WorldWideScience

Sample records for bla amendment review

  1. 75 FR 57782 - Registration Review; Pesticide Dockets Opened for Review and Comment; Amended Work Plan for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... AGENCY Registration Review; Pesticide Dockets Opened for Review and Comment; Amended Work Plan for... announcing the availability of an amended final work plan for the registration review of the pesticide..., EPA is announcing the availability of an amended final work plan for the registration review...

  2. 32 CFR 321.8 - DSS review of request for amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DSS review of request for amendment. 321.8... (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE SECURITY SERVICE PRIVACY PROGRAM § 321.8 DSS review of request for... correspondence. (b) DSS determination to approve or deny. Determination to approve or deny and request to amend...

  3. Relation between blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes and acute urinary tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sima Sadat Seyedjavadi; Mehdi Goudarzi; Fattaneh Sabzehali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To survey the frequency of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genotypes in extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from hospitalized patients with urinary tract infection and the determination of their antibiotic resistance patterns. Methods: During 11-month study, 100 ESBL-producing E. coli were collected from 330 patients who met the definition of urinary tract infection. The phenotypic identification of ESBL was confirmed by double disk synergy test and combined disk diffusion test. In vitro, susceptibility to ESBL isolates than 14 antimicrobial agents was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The frequency of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M ESBL-producing E. coli was assessed by PCR method. Results: The frequency of ESBL-producing E. coli was 40.8%. In vitro, susceptibility to ESBL-producing E. coli showed that the majority of isolates were highly susceptible to amikacin (74%) and imipenem (91%). The rates of resistance to other antibiotics varied from 33% to 96%. Through 100 tested isolates, the prevalence of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes was determined to be 67%, 45% and 74% respectively. In comparison with other bla genes, the frequency of blaCTX-M was strikingly high. Conclusions: Due to the increase of E. coli with multiple ESBL genes, continuous sur-veillance in order to use appropriate antibiotics and the control of infections is necessary.

  4. 37 CFR 102.28 - Review of requests for correction or amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 102.28 Review of requests for correction or amendment. (a)(1)(i) Not later than ten working days (i.e., excluding Saturdays, Sundays and legal public holidays) after receipt of a request to correct or amend a..., Sundays, and legal public holidays). If the Privacy Officer cannot make the determination within...

  5. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaVIM and blaKPC genes

    OpenAIRE

    Meletis, G; Tzampaz, E; Protonotariou, E.; Sofianou, D

    2010-01-01

    A Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate resistant to imipenem was recovered from a wound sample. The patient, a 57-year-old man, underwent a surgical resection of small bowel and sigmoid colon and was treated with multiple courses of antimicrobials. PCR analysis revealed that the clinical isolate was carrying simultaneously blaVIM-1, blaKPC-2, blaSHV and blaTEM genes. The concomitant presence of these genes is alarming and poses therapeutic as well as infection control problems.

  6. 77 FR 1749 - Preliminary Amendment Request Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Commission) is issuing for use of, and to solicit public comment on, draft Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) COL... the initial combined license (COL) holders for use as an elective precursor to the license amendment... ] pdr.resource@nrc.gov . The COL-ISG-025 ``Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction...

  7. 18 CFR 701.308 - Council review of request for correction or amendment of record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Council review of request for correction or amendment of record. 701.308 Section 701.308 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Protection of Privacy § 701.308 Council review...

  8. Review Guidance for the TWRS FSAR amendment for Waste Retrieval and waste feed delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review guidance (Guide) was developed for Office of River Protection (ORP) reviewers to use in reviewing the amendment to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) covering waste retrieval and waste feed delivery. Waste retrieval and waste feed delivery are necessary to supply nuclear waste from TWRS storage tanks to the TWRS Privatization (TWRS-P) Contractor's vitrification facility and to receive intermediate waste from the vitrification facility back into the TWRS tank farms for interim storage. An amendment to the approved TWRS FSAR (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067,Rev. 0) is necessary to change the authorization basis to accommodate waste retrieval and waste feed delivery. The ORP'S safety responsibility in reviewing the FSAR amendment is to determine that reasonable assurance exists that waste retrieval and waste feed delivery operations can be accomplished with adequate safety for the workers, the public, and the environment. To carry out this responsibility, the ORP will evaluate the Contractor's amendment to the TWRS FSAR for waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to determine whether the submittal provides adequate safety and complies with applicable regulatory requirements

  9. Review Guidance for the TWRS FSAR amendment for Waste Retrieval and waste feed delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFITH, R.W.

    1999-10-01

    This review guidance (Guide) was developed for Office of River Protection (ORP) reviewers to use in reviewing the amendment to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) covering waste retrieval and waste feed delivery. Waste retrieval and waste feed delivery are necessary to supply nuclear waste from TWRS storage tanks to the TWRS Privatization (TWRS-P) Contractor's vitrification facility and to receive intermediate waste from the vitrification facility back into the TWRS tank farms for interim storage. An amendment to the approved TWRS FSAR (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Rev. 0) is necessary to change the authorization basis to accommodate waste retrieval and waste feed delivery. The ORP'S safety responsibility in reviewing the FSAR amendment is to determine that reasonable assurance exists that waste retrieval and waste feed delivery operations can be accomplished with adequate safety for the workers, the public, and the environment. To carry out this responsibility, the ORP will evaluate the Contractor's amendment to the TWRS FSAR for waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to determine whether the submittal provides adequate safety and complies with applicable regulatory requirements.

  10. 78 FR 66946 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting... Section, October 17, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to October 17, 2013, 05:00 p.m., Pier 5 Hotel, 711 Eastern...

  11. 76 FR 30179 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting... Study Section, June 8, 2011, 8 a.m. to June 8, 2011, 6 p.m., Sir Francis Drake Hotel, 450 Powell...

  12. 75 FR 2878 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting..., February 11, 2010, 8 a.m. to February 12, 2010, 5 p.m., Sheraton Fisherman's Wharf Hotel, 2500 Mason...

  13. 78 FR 65349 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting... Section, October 8, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to October 8, 2013, 6:00 p.m., Melrose Hotel, 2430 Pennsylvania...

  14. 78 FR 66372 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... FR 54664-54665. The meeting will be held at the Hotel Monaco Baltimore, 2 North Charles Street... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of...

  15. 78 FR 64965 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting... Section, October 17, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to October 17, 2013, 7:00 p.m., Amalfi Hotel, 20 West Kinzie...

  16. 78 FR 64967 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting... Study Section, October 10, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to October 10, 2013, 06:00 p.m., Doubletree Hotel...

  17. 78 FR 65346 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting... Section, October 21, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to October 21, 2013, 5:00 p.m., Hotel Nikko San Francisco, 222...

  18. 78 FR 64958 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting... Section, October 21, 2013, 8:30 a.m. to October 21, 2013, 3:00 p.m., Amalfi Hotel, 20 West Kinzie...

  19. 78 FR 64963 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting..., October 16, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to October 16, 2013, 06:30 p.m., Washington Plaza Hotel, 10 Thomas...

  20. 78 FR 65344 - Center for Scientific Review Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review Amended Notice of Meeting... Section, October 7, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to October 8, 2013, 12:00 p.m., The Dupont Hotel, 1500 New...

  1. 78 FR 64962 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting... Hotel, 20 West Kinzie Street, Chicago, IL 60654 which was published in the Federal Register on...

  2. 76 FR 31968 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting... Study Section, June 8, 2011, 8 a.m. to June 8, 2011, 6 p.m., The Westin St. Francis Hotel, 335...

  3. 78 FR 64961 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ..., 78 FR 55266-55267. The meeting will be held at the Bahia Hotel, 998 W. Mission Bay Drive, San Diego... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of...

  4. 78 FR 66371 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ..., 2013, 78 FR 187 Pgs. 59361-59362. The meeting will be held at the Renaissance Dupont Circle Hotel, 1143... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of...

  5. 78 FR 64968 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting... Study Section, October 16, 2013, 8:30 a.m. to October 17, 2013, 1:00 p.m., Avenue Hotel Chicago, 160...

  6. 78 FR 65342 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting... Section, October 10, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to October 11, 2013, 12:30 p.m., Melrose Hotel, 2430 Pennsylvania...

  7. 78 FR 65347 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting... Hotel, 1143 New Hampshire Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20037 which was published in the Federal...

  8. 78 FR 64959 - Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Amended Notice of Meeting..., October 17, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to October 18, 2013, 2:00 p.m., Sheraton Delfina Santa Monica Hotel, 530...

  9. Detection of P. aeruginosa harboring bla CTX-M-2, bla GES-1 and bla GES-5, bla IMP-1 and bla SPM-1 causing infections in Brazilian tertiary-care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polotto Milena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nosocomial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa presenting resistance to beta-lactam drugs are one of the most challenging targets for antimicrobial therapy, leading to substantial increase in mortality rates in hospitals worldwide. In this context, P. aeruginosa harboring acquired mechanisms of resistance, such as production of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBLs and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs have the highest clinical impact. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the presence of genes codifying for MBLs and ESBLs among carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa isolated in a Brazilian 720-bed teaching tertiary care hospital. Methods Fifty-six carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were evaluated for the presence of MBL and ESBL genes. Strains presenting MBL and/or ESBL genes were submitted to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for genetic similarity evaluation. Results Despite the carbapenem resistance, genes for MBLs (blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1 were detected in only 26.7% of isolates. Genes encoding ESBLs were detected in 23.2% of isolates. The blaCTX-M-2 was the most prevalent ESBL gene (19.6%, followed by blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 detected in one isolate each. In all isolates presenting MBL phenotype by double-disc synergy test (DDST, the blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1 genes were detected. In addition, blaIMP-1 was also detected in three isolates which did not display any MBL phenotype. These isolates also presented the blaCTX-M-2 gene. The co-existence of blaCTX-M-2 with blaIMP-1 is presently reported for the first time, as like as co-existence of blaGES-1 with blaIMP-1. Conclusions In this study MBLs production was not the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenems, suggesting the occurrence of multidrug efflux pumps, reduction in porin channels and production of other beta-lactamases. The detection of blaCTX-M-2,blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 reflects the recent emergence of ESBLs among antimicrobial resistant P. aeruginosa and

  10. The Frequency of blaVIM, blaIMP, blaKPC and blaNDM Carbapenemase Genes in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella Pneumoniae in Kermanshah Medical Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zare

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbapenemase genes have been spread among strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae that make them resistant to carbapenems. Hence, the present study aimed to study the prevalence of carbapenmase genes within K. pneumoniae isolates in Kermanshah medical centers. Methods: Sixty isolates of K. pneumoniae were collected and identified using API kit. Then, antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was determined using a disk diffusion method. The carbapenems-resistant isolates were screened for carbapenemases production using the Modified Hodge Test (MHT. The carbapenemase genes of blaVIM, blaIMP, KPC and blaNDM were detected by PCR test . Results: Out of 60 isolates, 4 isolates were resistant to carbapenem antibiotics, but only one isolate was demonstrated to be positive for carbapenemases by MHT phenotypic testing. The gene of blaVIM was detected in three isolates by PCR, though other genes were not found in the isolates. Within the isolates, 6.67% and 100% were resistant to carbapenem and ampicillin, respectively. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that dissemination rate of carbapenemase genes was not reported to be high among isolates of K. pneumoniae in Kermanshah. Only blaVIM gene was probably more frequent than other tested genes. Since most isolates examined in this study were susceptible to carbapenem antibiotics, these antibiotics are still regarded as effective drugs against infections caused by K. pneumoniae.

  11. Development of a multiplex PCR system and its application in detection of blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9 and blaOXA-1 group genes in clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, James O; Zhang, Qingmeng; Huang, Ying; Yan, Huo; Su, Lijie; Gao, Bo; Zhang, Wenli; Zhao, Jizi; Cai, Wenhui; Li, Wenjing; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Yang; Song, Wuqi; Chen, Xiaobei; Fu, Yingmei; Zhang, Fengmin

    2015-12-01

    Resistance to β-lactam antibiotics through β-lactamase production by Enterobacteriaceae continues to burden the health-care sector worldwide. Traditional methods for detection of β-lactamases are time-consuming and labor-intensive and newer methods with varying capabilities continue to be developed. The objective of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) system for the detection of blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9 and blaOXA-1 group genes and to apply it in clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli strains. To do this, we used group-specific PCR primers in singleplex reactions followed by optimization into multiplex reactions. Specificity and sensitivity of the M-PCR were then evaluated using 58 reference strains before its application to detect bla group genes in 203 clinical Enterobacteriaceae strains. PCR amplicons were sequenced to determine the β-lactamase subtypes. The M-PCR system exhibited 100% specificity and sensitivity. In all, 83.7% of K. pneumoniae and 89.8% of E. coli clinical strains harbored bla group genes with 46.9%, 40.1%, 15.0%, 21.1% and 6.1% of K. pneumoniae having blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9 and blaOXA-1 group genes, respectively, whereas 12.2%, 77.6%, 22.4%, 36.7% and 8.2% of E. coli had blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9 and blaOXA-1 group genes, respectively. BlaSHV-1, blaSHV-11, blaSHV-27, blaSHV-33, blaSHV-144, blaTEM-1, blaTEM-135, blaOXA-1, blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-9, blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-27, blaCTX-M-55, blaCTX-M-65 and blaCTX-M-104 were detected. In conclusion, the M-PCR system was efficient and versatile with an advantage of simultaneously detecting all the targeted bla group genes. Hence, it is a potential candidate for developing M-PCR kits for the screening of these genes for clinical or epidemiological purposes. PMID:26104141

  12. 75 FR 20812 - Silicon Metal from Brazil: Amended Final Results of Administrative Review Pursuant to Court Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Metal from Brazil: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 64 FR 6305... International Trade Administration Silicon Metal from Brazil: Amended Final Results of Administrative Review... Commerce (``the Department'') regarding the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on...

  13. Prevalence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Bora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to determine the presence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes in extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing Escherichia coli (E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae at a tertiary care referral hospital in Northeast India. Materials and Methods: A total of 270 E. coli and 219 K. pneumoniae isolates were recovered during the period between August 2009 and July 2010. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was performed to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern. Screening and phenotypic confirmatory test for ESBL production were performed using standard disc diffusion methods. Each of the initial ESBL screening test isolate was investigated for the presence of blaTEM , blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes via polymerase chain reaction (PCR using gene-specific primers. Results: Phenotypic confirmatory test able to detect ESBL production in 73.58% of E. coli and 67.24% of K. pneumoniae. However, PCR amplification showed the presence of one or more ESBL genes in each of the initial ESBL screening positive isolate. Among three ESBL genotypes, the most prevalent genotype was found to be blaCTX-M in E. coli (88.67% and blaTEM in K. pneumoniae (77.58% ESBL producing isolates. Majority of ESBL producing isolates possess more than one ESBL genes. Conclusion: This study constituted a primer report on high prevalence of blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in ESBL producing isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae and denotes the need of more extensive studies on these antibiotic genes to determine the magnitude of the problem of antibiotic resistance exiting in this locality.

  14. Occurrence of co-existing bla VIM-2 and bla NDM-1 in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from India

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Deepjyoti; Dhar (Chanda), Debadatta; Maurya, Anand Prakash; MISHRA, Shweta; Sharma, Gauri Dutt; Chakravarty, Atanu; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha

    2016-01-01

    Background bla VIM-2 harboring Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been reported worldwide and considered as the most prevalent metallo-β-lactamase after NDM which are found horizontally transferable and mostly associated with integron gene cassettes. The present study investigates the genetic background, transmission dynamics as well as stability of bla VIM-2 in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa harbor bla NDM-1 as well which were collected from October 2012 to September 2013. Methods Two P. aerugin...

  15. A Danish killer amendment-when judicial review was banned from the 1849 Constitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. N.

    2014-01-01

    In real political life "killer amendments" are very rare. William H. Riker was the first political scientist to draw systematic attention to this special "heresthetic" phenomenon, but he was himself only able to identify a handful of successful "killer amendments". Subsequent systematic empirical...... Constitution. The motion was defeated by means of what looks like a nicely orchestrated "killer amendment"....

  16. Detection of bla KPC-2 in Proteus mirabilis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Borges Cabral

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC-producing isolates pose a major worldwide public health problem today. METHODS : A carbapenem-resistant Proteus mirabilis clinical isolate was investigated for plasmid profiles and the occurrence of β-lactamase genes. RESULTS : The isolate exhibited resistance to ertapenem and imipenem and was susceptible to meropenem, polymyxin, and tigecycline. Five plasmids were identified in this isolate. DNA sequencing analysis revealed the presence of bla KPC-2 and bla TEM-1 genes. An additional PCR using plasmid DNA confirmed that bla KPC-2 was present in one of these plasmids. Conclusions: We report the detection of bla KPC-2 in P. mirabilis in Brazil for the first time. This finding highlights the continuous transfer of bla KPC between bacterial genera, which presents a serious challenge to the prevention of infection by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

  17. Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii carrying the ISAba1-bla OXA-23, 51 and ISAba1-bla ADC-7 genes in Monteria, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Martínez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the genes coding for resistance to ceftazidime and imipenem and describe the molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii strains isolated from a clinical center in Colombia. Twenty isolates of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii from an equal number of patients with nosocomial infections were obtained. Primers were used to amplify genes bla IMP, bla VIM, bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-58, bla OXA-51 and bla ADC-7. To detect insertion sequences ISAba1/bla OXA-23, ISAba1/bla OXA-51 and ISAba1/bla ADC-7, mapping by PCR using combinations of reverse primers ISAba1 and reverse primers of bla OXA-23, bla OXA-51 and bla ADC-7 were used. The amplification products were purified and cloned into PCR 2.1-TOPO vector and transformed into chemically competent Escherichia coli TOP10. These amplicons were then sequenced. PFGE was performed on DNA of A. baumannii isolates digested with ApaI. Results. The DNA profiles obtained included 9 clusters with, four 2-7 isolates per profile, and 5 single-isolate profiles. Of the 20 isolates resistant to imipenem, 15 carried bla OXA-23 gene, 4 contained ISAba1 upstream of bla OXA-51 gene, and 6 contained ISAba1 upstream of bla OXA-23 gene. Eighteen of these isolates carried the bla ADC-7 gene, with 9 of the isolates having ISAba1 located upstream of this gene. This is the first report of the ISAba1 /ADC-7 associated with OXAs genes in A. baumannii isolates from Colombia.

  18. 32 CFR 312.8 - OIG review of request for amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Individuals, agencies or DoD components shown by disclosure accounting records to have received copies of the record, or to whom disclosure has been made, will be notified of the amendment by the responsible...

  19. Presence of blaPER-1 and blaVEB-1 beta-lactamase genes among isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from South West of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davodian, Elham; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Ghasemian, Abdolmajid; Noorbakhsh, Samileh

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates have acquired resistance to antibiotics such as novel beta-lactams. The aim of this study was to investigate the blaPER-1, blaVEB-1, and blaPSE-1 genes among isolates of P. aeruginosa among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Sixty-five isolates were collected. The antibiotic susceptibility testing and combined disk tests were performed to detect the isolates producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) among ceftazidime-resistant isolates. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of blaPER-1, blaVEB-1, and blaPSE-1 genes was conducted. Ten (15.3%) isolates were ESBL-positive, of which 40% (n=4) belonged to males and 60% (n=6) were collected from females. Moreover, two and one isolates harbored blaPER-1 and blaVEB-1 genes, respectively. PMID:26944896

  20. First Report of bla(IMP-8) in Raoultella planticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Sung-Pin; Wang, Jann-Tay; Liang, Chih-Yuan; Lee, Pei-Shan; Chen, Yee-Chun; Lu, Po-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Two carbapenem-resistant Raoultella planticola clinical isolates were isolated from patients with pneumonia and Port-A catheter-related bacteremia, respectively, in Taiwan. These isolates remained susceptible to fluoroquinolone, aminoglycoside, and colistin. Though the two isolates had the same antibiogram, plasmidic carbapenemase blaIMP-8, class 1 integron cassette (dfrA12-orfF-aadA2), and qnrB2, they had different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, plasmid sizes, and outer membrane protein loss profiles. To our knowledge, this is the first report of blaIMP-8 found in R. planticola. Interestingly, blaIMP-8 is the most common carbapenemase found in Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan. In the literature, carbapenemase genes in R. planticola in each country were also found in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the same country.

  1. Worldwide Diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae That Produce β-Lactamase blaKPC-2 Gene1

    OpenAIRE

    Cuzon, Gaëlle; Naas, Thierry; Truong, HaVy; Villegas, Maria-Virginia; Wisell, Karin T.; Carmeli, Yehuda; Ana C. Gales; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Quinn, John P.; Nordmann, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates that produce carbapenemases (KPCs) are rapidly disseminating worldwide. To determine their genetic background, we investigated 16 bla KPC-2-harboring K. pneumoniae isolates from 5 countries. The isolates were multidrug resistant, possessed the bla KPC-2 gene, and differed by additional β-lactamase content. They harbored a naturally chromosome-encoded bla gene (bla SHV-1 [12.5%], bla SHV-11 [68.7%], or bla OKP-A/B [18.8%]) and several acquired and plasmid-encoded...

  2. 15 CFR 4.28 - Agency review of requests for correction or amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... public holidays). If the Privacy Officer cannot make the determination within thirty working days, the.... (a)(1)(i) Not later than ten working days (i.e., excluding Saturdays, Sundays and legal public holidays) after receipt of a request to correct or amend a record, the Privacy Officer shall send...

  3. 22 CFR 1101.13 - Agency review of request to correct or amend a record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... record. 1101.13 Section 1101.13 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED... statement as to the means whereby the correction or amendment was effected in cases where a copy cannot be... appeal of the denial as set forth in § 1101.14. The term promptly in this paragraph means within...

  4. Stabilization of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil using amendments--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Lagerkvist, Anders; Maurice, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The spread of contaminants in soil can be hindered by the soil stabilization technique. Contaminant immobilizing amendments decrease trace element leaching and their bioavailability by inducing various sorption processes: adsorption to mineral surfaces, formation of stable complexes with organic ligands, surface precipitation and ion exchange. Precipitation as salts and co-precipitation can also contribute to reducing contaminant mobility. The technique can be used in in situ and ex situ applications to reclaim and re-vegetate industrially devastated areas and mine-spoils, improve soil quality and reduce contaminant mobility by stabilizing agents and a beneficial use of industrial by-products. This study is an overview of data published during the last five years on the immobilization of one metalloid, As, and four heavy metals, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, in soils. The most extensively studied amendments for As immobilization are Fe containing materials. The immobilization of As occurs through adsorption on Fe oxides by replacing the surface hydroxyl groups with the As ions, as well as by the formation of amorphous Fe(III) arsenates and/or insoluble secondary oxidation minerals. Cr stabilization mainly deals with Cr reduction from its toxic and mobile hexavalent form Cr(VI) to stable in natural environments Cr(III). The reduction is accelerated in soil by the presence of organic matter and divalent iron. Clays, carbonates, phosphates and Fe oxides were the common amendments tested for Cu immobilization. The suggested mechanisms of Cu retention were precipitation of Cu carbonates and oxy-hydroxides, ion exchange and formation of ternary cation-anion complexes on the surface of Fe and Al oxy-hydroxides. Most of the studies on Pb stabilization were performed using various phosphorus-containing amendments, which reduce the Pb mobility by ionic exchange and precipitation of pyromorphite-type minerals. Zn can be successfully immobilized in soil by phosphorus amendments and clays.

  5. Detection of Extended Spectrum B-Lactamases in Urinary Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Relation to BlaSHV , BlaTEM and BlaCTX-M Gene Carriage

    OpenAIRE

    Eftekhar, F; Rastegar, M; Golalipoor, M; MansourSamaei, N

    2012-01-01

    Background Resistance to contemporary broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics mediated by extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is increasing worldwide. Klebsiella pneumoniae, an important cause of nosocomial and community acquired urinary tract infections has rapidly become the most common ESBL producing organism. We examined ESBL production in urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae in relation to the presence of bla SHV , bla TEM and bla CTX-M genes. Methods: Antibiotic resistance of 51 clinical is...

  6. Detection of Extended Spectrum Β-Lactamases in Urinary Isolates of Klebsiella Pneumoniae in Relation to BlaSHV, BlaTEM and BlaCTX-M Gene Carriage

    OpenAIRE

    MansourSamaei, N; Eftekhar, F; Golalipoor, M; Rastegar, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Resistance to contemporary broad-spectrum b-lactam antibiotics mediated by extended-spectrum b-lactamases (ESBLs) is increasing worldwide. Klebsiella pneumoniae, an important cause of nosocomial and community acquired urinary tract infections has rapidly become the most common ESBL producing organism. We examined ESBL production in urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae in relation to the presence of blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes.Methods: Antibiotic resistance of 51 clinical isolat...

  7. The Occurrence of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM Genes in Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Positive Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Ojdana, Dominika; Sacha, Paweł; Wieczorek, Piotr; Czaban, Sławomir; Michalska, Anna; Jaworowska, Jadwiga; Jurczak, Anna; Poniatowski, Bogusław; Tryniszewska, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes are important pathogens of infections. Increasing numbers of ESBL-producing bacterial strains exhibiting multidrug resistance have been observed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes among ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis strains and to examine susceptibility to antibiotics of tested stra...

  8. Two Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assays to Detect and Differentiate Acinetobacter baumannii and Non- baumannii Acinetobacter spp. Carrying blaNDM, blaOXA-23-Like, blaOXA-40-Like, blaOXA-51-Like, and blaOXA-58-Like Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiu; Rui, Yongyu

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. resistant to carbapenems are increasingly reported worldwide. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter (CRA) is becoming a serious concern with increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and lengths of hospital stay. Therefore, the rapid detection of CRA is essential for epidemiological surveillance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for the rapid identification of most pathogens. In this study, we have developed two multiplex real-time PCR assays to detect and differentiate A. baumannii and non-A. baumannii Acinetobacter spp, and common carbapenemase genes, including blaNDM, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like. We demonstrate the potential utility of these assays for the direct detection of blaNDM-, blaOXA-23-like-, blaOXA-40-like-, blaOXA-51-like-, and blaOXA-58-like-positive CRA in clinical specimens. Primers were specifically designed, and two multiplex real-time PCR assays were developed: multiplex real-time PCR assay1 for the detection of Acinetobacter baumannii 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequence, the Acinetobacter recA gene, and class-B-metalloenzyme-encoding gene blaNDM; and multiplex real-time PCR assay2 to detect class-D-oxacillinase-encoding genes (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like,and blaOXA-58-like). The assays were performed on an ABI Prism 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System. CRA isolates were used to compare the assays with conventional PCR and sequencing. Known amounts of CRA cells were added to sputum and fecal specimens and used to test the multiplex real-time PCR assays. The results for target and nontarget amplification showed that the multiplex real-time PCR assays were specific, the limit of detection for each target was 10 copies per 20 μL reaction volume, the assays were linear over six log dilutions of the target genes (r2 > 0.99), and the Ct values of the coefficients of variation for intra- and interassay

  9. Two Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assays to Detect and Differentiate Acinetobacter baumannii and Non- baumannii Acinetobacter spp. Carrying blaNDM, blaOXA-23-Like, blaOXA-40-Like, blaOXA-51-Like, and blaOXA-58-Like Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Yang

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. resistant to carbapenems are increasingly reported worldwide. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter (CRA is becoming a serious concern with increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and lengths of hospital stay. Therefore, the rapid detection of CRA is essential for epidemiological surveillance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been extensively used for the rapid identification of most pathogens. In this study, we have developed two multiplex real-time PCR assays to detect and differentiate A. baumannii and non-A. baumannii Acinetobacter spp, and common carbapenemase genes, including blaNDM, blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like, and blaOXA-58-like. We demonstrate the potential utility of these assays for the direct detection of blaNDM-, blaOXA-23-like-, blaOXA-40-like-, blaOXA-51-like-, and blaOXA-58-like-positive CRA in clinical specimens. Primers were specifically designed, and two multiplex real-time PCR assays were developed: multiplex real-time PCR assay1 for the detection of Acinetobacter baumannii 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequence, the Acinetobacter recA gene, and class-B-metalloenzyme-encoding gene blaNDM; and multiplex real-time PCR assay2 to detect class-D-oxacillinase-encoding genes (blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-40-like, blaOXA-51-like,and blaOXA-58-like. The assays were performed on an ABI Prism 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System. CRA isolates were used to compare the assays with conventional PCR and sequencing. Known amounts of CRA cells were added to sputum and fecal specimens and used to test the multiplex real-time PCR assays. The results for target and nontarget amplification showed that the multiplex real-time PCR assays were specific, the limit of detection for each target was 10 copies per 20 μL reaction volume, the assays were linear over six log dilutions of the target genes (r2 > 0.99, and the Ct values of the coefficients of variation for intra- and

  10. Detection of blaIMP4 and blaNDM1 harboring Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in a university hospital in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Izzati Hamzan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotic resistance among Enterobacteriaceae posts a great challenge to the health care service. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP is attracting significant attention due to its rapid and global dissemination. The infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, thus creating challenges for infection control and managing teams to curb the infection. In Southeast Asia, there have been limited reports and subsequent research regarding CRKP infections. Thus, the study was conducted to characterize CRKP that has been isolated in our setting. Methods: A total of 321 K. pneumoniae were included in the study. Each isolate went through an identification process using an automated identification system. Phenotypic characterization was determined using disk diffusion, modified Hodge test, Epsilometer test, and inhibitor combined disk test. Further detection of carbapenemase genes was carried out using polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by gene sequence analysis. Results: All together, 13 isolates (4.05% were CRKP and the majority of them were resistant to tested antibiotics except colistin and tigercycline. Among seven different carbapenemase genes studied (bla KPC, bla IMP, bla SME, bla NDM, bla IMI, bla VIM, and bla OXA, only two, bla IMP4 (1.87% and bla NDM1 (2.18%, were detected in our setting. Conclusion: Evidence suggests that the prevalence of CRKP in our setting is low, and knowledge of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and CRKP has improved and become available among clinicians.

  11. Dissemination of Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing blaIMP-1 and blaVIM-1 in Qazvin and Alborz educational hospitals, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Peymani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequent opportunistic pathogen in health care associated infections that is highly resistant to the majority of β-lactams. The aims of this study were to access the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of P. aeruginosa isolated from educational hospitals of Qazvin and Alborz provinces, to determine the prevalence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL among carbapenem non-susceptible isolates by combined disk (CD method, and to detect the blaIMP, blaVIM, blaSIM, blaGIM, blaSPM and blaNDM-1-MBL genes.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from different clinical specimens in two provinces of Qazvin and Alborz hospitals, Iran. After identification of isolates by standard laboratory methods, antimicrobial susceptibility was done against 17 antibiotics according to clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI guideline. CD method was carried out for detection of MBLs and the presence of blaIMP, blaVIM, blaSIM, blaGIM, blaNDM-1 and blaSPM-genes was further assessed by PCR and sequencing methods.Results: In this study, 107 (35.66% isolates were non-susceptible to imipenem and/or meropenem among those 56 (52.3% isolates were metallo-β-lactamase producer. Twenty-four of 56 (42.85% MBL-positive isolates were confirmed to be positive for MBL-encoding genes in which 14 (25% and 10 (17.85% isolates carried blaIMP-1 and blaVIM-1 genes either alone or in combination. Three (5.35% isolates carried blaIMP and blaVIM genes, simultaneously.Conclusion: Considering the moderate prevalence and clinical importance of MBL-producing isolates, rapid identification and use of appropriate infection control (IC measures are necessary to prevent further spread of infections by these resistant organisms.Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Antibiotic resistance, Metallo-β-lactamase

  12. Successful treatment of a Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying bla OXA-48 , bla VIM-2 , bla CMY-2 and bla SHV- with high dose combination of imipenem and amikacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjej, Zied; Gharsallah, Hedi; Naija, Habiba; Boutiba, Ilhem; Labbene, Iheb; Ferjani, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of 58-year-old man with septic shock due to Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) bloodstream infections (BSI) who was successfully treated with a high dose association of amikacin and imipenem combined with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). A Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) was isolated from the catheter culture and from two blood samples, drawn from the catheter before removal and from a peripheral vein. The Kp was intermediate to Amikacin (MIC = 16 μg/ml) and was resistant to all other antibiotics including Imipenem (MIC = 4 μg/ml), Colistin (MIC = 16 μg/ml) and Tigecycline (MIC = 4 μg/ml) according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) published in 2011. PCR amplification and sequencing verified the presence of blaOXA-48, blaVIM-2, blaCMY-2 and blaSHV-1 genes. Amikacin was given at a dose of 30 mg/kg (2.5 g) in a 30 min infusion and the dose of imipenem was increased to 1 g every 6 h despite patient's altered renal function (Creatinine Clearance = 25 ml/min). To avoid amikacin nephrotoxicity and to allow the use of high doses of imipenem, continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) (blood flow, 200 ml/h; dialysate, 1000 ml/h; ultrafiltrate, 2000 ml/h) was initiated 1 h after the start of the amikacin infusion and continued thereafter. The patient improved hemodynamically and norepinephrine was stopped five days after antibiotherapy adaptation.

  13. Successful treatment of a Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying bla OXA-48 , bla VIM-2 , bla CMY-2 and bla SHV- with high dose combination of imipenem and amikacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjej, Zied; Gharsallah, Hedi; Naija, Habiba; Boutiba, Ilhem; Labbene, Iheb; Ferjani, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of 58-year-old man with septic shock due to Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) bloodstream infections (BSI) who was successfully treated with a high dose association of amikacin and imipenem combined with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). A Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) was isolated from the catheter culture and from two blood samples, drawn from the catheter before removal and from a peripheral vein. The Kp was intermediate to Amikacin (MIC = 16 μg/ml) and was resistant to all other antibiotics including Imipenem (MIC = 4 μg/ml), Colistin (MIC = 16 μg/ml) and Tigecycline (MIC = 4 μg/ml) according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) published in 2011. PCR amplification and sequencing verified the presence of blaOXA-48, blaVIM-2, blaCMY-2 and blaSHV-1 genes. Amikacin was given at a dose of 30 mg/kg (2.5 g) in a 30 min infusion and the dose of imipenem was increased to 1 g every 6 h despite patient's altered renal function (Creatinine Clearance = 25 ml/min). To avoid amikacin nephrotoxicity and to allow the use of high doses of imipenem, continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) (blood flow, 200 ml/h; dialysate, 1000 ml/h; ultrafiltrate, 2000 ml/h) was initiated 1 h after the start of the amikacin infusion and continued thereafter. The patient improved hemodynamically and norepinephrine was stopped five days after antibiotherapy adaptation. PMID:27051575

  14. Co-Carriage of blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-1 in Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Associated with Hospital Infections from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepjyoti Paul

    Full Text Available Global spread of KPC poses to be a serious threat complicating treatment options in hospital settings. The present study investigates the genetic environment of blaKPC-2 among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a tertiary referral hospital of India. The study isolates were collected from different wards and clinics of Silchar Medical College and Hospital, India, from 2012-2013. The presence of blaKPC was confirmed by genotypic characterization followed by sequencing. Cloning of the blaKPC-2 gene was performed and the genetic environment of this gene was characterized as well. Transferability of the resistance gene was determined by transformation assay and Southern hybridization. Additionally, restriction mapping was also carried out. Two isolates of P. aeruginosa were found to harbor blaKPC-2, were resistant towards aminoglycosides, quinolone and β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combination. In both the isolates, the resistance determinant was associated with class 1 integron and horizontally transferable. Both the isolates were co-harboring blaNDM-1. The first detection of this integron mediated blaKPC-2 coexisting with blaNDM-1 in P. aeruginosa from India is worrisome, and further investigation is required to track the gene cassette mediated blaKPC-2 in terms of infection control and to prevent the spread of this gene in hospitals as well as in the community.

  15. Rapid and Simultaneous Detection of Genes Encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (blaKPC) and New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase (blaNDM) in Gram-Negative Bacilli

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Scott A.; Noorie, Tabassum; Meunier, Daniele; Woodford, Neil; Patel, Robin

    2013-01-01

    We present a duplex, real-time PCR assay for detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (blaKPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM) genes. Accuracy was assessed with 158 Gram-negative bacillary isolates, including 134 carbapenemase producers. The assay had 100% sensitivity and specificity compared with reference methods and a turnaround time of 90 min.

  16. Epidemic plasmid carrying bla(CTX-M-15 in Klebsiella penumoniae in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhuo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the local epidemiology of Klebsiella penumoniae carrying bla(CTX-M-15 in southern China and to characterize the genetic environment of bla(CTX-M-15. METHODS: PCR and DNA sequencing were used to detect and characterize the genetic contexts of bla(CTX-M-15. The clonal relatedness of isolates carrying bla(CTX-M-15 was determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis. Conjugative plasmids carrying bla(CTX-M-15 were obtained by mating and were further subject to restriction analysis and replicon typing. RESULTS: A total of 47CTX-M-15 ESBL-producing isolates of K. pneumoniae were collected from nine hospitals in China from October 2007 to October 2008. Isolates were clustered into various clonal groups. The local spread of bla(CTX-M-15 was mainly mediated by one major conjugative plasmid as determined by S1-PFGE and restriction analysis. A 90-kb plasmid belonging to incompatible group FII was the major carrier of bla(CTX-M-15 in K. pneumoniae. Except bla(TEM-1, the resistance genes such as bla(SHV, bla(DHA-1, bla(OXA-1, qnrB, qnrS, aac(3-II, and aac(6'-Ib were not found in the plasmid. In the comparing of conjugative gene sequence, it is 100% identical with the plasmid pKF3-94, which was found in K. pneumonia from Zhejiang province of china previously. CONCLUSIONS: bla(CTX-M-15 was prevalent in K. pneumonia of southern China. The dissemination of bla(CTX-M-15 appeared to be due to the horizontal transfer of a 90-kb epidemic plasmid.

  17. Increasing secondary bacterial infections with Enterobacteriaceae harboring blaCTX-M-15 and blaCMY-6 in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma:an emerging point of concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Shahid; Abida Malik; Rakesh Bhargava

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To look for secondary bacterial infections in bronchogenic carcinoma (BCA) with resistant organisms harboring bla genes considering the paucity of relevant studies. Methods:A total of 137 confirmed cases of BCA and 34 healthy volunteers were studied for the occurrence and prevalence of blaCTX-M and and blaAmpC harboring-enterobacteriaceae. A subset of these patients (n=69) was previously reported for the secondary infection with the Aspergillus species. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were subjected for bacterial and fungal cultures and the bacterial isolates were screened by multiplex PCRs for the presence of blaCTX-M and blaAmpC. The isolates were also screened for the association of insertion sequence (IS26) by PCR and characterized by RAPD for any clonal relatedness. Results: A total of 143 bacterial isolates were obtained from 137 BAL specimens of BCA patients. The Enterobacteriaceae-isolates were multidrug-resistant showing concomitant resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Both blaCTX-M and blaAmpC of CIT family were detected in 77.4% and 27.4% isolates, respectively. Sequencing revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-15 and blaCMY-6. Twenty one percent of the isolates were simultaneously harboring blaampC and blaCTX-M-15. IS26 PCR and RAPD typing revealed the presence of diverse bacterial population but no predominant clone was identified. The present study also suggests strong association of aspergillosis with lung cancer and further strengthens the potential use of non-validated serological tests suggested earlier. Conclusions: We emphasize that all patients of bronchogenic carcinoma should also be screened for secondary bacterial infections, along with secondary fungal infections, so as to introduce early and specific antimicrobial therapy and to prevent unwanted deaths.

