika; Villa, Laura; Minoia, Marco

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the structure of two multidrug-resistant IncHI1 plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 in Escherichia coli isolates disseminated in an equine clinic in the Czech Republic. METHODS: A complete nucleotide sequencing of 239 kb IncHI1 (pEQ1) and 287 kb IncHI1/X1 (pEQ2) plasmids was per...... highlight the structure and evolution of IncHI1 from equine E. coli. A plasmid-mediated sugar metabolic element could play a key role in strain fitness, contributing to the successful dissemination and maintenance of these plasmids in the intestinal microflora of horses....

  19. Complete Sequence of p07-406, a 24,179-base-pair plasmid harboring the blaVIM-7 metallo-beta-lactamase gene in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyang; Toleman, Mark A; Bennett, Peter M; Jones, Ronald N; Walsh, Timothy R

    2008-09-01

    An outbreak involving a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain that was resistant to all tested antimicrobials except polymyxin B occurred in a hospital in Houston, TX. Previous studies on this strain showed that it possesses a novel mobile metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) gene, designated bla(VIM-7), located on a plasmid (p07-406). Here, we report the complete sequence, annotation, and functional characterization of this plasmid. p07-406 is 24,179 bp in length, and 29 open reading frames were identified related to known or putatively recognized proteins. Analysis of this plasmid showed it to be comprised of four distinct regions: (i) a region of 5,200 bp having a Tn501-like mercuric resistance (mer) transposon upstream of the replication region; (ii) a Tn3-like transposon carrying a truncated integron with a bla(VIM-7) gene and an insertion sequence inserted at the other end of this transposon; (iii) a region of four genes, upstream of the Tn3-like transposon, possessing very high similarity to plasmid pXcB from Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri commonly associated with plants; (iv) a backbone sequence similar to the backbone structure of the IncP group plasmid Rms149, pB10, and R751. This is the first plasmid to be sequenced carrying an MBL gene and highlights the amelioration of DNA segments from disparate origins, most noticeably from plant pathogens.

  20. Genetic and biochemical characterization of an acquired subgroup B3 metallo-β-lactamase gene, blaAIM-1, and its unique genetic context in Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Dongeun; Toleman, Mark A; Bell, Jan; Ritchie, Brett; Pratt, Rachael; Ryley, Henry; Walsh, Timothy R

    2012-12-01

    Three clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates (WCH2677, WCH2813, and WCH2837) isolated from the Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Australia, produced a metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-positive Etest result. All isolates were PCR negative for known MBL genes. A gene bank was created, and an MBL gene, designated bla(AIM-1), was cloned and fully characterized. The encoded enzyme, AIM-1, is a group B3 MBL that has the highest level of identity to THIN-B and L1. It is chromosomal and flanked by two copies (one intact and one truncated) of an ISCR element, ISCR15. Southern hybridization studies indicated the movement of both ISCR15 and bla(AIM-1) within the three different clinical isolates. AIM-1 hydrolyzes most β-lactams, with the exception of aztreonam and, to a lesser extent, ceftazidime; however, it possesses significantly higher k(cat) values for cefepime and carbapenems than most other MBLs. AIM-1 was the first mobile group B3 enzyme detected and signals further problems for already beleaguered antimicrobial regimes to treat serious P. aeruginosa and other Gram-negative infections.

  1. Stress-induced resistance to the fear memory labilization/reconsolidation process. Involvement of the basolateral amygdala complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Pablo Javier; Ortiz, Vanesa; Martijena, Irene Delia; Molina, Victor Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Consolidated memories can enter into a labile state after reactivation followed by a restabilization process defined as reconsolidation. This process can be interfered with Midazolam (MDZ), a positive allosteric modulator of the GABA-A receptor. The present study has evaluated the influence of prior stress on MDZ's interfering effect. We also assessed the influence of both systemic and intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) infusion of d-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist of the NMDA receptors, on the MDZ effect in previously stressed rats. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of stress on the expression of Zif-268 and the GluN2B sites, two molecular markers of the labilization/reconsolidation process, following reactivation. The results revealed that prior stress resulted into a memory trace that was insensitive to the MDZ impairing effect. Both systemic and intra-BLA DCS administration previous to reactivation restored MDZ's disruptive effect on memory reconsolidation in stressed animals. Further, reactivation enhanced Zif-268 expression in the BLA in control unstressed rats, whereas no elevation was observed in stressed animals. In agreement with the behavioral findings, DCS restored the increased level of Zif-268 expression in the BLA in stressed animals. Moreover, memory reactivation in unstressed animals elevated GluN2B expression in the BLA, thus suggesting that this effect is involved in memory destabilization, whereas stressed animals did not reveal any changes. These findings are consistent with resistance to the MDZ effect in these rats, indicating that stress exposure prevents the onset of destabilization following reactivation. In summary, prior stress limited both the occurrence of the reactivation-induced destabilization and restabilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chromosomal location of the fosA3 and blaCTX-M genes in Proteus mirabilis and clonal spread of Escherichia coli ST117 carrying fosA3-positive IncHI2/ST3 or F2:A-:B- plasmids in a chicken farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dandan; Liu, Lanping; Guo, Baowei; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Jing; Zeng, Zhenling; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spread and location of the fosA3 gene among Enterobacteriaceae from diseased broiler chickens. Twenty-nine Escherichia coli and seven Proteus mirabilis isolates recovered from one chicken farm were screened for the presence of plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance genes by PCR. The clonal relatedness of fosA3-positive isolates, the transferability and location of fosA3, and the genetic context of the fosA3 gene were determined. Seven P. mirabilis isolates with three different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns and five E. coli isolates belonging to sequence type 117 (ST117) and phylogenetic group D were positive for fosA3 and all carried the bla CTX-M gene. In E. coli, the genetic structures IS26-ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-65 -IS26-fosA3-1758 bp-IS26 and IS26-ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-3 -bla TEM-1 -IS26-fosA3-1758 bp-IS26 were present on transferable IncHI2/ST3 and F2:A-:B- plasmids, respectively. However, fosA3 was located on the chromosome of the seven P. mirabilis isolates. IS26-ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-65 -IS26-fosA3-1758 bp-IS26 and IS26-bla CTX-M-14 -611 bp-fosA3-1222 bp-IS26 were detected in three and four P. mirabilis isolates, respectively. Minicircles that contained both fosA3 and bla CTX-M-65 were shared between E. coli and P. mirabilis. This is the first report of the fosA3 gene integrated into the chromosome of P. mirabilis isolates with the bla CTX-M gene. The emergence and clonal spread of avian pathogenic E. coli ST117 with the feature of multidrug resistance and high virulence are a serious problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. Nye oplysninger om bl.a. miljømæssig risikovurdering af PAT-protein og glufosinatammonium herbicider. Zea mays (Bt11). Supplerende materiale om Bt11. Modtaget 21-02-2005, deadline 29-03-2005, svar 07-03-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2005-01-01

    Mail: Det tilsendte supplerende materiale om Bt-11 majsen (mail pr. 21-02-2005) omhandler bl.a. eventuelle uønskede konsekvenser ved ulovlig anvendelse af glufosinat ammonium herbicider i forbindelse med dyrkningen. Vi har allerede indraget dette aspekt i forbindelse med den økologiske risikovurd...

  4. In Vivo Transfer and Microevolution of Avian Native IncA/C2blaNDM-1-Carrying Plasmid pRH-1238 during a Broiler Chicken Infection Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziabdic, Sead; Fischer, Jennie; Malorny, Burkhard; Borowiak, Maria; Guerra, Beatriz; Kaesbohrer, Annemarie; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno; Szabo, Istvan

    2018-04-01

    The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in wildlife and livestock animals pose an important safety concern for public health. With our in vivo broiler chicken infection study, we investigated the transfer and experimental microevolution of the bla NDM-1 -carrying IncA/C 2 plasmid (pRH-1238) introduced by avian native Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Corvallis without inducing antibiotic selection pressure. We evaluated the dependency of the time point of inoculation on donor ( S Corvallis [12-SA01738]) and plasmid-free Salmonella recipient [d-tartrate-fermenting (d-Ta + ) S Paratyphi B (13-SA01617), referred to here as S Paratyphi B (d-Ta + )] excretion by quantifying their excretion dynamics. Using plasmid profiling by S1 nuclease-restricted pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we gained insight into the variability of the native plasmid content among S Corvallis reisolates as well as plasmid acquisition in S Paratyphi B (d-Ta + ) and the enterobacterial gut microflora. Whole-genome sequencing enabled us to gain an in-depth insight into the microevolution of plasmid pRH-1238 in S Corvallis and enterobacterial recipient isolates. Our study revealed that the fecal excretion of avian native carbapenemase-producing S Corvallis is significantly higher than that of S Paratyphi (d-Ta + ) and is not hampered by S Paratyphi (d-Ta + ). Acquisition of pRH-1238 in other Enterobacteriaceae and several events of plasmid pRH-1238 transfer to different Escherichia coli sequence types and Klebsiella pneumoniae demonstrated an interspecies broad host range. Regardless of the microevolutionary structural deletions in pRH-1238, the single carbapenem resistance marker bla NDM-1 was maintained on pRH-1238 throughout the trial. Furthermore, we showed the importance of the gut E. coli population as a vector of pRH-1238. In a potential scenario of the introduction of NDM-1-producing S Corvallis into a broiler flock, the pRH-1238 plasmid could

  5. Detection of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type XI carrying highly divergent mecA, mecI, mecR1, blaZ, and ccr genes in human clinical isolates of clonal complex 130 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-08-01

    Methicillin resistance in staphylococci is mediated by penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP 2a), encoded by mecA on mobile staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements. In this study, two clonal complex 130 (CC130) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients in Irish hospitals were identified that were phenotypically PBP 2a positive but lacked mecA by conventional PCR and by DNA microarray screening. The isolates were identified as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus using the GeneXpert real-time PCR assay. Whole-genome sequencing of one isolate (M10\\/0061) revealed a 30-kb SCCmec element encoding a class E mec complex with highly divergent blaZ-mecA-mecR1-mecI, a type 8 cassette chromosome recombinase (ccr) complex consisting of ccrA1-ccrB3, an arsenic resistance operon, and flanking direct repeats (DRs). The SCCmec element was almost identical to that of SCCmec type XI (SCCmec XI) identified by the Sanger Institute in sequence type 425 bovine MRSA strain LGA251 listed on the website of the International Working Group on the Classification of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Elements. The open reading frames (ORFs) identified within SCCmec XI of M10\\/0061 exhibited 21 to 93% amino acid identity to ORFs in GenBank. A third DR was identified ca. 3 kb downstream of SCCmec XI, indicating the presence of a possible SCC remnant. SCCmec XI was also identified in the second CC130 MRSA isolate by PCR and sequencing. The CC130 MRSA isolates may be of animal origin as previously reported CC130 S. aureus strains were predominantly from bovine sources. The highly divergent nature of SCCmec XI relative to other SCCmec elements indicates that it may have originated in another taxon.

  6. 78 FR 72893 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ..., including Source Plasma, unlicensed registered blood establishments, and transfusion services, who had... blood components including Source Plasma; (3) unlicensed registered blood establishments; (4... currently accept electronic filings) further streamlines the report submission process. CBER developed a Web...

  7. 75 FR 27347 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... human blood and blood components, including Source Plasma; an unlicensed registered blood establishment... and blood components including Source Plasma, unlicensed registered blood establishments, transfusion... accept electronic filings) further streamlines the report submission process. CBER has developed an...

  8. A New Image Processing Procedure Integrating PCI-RPC and ArcGIS-Spline Tools to Improve the Orthorectification Accuracy of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the low accuracy of the traditional remote sensing image processing software when orthorectifying satellite images that cover mountainous areas, and in order to make a full use of mutually compatible and complementary characteristics of the remote sensing image processing software PCI-RPC (Rational Polynomial Coefficients and ArcGIS-Spline, this study puts forward a new operational and effective image processing procedure to improve the accuracy of image orthorectification. The new procedure first processes raw image data into an orthorectified image using PCI with RPC model (PCI-RPC, and then the orthorectified image is further processed using ArcGIS with the Spline tool (ArcGIS-Spline. We used the high-resolution CBERS-02C satellite images (HR1 and HR2 scenes with a pixel size of 2 m acquired from Yangyuan County in Hebei Province of China to test the procedure. In this study, when separately using PCI-RPC and ArcGIS-Spline tools directly to process the HR1/HR2 raw images, the orthorectification accuracies (root mean square errors, RMSEs for HR1/HR2 images were 2.94 m/2.81 m and 4.65 m/4.41 m, respectively. However, when using our newly proposed procedure, the corresponding RMSEs could be reduced to 1.10 m/1.07 m. The experimental results demonstrated that the new image processing procedure which integrates PCI-RPC and ArcGIS-Spline tools could significantly improve image orthorectification accuracy. Therefore, in terms of practice, the new procedure has the potential to use existing software products to easily improve image orthorectification accuracy.

  9. Some key techniques of SPOT-5 image processing in new national land and resources investigation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Changsheng; Li, Qingquan; Li, Deren

    2004-02-01

    In 1988, the detail information on land resource was investigated in China. Fourteen years later, it has changed a lot. It is necessary that the second land resource detailed investigation should be implemented. On this condition, the New National Land and Resources Investigation Project in China, which will last 12 years, has been started since 1999. The project is directly under the administration of the Ministry of Land and Resource (MLR). It was organized and implemented By China Geological, China Land Surveying and Planning Institute (CLSPI) and Information Center of MLR. It is a grand and cross century project supported by the Central Finance, based on State and public interests and strategic characteristics. Up to now, "Land Use Dynamic Monitoring By Remote Sensing," "Arable Land Resource Investigation," "Rural Collective Land Property Right Investgiation," "Establishment of Public Consulting Standardization of Cadastral Information," "Land Resource Fundamental Maps and Data Updating," "Urban Land Price Investigation and Intensive Utilization Potential Capacity Evaluation," "Farmland Classification, Gradation, and Evaluation," "Land Use Database Construction at City or County Level" 8 subprojects have had the preliminary achievements. In this project, SPOT-1/2/4 and Landsat-7 TM data were always applied to monitor land use dynamic change as the main data resource. Certainly, IRS, CBERS-2, and IKONOS data also were tested in small areas. In 2002, the SPOT-5 data, whose spatial resolution of the panchromatic image is 2.5 meters and the spectral one is 10 meters, were applied into update the land use base map at the 1:10000 scale in 26 Chinese cities. The purpose in this paper is to communicate the experience of SPOT-5 image processing with the colleagues.

  10. Aberrant Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala Complexes in PTSD during Conscious and Subconscious Processing of Trauma-Related Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rabellino

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is characterized by altered functional connectivity of the amygdala complexes at rest. However, amygdala complex connectivity during conscious and subconscious threat processing remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigate specific connectivity of the centromedial amygdala (CMA and basolateral amygdala (BLA during conscious and subconscious processing of trauma-related words among individuals with PTSD (n = 26 as compared to non-trauma-exposed controls (n = 20. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses were performed using the right and left amygdala complexes as regions of interest during conscious and subconscious trauma word processing. These analyses revealed a differential, context-dependent responses by each amygdala seed during trauma processing in PTSD. Specifically, relative to controls, during subconscious processing, individuals with PTSD demonstrated increased connectivity of the CMA with the superior frontal gyrus, accompanied by a pattern of decreased connectivity between the BLA and the superior colliculus. During conscious processing, relative to controls, individuals with PTSD showed increased connectivity between the CMA and the pulvinar. These findings demonstrate alterations in amygdala subregion functional connectivity in PTSD and highlight the disruption of the innate alarm network during both conscious and subconscious trauma processing in this disorder.

  11. Detection of bla SHV and bla CTX-M genes in ESBL producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmhg.2013.05.002 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy ...

  12. Detection of bla SHV and bla CTX-M genes in ESBL producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ola Ibrahim Ahmed

    2013-06-10

    Jun 10, 2013 ... sputum, 17% from blood culture, 13% from wounds,. 10% from ... [26] in India found that 86% of Klebsiella isolates were found to be ... Another study from north India reported the ..... Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health.

  13. Reduction of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase- and AmpC-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli through processing in two broiler chicken slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Swart, Arno; Gortemaker, Betty; Dierikx, Cindy; Havelaar, Arie; Schmitt, Heike

    2015-12-23

    Whilst broilers are recognised as a reservoir of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC-β-lactamase (AmpC)-producing Escherichia coli, there is currently limited knowledge on the effect of slaughtering on its concentrations on poultry meat. The aim of this study was to establish the concentration of ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli on broiler chicken carcasses through processing. In addition the changes in ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli concentrations were compared with generic E. coli and Campylobacter. In two slaughterhouses, the surface of the whole carcasses was sampled after 5 processing steps: bleeding, scalding, defeathering, evisceration and chilling. In total, 17 batches were sampled in two different slaughterhouses during the summers of 2012 and 2013. ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli was enumerated on MacConkey agar with 1mg/l cefotaxime, and the ESBL/AmpC phenotypes and genotypes were characterised. The ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli concentrations varied significantly between the incoming batches in both slaughterhouses. The concentrations on broiler chicken carcasses were significantly reduced during processing. In Slaughterhouse 1, all subsequent processing steps reduced the concentrations except evisceration which led to a slight increase that was statistically not significant. The changes in concentration between processing steps were relatively similar for all sampled batches in this slaughterhouse. In contrast, changes varied between batches in Slaughterhouse 2, and the overall reduction through processing was higher in Slaughterhouse 2. Changes in ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli along the processing line were similar to changes in generic E. coli in both slaughterhouses. The effect of defeathering differed between ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli and Campylobacter. ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli decreased after defeathering, whereas Campylobacter concentrations increased. The genotypes of ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli (blaCTX-M-1, blaSHV-12, blaCMY-2, blaTEM-52c

  14. Reconsolidation and extinction are dissociable and mutually exclusive processes: behavioral and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Emiliano; Milton, Amy L; Goozée, Zara Y; Theobald, David E; Everitt, Barry J

    2014-02-12

    Memory persistence is critically influenced by retrieval. In rats, a single presentation of a conditioned fear stimulus induces memory reconsolidation and fear memory persistence, while repeated fear cue presentations result in loss of fear through extinction. These two opposite behavioral outcomes are operationally linked by the number of cue presentations at memory retrieval. However, the behavioral properties and mechanistic determinants of the transition have not yet been explored; in particular, whether reconsolidation and extinction processes coexist or are mutually exclusive, depending on the exposure to non-reinforced retrieval events. We characterized both behaviorally and molecularly the transition from reconsolidation to extinction of conditioned fear and showed that an increase in calcineurin (CaN) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) supports the shift from fear maintenance to fear inhibition. Gradually increasing the extent of retrieval induces a gradual decrease in freezing responses to the conditioned stimulus and a gradual increase in amygdala CaN level. This newly synthesized CaN is required for the extinction, but not the reconsolidation, of conditioned fear. During the transition from reconsolidation to extinction, we have revealed an insensitive state of the fear memory where NMDA-type glutamate receptor agonist and antagonist drugs are unable either to modulate CaN levels in the BLA or alter the reconsolidation or extinction processes. Together, our data indicate both that reconsolidation and extinction are mutually exclusive processes and also reveal the presence of a transitional, or "limbo," state of the original memory between these two alternative outcomes of fear memory retrieval, when neither process is engaged.

