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Sample records for bl cam results

  1. New results from the HRX BL Lac sample

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Beckmann, Volker; Wolter, Anna

    2000-01-01

    We present results for the Hamburg BL Lac sample, based on data provided by the RASS-BSC. By fitting a single power law to the X-ray data we find, in a number of objects, an additional absorbing component to the galactic value of NH, which might be attributed to intrinsic absorption. A more probable cause seems however to be a curvature in the X-ray spectra in the sense that they are more curved for steeper slopes. The known relation between the X-ray spectral slope and the ratio between optical and X-ray flux alpha_ox also applies to this BL Lac sample, even though less significant than in previous works. We also find a dependence of X-ray luminosity on alpha_ox.

  2. What Are the Results of Surgical Treatment of Hip Dysplasia With Concomitant Cam Deformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goronzy, Jens; Franken, Lea; Hartmann, Albrecht; Thielemann, Falk; Postler, Anne; Paulus, Tobias; Günther, Klaus-Peter

    2017-04-01

    Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is a reliable procedure to correct the deficient acetabular coverage in hips with developmental dysplasia. It is unclear how the presence of additional femoral cam-type deformity might influence the clinical and radiographic treatment results of PAO. (1) Are there differences in clinical scores (WOMAC, EQ-5D) and examination findings (impingement sign) or radiographic measures of acetabular orientation and head sphericity after PAO for isolated acetabular dysplasia when compared with the combined pathology of dysplasia and additional femoral cam deformity? (2) Are these clinical and radiographic findings after combined surgical therapy for additional cam deformity influenced by different pathology-adjusted surgical techniques? From July 2005 to December 2010, 86 patients (106 hips) underwent PAO for hip dysplasia. Surgical and outcome data were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed in a comparative observational study. Indications for surgery were a lateral center-edge angle less than 25° and hip pain for at least 6 months. The contraindications for surgery were advanced radiographic osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence Grade 3), incongruency of joint space, and patient age > 50 years. Depending on preoperative hip ROM, impingement test, and presence of a radiographically visible cam deformity, treatment allocation was performed: Group I: isolated PAO in patients without symptomatic asphericity, Group IIa: PAO with subsequent osteochondroplasty through arthrotomy for patients with symptomatic cam deformity and no labrochondral pathology, and Group IIb: arthroscopically assisted osteochondroplasty and additional labrochondral repair with subsequent PAO when patients had labrochondral lesions in addition to a symptomatic cam deformity. Clinical outcome (impingement test, EQ-5D, WOMAC) as well as radiographic parameters (lateral center-edge angle, crossover sign, alpha angle, osteoarthritis grade) were obtained after a mean

  3. The Sedentary Survey of Extreme High Energy Peaked BL Lacs III. Results from Optical Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Piranomonte, S; Giommi, P; Landt, H; Padovani, P

    2007-01-01

    The multi-frequency Sedentary Survey is a flux limited, statistically well-defined sample of highly X-ray dominated BL Lacertae objects (HBLs) which includes 150 sources. In this paper, the third of the series, we report the results of a dedicated optical spectroscopy campaign that, together with results from other independent optical follow up programs, led to the spectroscopic identification of all sources in the sample. We carried out a systematic spectroscopic campaign for the observation of all unidentified objects of the sample using the ESO 3.6m, the KPNO 4m, and the TNG optical telescopes. We present new identifications and optical spectra for 76 sources, 50 of which are new BL Lac objects, 18 are sources previously referred as BL Lacs but for which no redshift information was available, and 8 are broad emission lines AGNs. We find that the multi-frequency selection technique used to build the survey is highly efficient (about 90%) in selecting BL Lacs objects. We present positional and spectroscopic ...

  4. Astrocyte-specific disruption of SynCAM1 signaling results in ADHD-like behavioral manifestations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula S Sandau

    Full Text Available SynCAM1 is an adhesion molecule involved in synaptic differentiation and organization. SynCAM1 is also expressed in astroglial cells where it mediates astrocyte-to astrocyte and glial-neuronal adhesive communication. In astrocytes, SynCAM1 is functionally linked to erbB4 receptors, which are involved in the control of both neuronal/glial development and mature neuronal and glial function. Here we report that mice carrying a dominant-negative form of SynCAM1 specifically targeted to astrocytes (termed GFAP-DNSynCAM1 mice exhibit disrupted diurnal locomotor activity with enhanced and more frequent episodes of activity than control littermates during the day (when the animals are normally sleeping accompanied by shorter periods of rest. GFAP-DNSynCAM1 mice also display high levels of basal activity in the dark period (the rodent's awake/active time that are attenuated by the psychostimulant D,L-amphetamine, and reduced anxiety levels in response to both avoidable and unavoidable provoking stimuli. These results indicate that disruption of SynCAM1-dependent astroglial function results in behavioral abnormalities similar to those described in animals model of attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD, and suggest a hitherto unappreciated contribution of glial cells to the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  5. Is prayer CAM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippens, Kim; Marsman, Kevin; Zwickey, Heather

    2009-04-01

    Alternative medicine researchers and policy makers have classified prayer as a mind-body intervention, and thus, a modality of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). As such, numerous epidemiological surveys of CAM utilization-which have included prayer-depict increasing CAM use, particularly in specific racial and ethnic groups. This paper discusses the implications of conflating prayer and CAM, especially regarding the definitions of both concepts and the resulting statistics of CAM utilization.