  18. Spread of Enterobacter cloacae carrying blaNDM-1, blaCTX-M-15, blaSHV-12 and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in a surgical intensive care unit in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosillo, N; Vranić-Ladavac, M; Feudi, C; Villa, L; Fortini, D; Barišić, N; Bedenić, B; Ladavac, R; D'Arezzo, S; Andrašević, A Tambić; Capone, A

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a hospital cluster of NDM-1-producing Enterobacter cloacae infections observed in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary-care hospital at Pula, Croatia. NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains isolated from clinical samples were screened by PCR for the presence of carbapenemases. Genetic relatedness of NDM-1-producing E. cloacae strains was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). During the period October 2013 to April 2014, four patients, with overlapping hospital stay in the surgical ICU, developed severe infections caused by E. cloacae demonstrated to produce carbapenemases. According to MLST, all strains belonged to ST133 and were positive by PCR for the blaNDM-1 carbapenemase gene, for blaCTX-M-15 and blaSHV-12 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, and for blaTEM-1 and blaOXA-1 narrow-spectrum β-lactamase genes. They were negative for other carbapenemases genes including blaOXA-48, blaVIM and blaKPC as well as for AmpC and the armA and rmtB aminoglycoside resistance genes. All strains were positive for the HI2 replicon, suggesting that an IncHI2 plasmid is likely the plasmid carrying the blaNDM-1 gene. Infection control measures were implemented after the first case although they were not effective in avoiding spread of this organism to other patients in the surgical ICU. In conclusion, the evolving epidemiology of NDM-producing micro-organisms and the interspecies diffusion of this resistance mechanism to emerging pathogens such as E. cloacae necessitate the setting up of strong and urgent joint measures to control the spread of NDM carbapenemase especially in the ICU setting. PMID:27436392

  19. Clinical Performance of Check-Direct CPE, a Multiplex PCR for Direct Detection of bla(KPC), bla(NDM) and/or bla(VIM), and bla(OXA)-48 from Perirectal Swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna F; Fahle, Gary A; Kemp, Margaret A; Jassem, Agatha N; Dekker, John P; Frank, Karen M

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the clinical performance of Check-Direct CPE for carbapenemase detection directly from 301 perirectal swabs (258 patients) in a nonoutbreak setting. Culture of a PCR-confirmed, carbapenemase-containing organism, or history of colonization with such organism within the previous 2 weeks, was used as the reference standard. Check-Direct CPE demonstrated a sensitivity value, specificity value, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% (all bla(KPC)), 88%, 21%, and 100%, respectively. False positives accounted for 79% (n = 34) of samples for which a cycle threshold (C(T)) value was reached. Simulated studies to evaluate specimen pooling as an approach to minimize costs showed no difference in C(T) values for pooled groups of three or five that each contained a single specimen spiked with ∼1,500 CFU bla(KPC) Klebsiella pneumoniae; however, the detection rate dropped to 60% at a seeded concentration of ∼150 CFU. When data were pooled, C(T) values for bla(KPC) were higher for heavy-feces-containing than for light-feces-containing liquid-suspended specimens. Furthermore, C(T) values for liquid-suspended specimens were 4 to 5 C(T) values lower (i.e., represented greater sensitivity) than those seen in direct swab analysis. Culture was equivalent to or better than Check-Direct CPE for 13/15 (87%) isolates tested in a limit-of-detection analysis. Detection of a carbapenemase gene at a C(T) cutoff value of ≤35 was culture confirmed in 23/24 (96%) of cases; however, C(T) values of >35 overlapped broadly between culture-positive (n = 21) and culture-negative (n = 36) specimens. Check-Direct CPE will likely prove most useful in high-prevalence areas or in outbreak settings where rapid carbapenemase detection is critical for infection control management. PMID:26338860

  20. 77 FR 38463 - Implementation of National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012) Amendments to Pectin on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ...: The Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 (OFPA) (7 U.S.C. 6501-6522) authorizes the establishment of... / Thursday, June 28, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 205 Implementation of National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012)...

  1. Diversity and evolution of blaZ from Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, John E.; Christensen, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    . The localization of blaZ was determined by Southern blotting in 108 isolates. Results: All penicillin-resistant strains carried blaZ and showed a similar organization of blaR1 and blaZ. The blaZ gene was localized to a plasmid in only 16 of the resistant strains. Sixty-nine sequences representing 105 isolates......Objectives: To elucidate the diversity and evolutionary history of plasmid- and chromosomally-located blaZ, to detect indications of frequent exchange of blaZ between human and bovine staphylococci and to estimate the frequency of transfer of blaZ between coagulase-negative staphylococci (Co......NS) and Staphylococcus aureus of bovine origin. Methods: blaZ was detected in 143 strains of penicillin-resistant S. aureus and CoNS from five Danish cattle herds (n = 25/23), random CoNS isolates from Denmark (n = 37), a collection of S. aureus from six different countries (n = 52), humans in Denmark (n = 3) and beta...

  2. Investigation of diversity of plasmids carrying the blaTEM-52 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielak, Eliza Maria; Bergenholtz, Rikke D.; Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diversity of plasmids that carry blaTEM-52 genes among Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica originating from animals, meat products and humans. METHODS: A collection of 22 blaTEM-52-encoding plasmids was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism...... of self-transfer to a plasmid-free E. coli recipient. CONCLUSIONS: The blaTEM-52 gene found in humans could have been transmitted on transferable plasmids originating from animal sources. Some of the blaTEM-52 plasmids carry replicons that differ from the classical ones. Two novel replicons were detected...

  3. Complete sequencing of an IncX3 plasmid carrying blaNDM-5 allele reveals an early stage in the dissemination of the blaNDM gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Krishnaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to perform molecular characterisation of the blaNDM plasmids and to understand the mechanism of its spread among pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six non-repetitive carbapenem-resistant isolates which were collected during Nov 2011 to April 2013 from four hospitals in Chennai were analyzed for the presence of the blaNDM gene by PCR. Further, the genetic context of the blaNDM gene was analyzed by PCR specific to ISAba125 and bleMBL gene. One of the blaNDM plasmid was completely sequenced in the Illumina HiSeq platform. Results: Twenty-three isolates consisting of 8 Escherichia coli, 8 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 3 Klebsiella oxytoca, 3 Acinetobacter baumanii and 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa were found to carry the blaNDM gene. In 18 isolates the blaNDM gene was associated with a bleMBL gene and the ISAba125 element. The complete sequencing of pNDM-MGR194 revealed an IncX3 replication type plasmid, with a length of 46,253 bp, an average GC content of 47% and 59 putative ORFs. The iteron region contained the blaNDM5 gene and the bleMBL , trpF and dsbC genes downstream and an IS5 inserted within the ISAba125 element upstream. Conclusion: This is the first report where the blaNDM gene insertion in a plasmid is not accompanied by other resistance gene determinants. These observations suggest that the IncX3 plasmid pNDM-MGR194 is an early stage in the dissemination of the blaNDM .

  4. blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV inEnterobacteriaceae from North-Indian tertiary hospital:high occurrence of combination genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Shahid; Anuradha Singh; Farrukh Sobia; Mohammad Rashid; Abida Malik; Indu Shukla; Haris Manzoor Khan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To delineate the frequency of occurrence ofblaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV in Enterobacteriaceae from North-Indian tertiary hospital.Methods: A random collection of a subset of45Escherichia coli (E. coli) and28Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) that was resistant to a third generation cephalosporin and obtained during2007-2008 was selected for detailed screening forblaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV by monoplexPCRs. The isolates demonstrating the presence of blaCTX-M alleles were characterized for the specificCTX-M-genogroup by using a multiplexPCR.Results:Resistance to cefoperazone, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefoxitin and piperacillin was 100% each inK. pneumoniae isolates, whereas these resistance-rates forE. coli isolates were93.1%, 83.8%, 91.9%, 93.6%, 97.3% and97.1%, respectively. Concomitant resistance to aminoglycosides, quinolones and aztreonam was also noticed. Presence of any of the bla genes (blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV) was noticed in a total of28 (38.4%) isolates of the73isolates studied. Many isolates demonstrated occurrence of these genes in various combinations.blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV were noticed in 28.8%,10.9% and13.7% isolates, respectively. MultiplexPCR inblaCTX-Mharboring isolates demonstrated the presence ofCTX-M-Genogroup-1 and sequencing for the specificCTX-M-type revealed presence ofCTX-M-15 type. RAPD typing showed wide diversity in isolates.Conclusions:This is amongst the premier report describing the simultaneous occurrence ofblaTEM,blaSHV, andblaampC in IndianEnterobacteriaceae and that wider dissemination of these genes, as demonstrated by diversity of isolates, raises concern and emphasizes a need for extensive search for the presence of these gene pools in Indian subcontinent.

  5. Review of municipal sludge use as a soil amendment on disturbed lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.

    1990-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is examining options of improving soil conditions at Hanford reclamation sites. One promising technology is the incorporation of municipal sewage sludge into the soil profile. This report reviews the potential benefits and adverse consequences of sludge use in land reclamation. Land reclamation comprises those activities instigated to return a mechanically disturbed site to some later successional state. Besides the introduction of suitable plant species to disturbed lands, reclamation generally requires measures to enhance long-term soil nutrient content, moisture retention or drainage, and mitigation of toxic effects from metals and pH. One of the more effective means of remediating adverse soil characteristics is the application of complex organic manures such as municipal sewage sludge. Sewage sludges contain complete macro- and micronutrients necessary to sustain plant growth. The application of sewage sludge may reestablish microbial activity in sterile soils. Physical properties, such as water-holding capacity and percentage water-stable aggregates, also improve with the addition of sewage sludge. Sludge applications may also increase the rate of degradation of some hydrocarbon pollutants in soils. Potential adverse impacts associated with the application of sewage sludge to land include negative public perception of human waste products; concerns regarding pathogen buildup and spread in the soils, plants, and water; entrance and accumulation of heavy metals in the food chain; salt accumulation in the soil and ground water; leaching of nitrates into ground water; and accumulation of other potentially toxic substances, such as boron and synthetic hydrocarbons, in the soil, plants, and food chain. 56 refs., 10 tabs.

  6. Molecular detection of metallo-β-lactamase genes, blaIMP-1, blaVIM-2 and blaSPM-1 in imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical specimens in teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Moosavian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a serious cause of nosocomial infections.The main purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence rate of imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa carryingmetallo- beta- lactamase (MBL genes.Material and Methods: 236 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were collected from teaching hospitals of Ahvaz Universityof Medical Sciences during a period of 9 months in 2012. These strains were identified using conventional microbiologicaltests. The susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics were assessed using disk diffusion test. The IMP-EDTA combination diskphenotypic test was performed for detection of MBL producing strains. Finally, polymerase chain reaction (PCR wasperformed to detect MBL genes, blaIMP-1, blaVIM-2 and blaSPM-1 in imipenem resistant strains.Results: Out of 236 examined isolates, 122 isolates (51.4% were resistant to imipenem. The IMP-EDTA combination testshowed that among 122 imipenem resistant strains, 110 strains (90% were phenotipically MBL producers. Additionally, theresults of PCR method showed that 2 strains (1.6% and 67strains (55% of imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosaisolates contained blaVIM-2 and blaIMP-1 genes respectively. No SPM-1gene was found in the examined samples.Conclusion: Resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to imipenem due to MBL enzymes is increasing in Ahavaz. Becauseof clinical significance of this kind of resistance, rapid detection of MBL producing strains and followed by appropriatetreatment is necessary to prevent the spreading of these organisms.

  7. Making Electoral Amends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lin

    2010-01-01

    @@ An amendment to the Electoral Law of the National People's Congress and Local People's Congresses of the People's Republic of China providing equal legislative representation to rural and urban people was ratifled at the closing meeting of the Third Session of the 11th National People's Congress(NPC),China's top legislature,on March 14.Li Lin,Director of the Law Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.elaborated on the amendment and outlined its effect on the Chinese people during an interview with Beijing Review reporter Yin Pumin.Some excerpts follow:

  8. Novel variant (bla(VIM-4)) of the metallo-beta-lactamase gene bla(VIM-1) in a clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournaras, Spyros; Tsakris, Athanassios; Maniati, Maria; Tzouvelekis, Leonidas S; Maniatis, Antonios N

    2002-12-01

    A Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate highly resistant to carbapenems was collected from a patient with postsurgical cerebrospinal infection in Greece. The isolate carried a class 1 integron that contained as a sole cassette the gene bla(VIM-4), a novel variant of bla(VIM-1), with one nucleotide difference resulting in a Ser-to-Arg change at amino acid position 175 of the VIM-1 enzyme. This is the first detection of a VIM-1 variant after its appearance in Italy. PMID:12435718

  9. Multilocus Sequence Types of Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Singapore Carrying Metallo-β-Lactamase Genes, Including the Novel blaIMP-26 Gene▿

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Tse Hsien; Khoo, Cheng Teng; Tan, Thuan Tong; Mohamed Arshad, Mohamed Amir Bin; Ang, Li Ping; Lau, Lee Jin; Hsu, Li-Yang; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2010-01-01

    Nine imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were found to contain a variety of metallo-β-lactamase genes, including blaIMP-1, blaIMP-7, blaVIM-2, blaVIM-6, and the novel blaIMP-26. Multilocus sequence typing showed a diversity of sequence types. Comparison with isolates from an earlier study showed that the epidemic clones from 2000 have not become established.

  10. Sequential isolation in a patient of Raoultella planticola and Escherichia coli bearing a novel ISCR1 element carrying blaNDM-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gene for New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1 has been reported to be transmitted via plasmids which are easily transferable and capable of wide distribution. We report the isolation of two NDM-1 producing strains and possible in vivo transfer of blaNDM-1 in a patient. METHODS: Clinical samples were collected for bacterial culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing from a patient during a 34-day hospitalization. The presence of blaNDM-1 was detected by PCR and sequencing. Plasmids of interest were sequenced. Medical records were reviewed for evidence of association between the administration of antibiotics and the acquisition of the NDM-1 resistance. RESULTS: A NDM-1 positive Raoultella planticola was isolated from blood on the ninth day of hospitalization without administration of any carbapenem antibiotics and a NDM-1 positive Escherichia coli was isolated from feces on the 29th day of hospitalization and eight days after imipenem administration. The blaNDM-1 was carried by a 280 kb plasmid pRpNDM1-1 in R. planticola and a 58 kb plasmid pEcNDM1-4 in E. coli. The two plasmids shared a 4812 bp NDM-1-ISCR1 element which was found to be excisable from the plasmid as a free form and transferrable in vitro to a NDM-1 negative plasmid from E. coli. CONCLUSION: blaNDM-1 was embedded in an ISCR1 complex class 1 integron as a novel 4812 bp NDM-1-ISCR1 element. The element was found to be able to self excise to become a free form, which may provide a new vehicle for NDM-1 dissemination. This mechanism could greatly accelerate the spread of NDM-1 mediated broad spectrum β-lactam resistance.

  11. Incidence of blaNDM-1 gene in Escherichia coli isolates at a tertiary care referral hospital in Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Increasing reports on New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 producing Escherichia coli constitute a serious threat to global health since it is found to be highly resistant to most of the currently available antibiotics including carbapenems. This study has been performed to find out the incidence blaNDM-1 in E. coli isolates recovered from the various clinical samples at a tertiary care referral hospital in Northeast India. Materials and Methods: A total of 270 non-duplicated E. coli isolates were recovered from the various clinical samples at a tertiary care referral hospital in Northeast India. All isolates with reduced susceptibility to meropenem or ertapenem (diameter of zones of inhibition, ≤21 mm were further phenotypically confirmed for carbapenemase production by modified Hodge test. All screened isolates were also subjected to the polymerase chain reaction detection of blaNDM-1 gene and additional bla genes coding for transmission electron microscopy, SHV, CTX-M, and AmpC. Results: Out of 270 E. coli isolates, 14 were screened for carbapenemase production on the basis of their reduced susceptibility to meropenem or ertapenem. All screened isolates were found to be positive for blaNDM-1 . Each of the blaNDM-1 possessing isolate was also positive for two or more additional bla genes, such as blaTEM , blaCTX-M and blaAmpC . Phylogenetic analysis showed very less variation in blaNDM-1 gene with respect to blaNDM-1 possessing E. coli isolates from other parts of India and abroad. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the incidence of blaNDM-1 in E. coli isolates with a reduced susceptibility to meropenem or ertapenem.

  12. How to identify Raoultella spp. including R. ornithinolytica isolates negative for ornithine decarboxylase? The reliability of the chromosomal bla gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walckenaer, Estelle; Leflon-Guibout, Véronique; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

    2008-12-01

    Although Raoultella planticola and Raoultella ornithinolytica were described more than 20 years ago, identifying them remains difficult. The reliability of the chromosomal bla gene for this identification was evaluated in comparison with that of the 16S rDNA and rpoB genes in 35 Raoultella strains from different origins. Of the 26 strains previously identified as R. planticola by biochemical tests alone or in association with molecular methods, 21 harboured a bla gene with 99.8% identity with the bla gene of two reference R. ornithinolytica strains (bla(ORN) gene) and 5 harboured a bla gene with 99.2% identity with the bla gene of two reference R. planticola strains (bla(PLA) gene). The 9 isolates previously identified as R. ornithinolytica harboured a bla(ORN) gene. The bla gene-based identification was confirmed by 16S rDNA and rpoB sequencing. The 21 isolates newly identified as R. ornithinolytica had a test negative for ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Molecular experiments suggested one copy of ODC-encoding gene in both ODC-negative R. ornithinolytica and R. planticola strains and two copies in ODC-positive R. orninthinolytica strains. Analysis of the 35 bla genes allowed us (i) to confirm an identity of only 94% between the bla genes of the two Raoultella species while this identity was > 98% for rpoB and > 99% for 16S rDNA genes and (ii) to develop and successfully apply a bla PCR RFLP assay for Raoultella spp. identification. Overall, this study allowed us to discover ODC-negative R. ornithinolytica and to provide a reliable Raoultella identification method widely available as not requiring sequencing equipment.

  13. Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii by detection of the blaOXA-51-like carbapenemase gene intrinsic to this species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Jane F; Woodford, Neil; Glover, Judith; Yarde, Susannah; Kaufmann, Mary E; Pitt, Tyrone L

    2006-08-01

    bla(OXA-51-like) was sought in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter species in a multiplex PCR, which also detects bla(OXA-23-like) and class 1 integrase genes. All isolates that gave a band for bla(OXA-51-like) identified as A. baumannii. This gene was detected in each of 141 isolates of A. baumannii but not in those of 22 other Acinetobacter species.

  14. Characterization of the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from a Chinese Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Pinghua; Zhang, Ying; Li, Gang; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Infection caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a major healthcare threat and KPC-2 enzyme is a dominant factor mediating carbapenems resistance in K. pneumoniae. This study was designed to determine the genetic environment of blaKPC-2, which prevailed in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates recovered in Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China. Forty-two clinical isolates were included in this study by blaKPC-2 screening. After multilocus sequence typing and plasmid analyses of PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT), junction PCR, mapping PCR and crossing PCR assays, primer walking, and amplicon sequencing were used to analyze the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene. ST423, ST65, ST977, and ST11 were all detected in KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae. Two types of blaKPC-2-bearing genetic structure were found: Tn1721-blaKPC-2-Tn3 and Tn1721-blaKPC-2-ΔTn3-IS26; and were carried in IncX and IncFII plasmids, respectively. In conclusion, the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene was diverse and Tn1721-blaKPC-2-ΔTn3-IS26 was dominant in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates in Huashan Hospital. This study sheds some light on the genetic environment and should foster further studies about the mechanism of the blaKPC-2 dissemination.

  15. BlaSTorage: a fast package to parse, manage and store BLAST results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsini Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale sequence studies requiring BLAST-based analysis produce huge amounts of data to be parsed. BLAST parsers are available, but they are often missing some important features, such as keeping all information from the raw BLAST output, allowing direct access to single results, and performing logical operations over them. Findings We implemented BlaSTorage, a Python package that parses multi BLAST results and returns them in a purpose-built object-database format. Unlike other BLAST parsers, BlaSTorage retains and stores all parts of BLAST results, including alignments, without loss of information; a complete API allows access to all the data components. Conclusions BlaSTorage shows comparable speed of more basic parser written in compiled languages as C++ and can be easily integrated into web applications or software pipelines.

  16. Goslar Blaž Demšar: prispevek za zgodovino slovenskega glasbilarstva:

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorn, Danilo

    1999-01-01

    The article is didiceted to Blaž Demšar (1903-1981), the best Slovene violin maker. He was the first in Slovenia who elevated violin making to the level of artistry and also archieved international recognition with his instruments Prispevek je posvečen Blažu Demšarju (1903-1981), najboljšemu slovenskemu goslarju. Goslarstvo je kot prvi na Slovenskem povzdignil na reven umetniškega oblikovanja in s svojimi instrumenti dosegel priznanje tudi v tujini

  17. Non-O1/Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Avian Isolate from France Cocarrying the bla(VIM-1) and bla(VIM-4) Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberkane, Salim; Compain, Fabrice; Barraud, Olivier; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Bouzinbi, Nicolas; Vittecoq, Marion; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Decré, Dominique; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    We describe here a non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolate producing both VIM-1 and VIM-4 carbapenemases. It was isolated from a yellow-legged gull in southern France. The blaVIM genes were part of a class 1 integron structure located in an IncA/C plasmid. This study emphasizes the presence of carbapenemase genes in wildlife microbiota.

  18. Fly ash for soil amelioration: A review on the influence of ash blending with inorganic and organic amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, L. C.; Masto, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, fly ash (FA), generated in huge quantities from coal fired power plants is a problematic solid waste. Utilization of FA as an ameliorant for improving soil quality has received a great deal of attention over the past four decades, and many studies have been carried out worldwide. The silt-sized particles, low bulk density (BD), higher water holding capacity (WHC), favorable pH, and significant presence of plant nutrients in FA, make it a potential amendment for soils. The studies suggest enormous potential for the use of FA to improve cultivable, degraded/waste land, mine soil, landfills, and also to reclaim abandoned ash ponds, for agriculture and forestry. FA application improves the physical, chemical and biological qualities of soils to which it is applied. However, in some cases, depending on the characteristics of FA, the release of trace elements and soluble salts from FA to a soil-plant-human system could be a constraint. The effect is minimal in the case of weathered FA. The findings reflected the heterogeneity of ash characteristics, soil types, and agro-climatic conditions, thus a generalized conclusion on the impact of FA on plant species and soil quality is difficult. It is very important that the application of FA to soil must be very specific depending on the properties of the FA and soil. A considerable amount of research has been carried out to blend FA with varieties of organic and inorganic materials, like lime, gypsum, red mud, animal manure, poultry manure, sewage sludge, composts, press mud, vermicompost, biochar, bioinoculants, etc. Co-application of FA with these materials has much advantage: enhanced nutrient availability, decreased bioavailability of toxic metals, pH buffering, organic matter addition, microbial stimulation, overall improvement in the general health of the soil, etc. The performance of FA blending with organic and inorganic materials is better than FA alone treatments. Farm manure was found to be the most

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of a Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain Carrying blaNDM-1 on a Multidrug Resistance Plasmid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna F.; Palmore, Tara N.; Frank, Karen M.; Segre, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence of a blaNDM-1-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae AATZP isolate cultured from a perirectal surveillance swab collected upon admission of a patient to the NIH Clinical Center in 2014. Genome sequencing of this isolate revealed three plasmids, including one carrying the blaNDM-1 gene encoding resistance to carbapenems. PMID:27417839

  20. Face Recognition and Visual Search Strategies in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Amending and Extending a Recent Review by Weigelt et al.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Tang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to build upon a recent review by Weigelt et al. which examined visual search strategies and face identification between individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and typically developing peers. Seven databases, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, ERIC, Medline, Proquest, PsychInfo and PubMed were used to locate published scientific studies matching our inclusion criteria. A total of 28 articles not included in Weigelt et al. met criteria for inclusion into this systematic review. Of these 28 studies, 16 were available and met criteria at the time of the previous review, but were mistakenly excluded; and twelve were recently published. Weigelt et al. found quantitative, but not qualitative, differences in face identification in individuals with ASD. In contrast, the current systematic review found both qualitative and quantitative differences in face identification between individuals with and without ASD. There is a large inconsistency in findings across the eye tracking and neurobiological studies reviewed. Recommendations for future research in face recognition in ASD were discussed.

  1. Genetic Structure Associated with blaOXA-18, Encoding a Clavulanic Acid-Inhibited Extended-Spectrum Oxacillinase▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naas, Thierry; Namdari, Fatemeh; Bogaerts, Pierre; Huang, Te-Din; Glupczynski, Youri; Nordmann, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    The genetic environment of the blaOXA-18 gene encoding a peculiar clavulanic acid-inhibitable Ambler class D extended-spectrum β-lactamase was determined from the prototype OXA-18-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa MUS clinical isolate. An 8.2-kb genomic DNA fragment containing blaOXA-18 was cloned from P. aeruginosa MUS. Although most oxacillinases are located in integrons, blaOXA-18 lacked gene cassette-specific features. It was bracketed by two duplicated sequences containing ISCR19, a novel insertion sequence of the ISCR family of mobile elements; ΔintI1, a truncated integrase gene; and a truncated Δaac6′-Ib gene cassette. It is likely that ISCR19 was at the origin of the blaOXA-18 gene mobilization by a rolling-circle transposition event followed by homologous recombination. Furthermore, analysis of the cloned genomic DNA fragment revealed the presence of the integron-containing blaOXA-20 gene. Concomitantly, three P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, displaying a synergy image as determined by double-disk diffusion tests on cloxacillin-containing plates, were isolated from three patients hospitalized in different wards over a 9-month period at the Saint-Luc University hospital (Brussels, Belgium). These isolates were positive by PCR for blaOXA-18 and blaOXA-20 genes, genetically related to P. aeruginosa MUS as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and carried the same blaOXA-18/blaOXA-20-associated genetic structures. This report characterized the genetic elements likely at the origin of blaOXA-18 gene mobilization in P. aeruginosa and suggests the spread of oxacillin-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases in P. aeruginosa at the Saint-Luc University hospital of Brussels, Belgium. PMID:18663027

  2. US biosimilar pathway unlikely to be used: developers will opt for a traditional BLA filing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiatr, Claudia

    2011-02-01

    In March 2010, the US passed the healthcare reform bill, including The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, which established an abbreviated Biologic License Application (aBLA) pathway for the approval of biosimilars. The aBLA pathway may never be used. At the "Business of Biosimilars" meeting in Boston in September, developers of both innovator and generic biologics as well as representatives from the scientific, regulatory, and legal communities noted that, because of unclear requirements for clinical data and the need for public disclosure of proprietary data, manufacturers of generic biologics are unlikely to take advantage of the aBLA process, opting instead for a standard Biologic License Application (BLA). The implications of an unusable biosimilars pathway in the US dampen our already soft outlook for biosimilars. Companies will still develop follow-on biologics, but approved compounds will behave as new branded drugs. Biosimilars in the US are therefore not likely to lead to aggressive pricing, but will more likely mirror current situations where several similar biologics are available. For example, the interferon (IFN) β-1a products Avonex® and Rebif®, and Betaseron® (IFN β-1b) have all enjoyed >10% price increases for the last several years in spite of their clinical similarities. inThought reiterates its outlook for generic erosion of a typical biologic that projects a loss of revenue of 30% over 5 years compared to the 90% revenue loss for a typical branded small molecule. PMID:21222498

  3. Identification of bla KPC-2 on different plasmids of three Morganella morganii isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, D-S; Wang, W-P; Kuai, S-G; Shao, H-F; Huang, M

    2012-05-01

    Three Morganella morganii strains resistant to carbapenems were recovered from the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) in our hospital. Carbapenemases and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were respectively detected by the modified Hodge test and the modified Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) ESBL confirmatory test in all isolates. Amplification of whole-cell and plasmid DNAs extracted from isolates with primers specific for the bla (KPC) produced an amplicon confirmed to be bla (KPC-2) by sequence analysis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing revealed that three isolates belonged to two closely related types. Plasmids electrophoresis and restriction analysis revealed that the bla (KPC-2) was located on different plasmids. The transfer of carbapenem resistance from the three original isolates to Escherichia coli EC600 was successful by conjugation. An examination of the outer membrane proteins showed a lack of a 38-kDa outer membrane protein (OMP) compared with M. morganii susceptible to carbapenems. The production of KPC-2 and ESBLs, combined with OMP deficiency, resulted in high-level carbapenem resistance in the M. morganii strains. The genetic environment around bla (KPC-2) analysis revealed that this β-lactamase was located on the same mobile genetic elements which could transfer between different plasmids.

  4. First report of the blaVIM gene in environmental isolates of Buttiauxella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitondo-Silva, André; Martins, Vinicius Vicente; Stehling, Eliana Guedes

    2015-04-01

    Several works have demonstrated the presence of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) in clinical bacteria. However, in environmental isolates, few works have reported on these enzymes. In this study, we report for the first time two environmental isolates of Buttiauxella sp. recovered from chrysanthemum plantations in Brazil containing blaVIM gene and producing MBLs.

  5. 14 CFR 17.45 - Conforming amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conforming amendments. 17.45 Section 17.45 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES PROCEDURES FOR PROTESTS AND CONTRACTS DISPUTES Finality and Review § 17.45 Conforming amendments. The...

  6. 20 CFR 903.5 - Procedures for amendment of records regarding individual-format, agency review and appeal from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Ingeneral. The Joint Board shall permit individuals to request a review of initial decisions made under... Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES ACCESS TO RECORDS Records Pertaining to... promulgated by the Joint Board, in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552a(k), the Executive Director shall,...

  7. 76 FR 7813 - Amended Final Results of the 2008-2009 Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Pure Magnesium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...-2009 Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order, 75 FR 80791 (December 23...: Pure Magnesium From the People's Republic of China AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade... the antidumping duty order on pure magnesium from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\...

  8. blaGES carrying Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia L. P. C. Pellegrino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa class-1 integrons from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed the blaGES gene in one isolate. We screened isolates of two widespread PFGE genotypes, A and B, at a public hospital in Rio, for the presence of blaGES. The gene was detected in all seven P. aeruginosa isolates belonging to genotype B. Three of the seven genotype-B isolates were resistant to amikacin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid. The other four isolates were resistant to all these agents, except gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. A synergistic effect between ceftazidime and imipenem or clavulanic acid suggested the production of GES-type ESBL.

  9. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  10. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation's spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs

  11. Amendment 80 Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Amendment 80 Program was adopted by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) in June 2006. The final rule implementing Amendment 80 published in...

  12. The emerge of a new superbug gene blaNDM-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Kaiji

    2011-01-01

    @@ NDM-- 1 in detail: NDM-1, which is the abbreviation of 'New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase', is a recently dis-covered enzyme that is produced by some gram-negative Enterobaeteriaceae such as E coil (Esehe-riehia toll) and Klebsiella pneumonia.It is named after 'New Delhi', which is the capital of India, be-cause the first patient who was diagnosed to be colo-nized by bacteria with blaNDM-1 gene had gone toa hospital in New Delhi for cosmetic surgery not long before he was diagnosed.

  13. Genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene in Serratia marcescens isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Pei-Yu; Peng, Chien-Fang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene were characterized among 14 isolates of cefotaxime-resistant Serratia marcescens using PCR and BLAST DNA sequence analysis. A total of 3 types of genetic architectures in the regions surrounding this blaCTX-M-3 gene were identified. Type I architecture was characterized by the presence of a complete insertion sequence of tnpA-ISEcp1, identified as interrupting a reverse IS26 sequence in the upstream region of the blaCTX-M-3 gene. A reverse-directional orf477 fragment was located downstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene, which was in the same direction of the mucA gene. A common region containing the orf513 element was located upstream of the mucA gene. Moreover, a copy of the 3'-CS2 element was located immediately upstream of the orf513 element. A novel complex class 1 integron was characterized by the presence of the dfrA19 gene, which was flanked by two copies of class 1 integrons. This is the first report to describe the dfrA19 gene within a novel complex class 1 integron in S. marcescens isolates from Taiwan. This novel complex class 1 integron structure was located distantly upstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene.

  14. Characterization of a novel plasmid type and various genetic contexts of bla OXA-58 in Acinetobacter spp. from multiple cities in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqi Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Several studies have described the epidemiological distribution of blaOXA-58-harboring Acinetobacter baumannii in China. However, there is limited data concerning the replicon types of blaOXA-58-carrying plasmids and the genetic context surrounding blaOXA-58 in Acinetobacter spp. in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve non-duplicated blaOXA-58-harboring Acinetobacter spp. isolates were collected from six hospitals in five different cities between 2005 and 2010. The molecular epidemiology of the isolates was carried out using PFGE and multilocus sequence typing. Carbapenemase-encoding genes and plasmid replicase genes were identified by PCR. The genetic location of blaOXA-58 was analyzed using S1-nuclease method. Plasmid conjugation and electrotransformation were performed to evaluate the transferability of blaOXA-58-harboring plasmids. The genetic structure surrounding blaOXA-58 was determined by cloning experiments. The twelve isolates included two Acinetobacter pittii isolates (belong to one pulsotype, three Acinetobacter nosocomialis isolates (belong to two pulsotypes and seven Acinetobacter baumannii isolates (belong to two pulsotypes/sequence types. A. baumannii ST91 was found to be a potential multidrug resistant risk clone carrying both blaOXA-58 and blaOXA-23. blaOXA-58 located on plasmids varied from ca. 52 kb to ca. 143 kb. All plasmids can be electrotransformed to A. baumannii recipient, but were untypeable by the current replicon typing scheme. A novel plasmid replicase named repAci10 was identified in blaOXA-58-harboring plasmids of two A. pittii isolates, three A. nosocomialis isolates and two A. baumannii isolates. Four kinds of genetic contexts of blaOXA-58 were identified. The transformants of plasmids with structure of IS6 family insertion sequence (ISOur1, IS1008 or IS15-ΔISAba3-like element-blaOXA-58 displayed carbapenem nonsusceptible, while others with structure of intact ISAba3-like element-bla

  15. 77 FR 4082 - Review and Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, et al. as a Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... and Amendment of the Designation of al-Qa'ida in Iraq, et al. as a Foreign Terrorist Organization... the Two Rivers, aka Tanzeem qa'idat al Jihad/Bildad al Raafidaini, as a Foreign Terrorist Organization... the 2004 designation of the aforementioned organization as a foreign terrorist organization have...

  16. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (blaCTX-M-1 and blaTEM in Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from poultry in North Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lalzampuia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to record the association of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs producing enteric bacteria with diarrhea of poultry birds in Mizoram, India. Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from poultry birds with the history of diarrhea from different parts of Mizoram. Samples were processed for isolation and identification of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. All the isolates were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity assays. Phenotypically, ESBLs production ability was determined by double discs synergy test (DDST method. ESBLs producing isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of ESBLs genes. Plasmids were cured by acridine orange. Transfer of resistance from donor to recipient strains was done by in vitro horizontal method. Results: A total of 134 enteric bacteria was isolated, of which 102 (76.12%, 21 (15.67% and 11 (8.21% were E. coli, Salmonella spp. and K. pneumoniae, respectively. By DDST 7 (5.22% isolates (6 E. coli and 1 K. pneumoniae were ESBLs producer. PCR analysis confirmed 5 (3.73% (4 E. coli and 1 K. pneumoniae isolates harboured blaCTX-M-1 gene and/or blaTEM gene. All the isolates were carrying plasmids ranging between 0.9 kb and ~30 kb. Of the 4 isolates positive for blaCTX-M-1 and/or blaTEM, 2 (1.84% were confirmed for blaCTX-M-1 gene in their plasmid. No blaTEM gene was detected from plasmid. The resistance plasmid could not be transferred to the recipient by in vitro horizontal gene transfer method. Conclusion: ESBLs producing enteric bacteria are circulating in poultry in North Eastern Region of India. As poultry is one of the most common food animals in this region, these organisms may enter in human population through them.

  17. Emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii ST730 carrying the bla OXA-72 gene in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Mariana; Rozales, Franciéli P; Bertolini, Diego; Rocha, Lisiane; Sampaio, Jorge LM; Barth, Afonso L; Martins, Andreza F

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenems has emerged in many medical centres and has been commonly associated with high morbimortality. In Brazil, this resistance is mainly attributed to the spread of OXA-23-producing clones and, to a lesser extent, to OXA-143-producing clones. Here, we describe, for the first time, two OXA-72-producing A. baumannii isolates in southern Brazil to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, except polymyxin B and tigecycline. Molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated that both OXA-72-producing isolates belong to a new sequence type (ST), ST730, which was recently identified in OXA-23-producing A. baumannii isolates in São Paulo, Brazil. We demonstrate that the two A. baumannii ST730 isolates carrying blaOXA-72share a common ancestral origin with the blaOXA-23producers in Brazil. This observation reinforces the importance of strain-typing methods in order to clarify the dynamics of the emergence of new clones in a geographic region. PMID:27653364

  18. Virulence of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates harboring bla KPC-2 carbapenemase gene in a Caenorhabditis elegans model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Lavigne

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC is a carbapenemase increasingly reported worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae. The aim of this study was to analyze the virulence of several KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. The studied strains were (i five KPC-2 clinical strains from different geographical origins, belonging to different ST-types and possessing plasmids of different incompatibility groups; (ii seven transformants obtained after electroporation of either these natural KPC plasmids or a recombinant plasmid harboring only the bla KPC-2 gene into reference strains K. pneumoniae ATCC10031/CIP53153; and (iii five clinical strains cured of plasmids. The virulence of K. pneumoniae isolates was evaluated in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. The clinical KPC producers and transformants were significantly less virulent (LT50: 5.5 days than K. pneumoniae reference strain (LT50: 4.3 days (p<0.01. However, the worldwide spread KPC-2 positive K. pneumoniae ST258 strains and reference strains containing plasmids extracted from K. pneumoniae ST258 strains had a higher virulence than KPC-2 strains belonging to other ST types (LT50: 5 days vs. 6 days, p<0.01. The increased virulence observed in cured strains confirmed this trend. The bla KPC-2 gene itself was not associated to increased virulence.

  19. Molecular typing and genetic environment of the blaKPC gene in Chilean isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barría-Loaiza, Carla; Pincheira, Andrea; Quezada, Mario; Vera, Alejandra; Valenzuela, Pedro; Domínguez, Mariana; Lima, Celia A; Araya, Ingrid; Araya, Pamela; Prat, Soledad; Aguayo, Carolina; Fernández, Jorge; Hormazábal, Juan Carlos; Bello-Toledo, Helia; González-Rocha, Gerardo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the genetic environment and transferability of blaKPC as well as the pulsotypes of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from clinical samples in Chilean hospitals. Seventeen strains, principally isolated in Santiago (the capital of Chile) during the years 2012 and 2013, were included. The genetic environment of blaKPC was elucidated by PCR mapping and sequencing. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Curing and conjugation experiments were performed with six strains of different sequence types (STs) and pulsotypes. Thirteen pulsotypes and six STs, mainly belonging to clonal complex 258, were found. In addition, seven strains belonged to a new ST assigned ST1161. The blaKPC sequence indicated that 16 strains had the KPC-2 variant; in only one strain (UC331) an amino acid change (R6P) was detected, corresponding to a new KPC variant designated KPC-24. Molecular characterisation of the blaKPC genetic environment revealed two distinct platforms, namely variant 1a and the Tn4401a isoform, with the first being the most common (11/17 strains). Mating experiments failed to produce transconjugants; however, loss of blaKPC was achieved by plasmid curing in all assayed strains. In conclusion, in Chilean strains of K. pneumoniae, blaKPC is primarily found associated with the variant 1a and is located in non-transferable plasmids. In addition, this study highlights the description of the new ST1161 and the new KPC-24 variant. PMID:27436389

  20. Further Spread of bla NDM-5 in Enterobacteriaceae via IncX3 Plasmids in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangfang; Xie, Lianyan; Wang, Xiaoli; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Ni, Yuxing; Qu, Hongping; Sun, Jingyong

    2016-01-01

    One hundred and two carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains were isolated in a teaching hospital in Shanghai, China from 2012 to 2015. In a follow-up study, four New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-5 (NDM-5)-producing strains were identified after screening these CRE strains, including 1 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain (RJ01), 1 Proteus mirabilis strain (RJ02), and 2 Escherichia coli strains (RJ03 and RJ04). All K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates were resistant to carbapenems, third-generation cephalosporins, and piperacillin-tazobactam, but were susceptible to amikacin. No epidemiological links for either E. coli isolate were found by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). However, MLST revealed a novel sequence type, ST2250, of the K. pneumoniae RJ01 strain. Inc types and sizes of bla NDM-5-carrying plasmids differed among the four isolates, although in P. mirabilis RJ02 and E. coli RJ03, bla NDM-5 was carried by conjugative IncX3 plasmids of nearly the same size (∼40 kb). Investigation of the genetic background of sequences flanking the bla NDM-5 gene showed that all four isolates shared the same genetic content (IS3000-ΔISAba125-IS5-bla NDM-5-ble-trpF-dsbC-IS26-ΔumuD), which was identical to that of the pNDM_MGR194 plasmid circulating in India. This is the first identification of bla NDM-5 in P. mirabilis, which suggests its further spread to Enterobacteriaceae, and indicates that IncX3 plasmids may play an important role in potentiating the spread of bla NDM. PMID:27065982

  1. Molecular typing and genetic environment of the blaKPC gene in Chilean isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barría-Loaiza, Carla; Pincheira, Andrea; Quezada, Mario; Vera, Alejandra; Valenzuela, Pedro; Domínguez, Mariana; Lima, Celia A; Araya, Ingrid; Araya, Pamela; Prat, Soledad; Aguayo, Carolina; Fernández, Jorge; Hormazábal, Juan Carlos; Bello-Toledo, Helia; González-Rocha, Gerardo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the genetic environment and transferability of blaKPC as well as the pulsotypes of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from clinical samples in Chilean hospitals. Seventeen strains, principally isolated in Santiago (the capital of Chile) during the years 2012 and 2013, were included. The genetic environment of blaKPC was elucidated by PCR mapping and sequencing. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Curing and conjugation experiments were performed with six strains of different sequence types (STs) and pulsotypes. Thirteen pulsotypes and six STs, mainly belonging to clonal complex 258, were found. In addition, seven strains belonged to a new ST assigned ST1161. The blaKPC sequence indicated that 16 strains had the KPC-2 variant; in only one strain (UC331) an amino acid change (R6P) was detected, corresponding to a new KPC variant designated KPC-24. Molecular characterisation of the blaKPC genetic environment revealed two distinct platforms, namely variant 1a and the Tn4401a isoform, with the first being the most common (11/17 strains). Mating experiments failed to produce transconjugants; however, loss of blaKPC was achieved by plasmid curing in all assayed strains. In conclusion, in Chilean strains of K. pneumoniae, blaKPC is primarily found associated with the variant 1a and is located in non-transferable plasmids. In addition, this study highlights the description of the new ST1161 and the new KPC-24 variant.