  15. Generalization of fear inhibition by disrupting hippocampal protein synthesis-dependent reconsolidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Hao; Huang, Chiung-Chun; Hsu, Kuei-Sen

    2011-09-01

    Repetitive replay of fear memories may precipitate the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders. Hence, the suppression of fear memory retrieval may help prevent and treat these disorders. The formation of fear memories is often linked to multiple environmental cues and these interconnected cues may act as reminders for the recall of traumatic experiences. However, as a convenience, a simple paradigm of one cue pairing with the aversive stimulus is usually used in studies of fear conditioning in animals. Here, we built a more complex fear conditioning model by presenting several environmental stimuli during fear conditioning and characterize the effectiveness of extinction training and the disruption of reconsolidation process on the expression of learned fear responses. We demonstrate that extinction training with a single-paired cue resulted in cue-specific attenuation of fear responses but responses to other cures were unchanged. The cue-specific nature of the extinction persisted despite training sessions combined with D-cycloserine treatment reveals a significant weakness in extinction-based treatment. In contrast, the inhibition of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) but not the basolateral amygdala (BLA)-dependent memory reconsolidation process using either protein synthesis inhibitors or genetic disruption of cAMP-response-element-binding protein-mediated transcription comprehensively disrupted the learned connections between fear responses and all paired environmental cues. These findings emphasize the distinct role of the DH and the BLA in the reconsolidation process of fear memories and further indicate that the disruption of memory reconsolidation process in the DH may result in generalization of fear inhibition.

  16. Fuel processing. Wastes processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, M.

    2000-01-01

    The gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive effluents generated by the fuel reprocessing, can't be release in the environment. They have to be treated in order to respect the limits of the pollution regulations. These processing are detailed and discussed in this technical paper. A second part is devoted to the SPIN research program relative to the separation of the long life radionuclides in order to reduce the radioactive wastes storage volume. (A.L.B.)

  17. Process Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Standard utilities can help you collect and interpret your Linux system's process accounting data. Describes the uses of process accounting, standard process accounting commands, and example code that makes use of process accounting utilities.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes in Salmonella strains isolated from broiler chickens along the slaughtering process in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanting; Lai, Haimei; Zou, Likou; Yin, Sheng; Wang, Chengtao; Han, Xinfeng; Xia, Xiaolong; Hu, Kaidi; He, Li; Zhou, Kang; Chen, Shujuan; Ao, Xiaolin; Liu, Shuliang

    2017-10-16

    A total of 189 Salmonella isolates were recovered from 627 samples which were collected from cecal contents of broilers, chicken carcasses, chicken meat after cutting step and frozen broiler chicken products along the slaughtering process at a slaughterhouse in Sichuan province of China. The Salmonella isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 10 categories of antimicrobial agents using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Those antibiotics-resistant isolates were further investigated for the occurrence of resistance genes, the presence of class 1 integron as well as the associated gene cassettes, and the mutations within the gyrA and parC genes. Consequently, the prevalence of Salmonella was 30.14% (47.96% for cecal content, 18.78% for chicken carcasses, 31.33% for cutting meat and 14.00% for frozen meat, respectively). The predominant serotypes were S. Typhimurium (15.34%) and S. Enteritidis (69.84%). High resistance rates to the following drugs were observed: nalidixic acid (99.5%), ampicillin (87.8%), tetracycline (51.9%), ciprofloxacin (48.7%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (48.1%), and spectinomycin (34.4%). Antimicrobial resistance profiling showed that 60.8% of isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), and MDR strains increased from 44.7% to 78.6% along the slaughtering line. 94.6% (n=157) of beta-lactam-resistant isolates harbored at least one resistance gene of bla TEM or bla CTX-M . The relatively low prevalence of aminoglycoside resistance genes (aac(3)-II, aac(3)-IV, and ant(2″)-I) was found in 49 (66.2%) of antibiotic-resistant isolates. The tetracycline resistance genes (tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), and tet(G) and sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2, and sul3) were identified in 84 (85.7%) and 89 (97.8%) antibiotic-resistant isolates respectively. floR was identified in 44 (97.8%) florfenicol-resistant isolates. Class 1 integron was detected in 37.4% (n=43) of the MDR isolates. Two different gene cassettes, bla OXA-30 -aad

  19. Meat Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  20. 75 FR 4081 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; General Licensing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... any changes, in the product, production process, quality controls, equipment, facilities, or... from studies in animals). Section 601.93 provides that biological products approved under subpart H are... an Antibiotic Drug for Human Use'' to harmonize application procedures between CBER and CDER. The...

  1. Process development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuegerl, K

    1984-01-01

    The item 'process development' comprises the production of acetonic/butonal with C. acetobylicum and the yeasting of potato waste. The target is to increase productivity by taking the following measures - optimation of media, on-line process analysis, analysis of reaction, mathematic modelling and identification of parameters, process simulation, development of a state estimator with the help of the on-line process analysis and the model, optimization and adaptive control.

  2. Poisson processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Yechiali, U.; Ruggeri, F.; Kenett, R.S.; Faltin, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Poisson process is a stochastic counting process that arises naturally in a large variety of daily life situations. We present a few definitions of the Poisson process and discuss several properties as well as relations to some well-known probability distributions. We further briefly discuss the

  3. Data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, T F

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing discusses the principles, practices, and associated tools in data processing. The book is comprised of 17 chapters that are organized into three parts. The first part covers the characteristics, systems, and methods of data processing. Part 2 deals with the data processing practice; this part discusses the data input, output, and storage. The last part discusses topics related to systems and software in data processing, which include checks and controls, computer language and programs, and program elements and structures. The text will be useful to practitioners of computer-rel

  4. Kontrol og dynamik i pædagogiske processer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe

    Afhandlingen kombinerer kritisk diskursanalyse (Fairclough) med Basil Bernsteins uddannelsessociologi mhp. at belyse, hvordan læring hhv. fremmes og hæmmes i pædagogisk praksis. Empirisk vises det bl.a. med en tekstnær, lingvistisk analyse af en klasserumssamtale fra en daghøjskole. Afhandlingen...

  5. System studies in PA: Development of process influence diagram (PID) for SFR-1 repository near-field + far-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhouse, M.J.; Miller, W.M.; Chapman, N.A.

    2001-05-01

    Scenario development is a key component of the performance assessment (PA) process for radioactive waste disposal, the primary objective being to ensure that all relevant factors associated with the future evolution of the repository system are properly considered in PA. As part of scenario development, a list of features, events and processes (FEPs) are identified and assembled, representing the Process System, with interactions/influences between FEPs incorporated in a Process Influence Diagram (PID). This report documents the technical work conducted between 1997 and the end of 1999 under the Systems Studies Project. The overall objective of this project has been the construction of a PID for the SFR-1 repository (final repository for reactor waste), this PID being the first stage in the identification of scenarios to describe future evolution of this repository. The PIDs discussed in this report have been created using two software applications: existing commercial software (Business Modeller, Infotool AB. Stockholm, Sweden) and, more recently, a newly developed software tool SPARTA (Enviros QuantiSci, Henley, U.K.). Although the focus of this report is on the application of SPARTA to PID development, it is important to document the work carried out prior to SPARTA being available, in order to provide a complete record of the entire SFR-1 PID development effort as well as preserving the context of the multi-year project. Following a description of the different disposal sections of the SFR-1 and the various near-field barriers, the sequential development (i.e. near-field of Silo, BMA, BLA, BTF sections; far-field; integrated near-field + far-field) of the PID for SFR-1 repository system using Business Modeller is described. Owing to the complexity of the repository, in terms of number of both different disposal sections (Silo, BLA, BMA, BTF) and barriers associated with each section, the two-dimensional (2D) PID created for SFR-1 using Business Modeller is

  6. System studies in PA: Development of process influence diagram (PID) for SFR-1 repository near-field + far-field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenhouse, M.J. [Monitor Scientific, LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Miller, W.M.; Chapman, N.A. [QuantiSci Ltd., Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom)

    2001-05-01

    Scenario development is a key component of the performance assessment (PA) process for radioactive waste disposal, the primary objective being to ensure that all relevant factors associated with the future evolution of the repository system are properly considered in PA. As part of scenario development, a list of features, events and processes (FEPs) are identified and assembled, representing the Process System, with interactions/influences between FEPs incorporated in a Process Influence Diagram (PID). This report documents the technical work conducted between 1997 and the end of 1999 under the Systems Studies Project. The overall objective of this project has been the construction of a PID for the SFR-1 repository (final repository for reactor waste), this PID being the first stage in the identification of scenarios to describe future evolution of this repository. The PIDs discussed in this report have been created using two software applications: existing commercial software (Business Modeller, Infotool AB. Stockholm, Sweden) and, more recently, a newly developed software tool SPARTA (Enviros QuantiSci, Henley, U.K.). Although the focus of this report is on the application of SPARTA to PID development, it is important to document the work carried out prior to SPARTA being available, in order to provide a complete record of the entire SFR-1 PID development effort as well as preserving the context of the multi-year project. Following a description of the different disposal sections of the SFR-1 and the various near-field barriers, the sequential development (i.e. near-field of Silo, BMA, BLA, BTF sections; far-field; integrated near-field + far-field) of the PID for SFR-1 repository system using Business Modeller is described. Owing to the complexity of the repository, in terms of number of both different disposal sections (Silo, BLA, BMA, BTF) and barriers associated with each section, the two-dimensional (2D) PID created for SFR-1 using Business Modeller is

  7. Stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Parzen, Emanuel

    1962-01-01

    Well-written and accessible, this classic introduction to stochastic processes and related mathematics is appropriate for advanced undergraduate students of mathematics with a knowledge of calculus and continuous probability theory. The treatment offers examples of the wide variety of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide mathematical models, and it develops the methods of probability model-building.Chapter 1 presents precise definitions of the notions of a random variable and a stochastic process and introduces the Wiener and Poisson processes. Subsequent chapters examine

  8. Magnetics Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetics Processing Lab equipped to perform testing of magnetometers, integrate them into aircraft systems, and perform data analysis, including noise reduction...

  9. Data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousot, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Data Processing laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory research fields are: the semantics, the tests and the semantic analysis of the codes, the formal calculus, the software applications, the algorithms, the neuron networks and VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration). The investigations concerning the polynomial rings are performed by means of the standard basis approach. Among the research topics, the Pascal codes, the parallel processing, the combinatorial, statistical and asymptotic properties of the fundamental data processing tools, the signal processing and the pattern recognition. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are also included [fr

  10. Suppurative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinner, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    Suppurative process in the case of bronchiectatic disease, abscess and gang rene of lungs, has been described. Characteristic signs of roentgenologic pictu re of the above-mentioned diseases are considered. It is shown,that in most cas es roentgenologic studies give a possibility to make a high-quality diagnosis of suppurative processes

  11. Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2009-01-01

    Inspiration for most research and optimisations on design processes still seem to focus within the narrow field of the traditional design practise. The focus in this study turns to associated businesses of the design professions in order to learn from their development processes. Through interviews...... and emerging production methods....

  12. Process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata G, G.

    1989-01-01

    Process development: The paper describes the organization and laboratory facilities of the group working on radioactive ore processing studies. Contains a review of the carried research and the plans for the next future. A list of the published reports is also presented

  13. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  14. Food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Neerven, Van Joost; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus

  15. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  16. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...... support for it). None of the existing techniques enables the user to control the balance between “overfitting” and “underfitting”. To address this, we propose a two-step approach. First, using a configurable approach, a transition system is constructed. Then, using the “theory of regions”, the model...

  17. Partial processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This discussion paper considers the possibility of applying to the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors a particular method of partial processing based on the PUREX process but named CIVEX to emphasise the differences. The CIVEX process is based primarily on the retention of short-lived fission products. The paper suggests: (1) the recycle of fission products with uranium and plutonium in thermal reactor fuel would be technically feasible; (2) it would, however, take ten years or more to develop the CIVEX process to the point where it could be launched on a commercial scale; (3) since the majority of spent fuel to be reprocessed this century will have been in storage for ten years or more, the recycling of short-lived fission products with the U-Pu would not provide an effective means of making refabrication fuel ''inaccessible'' because the radioactivity associated with the fission products would have decayed. There would therefore be no advantage in partial processing

  18. Process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Many of the measurements and observations made in a nuclear processing facility to monitor processes and product quality can also be used to monitor the location and movements of nuclear materials. In this session information is presented on how to use process monitoring data to enhance nuclear material control and accounting (MC and A). It will be seen that SNM losses can generally be detected with greater sensitivity and timeliness and point of loss localized more closely than by conventional MC and A systems if process monitoring data are applied. The purpose of this session is to enable the participants to: (1) identify process unit operations that could improve control units for monitoring SNM losses; (2) choose key measurement points and formulate a loss indicator for each control unit; and (3) describe how the sensitivities and timeliness of loss detection could be determined for each loss indicator

  19. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  20. Perceptual Processing Affects Conceptual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dantzig, Saskia; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, Rene; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2008-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Symbols Theory of cognition (Barsalou, 1999), modality-specific simulations underlie the representation of concepts. A strong prediction of this view is that perceptual processing affects conceptual processing. In this study, participants performed a perceptual detection task and a conceptual property-verification task…

  1. Sewer Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    Since the first edition was published over a decade ago, advancements have been made in the design, operation, and maintenance of sewer systems, and new problems have emerged. For example, sewer processes are now integrated in computer models, and simultaneously, odor and corrosion problems caused...... by hydrogen sulfide and other volatile organic compounds, as well as other potential health issues, have caused environmental concerns to rise. Reflecting the most current developments, Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, offers the reader updated...... and valuable information on the sewer as a chemical and biological reactor. It focuses on how to predict critical impacts and control adverse effects. It also provides an integrated description of sewer processes in modeling terms. This second edition is full of illustrative examples and figures, includes...

  2. Electrochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    The notes describe in detail primary and secondary galvanic cells, fuel cells, electrochemical synthesis and electroplating processes, corrosion: measurments, inhibitors, cathodic and anodic protection, details of metal dissolution reactions, Pourbaix diagrams and purification of waste water from...

  3. Dissolution processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems

  4. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  5. Fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The technical and economic viability of the fast breeder reactor as an electricity generating system depends not only upon the reactor performance but also on a capability to recycle plutonium efficiently, reliably and economically through the reactor and fuel cycle facilities. Thus the fuel cycle is an integral and essential part of the system. Fuel cycle research and development has focused on demonstrating that the challenging technical requirements of processing plutonium fuel could be met and that the sometimes conflicting requirements of the fuel developer, fuel fabricator and fuel reprocessor could be reconciled. Pilot plant operation and development and design studies have established both the technical and economic feasibility of the fuel cycle but scope for further improvement exists through process intensification and flowsheet optimization. These objectives and the increasing processing demands made by the continuing improvement to fuel design and irradiation performance provide an incentive for continuing fuel cycle development work. (author)

  6. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...... in MNCs. The paper concludes by asking whether we can escape from a regime of competence in a world defined by a rhetoric of change and create a more promising world in which doubt and search serve as a strategy for gaining knowledge and professionalism that improve on our capability for mutualism....

  7. Welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    For the final chapter of this book, there is basic introduction on welding process. The good radiography must know somehow on welding process so that they can know what kind of welding that must rejected or not. All of the exposure technique that mention in earlier chapter almost applicable in this field because welding process is critical problem if there is no inspection will be done. So, for this chapter, all the discontinuity that usually appeared will be discussed and there is another discontinuity maybe not to important and do not give big impact if found it, do not described here. On top of that, the decision to accept or reject based on code, standard and specification that agreed by both to make sure that decision that agreed is corrected and more meaningful.

  8. Markov Processes in Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, E. P.; Kharina, N. L.

    2018-05-01

    Digital images are used as an information carrier in different sciences and technologies. The aspiration to increase the number of bits in the image pixels for the purpose of obtaining more information is observed. In the paper, some methods of compression and contour detection on the basis of two-dimensional Markov chain are offered. Increasing the number of bits on the image pixels will allow one to allocate fine object details more precisely, but it significantly complicates image processing. The methods of image processing do not concede by the efficiency to well-known analogues, but surpass them in processing speed. An image is separated into binary images, and processing is carried out in parallel with each without an increase in speed, when increasing the number of bits on the image pixels. One more advantage of methods is the low consumption of energy resources. Only logical procedures are used and there are no computing operations. The methods can be useful in processing images of any class and assignment in processing systems with a limited time and energy resources.

  9. Film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The processing was made not only to show what are in the film but also to produce radiograph with high quality where the information gathered really presented level of the quality of the object inspected. Besides that, good procedure will make the film with good quality can keep the film in long time for reference. Here, more detailed on how the dark room functioned and its design. So, the good procedure while processed the film will be discussed detailed in this chapter from entering the dark room to exit from there.

  10. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendall, J.S.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  11. Process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, E.G.; Suarez, P.S.; Pantaleon, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The search for an optimal design of a heavy water plant is done by means of a simulation model for the mass and enthalpy balances of the SH 2 -H 2 O exchange process. A symplified model for the simulation diagram where the entire plant is represented by a sole tray tower with recicles, and heat and mass feeds/extractions was used. The tower is simulated by the method developed by Tomich with the convergence part given by the algorithm of Broyden. The concluding part of the work is centered in setting the design parameters (flowrates, heat exchange rates, number of plates) wich give the desired process operating conditions. (author) [es

  12. Processing Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Anders Sebastian Rosenkrans

    -terminal of the scissile bond, leaving C-terminal fusions to have non-native C-termini after processing. A solution yielding native C-termini would allow novel expression and purification systems for therapeutic proteins and peptides.The peptidyl-Lys metallopeptidase (LysN) of the fungus Armillaria mellea (Am) is one...... of few known proteases to have substrate specificity for the C-terminal side of the scissile bond. LysN exhibits specificity for lysine, and has primarily been used to complement trypsin in to proteomic studies. A working hypothesis during this study was the potential of LysN as a processing protease...

  13. Processing Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Christoph; Tamke, Martin; Tabatabai, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, was swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. Contemporary information technology has the potential for the capturing and recognition of individual geometries through laser scanning...

  14. BENTONITE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Kutlić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite has vide variety of uses. Special use of bentonite, where its absorbing properties are employed to provide water-tight sealing is for an underground repository in granites In this paper, bentonite processing and beneficiation are described.

  15. Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starks, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    The following aspects of the Purex Process are discussed: head end dissolution, first solvent extraction cycle, second plutonium solvent extraction cycle, second uranium solvent extraction cycle, solvent recovery systems, primary recovery column for high activity waste, low activity waste, laboratory waste evaporation, vessel vent system, airflow and filtration, acid recovery unit, fume recovery, and discharges to seepage basin

  16. Innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodovski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of this report: This report was prepared for RISO team involved in design of the innovation system Report provides innovation methodology to establish common understanding of the process concepts and related terminology The report does not includeRISO- or Denmark-specific cultural, econom...

  17. Processing Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    2015-01-01

    I propose that the course of development in first and second language acquisition is shaped by two types of processing pressures--internal efficiency-related factors relevant to easing the burden on working memory and external input-related factors such as frequency of occurrence. In an attempt to document the role of internal factors, I consider…

  18. Shale processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampton, W H

    1928-05-29

    The process of treating bituminiferous solid materials such as shale or the like to obtain valuable products therefrom, which comprises digesting a mixture of such material in comminuted condition with a suitable digestion liquid, such as an oil, recovering products vaporized in the digestion, and separating residual solid matter from the digestion liquid by centrifuging.