  2. Dissemination of IncI2 Plasmids That Harbor the blaCTX-M Element among Clinical Salmonella Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marcus Ho-Yin; Liu, Lizhang; Yan, Meiying; Chan, Edward Wai-Chi; Chen, Sheng

    2015-08-01

    The extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) determinant CTX-M-55 is increasingly prevalent in Escherichia coli but remains extremely rare in Salmonella. This study reports the isolation of a plasmid harboring the blaCTX-M-55 element in a clinical Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strain resistant to multiple antibiotics. This plasmid is genetically identical to several known IncI2-type elements harbored by E. coli strains recovered from animals. This finding indicates that IncI2 plasmids harboring the blaCTX-M genes may undergo cross-species migration among potential bacterial pathogens, with E. coli as the major source of such elements. PMID:26014934

  3. Ambiente genético del Gen blaCTX-M-12 en aislamientos hospitalarios de Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamile Adriana Celis Bustos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The blaCTX-M-12 gene’s genetic environmnt in Klebsiella pneumoniae hospital isolates Resumen: En Colombia se han detectado genes del grupo CTX-M-1 con alta frecuencia en aislamientos de Klebsiella pneumoniae causantes de infección intrahospitalaria. El conocimiento de los factores genéticos que pueden favorecer la diseminación de estos genes entre especies bacterianas es un aspecto importante para el control de la resistencia. En este estudio se identificaron los plásmidos portadores del gen blaCTX-M-12 en 21 aislamientos clínicos de K. pneumoniae. Se evaluó por conjugación la transferencia de resistencia a antibióticos. Integrones, secuencias de inserción y otros elementos genéticos fueron detectados por amplificación del ADN plasmídico con la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR. Mediante análisis por PCR se determinó la relación entre el gen blaCTX-M-12 y los elementos genéticos detectados. En todos los aislamientos, el gen blaCTX-M-12 se encontró en plásmidos conjugativos de tamaños entre 65 y 106 kpb. La transferencia por conjugación de estos elementos móviles puede explicar la amplia diseminación de este gen entre enterobacterias causantes de infección nosocomial en hospitales de Bogotá, Colombia. El gen blaCTX-M-12 se encontró corriente abajo de ISEcp1, secuencia de inserción que se ha asociado con la movilización de determinantes genéticos de resistencia. Los promotores de ISEcp1, detectados por análisis de secuencia, pueden facilitar la expresión de la cefotaximasa codificada por este gen.Palabras clave: resistencia a antibióticos; elementos genéticos móviles; gen blaCTX-M-12; plásmidos conjugativos;  Klebsiella pneumoniae. Abstract: Genes from CTX-M-1 group have been detected with great frequency in Colombia in intrahospital infection-causing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Knowledge regarding the genetic factors favouring such genes’ dissemination amongst bacterial species is an

  4. First descriptions of blaKPC in Raoultella spp. (R. planticola and R. ornithinolytica): report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Mariana; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; DiPersio, Joseph R; Kang, Julia; Weinstein, Melvin P; Jones, Ronald N

    2009-12-01

    Two strains of Raoultella planticola and one of Raoultella ornithinolytica showing carbapenem resistance were recovered from patients hospitalized in New Jersey and Ohio. All patients had received previous antimicrobial treatment, including carbapenems. These strains harbored bla(KPC-2) and bla(KPC-3). Carbapenemase genes were embedded in isoforms of Tn4401 and were plasmidic and chromosomal in location.

  5. Increased prevalence of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae in hospital setting due to cross-species transmission of the bla NDM-1 element and clonal spread of progenitor resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Chen, Gongxiang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liangping; Cai, Jiachang; Chan, Edward W; Chen, Sheng; Zhang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the transmission characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains collected from a hospital setting in China, in which consistent emergence of CRE strains were observable during the period of May 2013 to February 2014. Among the 45 CRE isolates tested, 21 (47%) strains were found to harbor the bla NDM-1 element, and the rest of 24 CRE strains were all positive for bla KPC-2. The 21 bla NDM-1-borne strains were found to comprise multiple Enterobacteriaceae species including nine Enterobacter cloacae, three Escherichia coli, three Citrobacter freundii, two Klebsiella pneumoniae, two Klebsiella oxytoca, and two Morganella morganii strains, indicating that cross-species transmission of bla NDM-1 is a common event. Genetic analyses by PFGE and MLST showed that, with the exception of E. coli and E. cloacae, strains belonging to the same species were often genetically unrelated. In addition to bla NDM-1, several CRE strains were also found to harbor the bla KPC-2, bla VIM-1, and bla IMP-4 elements. Conjugations experiments confirmed that the majority of carbapenem resistance determinants were transferable. Taken together, our findings suggest that transmission of mobile resistance elements among members of Enterobacteriaceae and clonal spread of CRE strains may contribute synergistically to a rapid increase in the population of CRE in clinical settings, prompting a need to implement more rigorous infection control measures to arrest such vicious transmission cycle in CRE-prevalent areas. PMID:26136735

  6. Identification of Achromobacter xylosoxidans by detection of the bla(OXA-114-like) gene intrinsic in this species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Jane F; Mustafa, Nazim; Shah, Jayesh; Hampton, Catherine V; Pike, Rachel; Kenna, Dervla T

    2011-07-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an emerging pathogen among patients with cystic fibrosis. Here we describe a specific PCR for identification of this organism, based on detection of bla(OXA-114-like). Comparison of isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed evidence of cross-infection in some cases, but most patients harbored their own strain.

  7. blaCTX-M-I group extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing Salmonella typhi from hospitalized patients in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyemi KO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kabiru O Akinyemi,1 Bamidele A Iwalokun,2 Olajide O Alafe,1 Sulaiman A Mudashiru,1 Christopher Fakorede,11Department of Microbiology, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Biochemistry and Nutrition Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, NigeriaPurpose: The global spread of blaCTX-M-I extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Salmonella spp. remains a major threat to treatment and control. Evidence of emergence and spread of this marker are lacking in Nigeria. This study investigated blaCTX-M-I ESBL production among Salmonella isolates from hospitalized patients.Methods: Patients (158 total made up of two groups were evaluated. Group A was composed of 135 patients with persistent pyrexia and group B was composed of 23 gastroenteritis patients and their stool samples. Samples were cultured, and isolates were identified and were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by standard methods. Isolates were further screened for ESBL production, blaCTX-M-I genes and transferability by double disk synergy test, plasmid extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and conjugation experiment.Results: Thirty-five (25.9% Salmonella isolates were identified from group A, of which 74.3% were S. typhi, 22.9% were S. paratyphi and two (5.7% were invasive non-typhoidal S. enteritidis. Nine Plasmodium falciparum infections were recorded, four of which were identified as co-infections with typhoidal Salmonella. Only two (8.7% S. enteritidis samples were obtained from group B (P>0.05. A total of 24 isolates were ESBL-positive, eliciting resistance to five to seven antibiotics, and were multiple-drug resistant. ESBL production due to the blaCTX-M-I gene cluster was detected in eleven (45.8% Salmonella isolates. Nine (81.8% of the eleven blaCTX-M-I ESBL producers were S. typhi and two (18.2% isolates were S. enteritidis. Four of nine S. typhi blaCTX-M-I ESBL-producing strains harbored 23 kb self-transmissible plasmid that was co

  8. Chromosomal blaCTX-M-₁₅ associated with ISEcp1 in Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii isolated at the Military Hospital of Tunis, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrouki, Sihem; Belhadj, Omrane; Chihi, Hela; Mohamed, Ben Moussa; Celenza, Giuseppe; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Perilli, Mariagrazia

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the genetic environment of bla(CTX-M) genes and associated resistance genes in seven Proteus mirabilis and six Morganella morganii extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive isolates. The isolates were recovered from hospitalized patients with respiratory or urinary tract infections at the Military Hospital of Tunis, Tunisia. Twenty-one of the 200 strains exhibited non-susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins and, among these strains, the double-disk synergy test confirmed the ESBL phenotype in 13 isolates. These ESBL producers were co-resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline and oflaxacin but remained susceptible to ertapenem (MIC<0.25 mg l(-1)). The presence and nature of bla(CTX-M-15), bla(CTX-M-8), bla(TEM-24), bla(TEM-1) and bla(TEM-2) genes was determined by PCR and sequencing. Chromosomal localization of the bla(CTX-M-15) gene was confirmed in all strains, with the exception of M. morganii isolate M-17991, by Southern-blot analysis performed either on chromosomal or plasmid DNA. M. morganii M-12012 and M. morganii M-6019 showed the same PFGE pattern, whereas the remaining CTX-M-15-producing isolates were unrelated. The presence of ISEcp1 was ascertained in CTX-M-15-producing isolates. A class 1 integron with different gene cassettes (dfrA1, orfC and aadB) was found in five P. mirabilis and six M. morganii isolates.

  9. First Description of the Extended Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase Gene blaCTX-M-109 in Salmonella Grumpensis Strains Isolated from Neonatal Nosocomial Infections in Dakar, Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou Diop

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are very common in African hospitals, particularly in neonatal units. These infections are most often caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Staphylococcus spp. Salmonella strains are rarely involved in nosocomial infections. Here, we report the first description of S. Grumpensis in neonatal infections in Senegal. Seventeen Salmonella strains were isolated from hospitalized infants' stool samples. The following resistance phenotype was described in strains: AMXRTICRCFR FOXRCFXRCTXRCAZRIMPSATMRNARNORRCIPRTMRGMRTERSXTR. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem, 15 out of 17 produced an extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL. blaOXA-1, blaSHV-1, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M1 genes were detected in strains 8, 13, 5 and 8, respectively. blaCTX-M1 sequencing revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-109. Thirteen of the 17 Salmonella Grumpensis strains were analyzed by PFGE. These 13 isolates belonged to a single pulsotype and were genotypically identical. This is the first report of neonatal S. Grumpensis infections in Senegal, and the first report of blaCTX-M-109 in the genus Salmonella.

  10. Amending Death Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s Criminal Law is being revised to cut down on death sentences and tighten up punishment for surging crimes The eighth amendment to the Criminal Law, demanding moreprudent use of capital punishment

  11. Progress and Compromise:Review on Administrative Procedure Law Amendment%进步与妥协:《行政诉讼法》修改回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童卫东

    2015-01-01

    2014年11月1日全国人大常委会审议通过了修改《行政诉讼法》的决定。《行政诉讼法》修改从实际出发,坚持问题导向,着力解决行政诉讼存在的立案难、审理难和执行难问题,扩大了受案范围、畅通了诉讼渠道,完善了审判体制机制,完善了判决形式和执行制度,强化行政诉讼的监督功能,加强了对行政权力的制约和监督,加强了检察机关对行政诉讼的监督,贯彻了十八届三中、四中全会精神,是全面推进依法治国的重要举措。%On Nov. 1st. 2014, the NPC Standing Committee adopted the decision to amend the Administrative Procedure Law. Based on the practice and problem-oriented theory, the amendment focuses on solving difficult problems of case filing, judgment and enforcement in administrative litigations in order to enlarge the scope of case accepted and to smooth the litigation channel, which improves the adjudication system mechanism, judgment forms and the enforcement system. Meanwhile, it strengthens the supervision function of administrative litigations, enhancing the restriction and supervision of administrative power as well as the supervision on administrative litigations by the prosecution, which implements the spirit of the third and the fourth plenary sessions of the 18th central committee. It is an important act of promoting the rule of law comprehensively.

  12. Beta-lactam induction of ISEcp1B-mediated mobilization of the naturally occurring bla(CTX-M) beta-lactamase gene of Kluyvera ascorbata

    OpenAIRE

    Nordmann, Patrice; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Poirel, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    ISEcp1B is an insertion element associated with the emerging expanded-spectrum β-lactamase blaCTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae. Because ISEcp1B-blaCTX-M positive strains may be identified from humans and animals, the ability of this insertion sequence to mobilize the blaCTX-M-2 gene was tested from its progenitor Kluyvera ascorbata to study the effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic and cefquinome as enhancers of transposition. These β-lactam molecules are administered parenterally to treat infec...

  13. Beta-lactam induction of ISEcp1B-mediated mobilization of the naturally occurring bla(CTX-M) beta-lactamase gene of Kluyvera ascorbata.

    OpenAIRE

    Nordmann, Patrice; Lartigue, Marie-Frédérique; Poirel, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    ISEcp1B is an insertion element associated with the emerging expanded-spectrum beta-lactamase bla(CTX-M) genes in Enterobacteriaceae. Because ISEcp1B-bla(CTX-M)positive strains may be identified from humans and animals, the ability of this insertion sequence to mobilize the bla(CTX-M-2) gene was tested from its progenitor Kluyvera ascorbata to study the effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic and cefquinome as enhancers of transposition. These beta-lactam molecules are administered parenterally to ...

  14. Double Copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a on an IncX3 Plasmid in Klebsiella pneumoniae Successful Clone ST512 from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Daniela; Villa, Laura; Feudi, Claudia; Pires, João; Bonura, Celestino; Mammina, Caterina; Endimiani, Andrea; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    A carbapenem-resistant sequence type 512 (ST512) Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase 3 (KPC-3)-producing K. pneumoniae strain showing a novel variant plasmid content was isolated in Palermo, Italy, in 2014. ST512 is a worldwide successful clone associated with the spread of bla(KPC) genes located on the IncFIIk pKpQIL plasmid. In our ST512 strain, the bla(KPC-3) gene was unusually located on an IncX3 plasmid, whose complete sequence was determined. Two copies of bla(KPC-3)::Tn4401a caused by intramolecular transposition events were detected in the plasmid. PMID:26525794

  15. [Genetic Investigation of bla(CTX-M)-typing in Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Clinical Specimens and Commercially Available Chicken Liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Miki; Shinomiya, Hiroto; Kitao, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    A genetic investigation consisting of the bla(CTX-M) typing was performed using 40 extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from chicken liver and 43 ESBL-producing E. coli and 42 ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patients. The types were determined using a sequence analysis. In 31 isolates in the bla(CTX-M-1) group, there were 13 with the bla(CTX-M-1) and all were from chicken liver. Nine E. coli isolates from chicken liver and one E. coli isolate from patients were found to be bla(CTX-M-55). In the bla(CTX-M-15), there were 6 E. coli isolates and one K. pneumoniae isolate from patients. All 39 isolates in the bla(CTX-M-2) group had the blac(CTX-M-2). Fifty-five isolates were found in the bla(CTX-M-9) group, the highest detection frequency, with 36 possessing bla(CTX-M-14) : 20 E. coli and 13 K. pneumoniae from patients and 3 E. coli from chicken liver. There were 17 bla(CTX-M-27) isolates, including 10 E. coli and 7 K. pneumoniae from patients. One bla(CTX-M-90) K. pneumoniae isolate and one bla(CTX-M-9) E. coli isolate were also obtained from patients. These results indicate that the E. coli isolates from chicken liver consist of bla(CTX-M-1), bla(CTX-M-2) and bla(CTX-M-55) ; the E. coli isolates from patients consist of bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-27) ; and the K. pneumoniae isolates from patients consist of bla(CTX-M-2), bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-27). Therefore, the bla(CTX-M) type differs in isolates from chicken liver and those from humans. These results suggest that it is unlikely that ESBL-producing E. coli from chicken liver are firmly established in the human intestinal tract.

  16. [Genetic Investigation of bla(CTX-M)-typing in Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Clinical Specimens and Commercially Available Chicken Liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Miki; Shinomiya, Hiroto; Kitao, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    A genetic investigation consisting of the bla(CTX-M) typing was performed using 40 extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from chicken liver and 43 ESBL-producing E. coli and 42 ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patients. The types were determined using a sequence analysis. In 31 isolates in the bla(CTX-M-1) group, there were 13 with the bla(CTX-M-1) and all were from chicken liver. Nine E. coli isolates from chicken liver and one E. coli isolate from patients were found to be bla(CTX-M-55). In the bla(CTX-M-15), there were 6 E. coli isolates and one K. pneumoniae isolate from patients. All 39 isolates in the bla(CTX-M-2) group had the blac(CTX-M-2). Fifty-five isolates were found in the bla(CTX-M-9) group, the highest detection frequency, with 36 possessing bla(CTX-M-14) : 20 E. coli and 13 K. pneumoniae from patients and 3 E. coli from chicken liver. There were 17 bla(CTX-M-27) isolates, including 10 E. coli and 7 K. pneumoniae from patients. One bla(CTX-M-90) K. pneumoniae isolate and one bla(CTX-M-9) E. coli isolate were also obtained from patients. These results indicate that the E. coli isolates from chicken liver consist of bla(CTX-M-1), bla(CTX-M-2) and bla(CTX-M-55) ; the E. coli isolates from patients consist of bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-27) ; and the K. pneumoniae isolates from patients consist of bla(CTX-M-2), bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-27). Therefore, the bla(CTX-M) type differs in isolates from chicken liver and those from humans. These results suggest that it is unlikely that ESBL-producing E. coli from chicken liver are firmly established in the human intestinal tract. PMID:27529965

  17. IncA/C Plasmid Carrying bla(NDM-1), bla(CMY-16), and fosA3 in a Salmonella enterica Serovar Corvallis Strain Isolated from a Migratory Wild Bird in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, L; Guerra, B; Schmoger, S; Fischer, J; Helmuth, R; Zong, Z; García-Fernández, A; Carattoli, A

    2015-10-01

    A Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis strain was isolated from a wild bird in Germany. This strain carried the IncA/C2 pRH-1238 plasmid. Complete sequencing of the plasmid was performed, identifying the blaNDM-1, blaCMY-16, fosA3, sul1, sul2, strA, strB, aac(6')-Ib, aadA5, aphA6, tetA(A), mphA, floR, dfrA7, and merA genes, which confer clinically relevant resistance to most of the antimicrobial classes, including β-lactams with carbapenems, fosfomycin, aminoglycosides, co-trimoxazole, tetracyclines, and macrolides. The strain likely originated from the Asiatic region and was transferred to Germany through the Milvus migrans migratory route. PMID:26169417

  18. High prevalence of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. and detection of blaNDM-1 in A. soli in Cuba: report from National Surveillance Program (2010–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Quiñones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As a first national surveillance of Acinetobacter in Cuba, a total of 500 Acinetobacter spp. isolates recovered from 30 hospitals between 2010 and 2012 were studied. Acinetobacter baumannii–calcoaceticus complex accounted for 96.4% of all the Acinetobacter isolates, while other species were detected at low frequency (A. junii 1.6%, A. lwoffii 1%, A. haemolyticus 0.8%, A. soli 0.2%. Resistance rates of isolates were 34–61% to third-generation cephalosporins, 49–50% to β-lactams/inhibitor combinations, 42–47% to aminoglycosides, 42–44% to carbapenems and 55% to ciprofloxacin. However, resistance rates to colistin, doxycycline, tetracycline and rifampin were less than 5%. Among carbapenem-resistant isolates, 75% harboured different blaOXA genes (OXA-23, 73%; OXA-24, 18%; OXA-58, 3%. The blaNDM-1 gene was identified in an A. soli strain, of which the species was confirmed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene, rpoB, rpoB–rpoC and rpoL–rpoB intergenic spacer regions and gyrB. The sequences of blaNDM-1 and its surrounding genes were identical to those reported for plasmids of A. baumannii and A. lwoffi strains. This is the first report of blaNDM-1 in A. soli, together with a high prevalence of OXA-23 carbapenemase for carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. in Cuba.

  19. Prevalence of ESBL phenotype,blaCTX-M-1,blaSHV andblaTEM genes among uropathogenicEscherichia coli isolates from 3 military hospitals of Tehran, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farshad Nojoomi; Abdolmajid Ghasemian

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production and prevalence ofblaCTX-M-1,blaSHV andblaTEM genes among uropathogenic Escherichia coli(UPEC) isolates from 3 military hospitals of Tehran during 2015–2016. Methods: One-hundred and eleven isolates were adopted. The antibiotic susceptibility testing was conducted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The combine disk was used for phenotypicESBL production. The ceftazidimeMIC was conducted with the micro-broth dilution test. ThePCR assay was used to detect theblaCTX-M-1,blaSHV and blaTEM genes. Results:In the broth microdilution method, 103 (92.7%) isolates showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)≥1µg/mL, and also in the combined disk method, 89 (80.1% of all) wereESBL positive. On the other hand, among 91 ceftazidime resistant isolates, 86 (77.4% of all) wereESBLpositive. The difference between the two methods forESBL confirmation was not significant. The result ofMIC was similar to the disk diffusion method in the detection of phenotypicESBL production. AmongESBLproducer isolates, the prevalence ofblaCTX-M-1, blaSHV andblaTEM was 77.4% (n= 86), 47.4% (n= 53) and 2.4% (n= 2), respectively. These genes were amplified in a wide rangeMIC of ceftazidime. Conclusions:The prevalence of multi-drug resistantUPEC andESBL positive isolates was high in military hospitals. The majority ofUPEC isolates amplifiedblaCTX-M-I andblaSHV typeβ-lactamase genes. One-third of isolates were positive in presence of both these genes. There was no relation between ceftazidimeMIC and presence of beta-lactamase genes.

  20. Diverse Genetic Array of blaCTXM-15 in Escherichia coli: A Single-Center Study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Anand Prakash; Mishra, Shweta; Talukdar, Anupam Das; Dhar Chanda, Debadatta; Chakravarty, Atanu; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha

    2016-01-01

    CTX-M-15 is a chief contributor for expanded-spectrum cephalosporin and monobactam resistance in India, complicating treatment options. In this study, we have investigated genetic context of CTX-M-15 in Escherichia coli and their transmission dynamics in a tertiary referral hospital of India. A total of 198 isolates were collected, of which 66 were harboring blaCTXM-15. Among them, 14 isolates were carrying a single CTX-M-15 gene and 52 were harboring multiple extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes along with blaCTX-M-15. The resistance gene was flanked by tnpA, ISEcp1, IS26, and ORF477 in 10 different arrangements. The resistance determinant was horizontally transferable through F, W, I1, and P Inc types of plasmids. Restriction mapping of plasmids showed a variable band pattern even within the same Inc types. Minimum inhibitory concentration was found above the breakpoint level against expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and monobactam while susceptible against carbapenems. blaCTX-M-15 was highly stable and sustained in the cell after 115 serial passages. In pulse-field gel electrophoresis, eight pulsotypes of E. coli were found to be responsible for the spread of blaCTX-M-15 in the tertiary referral center. We conclude that the presence of CTX-M-15 in the heterogeneous group of E. coli is highly alarming in terms of infection control and it may require regular monitoring, so as to formulate appropriate antibiotic policy to stop the spread of this resistance determinant.

  1. Dissemination of IncI2 Plasmids That Harbor the blaCTX-M Element among Clinical Salmonella Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Marcus Ho-yin; Liu, Lizhang; Yan, Meiying; Chan, Edward Wai-chi; Chen, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) determinant CTX-M-55 is increasingly prevalent in Escherichia coli but remains extremely rare in Salmonella. This study reports the isolation of a plasmid harboring the blaCTX-M-55 element in a clinical Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strain resistant to multiple antibiotics. This plasmid is genetically identical to several known IncI2-type elements harbored by E. coli strains recovered from animals. This finding indicates that IncI2 plasmids ...

  2. The sudden dominance of blaCTX-M harbouring plasmids in Shigella spp. Circulating in Southern Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhu Thi Khanh Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmid mediated antimicrobial resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem. The rise of CTX-M class extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs has been well documented in industrialized countries. Vietnam is representative of a typical transitional middle income country where the spectrum of infectious diseases combined with the spread of drug resistance is shifting and bringing new healthcare challenges. METHODOLOGY: We collected hospital admission data from the pediatric population attending the hospital for tropical diseases in Ho Chi Minh City with Shigella infections. Organisms were cultured from all enrolled patients and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Those that were ESBL positive were subjected to further investigation. These investigations included PCR amplification for common ESBL genes, plasmid investigation, conjugation, microarray hybridization and DNA sequencing of a bla(CTX-M encoding plasmid. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that two different bla(CTX-M genes are circulating in this bacterial population in this location. Sequence of one of the ESBL plasmids shows that rather than the gene being integrated into a preexisting MDR plasmid, the bla(CTX-M gene is located on relatively simple conjugative plasmid. The sequenced plasmid (pEG356 carried the bla(CTX-M-24 gene on an ISEcp1 element and demonstrated considerable sequence homology with other IncFI plasmids. SIGNIFICANCE: The rapid dissemination, spread of antimicrobial resistance and changing population of Shigella spp. concurrent with economic growth are pertinent to many other countries undergoing similar development. Third generation cephalosporins are commonly used empiric antibiotics in Ho Chi Minh City. We recommend that these agents should not be considered for therapy of dysentery in this setting.

  3. Land Use and Land Cover - CEMETERIES_USGS_BLA_IN: Cemetery Locations in Indiana (United States Geological Survey, 1:24000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Cemeteries_USGSs__BLA_IN is a point shapefile showing the locations and attribute values of cemeteries extracted from the Geographic Names Information System (GNIS)...

  4. Association between β-Lactamase-Encoding blaOXA-51 Variants and DiversiLab Rep-PCR-Based Typing of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Esther; Nemec, Alexandr; Seifert, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between blaOXA-51 variants and Acinetobacter baumannii worldwide clonal lineages 1 to 8 (WW1 to -8). The blaOXA-51-like genes of 102 A. baumannii isolates were sequenced. Using DiversiLab repetitive-sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) typing, 92 of these isolates had previously been assigned to WW1 to -8 and 10 were unclustered. Clustering of DNA sequences was performed using the neighbor-joining method and the Jukes-Cantor phylogenetic correction. blaOXA-51 variants were in good correlation with DiversiLab-defined clonal lineages. Sequence-based typing of blaOXA-51 variants has the potential to be applied for epidemiologic characterization of A. baumannii and to identify worldwide clonal lineages 1 to 8. PMID:22422849

  5. Molecular Evolution of a Klebsiella pneumoniae ST278 Isolate Harboring blaNDM-7 and Involved in Nosocomial Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Tarah; Chen, Liang; Peirano, Gisele; Gregson, Dan B; Church, Deirdre L; Conly, John; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Pitout, Johann D

    2016-09-01

    During 2013, ST278 Klebsiella pneumoniae with blaNDM-7 was isolated from the urine (KpN01) and rectum (KpN02) of a patient in Calgary, Canada. The same strain (KpN04) was subsequently isolated from another patient in the same unit. Interestingly, a carbapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae ST278 (KpN06) was obtained 1 month later from the blood of the second patient. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) revealed that the loss of carbapenem-resistance in KpN06 was due to a 5-kb deletion on the blaNDM-7-harboring IncX3 plasmid. In addition, an IncFIB plasmid in KpN06 had a 27-kb deletion that removed genes encoding for heavy metal resistance. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the K. pneumoniae ST278 from patient 2 was likely a descendant of KpN02 and that KpN06 was a close progenitor of an environmental ST278. It is unclear whether KpN06 lost the blaNDM-7 gene in vivo. This study detailed the remarkable plasticity and speed of evolutionary changes in multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae, demonstrating the highly recombinant nature of this species. It also highlights the ability of NGS to clarify molecular microevolutionary events within antibiotic-resistant organisms. PMID:27284091

  6. Clonal dissemination of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST512 carrying blaKPC-3 in a hospital in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcrano, Giovanna; Iula, Dora Vita; de Luca, Cristiana; Roscetto, Emanuela; Vollaro, Antonio; Rossano, Fabio; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing KPC-carbapenemase have emerged as one of the most important multidrug-resistant Gram-negative nosocomial pathogens. Here, we report the first isolation and subsequent dissemination of a K. pneumoniae ST512 producing KPC-3 carbapenemase in a hospital in southern Italy. Isolates were obtained from blood, throat swabs, sputum, catheters, and urine of patients admitted to different hospital wards. Antimicrobial MICs were determined for all isolates by automated systems and confirmed by Etest. Carbapenemase production was confirmed by the modified Hodge test and by a disc synergy test, and carbapenemase genes were investigated by PCR. All isolates were characterized by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. Most isolates were multidrug resistant with exception of some isolates intermediately susceptible to gentamicin, tigecycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PCR analysis showed that isolates harbored the bla(KPC-3) gene associated with bla(TEM) and bla(SVH). PFGE and MLST showed that all isolates belonged to the same ST512 clone recently described in Israel.

  7. Complete Sequence of a Novel IncR-F33:A–:B– Plasmid, pKP1034, Harboring fosA3, blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-65, blaSHV-12, and rmtB from an Epidemic Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 11 Strain in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dai-Rong; Li, Jun-Jie; Sheng, Zi-Ke; Yu, Hai-Ying; Deng, Mei; Bi, Sheng; Hu, Fei-Shu; Chen, Wei; Xue, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Bo; Doi, Yohei; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    A high fosfomycin resistance rate was observed in Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP) in our previous study, but little is known about its mechanisms. In this study, we explored the prevalence of plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance determinants among fosfomycin-resistant KPC-KP strains from a Chinese university hospital and determined the complete sequence of a novel fosA3-carrying plasmid isolated from an epidemic K. pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 strain. A total of 97 KPC-KP strains were studied, of which 57 (58.8%) were resistant to fosfomycin, including 44 (45.4%) harboring fosA3 and 1 harboring fosA. All fosA3-positive strains belonged to the dominant ST11-pulse type (PT) A clone according to multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, suggesting clonal dissemination. The fosA-positive isolate belonged to ST11-PTE. The fosA3-carrying plasmid pKP1034 is 136,848 bp in length and is not self-transmissible. It is a multireplicon plasmid belonging to IncR-F33:A−: B−. Besides fosA3, a variety of other resistance determinants, including blaKPC-2, rmtB, blaCTX-M-65, and blaSHV-12, are identified in pKP1034, which would allow for coselection of fosA3 by most β-lactams and/or aminoglycosides and facilitate its dissemination despite limited use of fosfomycin in China. Detailed comparisons with related plasmids revealed that pKP1034 is highly mosaic and might have evolved from alarming recombination of the blaKPC-2-carrying plasmid pKPC-LK30 from Taiwan and the epidemic fosA3-carrying plasmid pHN7A8 from mainland China. PMID:26666939

  8. Sequence of closely related plasmids encoding bla(NDM-1 in two unrelated Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Tsong Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spread of the bla(NDM-1 gene that encodes the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae is a major global health problem. Plasmids carrying bla(NDM-1 from two different multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumonia isolates collected in Singapore were completely sequenced and compared to known plasmids carrying bla(NDM-1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The two plasmids, pTR3 and pTR4, were transferred to Escherichia coli recipient strain J53 and completely sequenced by a shotgun approach using 3-kb paired-end libraries on 454. Although the K. pneumoniae strains were unrelated by molecular typing using PFGE and MLST, complete sequencing revealed that pTR3 and pTR4 are identical. The plasmid sequence is similar to the E. coli NDM-1-encoding plasmid p271A, which was isolated in Australia from a patient returning from Bangladesh. The immediate regions of the bla(NDM-1 gene in pTR3/4 are identical to that of p271A, but the backbone of our plasmid is much more similar to another IncN2 plasmid reported recently, pJIE137, which contained an additional 5.2-kb CUP (conserved upstream repeat regulon region in comparison to p271A. A 257-bp element bounded by imperfect 39-bp inverted repeats (IR and an incomplete version of this element flanking the 3.6-kb NDM-1-encoding region were identified in these plasmids and are likely to be the vestiges of an unknown IS. CONCLUSIONS: Although the hosts are not epidemiologically linked, we found that the plasmids bearing the bla(NDM-1 gene are identical. Comparative analyses of the conserved NDM-1-encoding region among different plasmids from K. pneumoniae and E. coli suggested that the transposable elements and the two unknown IR-associated elements flanking the NDM-1-encoding region might have aided the spreading of this worrisome resistance determinant.

  9. Epidemiological characteristics of blaNDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae and the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in China from 2011 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimei Ou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of blaNDM-1 (encoding New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 in Enterobacteriaceae and the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex (ABC in China from July 2011 to June 2012. METHODS: PCR was used to screen for the presence of blaNDM-1 in all organisms studied. For blaNDM-1-positive strains, 16S rRNA analysis and Analytical Profile Index (API strips were used to identify the bacterial genus and species. The ABCs were reconfirmed by PCR detection of blaOXA-51-like. Antibiotic susceptibilities of the bacteria were assessed by determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of them using two-fold agar dilution test, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. Molecular typing was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. S1 nuclease-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE and Southern blot hybridization were conducted to ascertain the gene location of blaNDM-1. Conjugation experiments were conducted to determine the transmission of blaNDM-1-positive strains. RESULTS: Among 2,170 Enterobacteriaceae and 600 ABCs, seven Enterobacteriaceae strains and two A. calcoaceticus isolates from five different cities carried the blaNDM-1 gene. The seven Enterobacteriaceae strains comprised four Klebsiella pneumoniae, one Enterobacter cloacae, one Enterobacter aerogen and one Citrobacter freundii. All seven were non-susceptible to imipenem, meropenem or ertapenem. Two A. calcoaceticus species were resistant to imipenem and meropenem. Three K. pneumoniae showed the same PFGE profiles. The blaNDM-1 genes of eight strains were localized on plasmids, while one was chromosomal. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with previous reports, the numbers and species containing the blaNDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae have significantly increased in China. Most of them are able to disseminate the gene, which is cause for concern. Consecutive

  10. Dispersal of carbapenemase blaVIM-1 gene associated with different Tn402 variants, mercury transposons, and conjugative plasmids in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tato, Marta; Coque, Teresa M; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of bla(VIM-1) within four different genetic platforms from distinct Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in an area with a low prevalence of metallo-beta-lactamase producers is reported. Forty-three VIM-1-producing isolates (including 19 Enterobacter cloacae, 2 Escherichia coli, and 2 P. aeruginosa isolates, 18 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate, and 2 Klebsiella oxytoca isolate) recovered from 2005 to 2007 and corresponding to 15 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types were studied. The Enterobacteriaceae isolates corresponded to a hospital outbreak, and the P. aeruginosa isolates were sporadically recovered. The genetic context of the integrons carrying bla(VIM-1) (arbitrarily designated types A, B, C, and D) was characterized by PCR mapping based on known Tn402 and mercury transposons and further sequencing. Among Enterobacteriaceae isolates, bla(VIM-1) was part of integrons located either in an In2-Tn402 element linked to Tn21 (type A; In110-bla(VIM-1)-aacA4-aadA1) or in a Tn402 transposon lacking the whole tni module [type B; In113-bla(VIM-1)-aacA4-dhfrII (also called dfrB1)-aadA1-catB2] and the transposon was associated with an IncHI2 or IncI1 plasmid, respectively. Among P. aeruginosa isolates, bla(VIM-1) was part of a new gene cassette array located in a defective Tn402 transposon carrying either tniBDelta3 and tniA (type C; bla(VIM-1)-aadA1) or tniC and DeltatniQ (type D; bla(VIM-1)-aadB), and both Tn402 variants were associated with conjugative plasmids of 30 kb. The dissemination of bla(VIM-1) was associated with different genetic structures and bacterial hosts, depicting a complex emergence and evolutionary network scenario in our facility, Ramón y Cajal University Hospital, Madrid, Spain. Knowledge of the complex epidemiology of bla(VIM-1) is necessary to control this emerging threat. PMID:19901094

  11. Amending Death Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ The eighth amendment to the Criminal Law, demanding more prudent use of capital punishment, has triggered hot debates in China after it was presented to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC), China's top legislature, for the first reading at the end of August.

  12. First Amendment Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Provides a list of terms and the corresponding definitions pertaining to the First Amendment. Focuses on concepts such as, but not limited to, freedom, ratification, separation of church and state, and Constitution that are used in the articles and teaching strategies throughout this issue of "Update on Law-Related Education." (CMK)

  13. Whole-animal imaging of bacterial infection using endoscopic excitation of β-lactamase (BlaC)-specific fluorogenic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooshabadi, Fatemeh; Yang, Hee-Jeong; Cheng, Yunfeng; Xie, Hexin; Rao, Jianghong; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains one of the most frequent causes of death worldwide. The slow growth rate of Mtb limits progress toward understanding tuberculosis including diagnosis of infections and evaluating therapeutic efficacy. Development of near-infrared (NIR) β-lactamase (BlaC)-specific fluorogenic substrate has made a significant breakthrough in the whole-animal imaging to detect Mtb infection. The reporter enzyme fluorescence (REF) system using a BlaC-specific fluorogenic substrate has improved the detection sensitivity in whole-animal optical imaging down to ~104 colony forming units (CFU) of bacteria, about 100-fold improvement over recombinant strains. However, improvement of detection sensitivity is strongly needed for clinical diagnosis of early stage infection at greater tissue depth. In order to improve detection sensitivity, we have integrated a fiber-based microendoscpe into a whole-animal imaging system to transmit the excitation light from the fiber bundle to the fluorescent target directly and measure fluorescent level using BlaC-specific REF substrate in the mouse lung. REF substrate, CNIR800, was delivered via aerosol route to the pulmonary infected mice with M. bovis BCG strain at 24 hours post-infection and groups of mice were imaged at 1-4 hours post-administration of the substrate using the integrated imaging system. In this study we evaluated the kinetics of CNIR800 substrate using REF technology using the integrated imaging system. Integration of these technologies has great promise for improved detection sensitivity allowing pre-clinical imaging for evaluation of new therapeutic agents.

  14. Emerging Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates Carrying blaIMP Among Burn Patients in Isfahan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radan, Mohsen; Moniri, Rezvan; Khorshidi, Ahmad; Gilasi, Hamidreza; Norouzi, Zohreh; Beigi, Fahimeh; Dasteh Goli, Yasaman

    2016-01-01

    Background Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant pathogen in burn patients. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates, including those resistant to imipenemase (IMP), in a burn unit in Isfahan, Iran. Patients and Methods One hundred and fifty P. aeruginosa isolates from burn patients were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by the disc diffusion method in accordance with CLSI guidelines. Production of MBL was identified with the EDTA disk method. DNA was purified from the MBL-positive isolates, and detection of the blaIMP gene was performed with PCR. Results Fifty-seven out of 150 (38%) isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR), and 93 (62%) were extensively-drug resistant (XDR). Among all isolates, the resistance rate to ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, ceftazidime, and cefepime was higher than 90%, while the resistance rates to piperacillin/tazobactam and aztreonam were 70.7% and 86%, respectively. Colistin and polymyxin B remained the most effective studied antibiotics. All of the imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were MBL-positive, and 107 out of 144 (74.3%) of the MBL isolates were positive for the blaIMP gene. Conclusions The results of this study show that the rate of P. aeruginosa-caused burn wound infections was very high, and many of the isolates were resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials. Such extensive resistance to antimicrobial classes is important because few treatment options remain for patients with burn wound infections. blaIMP-producing P. aeruginosa isolates are a rising threat in burn-care units, and should be controlled by conducting infection-control assessments.

  15. Ambiente genético del Gen blaCTX-M-12 en aislamientos hospitalarios de Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Yamile Adriana Celis Bustos; Ingrid Yamile Pulido Manrique; Emilia María Valenzuela de Silva; María Teresa Reguero Reza; José Ramón Mantilla Anaya

    2009-01-01

    The blaCTX-M-12 gene’s genetic environmnt in Klebsiella pneumoniae hospital isolates Resumen: En Colombia se han detectado genes del grupo CTX-M-1 con alta frecuencia en aislamientos de Klebsiella pneumoniae causantes de infección intrahospitalaria. El conocimiento de los factores genéticos que pueden favorecer la diseminación de estos genes entre especies bacterianas es un aspecto importante para el control de la resistencia. En este estudio se identificaron los plásmidos portadores del ge...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant blaNDM-1-Producing Acinetobacter soli Isolate in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yan; Yan, Zhengsong; Wang, Miaojuan; Zheng, Xia; Lu, Yun; Lin, Shaohua

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are one of the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens causing nosocomial infections and have become a major clinical and public health threat. In this study, we presented the first draft genome sequence of A. soli TCM341, a multidrug resistant isolate that carried the blaNDM-1 gene in China. Genome sequencing of A. soli TCM341 was carried out in Illumina Hiseq 2000 next-generation sequencer. The data obtained revealed 74 contigs with genome size of 3.49 Mb and G+C content o...

  17. Draft genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant blaOXA-23-producing Acinetobacter baumannii ST208 isolate from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Wu, Liyan; Chen, Yu; Xu, Zhijun; Xu, Liqun

    2016-03-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged worldwide as an important opportunistic nosocomial pathogen and has become a major public health concern. In this study, the draft genome sequence of A. baumannii TCM331 (ST208/CC92), a multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolate harbouring the blaOXA-23 gene isolated in China, was determined. The genome of TCM331 was sequenced via Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, and bioinformatics analysis was performed. Important antimicrobial resistance determinants were observed in an estimated genome size of 4,058,691bp with 3838 predicted coding regions. In conclusion, these data might facilitate further understanding of the specific genomic features of MDR A. baumannii in China.