  19. Radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Mod Ali

    2005-01-01

    This chapter covers the basic principle and application of radiation technology. The topic titled specific application discussed briefly the following subtopics: 1) Polymer modification - crosslinking, polymerisation, degradation, grafting; 2) Medical sterilisation; 3) Food irradiation; 4) Environmental protection - waste processing, pollutants treatment

  20. Leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, H.J.; McClelland, G.E.; Lindstrom, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A gold and uranium ore is heap leached in accordance with the process comprising initial agglomeration of fines in the feed by means of a binding agent and cyanide solution. The lixiviant comprises a compatible mixture of sodium cyanide and sodium bicarbonate

  1. Leaching process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinen, H J; McClelland, G E; Lindstrom, R E

    1982-10-18

    A gold and uranium ore is heap leached in accordance with the process comprising initial agglomeration of fines in the feed by means of a binding agent and cyanide solution. The lixiviant comprises a compatible mixture of sodium cyanide and sodium bicarbonate.

  2. Signal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Signal processing techniques, extensively used nowadays to maximize the performance of audio and video equipment, have been a key part in the design of hardware and software for high energy physics detectors since pioneering applications in the UA1 experiment at CERN in 1979

  3. Process validation for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1999-01-01

    Process validation concerns the establishment of the irradiation conditions that will lead to the desired changes of the irradiated product. Process validation therefore establishes the link between absorbed dose and the characteristics of the product, such as degree of crosslinking in a polyethylene tube, prolongation of shelf life of a food product, or degree of sterility of the medical device. Detailed international standards are written for the documentation of radiation sterilization, such as EN 552 and ISO 11137, and the steps of process validation that are described in these standards are discussed in this paper. They include material testing for the documentation of the correct functioning of the product, microbiological testing for selection of the minimum required dose and dose mapping for documentation of attainment of the required dose in all parts of the product. The process validation must be maintained by reviews and repeated measurements as necessary. This paper presents recommendations and guidance for the execution of these components of process validation. (author)

  4. Stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Andrei N

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous yet accessible introduction to the theory of stochastic processes. A significant part of the book is devoted to the classic theory of stochastic processes. In turn, it also presents proofs of well-known results, sometimes together with new approaches. Moreover, the book explores topics not previously covered elsewhere, such as distributions of functionals of diffusions stopped at different random times, the Brownian local time, diffusions with jumps, and an invariance principle for random walks and local times. Supported by carefully selected material, the book showcases a wealth of examples that demonstrate how to solve concrete problems by applying theoretical results. It addresses a broad range of applications, focusing on concrete computational techniques rather than on abstract theory. The content presented here is largely self-contained, making it suitable for researchers and graduate students alike.

  5. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform...... technical-rational calculation of the most efficient organisation of activities across national borders, but it is rather specific to the parent companies’ national contexts....

  6. Photobiomodulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Yi Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photobiomodulation (PBM is a modulation of laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LI on biosystems. There is little research on PBM dynamics although its phenomena and mechanism have been widely studied. The PBM was discussed from dynamic viewpoint in this paper. It was found that the primary process of cellular PBM might be the key process of cellular PBM so that the transition rate of cellular molecules can be extended to discuss the dose relationship of PBM. There may be a dose zone in which low intensity LI (LIL at different doses has biological effects similar to each other, so that biological information model of PBM might hold. LIL may self-adaptively modulate a chronic stress until it becomes successful.

  7. Multiphoton processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manus, C.; Mainfray, G.

    1980-01-01

    The main features of multiphoton processes are described on a somewhat elementary basis. The emphasis is put on multiphoton ionization of atoms where the influence of resonance effects is given through typical examples. The important role played by the coherence of light is shown to produce a very dramatic influence on multiphoton absorption. Different observations concerning molecules, electrons, as well as solid surfaces illustrate the generality of these very non linear interaction between light and matter

  8. Process heat. Triggering the processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Eva

    2012-07-01

    If solar process heat is to find a market, then the decision makers in industrial companies need to be aware that it actually exists. This was one of the main goals of the So-Pro project, which officially drew to a close in April 2012. (orig.)

  9. Speech Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    The VDE system developed had the capability of recognizing up to 248 separate words in syntactic structures. 4 The two systems described are isolated...AND SPEAKER RECOGNITION by M.J.Hunt 5 ASSESSMENT OF SPEECH SYSTEMS ’ ..- * . by R.K.Moore 6 A SURVEY OF CURRENT EQUIPMENT AND RESEARCH’ by J.S.Bridle...TECHNOLOGY IN NAVY TRAINING SYSTEMS by R.Breaux, M.Blind and R.Lynchard 10 9 I-I GENERAL REVIEW OF MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF VOICE PROCESSING DR. BRUNO

  10. Markov processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkwood, James R

    2015-01-01

    Review of ProbabilityShort HistoryReview of Basic Probability DefinitionsSome Common Probability DistributionsProperties of a Probability DistributionProperties of the Expected ValueExpected Value of a Random Variable with Common DistributionsGenerating FunctionsMoment Generating FunctionsExercisesDiscrete-Time, Finite-State Markov ChainsIntroductionNotationTransition MatricesDirected Graphs: Examples of Markov ChainsRandom Walk with Reflecting BoundariesGambler’s RuinEhrenfest ModelCentral Problem of Markov ChainsCondition to Ensure a Unique Equilibrium StateFinding the Equilibrium StateTransient and Recurrent StatesIndicator FunctionsPerron-Frobenius TheoremAbsorbing Markov ChainsMean First Passage TimeMean Recurrence Time and the Equilibrium StateFundamental Matrix for Regular Markov ChainsDividing a Markov Chain into Equivalence ClassesPeriodic Markov ChainsReducible Markov ChainsSummaryExercisesDiscrete-Time, Infinite-State Markov ChainsRenewal ProcessesDelayed Renewal ProcessesEquilibrium State f...

  11. Coking processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, H K

    1917-11-20

    A gas suitable for use in containers or motor-vehicles, etc., and consisting mainly of methane, is obtained by distilling at a temperature not exceeding 500/sup 0/C bastard cannel coal, lignite, wood, peat, shale, etc., in an horizontal or vertical retort, through which the material is continuously fed in a thin layer or column by means of a screw conveyor or the like. Cracking or dissociation of the gaseous products is prevented by introducing into the retort part of the gas which is the result of the process and which is compressed to a pressure of at least 15 atmospheres and allowed to expand into the retort to cool and carry away the gaseous products produced. These are then passed through condensers for extracting liquid hydrocarbons, and other hydrocarbons are extracted by passage through washing-oils. The gas is then compressed by a water-cooled pump to a pressure of 15 atmospheres, whereby a spirit similar to petrol is formed, and a stable gas left which is mainly methane, part of the gas being used to carry out the process described above.

  12. Etherification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1990-08-21

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figs.

  13. Oligomerization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1991-03-26

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figures.

  14. Lithospheric processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldridge, W. [and others

    2000-12-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

  15. Lithospheric processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldridge, W.S.

    2000-01-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy

  16. Carbonizing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1923-11-22

    In the downward distillation of coal, shale, lignite, or the like, the heat is generated by the combustion of liquid or gaseous fuel above the charge the zone of carbonization thus initiated travelling downwards through the charge. The combustible gases employed are preferably those resulting from the process but gases such as natural gas may be employed. The charge is in a moistened and pervious state the lower parts being maintained at a temperature not above 212/sup 0/F until influenced by contact with the carbonization zone and steam may be admitted to increase the yield of ammonia. The combustible gases may be supplied with insufficient air so as to impart to them a reducing effect.

  17. WELDING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrow, J.; Hausner, H.

    1957-09-24

    A method of joining metal parts for the preparation of relatively long, thin fuel element cores of uranium or alloys thereof for nuclear reactors is described. The process includes the steps of cleaning the surfaces to be jointed, placing the sunfaces together, and providing between and in contact with them, a layer of a compound in finely divided form that is decomposable to metal by heat. The fuel element members are then heated at the contact zone and maintained under pressure during the heating to decompose the compound to metal and sinter the members and reduced metal together producing a weld. The preferred class of decomposable compounds are the metal hydrides such as uranium hydride, which release hydrogen thus providing a reducing atmosphere in the vicinity of the welding operation.

  18. Technology transfer and scale-up of the Flublok recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) influenza vaccine manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Barry; Boulanger, Robert; Fino, Mireli; Srivastava, Indresh; Holtz, Kathy; Khramtsov, Nikolai; McPherson, Clifton; Meghrous, Jamal; Kubera, Paul; Cox, Manon M J

    2014-09-22

    Multiple different hemagglutinin (HA) protein antigens have been reproducibly manufactured at the 650L scale by Protein Sciences Corporation (PSC) based on an insect cell culture with baculovirus infection. Significantly, these HA protein antigens were produced by the same Universal Manufacturing process as described in the biological license application (BLA) for the first recombinant influenza vaccine approved by the FDA (Flublok). The technology is uniquely designed so that a change in vaccine composition can be readily accommodated from one HA protein antigen to another one. Here we present a vaccine candidate to combat the recently emerged H7N9 virus as an example starting with the genetic sequence for the required HA, creation of the baculovirus and ending with purified protein antigen (or vaccine component) at the 10L scale accomplished within 38 days under GMP conditions. The same process performance is being achieved at the 2L, 10L, 100L, 650L and 2500L scale. An illustration is given of how the technology was transferred from the benchmark 650L scale facility to a retrofitted microbial facility at the 2500L scale within 100 days which includes the time for facility engineering changes. The successful development, technology transfer and scale-up of the Flublok process has major implications for being ready to make vaccine rapidly on a worldwide scale as a defense against pandemic influenza. The technology described does not have the same vulnerability to mutations in the egg adapted strain, and resulting loss in vaccine efficacy, faced by egg based manufacture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Processing Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    This Article argues that the practice of holding so many adjudicative proceedings related to disability in private settings (e.g., guardianship, special education due process, civil commitment, and social security) relative to our strong normative presumption of public access to adjudication may cultivate and perpetuate stigma in contravention of the goals of inclusion and enhanced agency set forth in antidiscrimination laws. Descriptively, the law has a complicated history with disability--initially rendering disability invisible; later, underwriting particular narratives of disability synonymous with incapacity; and, in recent history, promoting the full socio-economic visibility of people with disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the marquee civil rights legislation for people with disabilities (about to enter its twenty-fifth year), expresses a national approach to disability that recognizes the role of society in its construction, maintenance, and potential remedy. However, the ADA’s mission is incomplete. It has not generated the types of interactions between people with disabilities and nondisabled people empirically shown to deconstruct deeply entrenched social stigma. Prescriptively, procedural design can act as an "ntistigma agent"to resist and mitigate disability stigma. This Article focuses on one element of institutional design--public access to adjudication--as a potential tool to construct and disseminate counter-narratives of disability. The unique substantive focus in disability adjudication on questions of agency provides a potential public space for the negotiation of nuanced definitions of disability and capacity more reflective of the human condition.

  20. [In process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasch, Michael; Kaasch, Joachim

    -increasing competitiveness which came to a head as an embroiled dispute resulting from differences in scientific and scientific policy views. In the process a battle was fought over research resources so that, what was at first an apparently personal quarrel, affected the course of research promotion at an institutional level in the area of life sciences in the GDR. Despite several attempts at mediation, old age finally forced the adversaries to put aside their differences.

  1. Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeat, P.

    A new area of biology has been opened up by nanoscale exploration of the living world. This has been made possible by technological progress, which has provided the tools needed to make devices that can measure things on such length and time scales. In a sense, this is a new window upon the living world, so rich and so diverse. Many of the investigative methods described in this book seek to obtain complementary physical, chemical, and biological data to understand the way it works and the way it is organised. At these length and time scales, only dedicated instrumentation could apprehend the relevant phenomena. There is no way for our senses to observe these things directly. One important field of application is molecular medicine, which aims to explain the mechanisms of life and disease by the presence and quantification of specific molecular entities. This involves combining information about genes, proteins, cells, and organs. This in turn requires the association of instruments for molecular diagnosis, either in vitro, e.g., the microarray or the lab-on-a-chip, or in vivo, e.g., probes for molecular biopsy, and tools for molecular imaging, used to localise molecular information in living organisms in a non-invasive way. These considerations concern both preclinical research for drug design and human medical applications. With the development of DNA and RNA chips [1], genomics has revolutionised investigative methods for cells and cell processes [2,3]. By sequencing the human genome, new ways have been found for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of life [4]. A revolution is currently under way with the analysis of the proteome [5-8], i.e., the complete set of proteins that can be found in some given biological medium, such as the blood plasma. The goal is to characterise certain diseases by recognisable signatures in the proteomic profile, as determined from a blood sample or a biopsy, for example [9-13]. What is at stake is the early detection of

  2. Hydrothermal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater

  3. Multidimensional process discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, J.T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Typically represented in event logs, business process data describe the execution of process events over time. Business process intelligence (BPI) techniques such as process mining can be applied to get strategic insight into business processes. Process discovery, conformance checking and

  4. PC image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, Mok Jin Il; Am, Ha Jeng Ung

    1995-04-01

    This book starts summary of digital image processing and personal computer, and classification of personal computer image processing system, digital image processing, development of personal computer and image processing, image processing system, basic method of image processing such as color image processing and video processing, software and interface, computer graphics, video image and video processing application cases on image processing like satellite image processing, color transformation of image processing in high speed and portrait work system.

  5. AN ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS : FENTON PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin GÜRTEKİN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastewater treatment is not effective treatment method if raw wastewater contains toxic and refractory organics. Advanced oxidation processes are applied before or after biological treatment for the detoxification and reclamation of this kind of wastewaters. The advanced oxidation processes are based on the formation of powerful hydroxyl radicals. Among advanced oxidation processes Fenton process is one of the most promising methods. Because application of Fenton process is simple and cost effective and also reaction occurs in a short time period. Fenton process is applied for many different proposes. In this study, Fenton process was evaluated as an advanced oxidation process in wastewater treatment.

  6. Management of processes of electrochemical dimensional processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetov, I. D.; Zakirova, A. R.; Sadykov, Z. B.

    2017-09-01

    In different industries a lot high-precision parts are produced from hard-processed scarce materials. Forming such details can only be acting during non-contact processing, or a minimum of effort, and doable by the use, for example, of electro-chemical processing. At the present stage of development of metal working processes are important management issues electrochemical machining and its automation. This article provides some indicators and factors of electrochemical machining process.

  7. Extensible packet processing architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  8. Play games to grow up bilingual: The BlaSquare linguistic game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Valente

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of computer game is proposed, to support the linguistic development of primary school children, growing in multilingual environments: with it players will be able to simultaneously learn multiple languages. The novel idea is to treat words in different languages as physical items, that the player can collect and exchange for other words or for concrete objects. A prototype is currently under development, and it will be tested in cooperation with local schools. By design this linguistic game will also be extensible, so parents and teachers can tailor it with respect to languages and learning contexts.

  9. First detection of bla TEM, SHV and CTX-M among Gram negative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resistance to a wide variety of common antimicrobials is observed among clinical strains designed as extended spectrum β-lactmase (ESBL) producers. They produce enzymatic protein which inactivates efficiently oxyimino cephalosporin and constitutes a serious global health concern that has complicated treatment ...

  10. Coexistence of mcr-1 and blaNDM-1 in Escherichia coli from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Blas, Jose F; Ovejero, Cristina M; Abadia-Patiño, Lorena; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    We studied the presence of the mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in human, animal, and environmental Enterobacteriaceae samples from Cumana, Venezuela, that were collected in 2015. The mcr-1 gene was detected in 2/93 Escherichia coli isolates from swine (novel ST452) and human (ST19) samples that were resistant to colistin. Whole-genome sequencing and transformation experiments identified mcr-1 on an IncI2 plasmid. One of the isolates also bore the widely spread carbapenemase NDM-1. A One Health approach is necessary to further elucidate the flux of these high-risk genes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. BPMN process views construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yongchareon, S.; Liu, Chengfei; Zhao, X.; Kowalkiewicz, M.; Kitagawa, H.; Ishikawa, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Process view technology is catching more attentions in modern business process management, as it enables the customisation of business process representation. This capability helps improve the privacy protection, authority control, flexible display, etc., in business process modelling. One of

  12. Silicon integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-01

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  13. Silicon integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-15

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  14. The Newest Laser Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Baek Yeon

    2007-01-01

    This book mentions laser processing with laser principle, laser history, laser beam property, laser kinds, foundation of laser processing such as laser oscillation, characteristic of laser processing, laser for processing and its characteristic, processing of laser hole including conception of processing of laser hole and each material, and hole processing of metal material, cut of laser, reality of cut, laser welding, laser surface hardening, application case of special processing and safety measurement of laser.

  15. Minimal and careful processing

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    In several standards, guidelines and publications, organic food processing is strongly associated with "minimal processing" and "careful processing". The term "minimal processing" is nowadays often used in the general food processing industry and described in literature. The term "careful processing" is used more specifically within organic food processing but is not yet clearly defined. The concept of carefulness seems to fit very well with the processing of organic foods, especially if it i...

  16. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    2010-01-01

    are identified, and where we simulate backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and......In this paper we describe methods for randomly thinning certain classes of spatial point processes. In the case of a Markov point process, the proposed method involves a dependent thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors associated with the original points......, thus, can be used as a graphical exploratory tool for inspecting the goodness-of-fit of a spatial point process model. Several examples, including clustered and inhibitive point processes, are considered....

  17. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    , and where one simulates backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and thus can......This paper describes methods for randomly thinning certain classes of spatial point processes. In the case of a Markov point process, the proposed method involves a dependent thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors associated with the original points are identified...... be used as a diagnostic for assessing the goodness-of-fit of a spatial point process model. Several examples, including clustered and inhibitive point processes, are considered....

  18. A process insight repository supporting process optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Vetlugin, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    Existing solutions for analysis and optimization of manufacturing processes, such as online analysis processing or statistical calculations, have shortcomings that limit continuous process improvements. In particular, they lack means of storing and integrating the results of analysis. This makes the valuable information that can be used for process optimizations used only once and then disposed. The goal of the Advanced Manufacturing Analytics (AdMA) research project is to design an integrate...

  19. Process mining: making knowledge discovery process centric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the Task Force on Process Mining released the Process Mining Manifesto. The manifesto is supported by 53 organizations and 77 process mining experts contributed to it. The active contributions from end-users, tool vendors, consultants, analysts, and researchers illustrate the growing

  20. Business process model repositories : efficient process retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.

    2012-01-01

    As organizations increasingly work in process-oriented manner, the number of business process models that they develop and have to maintain increases. As a consequence, it has become common for organizations to have collections of hundreds or even thousands of business process models. When a

  1. Uranium enrichment. Enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, M.; Quaegebeur, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the remarkable progresses made in the diversity and the efficiency of the different uranium enrichment processes, only two industrial processes remain today which satisfy all of enriched uranium needs: the gaseous diffusion and the centrifugation. This article describes both processes and some others still at the demonstration or at the laboratory stage of development: 1 - general considerations; 2 - gaseous diffusion: physical principles, implementation, utilisation in the world; 3 - centrifugation: principles, elementary separation factor, flows inside a centrifuge, modeling of separation efficiencies, mechanical design, types of industrial centrifuges, realisation of cascades, main characteristics of the centrifugation process; 4 - aerodynamic processes: vortex process, nozzle process; 5 - chemical exchange separation processes: Japanese ASAHI process, French CHEMEX process; 6 - laser-based processes: SILVA process, SILMO process; 7 - electromagnetic and ionic processes: mass spectrometer and calutron, ion cyclotron resonance, rotating plasmas; 8 - thermal diffusion; 9 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  2. The permanental process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCullagh, Peter; Møller, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second to an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension i called a permanental...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanental process are also studied. Extensions of the fermion process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinantal processes, are discussed....