  18. Censorship of Off-Campus Publications Violates First Amendment Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Julian

    1989-01-01

    Reviews Burch v. Barker, in which the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that school administrators' prior review of an alternative or off-campus publication, destined for distribution on the school campus, is in violation of the First Amendment. (MS)

  19. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of IncP-1β Plasmid pDTC28 Reveals a Non-Functional Variant of the blaGES-Type Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Bingjun; Mao, Daqing; Luo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Plasmid pDTC28 was isolated from the sediments of Haihe River using E. coli CV601 (gfp-tagged) as recipient and indigenous bacteria from the sediment as donors. This plasmid confers reduced susceptibility to tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole. The complete sequence of plasmid pDTC28 was 61,503 bp in length with an average G+C content of 64.09%. Plasmid pDTC28 belongs to the IncP-1β group by phylogenetic analysis. The backbones of plasmid pDTC28 and other IncP-1β plasmids are very classical and conserved, whereas the accessory regions of these plasmids are diverse. A blaGES-5-like gene was found on the accessory region, and this blaGES-5-like gene contained 18 silent mutations and 7 missense mutations compared with the blaGES-5 gene. The mutations resulted in 7 amino acid substitutions in GES-5 carbapenemase, causing the loss of function of the blaGES-5-like gene on plasmid pDTC28 against carbapenems and even β-lactams. The enzyme produced by the blaGES-5-like gene cassette may be a new variant of GES-type enzymes. Thus, the plasmid sequenced in this study will expand our understanding of GES-type β-lactamases and provide insights into the genetic platforms used for the dissemination of GES-type genes. PMID:27152950

  20. Exploring the potential reservoirs of non specific TEM beta lactamase (blaTEM) gene in the Indo-Gangetic region: A risk assessment approach to predict health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Rani, Neetika; Amoah, Isaac Dennis; Stenström, Thor Axel; Shanker, Rishi

    2016-08-15

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria is an important public health and environmental contamination issue. Antimicrobials of β-lactam group accounts for approximately two thirds, by weight, of all antimicrobials administered to humans due to high clinical efficacy and low toxicity. This study explores β-lactam resistance determinant gene (blaTEM) as emerging contaminant in Indo-Gangetic region using qPCR in molecular beacon format. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) approach was adopted to predict risk to human health associated with consumption/exposure of surface water, potable water and street foods contaminated with bacteria having blaTEM gene. It was observed that surface water and sediments of the river Ganga and Gomti showed high numbers of blaTEM gene copies and varied significantly (privers had high load of blaTEM gene copies. The information on prevalence of environmental reservoirs of blaTEM gene containing bacteria in Indo-Gangetic region and risk associated will be useful for formulating strategies to protect public from menace of clinical risks linked with antimicrobial resistant bacteria. PMID:27111425

  1. Persistence of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates Harboring blaOXA-23 and bap for 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ji Youn; Koo, Sun Hoe; Kim, Semi; Kwon, Gye Cheol

    2016-08-28

    The emergence and dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have been reported worldwide, and A. baumannii isolates harboring blaOXA-23 are often resistant to various antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial resistance can be particularly strong for biofilm-forming A. baumannii isolates. We investigated the genetic basis for carbapenem resistance and biofilm-forming ability of multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. Ninety-two MDR A. baumannii isolates were collected from one university hospital located in the Chungcheong area of Korea over a 5-year period. Multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to characterize carbapenemase and bap genes. Clonal characteristics were analyzed using REP-PCR. In addition, imaging and quantification of biofilms were performed using a crystal violet assay. All 92 MDR A. baumannii isolates involved in our study contained the blaOXA-23 and bap genes. The average absorbance of biomass in Bap-producing strains was much greater than that in non-Bap-producing strains. In our study, only three REP-PCR types were found, and the isolates showing type A or type B were found more than 60 times among unique patients during the 5 years of surveillance. These results suggest that the isolates have persisted and colonized for 5 years, and biofilm formation ability has been responsible for their persistence and colonization.

  2. The molecular phenomena of the blaZ genes forming betalactamase enzymes structure in Staphylococcus aureus resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Satari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, infectious disease still an important problem. One of the bacteria causing infectious diseases is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. In the effort to deal with infections caused by S. aureus, beta-lactam antibiotics, such as ampicillin, are used. In fact, it is unfortunately known that many of S. aureus bacteria are resistant to this group of antibiotics. Because of nucleotide base changes in the structure of the genes blaZ which encode beta-lactamase enzymes in S. aureus. Purpose: The objective of this study was to analyze the nucleotide base changes in the structure of the genes blaZ forming beta-lactamase enzymes in S. aureus resistant to ampicillin based on molecular point of view. Methods: Molecular examinations was conducted by isolating the genes, forming beta-lactamase enzyme, which length was 845bp, from 7 isolates of S. aureus resistant to ampicillin by using PCR technique. The results of blaZ amplification were then subjected to homology by using Tn 552 of S. aureus obtained from bank of genes. Results: Based on the result of the homology, it was found that there was a change in purine base TG, which was a pyrimidine base at the -37 position of the initial codon of blaZ. This change, however, did not affect the strength of the promoter since the number of A and T is still more than the number of G and C. In the structure of the blaZ gene there was even no mutation or deletion or nucleotide base substitution found, so it would not affect the effectiveness of beta-lactamase enzyme. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the resistance of S. aureus towards ampicillin was not caused by nucleotide base deletion/substation. It is suspected that there were other causes leading to the resistance, including the overproduction of beta-lactamase enzyme of the blaZ gene, causing the degradation of beta-lactam antibiotics.Latar belakang: Penyakit infeksi sampai saat ini masih merupakan masalah. Salah satu bakteri penyebab

  3. Multidrug resistance and transferability of blaCTX-M among extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing enteric bacteria in biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Meenu; Ahmad, Iqbal; Althubiani, Abdullah Safar

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of biofilm-forming extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enteric bacteria in hospital wastewater and to evaluate their antibiotic resistance behaviour and transferability of the plasmid-encoded blaCTX-M gene in biofilm. ESBL production was confirmed using the combined disc test and Etest. Amplification of blaCTX-M was performed by PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated using the disc diffusion assay and broth dilution method. Transfer of blaCTX-M in planktonic and biofilm state was performed by broth mating and filter mating experiments, respectively. Among 110 enteric bacteria, 24 (21.8%) isolates belonging to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae were found to produce ESBL and formed varying levels of biofilm in vitro. Presence of blaCTX-M was detected in 18 (75%) ESBL-producing isolates. A many fold increase in resistance to antibiotics was observed in biofilm. Among ESBL-producers, seven isolates could transfer the blaCTX-M gene by conjugation, with transfer frequencies ranging from 2.22×10(-4) to 7.14×10(-2) transconjugants/recipient cell in the planktonic state and from 3.04×10(-3) to 9.15×10(-1) in biofilm. The transfer frequency of blaCTX-M was significantly higher in biofilm compared with the planktonic state, and co-transfer of ciprofloxacin resistance was also detected in five isolates. This study demonstrates that biofilm-forming ESBL-producing enteric bacteria with a greater transfer frequency of resistance genes will lead to frequent dissemination of β-lactam and fluoroquinolone resistance genes in environmental settings. The emergence and spread of such multidrug resistance is a serious threat to animal and public health. PMID:27530857

  4. Influence of agricultural practice on mobile bla genes: IncI1-bearing CTX-M, SHV, CMY and TEM in Escherichia coli from intensive farming soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Dias, Daniela; Manageiro, Vera; Caniça, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Many calls have been made to address antibiotic resistance in an environmental perspective. With this study, we showed the widespread presence of high-level antibiotic resistant isolates on a collection of non-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria (n = 232) recovered from soils. Bacteria were selected using amoxicillin, cefotaxime and imipenem, from sites representing different agricultural practices (extensive, intensive and organic). Striking levels of non-susceptibility were noticed in intensive soils for norfloxacin (74%), streptomycin (50.7%) and tetracycline (46.6%); indeed, the exposure to intensive agricultural practices constituted a risk factor for non-susceptibility to many antibiotics, multidrug resistance and production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Analyses of non-susceptibility highlighted that environmental and clinical bacteria from the same species might not share the same intrinsic resistance patterns, raising concerns for therapy choices in environment-borne infections. The multiple sequence-type IncI1-driven spread of penicillinases (blaTEM-1, blaTEM-135), ESBL (blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-1) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (blaCMY-2), produced by isolates that share their molecular features with isolates from humans and animals, suggests contamination of agricultural soils. This is also the first appearance of IncI1/ST28-harbouring blaCTX-M-1, which should be monitored to prevent their establishment as successfully dispersed plasmids. This research may help disclose paths of contamination by mobile antibiotic resistance determinants and the risks for their dissemination.

  5. Complete Nucleotide Sequences of Two blaKPC-2-Bearing IncN Plasmids Isolated from Sequence Type 442 Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Strains Four Years Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Chaparro, Paula Juliana; Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Queiroz, Maíse Gomes; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; Levy, Carlos Emílio; Pavez, Mónica; Lincopan, Nilton; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa; Mamizuka, Elsa Masae; Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello; Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced the oldest blaKPC-2-bearing plasmid isolated in Brazil and another plasmid also carried by a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain of sequence type 442 (ST442), isolated 52 months later. Both plasmids present an IncN backbone and few acquired regions. Because the 2005 plasmid presented deletions and a truncated gene within Tn4401b compared to the 2009 plasmid, we can thus infer that IncN blaKPC-2-bearing plasmids pFCF1305 and pFCF3SP had a common ancestor circulating in Brazil prior to May 2005. PMID:24566176

  6. Complete Nucleotide Sequences of Two blaKPC-2-Bearing IncN Plasmids Isolated from Sequence Type 442 Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Strains Four Years Apart

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Juliana PÉREZ-CHAPARRO; Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Queiroz, Maíse Gomes; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; Levy, Carlos Emílio; Pavez, Mónica; Lincopan, Nilton; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa; Mamizuka, Elsa Masae; Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello; Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira; McCulloch, John Anthony

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced the oldest blaKPC-2-bearing plasmid isolated in Brazil and another plasmid also carried by a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain of sequence type 442 (ST442), isolated 52 months later. Both plasmids present an IncN backbone and few acquired regions. Because the 2005 plasmid presented deletions and a truncated gene within Tn4401b compared to the 2009 plasmid, we can thus infer that IncN blaKPC-2-bearing plasmids pFCF1305 and pFCF3SP had a common ancestor circulating in Brazil prior to Ma...

  7. The IncI1 plasmid carrying the bla CTX-M-1 gene persists in in vitro culture of a Escherichia coli strain from broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, E.A.J.; Dierikx, C.M.; Essen-Zandbergen, van, A.; Roermund, van, C.W.T.; Mevius, D.J.; Stegeman, A; Klinkenberg, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Commensal bacteria are a reservoir for antimicrobial-resistance genes. In the Netherlands, bacteria producing Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) are found on chicken-meat and in the gut of broilers at a high prevalence and the predominant ESBL-gene is the bla CTX-M-1 located on IncI1 plasmids. We aim to determine the fitness costs of this plasmid for the bacterium. We investigated the conjugation dynamics of IncI1 plasmids carrying the bla CTX-M-1 gene in a batch culture and ...

  8. A Plasmid Bearing the bla(CTX-M-15) Gene and Phage P1-Like Sequences from a Sequence Type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Juyoun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2015-10-01

    Plasmid pKP12226 was extracted and analyzed from a CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 11 (ST11) isolate collected in South Korea. The plasmid represents chimeric characteristics consisting of a pIP1206-like backbone and lysogenized phage P1-like sequences. It bears a resistance region that includes resistance genes to several antibiotics and is different from previously characterized plasmids from South Korea bearing blaCTX-M-15. It may have resulted from recombination between an Escherichia coli plasmid backbone, a blaCTX-M-15-bearing resistance region, and lysogenized phage P1-like sequences. PMID:26195513

  9. High Prevalence of SXT/R391-Related Integrative and Conjugative Elements Carrying blaCMY-2 in Proteus mirabilis Isolates from Gulls in the South of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberkane, Salim; Compain, Fabrice; Decré, Dominique; Dupont, Chloé; Laurens, Chrislène; Vittecoq, Marion; Pantel, Alix; Solassol, Jérôme; Carrière, Christian; Renaud, François; Brieu, Nathalie; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Bouzinbi, Nicolas; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-02-01

    The genetic structures involved in the dissemination of blaCMY-2 carried by Proteus mirabilis isolates recovered from different gull species in the South of France were characterized and compared to clinical isolates. blaCMY-2 was identified in P. mirabilis isolates from 27/93 yellow-legged gulls and from 37/65 slender-billed gulls. It was carried by a conjugative SXT/R391-like integrative and conjugative element (ICE) in all avian strains and in 3/7 human strains. Two clinical isolates had the same genetic background as six avian isolates. PMID:26643344

  10. A critical review of nitrogen mineralization in biosolids-amended soil, the associated fertilizer value for crop production and potential for emissions to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Hannah; Clarke, Bradley O; Pritchard, Deborah L; Meehan, Barry; Beshah, Firew; Smith, Stephen R; Porter, Nichola A

    2016-01-15

    , compared to cooler temperate areas. It is also probably influenced by differences in upstream wastewater treatment processes that affect the balance of primary and secondary, biological sludges in the final combined sludge output from wastewater treatment, as well as the relative effectiveness of sludge stabilization treatments at specific sites. Better characterization of biosolids used in N release and mineralization investigations is therefore necessary to improve comparison of system conditions. Furthermore, the review suggested that some international fertilizer recommendations may underestimate mineralizable N in biosolids, and the N fertilizer value. Consequently, greater inputs of supplementary mineral fertilizer N may be supplied than are required for crop production, potentially increasing the risk of fertilizer N emissions to the environment. Thus greater economic and environmental savings in mineral N fertilizer application are potentially possible than are currently realized from biosolids recycling programmes.

  11. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    CERN Document Server

    Bocchi, Laura; Tuosto, Emilio; 10.4204/EPTCS.59.10

    2011-01-01

    Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent) ones.

  12. 75 FR 16351 - Medical Devices; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and 1050 Medical Devices; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending certain medical device regulations to correct statutory and regulatory references to ensure accuracy, consistency,...

  13. First characterisation of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance-qnrS1 co-expressed bla CTX-M-15 and bla DHA-1 genes in clinical strain of Morganella morganii recovered from a Tunisian Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mahrouki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Aim of this study was to show the emergence of the qnr genes among fluoroquinolone-resistant, AMPC and ESBL (extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase co-producing Morganella morganii isolate. Materials and Methods: A multi resistant Morganella morganii SM12012 isolate was recovered from pus from a patient hospitalized in the intensive care unit at the Military hospital, Tunisia. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested with the agar disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. ESBLs were detected using a standard double-disk synergy test. The characterization of beta-lactamases and associated resistance genes were performed by isoelectric focusing, polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing. Results: The antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed the high resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins (MICs: 64-512 μg/ml and fluoroquinolones (MICs: 32-512 μg/ml. But M. morganii SM12012 isolate remained susceptible to carbapenems (MICs: 4-<0.25 μg/ml. The double-disk synergy test confirmed the phenotype of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs. Three identical β-lactamases with pI values of 6.5, 7.8 and superior to 8.6 were detected after isoelectric focusing analysis. These β-lactamases genes can be successfully transferred by the conjugative plasmid. Molecular analysis demonstrated the co-production of bla DHA-1, bla CTX-M-15 and qnrS1 genes on the same plasmid. The detection of an associated chromosomal quinolone resistance revealed the presence of a parC mutation at codon 80 (Ser80-lle80. Conclusion: This is the first report in Tunisia of nosocomial infection due to the production of CTX-M-15 and DHA-1 β-lactamases in M. morganii isolate with the association of quinolone plasmid resistance. The incidence of these strains invites continuous monitoring of such multidrug-resistant strains and the further study of their epidemiologic evolution.

  14. 78 FR 18233 - Medical Devices; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ...). These amendments are merely correcting nonsubstantive errors. FDA therefore, for good cause, finds under... heartbeats in patients following cardiac surgery or a myocardial infarction. * * * * * * * * 0 4. Amend...

  15. Draft genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant blaOXA-23-producing Acinetobacter baumannii ST208 isolate from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Wu, Liyan; Chen, Yu; Xu, Zhijun; Xu, Liqun

    2016-03-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged worldwide as an important opportunistic nosocomial pathogen and has become a major public health concern. In this study, the draft genome sequence of A. baumannii TCM331 (ST208/CC92), a multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolate harbouring the blaOXA-23 gene isolated in China, was determined. The genome of TCM331 was sequenced via Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, and bioinformatics analysis was performed. Important antimicrobial resistance determinants were observed in an estimated genome size of 4,058,691bp with 3838 predicted coding regions. In conclusion, these data might facilitate further understanding of the specific genomic features of MDR A. baumannii in China. PMID:27436391

  16. The IncI1 plasmid carrying the bla CTX-M-1 gene persists in in vitro culture of a Escherichia coli strain from broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, E.A.J.; Dierikx, C.M.; Essen-Zandbergen, van A.; Roermund, van H.J.W.; Mevius, D.J.; Stegeman, A.; Klinkenberg, D.

    2014-01-01

    Commensal bacteria are a reservoir for antimicrobial-resistance genes. In the Netherlands, bacteria producing Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) are found on chicken-meat and in the gut of broilers at a high prevalence and the predominant ESBL-gene is the blaCTX-M-1 located on IncI1 plasmids.

  17. Complete nucleotide sequence of pGA45, a 140,698-bp incFIIY plasmid encoding blaIMI-3-mediated carbapenem resistance, from river sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjun eDang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmid pGA45 was isolated from the sediment of Haihe River using E. coli CV601 (gfp-tagged as recipients and indigenous bacteria from sediment as donors. This plasmid confers reduced susceptibility to imipenem which belongs to carbapenem group. Plasmid pGA45 was fully sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. The complete sequence of plasmid pGA45 was 140,698 bp in length with an average G+C content of 52.03%. Sequence analysis shows that pGA45 belongs to incFIIY group and harbors a backbone region shares high homology and gene synteny to several other incF plasmids including pNDM1_EC14653, pYDC644, pNDM-Ec1GN574, pRJF866, pKOX_NDM1 and pP10164-NDM. In addition to the backbone region, plasmid pGA45 harbors two notable features including one blaIMI-3-containing region and one type VI secretion system region. The blaIMI-3-containing region is responsible for bacteria carbapenem resistance and the type VI secretion system region is probably involved in bacteria virulence, respectively. Plasmid pGA45 represents the first complete nucleotide sequence of the blaIMI-harboring plasmid from environment sample and the sequencing of this plasmid provided insight into the architecture used for the dissemination of blaIMI carbapenemase genes.

  18. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of pGA45, a 140,698-bp IncFIIY Plasmid Encoding bla IMI-3-Mediated Carbapenem Resistance, from River Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Bingjun; Mao, Daqing; Luo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Plasmid pGA45 was isolated from the sediments of Haihe River using Escherichia coli CV601 (gfp-tagged) as recipients and indigenous bacteria from sediment as donors. This plasmid confers reduced susceptibility to imipenem which belongs to carbapenem group. Plasmid pGA45 was fully sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. The complete sequence of plasmid pGA45 was 140,698 bp in length with an average G + C content of 52.03%. Sequence analysis shows that pGA45 belongs to IncFIIY group and harbors a backbone region which shares high homology and gene synteny to several other IncF plasmids including pNDM1_EC14653, pYDC644, pNDM-Ec1GN574, pRJF866, pKOX_NDM1, and pP10164-NDM. In addition to the backbone region, plasmid pGA45 harbors two notable features including one bla IMI-3-containing region and one type VI secretion system region. The bla IMI-3-containing region is responsible for bacteria carbapenem resistance and the type VI secretion system region is probably involved in bacteria virulence, respectively. Plasmid pGA45 represents the first complete nucleotide sequence of the bla IMI-harboring plasmid from environment sample and the sequencing of this plasmid provided insight into the architecture used for the dissemination of bla IMI carbapenemase genes. PMID:26941718

  19. NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a teaching hospital in Shanghai, China: IncX3-type plasmids may contribute to the dissemination of blaNDM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongping Qu

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: This is the first report of NDM-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae from Shanghai, China. IncX3 plasmids, reported in various species in the United Arab Emirates and China, may contribute to the dissemination of blaNDM-1.. More attention should be devoted to monitoring the dissemination of the NDM-1 gene due to its potential horizontal transfer via mobile genetic elements.

  20. Molecular dissection of blaKPC-2-bearing plasmids evolving in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated at one teaching hospital in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Pinghua; Zhang, Ying; Tang, Yu; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2016-08-01

    The presence of carbapenemase gene blaKPC-2 in a wide variety of plasmids, especially conjugative plasmids, is key to the rapid, worldwide spread of carbapenemase enzymes. Thirty-eight, non-duplicated, carbapenem-resistant, clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were collected, all carrying blaKPC-2-bearing plasmids. Relaxase analysis was used to classify these plasmids; 8 and 30 plasmids belonged to the MOBP3 and MOBF12 subfamilies, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two genetic subclades in the MOBF12 subfamily and suggested that these subclades might not have originated from the same ancestor. Crossing PCR, used to sequence fully the type IV secretion system (T4SS, essential structures for conjugative plasmids) of the MOBF12 plasmids, found that T4SSs were distinctively different in certain functional genes, e.g. traS and traG. In conclusion, this study delineated the evolution of blaKPC-2-bearing plasmids at Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China. The plasmids bearing blaKPC-2 were diverse and the MOBF12 plasmids were dominant in clinical K. pneumoniae isolates. PMID:27252157

  1. Complete Sequence of Four Multidrug-Resistant MOBQ1 Plasmids Harboring blaGES-5 Isolated from Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens Persisting in a Hospital in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, David; Taylor, Geoffrey; Fuller, Jeff; Bryce, Elizabeth; Embree, Joanne; Gravel, Denise; Katz, Kevin; Kibsey, Pamela; Kuhn, Magdalena; Langley, Joanne; Mataseje, Laura; Mitchell, Robyn; Roscoe, Diane; Simor, Andrew; Thomas, Eva; Turgeon, Nathalie; Mulvey, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The usefulness of carbapenems for gram-negative infections is becoming compromised by organisms harboring carbapenemases, enzymes which can hydrolyze the drug. Currently KPC (class A), NDM (class B), and OXA-48 types (class D) are the most globally widespread carbapenemases. However, among the GES-type class A extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) there are variants that hydrolyze carbapenems, with blaGES-5 being the most common. Two Escherichia coli and two Serratia marcescens harboring blaGES-5 on plasmids were isolated by the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) from four different patients in a single hospital over a 2-year period. Complete sequencing of the blaGES-5 plasmids indicated that all four had nearly identical backbones consisting of genes for replication, partitioning, and stability, but contained variant accessory regions consisting of mobile elements and antimicrobial resistance genes. The plasmids were of a novel replicon type, but belonged to the MOBQ1 group based on relaxase sequences, and appeared to be mobilizable, but not self-transmissible. Considering the time periods of bacterial isolation, it would appear the blaGES-5 plasmid has persisted in an environmental niche for at least 2 years in the hospital. This has implications for infection control and clinical care when it is transferred to clinically relevant gram-negative organisms.

  2. A Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolate Harboring Two Copies of blaIMP-34 Encoding a Metallo-β-Lactamase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Tada

    Full Text Available A carbapenem-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, NCGM1984, was isolated in 2012 from a hospitalized patient in Japan. Immunochromatographic assay showed that the isolate was positive for IMP-type metallo-β-lactamase. Complete genome sequencing revealed that NCGM1984 harbored two copies of blaIMP-34, located at different sites on the chromosome. Each blaIMP-34 was present in the same structures of the class 1 integrons, tnpA(ISPa7-intI1-qacG-blaIMP-34-aac(6'-Ib-qacEdelta1-sul1-orf5-tniBdelta-tniA. The isolate belonged to multilocus sequence typing ST235, one of the international high-risk clones. IMP-34, with an amino acid substitution (Glu126Gly compared with IMP-1, hydrolyzed all β-lactamases tested except aztreonam, and its catalytic activities were similar to IMP-1. This is the first report of a clinical isolate of an IMP-34-producing P. aeruginosa harboring two copies of blaIMP-34 on its chromosome.

  3. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of pGA45, a 140,698-bp IncFIIY Plasmid Encoding bla IMI-3-Mediated Carbapenem Resistance, from River Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Bingjun; Mao, Daqing; Luo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Plasmid pGA45 was isolated from the sediments of Haihe River using Escherichia coli CV601 (gfp-tagged) as recipients and indigenous bacteria from sediment as donors. This plasmid confers reduced susceptibility to imipenem which belongs to carbapenem group. Plasmid pGA45 was fully sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. The complete sequence of plasmid pGA45 was 140,698 bp in length with an average G + C content of 52.03%. Sequence analysis shows that pGA45 belongs to IncFIIY group and harbors a backbone region which shares high homology and gene synteny to several other IncF plasmids including pNDM1_EC14653, pYDC644, pNDM-Ec1GN574, pRJF866, pKOX_NDM1, and pP10164-NDM. In addition to the backbone region, plasmid pGA45 harbors two notable features including one bla IMI-3-containing region and one type VI secretion system region. The bla IMI-3-containing region is responsible for bacteria carbapenem resistance and the type VI secretion system region is probably involved in bacteria virulence, respectively. Plasmid pGA45 represents the first complete nucleotide sequence of the bla IMI-harboring plasmid from environment sample and the sequencing of this plasmid provided insight into the architecture used for the dissemination of bla IMI carbapenemase genes.

  4. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  5. Molecular identification of CTX-M and blaOXY/K1 β-lactamase genes in Enterobacteriaceae by sequencing of universal M13-sequence tagged PCR-amplicons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tärnberg Maria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmid encoded blaCTX-M enzymes represent an important sub-group of class A β-lactamases causing the ESBL phenotype which is increasingly found in Enterobacteriaceae including Klebsiella spp. Molecular typing of clinical ESBL-isolates has become more and more important for prevention of the dissemination of ESBL-producers among nosocomial environment. Methods Multiple displacement amplified DNA derived from 20 K. pneumoniae and 34 K. oxytoca clinical isolates with an ESBL-phenotype was used in a universal CTX-M PCR amplification assay. Identification and differentiation of blaCTX-M and blaOXY/K1 sequences was obtained by DNA sequencing of M13-sequence-tagged CTX-M PCR-amplicons using a M13-specific sequencing primer. Results Nine out of 20 K. pneumoniae clinical isolates had a blaCTX-M genotype. Interestingly, we found that the universal degenerated primers also amplified the chromosomally located K1-gene in all 34 K. oxytoca clinical isolates. Molecular identification and differentiation between blaCTX-M and blaOXY/K1-genes could only been achieved by sequencing of the PCR-amplicons. In silico analysis revealed that the universal degenerated CTX-M primer-pair used here might also amplify the chromosomally located blaOXY and K1-genes in Klebsiella spp. and K1-like genes in other Enterobacteriaceae. Conclusion The PCR-based molecular typing method described here enables a rapid and reliable molecular identification of blaCTX-M, and blaOXY/K1-genes. The principles used in this study could also be applied to any situation in which antimicrobial resistance genes would need to be sequenced.

  6. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    WEB WATCH (204) Try unearthing some interesting information about archaeology BOOK REVIEWS (206) Teaching and assessing practical skills Book Review: Learn to drive with Sir Isaac Newton DVD REVIEW (207) Bring some sunshine into the classroom EQUIPMENT REVIEWS (208) Robust air puck takes a kicking Flowlog offers sensing options plus multimode datalogging Mastering Chladni figures takes practice but it offers surprises

  7. Bacterial Mobilization of Nutrients From Biochar-Amended Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalenberger, A; Fox, A

    2016-01-01

    Soil amendments with biochar to improve soil fertility and increase soil carbon stocks have received some high-level attention. Physical and chemical analyses of amended soils and biochars from various feedstocks are reported, alongside some evaluations of plant growth promotion capabilities. Fewer studies investigated the soil microbiota and their potential to increase cycling and mobilization of nutrients in biochar-amended soils. This review is discussing the latest findings in the bacterial contribution to cycling and mobilizing nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in biochar-amended soils and potential contributions to plant growth promotion. Depending on feedstock, pyrolysis, soil type, and plant cover, changes in the bacterial community structure were observed for a majority of the studies using amplicon sequencing or genetic fingerprinting methods. Prokaryotic nitrification largely depends on the availability of ammonium and can vary considerably under soil biochar amendment. However, denitrification to di-nitrogen and in particular, nitrous oxide reductase activity is commonly enhanced, resulting in reduced nitrous oxide emissions. Likewise, bacterial fixation of di-nitrogen appears to be regularly enhanced. A paucity of studies suggests that bacterial mobilization of phosphorus and sulfur is enhanced as well. However, most studies only tested for extracellular sulfatase and phosphatase activity. Further research is needed to reveal details of the bacterial nutrient mobilizing capabilities and this is in particular the case for the mobilization of phosphorus and sulfur. PMID:26917243

  8. Evaluation of modified hodge test as an indicator of klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC production by using bla kpc gene PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshini Shanmugam, Nirupa Soundararajan, Jeya Meenakshisundaram

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carbapenems belong to the Beta Lactam group of antimicrobial agents. They are often used as “last-line agents” or “antibiotics of last resort” in critically ill patients. Carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae may be due to various reasons but Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC enzyme production is the commonest. Phenotypic as well as genotypic methods can be used to detect Carbapenemases. Among the phenotypic tests, Modified Hodge Test (MHT is relatively easy to perform. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae isolates and calculate the sensitivity of MHT as an indicator of KPC production. Materials and Methods: All Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical samples were included in this study and were screened for Carbapenem resistance. 45 randomly chosen Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates were subjected to MHT and blaKPC gene detection by PCR. Results: 2035 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were tested and 5.2% were found to be resistant to Imipenem, 22.9 % were resistant to Meropenem and 4.42 % were resistant to both Imipenem and Meropenem. The sensitivity of MHT was calculated to be 90% and specificity was calculated to be 60%

  9. Molecular detection of metallo-β-lactamase gene blaVIM-1 in imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from hospitalized patients in the hospitals of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Sedighi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The results demonstrated the serious therapeutic threat of the MBL-producing P. aeruginosa populations. The rate of imipenem resistance due to MBL was increased dramatically. Early detection and infection-control practices are the best antimicrobial strategies for this organism. None of MBL-producing isolates in this study carry the blaVIM-1 gene; therefore, another gene in the MBL family should be investigated.

  10. Diversity of the Genetic Environment of the blaKPC-2 Gene Among Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolates in a Chinese Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Hui; Wei, Dan-Dan; Wan, La-Gen; Yu, Yang; Deng, Qiong; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) has been frequently reported worldwide and constitutes a major healthcare threat, given their extensively drug-resistant phenotypes. In this study, we report the characterization of the genetic environment of blaKPC-2 gene in KPC-Kp clinical strains from China belonging to diverse genotypes. Thirty-five nonduplicated KPC-Kp isolates collected in a Chinese hospital during 2012 were analyzed. All were multidrug resistant due to the presence of other resistance determinants, including metallo-β-lactamases (IMP-4, NDM-1), extended-spectrum β-lactamases (CTX-M-14, -15, -3, -10, and SHV-12), 16S rRNA methylases (armA and rmtB), and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants [qnrA, B, S, aac(6')-Ib-cr]. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the 35 isolates were grouped into 12 clusters that were further identified as 15 sequence types (STs) by multilocus sequence typing. ST11 K. pneumoniae was the predominant clone attributed to the outbreak. blaKPC-2 was carried in plasmids of various sizes and incompatibility types. The genetic environment analysis, based on genetic structure in the plasmid pKP048, revealed five distinct platforms: the most prevalent structure was the continual occurrence in diverse STs (ST11, ST258, ST340, ST395, ST437, and ST494), harboring plasmid of blaKPC-2 in a genetic environment flanked by ISKpn8 and ISKpn6 like. This study highlights the continued evolution of the genetic environment of the blaKPC-2 gene in our hospital and movement to multiple plasmid backbones that results in acquisition by multiple clones of K. pneumoniae.

  11. The Education Act (Ontario) 1980: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Ontario has provided special education legislation through the Education Amendment Act, 1980. Issues related to teacher preparation for special education and program planning and implementation are reviewed. (DF)

  12. Penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its blaTEM-135 gene variants at several gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance sites in China:an epidemiological study%中国部分地区淋球菌耐药监测点产青霉素酶淋球菌及其 blaTEM-135突变体的流行调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍椿; 朱邦勇; 孙厚华; 陈祥生; 尹跃平; 戴秀芹; 郑和平; 顾伟鸣; 郑钟洁; 吴兴中; 曹文苓; 胡丽华

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解中国不同地区淋球菌耐药监测点产青霉素酶淋球菌(PPNG)的比例及 blaTEM-135突变体在 PPNG 中的分布,比较 PPNG 及 blaTEM-135突变体淋球菌多抗原测序分型(NG-MAST)的型别分布,了解不同地区 PPNG blaTEM-135突变体的差异与联系。方法2012年在江苏、上海、浙江、天津、广东、广西6个淋球菌耐药监测点共收集572株淋球菌,经过分离纯化及鉴定后,采用头孢噻吩纸片法测定 PPNG;菌株培养后利用试剂盒提取 DNA,通过错配扩增突变分析 PCR(MAMA PCR)鉴定 blaTEM-135突变体,采用 NG-MAST 进行分型研究。结果572株淋球菌中 PPNG 总阳性率为38.1%(218/572),PPNG 中相应 blaTEM-135突变体的总比例为52.3%(114/218)。监测点中 PPNG 阳性率从高至低分别为:浙江(45/87,51.7%)、上海(36/79,45.6%)、广东(78/205,38.0%)、广西(12/32,37.5%)、江苏(24/77,31.2%)、天津(23/92,25%);PPNG 中相应 blaTEM-135突变体的阳性率从高至低分别为:浙江(31/45,68.9%)、江苏(14/24,58.3%)、广东(39/78,50.0%)、上海(17/36,47.2%)、天津(9/23,39.1%)、广西(4/12,33.3%)。 NG-MAST 分型研究显示,blaTEM-135突变体中流行菌株型别有 ST2318、ST1768、ST1866、ST1053、ST8726等,其中 ST1768、ST1053和 ST8726与 blaTEM-135突变体有较强的对应关系。天津 PPNG 菌株及 blaTEM-135突变体 ST 分布与其他各监测点有显著差异,江浙沪地区菌株 ST 有一定联系。结论中国淋球菌耐药监测点 PPNG 及相应 blaTEM-135突变体阳性率处于较高水平,不同地区间 PPNG 及相应 blaTEM-135突变体阳性菌株 ST 型别分布差异有统计学意义。%Objective To determine the prevalence of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae(PPNG) and the distribution of blaTEM-135 gene variants in PPNG at several gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance sites

  13. Crystal Structure of Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2, an Unusual Zinc Binding Aspartic Protease with a Novel Mode of Self-inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustchina, Alla; Li, Mi; Wunschmann, Sabina; Chapman, Martin D.; Pomes, Anna; Wlodawer, Alexander (INDOOR Bio.); (NIH)

    2010-07-19

    The crystal structure of Bla g 2 was solved in order to investigate the structural basis for the allergenic properties of this unusual protein. This is the first structure of an aspartic protease in which conserved glycine residues, in two canonical DTG triads, are substituted by different amino acid residues. Another unprecedented feature revealed by the structure is the single phenylalanine residue insertion on the tip of the flap, with the side-chain occupying the S1 binding pocket. This and other important amino acid substitutions in the active site region of Bla g 2 modify the interactions in the vicinity of the catalytic aspartate residues, increasing the distance between them to {approx}4 {angstrom} and establishing unique direct contacts between the flap and the catalytic residues. We attribute the absence of substantial catalytic activity in Bla g 2 to these unusual features of the active site. Five disulfide bridges and a Zn-binding site confer stability to the protein, which may contribute to sensitization at lower levels of exposure than other allergens.

  14. Characterisation of IncA/C2 plasmids carrying an In416-like integron with the blaVIM-19 gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae ST383 of Greek origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papagiannitsis, Costas C; Dolejska, Monika; Izdebski, Radosław; Giakkoupi, Panagiota; Skálová, Anna; Chudějová, Kateřina; Dobiasova, Hana; Vatopoulos, Alkiviadis C; Derde, Lennie P G; Bonten, Marc J M; Gniadkowski, Marek; Hrabák, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of three multidrug resistance (MDR) IncA/C-like plasmids from Enterobacteriaceae isolates carrying the VIM-type carbapenemase-encoding integrons In4863 (blaVIM-19-aacA7-dfrA1-ΔaadA1-smr2) or In4873 (blaVIM-1-aacA7-dfrA1-ΔaadA1-smr2) were determined, which are the fi

  15. Latest Amendment to Criminal Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU ZONGJIE

    2011-01-01

    @@ On Feb.25, 2011,the 19th Session of the Standine Commlttee or the 11th National Peonle's Congress, the country's highest legislative body, approved the eighth amendment to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China.This brought about the broadest changes ever made to the law-to be precise, to 50 items that involve 49 legal matters.While reducing the number of crimes punishable by death, the amended Criminal Law provides for additional instances of leniency for senior citizens and minors who are convicted of a crime.

  16. 32 CFR 10.8 - Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment. 10.8 Section 10.8 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE MILITARY COMMISSIONS MILITARY COMMISSION INSTRUCTIONS § 10.8 Amendment. The General Counsel may issue, supplement, amend, or revoke any...

  17. 7 CFR 1.165 - Amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendments. 1.165 Section 1.165 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Rules of Practice Governing Cease and Desist Proceedings Under Section 2 of the Capper-Volstead Act § 1.165 Amendments. Amendments to the complaint may...

  18. 76 FR 80226 - Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 Technical Amendments AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION... to the Office of Consumer Protection. This authority previously sat with the regional directors....

  19. Automated Clustering of Similar Amendments

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The Italian Senate is clogged by computer-generated amendments. This talk will describe a simple strategy to cluster them in an automated fashion, so that the appropriate Senate procedures can be used to get rid of them in one sweep.

  20. AMENDMENTS TO THE STAFF RULES AND REGULATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from : 1 January 2001 Scale of basic salaries and scale of basic stipends (Annex R A 1 and Annex R A 2 respectively). These scales include the correction approved in June 2001 of the discrepancy of 0.3% in the net salary adjustment on 1 January 2001. Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 4). Reimbursement of education fees (Article R A 8.01) for the academic year 2000/2001, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2000. Periodic reviews of the financial conditions of members of the personel (Annex A1). 1 July 2001 Various drafting amendments adopted in order to ensure greater coherence between the texts, the procedures and actual practice. 1 September 2001 Implementation of the new career structure. Copies of these updates are available in the divisional secretariats.

  1. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  2. Review of Remediation Technologies for Oil -Contaminated Soil and Effect of Different Soil Amendments on Bioremediation Efficacy%石油污染土壤的原位生物修复技术和多种土壤改良剂应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚俊腾; 王志

    2016-01-01

    土壤中的石油污染是一类严重的环境危害.针对石油污染的土壤修复技术有物理法、化学法和生物法.其中原位生物修复法由于简易性和生态可持续等优点成为了具有前景的一个发展方向.土壤改良剂的选取和添加是原位生物修复法中重要的一个部分,对生物修复的改进起到了至关重要的作用.土壤改良剂的种类有无机改良剂、有机改良剂和吸附性改良剂.以N、P、K为主的无机改良剂主要为生物生长提供营养元素;有机改良剂则可提高石油污染物流动性,提供生物碳源;吸附改良剂则通过吸附污染物,减少毒性,提供生物生长依附.通过对不同种类改良剂的分析和讨论,可为生物修复发展提供进一步的理论基础.%Oil pollution incurred during transporting and refining is a big environmental concern, because the heavy hydrocar-bons in oil can cause serious damage to soil and the species residing in soil .The remediation technologies targeting oil-polluted sites are generally categorized into three types-physical, chemical and biological remediation methods .Among them, bioremedi-ation is considered a promising technology by academia and industry due to its cost-effective and eco-friendly features.Soil a-mendments, such as inorganic fertilizers, organic amendments and adsorbents, play a vital role in bioremediation process.The appropriate selection of soil amendments and the addition ratio can improve removal efficiency and accelerate treatment processes . This paper reviews all the soil amendments and their effect on bioremediation process, hoping to provide some expertise for further development of bioremediation technology.