  3. Seasonal snow storage for space and process cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Skogsberg, Kjell

    2005-01-01

    Kylanvändningen i världen har ökat markant de senaste decennierna. Detta beror bl.a. på ökande befolkningsmängd, industrialisering och komfortkrav samt fler elektriska apparater. De senaste decenniernas byggnadsutformning har dessutom i många fall lett till ökade kylbehov. Konventionella kylmaskiner drivs vanligen av el. En alternativ kylteknik är att använda lagrad vinterkyla, t.ex. genom att utnyttja kyla som lagrats i snö- och is. Detta är möjligt i stora delar av världen. Snö/is kan lagra...

  4. The permanent process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; McCullagh, Peter

    We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension is called a permanent...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanent process are also studied. Extensions of the ferminon process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinant processes, are discussed at the end. While the permanent process is attractive, the determinant process...

  5. Explosive processes in nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.

    2002-01-01

    There are many explosive processes in nucleosynthesis: big bang nucleosynthesis, the rp-process, the γ-process, the ν-process, and the r-process. However, I will discuss just the rp-process and the r-process in detail, primarily because both seem to have been very active research areas of late, and because they have great potential for studies with radioactive nuclear beams. I will also discuss briefly the γ-process because of its inevitability in conjunction with the rp-process. (orig.)

  6. Process Intensification: A Perspective on Process Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Gani, Rafiqul; Woodley, John

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, process intensification (PI) has attracted considerable academic interest as a potential means for process improvement, to meet the increasing demands for sustainable production. A variety of intensified operations developed in academia and industry creates a large number...... of options to potentially improve the process but to identify the set of feasible solutions for PI in which the optimal can be found takes considerable resources. Hence, a process synthesis tool to achieve PI would potentially assist in the generation and evaluation of PI options. Currently, several process...... design tools with a clear focus on specific PI tasks exist. Therefore, in this paper, the concept of a general systematic framework for synthesis and design of PI options in hierarchical steps through analyzing an existing process, generating PI options in a superstructure and evaluating intensified...

  7. Mining processes in dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, R.S.; Reijers, H.A.; van Genuchten, M.; Wismeijer, D.

    2012-01-01

    Business processes in dentistry are quickly evolving towards "digital dentistry". This means that many steps in the dental process will increasingly deal with computerized information or computerized half products. A complicating factor in the improvement of process performance in dentistry,

  8. Stimulus Intensity-dependent Modulations of Hippocampal Long-term Potentiation by Basolateral Amygdala Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zexuan eLi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is growing realization that the relationship between memory and stress/emotionality is complicated, and may include both memory enhancing and memory impairing aspects. It has been suggested that the underlying mechanisms involve amygdalar modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP. We recently reported that while in CA1 basolateral amygdala (BLA priming impaired theta stimulation induced LTP, it enhanced LTP in the dentate gyrus (DG. However, emotional and stressfull experiences were found to activate synaptic plasticity within the BLA, rasing the possibility that BLA modulation of other brain regions may be altered as well, as it may depend on the way the BLA is activated or is responding. In previous studies BLA priming stimulation was relatively weak (1V, 50 µs pulse duration. In the present study we assessed the effects of two stronger levels of BLA priming stimulation (1V or 2V, 100 µs pulse duration on LTP induction in hippocampal DG and CA1, in anesthetized rats. Results show that 1V-BLA priming stimulation enhanced but 2V-BLA priming stimulation impaired DG LTP; however, both levels of BLA priming stimulation impaired CA1 LTP, suggesting that modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by amygdala is dependent on the degree of amygdala activation. These findings suggest that plasticity induced within the amygdala, by stressful experiences induces a form of metaplasticity that would alter the way the amygdala may modulate memory-related processes in other brain areas, such as the hippocampus.

  9. Realtime Color Stereovision Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Formwalt, Bryon

    2000-01-01

    .... This research takes a step forward in real time machine vision processing. It investigates techniques for implementing a real time stereovision processing system using two miniature color cameras...

  10. Business Process Customization using Process Merging Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulanov, Pavel; Lazovik, Alexander; Aiello, Marco

    2012-01-01

    One of the important application of service composition techniques lies in the field of business process management. Essentially a business process can be considered as a composition of services, which is usually prepared by domain experts, and many tasks still have to be performed manually. These

  11. From Process Understanding to Process Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefland, M.

    2010-01-01

    A licensed pharmaceutical process is required to be executed within the validated ranges throughout the lifetime of product manufacturing. Changes to the process usually require the manufacturer to demonstrate that the safety and efficacy of the product remains unchanged. Recent changes in the

  12. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  13. Making process improvement 'stick'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Quint

    2014-06-01

    To sustain gains from a process improvement initiative, healthcare organizations should: Explain to staff why a process improvement initiative is needed. Encourage leaders within the organization to champion the process improvement, and tie their evaluations to its outcomes. Ensure that both leaders and employees have the skills to help sustain the sought-after process improvements.

  14. Fractional Poisson process (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaotian; Wen Zhixiong; Zhang Shiying

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a stochastic process W H (t)(H-bar (12,1)) which we call fractional Poisson process. The process W H (t) is self-similar in wide sense, displays long range dependence, and has more fatter tail than Gaussian process. In addition, it converges to fractional Brownian motion in distribution

  15. Genetic process mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Alves De Medeiros, A.K.; Weijters, A.J.M.M.; Ciardo, G.; Darondeau, P.

    2005-01-01

    The topic of process mining has attracted the attention of both researchers and tool vendors in the Business Process Management (BPM) space. The goal of process mining is to discover process models from event logs, i.e., events logged by some information system are used to extract information about

  16. Business process quality management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, H.A.; Mendling, J.; Recker, J.; Brocke, vom J.; Rosemann, M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Process modeling is a central element in any approach to Business Process Management (BPM). However, what hinders both practitioners and aca demics is the lack of support for assessing the quality of process models — let alone realizing high quality process models. Existing frameworks are

  17. Shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennekes, B. [Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (United States). Technology Marketing

    2002-07-01

    The presentation, on which 17 slides/overheads are included in the papers, explained the principles of the Shell coal gasification process and the methods incorporated for control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates and mercury. The economics of the process were discussed. The differences between gasification and burning, and the differences between the Shell process and other processes were discussed.

  18. Exploring processes and deviations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, S.J.J.; Fahland, D.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Fournier, F.; Mendling, J.

    2015-01-01

    In process mining, one of the main challenges is to discover a process model, while balancing several quality criteria. This often requires repeatedly setting parameters, discovering a map and evaluating it, which we refer to as process exploration. Commercial process mining tools like Disco,

  19. Distributed genetic process mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bratosin, C.C.; Sidorova, N.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining aims at discovering process models from data logs in order to offer insight into the real use of information systems. Most of the existing process mining algorithms fail to discover complex constructs or have problems dealing with noise and infrequent behavior. The genetic process

  20. Dosimetry and process control for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mod Ali, N.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Accurate radiation dosimetry can provide quality assurance in radiation processing. Considerable relevant experiences in dosimetry by the SSDL-MINT has necessitate the development of methods making measurement at gamma plant traceable to the national standard. It involves the establishment of proper calibration procedure and selection of appropriate transfer system/technique to assure adequate traceability to a primary radiation standard. The effort forms the basis for irradiation process control, the legal approval of the process by the public health authorities (medical product sterilization and food preservation) and the safety and acceptance of the product

  1. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  2. A Campbell random process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, J.D.; Misguich, J.H.

    1993-02-01

    The Campbell process is a stationary random process which can have various correlation functions, according to the choice of an elementary response function. The statistical properties of this process are presented. A numerical algorithm and a subroutine for generating such a process is built up and tested, for the physically interesting case of a Campbell process with Gaussian correlations. The (non-Gaussian) probability distribution appears to be similar to the Gamma distribution

  3. Business process transformation the process tangram framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Chitra

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a framework through transformation and explains  how business goals can be translated into realistic plans that are tangible and yield real results in terms of the top line and the bottom line. Process Transformation is like a tangram puzzle, which has multiple solutions yet is essentially composed of seven 'tans' that hold it together. Based on practical experience and intensive research into existing material, 'Process Tangram' is a simple yet powerful framework that proposes Process Transformation as a program. The seven 'tans' are: the transformation program itself, triggers, goals, tools and techniques, culture, communication and success factors. With its segregation into tans and division into core elements, this framework makes it possible to use 'pick and choose' to quickly and easily map an organization's specific requirements. Change management and process modeling are covered in detail. In addition, the book approaches managed services as a model of service delivery, which it ex...

  4. Dry process potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.

    1997-01-01

    Various dry processes have been studied and more or less developed in order particularly to reduce the waste quantities but none of them had replaced the PUREX process, for reasons departing to policy errors, un-appropriate demonstration examples or too late development, although realistic and efficient dry processes such as a fluoride selective volatility based processes have been demonstrated in France (CLOVIS, ATILA) and would be ten times cheaper than the PUREX process. Dry processes could regain interest in case of a nuclear revival (following global warming fears) or thermal wastes over-production. In the near future, dry processes could be introduced in complement to the PUREX process, especially at the end of the process cycle, for a more efficient recycling and safer storage (inactivation)

  5. Honing process optimization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadyrov, Ramil R.; Charikov, Pavel N.; Pryanichnikova, Valeria V.

    2018-03-01

    This article considers the relevance of honing processes for creating high-quality mechanical engineering products. The features of the honing process are revealed and such important concepts as the task for optimization of honing operations, the optimal structure of the honing working cycles, stepped and stepless honing cycles, simulation of processing and its purpose are emphasized. It is noted that the reliability of the mathematical model determines the quality parameters of the honing process control. An algorithm for continuous control of the honing process is proposed. The process model reliably describes the machining of a workpiece in a sufficiently wide area and can be used to operate the CNC machine CC743.

  6. Defense waste processing facility precipitate hydrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, J.P.; Eibling, R.E.; Marek, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Sodium tetraphenylborate and sodium titanate are used to assist in the concentration of soluble radionuclide in the Savannah River Plant's high-level waste. In the Defense Waste Processing Facility, concentrated tetraphenylborate/sodium titanate slurry containing cesium-137, strontium-90 and traces of plutonium from the waste tank farm is hydrolyzed in the Salt Processing Cell forming organic and aqueous phases. The two phases are then separated and the organic phase is decontaminated for incineration outside the DWPF building. The aqueous phase, containing the radionuclides and less than 10% of the original organic, is blended with the insoluble radionuclides in the high-level waste sludge and is fed to the glass melter for vitrification into borosilicate glass. During the Savannah River Laboratory's development of this process, copper (II) was found to act as a catalyst during the hydrolysis reactions, which improved the organic removal and simplified the design of the reactor

  7. The Diazo Copying Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterby, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    Described is an activity which demonstrates an organic-based reprographic method that is used extensively for the duplication of microfilm and engineering drawings. Discussed are the chemistry of the process and how to demonstrate the process for students. (CW)

  8. Waste processing air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Waste processing and preparing waste to support waste processing relies heavily on ventilation. Ventilation is used at the Hanford Site on the waste storage tanks to provide confinement, cooling, and removal of flammable gases

  9. Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)�is a scientific facility funded by DOE to create and implement innovative processes for environmental clean-up and...

  10. Laser material processing

    CERN Document Server

    Steen, William

    2010-01-01

    This text moves from the basics of laser physics to detailed treatments of all major materials processing techniques for which lasers are now essential. New chapters cover laser physics, drilling, micro- and nanomanufacturing and biomedical laser processing.

  11. Business Process Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Inventory of maps and descriptions of the business processes of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM), with an emphasis on the processes of the Office of the...

  12. Process evaluation distributed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Christopher L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The distributed system includes a database server, an administration module, a process evaluation module, and a data display module. The administration module is in communication with the database server for providing observation criteria information to the database server. The process evaluation module is in communication with the database server for obtaining the observation criteria information from the database server and collecting process data based on the observation criteria information. The process evaluation module utilizes a personal digital assistant (PDA). A data display module in communication with the database server, including a website for viewing collected process data in a desired metrics form, the data display module also for providing desired editing and modification of the collected process data. The connectivity established by the database server to the administration module, the process evaluation module, and the data display module, minimizes the requirement for manual input of the collected process data.

  13. Group Decision Process Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao

    1997-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....

  14. Cognitive processes in CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Hofmann, S.G.; Asmundson, G.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Automatic cognitive processing helps us navigate the world. However, if the emotional and cognitive interplay becomes skewed, those cognitive processes can become maladaptive and result in psychopathology. Although biases are present in most mental disorders, different disorders are characterized by

  15. Improving Healthcare Logistics Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feibert, Diana Cordes

    logistics processes in hospitals and aims to provide theoretically and empirically based evidence for improving these processes to both expand the knowledge base of healthcare logistics and provide a decision tool for hospital logistics managers to improve their processes. Case studies were conducted...... processes. Furthermore, a method for benchmarking healthcare logistics processes was developed. Finally, a theoretically and empirically founded framework was developed to support managers in making an informed decision on how to improve healthcare logistics processes. This study contributes to the limited...... literature concerned with the improvement of logistics processes in hospitals. Furthermore, the developed framework provides guidance for logistics managers in hospitals on how to improve their processes given the circumstances in which they operate....

  16. Flavor changing lepton processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka

    2002-01-01

    The flavor changing lepton processes, or in another words the lepton flavor changing processes, are described with emphasis on the updated theoretical motivations and the on-going experimental progress on a new high-intense muon source. (author)

  17. Process innovation laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2007-01-01

    to create a new methodology for developing and exploring process models and applications. The paper outlines the process innovation laboratory as a new approach to BPI. The process innovation laboratory is a comprehensive framework and a collaborative workspace for experimenting with process models....... The process innovation laboratory facilitates innovation by using an integrated action learning approach to process modelling in a controlled environment. The study is based on design science and the paper also discusses the implications to EIS research and practice......Most organizations today are required not only to operate effective business processes but also to allow for changing business conditions at an increasing rate. Today nearly every business relies on their enterprise information systems (EIS) for process integration and future generations of EIS...

  18. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    The Integrated Renovation Process (IRP) is a user customized methodology based on judiciously selected constructivist and interactive multi-criteria decision making methods (Galiotto, Heiselberg, & Knudstrup, 2014 (expected)). When applied for home renovation, the Integrated Renovation Process...

  19. Wetland Groundwater Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Greg

    1993-01-01

    This technical note summarizes hydrologic and hydraulic (H AND H) processes and the related terminology that will likely be encountered during an evaluation of the effect of ground-water processes on wetland function...

  20. Flue Gas Desulphurization Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.I.M.; Halhouli, K.A.; Abu-Ashur, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Flue gas desulphurization process are discussed. These processes can be grouped into non-regenerable systems and regenerable systems. The non-regenerable systems produce a product which is either disposed of as waste or sold as a by-product e.g. lime/limestone process. While in the regenerable systems, e.g. Wellman-Lord process, the SO 2 is regenerated from the sorbent(sodium sulphite), which is returned to absorb more SO 2 . Also a newer technology for flue gas desulphurization is discussed. The Ispra process uses bromine as oxidant, producing HBr, from which bromine is regenerated by electrolysis. The only by-products of this process are sulphuric acid and hydrogen, which are both valuable products, and no waste products are produced. Suggested modifications on the process are made based on experimental investigations to improve the efficiency of the process and to reduce its costs

  1. Chemical radwaste solidification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Some of these processes and their problems are briefly reviewed: early cement systems; urea-formaldehyde; Dow solidification process; low-viscosity chemical agents (POLYPAC); and water-extensible polyester. 9 refs

  2. The plasma hearth process: Process residuals characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, G.L.; Geimer, R.; Batdorf, J.; Hassel, G.; Wolfe, P.; Carney, K.P.

    1994-01-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature waste treatment process being developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the Department of Energy (DOE) that destroys hazardous organics while stabilizing radionuclides and hazardous metals in a vitreous slag waste form. The PHP has potential application for the treatment of a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level and transuranic (TRU) mixed waste categories. DOE, through the Office of Technology Development's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is conducting a three phase development project to ready the PHP for implementation in the DOE complex

  3. Process and device for processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for processing liquid radioactive wastes. It includes the heating of the liquid wastes so that the contained liquids are evaporated and a practically anhydrous mass of solid particles inferior in volume to that of the wastes introduced is formed, then the transformation of the solid particles into a monolithic structure. This transformation includes the compressing of the particles and sintering or fusion. The solidifying agent is a mixture of polyethylene and paraffin wax or a styrene copolymer and a polyester resin. The device used for processing the radioactive liquid wastes is also described [fr

  4. Grind hardening process

    CERN Document Server

    Salonitis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the grind-hardening process and the main studies published since it was introduced in 1990s.  The modelling of the various aspects of the process, such as the process forces, temperature profile developed, hardness profiles, residual stresses etc. are described in detail. The book is of interest to the research community working with mathematical modeling and optimization of manufacturing processes.

  5. Software Process Improvement Defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of the development of explanatory theory on software process improvement. The last one or two decades commitment to prescriptive approaches in software process improvement theory may contribute to the emergence of a gulf dividing theorists and practitioners....... It is proposed that this divide be met by the development of theory evaluating prescriptive approaches and informing practice with a focus on the software process policymaking and process control aspects of improvement efforts...

  6. Modeling multiphase materials processes

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    ""Modeling Multiphase Materials Processes: Gas-Liquid Systems"" describes the methodology and application of physical and mathematical modeling to multi-phase flow phenomena in materials processing. The book focuses on systems involving gas-liquid interaction, the most prevalent in current metallurgical processes. The performance characteristics of these processes are largely dependent on transport phenomena. This volume covers the inherent characteristics that complicate the modeling of transport phenomena in such systems, including complex multiphase structure, intense turbulence, opacity of

  7. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  8. Generating process model collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.; Dijkman, R.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Business process management plays an important role in the management of organizations. More and more organizations describe their operations as business processes. It is common for organizations to have collections of thousands of business processes, but for reasons of confidentiality these

  9. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base

  10. Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelian,Diran

    2002-01-10

    Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

  11. How yogurt is processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month’s Processing column on the theme of “How Is It Processed?” focuses on yogurt. Yogurt is known for its health-promoting properties. This column will provide a brief overview of the history of yogurt and the current market. It will also unveil both traditional and modern yogurt processing t...

  12. Clinical Process Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup Pedersen, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    .e. local guidelines. From a knowledge management point of view, this externalization of generalized processes, gives the opportunity to learn from, evaluate and optimize the processes. "Clinical Process Intelligence" (CPI), will denote the goal of getting generalized insight into patient centered health...

  13. Process research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    The following major processes involved in the production of crystalline-silicon solar cells were discussed: surface preparation, junction formation, metallization, and assembly. The status of each of these processes, and the sequence in which these processes are applied, were described as they were in 1975, as they were in 1985, and what they might be in the future.

  14. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  15. Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

    2012-01-01

    The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well as…

  16. Statistical Process Control for KSC Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Roger G.; Delgado, Hector; Tilley, Randy

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) served as the basis for a research effort into statistical process control for KSC processing. The effort entailed several tasks and goals. The first was to develop a customized statistical process control (SPC) course for the Safety and Mission Assurance Trends Analysis Group. The actual teaching of this course took place over several weeks. In addition, an Internet version of the same course complete with animation and video excerpts from the course when it was taught at KSC was developed. The application of SPC to shuttle processing took up the rest of the summer research project. This effort entailed the evaluation of SPC use at KSC, both present and potential, due to the change in roles for NASA and the Single Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC). Individual consulting on SPC use was accomplished as well as an evaluation of SPC software for KSC use in the future. A final accomplishment of the orientation of the author to NASA changes, terminology, data format, and new NASA task definitions will allow future consultation when the needs arise.