  3. Prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in a farrowing farm: ST1121 clone harboring IncHI2 plasmid contributes to the dissemination of blaCMY-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eDeng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During a regular monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in a farrowing farm in Southern China, 117 Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from sows and piglets. Compared with the isolates from piglets, the isolates from sows exhibited higher resistance rates to the tested cephalosporins. Correspondingly, the total detection rate of the blaCMY-2/blaCTX-M genes in the sow isolates (34.2% was also significantly higher than that of the piglet isolates (13.6% (p<0.05. The blaCMY-2 gene had a relatively high prevalence (11.1% in the E. coli isolates. MLST and PFGE analysis revealed the clonal spread of ST1121 E. coli in most (7/13 of the blaCMY-2-positive isolates. An indistinguishable IncHI2 plasmid harboring blaCMY-2 was also identified in each of the seven ST1121 E. coli isolates. Complete sequence analysis of this IncHI2 plasmid (pEC5207 revealed that pEC5207 may have originated through recombination of an IncHI2 plasmid with a blaCMY-2-carrying IncA/C plasmid like pCFSAN007427_01. In addtion to blaCMY-2, pEC5207 also carried other resistance determinants for aminoglycosides (aacA7, sulfonamides (sul1, as well as heavy metals ions, such as Cu and Ag. The susceptibility testing showed that the pEC5207 can mediate both antibiotic and heavy metal resistance. This highlights the role of pEC5207 in co-selection of blaCMY-2-positive isolates under the selective pressure of heavy metals, cephalosporins and other antimicrobials. In conclusion, clonal spread of an ST1121 type E. coli strain harboring an IncHI2 plasmid contributed to the dissemination of blaCMY-2 in a farrowing farm in Southern China. We also have determined the first complete sequence analysis of a blaCMY-2-carrying IncHI2 plasmid.

  4. Outbreak of nosocomial infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae ST789 isolates harboring blaKPC-2 gene%携带blaKPC-2基因的肺炎克雷伯菌ST789型引起医院感染暴发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 油丽萍; 陈爱文; 徐茶; 赵辉; 贾楠; 朱元祺

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨医院耐碳青霉烯类抗菌药物肺炎克雷伯菌和大肠埃希菌的分子流行病学,为医院感染的预防和控制提供指导.方法 收集医院2013年2-4月分离的对厄他培南耐药11株肺炎克雷伯菌和4株大肠埃希菌;细菌的鉴定和药敏试验使用法国生物梅里埃公司VITEK-2 Compact系统;菌株是否产碳青霉烯酶按改良Hodge试验操作,其携带的β-内酰胺类耐药基则通过多重PCR进行检测,并经测序确认基因型;通过多位点序列分型和脉冲场凝胶电泳试验技术对细菌的同源性进行分析.结果 分离的11株耐碳青霉烯类肺炎克雷伯菌多位点序列分型,分别是ST789型7株、ST437株型2和ST258型1株;经测序确认,10株携带有blaKPC-2基因;脉冲场凝胶电泳显示,3种带型A、B和C,7株ST789型肺炎克雷伯菌的带型一致;4株耐碳青霉烯类大肠埃希菌中有2株携带blaKPC-2基因,多位点序列分型均是ST131型;每一株菌可携带不同数目的超广谱β-内酰胺(blaSHV、bla TEM-1和blaCTX)基因.结论 医院内存在携带blaKPC-2基因肺炎克雷伯菌引起的医院感染暴发流行,要加强消毒隔离,防止进一步播散.

  5. War wound treatment complications due to transfer of an IncN plasmid harboring bla(OXA-181) from Morganella morganii to CTX-M-27-producing sequence type 131 Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Patrick; Snesrud, Erik; Ong, Ana C; Appalla, Lakshmi; Koren, Michael; Kwak, Yoon I; Waterman, Paige E; Lesho, Emil P

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male developed a recurrent sacral abscess associated with embedded shrapnel following a blast injury. Cultures grew extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing, carbapenem-susceptible Escherichia coli. Ertapenem was administered, but the infection recurred after each course of antibiotics. Initial surgical interventions were unsuccessful, and subsequent cultures yielded E. coli and Morganella morganii, both nonsusceptible to carbapenems. The isolates were Carba NP test negative, gave ambiguous results with the modified Hodge test, and amplified the bla(OXA48)-like gene by real-time PCR. All E. coli isolates were sequence type 131 (ST131), carried nine resistance genes (including bla(CTX-M-27)) on an IncF plasmid, and were identical by genome sequencing, except for 150 kb of plasmid DNA in carbapenem-nonsusceptible isolates only. Sixty kilobases of this was shared by M. morganii and represented an IncN plasmid harboring bla(OXA-181). In M. morganii, the gene was flanked by IS3000 and ISKpn19, but in all but one of the E. coli isolates containing bla(OXA-181), a second copy of ISKpn19 had inserted adjacent to IS3000. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bla(OXA-181) in the virulent ST131 clonal group and carried by the promiscuous IncN family of plasmids. The tendency of M. morganii to have high MICs of imipenem, a bla(OXA-181) substrate profile that includes penicillins but not extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and weak carbapenemase activity almost resulted in the presence of bla(OXA-181) being overlooked. We highlight the importance of surveillance for carbapenem resistance in all species, even those with intrinsic resistances, and the value of advanced molecular techniques in detecting subtle genetic changes.

  6. Expert Consideration on the Amendment to the INFCIRC/225

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INFCIRC/225 has played an important role as a guideline for establishing international regimes for physical protection since it was published in 1975 by the IAEA. It has been amended four times to reflect the changes that have taken place with regard to nuclear security. The fourth revision was released in 1999. Since the release of this revision, the international nuclear security environment has changed drastically. Because of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the USA, an amendment to the CPPNM (Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material) was passed at an international conference held in July of 2005 in Vienna. Many requests for a revision of the INFCIRC/225 have been raised since then. The IAEA had prepared a revised document; and sponsored the first of six meetings in order to amendment the document beginning in February of 2008. A TM (Technical Meeting) was also held in February of 2010. Physical protection experts from 22 countries participated in the meeting. After the TM, a draft document was sent to member states for reviewed for a designated 120 days. If ratified, document will then become the 5th amendment to the INFCIRC/225. The INFCIRC/225 will be used as a basis for physical protection measures specified in the Act. This paper will analyze the revised document and discussed on how it affects our national regime of physical protection

  7. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Floyd; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews eight textbooks, readers, and books. Topics include Latin America, colonial America, the Carolinians, women in French textbooks, the Vikings, the Soviet Union, nineteenth-century Black America, and Ernest Rutherford. (TRS)

  8. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides reviews of four computer software packages designed for use in science education. Describes courseware dealing with a variety of tips for teaching physics concepts, chemical reactions in an aqueous solution, mitosis and meiosis, and photosynthesis. (TW)

  9. Prevalence and characterization of plasmid-mediated blaESBL with their genetic environment in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in patients with pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-rong; CHEN Ji-chao; KANG Yu; JIANG Ning; AN Shu-chang; GAO Zhan-cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.pneumoniae) are the major pathogens causing pneumonia and have a significant impact on the clinical course.Limited data exist on molecular characterization of ESBL-producing E.coli and K.pneumoniae that cause pneumonia.The aim of this study was to investigate the comprehensive multilevel characteristics of E.coli and K.pneumoniae causing pneumonia in China for the first time.Methods E.coli (17) and K.pneumoniae (21) isolates responsible for pneumonia were isolated from 1270 specimens collected in a prospective multi-center study in eight teaching hospitals in China from June to December in 2007.The susceptibilities,ESBL confirmation,sequence typing,blaCTX-M and blaSHV genes,their genetic environment and plasmid Inc/rep types were determined.Results Sixteen E.coli (94.1%) and eleven K.pneumoniae (52.4%) isolates were ESBL producers.About 77.8% and 66.7% of them were resistance to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin,and 100% were susceptible to imipenem.The most prevalent ESBL gene was CTX-M-14,followed by SHV-2,CTX-M-15,CTX-M-3,CTX-M-65,SHV-12,SHV-26 and SHV-28.SHV-1 and SHV-11 were also detected and coexisted with blaCTX-Ms in five strains,and three strains contained only SHV-1.All CTX-M-14 were detected ISEcp1 upstream and nine were found IS903 downstream and the majority of them (64.3%) were carried by IncF plasmids.All blasHv were flanked by recFand deoR,located on IncF,IncN,IncX and IncH plasmids.Two SHV-2,one SHV-1 and the only SHV-28 were further preceded by IS26.Genes lacYand lacZwere detected at further upstream of two blaSHv-1.The K.pneumoniae carrying SHV-28 was susceptible to β-lactams,and no mutations or deletions in gene or promoter sequences were identified to account for susceptibility.Multilocus sequence typing experiments showed the ESBL-producing strains were genetically diverse.Conclusions The rate of occurrence of bla

  10. 75 FR 18151 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Amended Final Results Pursuant to Final Court...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 67 FR..., 73 FR 30051 (May 23, 2008). Subsequent to the CIT's judgment upholding Commerce's remand... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Amended Final...

  11. Development of a direct ELISA based on carboxy-terminal of penicillin-binding protein BlaR for the detection of β-lactam antibiotics in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Juan; Cheng, Guyue; Huang, Lingli; Wang, Yulian; Hao, Haihong; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2013-11-01

    β-Lactam antibiotics, including penicillins and cephalosporins, are commonly used in veterinary medicine. Illegal use and abuse of β-lactams could cause allergy and selected bacterial resistance. BlaR-CTD, the carboxy-terminal of penicillin-recognizing protein BlaR from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580, was utilized in this study to develop a receptor-based ELISA for detection and determination of β-lactam antibiotics in milk, beef, and chicken. This assay was based on directly competitive inhibition of binding of horseradish peroxidase-labeled ampicillin to the immobilized BlaR-CTD by β-lactams. The assay was developed as screening test with the option as semiquantitative assay, when the identity of a single type of residual β-lactam was known. The IC50 values of 15 β-lactam antibiotics, including benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, cefapirin, cefoperazone, cefalotin, cefazolin, cefquinome, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefalexin, ceftiofur and its metabolite desfuroylceftiofur were evaluated and ranged from 0.18 to 170.81 μg L(-1). Simple sample extraction method was carried out with only phosphate-buffered saline, and the recoveries of selected β-lactam antibiotics in milk, beef, and chicken were in the range of 53.27 to 128.29 %, most ranging from 60 to 120 %. The inter-assay variability was below 30 %. Limits of detection in milk, beef, and chicken muscles with cefquinome matrix calibration were 2.10, 30.68, and 31.13 μg kg(-1), respectively. This study firstly established a rapid, simple, and accurate method for simultaneous detection of 15 β-lactams in edible tissues, among which 11 β-lactams controlled by European Union could be detected below maximum residue limits. PMID:24013636

  12. Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Detection of Isolates harboring blaCTX gene causing infections in hospital and determination of their susceptibility to antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Rabani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Because of its ubiquitous nature, ability to survive in moist environments, and innate resistance to many antibiotics and antiseptics, P. aeruginosa is a common pathogen in hospitals. The goals of this study were detection of Psudomonas aeruginosa harboring blaCTX gene causing infections in hospitals and determination of their susceptibility to antibiotics and ESBL production. Methods: In the present cross-sectional study, clinical samples from hospitalized patients were collected and culture was done on apropriate media. Final identification was performed using biochemical tests and API 20NE system. According to the protocol CLSI 2014 disc diffusion, combination disk, modified hodge test (MHT and E-test were used for antibiotic susceptibility, ESBL production, carbapenemas production, and MIC values of imipenem respectively. The blaCTX gene was detected in the isolates by PCR molecular method. Results: In the current study, 45 isolates of Pseudomonas aeroginosa were obtained from hospitalized patients, consisting of 19 males (42.2% and 26 females (57.8%. As observed, 57.8% (26 strains of isolates were recovered from sputum. The most effective antibiotics against isolates were amikacin and colistin with 97.8% suseptibility whereas the highest resistance was to cefotaxime (97.8%. As revealed 77.8% of isolates showed response to group 2 carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem. All imipenem resistant strains had the MIC more than 32. Seventeen strains (37.7% were  showed resistant to quinolones (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin. The results of PCR on blaCTX gene indicated that 15.5% of the isolates possess the gene. Conclusion: Carbapenem group of antibiotic in 22% of infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were ineffective and indiscriminate prescribing of these drugs will increase the ratet of resistance.

  13. 75 FR 62763 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Reviews and Rescission of Reviews in Part, 73 FR 52823 (September 11, 2008). SKF USA Inc., SKF France S.A... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of... bearings and parts thereof from Germany. See SKF USA Inc. v. United States, Slip Op. 10-76 (CIT 2010)....

  14. 75 FR 47444 - Amendments to the Informal and Other Procedures, Rules of Organization and Program Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 200, 201 and 202 Amendments to the Informal and Other Procedures, Rules of Organization and Program Management, and Rules of Practice; Interim Commission Review of Public Company... Informal and Other Procedures to add a rule to facilitate interim Commission review of Public...

  15. 76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Review, 72 FR 52065 (Sept. 12, 2007). The period of review (POR) is August 4, 2004, through January 31... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen...

  16. 复合探针实时荧光PCR检测细菌耐药基因blaNDM-1方法的建立%Development of Complex Probe Real-Time Fluorescent PCR for Detection of the Antibiotic Resistance blaNDM-1 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕虹; 刘志红; 刘琪琦; 孙晓彦; 陈苏红; 王升启

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish a complex probe teal-time fluorescent PCR method to detect the antibiotic resistance blaNDM., gene. Methods: This detection method based on the principles of complex probe, and use blaNDM-1, gene sequences coding New Delhi metallo-β-lactamaee KNDM-1) as the target gene. The PCR amplification system parameters such as the concentration of magnesium ions and PCR annealing temperature were optimized, and the specificity, precision and reproducibility of detection were evaluated. Results: Optimizing the PCR reaction system and the best conditions to test the sensitivity of sensitivity control samples amplified with satisfactory results. The sensitivity of the assay was about 2 copies/system, all of the blaNDM-1 gene containing strains were positively detected and none of the other bacteria was detected by the assay. The coefficient of variation of in-tra-assay and inter-assay was less than 5%. Only Acinetobacter baumannii strain containing blaNDM-1 gene isolated from clinical samples tested positive, other 377 clinical specimens and negative control strains had no response. Conclusion: The established assay detects blaNDM-1 gene containing strains with excellent sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility.%目的:建立一种检测编码新德里金属β内酰胺酶1(NDM-1)的细菌耐药基因blaNDM-1的复合探针实时荧光PCR方法.方法:基于复合探针技术原理,以blaNDM-基因作为待检靶基因建立检测方法,对PCR扩增体系中镁离子浓度、PCR退火温度等进行优化,并对检测的灵敏性、特异性、重复性等进行评价.结果:优化了最佳反应体系和扩增条件;以灵敏度质控品进行灵敏度实验,最低检测限可达2拷贝/体系;非耐药性菌株的检测结果均为阴性;批间批内变异系数均小于5%;只有产NDM-1的鲍曼不动杆菌检测为阳性,其他377株临床分离菌和阴性对照均无响应.结论:建立了检测含blaNDM-1基因的菌株的方法,具

  17. Profiles of phenotype resistance to antibiotic other than β-lactams in Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBLs-producers, carrying blaSHV genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Sacha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Extended spectrum β-lactamases production is one of the most common mechanism of resistance to extendedspectrum β-lactam antibiotics is increasing worldwide. Twenty five strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from clinicalspecimens were tested. Based on the phenotypic confirmatory test all these strains were defined as ESBL producers namedESBL(+. The plasmid DNA from each strains was used to investigate the presence of blaSHV genes responsible for extendedspectrum β-lactamases production. Moreover, susceptibility of these strains to antibiotic other than β-lactams in was tested.

  18. The first report of infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying the bla kpc gene in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Rodrigues Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased frequency and dissemination of enterobacteria resistant to various antimicrobials is currently worldwide concern. In January 2010, a 94-year-old patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia was admitted to the University Hospital. This patient died 21 days after hospitalization due to the clinical worsening. Klebsiella pneumoniae producing of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs was isolated of urine culture. This bacterium demonstrated resistance to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ertapenem and imipenem. Susceptibility to cefoxitin, cefepime, meropenem, colistin and tigecycline. This study reports the first case of infection by Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying the bla kpc gene in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

  19. 产NDM-1型碳青霉烯酶摩根摩根菌的分离及分子背景研究%Isolation and molecular analysis of blaNDM-1-positive Morganella morganii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王选; 吴晓燕; 李佳萍; 宋国蓉; 邱炳峰; 顾丹霞; 张嵘

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular background of the New Delhi-metallo-1 (NDM-1)-producing Morganella morganii.Methods Two carbapenem-resistant M.morganii named 1 and 2 were isolated in the Second Hospital of Jiaxing,Zhejiang on October 4th and 29th,respectively.Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by agar dilution method.Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to analyse the homololgy of isolates.Amplification with specific primers,DNA sequencing,conjugation experiments and genetic environment analysis were conducted to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resistance.Results The two M.morganii isolates were resistant to carbapenem and fluoroquinolones,while susceptible to aztreonam.PFGE analysis indicated that the two isolates were distinguishable.Amplification and DNA sequencing confirmed the coexistence of blaNDM-1,blasHv-12,qnrS1 and aac(6')-Ib-cr in both isolates.Transconjugants were detected with blaNDM.1 and qnrS1 simultaneously.Genetic environment analysis demonstrated that the blaNDM-1-bleMBL-trpF-dsbC-cutA1 structure was in consistence with those from known blaNDM-1-carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae.Conclusion The blaNDM-1 in M.morganii isolates possiblely obtained from K.pneumoniae through translatable plasmids.%目的 对发现的产新德里金属β内酰胺酶1(NDM-1)型碳青霉烯酶摩根摩根菌进行分子背景研究.方法 两株碳青霉烯类抗生素耐药摩根摩根菌1和2分别于2013年10月4日和10月29日分离自浙江省嘉兴市第二医院.琼脂稀释法测定抗生素敏感性;脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)分析两菌株同源性;特异性PCR扩增和序列分析、接合试验和耐药基因周围序列分析进行菌株耐药机制分子水平研究.结果 2株菌对喹诺酮类和碳青霉烯类抗生素耐药,对氨曲南敏感;PFGE结果显示2株菌非同源;特异性PCR扩增和序列分析发现2株菌同时携带耐药基因blaNDM-1、blaSHV-12、qnrS1和aac(6')-Ib-cr;接合子中同时携带bla

  20. 多重PCR检测食源金黄色葡萄球菌nuc、blaZ和mecA基因方法的建立与应用%Multiplex PCR for detection of nuc, blaZ and mecA genes in food-borne Staphylococcus aureus and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书亮; 刘冬香; 贾仁勇; 韩新锋

    2010-01-01

    目的 建立快速检测食源金黄色葡萄球菌(Sa)耐热核酸酶基因(nuc)、β-内酰胺酶基因(blaZ)和甲氧西林耐药基因(mecA)的多重PCR方法.方法 根据GenBank Sa的nuc、blaZ和mecA基因序列,设计3对特异性引物,建立鉴定Sa及分析Sa耐β-内酰胺类抗生素三重PCR方法,并对79株食源Sa进行基因检测与表型比较.结果 显示供试Sa中检出nuc、blaZ基因阳性率分别为97.47%、73.42%,mecA基因检出为阴性;nuc基因检出与其表型符合率达97.47%;而blaZ扩增结果与β-内酰胺酶试验、青霉素类敏感试验同时符合率为49.37%,前者与后两者符合率分别为60.76%和75.95%;mecA与耐甲氧西林表型符合率为100%;此次79株食源Sa中无耐甲氧西林Sa.结论 该方法简便、快捷、准确,为食源Sa鉴定和耐药性分子分析提供了参考依据.

  1. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.; Adema, F.

    1998-01-01

    This book intends (according to the preface) to afford at once a review, a general outline of what has been accomplished, and a set of signposts for the future. It attempts to do so in three sections on Origin and Diversification of Primitive Land Plants (4 papers), Origin and Diversification of Ang

  2. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...

  3. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (353) Dr Dyer's Academy Further Advanced Physics Physics 11-14, with Biology 11-14 and Chemistry 11-14 Nelson Modular Science: Books 1 and 2 Key Science: Physics, 3rd Edition Nelson Science: Physics, 2nd Edition Physics for AQA: Separate Award, Coordinated Award Physical Processes: A Visual Approach WEB WATCH (359) Physics Favourites: John Miller's selection

  4. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.; Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1966-01-01

    An exhaustive Flora of Delhi, compiled by J. K. Maheshwari, was published by C.S.I.R. in 1963 (for a review see Blumea 13, 1965, p. 174). During the compilation of that flora, 278 line-drawings, illustrating the habits and chief features of the plants found in Delhi, were prepared; they form a welco

  5. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    The two published parts of the Desmid Flora of Austria are well-illustrated review volumes on a group of precious freshwater microalgae. Volume 1 contains a pretty, visual key to the genera, completed by figures of one or more characteristic species. In all keys of the separate genera many visual ai

  6. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1995-01-01

    This is the second volume of a revision of Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae). The volume covers the New World species (44) and the genus Stemmadenia (10 species). This part of the revision of Tabernaemontana comes up to the high standards set in the first volume [see the review by Leenhouts, Blumea 38 (

  7. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification untuk Mendeteksi Gen blaTEM sebagai Penyandi Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase pada Isolat Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu A. P. Wilopo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL is a beta-lactamase enzyme that is capable of hydrolyzing penicillin, cephalosporin, and monobactam, and can be inhibited by clavulanic acid. This enzyme is encoded by multiple genes, one of them is blaTEM. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is one of the DNA amplification methods that are frequently used; however, there are other methods that can be used including, among others, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP. LAMP requires simple equipment with quicker and easy-to-read results compared to PCR. This study was a diagnostic test to explore the sensitivity and specificity of LAMP method compared to PCR in detecting blaTEM gene. Furthermore, the concordance between LAMP and PCR methods was assessed. A total of 92 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were examined by PCR and LAMP methods and compared. The result showed that the LAMP method had a sensitivity of 91.4% and a specificity of 91.2% with a concordance value (kappa of 85.4%. In conclusion, LAMP method has a good validity and a very good conformity compared to the PCR method. Therefore, LAMP method can be used as an alternative diagnostic test, especially in limited settings.

  8. [blaVIM-2 gene detection in metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated in an intensive care unit in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Armando; de Waard, Jacobus; Araque, María

    2009-08-01

    Ten Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporin and carbapenems were studied to determine the presence of genes that mediate the production of metallo-beta-lactamases. These strains were isolated from patients with nosocomial infection at the Intensive Care Unit of the Complejo Hospitalario "Ruiz y Paéz" of Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State, Venezuela, from 2003 to 2006. In all isolates a metallo-enzyme activity was detected by using the double disk synergism test. PCR amplification of genes encoding the families IMP, VIM and SPM metallo-beta-lactamases showed the presence of a blaVIM gene in all strains studied. DNA sequencing revealed that all isolates showed the presence of blaVIM-2. These results suggest that it is necessary to keep these strains under epidemiologic surveillance, establish laboratory strategies for opportune detection and the implementation of new policies to ensure the appropriate use of antibiotics in this institution.

  9. The importance of considering the evidence in the MTP 2014 Amendment debate in India - unsubstantiated arguments should not impede improved access to safe abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Mandira; Gemzell Danielsson, Kristina; Essén, Birgitta; Klingberg Allvin, Marie

    2015-01-01

    With the objective to improve access to safe abortion services in India, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, with approval of the Law Ministry, published draft amendments of the MTP Act on October 29, 2014. Instead of the expected support, the amendments created a heated debate within professional medical associations of India. In this commentary, we review the evidence in response to the current discourse with regard to the amendments. It would be unfortunate if unsubstantiated one-sided arg...

  10. 携带blaNDM-1基因的ST22型肺炎克雷伯菌引起新生儿医院感染%Newborn nosocomial infection caused by New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST22 isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐茶; 刘艳飞; 赵辉; 贾楠; 朱元祺

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨耐碳青霉烯类肺炎克雷伯菌临床株的分子流行病学特征,为医院感染的控制和预防提供指导.方法 3株对碳青霉烯类耐药的肺炎克雷伯菌临床菌株分离自山东某医院新生儿病房患儿的抽吸痰液和血液标本;用Vitek 2 Compact系统进行细菌鉴定和药敏试验;改良Hodge试验检测菌株是否产碳青霉烯酶;PCR检测菌株携带的碳青霉烯酶基因(blaKPC、blaBIC、blaoXA-48、blaNDM、blaIMP、blaVIM、blaSPM、bla AIM、blaGIM、blaSIM和blaDIM)、β-内酰胺酶基因(blaCrX-M、blaSHV、blaTEM和6laoXA-1)、AmpC酶基因(blaMOX、blaCIT、blaDHA、blaACC和blaEBC)、喹诺酮耐药相关基因(qnrA、qnrB、qnrS、oqxA和oqxB和磷霉素耐药基因(fosA3),测序确认其基因型;用多位点序列分型和脉冲场凝胶电泳分析细菌的同源性;质粒接合和Southern杂交试验分析质粒的特性,并进行质粒不相容群检测.结果 3株肺炎克雷伯菌Hodge试验呈阳性,且对大部分抗菌药物耐药,均携带blaNDM-1、blaTEM-1 、rosA3、oqxA和oqxB基因.脉冲场凝胶电泳显示3株菌的带型完全一致,属于同一克隆,而且多位点序列分型也都是ST22,提示存在流行.质粒接合和Southern杂交试验表明供体菌携带blaNDM-1质粒(pTA-NDM)可通过接合方式转移到受体菌,且质粒大小约220 000 bp,不相容群分型属于IncA/C型质粒.结论 同时携带blaNDM-1、6laTEM-1、rosA3、oqxA和oqxB基因的ST22型肺炎克雷伯菌在新生儿病房中的流行属国内外首次报道,应引起重视.

  11. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two copy-editing blunders in Clive Betts's review, in ALT-J 5 (3, of Shirley Fletcher's Designing Competence-Based Training, one in paragraph 2 line 1, the other in paragraph 3 line 8. The errors (the result of the Editor, Gabriel Jacobs, trying to perform a final proof of the journal at lightning speed in order to meet the printing deadline, and not of any mistake on the part of either Philip Barker or the University of Wales Press hardly affected meaning, but the fact that they appeared in a review of a book on competence makes the embarrassment all the more telling. The Editor apologizes, and thanks eagle-eyed readers. He has decided to read the book in the hope that such errors will not recur.

  12. CO2 mitigation potential in farmland of China by altering current organic matter amendment pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CADISCH; Georg

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of the global warming mitigation potential in terrestrial ecosystems is of great importance for decision makers to adopt measures to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) as well as to reduce greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions. In this paper, we compiled data published in peer-reviewed journals, and conducted a holistic analysis of the effects of organic matter amendment on soil organic carbon sequestration, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in paddy and upland systems. Results showed that organic matter amendment increased soil organic carbon content, and apparent conversion rate of organic matter carbon to soil organic carbon in paddies was constant, while that in uplands decreased along with amendment years at 25 years time scale. Organic matter amendment during the rice season led to large CH4-C emissions, e.g on average 99.5 g CH4-C per kg organic carbon input under intermittent flood conditions, and 191.7 g CH4-C per kg organic carbon input under continuous flood conditions, respectively. By alteration of organic matter amendment from rice season to off-rice upland crop season, estimated CH4-C emissions in China could be cut by 3.5 Tg yr-1, accounting for 63% of current CH4-C emissions (5.5 Tg). If organic matter amendment percentage was increased from current 30% to future 50% of organic matter production and by alteration of organic matter amendment from rice season to off-rice upland crop season, the equivalent CO2-C mitigation potential in farmland of China would be 49.2 Tg yr-1 at the 10th year organic matter amendment and 36.0 Tg yr-1 at the 30th year amendment. These findings are important not only for China but also for the other rice production countries to increase farmland global warming mitigation.

  13. 76 FR 27987 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Review, 73 FR 61019 (October 15, 2008) (Final Results). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jacqueline... Not in Harmony with Final Results of Administrative Review, 75 FR 2487 (January 15, 2010). On February... Tubes From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR...

  14. Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of Escherichia coli Sequence Type ST131 (O25:H4) and blaCTX-M-15 among Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing E. coli from the United States, 2000 to 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, James R.; Urban, Carl; Weissman, Scott J.; Jorgensen, James H.; Lewis, James S.; Hansen, Glen; Edelstein, Paul H.; Robicsek, Ari; Cleary, Timothy; Adachi, Javier; Paterson, David; Quinn, John; Hanson, Nancy D.; Johnston, Brian D.; Clabots, Connie

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli sequence type ST131 (from phylogenetic group B2), often carrying the extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) gene blaCTX-M-15, is an emerging globally disseminated pathogen that has received comparatively little attention in the United States. Accordingly, a convenience sample of 351 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from 15 U.S. centers (collected in 2000 to 2009) underwent PCR-based phylotyping and detection of ST131 and blaCTX-M-15. A total of 200 isolates, comprising 4 groups ...

  15. Caracterización molecular de los genes blaAmpC cromosómicos y adquiridos en aislados clínicos de Escherichia coli en el área de Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Louro, Noemí

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli presenta un gen blaAmpC cromosómico que se expresa de forma constitutiva a bajo nivel debido a la presencia de un promotor débil y un atenuador. En estas condiciones no confiere resistencia a betalactámicos. Sin embargo, E. coli puede incrementar la expresión de este gen debido a mutaciones en su región promotora/atenuadora (AmpCc) o adquirir genes blaAmpC incluyendo CMY, DHA, ACC, FOX, MOX, ACT, MIR, LAT y CFE (AmpCa), mecanismos que confieren resistencia a penicilinas, cefa...

  16. Cloning of a Chryseobacterium (Flavobacterium) meningosepticum Chromosomal Gene (blaACME) Encoding an Extended-Spectrum Class A β-Lactamase Related to the Bacteroides Cephalosporinases and the VEB-1 and PER β-Lactamases

    OpenAIRE

    Rossolini, Gian Maria; Franceschini, Nicola; Lauretti, Laura; Caravelli, Berardo; Riccio, Maria Letizia; Galleni, Moreno; Frère, Jean-Marie; Amicosante, Gianfranco

    1999-01-01

    In addition to the BlaB metallo-β-lactamase, Chryseobacterium (Flavobacterium) meningosepticum CCUG 4310 (NCTC 10585) constitutively produces a 31-kDa active-site serine β-lactamase, named CME-1, with an alkaline isoelectric pH. The blaACME gene that encodes the latter enzyme was isolated from a genomic library constructed in the Escherichia coli plasmid vector pACYC184 by screening for cefuroxime-resistant clones. Sequence analysis revealed that the CME-1 enzyme is a new class A β-lactamase ...

  17. 行政规范性文件的司法审查问题研究--基于《行政诉讼法》修订的有关思考%A Study on Judicial Review of Administrative Normative Documents Based on Reflections on the Newly-amended Administrative Procedure Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浪

    2015-01-01

    The newly-amended Administrative Procedure Law stipulates that People’s Courts can con-duct judicial review on administrative normative documents below the level of rules and regulations. Based on the existing system of power allocation and the reform of judicial system, we take judicial theories and practices in western countries as reference to integrate the prospect of legislation with its practicability.Besides, we discuss concrete issues on system design and judicial application like the i-dentification of the subject of review, the ways to file a lawsuit, the content and intensity of review, and the classification of court decisions and their enforcement, so as to establish a mechanism of judi-cial review which meets the realistic needs of China.%新修订的《行政诉讼法》规定了人民法院可对规章以下的行政规范性文件进行司法审查。在立足现行权力配置体系和司法体制改革的基础上,参考借鉴国外的司法理论和实践经验,将立法的前瞻性和可操作性有机结合,对审查主体的设置、提起诉讼的方式、审查的内容和强度、裁判的种类及执行等具体制度设计和司法适用问题进行探讨,以构建符合我国现实需求的审查机制。

  18. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kalkman, C.

    1996-01-01

    The first volume of this series was published in 1991, and reviewed in Blumea 38, p. 216. The treatments of volumes 2 and 3 are each based on a doctor’s thesis by the first author, elaborated under supervision of Dr. Panigrahi. Volume 2 contains regional revisions of six genera: Prunus, Prinsepia, Maddenia, Rosa, Malus, and Pyrus. Prunus is taken in the inclusive sense and has 38 species in India, including a number of non-indigenous but cultivated and sometimes naturalized species. Prinsepia...

  19. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available For a variety of different reasons, increasing use is now being made of the Internet for the delivery of course materials and/or for the support of teaching and learning activities. The details of the mechanisms used will obviously vary from one situation to another, depending upon the types of problem to be addressed. These may involve mentoring, teaching, monitoring, recording, tutoring, assessing, and so on. In this book, the author attempts to review the educational and administrative considerations of offering courses, course materials or course delivery via the Internet.

  20. 77 FR 58301 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Technical Amendment entitled, ``Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engine'' (77 FR 39623). In that technical... Administration 14 CFR Part 33 RIN 2120-AF57 Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines... technical amendment, the FAA clarified aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the...

  1. REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Bugay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of Study Guide: «KUBAN STUDIES. KUBAN IN THE XX CENTURY – THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY. HISTORY. PEOPLE SOCIETY.» Study Guide (electronic version to grade 11 of educational institutions. A.A. Zaitsev, E.V. Morozova, N.V. Plotichkina and O.A. Borisko, M.A. Egupova, A.B. Sazantovich, I.S. Bashkakov, T.I. Belyaeva. Krasnodar: Perspectives on Education, 2015.In a review of a thorough analysis of all the component parts of the book that will surely attract the attention first of all history teachers and students in 11 classes of educational institutions of the region. A comprehensive presentation of the material significantly adds to the course of modern history of Russia and enrich its specific material about the life of the Russian Cossacks and as part of the – of the Kuban Cossacks. Along with the reference materials of pure nature that is needed for this kind of research are presented and informative sections on the socio-economic condition of the region, the interests of different strata of the population, the multinational factor and the religious beliefs of the population. Cossacks in its warlike mentality, and this trait is passed from generation to generation. But the aspirations of the Cossacks in this respect are transparent – protecting the integrity of the Fatherland, faithful service to him, boundless devotion to the Orthodox faith. The important story is linked with the identity of the Russian Cossacks, its mentality, "Kuban" specificity, especially for the rule on different sections of history, to various of its exponents, both military and civilians. As is known from the Cossacks received a development institute of judging for each Ataman smoking, working village judge. Cossacks series comply with the law as applied his own family, and chic plan – in the state, fought against offenders, it is considered in relation to the Cossacks and representatives of different ethnic communities living with the Cossacks, and

  2. Hate Speech and the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Susan J.; Kinsler, Waren S.; Kannarr, Tina L.; Reaves, Asa E.

    This document is comprised of California state statutes, federal legislation, and court litigation pertaining to hate speech and the First Amendment. The document provides an overview of California education code sections relating to the regulation of speech; basic principles of the First Amendment; government efforts to regulate hate speech,…

  3. Student Assistance Education Amendments of 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    Information and guidelines for implementing the various amendments to the federal student financial aid programs are provided. The provisions are effective October 1, 1980 through 1985, except for the Guaranteed Student Loan Program amendments, effective January 1, 1980. General provisions are outlined, concerning the new administrative cost…

  4. 42 CFR 457.60 - Amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.60 Amendments. A State may seek to amend....490. (6) Cost-sharing as described in § 457.505. (7) Screen and enroll procedures, and other Medicaid... changes in the type of non-health care related revenues used to generate general revenue....

  5. 47 CFR 3.27 - Amended application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Application Procedures § 3.27 Amended application. Changes in circumstances that cause information previously supplied to the FCC to be incorrect or... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amended application. 3.27 Section...

  6. Detection of blaCTX-M gene in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae which producing ESBLs%产超广谱β-内酰胺酶大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌blaCTX-M基因的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阮章; 王沙燕; 卢月梅; 何林; 陈升汶

    2004-01-01

    目的了解产CTX-M型超广谱β-内酰胺酶 (ESBLs) 大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌在深圳市人民医院的分布情况.方法应用美国国家临床实验室标准化委员会(NCCLS)推荐的表型确证试验,从2000年6月~2003年8月该院临床标本分离株中筛选出不重复的产ESBLs菌株215株,其中大肠埃希菌151株,肺炎克雷伯菌64株,应用聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测所有产ESBLs株的bla(CTX-M)基因.结果 PCR结果显示,大肠埃希菌bla(CTX-M)基因阳性率为92.1%(139/151),肺炎克雷伯菌的阳性率为65.6%(42/64).bla(CTX-M)基因阳性菌株主要来源于临床送检尿和痰标本,并广泛分布于20多个临床科室.结论该院临床分离的大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌产生的ESBL大多数为CTX-M型,该类酶广泛分布于各临床科室,需引起重视.

  7. In71, an Enterobacter cloacae blaVIM-1-carrying integron related to In70.2 from Italian Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates: a SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Mariana; Sader, Hélio S; Jones, Ronald N; Debbia, Eugenio; Picão, Renata C; Gales, Ana C

    2007-01-01

    An Enterobacter cloacae strain showing decreased susceptibility to carbapenems was isolated from a blood culture of a patient hospitalized in Genoa, Italy, and screened for the presence of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) genes as part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. A bla(VIM-1)-carrying integron named In71 nearly identical to In70.2 reported in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from various Italian cities since 2001 was identified in this strain. Interestingly, the In71 did not carry aadA1 nor possess the ISPa7 usually found in the P. aeruginosa integron In70.2. Mobilization of MBL genes from P. aeruginosa to members of the Enterobacteriaceae family is very worrisome because the rapid and wide dissemination of these potent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms could jeopardize the clinical use of carbapenems for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections. PMID:17650966

  8. 铜绿假单胞菌亚胺培南及消毒剂耐药相关基因研究%Study on the genes of bla IMP, bla VIM, oprD, and qacE △ 1-sul I in Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistanted to Imipenam and disinfectants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄支密; 糜祖煌; 诸葛青云; 秦玲; 邹玉秀; 熊春林; 沈娟; 王春新

    2005-01-01

    目的了解临床分离的对亚胺培南耐药铜绿假单胞菌中金属β内酰胺酶基因(blaIMP和blaVIM)、外膜孔蛋白D2(OprD2)基因(oprD)、消毒剂-磺胺耐药相关基因(qacE△1-sulⅠ)存在状况.方法采用ATB′PSE 5药敏试验条板微量肉汤法测定28株铜绿假单胞菌对14种抗菌药物的敏感性,采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)技术及序列分析的方法检测耐药基因.结果该28株铜绿假单胞菌对亚胺培南、氨苄西林/舒巴坦、庆大霉素、妥布霉素和复方新诺明均完全耐药,对哌拉西林/他唑巴坦的敏感率最高为64.3%,其余的耐药率在57.1%~92.9%之间.28株Pa中blaIMP和blaVIM基因均阴性,25株(89.3%)oprD基因缺失,24株(85.7%)qacE△1-sulI基因阳性.结论浙江湖州解放军第98医院临床分离的对亚胺培南耐药铜绿假单胞菌多重耐药严重,oprD基因缺失是其对亚胺培南耐药的重要原因,qacE△1-sulI基因携带率很高.