  17. Process-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert H; Bott, Marjorie J; Forbes, Sarah; Redford, Linda; Swagerty, Daniel L; Taunton, Roma Lee

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how quality improvement affects costs is important. Unfortunately, low-cost, reliable ways of measuring direct costs are scarce. This article builds on the principles of process improvement to develop a costing strategy that meets both criteria. Process-based costing has 4 steps: developing a flowchart, estimating resource use, valuing resources, and calculating direct costs. To illustrate the technique, this article uses it to cost the care planning process in 3 long-term care facilities. We conclude that process-based costing is easy to implement; generates reliable, valid data; and allows nursing managers to assess the costs of new or modified processes.

  18. Colloid process engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Peukert, Wolfgang; Rehage, Heinz; Schuchmann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with colloidal systems in technical processes and the influence of colloidal systems by technical processes. It explores how new measurement capabilities can offer the potential for a dynamic development of scientific and engineering, and examines the origin of colloidal systems and its use for new products. The future challenges to colloidal process engineering are the development of appropriate equipment and processes for the production and obtainment of multi-phase structures and energetic interactions in market-relevant quantities. The book explores the relevant processes and for controlled production and how they can be used across all scales.

  19. Nonaqueous processing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coops, M.S.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1984-09-01

    A high-temperature process utilizing molten salt extraction from molten metal alloys has been developed for purification of spent power reactor fuels. Experiments with laboratory-scale processing operations show that purification and throughput parameters comparable to the Barnwell Purex process can be achieved by pyrochemical processing in equipment one-tenth the size, with all wastes being discharged as stable metal alloys at greatly reduced volume and disposal cost. This basic technology can be developed for large-scale processing of spent reactor fuels. 13 references, 4 figures

  20. Data processing made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing: Made Simple, Second Edition presents discussions of a number of trends and developments in the world of commercial data processing. The book covers the rapid growth of micro- and mini-computers for both home and office use; word processing and the 'automated office'; the advent of distributed data processing; and the continued growth of database-oriented systems. The text also discusses modern digital computers; fundamental computer concepts; information and data processing requirements of commercial organizations; and the historical perspective of the computer industry. The

  1. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  2. FFTF gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, T.G.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operation of the two radioactive gas processing systems at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) exemplifies the concept that will be used in the first generation of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR's). The two systems, the Radioactive Argon Processing System (RAPS) and the Cell Atmosphere Processing System (CAPS), process the argon and nitrogen used in the FFTF for cover gas on liquid metal systems and as inert atmospheres in steel lined cells housing sodium equipment. The RAPS specifically processes the argon cover gas from the reactor coolant system, providing for decontamination and eventual reuse. The CAPS processes radioactive gasses from inerted cells and other liquid metal cover gas systems, providing for decontamination and ultimate discharge to the atmosphere. The cryogenic processing of waste gas by both systems is described

  3. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  4. A secondary fuel removal process: plasma processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, J Y; Kim, Y S [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, K K; Yang, M S [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Plasma etching process of UO{sub 2} by using fluorine containing gas plasma is studied as a secondary fuel removal process for DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR spent fuel Into Candu) process which is taken into consideration for potential future fuel cycle in Korea. CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} gas mixture is chosen for reactant gas and the etching rates of UO{sub 2} by the gas plasma are investigated as functions of CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio, plasma power, substrate temperature, and plasma gas pressure. It is found that the optimum CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} ratio is around 4:1 at all temperatures up to 400 deg C and the etching rate increases with increasing r.f. power and substrate temperature. Under 150W r.f. power the etching rate reaches 1100 monolayers/min at 400 deg C, which is equivalent to about 0.5mm/min. (author).

  5. The SILVA atomic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazalet, J.

    1997-01-01

    The SILVA laser isotope separation process is based on the laser selective photo-ionization of uranium atomic vapour; the process is presently under development by CEA and COGEMA in France, with the aim to reduce by a factor three the cost of uranium enrichment. The two main components of a SILVA process plant are the lasers (copper vapour lasers and dye lasers) and the separator for the vaporization (with a high energy electron beam), ionization and separation operations. Researches on the SILVA process started in 1985 and the technical and economical feasibility is to be demonstrated in 1997. The progresses of similar rival processes and other processes are discussed and the remaining research stages and themes of the SILVA program are presented

  6. Technology or Process First?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur Henryk; Svejvig, Per; Møller, Charles

    Enterprise Systems Management (ESM) and Business Pro- cess Management (BPM), although highly correlated, have evolved as alternative and mutually exclusive approaches to corporate infrastruc- ture. As a result, companies struggle to nd the right balance between technology and process factors...... in infrastructure implementation projects. The purpose of this paper is articulate a need and a direction to medi- ate between the process-driven and the technology-driven approaches. Using a cross-case analysis, we gain insight into two examples of sys- tems and process implementation. We highlight the dierences...... between them using strategic alignment, Enterprise Systems and Business Process Management theories. We argue that the insights from these cases can lead to a better alignment between process and technology. Implications for practice include the direction towards a closer integration of process...

  7. Badge Office Process Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haurykiewicz, John Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dinehart, Timothy Grant [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Robert Young [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    The purpose of this process analysis was to analyze the Badge Offices’ current processes from a systems perspective and consider ways of pursuing objectives set forth by SEC-PS, namely increased customer flow (throughput) and reduced customer wait times. Information for the analysis was gathered for the project primarily through Badge Office Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and in-person observation of prevailing processes. Using the information gathered, a process simulation model was constructed to represent current operations and allow assessment of potential process changes relative to factors mentioned previously. The overall purpose of the analysis was to provide SEC-PS management with information and recommendations to serve as a basis for additional focused study and areas for potential process improvements in the future.

  8. Business process transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Featuring contributions from prominent thinkers and researchers, this volume in the ""Advances in Management Information Systems"" series provides a rich set of conceptual, empirical, and introspective studies that epitomize fundamental knowledge in the area of Business Process Transformation. Processes are interpreted broadly to include operational and managerial processes within and between organizations, as well as those involved in knowledge generation. Transformation includes radical and incremental change, its conduct, management, and outcome. The editors and contributing authors pay clo

  9. Rational Unified Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kopal, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this German seminar paper, which was written in the year 2011 at the University of Duisburg for a Bachelor Colloquium in Applied computer science, we show a brief overview of the Rational Unified Process (RUP). Thus, interested students or generally interested people in software development gain a first impression of RUP. The paper includes a survey and overview of the underlying process structure, the phases of the process, its workflows, and describes the always by the RUP developers pos...

  10. Deference and Due Process

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeule, Cornelius Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the textbooks, procedural due process is a strictly judicial enterprise; although substantive entitlements are created by legislative and executive action, it is for courts to decide independently what process the Constitution requires. The notion that procedural due process might be committed primarily to the discretion of the agencies themselves is almost entirely absent from the academic literature. The facts on the ground are very different. Thanks to converging strands of caselaw ...

  11. Process Improvement Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Persse, James R

    2006-01-01

    Process Improvement Essentials combines the foundation needed to understand process improvement theory with the best practices to help individuals implement process improvement initiatives in their organization. The three leading programs: ISO 9001:2000, CMMI, and Six Sigma--amidst the buzz and hype--tend to get lumped together under a common label. This book delivers a combined guide to all three programs, compares their applicability, and then sets the foundation for further exploration.

  12. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  13. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  14. TEP process flow diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  15. Standard Model processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, M.L.; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alekhin, S.; Badger, S.; Bauer, C.W.; Becher, T.; Bertone, V.; Bonvini, M.; Boselli, S.; Bothmann, E.; Boughezal, R.; Cacciari, M.; Carloni Calame, C.M.; Caola, F.; Campbell, J.M.; Carrazza, S.; Chiesa, M.; Cieri, L.; Cimaglia, F.; Febres Cordero, F.; Ferrarese, P.; D'Enterria, D.; Ferrera, G.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Garzelli, M.V.; Germann, E.; Hirschi, V.; Han, T.; Ita, H.; Jäger, B.; Kallweit, S.; Karlberg, A.; Kuttimalai, S.; Krauss, F.; Larkoski, A.J.; Lindert, J.; Luisoni, G.; Maierhöfer, P.; Mattelaer, O.; Martinez, H.; Moch, S.; Montagna, G.; Moretti, M.; Nason, P.; Nicrosini, O.; Oleari, C.; Pagani, D.; Papaefstathiou, A.; Petriello, F.; Piccinini, F.; Pierini, M.; Pierog, T.; Pozzorini, S.; Re, E.; Robens, T.; Rojo, J.; Ruiz, R.; Sakurai, K.; Salam, G.P.; Salfelder, L.; Schönherr, M.; Schulze, M.; Schumann, S.; Selvaggi, M.; Shivaji, A.; Siodmok, A.; Skands, P.; Torrielli, P.; Tramontano, F.; Tsinikos, I.; Tweedie, B.; Vicini, A.; Westhoff, S.; Zaro, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-06-22

    This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.

  16. Scientific information processing procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Maylin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper systematizes several theoretical view-points on scientific information processing skill. It decomposes the processing skills into sub-skills. Several methods such analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, document analysis were used to build up a theoretical framework. Interviews and survey to professional being trained and a case study was carried out to evaluate the results. All professional in the sample improved their performance in scientific information processing.

  17. Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2016-01-01

    renovation to be overcome. The homeowners were better integrated and their preferences and immaterial values were better taken into account. To keep the decision-making process economically viable and timely, the process as known today still needs to be improved, and new tools need to be developed....... This paper presents a new scheme: the integrated renovation process. One successful case study is introduced, and recommendations for future developments needed in the field are provided....

  18. Transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) is a remotely operated, hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. The heart of TRU is a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells housed in a two-story building. Each cell, with its 54-inch-thick walls of a special high-density concrete, has enough shielding to stop the neutrons and gamma radiation from 1 gram of 252/sub Cf/ and associated fission products. Four cells contain chemical processing equipment, three contain equipment for the preparation and inspection of HFIR targets, and two cells are used for analytical chemistry operations. In addition, there are eight laboratories used for process development, for part of the process-control analyses, and for product finishing operations. Although the Transuranium Processing Plant was built for the purpose of recovering transuranium elements from targets irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), it is also a highly versatile facility which has extensive provisions for changing and modifying equipment. Thus, it was a relatively simple matter to install a Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF) in one of the TRU chemical processing cells for use in the evaluation and demonstration of solvent extraction flowsheets for the recovery of fissile and fertile materials from irradiated reactor fuels. The equipment in the SETF has been designed for process development and demonstrations and the particular type of mixer-settler contactors was chosen because it is easy to observe and sample

  19. Linearity in Process Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  20. Refractometry in process engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepscher, H

    1980-02-01

    Following a brief historical introduction into general refractometry, the limiting angle refractometer is dealt with in the first section and the differential refractometer in the second section, as well as process engineering information on this measuring method being given. An attempt is made with an extensive close-to-practice description to introduce the planner and technician to this physical measuring method in process engineering in order that they be able to use it themselves if necessary. When properly applied, it can be a valuable help to process control in compliance with process automization.

  1. Process modeling style

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2014-01-01

    Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ

  2. The Critical Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    within Danish tradition of architecture and construction. The objective of the research presented in this paper, is to compare the different design processes behind the making of passive houses in a Danish context. We evaluated the process with regard to the integrated and traditional design process....... Data analysis showed that the majority of the consortiums worked in an integrated manner; though there was room for improvment. Additionally, the paper discusses the challanges of implementing the integrated design process in practice and suggests ways of overcomming some of the barriers . In doing so...

  3. Multimodal Processes Rescheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, Grzegorz; Banaszak, Zbigniew A.; Nielsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe-cuted in the......Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe...

  4. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  5. Quantum information processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leuchs, Gerd; Beth, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 SimulationofHamiltonians... References... 1 1 1 3 5 8 10 2 Quantum Information Processing and Error Correction with Jump Codes (G. Alber, M. Mussinger...

  6. Exhaust gas processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The facility of the present invention comprises a radioactive liquid storage vessel, an exhaust gas dehumidifying device for dehumidifying gases exhausted from the vessel and an exhaust gas processing device for reducing radioactive materials in the exhaust gases. A purified gas line is disposed to the radioactive liquid storage vessel for purging exhaust gases generated from the radioactive liquid, then dehumidified and condensed liquid is recovered, and exhaust gases are discharged through an exhaust gas pipe disposed downstream of the exhaust gas processing device. With such procedures, the scale of the exhaust gas processing facility can be reduced and exhaust gases can be processed efficiently. (T.M.)

  7. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  8. Processer og procesledelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Benedicte

    Bogen udfolder, nuancerer og konkretiserer procesledelse ift. mentale, relationelle og organisatoriske processer. Eksempler på kapitel-overskrifter: Procesbegrebet, Rammesætning, Kontraktredskabet, Mødeledelse, Samtaler, Reflekterende positioner og processer, Konflikthåndtering og teamudvikling......, Invitation til det dialogiske rum - om at arbejde over og under stregen, og Mentale omstruktureringer....

  9. The Player Engagement Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    , categories and triggers involved in this process. By applying grounded theory to the analysis of the responses, a process-oriented player engagement framework was developed and four main components consisting of objectives, activities, accomplishments and affects as well as the corresponding categories...

  10. Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-09-01

    This document represents the roadmap for Processing Technology Research in the US Mining Industry. It was developed based on the results of a Processing Technology Roadmap Workshop sponsored by the National Mining Association in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies. The Workshop was held January 24 - 25, 2000.

  11. Process control program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper details the development and implementation of a ''Process Control Program'' at Duke Power's three nuclear stations - Oconee, McGuire, and Catawba. Each station is required by Technical Specification to have a ''Process Control Program'' (PCP) to control all dewatering and/or solidification activities for radioactive wastes

  12. Valuing the Accreditation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The value of the National Association for Developmental Education (NADE) accreditation process is far-reaching. Not only do students and programs benefit from the process, but also the entire institution. Through data collection of student performance, analysis, and resulting action plans, faculty and administrators can work cohesively towards…

  13. CMOS/SOS processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramondetta, P.

    1980-01-01

    Report describes processes used in making complementary - metal - oxide - semiconductor/silicon-on-sapphire (CMOS/SOS) integrated circuits. Report lists processing steps ranging from initial preparation of sapphire wafers to final mapping of "good" and "bad" circuits on a wafer.

  14. Management oriented process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    ANAV decided to implement process-oriented management by adopting the U. S. NEI (Nuclear Electric Industry) model. The article describes the initial phases of the project, its current status and future prospects. The project has been considered as an improvement in the areas of organization and human factors. Recently, IAEA standard drafts are including processes as an accepted management model. (Author)

  15. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  16. Industrial separation processes : fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de A.B.; Bosch, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Separation processes on an industrial scale comprise well over half of the capital and operating costs. They are basic knowledge in every chemical engineering and process engineering study. This book provides comprehensive and fundamental knowledge of university teaching in this discipline,

  17. METAL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.

    1958-08-12

    A process ts described for obtaining a closely bonded coating of steel or iron on uranium. The process consists of providing, between the steel and uramium. a layer of silver. amd then pressure rolling tbe assembly at about 600 deg C until a reduction of from l0 to 50% has been obtained.

  18. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  19. Semantic Business Process Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Markovic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a process-oriented business modeling framework based on semantic technologies. The framework consists of modeling languages, methods, and tools that allow for semantic modeling of business motivation, business policies and rules, and business processes. Quality of the proposed modeling framework is evaluated based on the modeling content of SAP Solution Composer and several real-world business scenarios.

  20. Process energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, V.

    1993-01-01

    In Chapter 2 process energy cost analysis for chemical processing is treated in a general way, independent of the specific form of energy and power production. Especially, energy data collection and data treatment, energy accounting (metering, balance setting), specific energy input, and utility energy costs and prices are discussed. (R.P.) 14 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs

  1. Continuous affine processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Affine processes possess the property that expectations of exponential affine transformations are given by a set of Riccati differential equations, which is the main feature of this popular class of processes. In this paper we generalise these results for expectations of more general transformati...

  2. Food-Processing Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2017-10-01

    Literature published in 2016 and early 2017 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes.

  3. Food processing and allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Business process intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos, M.; Alves De Medeiros, A.K.; Mendling, J.; Weber, B.; Weijters, A.J.M.M.; Cardoso, J.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Business Process Intelligence (BPI,) is an emerging area that is getting increasingly popularfor enterprises. The need to improve business process efficiency, to react quickly to changes and to meet regulatory compliance is among the main drivers for BPI. BPI refers to the application of Business

  5. Correctness of concurrent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Olderog (Ernst-Rüdiger)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA new notion of correctness for concurrent processes is introduced and investigated. It is a relationship P sat S between process terms P built up from operators of CCS [Mi 80], CSP [Ho 85] and COSY [LTS 79] and logical formulas S specifying sets of finite communication sequences as in

  6. Uranium processing and properties

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Covers a broad spectrum of topics and applications that deal with uranium processing and the properties of uranium Offers extensive coverage of both new and established practices for dealing with uranium supplies in nuclear engineering Promotes the documentation of the state-of-the-art processing techniques utilized for uranium and other specialty metals

  7. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  8. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include 234 Th, 234 Pa, 137 Cs, 239 Pu (trace), 60 Co, U, 99 Tc, and 237 Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs

  9. Production process of VE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This book tells of synopsis of production process of VE(value engineering), object selection method and establishment of target, collection of object information, design of function, write improvement suggestion, evaluation of improvement suggestion, all sorts of worksheets of production process of VE, explanation of IE, explanation of PERT.

  10. Perspectives on Innovation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garud, R.; Tuertscher, P.R.; Van de Ven, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Innovation is often thought of as an outcome. In this chapter, we review the literatures on innovation processes pertaining to the invention, development, and implementation of ideas. In particular, we explore how these processes unfold within firms, across multi-party networks, and within

  11. Hyperspectral image processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

  12. Methods of information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosarev, Yu G; Gusev, V D

    1978-01-01

    Works are presented on automation systems for editing and publishing operations by methods of processing symbol information and information contained in training selection (ranking of objectives by promise, classification algorithm of tones and noise). The book will be of interest to specialists in the automation of processing textural information, programming, and pattern recognition.

  13. Process for preparing radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, M.; Winchell, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    A process for the preparation of technetium-99m labeled pharmaceuticals is disclosed. The process comprises initially isolating technetium-99m pertechnetate by adsorption upon an adsorbent packing in a chromatographic column. The technetium-99m is then eluted from the packing with a biological compound to form a radiopharmaceutical

  14. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  15. Microcontroller base process emulator

    OpenAIRE

    Jovrea Titus Claudiu

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a microcontroller base emulator for a conventional industrial process. The emulator is made with microcontroller and is used for testing and evaluating the performances of the industrial regulators. The parameters of the emulated process are fully customizable online and downloadable thru a serial communication from a personal computer.

  16. Cementation process study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.H.; Han, K.W.; Ahn, S.J.; Choi, K.S.; Lee, M.W.; Ryu, Y.K.

    1985-01-01

    In the cementation process study, in 1984, design of the waste treatment simulator was finished for the first step. We can experience not only the operation of solidification system but the design and construction of comming large scale plant through the design of cementation process. (Author)

  17. Monitoring of operating processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is described for monitoring the processes of a nuclear reactor to detect off-normal operation of any process and for testing the monitoring apparatus. The processes are evaluated by response to their paramters, such as temperature, pressure, etc. The apparatus includes a pair of monitoring paths or signal processing units. Each unit includes facilities for receiving on a time-sharing basis, a status binary word made up of digits each indicating the status of a process, whether normal or off-normal, and test-signal binary words simulating the status binary words. The status words and test words are processed in succession during successive cycles. During each cycle, the two units receive the same status word and the same test word. The test words simulate the status words both when they indicate normal operation and when they indicate off-normal operation. Each signal-processing unit includes a pair of memories. Each memory receives a status word or a test word, as the case may be, and converts the received word into a converted status word or a converted test word. The memories of each monitoring unit operate into a non-coincidence which signals non-coincidence of the converted word out of one memory of a signal-processing unit not identical to the converted word of the other memory of the same unit

  18. Teaching the Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, John

    2017-01-01

    This article outlines some cognitive process models of writing composition. Possible reasons why students' writing capabilities do not match their abilities in some other school subjects are explored. Research findings on the efficacy of process approaches to teaching writing are presented and potential shortcomings are discussed. Product-based…

  19. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  20. Nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Hohn, H.; Schad, M.; Schwarz, D.; Singh, J.