  9. Interspecies Dissemination of a Mobilizable Plasmid Harboring blaIMP-19 and the Possibility of Horizontal Gene Transfer in a Single Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Tanaka, Michio; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Uemoto, Shinji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-09-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli have been a global concern over the past 2 decades because these organisms can cause severe infections with high mortality rates. Carbapenemase genes are often carried by mobile genetic elements, and resistance plasmids can be transferred through conjugation. We conducted whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to demonstrate that the same plasmid harboring a metallo-β-lactamase gene was detected in two different species isolated from a single patient. Metallo-β-lactamase-producing Achromobacter xylosoxidans (KUN4507), non-metallo-β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KUN4843), and metallo-β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae (KUN5033) were sequentially isolated from a single patient and then analyzed in this study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular typing (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing), and conjugation analyses were performed by conventional methods. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analysis of K. pneumoniae isolates were performed with WGS, and the nucleotide sequences of plasmids detected from these isolates were determined using WGS. Conventional molecular typing revealed that KUN4843 and KUN5033 were identical, whereas the phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a slight difference. These two isolates were separated from the most recent common ancestor 0.74 years before they were isolated. The same resistance plasmid harboring blaIMP-19 was detected in metallo-β-lactamase-producing A. xylosoxidans and K. pneumoniae Although this plasmid was not self-transferable, the conjugation of this plasmid from A. xylosoxidans to non-metallo-β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae was successfully performed. The susceptibility patterns for metallo-β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae and the transconjugant were similar. These findings supported the possibility of the horizontal transfer of plasmid-borne blaIMP-19 from A. xylosoxidans to K. pneumoniae in a single patient. PMID:27381397

  10. In70 of plasmid pAX22, a bla(VIM-1)-containing integron carrying a new aminoglycoside phosphotransferase gene cassette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, M L; Pallecchi, L; Fontana, R; Rossolini, G M

    2001-04-01

    An Achromobacter xylosoxydans strain showing broad-spectrum resistance to beta-lactams (including carbapenems) and aminoglycosides was isolated at the University Hospital of Verona (Verona, Italy). This strain was found to produce metallo-beta-lactamase activity and to harbor a 30-kb nonconjugative plasmid, named pAX22, carrying a bla(VIM-1) determinant inserted into a class 1 integron. Characterization of this integron, named In70, revealed an original array of four gene cassettes containing, respectively, the bla(VIM-1) gene and three different aminoglycoside resistance determinants, including an aacA4 allele, a new aph-like gene named aphA15, and an aadA1 allele. The aphA15 gene is the first example of an aph-like gene carried on a mobile gene cassette, and its product exhibits close similarity to the APH(3')-IIa aminoglycoside phosphotransferase encoded by Tn5 (36% amino acid identity) and to an APH(3')-IIb enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (38% amino acid identity). Expression of the cloned aphA15 gene in Escherichia coli reduced the susceptibility to kanamycin and neomycin as well as (slightly) to amikacin, netilmicin, and streptomycin. Characterization of the 5' and 3' conserved segments of In70 and of their flanking regions showed that In70 belongs to the group of class 1 integrons associated with defective transposon derivatives originating from Tn402-like elements. The structure of the 3' conserved segment indicates the closest ancestry with members of the In0-In2 lineage. In70, with its array of cassette-borne resistance genes, can mediate broad-spectrum resistance to most beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. PMID:11257042

  11. OXA-46, a new class D beta-lactamase of narrow substrate specificity encoded by a blaVIM-1-containing integron from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Francesco; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Riccio, Maria Letizia; Pagani, Laura; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2005-05-01

    A novel OXA-type enzyme, named OXA-46, was found to be encoded by a gene cassette inserted into a class 1 integron from a multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. The variable region of the integron also contained a bla(VIM-1) metallo-beta-lactamase cassette and a duplicated aacA4 aminoglycoside acetyltransferase cassette. OXA-46 belongs to the OXA-2 lineage of class D beta-lactamases. It exhibits 78% sequence identity with OXA-2 and the highest similarity (around 92% identity) with another OXA-type enzyme detected in clinical isolates of Burkholderia cepacia and in unidentified bacteria from a wastewater plant. Expression of bla(OXA-46) in Escherichia coli decreased susceptibility to penicillins and narrow-spectrum cephalosporins but not to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, cefsulodin, aztreonam, or carbapenems. The enzyme was overproduced in E. coli and purified by two anion-exchange chromatography steps (approximate yield, 6 mg/liter). OXA-46 was made of a 28.5-kDa polypeptide and exhibited an alkaline pI (7.8). In its native form OXA-46 appeared to be dimeric, and the oligomerization state was not affected by EDTA. Kinetic analysis of OXA-46 revealed a specificity for narrow-spectrum substrates, including oxacillin, other penicillins (but not temocillin), and narrow-spectrum cephalosporins. The enzyme apparently did not interact with temocillin, oxyimino-cephalosporins, or aztreonam. OXA-46 was inactivated by tazobactam and carbapenems and, although less efficiently, also by clavulanic acid. Enzyme activity was not affected either by EDTA or by divalent cations and exhibited low susceptibility to NaCl. These findings underscore the functional and structural diversity that can be encountered among class D beta-lactamases. PMID:15855521

  12. Use of WGS data for investigation of a long-term NDM-1-producing Citrobacter freundii outbreak and secondary in vivo spread of blaNDM-1 to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette M; Hansen, Frank; Nielsen, Hans Linde;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An outbreak of NDM-1-producing Citrobacter freundii and possible secondary in vivo spread of blaNDM-1 to other Enterobacteriaceae were investigated. METHODS: From October 2012 to March 2015, meropenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were detected in 45 samples from seven patients...

  13. 76 FR 13664 - Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... September 22, 2009 (74 FR 48303). The certification was amended on October 13, 2009 to include the above... (74 FR 55260). At the request of a company official, the Department reviewed the certification for... Corp., Simmetrix, Inc., Mika Systems, Inc., Integrated Management Systems, Inc.(IMSI), Logica...

  14. 76 FR 61342 - Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76 FR 56396 (September 13, 2011) (Final Results). We... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003... International Trade Administration Magnesium Metal from the Russian Federation: Amended Final Results...

  15. Communicative Competence and Commercial Speakers: Applying Habermas in a First Amendment Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Bill

    Noting that the work of Jurgen Habermas has had an important influence on philosophy and the social sciences recently, this paper examines the implications of using Habermas's "ideal speech situation" as a criterion for deciding issues relating to the First Amendment. The paper first briefly reviews the distinctive features of critical theory,…

  16. 76 FR 9650 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Amendment to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR... to the Definition of Fuel-Burning Equipment AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Implementation Plan (SIP) amending the definition of ``fuel-burning equipment.'' The revision removes the...

  17. 78 FR 38736 - License Amendment Request for Homestake Mining Company of California, Grants Reclamation Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit..., Cibola County, New Mexico AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: License amendment request... Reclamation Project located in Cibola, County, New Mexico. Upon NRC review and approval, the updated DRP...

  18. 76 FR 35744 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... amending this rule? On July 1, 2008 (73 FR 37741), we issued the NESHAP for Area Sources: Plating and... Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and is therefore not subject to review under the... Order 13175 (65 FR 67249, November 6, 2000). This final rule makes certain technical corrections...

  19. 76 FR 35806 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    .... IV. Why are we amending this rule? On July 1, 2008 (73 FR 37741), we issued the NESHAP for Area... action'' under the terms of Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and is therefore not subject to review under Executive Orders 12866 and 13563 (76 FR 3821, January 21, 2011). B....

  20. 78 FR 14075 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Orange Juice From Brazil, 77 FR 23659 (April 20, 2012). We are issuing this determination and publishing... International Trade Administration Certain Orange Juice From Brazil; Notice of Amended Final Results of... on certain orange juice (OJ) from Brazil.\\1\\ The period of review (POR) is August 24, 2005,...

  1. 78 FR 47715 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee, July 24, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to July 26, 2013, 02:00 p.m., Double Tree by...

  2. 76 FR 18519 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... exporters that supplied that non-Taiwanese exporter. These deposit requirements will remain in effect until...), pursuant to section 751(h) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). \\1\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 76...

  3. 77 FR 24408 - Modification of Significant New Uses of Tris Carbamoyl Triazine; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... amendment implements a technical correction that published in the Federal Register of March 7, 2012 (77 FR... final rule that published in the Federal Register of February 8, 2012 (77 FR 6476) (FRL-9330-6). In... and Budget (OMB) under Executive Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR...

  4. Criminal Law (Amendment Act, 2013: Will it ensure women’s safety in public spaces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Bhattacharyya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The horrific gang-rape and the subsequent murder of Nirbyaya (fearless in December 2012, impelled the Government of India to pass the Criminal Law (Amendment Act, 2013. The key aim of this article is to review this Act in the light of women’s safety in public spaces.

  5. 33 CFR 106.415 - Amendment and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Security Plan (FSP) § 106.415 Amendment and audit. (a) Amendments. (1) Amendments to a Facility Security... duties; and (iii) Be independent of any security measures being audited. (5) If the results of an audit... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment and audit....

  6. 78 FR 31517 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to California Almond Export Association, LLC (``CAEA'') (Application 99-5A002). SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate...

  7. 77 FR 12562 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... May 13, 2010 (75 FR 29514, May 26, 2010). A summary of the current application for an amendment... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (10-2A001) to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Alaska Longline Cod Commission...

  8. 75 FR 55739 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... issued on April 10, 1992 (57 FR 13707, April 17, 1992) and last amended on July 7, 2009 (74 FR 138, 2009... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 92-9A001) to amend an export trade certificate of review previously issued to Aerospace Industries...

  9. 75 FR 44762 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ..., 1995 (60 FR 12735, March 8, 1995), and last amended on May 8, 2000 (65 FR 30564, May 12, 2000). A... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (94-4A007) To Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Florida Citrus Exports, L.C....

  10. 77 FR 72324 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... issued on June 3, 1986 (51 FR 20873, June 9, 1986), and last amended on April 6, 2006 (71 FR 18721, April... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to Amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to U.S. Shippers Association No. 85-17A18. SUMMARY: The...

  11. 76 FR 7811 - Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Partial Rescission of the 2008-2009 Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order, 76 FR 3084... International Trade Administration Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of... the final results of the antidumping duty administrative review of silicon metal from the...

  12. 76 FR 58768 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy; Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... Reviews, 76 FR 52937 (August 24, 2011) (Final Results). The period of review is May 1, 2009, through April... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy; Amended... ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. See Ball Bearings and Parts...

  13. 76 FR 6601 - Certain Pasta From Italy: Notice of Amended Final Results of the Thirteenth Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... FR 81212 (December 27, 2010) (Final Results). We are amending our final results to correct... of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review and Revocation, in Part, 74 FR... of review. The Department clarified its ``automatic assessment''' regulation on May 6, 2003 (68...

  14. 75 FR 40720 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... UNUSABLE. Sec. 95.6424 VOR FEDERAL AIRWAY V424 IS AMENDED TO READ IN PART NAPOLEON, MO VORTAC MACON, MO...

  15. Mass Media and the First Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, William E.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses five Supreme Court decisions that relate to the First Amendment and freedom of the press. Includes small group decision-making exercises and discussion questions focusing on these interpretations for use in a college speech communication class. (MH)

  16. 77 FR 14269 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... BILLINGS, MT VORTAC..... W BND 9700 E BND 6400 Sec. 95.681 VOR Federal Airway V81 Is Amended to Read in... Amended to Read in Part REEPO, MT FIX COLUS, MT FIX W BND 9700 ] E BND 7000 COLUS, MT FIX BILLINGS, MT... *BILLINGS, MT VORTAC.... S BND 17000 N BND 6000 *7000--MCA BILLINGS, MT VORTAC, S BND Sec. 95.6320......

  17. Amendment works of the Korean civil code (Property Law)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Yong

    2001-01-01

    "The Korean Civil Code is currently in the process of amendment. The government expects to submit a proposal for amending the Civil Code to this year's regular session of the National Assembly. However, considering the extent to which the works for amending the Civil Code being in process by the Civil Code amendment committee have thus far advanced, submission of the proposal for Civil Code amendment within this year’s regular session of the National Assembly can be considered ...

  18. 肠道定植产KPC酶植生拉乌尔菌的耐药基因环境分析%Genetic Environment of blaKPC-2 in the Intestinal Colonized Raoultella planticolas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛超荣

    2013-01-01

    The increasing emergence and spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases ( KPCs ) leaves fewer available therapeutic options due to their broad-spectrum hydrolytic activity. Two KPC-2-producing Raoultella planticola isolates were first identified and analyzed using PCR, Southern hybridization and sequencing in China. Two isolates had an identical antimicrobial susceptibility profile, blaKPC-2 gene as well as its flanking sequences. They were resistant to 16 antimicrobial agents while sensitive to polymyxin B, colistin and minocycline. The results demonstrated that the blaKPC-2 gene was located on a 7 498 bp plasmid segment that encoded five open reading frames with the order of Tn3-transposase, Tn3-resolvase, ISKpn8, blaKPC-2 gene and ISKpn6-like.%碳青霉烯酶编码基因的传播是临床抗菌治疗面临的严重威胁之一。采用PCR、Southern杂交、测序比对等方法筛查和研究了碳青霉烯类抗菌药物的相关耐药基因。首次在国内发现了产KPC酸的植生拉乌尔菌两株。分离到的植生拉乌尔菌对被测试的19种常用抗菌药物中的16种耐药,只对多粘菌素B、粘菌素和米诺环素敏感。它们均产KPC-2型碳青霉烯酶,其编码基因blaKPC-2位于质粒上,两侧(包括blaKPC-2)长度为7498 bp的DNA序列所包含的结构从上游至下游分别为Tn3-transposase, Tn3-resolvase, ISKpn8, blaKPC-2和ISKpn6-like元件。

  19. Occurrence of blaCTX-M-1, qnrB1 and virulence genes in avian ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Salah eAbbassi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Avian ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates have been increasingly reported worldwide. Animal to human dissemination, via food chain or direct contact, of these resistant bacteria has been reported. In Tunisia, little is known about avian ESBL- producing E. coli and further studies are needed. Seventeen ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates from poultry faeces from two farms (Farm 1 and farm 2 in the North of Tunisia have been used in this study. Eleven of these isolates (from farm 1 have the same resistance profile to nalidixic acid, sulfonamides, streptomycin, tetracycline and norfloxacine (intermediately resistant. Out of the six isolates recovered from farm 2, only one was co-resistant to tetracycline. All isolates, except one, harboured blaCTX-M-1 gene, and one strain co-harboured the blaTEM-1 gene. The genes tetA and tetB were carried, respectively, by 11 and 1 amongst the 12 tetracycline-resistant isolates. Sulfonamides resistance was encoded by sul1, sul2 and sul3 genes in 3, 17, and 5 isolates, respectively. The qnrB1 was detected in nine strains, one of which co-harboured qnrS1 gene. The search for the class 1 and 2 integrons by PCR showed that in farm 1, class 1 and 2 integrons were found in one and ten isolates, respectively. In farm 2, class 1 integron was found in only one isolate, class 2 was not detected. Only one gene cassette arrangement was demonstrated in the variable regions (VR of the 10 int2-positive isolates: dfrA1- sat2-aadA1. The size of the VR of the class 1 integron was approximately 250 bp in one int1-positive isolate, whereas in the second isolate, no amplification was observed. All isolates of farm 1 belong to the phylogroup A (sub-group A0. However, different types of phylogroups in farm 2 were detected. Each of the phylogroups A1, B22, B23 was detected in one strain, while the D2 phylogroup was found in 3 isolates. The virulence genes iutA, fimH, and traT were detected in 3, 7 and 3 isolates, respectively

  20. Application, chemistry, and environmental implications of contaminant-immobilization amendments on agricultural soil and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Eze, Peter N; Teboh, Jasper M; Stietiya, Mohammed H

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), arsenic (As), heavy metals, and infectious pathogens are often associated with agricultural systems. Various soil and water remediation techniques including the use of chemical amendments have been employed to reduce the risks associated with these contaminants. This paper reviews the use of chemical amendments for immobilizing principal agricultural contaminants, the chemistry of contaminant immobilization, and the environmental consequences associated with the use of these chemical products. The commonly used chemical amendments were grouped into aluminum-, calcium-, and iron-containing products. Other products of interest include phosphorus-containing compounds and silicate clays. Mechanisms of contaminant immobilization could include one or a combination of the following: surface precipitation, adsorption to mineral surfaces (ion exchange and formation of stable complexes), precipitation as salts, and co-precipitation. The reaction pH, redox potential, clay minerals, and organic matter are potential factors that could control contaminant-immobilization processes. Reviews of potential environmental implications revealed that undesirable substances such as trace elements, fluoride, sulfate, total dissolved solids, as well as radioactive materials associated with some industrial wastes used as amendment could be leached to ground water or lost through runoff to receiving water bodies. The acidity or alkalinity associated with some of the industrial-waste amendments could also constitute a substantial environmental hazard. Chemical amendments could introduce elements capable of inducing or affecting the activities of certain lithotrophic microbes that could influence vital geochemical processes such as mineral dissolution and formation, weathering, and organic matter mineralization.

  1. Immobilization of pentachlorophenol in soil using carbonaceous material amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Bei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bwen@rcees.ac.cn; Li Ruijuan; Zhang Shuzhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Shan Xiaoquan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: xiaoquan@rcees.ac.cn; Fang Jing; Xiao Ke [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Khan, Shahamat U. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, MSN 3E2, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, three pentachlorophenol (PCP) laboratory-spiked and one field-contaminated soil were amended with 2.0% char, humic acid (HA) and peat, respectively. The amended soils were aged for either 7 or 250 days. After amendment, CaCl{sub 2} extractability of PCP was significantly decreased. Desorption kinetics indicated that the proposed amendment could lead to a strong binding and slow desorption of PCP in soils. Amendment with char reduced the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of PCP most significantly for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in all soils studied. The results of both physicochemical and biological tests suggested that amendment reduced PCP bioavailability quickly and enduringly, implying that carbonaceous material amendment, especially char amendment, was a potentially attractive in situ remediation method for sequestration of PCP in contaminated soil. - Carbonaceous material amendment was a potential in situ remediation method for pentachlorophenol contaminated soil.

  2. Complete Sequence of the FII Plasmid p42-2, Carrying blaCTX-M-55, oqxAB, fosA3, and floR from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiu E; Walsh, Timothy Rutland; Liu, Bao Tao; Zou, Meng Ting; Deng, Hui; Fang, Liang Xing; Liao, Xiao Ping; Sun, Jian; Liu, Ya Hong

    2016-07-01

    We sequenced a novel conjugative multidrug resistance IncF plasmid, p42-2, isolated from Escherichia coli strain 42-2, previously identified in China. p42-2 is 106,886 bp long, composed of a typical IncFII-type backbone (∼54 kb) and one distinct acquired DNA region spanning ∼53 kb, harboring 12 antibiotic resistance genes [blaCTX-M-55, oqxA, oqxB, fosA3, floR, tetA(A), tetA(R), strA, strB, sul2, aph(3')-II, and ΔblaTEM-1]. The spread of these multidrug resistance determinants on the same plasmid is of great concern and, because of coresistance to antibiotics from different classes, is therapeutically challenging. PMID:27067314

  3. Biological responses of agricultural soils to fly-ash amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajeev Pratap; Sharma, Bhavisha; Sarkar, Abhijit; Sengupta, Chandan; Singh, Pooja; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi

    2014-01-01

    The volume of solid waste produced in the world is increasing annually, and disposing of such wastes is a growing problem. Fly ash (FA) is a form of solid waste that is derived from the combustion of coal. Research has shown that fly ash may be disposed of by using it to amend agricultural soils. This review addresses the feasibility of amending agricultural field soils with fly ash for the purpose of improvings oil health and enhancing the production of agricultural crops. The current annual production of major coal combustion residues (CCRs) is estimated to be -600 million worldwide, of which about 500 million t (70-80%) is FA (Ahmaruzzaman 2010). More than 112 million t of FA is generated annually in India alone, and projections show that the production (including both FA and bottom ash) may exceed 170 million t per annum by 2015 (Pandey et al. 2009; Pandey and Singh 20 I 0). Managing this industrial by-product is a big challenge, because more is produced each year, and disposal poses a growing environmental problem.Studies on FA clearly shows that its application as an amendment to agricultural soils can significantly improve soil quality, and produce higher soil fertility. What FA application method is best and what level of application is appropriate for any one soil depends on the following factors: type of soil treated, crop grown, the prevailing agro climatic condition and the character of the FA used. Although utilizing FA in agricultural soils may help address solid waste disposal problems and may enhance agricultural production, its use has potential adverse effects also. In particular, using it in agriculture may enhance amounts of radionuclides and heavy metals that reach soils, and may therefore increase organism exposures in some instances. PMID:24984834

  4. Absence of co-localization between pathovar-associated virulence factors and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (blaCTX-M) genes on a single plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valat, Charlotte; Forest, Karine; Billet, Méganne; Polizzi, Charlène; Saras, Estelle; Madec, Jean-Yves; Haenni, Marisa

    2016-08-30

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were reported in virulent food-borne Escherichia coli clones, and numerous genes encoding ESBLs and virulence factors (VFs) are plasmid-mediated. We investigated the plasmidic co-localization of ESBL genes and pathovar-associated VF genes isolated in 18 E. coli isolates from faecal samples of diseased cattle. From the rare ESBL-producing E. coli among the various pathovars, no plasmid co-localization was found between VF and blaCTX-M genes on a single plasmid. However, a link between replicon types and VFs was highlighted: EspP was associated with IncFIB and ToxB with IncB/O. Associations of IncF alleles to VF or CTX-M-types were also identified: CS31A was linked to the allele FIB38 and CTX-M-14 to IncFII2. Also, as illustrated here, IncFII and IncFIB were carried by two different plasmids in a single cell. PMID:27527778

  5. Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Retail Meat That Harbor blaCTX-M and fosA3 Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Miaomiao; Lin, Dachuan; Chen, Kaichao; Chan, Edward Wai Chi; Yao, Wen; Chen, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    A total of 55 cefotaxime-resistantEscherichia coliisolates were obtained from retail meat products purchased in Shenzhen, China, during the period November 2012 to May 2013. Thirty-seven of these 55 isolates were found to harbor ablaCTX-Mgene, with theblaCTX-M-1group being the most common type.blaCMY-2was detected in 16 isolates, alone or in combination with other extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) determinants. Importantly, thefosA3gene, which encodes fosfomycin resistance, was detected in 12 isolates, with several being found to reside in the conjugative plasmid that harbored theblaCTX-Mgene. The insertion sequence IS26was observed upstream of some of theblaCTX-M-55andfosA3genes. Conjugation experiments showed thatblaCTX-Mgenes from 15 isolates were transferrable, with Inc I1 and Inc FII being the most prevalent replicons. High clonal diversity was observed among theblaCTX-Mproducers, suggesting that horizontal transfer of theblaCTX-Mgenes amongE. colistrains in retail meats is a common event and that such strains may constitute an important reservoir ofblaCTX-Mgenes, which may be readily disseminated to other potential human pathogens. PMID:26856843

  6. Successful international clones of blaCTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae with coexpression of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants in Tehran hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematzadeh, Shoeib; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Iversen, Aina; Giske, Christian G

    2015-12-01

    The dissemination of plasmid-mediated multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is a major public health concern. We investigated the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), 16S rRNA methylases, CTX-M, and acquired AmpC enzymes in ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=40) from Tehran hospitals. Plasmid replicon typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were carried out for typing. CTX-M group 1 (confirmed as bla(CTX-M-15) in selected isolates) was found in 35/40 isolates. Thirty-two isolates hosted PMQR genes. Twenty isolates featured aac(6')-Ib-CR only; 9 isolates had aac(6')-Ib-CR and qnrB; 2 isolates had aac(6')-Ib-CR and qnrS; and 1 isolate had aac(6')-Ib-CR, qnrS, and qepA. The 16S rRNA methylase RmtB was found in 1 isolate; and acquired AmpC enzymes, in 6 isolates. PFGE detected 7 pulsotypes, the largest corresponded to sequence type 16. The successful clone ST101 was also found. The emergence of successful clones of K. pneumoniae in Tehran hospitals is concerning. PMID:26458278

  7. Full-Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-15KW01, a Uropathogenic E. coli B2 Sequence Type 127 Isolate Harboring a Chromosomally Carried blaCTX-M-15 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Tasara, Taurai

    2016-01-01

    We present here the full-genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-15KW01, an extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing uropathogenic strain. Assembly and annotation of the draft genome resulted in a 5,154,641-bp chromosome and revealed a chromosomally contained blaCTX-M-15 gene embedded at the right-hand extremity of an ISEcp1 element in a plasmid-like structure (36,907 bp). PMID:27587831

  8. Full-Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-15KW01, a Uropathogenic E. coli B2 Sequence Type 127 Isolate Harboring a Chromosomally Carried blaCTX-M-15 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Tasara, Taurai; Stephan, Roger

    2016-01-01

    We present here the full-genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-15KW01, an extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing uropathogenic strain. Assembly and annotation of the draft genome resulted in a 5,154,641-bp chromosome and revealed a chromosomally contained blaCTX-M-15 gene embedded at the right-hand extremity of an ISEcp1 element in a plasmid-like structure (36,907 bp). PMID:27587831

  9. „Ég fórnaði bara öllu.“ Starfsaldur, álag og kynjamismunun hjá íslenskum blaðamönnum.

    OpenAIRE

    Svanhvít Ljósbjörg Guðmundsdóttir 1977

    2014-01-01

    Það er eitthvað heillandi við blaðamennskuna og hún hefur löngum þótt vera áhugavert starf. Þrátt fyrir að blaðamenn séu almennt ánægðir í starfi eru hins vegar margir þeirra sem kjósa að hætta störfum og sérstaklega virðist það eiga við um konur, þrátt fyrir að meiri líkur séu á að þær hafi menntað sig í faginu. Markmið þessarar rannsóknar er að skoða aðstöðu blaðamanna á Íslandi, álag í starfi, starfsaldur, vinnustaðamenningu og kynjamismunun og þá með sérstakri áherslu á konur og af hv...

  10. 32 CFR 505.6 - Amendment of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.6 Amendment of records. (a) Amended records. (1... Center. (7) Inspector General investigative files and action request/complaint files (records in...

  11. AFSC/REFM: Amendment 80 Economic Data Report Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual series of economic data collected for years 2008 and forward for the Amendment 80 Economic Data Report (EDR). Reporting is required of holders of Amendment...

  12. 29 CFR 2200.106 - Amendment to rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., amend or revoke any of the rules contained herein. The Commission invites suggestions from interested parties to amend or revoke rules of procedure. Such suggestions should be addressed to the...

  13. 44 CFR 6.57 - Judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Judicial review. 6.57 Section... SECURITY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Requests To Amend Records § 6.57 Judicial review... requestor may seek judicial review of that determination. A civil action must be filed in the...

  14. 7 CFR 1726.400 - Final contract amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Contract Closeout § 1726.400 Final contract amendment. As needed, a final contract amendment will be prepared and processed in accordance with § 1726.24... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final contract amendment. 1726.400 Section...

  15. 75 FR 65641 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice... announcing an amendment to the notice of meeting of the Risk Communication Advisory Committee. This meeting was announced in the Federal Register of September 20, 2010 (75 FR 57279). The amendment is being...

  16. 14 CFR 91.1017 - Amending program manager's management specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amending program manager's management... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1017 Amending program manager's management specifications. (a... specifications; or (2) The program manager applies for the amendment of any management specifications, and...

  17. 32 CFR 701.108 - Amendment of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disclosure accounting record) that the amendment has been made and provide each a copy of the amended record... of amendment even if those activities or agencies are not listed on the disclosure accounting form... statement of disagreement to all individuals listed on the disclosure accounting form (except those...

  18. Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. License application, amendment 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendment No. 10 provides the applicant's responses to questions raised by the AEC in letters dated November 6 and December 5, 1974. Amendment No. 3, dated February 1975, to the BNFP Separations Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) is included. The amendment consists of revision pages for volumes 1 through 5 of the FSAR along with a deletion and insertion guide. (U.S.)

  19. 33 CFR 105.415 - Amendment and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Plan (FSP) § 105.415 Amendment and audit. (a... security measures being audited. (5) If the results of an audit require amendment of either the FSA or FSP... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment and audit....

  20. 33 CFR 104.415 - Amendment and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Plan (VSP) § 104.415 Amendment and audit. (a... independent of any security measures being audited. (5) If the results of an audit require amendment of either... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendment and audit....

  1. 75 FR 35973 - Trademark Technical and Conforming Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Conforming Amendments AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Interim final rule... amending the Rules of Practice in Trademark Cases to implement the Trademark Technical and Conforming... Technical and Conforming Amendment Act of 2010 became effective on March 17, 2010. Public Law 111-146,...

  2. 75 FR 39323 - Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... applicants beginning at age 7 and above under the program for issuance of biometric Border Crossing Cards... Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program. This public notice announces an amendment to the Biometric Visa Program. Section...

  3. 16 CFR 1031.3 - Consumer Product Safety Act amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. 1031.3 Section 1031.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. The Consumer Product Safety Act, as amended, contains...

  4. 10 CFR 76.45 - Application for amendment of certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for amendment of certificate. 76.45 Section 76.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.45 Application for amendment of certificate. (a) Contents of an amendment application....

  5. Occurrence of blaCTX-M-1, qnrB1 and virulence genes in avian ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates from Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilani, Hajer; Abbassi, Mohamed Salah; Ferjani, Sana; Mansouri, Riadh; Sghaier, Senda; Ben Salem, Rakia; Jaouani, Imen; Douja, Gtari; Brahim, Sana; Hammami, Salah; Ben Chehida, Noureddine; Boubaker, Ilhem Boutiba-Ben

    2015-01-01

    Avian ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates have been increasingly reported worldwide. Animal to human dissemination, via food chain or direct contact, of these resistant bacteria has been reported. In Tunisia, little is known about avian ESBL- producing E. coli and further studies are needed. Seventeen ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates from poultry feces from two farms (Farm 1 and farm 2) in the North of Tunisia have been used in this study. Eleven of these isolates (from farm 1) have the same resistance profile to nalidixic acid, sulfonamides, streptomycin, tetracycline, and norfloxacine (intermediately resistant). Out of the six isolates recovered from farm 2, only one was co-resistant to tetracycline. All isolates, except one, harbored blaCTX-M-1 gene, and one strain co-harbored the blaTEM-1 gene. The genes tetA and tetB were carried, respectively, by 11 and 1 amongst the 12 tetracycline-resistant isolates. Sulfonamides resistance was encoded by sul1, sul2, and sul3 genes in 3, 17, and 5 isolates, respectively. The qnrB1 was detected in nine strains, one of which co-harbored qnrS1 gene. The search for the class 1 and 2 integrons by PCR showed that in farm 1, class 1 and 2 integrons were found in one and ten isolates, respectively. In farm 2, class 1 integron was found in only one isolate, class 2 was not detected. Only one gene cassette arrangement was demonstrated in the variable regions (VR) of the 10 int2-positive isolates: dfrA1- sat2-aadA1. The size of the VR of the class 1 integron was approximately 250 bp in one int1-positive isolate, whereas in the second isolate, no amplification was observed. All isolates of farm 1 belong to the phylogroup A (sub-group A0). However, different types of phylogroups in farm 2 were detected. Each of the phylogroups A1, B22, B23 was detected in one strain, while the D2 phylogroup was found in 3 isolates. The virulence genes iutA, fimH, and traT were detected in 3, 7, and 3 isolates, respectively. Two types of

  6. Occurrence of bla CTX-M-1, qnrB1 and virulence genes in avian ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilani, Hajer; Abbassi, Mohamed Salah; Ferjani, Sana; Mansouri, Riadh; Sghaier, Senda; Ben Salem, Rakia; Jaouani, Imen; Douja, Gtari; Brahim, Sana; Hammami, Salah; Ben Chehida, Noureddine; Boubaker, Ilhem Boutiba-Ben

    2015-01-01

    Avian ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates have been increasingly reported worldwide. Animal to human dissemination, via food chain or direct contact, of these resistant bacteria has been reported. In Tunisia, little is known about avian ESBL- producing E. coli and further studies are needed. Seventeen ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates from poultry feces from two farms (Farm 1 and farm 2) in the North of Tunisia have been used in this study. Eleven of these isolates (from farm 1) have the same resistance profile to nalidixic acid, sulfonamides, streptomycin, tetracycline, and norfloxacine (intermediately resistant). Out of the six isolates recovered from farm 2, only one was co-resistant to tetracycline. All isolates, except one, harbored bla CTX-M-1 gene, and one strain co-harbored the bla TEM-1 gene. The genes tetA and tetB were carried, respectively, by 11 and 1 amongst the 12 tetracycline-resistant isolates. Sulfonamides resistance was encoded by sul1, sul2, and sul3 genes in 3, 17, and 5 isolates, respectively. The qnrB1 was detected in nine strains, one of which co-harbored qnrS1 gene. The search for the class 1 and 2 integrons by PCR showed that in farm 1, class 1 and 2 integrons were found in one and ten isolates, respectively. In farm 2, class 1 integron was found in only one isolate, class 2 was not detected. Only one gene cassette arrangement was demonstrated in the variable regions (VR) of the 10 int2-positive isolates: dfrA1- sat2-aadA1. The size of the VR of the class 1 integron was approximately 250 bp in one int1-positive isolate, whereas in the second isolate, no amplification was observed. All isolates of farm 1 belong to the phylogroup A (sub-group A0). However, different types of phylogroups in farm 2 were detected. Each of the phylogroups A1, B22, B23 was detected in one strain, while the D2 phylogroup was found in 3 isolates. The virulence genes iutA, fimH, and traT were detected in 3, 7, and 3 isolates, respectively. Two types of

  7. 5 CFR 2100.8 - Review of request for amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the requesting individual notified. Individuals, agencies or components shown by disclosure accounting records to have received copies of the record, or to whom disclosure has been made, will be notified...

  8. Amending America: Proposed Amendments to the United States Constitution, 1787 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This dataset provides information about more than 11,000 proposed Constitutional amendments introduced in the United States Congress from 1787 to 2014. This dataset...

  9. Rapping the 27 Amendments to the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaresborough, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Early in the year, the students of history and government at Mountain View High School in Stafford, Virginia, began to devise hand motions to help memorize the 27 amendments to the Constitution for government class. Three students in the school who are interested in hip hop music then suggested composing a rap song about the topic. Working with…

  10. 12 CFR 19.20 - Amended pleadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... administrative law judge orders otherwise for good cause. (b) Amendments to conform to the evidence. When issues... within the issues raised by the notice or answer, the administrative law judge may admit the evidence... fails to satisfy the administrative law judge that the admission of such evidence would...

  11. 75 FR 82228 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... FIX Youngstown, OH VORTAC... 2900 Youngstown, OH VORTAC Mercy, PA FIX *5000 *3000--MOCA *3000--GNSS MEA Mercy, PA FIX Clarion, PA VOR/DME..... 3600 ] Sec. 95.6007 VOR Federal Airway V7 Is Amended...

  12. Employee Rights Versus the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lois; Teaster, Gale; Kelley, Gloria

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a case of a student art exhibit in the Winthrop University, South Carolina Library, where freedom of expression interfered with employee rights in the workplace. The Dean of Libraries stated that the library could not act as a censor, and that they were obligated to defend the First Amendment; the controversial statue remained, but…

  13. 76 FR 34883 - Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ...; Avocado; Fig; Fruit, citrus; Fruit, pome; Fruit, stone; Olive and Pistachio; and revise paragraph (c) to... registrations'') to 40 CFR 180.1(l). 75 FR 76284 (December 8, 2010) (FRL-8853-8). No amendments were made to the... Orders 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and Executive Order 13653 (76 FR 3821, January 21, 2011)....

  14. 77 FR 21359 - MARPOL Annex I Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... international convention covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from either... aquatic environments. The Coast Guard believes that the risk of oil pollution from inadvertent discharges... regarding oil pollution and safety of life at sea. The Coast Guard proposes to amend our...

  15. The Nineteenth Amendment: Reform or Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret Smith; Brooks, Della Barr

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, although many suffrage supporters anticipated a new political age after passage of the 19th Amendment, women have begun to realize their electoral potential only in recent years. Describes the role of women in politics and political opinion from the 1920s to the present. (CFR)

  16. 77 FR 50909 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... Wetzl, KS FIX Napoleon, MO VORTAC.... 3100 Sec. 95.6012 VOR Federal Airway V12 Is Amended To Read in Part Emporia, KS VORTAC Wetzl, KS FIX *5000 *2600--MOCA *3000--GNSS MEA Wetzl, KS FIX Napoleon,...

  17. 75 FR 24790 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... Ascot, TX FIX Solon, TX FIX *4000 *1500-MOCA Cleep, TX FIX *Legge, TX FIX 3100 *3000-MRA Napoleon, MO... Amended to Read in Part Holly Springs, MS VORTAC......... Gilmore, AR VOR/DME..... 2500 Napoleon,...

  18. Religious Law Schools and the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, John T., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    It is proposed that the values and environment of a church-related law school differ from those of secular institutions because of the religious orientation of faculty and students, and fostering such an institution is religious freedom, now threatened by accreditation rules and current First Amendment jurisprudence. (Author/MSE)

  19. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  20. 77 FR 38477 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policiesand Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... KREMMLING, CO VOR/DME * ALLAN, CO FIX......... * * 16000 * 16000--MRA ** 15400--MOCA * MTA V361 SW TO V85 SE 14700 * MTA V361 SW TO V85 NW 16500 Sec. 95.6366 VOR Federal Airway V366 is Amended to Read in Part...

  1. Point Counterpoint: The English Language Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Deroy; Brown, Willie, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Presents two views on recognizing English as the official language of the U.S. Proponents say it will help immigrants advance themselves and will bind Americans together. Critics argue that the amendment does not increase English proficiency but punishes those who have not learned; it also heightens racism and xenophobia. (LHW)

  2. 76 FR 46202 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ..., MT FIX Billings, MT VORTAC. W BND 9000 E BND 6400 Sec. 95.6026 VOR Federal Airway V26 Is Amended To... Part Livingston, MT VOR/DME Reepo, MT FIX 9700 Colus, MT FIX Billings, MT VORTAC. ] W BND 9000 E BND... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3)...

  3. 21 CFR 514.6 - Amended applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG APPLICATIONS General Provisions § 514.6 Amended applications... of the drug or the adequacy of the manufacturing methods, facilities, and controls to preserve...

  4. 44 CFR 19.235 - Statutory amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory amendments. 19.235 Section 19.235 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... of factors related to the individual's personal appearance, poise, and talent. The pageant,...

  5. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  6. Clinical Specimen-Direct LAMP: A Useful Tool for the Surveillance of blaOXA-23-Positive Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Norihisa; Hamaguchi, Shigeto; Akeda, Yukihiro; Santanirand, Pitak; Kerdsin, Anusak; Seki, Masafumi; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Paveenkittiporn, Wantana; Bonomo, Robert A; Oishi, Kazunori; Malathum, Kumthorn; Tomono, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Treatment is increasingly complicated by the escalating incidence of antimicrobial resistance. Among drug-resistant pathogens, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) is of increasing concern because of the limited applicable therapies and its expanding global distribution in developed countries and newly industrialized countries. Therefore, a rapid detection method that can be used even in resource-poor countries is urgently required to control this global public health threat. Conventional techniques, such as bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are insufficient to combat this threat because they are time-consuming and laborious. In this study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detecting blaOXA-23-positive CRAb, the most prevalent form of CRAb in Asia, especially in Thailand, and confirmed its efficacy as a surveillance tool in a clinical setting. Clinical samples of sputum and rectal swabs were collected from patients in a hospital in Bangkok and used for LAMP assays. After boiling and centrifugation, the supernatants were used directly in the assay. In parallel, a culture method was used for comparison purposes to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of LAMP. As a first step, a total of 120 sputum samples were collected. The sensitivity of LAMP was 88.6% (39/44), and its specificity was 92.1% (70/76) using the culture method as the "gold standard". When surveillance samples including sputum and rectal swabs were analyzed with the LAMP assay, its sensitivity was 100.0%. This method enables the direct analysis of clinical specimens and provides results within 40 minutes of sample collection, making it a useful tool for surveillance even in resource-poor countries.

  7. Clinical Specimen-Direct LAMP: A Useful Tool for the Surveillance of blaOXA-23-Positive Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihisa Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Treatment is increasingly complicated by the escalating incidence of antimicrobial resistance. Among drug-resistant pathogens, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb is of increasing concern because of the limited applicable therapies and its expanding global distribution in developed countries and newly industrialized countries. Therefore, a rapid detection method that can be used even in resource-poor countries is urgently required to control this global public health threat. Conventional techniques, such as bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, are insufficient to combat this threat because they are time-consuming and laborious. In this study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method for detecting blaOXA-23-positive CRAb, the most prevalent form of CRAb in Asia, especially in Thailand, and confirmed its efficacy as a surveillance tool in a clinical setting. Clinical samples of sputum and rectal swabs were collected from patients in a hospital in Bangkok and used for LAMP assays. After boiling and centrifugation, the supernatants were used directly in the assay. In parallel, a culture method was used for comparison purposes to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of LAMP. As a first step, a total of 120 sputum samples were collected. The sensitivity of LAMP was 88.6% (39/44, and its specificity was 92.1% (70/76 using the culture method as the "gold standard". When surveillance samples including sputum and rectal swabs were analyzed with the LAMP assay, its sensitivity was 100.0%. This method enables the direct analysis of clinical specimens and provides results within 40 minutes of sample collection, making it a useful tool for surveillance even in resource-poor countries.

  8. Alum amendment effects on phosphorus release and distribution in poultry litter-amended sandy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, K.E.; Arai, Y.; Sparks, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Increased poultry production has contributed to excess nutrient problems in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils due to land application of poultry litter (PL). Aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3?? 14H2O] amendment of PL effectively reduces soluble phosphorus (P) in the PL; however, the effects of these litters when added to acidic, sandy soils are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of alum-amended poultry litter in reducing P release from three Delaware Coastal Plain soils: Evesboro loamy sand (Ev; excessively drained, mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments), Rumford loamy sand (Ru; well drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults), and Pocomoke sandy loam (Pm; very poorly drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Typic Umbraquults). Long-term (25 d) and short-term (24 h) desorption studies were conducted, in addition to chemical extractions and kinetic modeling, to observe the changes that alum-amended versus unamended PL caused in the soils. The Ev, Ru, and Pm soils were incubated with 9 Mg ha-1 of alum-amended or unamended PL. Long-term desorption (25 d) of the incubated material resulted in approximately 13.5% (Ev), 12.7% (Ru), and 13.3% (Pm) reductions in cumulative P desorbed when comparing soil treated with unamended and alum-amended PL. In addition, the P release from the soil treated with alum-amended litter was not significantly different from the control (soil alone). Short-term desorption (24 h) showed 7.3% (Ev), 15.4% (Ru), and 20% (Pm) reductions. The overall implication from this study is that the use of alum as a PL amendment is useful in coarse-textured soils of the Coastal Plain. With increased application of alum-amended PL, more significant decreases may be possible with little or no effect on soil quality.