    1993-01-01

    In a system for the application of high temperature heat from the HTR one must distinguish between the current generation and the use of process heat. In this respect it is important that the current can be generated by dual purpose power plants. The process heat is used as sensible heat, vaporisation heat and as chemical energy at the chemical conversion for the conversion of raw materials, the refinement of fossil primary energy carriers and finally circuit processes for the fission of water. These processes supply the market for heat, fuels, motor fuels and basic materials. Fifteen examples of HTR heat processes from various projects and programmes are presented in form of energy balances, however in a rather short way. (orig./DG) [de

  1. Nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaotian [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)]. E-mail: swa001@126.com; Zhang Shiying [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Fan Shen [Computer and Information School, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, we propose a class of non-Gaussian stationary increment processes, named nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t), which permit the study of the effects of long-range dependance in a large number of fields including quantum physics and finance. The processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) are self-similar in a wide sense, exhibit more fatter tail than Gaussian processes, and converge to the Gaussian processes in distribution in some cases. In addition, we also show that the intensity function {lambda}(t) strongly influences the existence of the highest finite moment of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) and the behaviour of the tail probability of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t)

  2. Nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaotian; Zhang Shiying; Fan Shen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a class of non-Gaussian stationary increment processes, named nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes W H (j) (t), which permit the study of the effects of long-range dependance in a large number of fields including quantum physics and finance. The processes W H (j) (t) are self-similar in a wide sense, exhibit more fatter tail than Gaussian processes, and converge to the Gaussian processes in distribution in some cases. In addition, we also show that the intensity function λ(t) strongly influences the existence of the highest finite moment of W H (j) (t) and the behaviour of the tail probability of W H (j) (t)

  3. Identification of wastewater processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Niels Jacob

    The introduction of on-line sensors for monitoring of nutrient salts concentrations on wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal, opens a wide new area of modelling wastewater processes. The subject of this thesis is the formulation of operational dynamic models based on time series...... of ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate concentrations, which are measured in the aeration tanks of the biological nutrient removal system. The alternatign operation modes of the BIO-DENITRO and BIO-DENIPHO processes are of particular interest. Time series models of the hydraulic and biological processes are very......-known theory of the processes with the significant effects found in data. These models are called grey box models, and they contain rate expressions for the processes of influent load of nutrients, transport of nutrients between the aeration tanks, hydrolysis and growth of biomass, nitrification...

  4. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald in March, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present second volume contains the following lectures: "Random Walks on Finite Quantum Groups" by Uwe Franz and Rolf Gohm, "Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics" by Burkhard Kümmerer, Classical and Free Infinite Divisibility and Lévy Processes" by Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Steen Thorbjornsen, and "Lévy Processes on Quantum Groups and Dual Groups" by Uwe Franz.

  5. Integrated biofuels process synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Ortega, Carlo Edgar; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Second and third generation bioethanol and biodiesel are more environmentally friendly fuels than gasoline and petrodiesel, andmore sustainable than first generation biofuels. However, their production processes are more complex and more expensive. In this chapter, we describe a two-stage synthesis......% used for bioethanol process), and steam and electricity from combustion (54%used as electricity) in the bioethanol and biodiesel processes. In the second stage, we saved about 5% in equipment costs and 12% in utility costs for bioethanol separation. This dual synthesis methodology, consisting of a top......-level screening task followed by a down-level intensification task, proved to be an efficient methodology for integrated biofuel process synthesis. The case study illustrates and provides important insights into the optimal synthesis and intensification of biofuel production processes with the proposed synthesis...

  6. Managing Software Process Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book focuses on the design, development, management, governance and application of evolving software processes that are aligned with changing business objectives, such as expansion to new domains or shifting to global production. In the context of an evolving business world, it examines...... the complete software process lifecycle, from the initial definition of a product to its systematic improvement. In doing so, it addresses difficult problems, such as how to implement processes in highly regulated domains or where to find a suitable notation system for documenting processes, and provides...... essential insights and tips to help readers manage process evolutions. And last but not least, it provides a wealth of examples and cases on how to deal with software evolution in practice. Reflecting these topics, the book is divided into three parts. Part 1 focuses on software business transformation...

  7. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  8. Business process support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, Adriana; Fiducia, Daniel [Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A. (TGS), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    This paper is about the own development of business support software. The developed applications are used to support two business processes: one of them is the process of gas transportation and the other is the natural gas processing. This software has interphases with the ERP SAP, software SCADA and on line gas transportation simulation software. The main functionalities of the applications are: entrance on line real time of clients transport nominations, transport programming, allocation of the clients transport nominations, transport control, measurements, balanced pipeline, allocation of gas volume to the gas processing plants, calculate of product tons processed in each plant and tons of product distributed to clients. All the developed software generates information to the internal staff, regulatory authorities and clients. (author)

  9. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  10. Organization of Valence-Encoding and Projection-Defined Neurons in the Basolateral Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beyeler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The basolateral amygdala (BLA mediates associative learning for both fear and reward. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that different BLA projections distinctly alter motivated behavior, including projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc, medial aspect of the central amygdala (CeM, and ventral hippocampus (vHPC. Although there is consensus regarding the existence of distinct subsets of BLA neurons encoding positive or negative valence, controversy remains regarding the anatomical arrangement of these populations. First, we map the location of more than 1,000 neurons distributed across the BLA and recorded during a Pavlovian discrimination task. Next, we determine the location of projection-defined neurons labeled with retrograde tracers and use CLARITY to reveal the axonal path in 3-dimensional space. Finally, we examine the local influence of each projection-defined populations within the BLA. Understanding the functional and topographical organization of circuits underlying valence assignment could reveal fundamental principles about emotional processing.

  11. Reactivations of emotional memory in the hippocampus-amygdala system during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardeau, Gabrielle; Inema, Ingrid; Buzsáki, György

    2017-11-01

    The consolidation of context-dependent emotional memory requires communication between the hippocampus and the basolateral amygdala (BLA), but the mechanisms of this process are unknown. We recorded neuronal ensembles in the hippocampus and BLA while rats learned the location of an aversive air puff on a linear track, as well as during sleep before and after training. We found coordinated reactivations between the hippocampus and the BLA during non-REM sleep following training. These reactivations peaked during hippocampal sharp wave-ripples (SPW-Rs) and involved a subgroup of BLA cells positively modulated during hippocampal SPW-Rs. Notably, reactivation was stronger for the hippocampus-BLA correlation patterns representing the run direction that involved the air puff than for the 'safe' direction. These findings suggest that consolidation of contextual emotional memory occurs during ripple-reactivation of hippocampus-amygdala circuits.

  12. EDITORIAL: Industrial Process Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton Johansen, Geir; Wang, Mi

    2008-09-01

    There has been tremendous development within measurement science and technology over the past couple of decades. New sensor technologies and compact versatile signal recovery electronics are continuously expanding the limits of what can be measured and the accuracy with which this can be done. Miniaturization of sensors and the use of nanotechnology push these limits further. Also, thanks to powerful and cost-effective computer systems, sophisticated measurement and reconstruction algorithms previously only accessible in advanced laboratories are now available for in situ online measurement systems. The process industries increasingly require more process-related information, motivated by key issues such as improved process control, process utilization and process yields, ultimately driven by cost-effectiveness, quality assurance, environmental and safety demands. Industrial process tomography methods have taken advantage of the general progress in measurement science, and aim at providing more information, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on multiphase systems and their dynamics. The typical approach for such systems has been to carry out one local or bulk measurement and assume that this is representative of the whole system. In some cases, this is sufficient. However, there are many complex systems where the component distribution varies continuously and often unpredictably in space and time. The foundation of industrial tomography is to conduct several measurements around the periphery of a multiphase process, and use these measurements to unravel the cross-sectional distribution of the process components in time and space. This information is used in the design and optimization of industrial processes and process equipment, and also to improve the accuracy of multiphase system measurements in general. In this issue we are proud to present a selection of the 145 papers presented at the 5th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography in Bergen

  13. States in Process Calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wagner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Formal reasoning about distributed algorithms (like Consensus typically requires to analyze global states in a traditional state-based style. This is in contrast to the traditional action-based reasoning of process calculi. Nevertheless, we use domain-specific variants of the latter, as they are convenient modeling languages in which the local code of processes can be programmed explicitly, with the local state information usually managed via parameter lists of process constants. However, domain-specific process calculi are often equipped with (unlabeled reduction semantics, building upon a rich and convenient notion of structural congruence. Unfortunately, the price for this convenience is that the analysis is cumbersome: the set of reachable states is modulo structural congruence, and the processes' state information is very hard to identify. We extract from congruence classes of reachable states individual state-informative representatives that we supply with a proper formal semantics. As a result, we can now freely switch between the process calculus terms and their representatives, and we can use the stateful representatives to perform assertional reasoning on process calculus models.

  14. Welding processes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Weman, Klas

    2003-01-01

    Deals with the main commercially significant and commonly used welding processes. This title takes the student or novice welder through the individual steps involved in each process in an easily understood way. It covers many of the requirements referred to in European Standards including EN719, EN 729, EN 729 and EN 287.$bWelding processes handbook is a concise, explanatory guide to the main commercially significant and commonly-used welding processes. It takes the novice welder or student through the individual steps involved in each process in a clear and easily understood way. It is intended to provide an up-to-date reference to the major applications of welding as they are used in industry. The contents have been arranged so that it can be used as a textbook for European welding courses in accordance with guidelines from the European Welding Federation. Welding processes and equipment necessary for each process are described so that they can be applied to all instruction levels required by the EWF and th...

  15. Organic waste incineration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemort, F.; Charvillat, J.P.; Nabot, J.P. [CEA Valrho, Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France); Chateauvieux, H.; Thiebaut, C. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear activities produce organic waste compatible with thermal processes designed to obtain a significant weight and volume reduction as well as to stabilize the inorganic residue in a form suitable for various interim storage or disposal routes. Several processes may be implemented (e.g. excess air, plasma, fluidized bed or rotating furnace) depending on the nature of the waste and the desired objectives. The authors focus on the IRIS rotating-kiln process, which was used for the first time with radioactive materials during the first half of 1999. IRIS is capable of processing highly chlorinated and {alpha}-contaminated waste at a rate of several kilograms per hour, while limiting corrosion due to chlorine as well as mechanical entrainment of radioactive particles in the off-gas stream. Although operated industrially, the process is under continual development to improve its performance and adapt it to a wider range of industrial applications. The main focus of attention today is on adapting the pyrolytic processes to waste with highly variable compositions and to enhance the efficiency of the off-gas purification systems. These subjects are of considerable interest for a large number of heat treatment processes (including all off-gas treatment systems) for which extremely durable, high-performance and low-flow electrostatic precipitators are now being developed. (author)

  16. Organic waste incineration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemort, F.; Charvillat, J.P.; Nabot, J.P.; Chateauvieux, H.; Thiebaut, C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear activities produce organic waste compatible with thermal processes designed to obtain a significant weight and volume reduction as well as to stabilize the inorganic residue in a form suitable for various interim storage or disposal routes. Several processes may be implemented (e.g. excess air, plasma, fluidized bed or rotating furnace) depending on the nature of the waste and the desired objectives. The authors focus on the IRIS rotating-kiln process, which was used for the first time with radioactive materials during the first half of 1999. IRIS is capable of processing highly chlorinated and α-contaminated waste at a rate of several kilograms per hour, while limiting corrosion due to chlorine as well as mechanical entrainment of radioactive particles in the off-gas stream. Although operated industrially, the process is under continual development to improve its performance and adapt it to a wider range of industrial applications. The main focus of attention today is on adapting the pyrolytic processes to waste with highly variable compositions and to enhance the efficiency of the off-gas purification systems. These subjects are of considerable interest for a large number of heat treatment processes (including all off-gas treatment systems) for which extremely durable, high-performance and low-flow electrostatic precipitators are now being developed. (author)

  17. IT Project Prioritization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shollo, Arisa; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    In most of the large companies IT project prioritization process is designed based on principles of evidencebased management. We investigate a case of IT project prioritization in a financial institution, and in particular, how managers practice evidence-based management during this process. We use...... a rich dataset built from a longitudinal study of the prioritization process for the IT projects. Our findings indicate that managers reach a decision not only by using evidence but from the interplay between the evidence and the judgment devices that managers employ. The interplay between evidence...

  18. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  19. Process of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Halford, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    Performance assessment is the process used to evaluate the environmental consequences of disposal of radioactive waste in the biosphere. An introductory review of the subject is presented. Emphasis is placed on the process of performance assessment from the standpoint of defining the process. Performance assessment, from evolving experience at DOE sites, has short-term and long-term subprograms, the components of which are discussed. The role of mathematical modeling in performance assessment is addressed including the pros and cons of current approaches. Finally, the system/site/technology issues as the focal point of this symposium are reviewed

  20. Semi-Markov processes

    CERN Document Server

    Grabski

    2014-01-01

    Semi-Markov Processes: Applications in System Reliability and Maintenance is a modern view of discrete state space and continuous time semi-Markov processes and their applications in reliability and maintenance. The book explains how to construct semi-Markov models and discusses the different reliability parameters and characteristics that can be obtained from those models. The book is a useful resource for mathematicians, engineering practitioners, and PhD and MSc students who want to understand the basic concepts and results of semi-Markov process theory. Clearly defines the properties and

  1. Irreversible processes kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brush, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory, Volume 2: Irreversible Processes deals with the kinetic theory of gases and the irreversible processes they undergo. It includes the two papers by James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann in which the basic equations for transport processes in gases are formulated, together with the first derivation of Boltzmann's ""H-theorem"" and a discussion of this theorem, along with the problem of irreversibility.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental nature of heat and of gases, along with Boltzmann's work on the kinetic theory of gases and s

  2. Catalytic biomass pyrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, David C.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Kataria, Atish; Shen, Jian-Ping

    2018-04-17

    Described herein are processes for converting a biomass starting material (such as lignocellulosic materials) into a low oxygen containing, stable liquid intermediate that can be refined to make liquid hydrocarbon fuels. More specifically, the process can be a catalytic biomass pyrolysis process wherein an oxygen removing catalyst is employed in the reactor while the biomass is subjected to pyrolysis conditions. The stream exiting the pyrolysis reactor comprises bio-oil having a low oxygen content, and such stream may be subjected to further steps, such as separation and/or condensation to isolate the bio-oil.

  3. DWPF process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendoin, F.M. II

    1983-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for waste vitrification at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is in the final design stage. Instrumentation to provide the parameter sensing required to assure the quality of the two-foot-diameter, ten-foot-high waste canister is in the final stage of development. All step of the process and instrumentation are now operating as nearly full-scale prototypes at SRP. Quality will be maintained by assuring that only the intended material enters the canisters, and by sensing the resultant condition of the filled canisters. Primary emphasis will be on instrumentation of the process

  4. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, M.; Plurien, P.

    1986-01-01

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  5. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1984-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  6. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuramoto, Naohiko.

    1992-01-01

    When granular materials comprising radioactive wastes containing phosphorus are processed at first in a fluidized bed type furnace, if the granular materials are phosphorus-containing activated carbon, granular materials comprising alkali compound such as calcium hydroxide and barium hydroxide are used as fluidizing media. Even granular materials of slow burning speed can be burnt stably in a fluidizing state by high temperature heat of the fluidizing media, thereby enabling to take a long burning processing time. Accordingly, radioactive activated carbon wastes can be processed by burning treatment. (T.M.)

  7. Nano integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-01

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  8. Transnational Learning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    This paper analyses and compares the transnational learning processes in the employment field in the European Union and among the Nordic countries. Based theoretically on a social constructivist model of learning and methodologically on a questionnaire distributed to the relevant participants......, a number of hypotheses concerning transnational learning processes are tested. The paper closes with a number of suggestions regarding an optimal institutional setting for facilitating transnational learning processes.Key words: Transnational learning, Open Method of Coordination, Learning, Employment......, European Employment Strategy, European Union, Nordic countries....

  9. Nano integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-15

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  10. Getting Started with Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Reas, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Learn computer programming the easy way with Processing, a simple language that lets you use code to create drawings, animation, and interactive graphics. Programming courses usually start with theory, but this book lets you jump right into creative and fun projects. It's ideal for anyone who wants to learn basic programming, and serves as a simple introduction to graphics for people with some programming skills. Written by the founders of Processing, this book takes you through the learning process one step at a time to help you grasp core programming concepts. You'll learn how to sketch wi

  11. Quantum Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Leuchs, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Quantum processing and communication is emerging as a challenging technique at the beginning of the new millennium. This is an up-to-date insight into the current research of quantum superposition, entanglement, and the quantum measurement process - the key ingredients of quantum information processing. The authors further address quantum protocols and algorithms. Complementary to similar programmes in other countries and at the European level, the German Research Foundation (DFG) started a focused research program on quantum information in 1999. The contributions - written by leading experts - bring together the latest results in quantum information as well as addressing all the relevant questions

  12. Robot welding process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

  13. Lasers in chemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    The high cost of laser energy is the crucial issue in any potential laser-processing application. It is expensive relative to other forms of energy and to most bulk chemicals. We show those factors that have previously frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser-induced processes for the production of materials. Having identified the general criteria to be satisfied by an economically successful laser process and shown how these imply the laser-system requirements, we present a status report on the uranium laser isotope separation (LIS) program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  14. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both by international organizations (IAEA) and national laboratories have helped to improve the reliability of dose measurements. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading to traceable and reliable dosimetry are discussed. (author)

  15. The SILVA atomic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazalet, J.

    1996-01-01

    The SILVA isotopic laser separation process of atomic uranium vapor requires the use of specific high power visible light laser devices and systems for uranium evaporation and management (separation modules). The CEA, in collaboration with industrialists, has developed these components and built some demonstration plants. The scientific and technological challenges raised by this process are now surmounted. The principle of the SILVA process is the selective photo-ionization of uranium isotopes using laser photon beams tuned to the exact excitation frequency of the isotope electron layers. This paper describes the principle of the SILVA process (lasers and separator), the technical feasibility and actual progress of the program and its future steps, its economical stakes, and the results obtained so far. (J.S.). 2 figs., 2 photos

  16. Cognitive Processing Hardware Elements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Widrow, Bernard; Eliashberg, Victor; Kamenetsky, Max

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify and develop cognitive information processing systems and algorithms that can be implemented with novel architectures and devices with the goal of achieving...

  17. Ferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes ferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  18. Nonferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes nonferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  19. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  20. Essentials of stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Building upon the previous editions, this textbook is a first course in stochastic processes taken by undergraduate and graduate students (MS and PhD students from math, statistics, economics, computer science, engineering, and finance departments) who have had a course in probability theory. It covers Markov chains in discrete and continuous time, Poisson processes, renewal processes, martingales, and option pricing. One can only learn a subject by seeing it in action, so there are a large number of examples and more than 300 carefully chosen exercises to deepen the reader’s understanding. Drawing from teaching experience and student feedback, there are many new examples and problems with solutions that use TI-83 to eliminate the tedious details of solving linear equations by hand, and the collection of exercises is much improved, with many more biological examples. Originally included in previous editions, material too advanced for this first course in stochastic processes has been eliminated while treatm...