  9. The importance of considering the evidence in the MTP 2014 Amendment debate in India - unsubstantiated arguments should not impede improved access to safe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mandira; Danielsson, Kristina Gemzell; Essén, Birgitta; Allvin, Marie Klingberg

    2015-01-01

    With the objective to improve access to safe abortion services in India, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, with approval of the Law Ministry, published draft amendments of the MTP Act on October 29, 2014. Instead of the expected support, the amendments created a heated debate within professional medical associations of India. In this commentary, we review the evidence in response to the current discourse with regard to the amendments. It would be unfortunate if unsubstantiated one-sided arguments would impede the intention of improving access to safe abortion care in India. PMID:25828071

  10. The importance of considering the evidence in the MTP 2014 Amendment debate in India – unsubstantiated arguments should not impede improved access to safe abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Paul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to improve access to safe abortion services in India, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, with approval of the Law Ministry, published draft amendments of the MTP Act on October 29, 2014. Instead of the expected support, the amendments created a heated debate within professional medical associations of India. In this commentary, we review the evidence in response to the current discourse with regard to the amendments. It would be unfortunate if unsubstantiated one-sided arguments would impede the intention of improving access to safe abortion care in India.

  11. 50 CFR Table 38 to Part 679 - GOA Amendment 80 Sideboard Limit for Halibut PSC for the Amendment 80 Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Halibut PSC for the Amendment 80 Sector 38 Table 38 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limit for Halibut PSC for the Amendment 80 Sector In the ... The maximum percentage of the total GOA halibut PSC limit that may be used by all Amendment 80 qualified vessels subject to the...

  12. 76 FR 27994 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...'') original Certificate was issued on June 11, 1984 (49 FR 24581, June 14, 1984), and last amended on August 18, 2010 (75 FR 51980), August 19, 2010. A summary of the current application for an amendment... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application...

  13. 76 FR 40874 - Information Collection; Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as amended. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended... recipients' employees understand their customer service role. Collection will occur during face-to-face... Forest Service Information Collection; Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Record AGENCY: Forest...

  14. 77 FR 16670 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... FR 4311; 3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 79; 22 U.S.C. 2651a; 22 U.S.C. 287c; E.O. 12918, 59 FR 28205; 3 CFR.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 126.1(n) is amended to implement section 7046(d) of Public Law 112-74, which..., the Department has reviewed the rule to ensure its consistency with the regulatory philosophy...

  15. Review of the Punishment and Sentence Standards of Corruption and Bribery---Review of the Article 44 of the Amendent to the Criminal Law(9th)%贪污受贿罪法定刑量刑标准述评--兼评《刑法修正案(九)》第44条

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍光红; 王惠敏; 蔡士林

    2016-01-01

    In 2015,China passed the Amendent to the Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China(9th)in which legal punishment of corruption and taking bribes and sentence standards had made a larger adjustment,that was,cancelling the sentence standards resulted from the specific money amount plus circumstances of the crime and switching into the new dual punishment system of the summarized amount plus the plot as the center. Undoubtedly, it is the highlight of the reform,but not efficacious forever. By analyzing the domestic and foreign sentence stand-ards of corruption and bribes,a path is open to the new law in theory.%我国于2015年通过的《中华人民共和国刑法修正案(九)》对贪污受贿罪的法定刑量刑标准做出了较大的调整,取消了之前的“具体数额+犯罪情节”的量刑标准,转而向以“概括式数额+情节为中心”为定罪处罚标准的新二元量刑体系发展,无疑成为这次改革的亮点,但这并非一劳永逸之举。通过国内外贪污受贿罪的量刑标准的考究,为新法的适用开辟理论道路。

  16. 78 FR 48415 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... other companies subject to the Final Results because the ministerial error referenced above does not... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review; 2011-2012 AGENCY: Import...

  17. 75 FR 15412 - Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended Final Results of New Shipper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... (``the Department'') determination of the appropriate surrogate value for silica fume in Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Final Results of 2005/2006 New Shipper Reviews, 72 FR 58... International Trade Administration Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended...

  18. The Judiciary's Use of Metaphors, Metonymies and Other Tropes to Give First Amendment Protection to Students and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmajian, Haig

    1986-01-01

    Reviews use of "figurative" language by Supreme Court justices in court decisions relating to First Amendment rights of students and teachers. Outlines how use of metaphor, metonomy, and other tropes has led to expressions in judicial opinions that have been used repeatedly in constitutional defenses. Discusses dangers and strengths of this…

  19. 75 FR 19357 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended Final Results Pursuant to Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Administrative Review, 70 FR 38873 (July 6, 2005) (``Final Results'') and the accompanying Issues and Decision... International Trade Administration Honey From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended Final Results...''), which challenged certain aspects of the Department of Commerce's (``the Department'') findings in...

  20. 77 FR 10774 - Silicon Metal From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... to its notice of institution (76 FR 67476, November 1, 2011) of the subject five-year review was... have been amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and... COMMISSION Silicon Metal From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review AGENCY: United...

  1. 77 FR 16859 - Tapered Roller Bearings From China; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... that a full review pursuant to section 751(c)(5) of the Act should proceed (76 FR 72213, November 22... amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly... COMMISSION Tapered Roller Bearings From China; Scheduling of a Full Five- Year Review AGENCY: United...

  2. An Economic Theory of the Fifth Amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Mialon

    2004-01-01

    The Fifth Amendment's due process clause requires the prosecution to share evidence with the defense, and its right to silence blocks the jury from drawing an adverse inference from the defendant's silence during trial. I examine the effect of the right to silence and the disclosure requirement on conviction rates and social welfare in an economic model of criminal trials. Many policy-relevant results emerge. The right to silence can only improve welfare if juries discriminate unduly against ...

  3. Outline of amendments to nuclear compensation law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendments to 'the Japanese Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage', submitted to the Diet in February, 1989, were approved as drafted as from January 1st, 1990. Although the Revised Law requires a nuclear operator to raise its financial security amount from 10 to 30 Billion yen, the framework of the Law remains, in principle, unchanged. How we should deal with cross frontier nuclear incidents is an important problem to be studied hereafter. (author)

  4. 76 FR 11675 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February... Read in Part JACKSON, WY VOR/DME BIG PINEY, WY VOR/DME 13500 MTA V328 NW TO V465 SW 15100 Sec. 95.6330.../DME, W BND MTA V330 E TO V520 W 16000 Sec. 95.6465 VOR Federal Airway V465 Is Amended To Read in...

  5. The properties of the single chicken MHC classical class II alpha chain ( B-LA) gene indicate an ancient origin for the DR/E-like isotype of class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Jan; Marston, Denise; Avila, David;

    2003-01-01

    significantly in the peptide-binding alpha(1) domain. The cDNA and genomic DNA sequences from chickens of diverse origins show few alleles, which differ in only four nucleotides and one amino acid. In contrast, significant restriction fragment length polymorphism is detected by Southern blot analysis of genomic...... DNA, suggesting considerable diversity around the gene. Analysis of a large back-cross family indicates that the class II alpha chain locus ( B-LA) is located roughly 5.6 cM from the MHC locus, which encodes the classical class II beta chains. Thus the chicken class II alpha chain gene is like the...

  6. IncI1 Plasmid Carrying Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase Gene blaCTX-M-1 in Salmonella enterica Isolates from Poultry and Humans in France, 2003 to 2008 ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cloeckaert, Axel; Praud, Karine; Lefevre, Martine; Doublet, Benoît; Pardos, Maria; Granier, Sophie; Brisabois, Anne; Weill, François-Xavier

    2010-01-01

    We report the dissemination of a conjugative IncI1 plasmid carrying bla CTX-M-1 , conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, in Salmonella enterica isolates from poultry and humans in France from 2003 to 2008. By IncI1 plasmid subtyping, this plasmid was shown to be genetically related to that found in Escherichia coli isolates from healthy poultry in France. Food-producing animals are the primary reservoir of zoo-notic pathogens, and the prevalence of resistance to extended-s...

  7. Amendment of APPRE for Ratification of the International Conventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ho Sik; Kwak, Sung Woo; Chang, Sung Soon; Seo, Hyung Min; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Both the international community and the IAEA have been making efforts to strengthen the global regime on nuclear security. As a result of these efforts, two conventions regarding nuclear security were issued by the UN and IAEA. The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (NTC) and the Amendment to Convention of Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNMNF). The NTC entered into force in 2007, but the CPPNMNF still has not yet been enacted. In the work plan released after the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit (which was held in Washington D.C) these conventions were mentioned as important tools against nuclear terrorism. The purpose of these conventions was to prevent malicious acts against radioactive materials and nuclear facilities. The article also specifies strong penal provisions. Many countries which had ratified these conventions had to revise or change their domestic acts or laws in order conform to these new international regimes. The ROK signed these two conventions in 2005: however, it has not ratified them yet. The government has a plan to ratify them before the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit, which will be held in the ROK. Each article in the conventions should be reviewed thoroughly in terms of their effects on the domestic legal and institutional systems. The penal provisions regulating the conventions should especially be carefully scrutinized since their effects are considerable. In this paper, we compared the penal provisions in the conventions with the ROK's laws and selected the provisions that are not specified in the ROK's legal system. The proposed articles for amendment to the APPRE are also suggested

  8. A Critique of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Olivier; Avinash Govindjee

    2015-01-01

    The contribution critically reflects on the proposed amendments to the Unemployment Insurance Act Act 63 of 2001 (the UIA / the Act), introduced via the provisions of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill of 2015 (B25-2015). Several shortcomings and deficiencies are addressed and improvements introduced by the proposed amending legislation, including the extension of coverage to a wider range of beneficiaries, the extension of the period of benefits (to a maximum of 365 days), the increas...

  9. NUSAR: N Reactor Updated Safety Analysis Report, Amendment 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G L

    1989-12-01

    The enclosed pages are Amendment 21 of the N Reactor Updated Safety Analysis Report (NUSAR). NUSAR, formerly UNI-M-90, was revised by 18 amendments that were issued by UNC Nuclear Industries, the contractor previously responsible for N Reactor operations. As of June 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) acquired the operations and engineering contract for N Reactor and other facilities at Hanford. The document number for NUSAR then became WHC-SP-0297. The first revision was issued by WHC as Amendment 19, prepared originally by UNC. Summaries of each of the amendments are included in NUSAR Section 1.1.

  10. Lysine N[superscript zeta]-Decarboxylation Switch and Activation of the [beta]-Lactam Sensor Domain of BlaR1 Protein of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borbulevych, Oleg; Kumarasiri, Malika; Wilson, Brian; Llarrull1, Leticia I.; Lee, Mijoon; Hesek, Dusan; Shi, Qicun; Peng, Jeffrey; Baker, Brian M.; Mobashery, Shahriar (Notre)

    2012-10-29

    The integral membrane protein BlaR1 of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus senses the presence of {beta}-lactam antibiotics in the milieu and transduces the information to the cytoplasm, where the biochemical events that unleash induction of antibiotic resistance mechanisms take place. We report herein by two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR experiments of the sensor domain of BlaR1 in solution and by determination of an x-ray structure for the apo protein that Lys-392 of the antibiotic-binding site is posttranslationally modified by N{sup {zeta}}-carboxylation. Additional crystallographic and NMR data reveal that on acylation of Ser-389 by antibiotics, Lys-392 experiences N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation. This unique process, termed the lysine N{sup {zeta}}-decarboxylation switch, arrests the sensor domain in the activated ('on') state, necessary for signal transduction and all the subsequent biochemical processes. We present structural information on how this receptor activation process takes place, imparting longevity to the antibiotic-receptor complex that is needed for the induction of the antibiotic-resistant phenotype in methicillin-resistant S. aureus.

  11. 78 FR 69543 - Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Federal Register of November 30, 2010 (75 FR 73951), we amended certain regulations in part 1 (21 CFR part... products under the Tobacco Control Act (75 FR 73951 at 73952). However, the revisions inadvertently created... to section 302 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) (21 U.S.C. 332); Revised Sec....

  12. 37 CFR 1.121 - Manner of making amendments in applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Specification. Amendments to the specification, other than the claims, computer listings (§ 1.96) and sequence... the title of the invention which are considered for amendment purposes to be an amendment of...

  13. 75 FR 49408 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Bridges AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... this rule is to make conforming amendments and technical corrections to Coast Guard bridge and... corrections and editorial, organizational, and conforming amendments and these changes will have...

  14. 48 CFR 452.215-72 - Amendments to Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendments to Proposals. 452.215-72 Section 452.215-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES... vertical lines adjacent to the change. The offeror shall include the date of the amendment on the...

  15. 21 CFR 720.6 - Amendments to statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... discontinuance of commercial distribution of a cosmetic product formulation should be submitted by Form FDA 2514... VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.6 Amendments to statement... a cosmetic product should be submitted by filing an amended Form FDA 2512 within 60 days after...

  16. 76 FR 28193 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 72, 74, and 150 RIN 3150-AI61 Amendments to Material Control and Accounting... proposed rule language concerning the NRC's proposed amendments to the material control and accounting (MC... FNMC is an outdated term, as it does not include ``accounting,'' and thus does not fully describe...

  17. 78 FR 67225 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 40, 70, 72, 74, and 150 RIN 3150-AI61 Amendments to Material Control and Accounting... Commission (NRC) is proposing to amend its regulations for material control and accounting (MC&A) of special... for control and accounting of SNM that is held by a licensee. The MC&A regulations ensure that...

  18. 14 CFR 151.29 - Procedures: Offer, amendment, and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 151.29 Procedures: Offer, amendment, and acceptance. (a) Upon approving a project, the Administrator... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures: Offer, amendment, and acceptance. 151.29 Section 151.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  19. 40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan... have a written closure plan. Until final closure is completed and certified in accordance with §...

  20. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  1. Fuzzy indicator approach: development of impact factor of soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil amendments have been shown to be useful for improving soil condition, but it is often difficult to make management decisions as to their usefulness. Utilization of Fuzzy Set Theory is a promising method for decision support associated with utilization of soil amendments. In this article a tool ...

  2. 31 CFR 10.67 - Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof; variance; amendment of... BEFORE THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.67 Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings. In the case of a variance between the allegations in pleadings and the...

  3. 20 CFR 901.40 - Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings. 901... Suspension or Termination of Enrollment § 901.40 Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings. In the case of a variance between the allegations in a pleading and the evidence adduced in support of the pleading,...

  4. 31 CFR 8.59 - Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof; variance; amendment of... BEFORE THE BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.59 Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings. In the case of a variance between the allegations in a pleading, the...

  5. 14 CFR 21.177 - Amendment or modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendment or modification. 21.177 Section 21.177 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.177 Amendment or...

  6. Food Safety Issues: Mineral fertilizers and soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilizers and other soil amendments are required to maintain soil fertility, but some may be naturally rich in trace elements, or contaminated. Thus, as part of the overall consideration of using fertilizers and soil amendments, one should consider the levels of trace elements present in relation...

  7. 75 FR 13670 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gadsden, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... direct final rule with a request for comments in the Federal Register on December 29, 2009 (74 FR 68667... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gadsden, AL AGENCY: Federal... December 29, 2009 that amends Class E airspace at Northeast Alabama Regional, Gadsden, AL. DATES:...

  8. 44 CFR 70.5 - Letter of Map Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter of Map Amendment. 70.5 Section 70.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Amendment. Upon determining from available scientific or technical information that a FHBM or a...

  9. Coverage of the Nineteenth Amendment in Rural Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lucinda D.

    A study was conducted to find out how the topics of the Nineteenth Amendment and women's suffrage were handled at the time by news publications in rural areas. Several components were used to carry out the objective: one was to investigate newspaper coverage of the amendment and in addition broaden that search to include women's suffrage; another…

  10. 77 FR 22187 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards-Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    .... SUMMARY: This amendment corrects a number of errors in the airworthiness standards for aircraft engine...: AIRCRAFT ENGINES 0 1. The authority citation for part 33 continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Technical Amendment; Airworthiness...

  11. 33 CFR 150.25 - Amending the operations manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amending the operations manual... (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS General § 150.25 Amending the operations manual. (a) Whenever the cognizant Captain of the Port (COTP) finds that the operations manual does not meet...

  12. 76 FR 70069 - Federal Home Loan Bank Community Support Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1290 RIN 2590-AA38 Federal Home Loan Bank Community Support Amendments AGENCY: Federal... Federal Home Loan Bank Act of 1932 (Bank Act), as amended by the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery... provision, see the final rule entitled ``Federal Home Loan Bank Membership for Community...

  13. ADSORPTION OF CADMIUM ON BIOSOLIDS-AMENDED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A considerable controversy exists over the biosolid phase (organic or inorganic) responsible for the reduction in phytoavailable Cd in soils amended with biosolids as compared to soils amended with inorganic salts. To test the importance of these two phases, 2 biosolids, 15 bioso...

  14. Proposed Federal Gun-Control Amendment. Student Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Gayle; Mertz, David

    1995-01-01

    Presents an outline for a student-run forum on a proposed federal gun control amendment. Procedures include mandatory reading assignments and researching the issue. Students role-play fictional representative characters and later facilitate discussions. Concludes with a vote on the amendment. (MJP)

  15. 76 FR 33999 - Spouse and Surviving Spouse; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... toll-free number). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On February 6, 1997 (62 FR 5528), VA amended 38 CFR part... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Parts 18 and 21 RIN 2900-AI36 Spouse and Surviving Spouse; Technical Amendment...

  16. 15 CFR 923.83 - Mediation of amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation of amendments. 923.83... Programs § 923.83 Mediation of amendments. (a) Section 307(h)(2) of the Act provides for mediation of... management program. Accordingly mediation is available to states or federal agencies when a...

  17. Do Minors Have First Amendment Rights in Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmara, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Courts have held that minors have First Amendment rights and that those rights include the right to receive information. However, how does that apply in the school setting? The First Amendment prohibits governmental entities from unconstitutionally infringing rights of free speech. Students in public schools, therefore, do have rights under the…

  18. 4 CFR 83.10 - First Amendment rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false First Amendment rights. 83.10 Section 83.10 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.10 First Amendment rights. Personnel records or entries thereon describing how individuals exercise rights guaranteed by...

  19. 77 FR 63339 - Amended Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Amended Notice of Lodging Proposed Consent Decree This Notice amends and replaces the original notice published on October 10, 2012, 77 FR 61640. In accordance with Departmental Policy, 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given that a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Snowden, Civil Action No....

  20. A Case Against First Amendment Protections for Commercial Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Kent R.

    Although extending constitutional protection to commercial expression might benefit the consumer, the First Amendment is the wrong instrument for carrying out what are basically economic policies. While in most First Amendment cases the nature of the content determines whether it is constitutionally protected, advertising is distinct in that it…

  1. 76 FR 77472 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, hereinto referred to as the Consumer Financial...

  2. 77 FR 56913 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... Circular No. 230. Amendments to the regulations were published recently at 76 FR 32286-32312, June 3, 2011.... A notice describing Treasury/IRS 37.007 was most recently published at 75 FR 64406-64407, October 19... Internal Revenue Service Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service, Treasury....

  3. 76 FR 45757 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ...; ] BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, hereinto referred to as the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (``CFPB'') gives notice of the establishment of a...

  4. 76 FR 45765 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, hereinto referred to as the Consumer Financial...

  5. 77 FR 35359 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice of proposed Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, hereinto referred to as the Consumer Financial...

  6. 76 FR 45763 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, hereinto referred to as the Consumer Financial...

  7. 78 FR 47306 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice of a Revised Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, hereinto referred to as the Consumer...

  8. 76 FR 45761 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, hereinto referred to as the Consumer Financial...

  9. 78 FR 69834 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, hereinto referred to as the Consumer Financial...

  10. 78 FR 34991 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, hereinto referred to as the Consumer Financial...

  11. 77 FR 56623 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Privacy Act System of Records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, herein referred to as the Consumer Financial...

  12. 78 FR 15407 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service, Treasury. ACTION... requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, 5 U.S.C. 552a, the Department of the Treasury, Internal... 34.037, Audit Trail and Security Records. DATES: Comments must be received no later than April...

  13. 77 FR 75915 - Review and Approval of Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 806 Review and Approval of Projects AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... would amend the project review regulations of the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (Commission) to... is to make further modifications to the Commission's project review regulations relating to...

  14. Effects of Biochar amendments on soil chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Zimmerman, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    Humans have been transforming soil composition, both accidentally and purposefully, for centuries. For example, terra preta soils found in Amazonia that are greatly enriched in organic carbon and phosphorus and have enhanced fertility relative to the surrounding depleted oxisols, seem to have been deliberately created by native pre-Colombian Indians through the addition of combusted biomass, or biochar. Biochar amendment has gained attention recently as a way to enhance soil carbon sequestration while increasing soil fertility. It may also have adsorptive properties that are useful for pollution control. Our research examines the chemical and morphological properties of biochar with the goals of understanding the origin of terra preta, as well as how biochar can best be put to use as a soil amendment. Biochar was produced from a range of parent biomass types (hardwoods, softwoods and grasses) and under a range of combustion conditions (250 to 650 oC, under air and N2). Surface areas, determined by gas sorptometry, ranged from 3 to 394 m2g-1 (for N2) and from 129 to 345 m2g-1 (for CO2) and were found to generally increase with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The pH of the biochars ranged from 1.8 to 4.5, from 6.2 to 8.7, and from 6.2 to 9.2 for the 250, 400, and 650 oC biochars, respectively, and did not vary consistently with parent biomass types. Cation exchange capacity (CEC), determined using K+ exchange, ranged between 5 to 60 cmolc kg-1, higher than most soils, and generally increased with charring temperature. Anion exchange capacity (AEC) was low or undetectable. Lastly, the isoelectric point of the chars, determined using a zeta potential analyzer, ranged from a pH of 1.3 to 1.5, indicating that the biochar surfaces will be predominantly negatively charged in soil solutions. These data are complimentary and show that, when added to soil, biochar, particularly those produced at higher temperatures, would function as a cation exchanger system. The acid

  15. Complete sequences of IncHI1 plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 and qnrS1 in equine Escherichia coli provide new insights into plasmid evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolejska, Monika; Villa, Laura; Minoia, Marco;

    2014-01-01

    CTX-M-1 gene was formed by a truncated macrolide resistance cluster and flanked by IS26 as previously observed in IncI1 and IncN plasmids. The IncHI1 plasmid changed size and gained the quinolone resistance gene qnrS1 as a result of IS26-mediated fusion with an IncX1 plasmid. CONCLUSIONS: Our data......OBJECTIVES: To determine the structure of two multidrug-resistant IncHI1 plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 in Escherichia coli isolates disseminated in an equine clinic in the Czech Republic. METHODS: A complete nucleotide sequencing of 239 kb IncHI1 (pEQ1) and 287 kb IncHI1/X1 (pEQ2) plasmids...

  16. 78 FR 40172 - Steel Nails From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... duty order on imports of steel nails from China (73 FR 44961). The Commission is conducting a review to... employment statute for Federal employees, and Commission rule 201.15(b) (19 CFR 201.15(b)), 73 FR 24609 (May... electronic filing have been amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct....

  17. Frequency of conjugative transfer of plasmid-encoded ISEcp1 - blaCTX-M-15 and aac(6'-lb-cr genes in Enterobacteriaceae at a tertiary care center in Lebanon - role of transferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araj George F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequency of transfer of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents was determined by conjugation in ESBL-producing and/or fluoroquinolone or aminoglycoside resistant Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates at a tertiary care center in Lebanon. In addition, the role of tra genes encoding transferases in mediating conjugation was assessed. Methods Conjugation experiments were done on 53 ESBL-producing and/or fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae and ESBL-producing S. sonnei isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing on parent and transconjugant isolates, and PCR amplifications on plasmid extracts of the resistance-encoding genes: blaCTX-M-15 with the ISEcp1 insertion sequence, the aac(6'-lb-cr and qnrS genes, as well as tra encoding transferases genes were done. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was performed to demonstrate whether conjugative isolates are clonal and whether they are linked epidemiologically to a particular source. Results Antimicrobial susceptibility testing on transconjugants revealed that 26 out of 53 (49% ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were able to transfer antimicrobial resistance to the recipients. Transfer of high-level resistance to the transconjugants encoded by the blaCTX-M-15 gene downstream the ISEcp1 insertion sequence against 3rd generation cephalosporins, and of low-level resistance against ciprofloxacin, and variable levels of resistance against aminoglycosides encoded by aac(6'-lb-cr gene, were observed in transconjugants. tra encoding transferase genes were detected exclusively in conjugative isolates. Conclusion In conclusion, the frequency of transfer of antimicrobial resistance in non clonal Enterobacteriaceae at the tertiary care center by conjugation was 49%. Conjugation occurred in isolates expressing the tra encoding transferase genes. Multiple conjugative strains harboring the plasmid encoded antimicrobial resistant genes were circulating in

  18. Nye oplysninger om bl.a. miljømæssig risikovurdering af PAT-protein og glufosinatammonium herbicider. Zea mays (Bt11). Supplerende materiale om Bt11. Modtaget 21-02-2005, deadline 29-03-2005, svar 07-03-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2005-01-01

    Mail: Det tilsendte supplerende materiale om Bt-11 majsen (mail pr. 21-02-2005) omhandler bl.a. eventuelle uønskede konsekvenser ved ulovlig anvendelse af glufosinat ammonium herbicider i forbindelse med dyrkningen. Vi har allerede indraget dette aspekt i forbindelse med den økologiske risikovurd...

  19. Biochar amendment reduced methylmercury accumulation in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Rui; Wang, Yongjie; Zhong, Huan

    2016-08-01

    There is growing concern about methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains and thus enhanced dietary exposure to MeHg in Asian countries. Here, we explored the possibility of reducing grain MeHg levels by biochar amendment, and the underlying mechanisms. Pot (i.e., rice cultivation in biochar amended soils) and batch experiments (i.e., incubation of amended soils under laboratory conditions) were carried out, to investigate MeHg dynamics (i.e., MeHg production, partitioning and phytoavailability in paddy soils, and MeHg uptake by rice) under biochar amendment (1-4% of soil mass). We demonstrate for the first time that biochar amendment could evidently reduce grain MeHg levels (49-92%). The declines could be attributed to the combined effects of: (1) increased soil MeHg concentrations, probably explained by the release of sulfate from biochar and thus enhanced microbial production of MeHg (e.g., by sulfate-reducing bacteria), (2) MeHg immobilization in soils, facilitated by the large surface areas and high organosulfur content of biochar, and (3) biodilution of MeHg in rice grains, due to the increased grain biomass under biochar amendment (35-79%). These observations together with mechanistic explanations improve understanding of MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems, and support the possibility of reducing MeHg phytoaccumulation under biochar amendment. PMID:27045620

  20. Software Process Improvement to Assist Medical Device Software Development Organisations to Comply with the Amendments to the Medical Device Directive

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Hugh, Martin; McCaffery, Fergal; Casey, Valentine

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed A recent revision to the European Medical Device Directive (MDD) 2007/47/EC made fourteen amendments to the original directive (93/42/EEC). A number of these changes directly affect the development of software for use in healthcare. The most significant change in relation to medical device software development is that standalone software is now seen as an active medical device and should be developed following state of the art medical device software development p...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 292 - Uniform Agency Fees for Search and Duplication Under the Freedom of Information Act (as Amended)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Under the Freedom of Information Act (as Amended) A Appendix A to Part 292 National Defense Department... PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (DIA) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Pt. 292, App. A Appendix A to Part...) Search + Review (only in the case of commercial requesters) a. Manual search or review— Type Grade...

  2. 50 CFR Table 32 to Part 679 - Amendment 80 Initial QS Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment 80 Initial QS Pool 32 Table 32... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 32 Table 32 to Part 679— Amendment 80 Initial QS Pool Amendment 80 species Management area Amendment 80 initial QS pool in units Atka mackerel BS/541542 543 Σ Highest Five Years...

  3. 78 FR 1267 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... licensee's Cyber Security Plan implementation schedule. In addition, the amendments revised paragraph 2.E... Description of amendments: These amendments revised the Cyber Security Plan Implementation Schedule as.... The amendment modified the scope of Milestone 6 to apply to the technical cyber security controls...

  4. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to... substitute unit and must determine the reasonable rent for such unit. (b) Amendment to add contract units....

  5. 45 CFR 5b.7 - Procedures for correction or amendment of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corrected or amended, the subject individual will be informed in writing of the refusal to correct or amend... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for correction or amendment of records... PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.7 Procedures for correction or amendment of records. (a) Any...

  6. Destress Blasting in Coal Mining – State-of-the-Art Review

    OpenAIRE

    P. Koníček; Saharan, M.R.; Mitri, H.

    2011-01-01

    Coal mine workings continue to face the challenges of coal bumps and rockbursts caused by high mining-induced stresses due to high overburden pressures associated with the extraction of brittle, low strength coal seams. Despite of the fact that destress blasting has been applied for almost a century, it is still not a popular choice. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of destress blasting in coal mining. Information such as geology, rock properties, mining conditions as well as bla...

  7. 76 FR 2913 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ..., January 24, 2011, 5 p.m. to January 26, 2011, 5 p.m., Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference Center..., 75 FR 71713. This notice is amending the meeting from three days to two days. The new date and...

  8. Biochar Soil Amendment Effects on Arsenic Availability to Mountain Brome ().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Daniel G; Rigby, April C; Baker, Leslie L; Coleman, Mark D; Koch, Iris

    2015-07-01

    Biochar is a renewable energy byproduct that shows promise for remediating contaminated mine sites. A common contaminant at mine sites is arsenic (As). In this study, the effects of biochar amendments to a mine-contaminated soil on As concentrations in mountain brome ( Nees ex Steud.) were investigated. In the biochar-amended soil, mountain brome had greater root biomass and decreased root and shoot As concentrations. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy results showed that arsenate [As(V)] is the predominant species in both the nonamended and biochar-amended soils. Soil extraction tests that measure phosphate and arsenate availability to plants failed to accurately predict plant tissue As concentrations, suggesting the arsenate bioavailability behavior in the soils is distinct from phosphate. Results from this study indicate that biochar will be a beneficial amendment to As-contaminated mine sites for remediation. PMID:26437113

  9. Amendment I : Basic fur management plan : Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This amendment to the fur management plan for Stillwater Wildlife Management area calls for the annual trapping of beaver. The Lower Carson River is overpopulated...

  10. 78 FR 9311 - Hazard Communication; Corrections and Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Communication; Corrections and Technical Amendment AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA..., Chemicals, Fire prevention, Hazard communication, Hazardous substances, Occupational safety and health. 29... revisions to OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard, published at 77 FR 17574. The majority of...

  11. 48 CFR 15.206 - Amending the solicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the contract file and formalize the notice with an amendment (see subpart 4.5, Electronic Commerce in... (and electronic or facsimile address, if appropriate). (7) Revision to solicitation closing date,...

  12. 77 FR 39623 - Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical.... SUMMARY: This amendment clarifies aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the airworthiness... 33--AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES 0 1. The authority citation for part 33 continues...

  13. Transitional Measures on the Implementation of the Amended Patent Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Transitional Measures on the Implementation of the Amended Patent Law has been adopted by deliberation at the executive meeting of the State Intellectual Property Office came into effect as of October 1, 2009.

  14. Influence of biochar amendments on marine sediment trace metal bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, G. E.; Hsu-Kim, H.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar has become a desirable material for use in agricultural application to enhance soil quality and in-situ soil and sediment remediation to immobilize organic contaminants. We investigated the effects of biochar sediment amendments on the bioavailability of a suite of inorganic trace metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) in contaminated sediments from multiple sites in Elizabeth River, VA. We incubated sediments in microcosms with a variety of water column redox and salinity conditions and compared sediments amended with two types of woody biochar to sediments amended with charcoal activated carbon and unamended sediments. We leached sediments in artificial gut fluid mimic of the benthic invertebrate Arenicola marina as a measure of bioavailability of the trace metals analyzed. In unamended anaerobic sediments, the gut fluid mimic leachable fraction of each trace metal is 1-4% of the total sediment concentration for each metal. Initial results indicate that in anaerobic microcosms, woody biochar sediment amendments (added to 5% dry wt) decrease the gut fluid mimic leachable fraction by 30-90% for all trace metals analyzed, and have comparable performance to charcoal activated carbon amendments. However, in microcosms without controlled redox conditions, woody biochar amendments increase the bioavailable fraction of Ni and Cu by up to 80%, while decreasing the bioavailable fraction of Co, Zn, and Pb by approximately 50%; charcoal activated carbon amendments decreased the bioavailability of all trace metals analyzed by approximately 20%. In microcosms without an overlying water column, biochar and activated carbon amendments had no significant effects on trace metal bioavailability. This research demonstrates that biochar can effectively decrease the bioavailability of trace metals in marine sediments, but its efficiency is metal-specific, and environmental conditions impact biochar performance.

  15. Amendable Gaussian channels:restoring entanglement via a unitary filter

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale, A.; Mari, A.; Porzio, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2013-01-01

    We show that there exist Gaussian channels which are amendable. A channel is amendable if when applied twice is entanglement breaking while there exists a unitary filter such that, when interposed between the first and second action of the map, prevents the global transformation from being entanglement breaking [Phys. Rev. A 86, 052302 (2012)]. We find that, depending on the structure of the channel, the unitary filter can be a squeezing transformation or a phase shift operation. We also prop...

  16. 30 CFR 925.16 - Required program amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations at 30 CFR 817.95(a). (5)-(19) (20) At 10 CSR 40-8.070(2)(C)1.A(II)(a) and (b) to revise the... the Federal regulation requirements at 30 CFR 702.5(a)(2)(i) and (ii). (21) (q)-(u) (v) By May 10... amendments. Pursuant to 30 CFR 732.17, Missouri is required to make the following program amendments:...

  17. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from 1 July 2005 : Article R II 4.07 of the Staff Regulations - Leave year (pages 25 & 26) The purpose of the amendment is to allow certain members of the personnel, on an exceptional basis in the context of LHC construction, to carry forward more than 30 days of annual leave into the following year. This possibility of additional carry-forward, which will be used sparingly, is governed by strict conditions : i.e. it must be with the consent of the member of the personnel concerned and subject to a specific, documented request by the hierarchy and a favourable medical opinion. In addition, the number of additional days of leave that can be carried forward must not exceed 10 per leave year, and all days of leave accumulated in this way must be used before 30 September 2009. Finally, this possibility will not be available to members of the personnel taking part in the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) as at 3...

  18. Alternate nitrogen amendments for organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, M K; Adeoye, G O; AdeOluwa, O O

    2001-12-19

    The use of compost or manure in agriculture as an organic source of nutrients is common in many tropical, developing countries like Nigeria. One of the drawbacks of such materials is their low nitrogen (N) content (=1% N). Farmers commonly use chemical N fertilizers such as urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), and NPK formulations to obtain better crop growth and yield. These chemical supplements may have a negative impact on the environment through nitrate leaching into water, leading to eutrophication of surface waters that can affect public health. Gliricidia sepium, a fast-growing, tropical, perennial hedge plant was tested as a source of N in organo-mineral fertilizer formulations. Average nutrient content of Gliricidia is 3.8% N, 0.32% P, 1.8% K, 0.8% Ca, and 0.2% Mg. Using a sand culture and Amaranthus caudatus as a test crop, it was shown that amending commercial composts with 30% Gliricidia prunings would benefit many small-scale farmers and control environmental pollution. PMID:12805738

  19. Alternate Nitrogen Amendments for Organic Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K.C. Sridhar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of compost or manure in agriculture as an organic source of nutrients is common in many tropical, developing countries like Nigeria. One of the drawbacks of such materials is their low nitrogen (N content (=1% N. Farmers commonly use chemical N fertilizers such as urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN, and NPK formulations to obtain better crop growth and yield. These chemical supplements may have a negative impact on the environment through nitrate leaching into water, leading to eutrophication of surface waters that can affect public health. Gliricidia sepium, a fast-growing, tropical, perennial hedge plant was tested as a source of N in organo-mineral fertilizer formulations. Average nutrient content of Gliricidia is 3.8% N, 0.32% P, 1.8% K, 0.8% Ca, and 0.2% Mg. Using a sand culture and Amaranthus caudatus as a test crop, it was shown that amending commercial composts with 30% Gliricidia prunings would benefit many small-scale farmers and control environmental pollution.

  20. Phenanthrene Sorption on Biochar-Amended Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumari, K. G I D; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos;

    2014-01-01

    Biochar, a byproduct resulting from the pyrolysis of biomass, is considered to be an anthropogenic carbonaceous sorbent. Despite a worldwide increase in the application of biochar on agricultural fields to improve crop productivity over the past few decades, there have been few studies on their i...... carbon, while it negatively correlated with clay content. The results also revealed that biochar-mineral interactions play an important role in the sorption of phenanthrene in biochar-amended soil....... on their influences on the sorption of environmental contaminants. In a field-based study at two experimental sites in Denmark, we investigated the effect of birch wood-derived biochar (Skogans kol) on the sorption of phenanthrene in soils with different properties. The soil sorption coefficient, Kd (L kg-1......), of phenanthrene was measured on sandy loam and loamy sand soils which have received from zero up to 100 t ha-1 of biochar. Results show that birch wood biochar had a higher Kd compared to soils. Furthermore, the application of birch wood biochar enhanced the sorption of phenanthrene in agricultural soils...

  1. Effect of Sludge Amendment on Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Column-leaching and pilot-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of biosolids (sewage sludges to control the mobilization of metals from contaminated soils with smelting slags. The pilot-scale experiments using amended soils showed that Cu, Pb and Sb were retained, decreasing their concentrations from 250 mg/L, 80 mg/L and 6 mg/L, respectively in the leachates of contaminated soils, to <20 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 4 mg/L, respectively, in the amended material. Hydrogeochemical modeling of the leachates using Minteq revealed that the degree of complexation of Cu rose 56.3% and 57.6% in leachates of amended soils. Moreover, Cu may be immobilized by biosolids, possibly via adsorption by oxyhydroxides of Fe or sorption by organic matter. The partial retention of Pb coincides with the possible precipitation of chloropyromorphite, which is the most stable mineral phase in the pH-Eh conditions of the leachates from the amended material. The retention of Sb may be associated with the precipitation of Sb2O3, which is the most stable mineral phase in the experimental conditions. The organic amendments used in this study increased some metal and metalloid concentrations in the leachates (Fe, Mn, Ni, As and Se, which suggests that the organic amendments could be used with caution to remediate metal contaminated areas.

  2. Potential for Recycling Nutrients from Biosolids Amended with Clay and Lime in Coarse-Textured Water Repellence, Acidic Soils of Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjutha Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of biosolids in soils is an efficient method of recycling nutrients from biosolids and it is considered even safer when it is modified after mixing and diluting with other suitable soil organic amendments. A variety of soil organic amendments, such as green manures and composts, are used for modifying and co-composting with biosolids. However, these may not be considered as appropriate biosolids disposal and remedial measures for soils with unique problems such as low soil pH, water repellence nature, and poor water and nutrient retention capacities due to soil textural issues. Historically, soil amendments such as lime, clay, and recently biochar are being applied for such problematic soils at Western Australia and these researches focused mostly on improvement in soil physical and chemical properties. However, studies with potential for applying modified biosolids with these amendments are not complete yet. This review focused on identifying such gaps in these studies from over 170 peer-reviewed key research and review articles published over decades to latest in these areas.

  3. Lithuania - Social sectors public expenditure review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2009-01-01

    This report aims to provide technical assistance to the Government of Lithuania in preparation for the June 2009 budget amendment and beyond. This Public Expenditure Review (PER) includes a number of recommendations on short run fiscal consolidation (mainly through spending cuts) as well as efficiency-enhancing reforms that could eventually generate fiscal savings and reduce the fiscal def...

  4. 75 FR 28809 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Alzheimer's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... Review; Comment Request; Alzheimer's Disease Supportive Services Program Standardized Data Collection... clearance. The Alzheimer's Disease Supportive Services Program (ADSSP) is authorized through Sections 398... Care and Alzheimer's Disease Amendments of 1990. The ADSSP helps states extend supportive services...

  5. Amended safety assessment of Hypericum perforatum-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) has issued an amended safety assessment of 7 Hypericum perforatum-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. A common name for this plant is St John wort. These ingredients function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous and antimicrobial agents. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to the H perforatum-derived ingredients. Because formulators may use more than 1 botanical ingredient in a formulation, caution was urged to avoid levels of toxicological concern for constituent chemicals and impurities. The Panel concluded that H perforatum-derived ingredients were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment.