  1. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    . These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern product and process modelling theory and practice followed by a series of case studies drawn from a variety......This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models...... to biotechnology applications, food, polymer and human health application areas. The book highlights to important nature of modern product and process modelling in the decision making processes across the life cycle. As such it provides an important resource for students, researchers and industrial practitioners....

  2. HYDICE postflight data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, William S.; Kappus, Mary E.; Resmini, Ronald G.; Mitchell, Peter A.

    1996-06-01

    The hyperspectral digital imagery collection experiment (HYDICE) sensor records instrument counts for scene data, in-flight spectral and radiometric calibration sequences, and dark current levels onto an AMPEX DCRsi data tape. Following flight, the HYDICE ground data processing subsystem (GDPS) transforms selected scene data from digital numbers (DN) to calibrated radiance levels at the sensor aperture. This processing includes: dark current correction, spectral and radiometric calibration, conversion to radiance, and replacement of bad detector elements. A description of the algorithms for post-flight data processing is presented. A brief analysis of the original radiometric calibration procedure is given, along with a description of the development of the modified procedure currently used. Example data collected during the 1995 flight season, but uncorrected and processed, are shown to demonstrate the removal of apparent sensor artifacts (e.g., non-uniformities in detector response over the array) as a result of this transformation.

  3. Reconfigurable network processing platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kachris, C.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation presents our investigation on how to efficiently exploit reconfigurable hardware to design flexible, high performance, and power efficient network devices capable to adapt to varying processing requirements of network applications and traffic. The proposed reconfigurable network

  4. Towards processable Afrikaans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper researchers discuss a number of structural problems that are faced with when designing a machine-oriented controlled natural language for Afrikaans taking the underlying principles of Attempto Controlled English (ACE) and Processable...

  5. Gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji.

    1991-01-01

    State of electric discharge is detected based on a gas pressure in a sealed container and a discharging current flowing between both of electrodes. When electric arc discharges occur, introduction of gases to be processed is stopped and a voltage applied to both of the electrodes is interrupted. Then, when the gas pressure in the sealed container is lowered to a predetermined value, a power source voltage is applied again to both of the electrodes to recover glow discharges, and the introduction of the gas to be processed is started. With such steps, even if electric arc discharges occur, they are eliminated automatically and, accordingly, normal glow discharges can be recovered, to prevent failures of the device due to electric arc discharges. The glow discharges are recovered automatically without stopping the operation of the gas processing device, and gas injection and solidification processing can be conducted continuously and stably. (T.M.)

  6. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  7. Radiation processing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2001-01-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  8. Logistics Innovation Process Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Su, Shong-Iee Ivan; Yang, Su-Lan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to learn more about logistics innovation processes and their implications for the focal organization as well as the supply chain, especially suppliers. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical basis of the study is a longitudinal action research project...... that was triggered by the practical needs of new ways of handling material flows of a hospital. This approach made it possible to revisit theory on logistics innovation process. Findings – Apart from the tangible benefits reported to the case hospital, five findings can be extracted from this study: the logistics...... innovation process model may include not just customers but also suppliers; logistics innovation in buyer-supplier relations may serve as an alternative to outsourcing; logistics innovation processes are dynamic and may improve supplier partnerships; logistics innovations in the supply chain are as dependent...

  9. Negative ion detachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: H - and D - collisions with atomic hydrogen; collisional decomposition of SF 6 - ; two-electron loss processes in negative ion collisions; associative electron detachment; and negative ion desorption from surfaces

  10. Acoustic MIMO signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yiteng; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    A timely and important book addressing a variety of acoustic signal processing problems under multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scenarios. It uniquely investigates these problems within a unified framework offering a novel and penetrating analysis.

  11. Introduction to stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Cinlar, Erhan

    2013-01-01

    Clear presentation employs methods that recognize computer-related aspects of theory. Topics include expectations and independence, Bernoulli processes and sums of independent random variables, Markov chains, renewal theory, more. 1975 edition.

  12. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Boyd, A.W.; Chadwick, K.H.; McDonald, J.C.; Miller, A.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a relatively young industry with broad applications and considerable commercial success. Dosimetry provides an independent and effective way of developing and controlling many industrial processes. In the sterilization of medical devices and in food irradiation, where the radiation treatment impacts directly on public health, the measurements of dose provide the official means of regulating and approving its use. In this respect, dosimetry provides the operator with a means of characterizing the facility, of proving that products are treated within acceptable dose limits and of controlling the routine operation. This book presents an up-to-date review of the theory, data and measurement techniques for radiation processing dosimetry in a practical and useful way. It is hoped that this book will lead to improved measurement procedures, more accurate and precise dosimetry and a greater appreciation of the necessity of dosimetry for radiation processing. (author)

  13. SIMULATION OF LOGISTICS PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Taranenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the theoretical basis of the simulation. The study shows the simulation of logistic processes in industrial countries is an integral part of many economic projects aimed at the creation or improvement of logistics systems. The paper was used model Beer Game for management of logistics processes in the enterprise. The simulation model implements in AnyLogic package. AnyLogic product allows us to consider the logistics processes as an integrated system, which allows reaching better solutions. Logistics process management involves pooling the sales market, production and distribution to ensure the temporal level of customer service at the lowest cost overall. This made it possible to conduct experiments and to determine the optimal size of the warehouse at the lowest cost.

  14. Digital image processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez, Rafael C; Woods, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Completely self-contained-and heavily illustrated-this introduction to basic concepts and methodologies for digital image processing is written at a level that truly is suitable for seniors and first...

  15. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, an hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi......-level modulation founats. This has enabled processing of phase-modulated spectrally efficient data signals, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signa In that case, a spectral telescope system was used, using two time lenses with different focal lengths (chirp rates), yielding a spectral...... regeneratio These operations require a broad bandwidth nonlinear platform, and novel photonic integrated nonlinear platform like aluminum gallium arsenide nano-waveguides used for 1.28 Tbaud optical signal processing will be described....

  16. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  17. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  18. Desalination processes and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Reasons of the development of desalination processes, the modern desalination technologies, such as multi-stage flash evaporation, multi-effect distillation, reverse osmosis, and the prospects of using nuclear power for desalination purposes are discussed. 9 refs

  19. Enrichment: centrifuge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubbaramayer.

    1989-01-01

    This short course is divided into three sections devoted respectively to the physics of the process, some practical problems raised by the design of a centrifuge and the present situation of centrifugation in the World. 31 figs., 18 refs

  20. Constitutional reform as process

    OpenAIRE

    Schultze, Rainer-Olaf (Prof.)

    2000-01-01

    Constitutional reform as process. - In: The politics of constitutional reform in North America / Rainer-Olaf Schultze ... (eds.). - Opladen : Leske + Budrich, 2000. - S. 11-31. - (Politikwissenschaftliche paperbacks ; 30)

  1. Paper 2: Process characterisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    A variety of names represent the prefermentation process, due to emphasis placed on ... monitoring and control instrumentation employed successfully at existing side-stream ..... MÜNCH E (1998) DSP-Prefermenter Technology Book. Science ...

  2. Project management process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    This course provides INDOT staff with foundational knowledge and skills in project management principles and methodologies. INDOTs project management processes provide the tools for interdisciplinary teams to efficiently and effectively deliver pr...

  3. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  4. Model Process Control Language

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MPC (Model Process Control) language enables the capture, communication and preservation of a simulation instance, with sufficient detail that it can be...

  5. Digital image processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez, Rafael C; Woods, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    ...-year graduate students in almost any technical discipline. The leading textbook in its field for more than twenty years, it continues its cutting-edge focus on contemporary developments in all mainstream areas of image processing-e.g...

  6. CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

  7. Aerospace Materials Process Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Cooling Transformation diagram ( CCT diagram ) When a IT diagram is used in the heat process modelling, we suppose that a sudden cooling (instantaneous...processes. CE, chooses instead to study thermo-mechanical properties referring to a CCT diagram . This is thinked to be more reliable to give a true...k , mm-_____sml l ml A I 1 III 12.4 This determination is however based on the following approximations: i) A CCT diagram is valid only for the

  8. Radiopharmaceutical drug review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, R.

    1985-01-01

    To ensure proper radioactive drug use (such as quality, diagnostic improvement, and minimal radioactive exposure), the Food and Drug Administration evaluates new drugs with respect to safety, effectiveness, and accuracy and adequacy of the labeling. The IND or NDA process is used for this purpose. A brief description of the process, including the Chemical Classification System and the therapeutic potential classification, is presented as it applies to radiopharmaceuticals. Also, the status of the IND or NDA review of radiopharmaceuticals is given

  9. Qualification of conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.

    1989-01-01

    A conditioning process is qualified by the PTB if the execution of pre-treatment and conditioning occurs so that a safe and orderly final storage of the products and waste containers produced can be assumed. All the relevant operating conditions for the plant are laid down by the producer/conditioner of the waste in a handbook. The elements of product inspection by process qualification are shown in tabular form. (DG) [de

  10. Hydrogen recovery process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; He, Zhenjie; Pinnau, Ingo

    2000-01-01

    A treatment process for a hydrogen-containing off-gas stream from a refinery, petrochemical plant or the like. The process includes three separation steps: condensation, membrane separation and hydrocarbon fraction separation. The membrane separation step is characterized in that it is carried out under conditions at which the membrane exhibits a selectivity in favor of methane over hydrogen of at least about 2.5.

  11. Process through practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Burry, Mark; Tamke, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a design and prototype production system for novel structural use of networked small components of wood deploying elastic and plastic bending. The design process engaged with a significant number of different overlapping and interrelated design criteria...... simulation and feedback. The outcome was amplified through carrying out the research over a series of workshops with distinct foci and participation. Two full scale demonstrators have so far been constructed and exhibited as outputs of the process....

  12. Process for compound transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-29

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of using a catalytic system to chemically transform a compound (e.g., a hydrocarbon). In an embodiment, the method does not employ grafting the catalyst prior to catalysis. In particular, embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a process of hydrocarbon (e.g., C1 to C20 hydrocarbon) metathesis (e.g., alkane, olefin, or alkyne metathesis) transformation, where the process can be conducted without employing grafting prior to catalysis.

  13. Processes of Strategic Renewal,

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Aadne, John; Mahnke, Volker

    2010-01-01

    We discuss strategic renewal from a competence perspective. We argue that the management of speed and timing in this process is viewed distinctively when perceived through a cognitive lens. Managers need more firmly grounded process-understanding. The key idea of this paper is to dynamically conceptualize key activities of strategic renewal, and possible sources of break-down as they relate to the managment of speed and timing. Based on a case from the media industry, we identi...

  14. Hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this first Gedepeon workshop on hydrogen production processes are: to stimulate the information exchange about research programs and research advances in the domain of hydrogen production processes, to indicate the domains of interest of these processes and the potentialities linked with the coupling of a nuclear reactor, to establish the actions of common interest for the CEA, the CNRS, and eventually EDF, that can be funded in the framework of the Gedepeon research group. This document gathers the slides of the 17 presentations given at this workshop and dealing with: the H 2 question and the international research programs (Lucchese P.); the CEA's research program (Lucchese P., Anzieu P.); processes based on the iodine/sulfur cycle: efficiency of a facility - flow-sheets, efficiencies, hard points (Borgard J.M.), R and D about the I/S cycle: Bunsen reaction (Colette S.), R and D about the I/S cycle: the HI/I 2 /H 2 O system (Doizi D.), demonstration loop/chemical engineering (Duhamet J.), materials and corrosion (Terlain A.); other processes under study: the Westinghouse cycle (Eysseric C.), other processes under study at the CEA (UT3, plasma,...) (Lemort F.), database about thermochemical cycles (Abanades S.), Zn/ZnO cycle (Broust F.), H 2 production by cracking, high temperature reforming with carbon trapping (Flamant G.), membrane technology (De Lamare J.); high-temperature electrolysis: SOFC used as electrolyzers (Grastien R.); generic aspects linked with hydrogen production: technical-economical evaluation of processes (Werkoff F.), thermodynamic tools (Neveu P.), the reactor-process coupling (Aujollet P.). (J.S.)

  15. Qualitative Process Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    solving common sense reasoning mathematical reasoning naive physics aritificial intelligence * 20. ABSTRACT (Continue o,, reverse side Ift necessary and...AD-A148 987 QUALITATIVE PROCESS THEORY(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF 1/2 TEEH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB K D FORBUS JUL 84 RI-TR-789 N88814-80...NATIONAL BUREAU Of STAN ARDS IJ% A 4 I .7 Technical Report 789 Q[-----Qualitative• Process M° Theory . Kenneth Dale Forbus MIT Artificial Intelligence

  16. Electron-attachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Christodoulides, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include: (1) modes of production of negative ions, (2) techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, (3) dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules, (4) dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), (5) molecular parent negative ions, and (6) negative ions formed by ion-pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms

  17. Process management practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyeon, In Beom

    1983-04-01

    This book gives descriptions of qualifying subject and test scope like production plan and control, economic feasibility, process management, quality management and operations research, industrial economics like materials and marketing management, production management such as meaning and goals of process management and production plan and control, basic economic concept, official interest and equivalence, and depreciation, and OR concept such as network analysis and PERT CPM and stimulation.

  18. Harmful Waste Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Mun Bong; Lee, Shi Jin; Park, Jun Seok; Yoon, Seok Pyo; Lee, Jae Hyo; Jo, Byeong Ryeol

    2008-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of processing harmful waste, including concerned law and definition of harmful waste, current conditions and generation of harmful waste in Korea, international condition of harmful waste, minimizing of generation of harmful waste, treatment and storage. It also tells of basic science for harmful waste disposal with physics, chemistry, combustion engineering, microbiology and technique of disposal such as physical, chemical, biological process, stabilizing and solidification, incineration and waste in landfill.

  19. Natural Information Processing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    John Sweller; Susan Sweller

    2006-01-01

    Natural information processing systems such as biological evolution and human cognition organize information used to govern the activities of natural entities. When dealing with biologically secondary information, these systems can be specified by five common principles that we propose underlie natural information processing systems. The principles equate: (1) human long-term memory with a genome; (2) learning from other humans with biological reproduction; (3) problem solving through random ...

  20. Processing Of Binary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H. S.

    1985-07-01

    An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.

  1. Personal sale process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience from prior successful sale of many companies from different business activities, tells us that it is necessary to create approach system, flexible to different buyers and environment. The base of this system is a belief that salesmen can stimulate big buyers to make buying decisions, if the selling process is done well. Emphasis is made on practical selling techniques which are used in the whole selling process.

  2. Synroc processing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsa, R.B.; Hoenig, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Synroc is a titanate-based ceramic material currently being developed for immobilizing high-level nuclear reactor wastes in solid form. Synroc D is a unique variation of Synroc. It can contain the high-level defense wastes, particularly those in storage at the Savannah River Plant. In this report, we review the early development of the initial Synroc process, discuss modification and other options that simplify it overall, and recommend the future direction of research and development in the processing area. A reference Synroc process is described briefly and contrasted with the Savannah River Laboratory glass-based reference case. Preliminary engineering layouts show Synroc to be a more complex processing operation and, thus, more expensive than the glass-based process. However, we believe that simplifications, which will significantly reduce the cost difference, are possible. Further research and development will continue in the areas of slurry processing, fluidized bed calcination, and mineralization. This last will use sintering, hot uniaxial pressing, or hot isostatic pressing

  3. Ultrasound in chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, S.; Farooq, R.; Malik, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The use of ultrasound to promote chemical reactions or sono chemistry is a field of chemistry which involves the process of acoustic cavitations i.e. the collapse of microscopic bubbles in liquid. There are two essential components for the application of sono chemistry, a liquid medium and a source of high-energy vibrations. The liquid medium is necessary because sono chemistry is driven by acoustic cavitations that can only occur in liquids. The source of the vibrational energy is the transducer. The chemical effects of ultrasound include the enhancement of reaction rates at ambient temperatures and striking advancements in stoichiometric and catalytic reactions In some cases, ultrasonic irradiation can increase reactivities by nearly million fold. The ultrasound has large number of applications not only in emending old chemical processes but also in developing new synthetic strategies. Ultrasound enhances all chemical and physical processes e.g., crystallization, vitamin synthesis, preparation of catalysts, dissolution of chemicals, organometallic reactions, electrochemical processes, etc. High-power ultrasonics is a new powerful technology that is not only safe and environmentally friendly in its application but is also efficient and economical. It can be applied to existing processes to eliminate the need for chemicals and/or heat application in a variety of industrial processes. (author)

  4. Customer Innovation Process Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2007-01-01

    Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been on diffe......Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been...... on different types of organisational setup to the product development model and process. The globalization and enhanced competitive markets are however changing the innovation game and the challenge to innovation leadership Excellent product development innovation and leadership seems not any longer to enough...... another outlook to future innovation leadership - Customer Innovation Process Leadership - CIP-leadership. CIP-leadership moves the company's innovation process closer to the customer innovation process and discusses how companies can be involved and innovate in customers' future needs and lead...

  5. Process Management Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Miksa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the era of research infrastructures and big data, sophisticated data management practices are becoming essential building blocks of successful science. Most practices follow a data-centric approach, which does not take into account the processes that created, analysed and presented the data. This fact limits the possibilities for reliable verification of results. Furthermore, it does not guarantee the reuse of research, which is one of the key aspects of credible data-driven science. For that reason, we propose the introduction of the new concept of Process Management Plans, which focus on the identification, description, sharing and preservation of the entire scientific processes. They enable verification and later reuse of result data and processes of scientific experiments. In this paper we describe the structure and explain the novelty of Process Management Plans by showing in what way they complement existing Data Management Plans. We also highlight key differences, major advantages, as well as references to tools and solutions that can facilitate the introduction of Process Management Plans.

  6. Pennsylvania's partnering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Pennsylvania is committed to finding a site for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility through an innovative voluntary process. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) and Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. (CNSI) developed the Community Partnering Plan with extensive public participation. The Community Partnering Plan outlines a voluntary process that empowers municipalities to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of hosting the facility. DEP and CNSI began developing the Community Partnering Plan in July 1995. Before then, CNSI was using a screening process prescribed by state law and regulations to find a location for the facility. So far, approximately 78 percent of the Commonwealth has been identified as disqualified as a site for the LLRW disposal facility. The siting effort will now focus on identifying volunteer host municipalities in the remaining 22 percent of the state. This combination of technical screening and voluntary consideration makes Pennsylvania's process unique. A volunteered site will have to meet the same tough requirements for protecting people and the environment as a site chosen through the screening process. Protection of public health and safety continues to be the foundation of the state's siting efforts. The Community Partnering Plan offers a window of opportunity. If Pennsylvania does not find volunteer municipalities with suitable sites by the end of 1997, it probably will return to a technical screening process

  7. Continuous Correctness of Business Processes Against Process Interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Nick; Bucur, Doina

    2013-01-01

    In distributed business process support environments, process interference from multiple stakeholders may cause erroneous process outcomes. Existing solutions to detect and correct interference at runtime employ formal verification and the automatic generation of intervention processes at runtime.