  6. Review - Labrang Monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Kilby Robinson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Nietupski, Paul Kocot. 2011. Labrang Monastery: A Tibetan Buddhist Community on the Inner Asian Borderlands, 1709-1958. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. xxxi+272. Three maps (vii-ix, Family History: Gönpo Döndrup and Pronunciation and Word Lists, with Tibetan transliteration, bibliography, index. A publication of the Studies in Modern Tibetan Culture series. ISBN: 978-0-73916443-3 (hardcover, 80USD, 978-0-7391-6445-7 (ebook, 80USD. Nietupski's latest monograph is a rigorous study of Labrang (bla brang Tibetan Buddhist Monastery and its surrounding communities in present-day southern Gansu Province. Employing a rich array of sources from Chinese government archives, Tibetan monastic literature, American missionary records, and over a hundred oral interviews, Nietupski crafts a multi-faceted historical overview of Labrang as a center of religious and political power within a multiethnic community facing conflict and change. Readers of Nietupski's (1999 publication based on the Griebenow Archives will applaud the depth and substance of his newest book. Here, Nietupski redoubles his research efforts to expand his previous book on two main fronts: first, he extends his temporal scope from an early twentieth century emphasis (1921-1949 to a full two and a half centuries of life at Labrang (1709-1958; second, he shifts his focus from family histories to social history, making extensive use of archival and institutional sources. The result is a satisfying, macro-historical presentation of greater Labrang that complements the micro-historical approach of his 1999 publication. Taken together, Nietupski's two Labrang monographs comprise a singular achievement that should soon be widely emulated within the field of Tibetan Studies.

  7. 75 FR 60617 - Review and Approval of Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Parts 806 and 808 Review and Approval of Projects AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document contains final rules that amend the project review... procedures for all project applications; clarify requirements for grandfathered projects increasing...

  8. 75 FR 36301 - Review and Approval of Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... final at 71 FR 78570, December 29, 2006, updating and expanding the range of projects subject to... COMMISSION 18 CFR Parts 806 and 808 Review and Approval of Projects AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... proposed rules that would amend the project review regulations of the Susquehanna River Basin...

  9. 77 FR 8095 - Review and Approval of Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 806 Review and Approval of Projects AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document contains final rules that would amend the project review regulations... hydrocarbon development project to an out-of- basin treatment or disposal facility; insert...

  10. 78 FR 5778 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... America Inc. (``AIAA'') original Certificate was issued on September 8, 1992 (57 FR 41920, September 14... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (92-11A01) to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Aerospace Industries Association of...

  11. 78 FR 36747 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... Certificate was issued on March 19, 1990 (55 FR 11041, March 26, 1990). A summary of the current application... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Outdoor Power Equipment Institute, Inc., Application no....

  12. 76 FR 39846 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ...'') original Certificate was issued on May 13, 2010 (75 FR 29514, May 26, 2010). A summary of the current... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application (10-1A001) to Amend the export trade certificate of review issued to alaska longline cod commission,...

  13. 76 FR 63608 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    .... (``AIAA'') original Certificate was issued on September 8, 1992 (57 FR 41920, September 14, 1992). A... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application (92-10A01) to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Aerospace Industries Association of...

  14. 77 FR 28853 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Cod Commission's (``ALCC'') original Certificate was issued on May 13, 2010 (75 FR 29514, May 26, 2010... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export....S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review Alaska Longline...

  15. 78 FR 62585 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    .... original Certificate was issued on March 19, 1990 (55 FR 11041, March 26, 1990). A summary of the current... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application to amend the Export Trade Certificate of Review Issued to Outdoor Power Equipment Institute, Inc. (Application No....

  16. 77 FR 61744 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... issued on May 13, 2010 (75 FR 29514, May 26, 2010). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Joseph E. Flynn... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export... September 27, 2012, the U.S. Department of Commerce issued an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review...

  17. 78 FR 61334 - Silicon Metal From the Russian Federation: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Russia, 68 FR 14578 (March 26, 2003) (Antidumping Duty Order), amended by Silicon Metal From the Russian Federation; Notice of Amended Final Determination Pursuant to Court Decision, 71 FR 8277 (February 16, 2006...'') Review, 78 FR 33063 (June 3, 2013) (Sunset Initiation Notice). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elfi...

  18. 77 FR 50530 - Polyester Staple Fiber From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... institution (7 FR 25744, May 1, 2012) of the subject five-year review was adequate and that the respondent... electronic filing have been amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6..., Inc., DAK Americas LLC, Palmetto Synthetics LLC, and U.S. Fibers to be individually adequate....

  19. 76 FR 68404 - Uranium From the Russian Federation; Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the Suspension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Antidumping Investigation on Uranium from the Russian Federation, 59 FR 15373 (April 1, 1994). The amendment... Investigation on Uranium from the Russian Federation, 61 FR 56665, 56667 (November 4, 1996). The next amendment... Final Results of Full Sunset Review: Uranium from Russia, 65 FR 41439 (July 5, 2000). On August 22,...

  20. 77 FR 65204 - Honey From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (77 FR 39257, July 2, 2012... amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly... COMMISSION Honey From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

  1. 77 FR 42762 - Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Folding Gift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (77 FR 19714, April 2, 2012) of the... amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly... COMMISSION Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Folding...

  2. 78 FR 14503 - Amendment 4 to the Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management Plan of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... 30, 2011 (76 FR 82414). The 2011 Caribbean ACL Amendment included Amendment 3 to the Coral FMP... Amendment 2 to the Queen Conch FMP and Amendment 5 to the Reef Fish FMP (2010 Caribbean ACL Amendment)(76 FR..., Gobiosoma oceanops Rusty goby, Priolepis hipoliti Royal gramma, Gramma loreto Creole wrasse,...

  3. An Ecological Examination of North Carolina's Amendment One Vote to Ban Same Sex Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Davison

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On May 8th, 2012, North Carolina voters passed a constitutional amendment that officially banned same sex marriage. Whereas statewide the amendment was supported by 61% of North Carolina voters, there was a 67% range in variance of support for the amendment among North Carolina counties. This paper examines the large variance regarding the state amendment vote, among North Carolina's 100 counties. Controlling for percent of county residents with a bachelor’s or greater degree had an enormous effect in diminished support for the amendment while age, race and urban demographics were weaker and capricious measures in understanding the county variance of the Amendment One vote.

  4. Complete Sequence of pEC012, a Multidrug-Resistant IncI1 ST71 Plasmid Carrying bla CTX-M-65, rmtB, fosA3, floR, and oqxAB in an Avian Escherichia coli ST117 Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu-Shan; Zong, Zhi-Yong; Yuan, Li; Du, Xiang-Dang; Huang, Hui; Zhong, Xing-Hao; Hu, Gong-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A 139,622-bp IncI1 ST71 conjugative plasmid pEC012 from an avian Escherichia coli D-ST117 strain was sequenced, which carried five IS26-bracketed resistance modules: IS26-fosA3-orf1-orf2-Δorf3-IS26, IS26-fip-ΔISEcp1-bla CTX-M-65-IS903D-iroN-IS26, IS26-ΔtnpR-bla TEM-1-rmtB-IS26, IS26-oqxAB-IS26, and IS26-floR-aac(3)-IV-IS26. The backbone of pEC012 was similar to that of several other IncI1 ST71 plasmids: pV408, pM105, and pC271, but these plasmids had different arrangements of multidrug resistance region. In addition, the novel ISEc57 element was identified, which is in the IS21 family. The stepwise emergence of multi-resistance regions demonstrated the accumulation of different resistance determinants through homologous recombination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify a multidrug-resistant IncI1 ST71 plasmid carrying bla CTX-M-65, rmtB, fosA3, floR, and oqxAB in an avian E. coli ST117 strain. PMID:27486449

  5. The amendment to the capital accord to incorporate market risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.B. HALL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Basle Committee on Banking Supervision has effected major changes to its proposals for amendments to the Capital Accord of 1998. These amendments involve the capital adequacy assessment of internationally active banks to take account of market risks and credit risks. They include the abolition of a dual observation period for determining capital charges and flexibility in terms of weighting schemes for the observation period as well as adjustment of banks' value-at-risk measure to arrive at the required 10-day holding period. A survey is undertaken of this new assessment regime.  

  6. Fast Flux Test Facility final safety analysis report. Amendment 73

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantt, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report provides Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) Amendment 73 for incorporation into the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTR) FSAR set. This page change incorporates Engineering Change Notices (ECNs) issued subsequent to Amendment 72 and approved for incorparoration before May 6, 1993. These changes include: Chapter 3, design criteria structures, equipment, and systems; chapter 5B, reactor coolant system; chapter 7, instrumentation and control systems; chapter 9, auxiliary systems; chapter 11, reactor refueling system; chapter 12, radiation protection and waste management; chapter 13, conduct of operations; chapter 17, technical specifications; chapter 20, FFTF criticality specifications; appendix C, local fuel failure events; and appendix Fl, operation at 680{degrees}F inlet temperature.

  7. 78 FR 15046 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Revised Schedule for the Subject Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... five-year reviews of certain pasta from Italy and Turkey (78 FR 9937, February 12, 2013). The... most recently amended at 76 FR 61949 (Oct. 6, 2011). Authority: These reviews are being conducted under... COMMISSION Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey; Revised Schedule for the Subject Reviews AGENCY:...

  8. Research Plan: Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong; Hart, Andrea T.; Szecsody, James E.; Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Ankeny, Mark; Hull, Laurence; Oostrom, Martinus; Freshley, Mark D.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2009-01-16

    Research proposals were submitted to the Scientific and Technical Basis for In Situ Treatment of Metals and Radionuclides Technical Working Group under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office (specifically, EM-22). After a peer review and selection process, the proposal, “Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation,” submitted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was selected for support by the program. A research plan was requested for this EM funded project. The overall objective of this project is to develop foam delivery technology for the distribution of remedial amendments to deep vadose zone sediments for in situ immobilization of metal and radionuclide contaminants. The focus of this research in FY 2009 is on the physical aspects of the foam delivery approach. Specific objectives are to 1) study the foam quality (i.e. the gas volume fraction in foam) influence on injection pressure, 2) study the sediment air permeability influence on injection pressure, 3) investigate liquid uptake in sediment and determine whether a water front will be formed during foam delivery, 4) test amendment distance (and mass) delivery by foam from the injection point, 5) study the enhanced sweeping over heterogeneous systems (i.e., low K zones) by foam delivery relative to water-based delivery under vadose zone conditions, and 6) numerically simulate foam delivery processes in the vadose zone. Laboratory scale experiments will be conducted at PNNL to study a range of basic physical aspects of the foam propagation in sediments, including foam quality and sediment permeability influence on injection pressure, liquid uptake, and foam sweeping across heterogeneous systems. This study will be augmented with separate studies to be conducted at MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to evaluate foam transport and amendment delivery at the intermediate-scale. The results of intermediate

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF PROCESS CONTROL EQUATIONS TO SUPPORT DETOXIFICATION OF COPPER USING NATURAL HUMATE AMENDMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Millings, M.; Halverson, N.; Nichols, R.

    2009-08-21

    Recent scientific research and changes in regulatory policies have led to reductions in the allowable discharges of several contaminant metals, including copper, into surface water. Low target concentrations and variable outfall conditions challenge the efficacy of traditional treatment technologies such as ion exchange. In reviewing various treatment options, scientists and engineers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) developed a treatment strategy focusing on toxicity reduction (rather than the removal of the copper) and demonstrated that the method is viable and promising for mitigating copper toxicity. The resulting outfall chemistry protects the ecosystem in the receiving stream in a manner that is equal to, or better than, technologies that remove copper to the emerging regulatory levels. Further, the proposed toxicity reduction strategy results in collateral beneficial changes in outfall water chemistry such that the outfall more closely matches the chemistry of natural streams for key parameters such as the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The detoxification process is based on the EPA BLM. Specifically, modeling indicates that copper toxicity can be mitigated by modest additions of natural organic carbon and that the amount of amendment needed can be determined based on pH and stream flow. The organic carbon amendments proposed for the treatment/detoxification process are extracts of natural materials that are produced for use in organic agriculture. These extracts are known by several common names such as potassium humate, soluble humic acid, and a variety of brand trademarks. When used to reduce ecosystem toxicity in surface water, these amendments bind copper and compete with the biological receptor sites, resulting in a reduction of impacts to key food chain organisms such as the Daphnia ('water flea'). Design and implementation of the process is straightforward. The core equipment consists of storage tank(s), pH sensor(s), outfall flow monitor

  10. Research Plan: Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research proposals were submitted to the Scientific and Technical Basis for In Situ Treatment of Metals and Radionuclides Technical Working Group under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office (specifically, EM-22). After a peer review and selection process, the proposal, 'Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation,' submitted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was selected for support by the program. A research plan was requested for this EM funded project. The overall objective of this project is to develop foam delivery technology for the distribution of remedial amendments to deep vadose zone sediments for in situ immobilization of metal and radionuclide contaminants. The focus of this research in FY 2009 is on the physical aspects of the foam delivery approach. Specific objectives are to (1) study the foam quality (i.e. the gas volume fraction in foam) influence on injection pressure, (2) study the sediment air permeability influence on injection pressure, (3) investigate liquid uptake in sediment and determine whether a water front will be formed during foam delivery, (4) test amendment distance (and mass) delivery by foam from the injection point, (5) study the enhanced sweeping over heterogeneous systems (i.e., low K zones) by foam delivery relative to water-based delivery under vadose zone conditions, and (6) numerically simulate foam delivery processes in the vadose zone. Laboratory scale experiments will be conducted at PNNL to study a range of basic physical aspects of the foam propagation in sediments, including foam quality and sediment permeability influence on injection pressure, liquid uptake, and foam sweeping across heterogeneous systems. This study will be augmented with separate studies to be conducted at MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to evaluate foam transport and amendment delivery at the intermediate-scale. The results of intermediate

  11. 75 FR 44137 - Technical Amendment Language Change From “Wholly” to “Fully”; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 408 RIN 0960-AH16 Technical Amendment Language Change From ``Wholly'' to ``Fully''; Correction AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Correcting amendment. SUMMARY: In the...

  12. 77 FR 69585 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... started on October 16, 2012 (77 FR 63538). This document announces the extension of the deadline for... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality... rule titled ``Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality...

  13. 76 FR 46217 - Implementation of the Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... Register (73 FR 3316). ] Information on Service for Individuals With Disabilities For information on... Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for... Amendments to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping...

  14. Soil biochar amendments: type and dose effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, G.; Domene, X.; Mattana, S.; Sousa, J. P.; Ortiz, O.; Andres, P.; Alcañiz, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar is an organic material produced via the pyrolysis of C-based biomass, which is increasingly being recognized by scientists and policy makers for its potential role in carbon sequestration, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, waste mitigation, and as a soil amendment. Recent studies indicated that biochar improves soil fertility through its positive influence on physical-chemical properties, since not only improves water retention, aggregation and permeability, but its high charge density can also hold large amounts of nutrients, increasing crop production. However, it was observed that combustion temperature could affects the degree of aromaticity and the size of aromatic sheets, which in turns determine short-term mineralization rates. To reconcile the different decompasibility observations of biochar, it has sugested that physical protection and interactions with soil minerals play a significant part in biochar stability. In this context, it has initiated one pilot studies which aims to assess the effects of biochar application on physical and chemical properties of agricultural soil under Mediterranean conditions, such as changes in aggregate formation, intra-aggregate carbon sequestration and chemistry of soil water. In the present study, different clases of biochar produced from fast, slow and gasification pyrolisis of vegetal (pine, poplar) and dried sludge biomass, were applied at 1% of biochar-C to mesocosmos of an agricultural soil. Preliminary, it must be pointed out that slow and gasification pyrolisis changes the proportion of particles < 2 mm in diameter, from 10% (original materials) to almost 100%. In contrast, slow pyrolisis not modifies significantly biochar granulometry. As a consequence, bulk density of poplar and pine splinters decreases after fast pyrolisis. Regarding to organic carbon contents of biochar, all biochars obtained from plant biomass presented percentagens of total organic carbon (TOC) between 70 - 90%, while biochar

  15. F33: A-: B-, IncHI2/ST3, and IncI1/ST71 plasmids drive the dissemination of fosA3 and blaCTX-M-55/-14/-65 in Escherichia coli from chickens in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun eYang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of fosfomycin-resistant Escherichia coli from chickens and to characterize the plasmids carrying fosA3. A total of 661 E. coli isolates of chicken origin collected from 2009 to 2011 were screened for plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance determinants by PCR. Plasmids were characterized using PCR-based replicon typing, plasmid multilocus sequence typing, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Associated addiction systems and resistance genes were identified by PCR. PCR-mapping was used for analysis of the genetic context of fosA3. Fosfomycin resistance was detected in 58 isolates that also carried the fosA3 gene. Fifty-seven, 17, and 52 FosA3-producers also harbored blaCTX-M, rmtB, and floR genes, respectively. Most of the 58 fosA3-carrying isolates were clonally unrelated, and all fosA3 genes were located on plasmids belonged to F33:A-:B- (n=18, IncN-F33:A-:B- (n=7, IncHI2/ST3 (n=10, IncI1/ST71 (n=3, IncI1/ST108 (n=3, and others. The genetic structures, IS26-ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-55-orf477-blaTEM-1-IS26-fosA3-1758bp-IS26 and ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-65- IS903-iroN-IS26-fosA3-536bp-IS26 were located on highly similar F33:A-:B- plasmids. In addition, blaCTX-M-14-fosA3-IS26 was frequently present on similar IncHI2/ST3 plasmids. IncFII plasmids had a significantly higher frequency of addiction systems (mean 3.5 than other plasmids. Our results showed a surprisingly high prevalence of fosA3 gene in E. coli isolates recovered from chicken in China. The spread of fosA3 can be attributed to horizontal dissemination of several epidemic plasmids, especially F33:A-:B- plasmids. Since coselection by other antimicrobials is the major driving force for the diffusion of the fosA3 gene, a strict antibiotic use policy is urgently needed in China.

  16. 50 CFR 679.91 - Amendment 80 Program annual harvester privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment 80 Program annual harvester privileges. 679.91 Section 679.91 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Amendment 80 Program § 679.91 Amendment 80 Program annual harvester privileges....

  17. Designing relevant biochars as soil amendments using lignocellulosic-based and manure-based feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Biochars are a soil amendment produced from lignocellulosic and manure feedstocks. Not all biochars are viable soil amendments because of differences in their physical and chemical properties. Biochar could deliver more effective service as a soil amendment if its chemis...

  18. 77 FR 30585 - Operating Limitations at New York LaGuardia Airport; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...) becomes effective but not later than October 26, 2013.\\2\\ \\1\\ 76 FR 18616. That notice amended the Order... Federal Aviation Administration Operating Limitations at New York LaGuardia Airport; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Order; Technical Amendment....

  19. 77 FR 61721 - Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ...: The FAA is correcting a final rule; technical amendment published on December 16, 2011 (76 FR 78141... August 21, 2009 (74 FR 42500). In that original final rule, the FAA amended its regulations to revise the... December 16, 2011 (76 FR 78141), the FAA published a final rule; technical amendment. This final...

  20. 78 FR 4170 - License Amendment Request for Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Request for Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO AGENCY... issuance of a license amendment to Materials License No. 24-13365-01 issued to Analytical Bio-Chemistry... accession numbers are: 1. Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Licensee amendment request...

  1. 34 CFR 222.5 - When may a local educational agency amend its application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may a local educational agency amend its... local educational agency amend its application? (a) An LEA may amend its application following any of... its SEA no later than the earlier of the following events: (1) The 60th day following the...

  2. 78 FR 39163 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    .... Executive Order FR Federal Register HSAS Homeland Security Alignment System MARSEC Maritime Security ] NAD... amendment to Title 33 (73 FR 34998). In that rule, this paragraph was amended to accurately identify... Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final...

  3. 75 FR 48564 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ..., Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector Columbia River, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule... to make conforming amendments and technical corrections to reflect the renaming of Sector Seattle to..., organizational, and conforming amendments and these changes will have no substantive effect on the public....

  4. 75 FR 47211 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ..., Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule... to make conforming amendments and technical corrections to reflect the renaming of Sector Seattle to..., organizational, and conforming amendments and these changes will have no substantive effect on the public....

  5. 76 FR 60941 - Policy Regarding Submittal of Amendments for Processing of Equivalent Feed at Licensed Uranium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... treated as alternate feed at conventional mills (57 FR 20532). These license amendments were required... COMMISSION Policy Regarding Submittal of Amendments for Processing of Equivalent Feed at Licensed Uranium... amendment, of equivalent feed at an NRC and Agreement State-licensed uranium recovery site,...

  6. 78 FR 66756 - Santa Clara Pueblo; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Santa Clara Pueblo; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major... amends the notice of a major disaster declaration for the Santa Clara Pueblo (FEMA-4147-DR), dated... disaster declaration for the Santa Clara Pueblo is hereby amended to include Public Assistance...

  7. 76 FR 30997 - National Transit Database: Amendments to Urbanized Area Annual Reporting Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 7361) inviting comments on proposed amendments to the 2011 Annual Manual. This... Federal Register (75 FR 192) inviting comments on proposed amendments to the 2011 Annual Manual. FTA... Manual AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Amendments to 2011...

  8. 78 FR 44806 - Amendments to Regulation D, Form D and Rule 156

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ...-13] RIN 3235-AL46 Amendments to Regulation D, Form D and Rule 156 AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... releases amended Rule 506 of Regulation D, Form D and Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933 to... Regulation D, Form D and Rule 156 under the Securities Act. These proposed amendments are intended to...

  9. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(4)-5 - Plan amendments and plan terminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... turnover of employees prior to the plan amendment. In addition, the relevant facts and circumstances... rules for determining whether the timing of a plan amendment or series of amendments has the effect of... has the effect of discriminating significantly in favor of HCEs or former HCEs is determined at...

  10. 13 CFR 107.30 - Amendments to Act and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 107.30 Section 107.30 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Introduction to Part 107 § 107.30 Amendments to Act and regulations. A Licensee shall be subject to all existing and future provisions of the Act and parts 107 and 112 of title 13 of the Code...

  11. 75 FR 59094 - Federal Travel Regulation; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ...-0017; Sequence 1] RIN 3090-AJ07 Federal Travel Regulation; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Office of... the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) by updating statutory references in a number of sections, by providing additional guidance for determining distance measurements when traveling by privately...

  12. 77 FR 74063 - Amendments to the Abandoned Plan Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... and can be retrieved by most Internet search engines. Comments may be submitted anonymously. Comments...\\ \\1\\ 71 FR 20820. See also 73 FR 58459 for subsequent amendments with regard to distributions on behalf of a missing non-spouse beneficiary. \\2\\ 71 FR 20855. For the reasons set forth in the...

  13. 78 FR 58323 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ..., October 17, 2013, 4:00 p.m. to October 18, 2013, 06:00 p.m., Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference..., 2013, 78 FR 50065. The meeting notice is amended to change the start time from 4:00 p.m. to 5:00...

  14. 77 FR 42427 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA AGENCY:...

  15. 17 CFR 250.20 - Prescribed forms and amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amendment such other information as the Commission may require. (f) Electronic filings. (1) Electronic... in this part requiring the filing of any application, declaration, report or other document on a... appropriate Commission authorizations (or exemption) of the proposed transaction or any part thereof, and...

  16. 76 FR 18378 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taylor, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... amend controlled airspace at Taylor, AZ (76 FR 3570). Interested parties were invited to participate in... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  17. First Amendment Implications of Harassment Rules to Be Studied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschik, Scott

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Education, criticized by colleges for its guidelines on investigating racial harassment and hate-speech charges, will issue a new policy on First Amendment implications of such inquiries. A major issue is school responsibility for racial harassment by diverse populations over whom colleges may have little control. (MSE)

  18. 7 CFR 983.75 - Implementation and amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Implementation and amendments. 983.75 Section 983.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing..., upon the recommendation of a majority of the committee, may issue rules and regulations implementing...

  19. 76 FR 18137 - Amendment of the Schedule of Application Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers. Comments may be filed... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Amendment of the Schedule of Application Fees AGENCY: Federal Communications... to clarify the rules on the payment of filing fees by winning bidders in auctions of...

  20. 76 FR 75446 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... controlled airspace at Mercury, NV (76 FR 56127). Interested parties were invited to participate in this... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV AGENCY: Federal... Mercury, Desert Rock Airport, Mercury, NV. Decommissioning of the Mercury Non-Directional Beacon (NDB)...

  1. 77 FR 60382 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... benefits of consumer financial products or services, (b) consumer behavior with respect to consumer... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice...

  2. 77 FR 67802 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... costs, risks, and benefits of such products or services, and consumer behavior with respect to such... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection ACTION: Notice...

  3. 41 CFR 101-1.111 - Retention of FPMR amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Retention of FPMR amendments. 101-1.111 Section 101-1.111 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System §...

  4. 77 FR 14979 - Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... activities conform to the SIP. EPA first promulgated the conformity rule on November 24, 1993 (58 FR 62188... Amendments'') final rule and the July 1, 2004 final rule (75 FR 14260, and 69 FR 40004, respectively). Due to... area's attainment date has passed or has not yet been established (75 FR 49435). EPA is not...

  5. The First Amendment at Its Bicentennial: Necessary but Not Sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeter, Dwight L., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Questions whether an eighteenth-century protection for freedom of the press (the First Amendment) is sufficient for the challenges that the nation's press faces in the twentieth century. Examines prior restraints and seditious libel. Finds instances in which those abuses are alive and well and potentially threatening. (PRA)

  6. 76 FR 55273 - Federal Travel Regulation; Per Diem, Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic, environmental, public health and safety... Case 2011-301; Docket 2011-0018, Sequence 1] RIN 3090-AJ11 Federal Travel Regulation; Per Diem...: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: GSA is amending the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR)...

  7. 13 CFR 302.7 - Amendments and changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendments and changes. 302.7 Section 302.7 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... to Projects made without EDA's approval are made at the Recipient's risk of non-payment of...

  8. 76 FR 60511 - Amendment of Marine Safety Manual, Volume III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Background and Purpose Chapter 16 of Volume III of the Marine Safety Manual... SECURITY Coast Guard Amendment of Marine Safety Manual, Volume III AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... Offshore Units. The policy is currently found in Chapter 16 of the Marine Safety Manual, Volume III....

  9. 77 FR 53801 - Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Register on December 20, 2011 (76 FR 78866), FDA announced that a food additive petition (FAP 1A4784) had... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition... Administration (FDA) is amending the filing notice for a food additive petition filed by Nexira proposing...

  10. Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. License application, FSAR, amendment 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FSAR Amendment No. 6 consists principally of revisions of the portions relating to: (1) facilities for the interim storage of solid waste, (2) handling of spent iodine scrubber solutions, and (3) the rise of N2O4 as an oxidizer. (LK)

  11. 78 FR 14664 - Food and Color Additives; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... and Color Additives; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... regulations regarding food and color additives to correct minor errors (such as misspelled chemical names) and... Subjects 21 CFR Part 73 Color additives, Cosmetics, Drugs, Medical devices. 21 CFR Part 172 Food...

  12. 76 FR 69132 - Trademark Technical and Conforming Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On June 24, 2010, the USPTO published an interim final rule at 75 FR 35973..., the interim final rule amending 37 CFR parts 2 and 7, which was published at 75 FR 35973 on June 24... Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 2 and 7 RIN 0651-AC39 Trademark Technical and...

  13. 77 FR 45238 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL...

  14. 75 FR 57846 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Brewton, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR 71.1... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Brewton, AL AGENCY:...

  15. Did that Dog Sniff Violate the Fourth Amendment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Catherine; Middleton, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Is sniffing at the front door of a private home by a trained narcotics detection dog a Fourth Amendment search requiring probable cause? Is a "drug dog" somehow like a manmade technology, such as a thermal imaging device? These were a couple of the questions recently presented to the U.S. Supreme Court during arguments in "Florida v. Jardines."…

  16. Woman Suffrage and the 19th Amendment. Teaching with Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Beginning in the mid-19th century, several generations of woman suffrage supporters lectured, wrote, marched, lobbied, and practiced civil disobedience to achieve what many people considered a radical change in the U.S. Constitution. Militant suffragists used tactics such as parades, silent vigils, and hunger strikes. In 1870 the 15th amendment to…

  17. 76 FR 2799 - Amendment of Jet Route J-93; CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ...) to amend J-93, (75 FR 66344). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a.... 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p.389. Sec. 71.1 0 2....

  18. 75 FR 66344 - Amendment of Jet Route J-93; CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... Department of Transportation (DOT) Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Jet Route J-93; CA...

  19. Effects of remediation amendments on vadose zone microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Hannah M.; Tilton, Fred A.

    2012-08-10

    Surfactant-based foam delivery technology has been studied to remediate Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment. However, the surfactants and remediation amendments have an unknown effect on indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Microbial populations are important factors to consider in remediation efforts due to their potential to alter soil geochemistry. This project focuses on measuring microbial metabolic responses to remediation amendments in batch and column studies using Deep Vadose Zone Sediments. Initial studies of the microbes from Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment showed surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and remediation amendment calcium polysulfide (CPS) had no affect on microbial growth using BiologTM Ecoplates. To move towards a more realistic field analog, soil columns were packed with Hanford 200 Area sediment. Once microbial growth in the column was verified by observing growth of the effluent solution on tryptic soy agar plates, remedial surfactants were injected into the columns, and the resulting metabolic diversity was measured. Results suggest surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) stimulates microbial growth. The soil columns were also visualized using X-ray microtomography to inspect soil packing and possibly probe for evidence of biofilms. Overall, BiologTM Ecoplates provide a rapid assay to predict effects of remediation amendments on Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone microorganisms.

  20. 76 FR 76318 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... omitted from a final rule published at 76 FR 58152 on September 20, 2011. This coverage was previously..., Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct, is the DoD Office of Inspector General at the following... ``(DEC 2011)''. 0 b. Amending the introductory text by removing ``211.274-4(c)'' and adding in its...

  1. 76 FR 17997 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ..., gives notice of a proposed new system of records entitled ``Treasury/IRS 42.888--Qualifying Therapeutic... Therapeutic Discovery Program pursuant to The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Pub. L. 111-148), as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-152) (Affordable Care...

  2. 22 CFR 123.25 - Amendments to licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amendments to licenses. 123.25 Section 123.25 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF...; and change of foreign intermediate consignee if that party is only transporting the equipment and...

  3. Effects of chemical amendments to swine manure on runoff quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-applied swine manure can be an environmental concern when runoff losses of manure constituents occur. The use of chemical amendments to mitigate these losses has been investigated for poultry litter, but materials such as swine manure have received less attention in this context, particularly ...

  4. 78 FR 14271 - Manual for Courts-Martial; Proposed Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Military Justice (JSC), Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of response to public comments on proposed... Committee on Military Justice (JSC) is publishing final proposed amendments to the Manual for Courts-Martial... and Coordinating Legislation, Executive Orders, Proclamations, Views Letters and Testimony,'' June...

  5. [Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge Hunting and Fishing Plan Amendment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This amendment identifies new areas open to hunting and fishing on Patoka River NWR. A map of the updated boundary is included as well as a brochure with 2001-2002...

  6. 75 FR 23565 - Unfair or Deceptive Acts or Practices; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... granting credit to a consumer, or as a condition for forbearance on collection of a consumer's obligation... amendments). See 74 FR 20804. On May 22, 2009, the President signed into law the Credit Card Accountability... those provisions of the Credit CARD Act that became effective on August 20, 2009. See 74 FR 36077....

  7. Counselor Educators' Gatekeeping Responsibilities and Students' First Amendment Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Neal; Block, Jason; Young, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    In 2 recent legal cases, graduate counselor education students challenged the imposition of remediation plans as violating their First Amendment rights of freedom of speech and religion. With special emphasis on this recent litigation, the article examines the legal standards governing the authority of counselor educators at public colleges and…

  8. The Equal Rights Amendment: Its Potential Impact on Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myricks, Noel

    1977-01-01

    The potential impact of the proposed Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) can be measured in areas such as alimony, child support, child custody, property ownership, divorce and rights of consortium. Statutes which use sex as the sole criterion would be unconstitutional. (Author)

  9. Directed Selection of Biochars for Amending Metal Contaminated Mine Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 500,000 abandoned mines across the U.S. pose a considerable, pervasive risk to human health and the environment. World-wide the problem is even larger. Lime, organic matter, biosolids and other amendments have been used to decrease metal bioavailability in contami...

  10. Sepsis caused by New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM-1 and qnrD-producing Morganella morganii, treated successfully with fosfomycin and meropenem: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Seija

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This is the first report of qnrD1 in South America. We consider that this report could be helpful to physicians implementing treatments for infections caused by XDR GNB, including colistin–carbapenem-resistant GNB.

  11. The First Amendment Right to Speak About the Human Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores whether laws that restrict the communication of genetic test results may, under certain circumstances, violate the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The focus is whether investigators have a right to return results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories in situations where a research participant requests the results and the investigator is willing to share them but is concerned that doing so may violate regulations under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (“CLIA”). This article takes no position on whether investigators can be compelled to return results when they do not wish to do so. It examines only whether investigators may, not whether they must, return results to a willing research participant. The article: (1) surveys state and federal laws that block communication of genetic test results to research participants; (2) examines the historical use of speech restrictions as a tool for protecting human research subjects; (3) traces how First Amendment doctrine has evolved since the 1970s when foundations of modern research bioethics were laid; (4) inquires whether recent bioethical and policy debate has accorded due weight to the First Amendment. The article applies two common methods of legal analysis, textual and constitutional analysis. It concludes that the CLIA regulations, when properly construed, do not treat the return of results as an event that triggers CLIA’s certification requirements. Moreover, there is a potential First Amendment problem in construing CLIA’s research exception in a way that bans the return of results from non-CLIA-certified laboratories. PMID:25473380

  12. Topsoil replacement and organic amendments for oil wellsite reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larney, F.J.; Akinremi, O.O. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Lemke, R.L. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Swift Current, SK (Canada). Semi-arid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre; Janzen, H.H. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-31

    The oil and gas industry lease about 350,000 hectares of land in Alberta for wellsites, plant sites, and rights-of-way for pipelines. An increasing number of these sites are being abandoned and reclaimed. The criteria for land reclamation for wellsites and associated facilities is that changes to land capability caused by a project should be measured against the original off-site capability. For wellsites constructed before 1983, 60 per cent of the original depth of topsoils must be replaced in order to return the soil to normal farming operations and its original productivity. Amendments may include manure, soil, peat, straw, or compost. The Conservation and Reclamation Inspector of Alberta Environmental Protection (AEP) gives the final judgement call of a reclaimed wellsite. This study involved 3 test sites in which different depths of topsoil replacement with and without organic amendments were examined. The objective was to specify amounts of topsoils replacement and to give credence to reclamation criteria.The concentration of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous and the ratio of carbon to nitrogen for each amendment treatment was examined. The addition of nutrients depended on the type of amendment at each site. The highest rate of total nitrogen addition was with manure at a site in Strathmore. Compost supplied 696 kg of nitrogen per hectare at all 3 sites. Plant-based amendments supplied less nitrogen. Manure also supplied the highest amount of carbon, followed by compost, straw and alfalfa. Compost supplied the highest level of phosphorous, followed by manure, and straw. 14 refs., 7 figs., 116 tabs.

  13. Detection of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type XI carrying highly divergent mecA, mecI, mecR1, blaZ, and ccr genes in human clinical isolates of clonal complex 130 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shore, Anna C

    2011-08-01

    Methicillin resistance in staphylococci is mediated by penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP 2a), encoded by mecA on mobile staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements. In this study, two clonal complex 130 (CC130) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients in Irish hospitals were identified that were phenotypically PBP 2a positive but lacked mecA by conventional PCR and by DNA microarray screening. The isolates were identified as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus using the GeneXpert real-time PCR assay. Whole-genome sequencing of one isolate (M10\\/0061) revealed a 30-kb SCCmec element encoding a class E mec complex with highly divergent blaZ-mecA-mecR1-mecI, a type 8 cassette chromosome recombinase (ccr) complex consisting of ccrA1-ccrB3, an arsenic resistance operon, and flanking direct repeats (DRs). The SCCmec element was almost identical to that of SCCmec type XI (SCCmec XI) identified by the Sanger Institute in sequence type 425 bovine MRSA strain LGA251 listed on the website of the International Working Group on the Classification of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Elements. The open reading frames (ORFs) identified within SCCmec XI of M10\\/0061 exhibited 21 to 93% amino acid identity to ORFs in GenBank. A third DR was identified ca. 3 kb downstream of SCCmec XI, indicating the presence of a possible SCC remnant. SCCmec XI was also identified in the second CC130 MRSA isolate by PCR and sequencing. The CC130 MRSA isolates may be of animal origin as previously reported CC130 S. aureus strains were predominantly from bovine sources. The highly divergent nature of SCCmec XI relative to other SCCmec elements indicates that it may have originated in another taxon.

  14. Teaching about Big Money in Elections: To Amend or Not to Amend the U.S. Constitution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwick, James M. M.; Levy, Brett L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Last summer, California and Massachusetts became the sixth and seventh states--along with Hawaii, New Mexico, Vermont, Rhode Island, and Maryland--to send a resolution to the U.S. Congress calling for a constitutional amendment to (1) end the court's extension of personhood rights to corporations, and (2) enable the government to definitively…

  15. Coverage or Cover-up: A Comparison of Newspaper Coverage of the 19th Amendment and the Equal Rights Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda Lazier

    A study compared newspaper coverage of the women's suffrage movement in the 1920s with coverage of efforts to pass the Equal Rights Amendment in the 1970s and early 1980s, to see if the similar movements with different outcomes were treated similarly or differently by the press. A content analysis of relevant articles in the "New York Times" and…

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae KGM-IMP216 Harboring bla CTX-M-15, bla DHA-1, bla TEM-1B, bla NDM-1, bla SHV-28, and bla OXA-1, Isolated from a Patient in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Tokajian, Sima; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Jospin, Guillaume; Matar, Ghassan; Araj, George F.; Coil, David A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the draft genome of highly drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae KGM-IMP216, isolated from a urine sample collected from a patient in Lebanon. The draft genome sequence consisted of 77 contigs, including a combined 5,731,500 bases with 57% G+C content.

  17. Influence of organic amendments on the sorption of pentachlorophenol on soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ruijuan; WEN Bei; ZHANG Shuzhen; PEI Zhiguo; SHAN Xiaoquan

    2009-01-01

    The influence of pH on the sorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) onto three organic amendments, char, humic acid (HA) and peat, and the effect of organic amendments on PCP sorption to three kinds of soils were evaluated. The sorption of PCP on these sorbents fitted the Freundlich model well, suggesting that PCP sorption isotherms were nonlinear with exponential coefficient (N) value lower than 1. The PCP sorption capacity on three organic amendments and the N values increased with decreasing pH. The sorption capacities were in the order: char > HA > peat. Organic amendments resulted in an enhancement of sorption capacities of soils. The N values of PCP sorption on soils were decreased by char amendment and increased by HA and peat amendments. This study demonstrated that application of traditional organic amendments led to the enhancement of PCP sorption by soils. This information may aid both in predicting environmental fates of hydrophobic ionizable organic compounds and in developing remediation strategies for them.

  18. Guidelines for preparing and reviewing applications for the licensing of non-power reactors: Standard review plan and acceptance criteria. NUREG - 1537, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    NUREG - 1537, Part 2 gives guidance on the conduct of licensing action reviews to NRC staff who review non-power reactor licensing applications. These licensing actions include construction permits and initial operating licenses, license renewals, amendments, conversions from highly enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium, decommissioning, and license termination.

  19. Guidelines for preparing and reviewing applications for the licensing of non-power reactors: Standard review plan and acceptance criteria. NUREG - 1537, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUREG - 1537, Part 2 gives guidance on the conduct of licensing action reviews to NRC staff who review non-power reactor licensing applications. These licensing actions include construction permits and initial operating licenses, license renewals, amendments, conversions from highly enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium, decommissioning, and license termination

  20. Role of organic amendment application on greenhouse gas emission from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally, substantial quantities of organic amendments (OAs) such as plant residues (3.8 × 109 Mg/yr), biosolids (10 × 107 Mg/yr), and animal manures (7 × 109 Mg/yr) are produced. Recycling these OAs in agriculture possesses several advantages such as improving plant growth, yield, soil carbon content, and microbial biomass and activity. Nevertheless, OA applications hold some disadvantages such as nutrient eutrophication and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Agriculture sector plays a vital role in GHG emission (carbon dioxide— CO2, methane— CH4, and nitrous oxide— N2O). Though CH4 and N2O are emitted in less quantity than CO2, they are 21 and 310 times more powerful in global warming potential, respectively. Although there have been reviews on the role of mineral fertilizer application on GHG emission, there has been no comprehensive review on the effect of OA application on GHG emission in agricultural soils. The review starts with the quantification of various OAs used in agriculture that include manures, biosolids, and crop residues along with their role in improving soil health. Then, it discusses four major OA induced-GHG emission processes (i.e., priming effect, methanogenesis, nitrification, and denitrification) by highlighting the impact of OA application on GHG emission from soil. For example, globally 10 × 107 Mg biosolids are produced annually which can result in the potential emission of 530 Gg of CH4 and 60 Gg of N2O. The article then aims to highlight the soil, climatic, and OA factors affecting OA induced-GHG emission and the management practices to mitigate the emission. This review emphasizes the future research needs in relation to nitrogen and carbon dynamics in soil to broaden the use of OAs in agriculture to maintain soil health with minimum impact on GHG emission from agriculture. - Highlights: ► A comprehensive overview for the first time on GHG emission from organic amendments (OAs) ► The amounts of OAs and their carbon and