  8. Advanced materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giamei, A.F.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced materials will require improved processing methods due to high melting points, low toughness or ductility values, high reactivity with air or ceramics and typically complex crystal structures with significant anisotropy in flow and/or fracture stress. Materials for structural applications at elevated temperature in critical systems will require processing with a high degree of control. This requires an improved understanding of the relationship between process variables and microstructure to enable control systems to achieve consistently high quality. One avenue to the required level of understanding is computer simulation. Past attempts to do process modeling have been hampered by incomplete data regarding thermophysical or mechanical material behavior. Some of the required data can be calculated. Due to the advances in software and hardware, accuracy and costs are in the realm of acquiring experimental data. Such calculations can, for example, be done at an atomic level to compute lattice energy, fault energies, density of states and charge densities. These can lead to fundamental information about the competition between slip and fracture, anisotropy of bond strength (and therefore cleavage strength), cohesive strength, adhesive strength, elastic modulus, thermal expansion and possibly other quantities which are difficult (and therefore expensive to measure). Some of these quantities can be fed into a process model. It is probable that temperature dependencies can be derived numerically as well. Examples are given of the beginnings of such an approach for Ni 3 Al and MoSi 2 . Solidification problems are examples of the state-of-the-art process modeling and adequately demonstrate the need for extensive input data. Such processes can be monitored in terms of interfacial position vs. time, cooling rate and thermal gradient

  9. Novel food processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components

  10. Radiation processing of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    Radiation processing is a very convenient tool for imparting desirable effects in polymeric materials and it has been an area of enormous interest in the last few decades. The success of radiation technology for processing of synthetic polymers can be attributed to two reasons namely, their ease of processing in various shapes and sizes, and secondly, most of these polymers undergo crosslinking reaction upon exposure to radiation. In recent years, natural polymers are being looked at with renewed interest because of their unique characteristics, such as inherent biocompatibility, biodegradability and easy availability. Traditionally, the commercial exploitation of natural polymers like carrageenans, alginates or starch etc. has been based, to a large extent, on empirical knowledge. But now, the applications of natural polymers are being sought in knowledge - demanding areas such as pharmacy and biotechnology, which is acting as a locomotive for further scientific research in their structure-function relationship. Selected success stories concerning radiation processed natural polymers and application of their derivatives in the health care products industries and agriculture are reported. This publication will be of interest to individuals at nuclear institutions worldwide that have programmes of R and D and applications in radiation processing technologies. New developments in radiation processing of polymers and other natural raw materials give insight into converting them into useful products for every day life, human health and environmental remediation. The book will also be of interest to other field specialists, readers including managers and decision makers in industry (health care, food and agriculture) helping them to understand the important role of radiation processing technology in polysaccharides

  11. Nonconscious processes and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Bargh, John A

    2013-05-01

    Health behavior theories focus on the role of conscious, reflective factors (e.g., behavioral intentions, risk perceptions) in predicting and changing behavior. Dual-process models, on the other hand, propose that health actions are guided not only by a conscious, reflective, rule-based system but also by a nonconscious, impulsive, associative system. This article argues that research on health decisions, actions, and outcomes will be enriched by greater consideration of nonconscious processes. A narrative review is presented that delineates research on implicit cognition, implicit affect, and implicit motivation. In each case, we describe the key ideas, how they have been taken up in health psychology, and the possibilities for behavior change interventions, before outlining directions that might profitably be taken in future research. Correlational research on implicit cognitive and affective processes (attentional bias and implicit attitudes) has recently been supplemented by intervention studies using implementation intentions and practice-based training that show promising effects. Studies of implicit motivation (health goal priming) have also observed encouraging findings. There is considerable scope for further investigations of implicit affect control, unconscious thought, and the automatization of striving for health goals. Research on nonconscious processes holds significant potential that can and should be developed by health psychologists. Consideration of impulsive as well as reflective processes will engender new targets for intervention and should ultimately enhance the effectiveness of behavior change efforts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Staging Collaborative Innovation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Clausen, Christian

    Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation ...... the diverse matters of concern into a coherent product or service concept, and 2) in the same process move these diverse holders of the matters of concern into a translated actor network which carry or support the concept.......Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation...... and public private innovation partnerships. Based on a case study of a collaborative design process in a large electronics company the paper points to the key importance of staging and navigation of collaborative innovation process. Staging and navigation is presented as a combined activity: 1) to translate...

  13. Range Process Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  14. VLSI signal processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Swartzlander, Earl

    1994-01-01

    This book is the first in a set of forthcoming books focussed on state-of-the-art development in the VLSI Signal Processing area. It is a response to the tremendous research activities taking place in that field. These activities have been driven by two factors: the dramatic increase in demand for high speed signal processing, especially in consumer elec­ tronics, and the evolving microelectronic technologies. The available technology has always been one of the main factors in determining al­ gorithms, architectures, and design strategies to be followed. With every new technology, signal processing systems go through many changes in concepts, design methods, and implementation. The goal of this book is to introduce the reader to the main features of VLSI Signal Processing and the ongoing developments in this area. The focus of this book is on: • Current developments in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) pro­ cessors and architectures - several examples and case studies of existing DSP chips are discussed in...

  15. Chemical process engineering in the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Bigelow, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Since operation of the Transuranium Processing Plant began, process changes have been made to counteract problems caused by equipment corrosion, to satisfy new processing requirements, and to utilize improved processes. The new processes, equipment, and techniques have been incorporated into a sequence of steps which satisfies all required processing functions

  16. Acoustic Levitation Containerless Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whymark, R. R.; Rey, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    This research program consists of the development of acoustic containerless processing systems with applications in the areas of research in material sciences, as well as the production of new materials, solid forms with novel and unusual microstructures, fusion target spheres, and improved optical fibers. Efforts have been focused on the containerless processing at high temperatures for producing new kinds of glasses. Also, some development has occurred in the areas of containerlessly supporting liquids at room temperature, with applications in studies of fluid dynamics, potential undercooling of liquids, etc. The high temperature area holds the greatest promise for producing new kinds of glasses and ceramics, new alloys, and possibly unusual structural shapes, such as very uniform hollow glass shells for fusion target applications. High temperature acoustic levitation required for containerless processing has been demonstrated in low-g environments as well as in ground-based experiments. Future activities include continued development of the signals axis acoustic levitator.

  17. A complementary MOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhabvala, M.D.

    1977-03-01

    The complete sequence used to manufacture complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits is described. The fixed-gate array concept is presented as a means of obtaining CMOS integrated circuits in a fast and reliable fashion. Examples of CMOS circuits fabricated by both the conventional method and the fixed-gate array method are included. The electrical parameter specifications and characteristics are given along with typical values used to produce CMOS circuits. Temperature-bias stressing data illustrating the thermal stability of devices manufactured by this process are presented. Results of a preliminary study on the radiation sensitivity of circuits manufactured by this process are discussed. Some process modifications are given which have improved the radiation hardness of our CMOS devices. A formula description of the chemicals and gases along with the gas flow rates is also included

  18. Radiation processes in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Wallace H

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this book is twofold: to provide a brief, simple introduction to the theory of radiation and its application in astrophysics and to serve as a reference manual for researchers. The first part of the book consists of a discussion of the basic formulas and concepts that underlie the classical and quantum descriptions of radiation processes. The rest of the book is concerned with applications. The spirit of the discussion is to present simple derivations that will provide some insight into the basic physics involved and then to state the exact results in a form useful for applications. The reader is referred to the original literature and to reviews for rigorous derivations.The wide range of topics covered is illustrated by the following table of contents: Basic Formulas for Classical Radiation Processes; Basic Formulas for Quantum Radiation Processes; Cyclotron and Synchrotron Radiation; Electron Scattering; Bremsstrahlung and Collision Losses; Radiative Recombination; The Photoelectric Effect; a...

  19. The Nursing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hammond

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the nursing process can be summed up in this quotation by Sir Francis Bacon: “Human knowledge and human powers meet in one; for where the cause is not known the effect cannot be produced.” Arriving at a concise, accurate definition of the nursing process was, for me, an impossible task. It is altogether too vast and too personal a topic to contract down into a niftylooking, we-pay-lip-service-to-it cliché. So what I propose to do is to present my understanding of the nursing process throughout this essay, and then to leave the reader with some overall, general impression of what it all entails.

  20. Stochastic processes inference theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Malempati M

    2014-01-01

    This is the revised and enlarged 2nd edition of the authors’ original text, which was intended to be a modest complement to Grenander's fundamental memoir on stochastic processes and related inference theory. The present volume gives a substantial account of regression analysis, both for stochastic processes and measures, and includes recent material on Ridge regression with some unexpected applications, for example in econometrics. The first three chapters can be used for a quarter or semester graduate course on inference on stochastic processes. The remaining chapters provide more advanced material on stochastic analysis suitable for graduate seminars and discussions, leading to dissertation or research work. In general, the book will be of interest to researchers in probability theory, mathematical statistics and electrical and information theory.

  1. Oxygen Dependent Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard

    Enzyme catalysts have the potential to improve both the process economics and the environ-mental profile of many oxidation reactions especially in the fine- and specialty-chemical industry, due to their exquisite ability to perform stereo-, regio- and chemo-selective oxida-tions at ambient...... to aldehydes and ketones, oxyfunctionalization of C-H bonds, and epoxidation of C-C double bonds. Although oxygen dependent biocatalysis offers many possibilities, there are numerous chal-lenges to be overcome before an enzyme can be implemented in an industrial process. These challenges requires the combined...... far below their potential maximum catalytic rate at industrially relevant oxygen concentrations. Detailed knowledge of the en-zyme kinetics are therefore required in order to determine the best operating conditions and design oxygen supply to minimize processing costs. This is enabled...

  2. Cryogenic process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, J.; Johnson, S.

    1994-01-01

    Combining accurate fluid property databases with a commercial equation-solving software package running on a desktop computer allows simulation of cryogenic processes without extensive computer programming. Computer simulation can be a powerful tool for process development or optimization. Most engineering simulations to date have required extensive programming skills in languages such as Fortran, Pascal, etc. Authors of simulation code have also usually been responsible for choosing and writing the particular solution algorithm. This paper describes a method of simulating cryogenic processes with a commercial software package on a desktop personal computer that does not require these traditional programming tasks. Applications include modeling of cryogenic refrigerators, heat exchangers, vapor-cooled power leads, vapor pressure thermometers, and various other engineering problems

  3. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  4. Near field transport processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1991-01-01

    In repositories for nuclear waste there are many processes which will be instrumental in corroding the canisters and releasing the nuclides. Based on experiences from studies on the performance of repositories and on an actual design the major mechanisms influencing the integrity and performance of a repository are described and discussed. The paper addresses only conditions in crystalline rock repositories. The low water flow rate in fractures and channels plays a dominant role in limiting the interaction between water and waste. Molecular diffusion in the backfill and rock matrix as well as in the mobile water is an important transport process but actually limits the exchange rate because diffusive transport is slow. Solubility limits of both waste matrix and of individual nuclides are also important. Complicating processes include gas generation by iron corrosion and alpha-radiolysis. (au) (19 refs., 2 figs.)

  5. Topological signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Signal processing is the discipline of extracting information from collections of measurements. To be effective, the measurements must be organized and then filtered, detected, or transformed to expose the desired information.  Distortions caused by uncertainty, noise, and clutter degrade the performance of practical signal processing systems. In aggressively uncertain situations, the full truth about an underlying signal cannot be known.  This book develops the theory and practice of signal processing systems for these situations that extract useful, qualitative information using the mathematics of topology -- the study of spaces under continuous transformations.  Since the collection of continuous transformations is large and varied, tools which are topologically-motivated are automatically insensitive to substantial distortion. The target audience comprises practitioners as well as researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  6. Posttranslational processing of progastrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Jens René; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    as a major neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The tissue-specific expression of the hormones is regulated at the transcriptional level, but the posttranslational phase is also decisive and is highly complex in order to ensure accurate maturation of the prohormones in a cell...... picomolar concentrations, whereas the cellular expression of gastrin is expressed at higher levels, and accordingly gastrin circulates in 10-20-fold higher concentrations. Both common cancers and the less frequent neuroendocrine tumors express the gastrin gene and prohormone. But the posttranslational......, as are structural features of progastrin that are involved in the precursor activation process. Thus, the review describes how the processing depends on the cell-specific expression of the processing enzymes and kinetics in the secretory pathway....

  7. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This volume is the first of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald during the period March 9 – 22, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present first volume contains the following lectures: "Lévy Processes in Euclidean Spaces and Groups" by David Applebaum, "Locally Compact Quantum Groups" by Johan Kustermans, "Quantum Stochastic Analysis" by J. Martin Lindsay, and "Dilations, Cocycles and Product Systems" by B.V. Rajarama Bhat.

  8. Nuclear process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulten, R [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Reaktorentwicklung

    1976-05-01

    It is anticipated that the coupled utilization of coal and nuclear energy will achieve great importance in the future, the coal serving mainly as raw material and nuclear energy more as primary energy. Prerequisite for this development is the availability of high-temperature reactors, the state of development of which is described here. Raw materials for coupled use with nuclear process heat are petroleum, natural gas, coal, lignite, and water. Steam reformers heated by nuclear process heat, which are suitable for numerous processes, are expected to find wide application. The article describes several individual methods, all based on the transport of gas in pipelines, which could be utilized for the long distance transport of 'nuclear energy'.

  9. Laser Processing and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bäuerle, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    This book gives an overview of the fundamentals and applications of laser-matter interactions, in particular with regard to laser material processing. Special attention is given to laser-induced physical and chemical processes at gas-solid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid interfaces. Starting with the background physics, the book proceeds to examine applications of lasers in “standard” laser machining and laser chemical processing (LCP), including the patterning, coating, and modification of material surfaces. This fourth edition has been enlarged to cover the rapid advances in the understanding of the dynamics of materials under the action of ultrashort laser pulses, and to include a number of new topics, in particular the increasing importance of lasers in various different fields of surface functionalizations and nanotechnology. In two additional chapters, recent developments in biotechnology, medicine, art conservation and restoration are summarized. Graduate students, physicists, chemists, engineers, a...

  10. Radiation processing and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, M.; Machi, S.

    1987-01-01

    This growth of commercial radiation processing has been largely dependent on the achievement in production of reliable and less expensive radiation facilities as well as the research and development effort for new applications. Although world statistics of the growth are not available, Figure 20-1 shows steady growth in the number of EBAs installed in Japan for various purposes. Growth rate of Co-60 sources supplied by AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited), which supplied approximately 80% of the world market, approximately 10% per year, including future growth estimates. Potential applications of radiation processing under development are in environmental conservation (e.g., treatment of sewage sludge, waste water, and exhaust gases) and bioengineering (e.g., immobilization of bioactive materials). The authors plan to introduce her the characteristics of radiation processing, examples of its industrial applications, the status of its research and development activities, and an economic analysis

  11. Plasma processing of nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Sankaran, R Mohan

    2014-01-01

    CRC Press author R. Mohan Sankaran is the winner of the 2011 Peter Mark Memorial Award "… for the development of a tandem plasma synthesis method to grow carbon nanotubes with unprecedented control over the nanotube properties and chirality." -2011 AVS Awards Committee"Readers who want to learn about how nanomaterials are processed, using the most recent methods, will benefit greatly from this book. It contains very recent technical details on plasma processing and synthesis methods used by current researchers developing new nano-based materials, with all the major plasma-based processing techniques used today being thoroughly discussed."-John J. Shea, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, May/June 2013, Vol. 29, No. 3.

  12. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    The present thesis considers numerical modeling of activated sludge tanks on municipal wastewater treatment plants. Focus is aimed at integrated modeling where the detailed microbiological model the Activated Sludge Model 3 (ASM3) is combined with a detailed hydrodynamic model based on a numerical...... solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in a multiphase scheme. After a general introduction to the activated sludge tank as a system, the activated sludge tank model is gradually setup in separate stages. The individual sub-processes that are often occurring in activated sludge tanks are initially...... hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  13. s-process chronometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, H.

    1983-01-01

    The radionuclei 40 K, 81 Kr, 87 Rb, 93 Zr, 107 Pd, 147 Sm, 176 Lu and 205 Pb are built up totally or partially by the s-process. Due to their long half life they are potential chronometers for the age and the development of the s-process. The usefulness of the various nuclei is discussed. For the determination of the mean age of the s-process synthesis and with it the age of the galaxy, 176 Lu is best suited. It is demonstrated that this age can be calculated solely from measured cross section and abundance ratios. Various effects which can limit the usefulness of 176 Lu as a clock are discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas

    and constructivist multiple criteria decision-making analysis method is selected for developing the work further. The method is introduced and applied to the renovation of a multi-residential historic building. Furthermore, a new scheme, the Integrated Renovation Process, is presented. Finally, the methodology...... is applied to two single-family homes. In practice, such a scheme allowed most informational barriers to sustainable home renovation to be overcome. The homeowners were better integrated and their preferences and immaterial values were better taken into account. They assimilated the multiple benefits...... to keep the decision making process economically viable and timely, the process still needs to be improved and new tools need to be developed....

  15. Foundations of signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vetterli, Martin; Goyal, Vivek K

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive and engaging textbook introduces the basic principles and techniques of signal processing, from the fundamental ideas of signals and systems theory to real-world applications. Students are introduced to the powerful foundations of modern signal processing, including the basic geometry of Hilbert space, the mathematics of Fourier transforms, and essentials of sampling, interpolation, approximation and compression. The authors discuss real-world issues and hurdles to using these tools, and ways of adapting them to overcome problems of finiteness and localisation, the limitations of uncertainty and computational costs. Standard engineering notation is used throughout, making mathematical examples easy for students to follow, understand and apply. It includes over 150 homework problems and over 180 worked examples, specifically designed to test and expand students' understanding of the fundamentals of signal processing, and is accompanied by extensive online materials designed to aid learning, ...

  16. Process Damping Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Sam

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of process damping as a stabilising effect in milling has been encountered by machinists since milling and turning began. It is of great importance when milling aerospace alloys where maximum surface speed is limited by excessive tool wear and high speed stability lobes cannot be attained. Much of the established research into regenerative chatter and chatter avoidance has focussed on stability lobe theory with different analytical and time domain models developed to expand on the theory first developed by Trusty and Tobias. Process damping is a stabilising effect that occurs when the surface speed is low relative to the dominant natural frequency of the system and has been less successfully modelled and understood. Process damping is believed to be influenced by the interference of the relief face of the cutting tool with the waveform traced on the cut surface, with material properties and the relief geometry of the tool believed to be key factors governing performance. This study combines experimental trials with Finite Element (FE) simulation in an attempt to identify and understand the key factors influencing process damping performance in titanium milling. Rake angle, relief angle and chip thickness are the variables considered experimentally with the FE study looking at average radial and tangential forces and surface compressive stress. For the experimental study a technique is developed to identify the critical process damping wavelength as a means of measuring process damping performance. For the range of parameters studied, chip thickness is found to be the dominant factor with maximum stable parameters increased by a factor of 17 in the best case. Within the range studied, relief angle was found to have a lesser effect than expected whilst rake angle had an influence.

  17. NTP comparison process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corban, Robert

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  18. Fundamentals of business process management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumas, Marlon; La Rosa, Marcello; Mendling, Jan; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2018-01-01

    This textbook covers the entire Business Process Management (BPM) lifecycle, from process identification to process monitoring, covering along the way process modelling, analysis, redesign and automation. Concepts, methods and tools from business management, computer science and industrial

  19. Thermal stir welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A welding method is provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  20. A grieving process illustrated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Rory

    2018-03-01

    The sudden death of Pablo Picasso's closest friend Carlos Casagemas in 1901 came as a great shock to the young Picasso. From a young age, Picasso had ruminated on life and death; however, this was his first experience of bereavement. Following the death of Casagemas, Picasso's paintings can be seen as a diary of his grieving process and clearly illustrate the five stages of the grieving process as outlined by Kubler-Ross in ' On Death and Dying ' (1969). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.