  6. Testing the AGN unification model in the infrared. First results with GTC/CanariCam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Almeida, C.

    2015-05-01

    The unified model for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) accounts for a variety of observational differences in terms of viewing geometry alone. However, from the fitting of high spatial resolution infrared (IR) data with clumpy torus models, it has been hinted that the immediate dusty surroundings of Type-1 and 2 Seyfert nuclei might be intrinsically different in terms of covering factor (torus width and number of clouds). Moreover, these torus covering factors also showed variations among objects belonging to the same type, in contradiction with simple unification. Interestingly, these intrinsic differences in Seyfert tori could explain, for example, the lack of broad optical lines in the polarized spectra of about half of the brightest Seyfert 2 galaxies. On the other hand, recent IR interferometry studies have revealed that, in at least four Seyfert galaxies, the mid-IR emission is elongated in the polar direction. These results are difficult to reconcile with unified models, which claim that the bulk of the mid-IR emission comes from the torus. In this invited contribution I summarize the latest results on high angular resolution IR studies of AGN, which constitute a crucial test for AGN unification. These results include those from the mid-infrared instrument CanariCam on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC), which are starting to be published by the CanariCam AGN team, Los Piratas (https://sites.google.com/site/piratasrelatedpublications).

  7. Finding ultracool brown dwarfs with MegaCam on CFHT: method and first results

    CERN Document Server

    Delorme, Philippe; Forveille, Thierry; Delfosse, Xavier; Reylé, Céline; Bertin, Emmanuel; Albert, Loic; Artigau, Etienne; Robin, Annie C; Allard, France; Doyon, Rene; Hill, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    We present the first results of a wide field survey for cool brown dwarfs with the MegaCam camera on the CFHT telescope, the Canada-France Brown Dwarf Survey, hereafter CFBDS. Our objectives are to find ultracool brown dwarfs and to constrain the field-brown dwarf mass function thanks to a larger sample of L and T dwarfs. We identify candidates in CFHT/MegaCam i' and z' images using optimised psf-fitting within Source Extractor, and follow them up with pointed near-infrared imaging on several telescopes. We have so far analysed over 350 square degrees and found 770 brown dwarf candidates brighter than z'{AB}=22.5. We currently have J-band photometry for 220 of these candidates, which confirms 37% as potential L or T dwarfs. Some are among the reddest and farthest brown dwarfs currently known, including an independent identification of the recently published ULAS J003402.77-005206.7 and the discovery of a second brown dwarf later than T8, CFBDS J005910.83-011401.3. Infrared spectra of three T dwarf candidates ...

  8. Rain follows logging in the Amazon? Results from CAM3-CLM3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Rui; Wang, Guiling [University of Connecticut, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Center for Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The impact of logging on precipitation in the Amazon region is investigated based on numerical experiments using the community atmosphere model version 3 coupled with the community land surface model version 3 (CAM3-CLM3). Three different representations of logging are examined, ranging from selective logging, to partial deforestation, to clear cut. Precipitation increases in response to modest selective logging, and decreases as the severity of logging progresses to partial deforestation and clear cut. Further experiments indicate that the increase of precipitation is mostly due to the decrease of surface albedo following selective logging, resulting from a low contrast between bare soil albedo and vegetation optical properties (i.e., leaf reflectance) in CLM3. This study demonstrates the complexity of representing land cover changes in climate models, and underlines the importance of accuracy in albedo measurement from satellite remote sensing. (orig.)

  9. $Z^\\prime_{BL}$ portal dark matter and LHC Run-2 results

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Nobuchika

    2016-01-01

    We consider a concise dark matter scenario in the minimal gauged $B-L$ extension of the Standard Model (SM), where the global $B-L$ (baryon number minus lepton number) symmetry in the SM is gauged, and three generations of right-handed neutrinos and a $B-L$ Higgs field are introduced. Associated with the $B-L$ gauge symmetry breaking by a VEV of the $B-L$ Higgs field, the seesaw mechanism for generating the neutrino mass is automatically implemented after the electroweak symmetry breaking in the SM. In this model context, we introduce a $Z_2$-parity and assign an odd parity for one right-handed neutrino while even parities for the other fields. Therefore, the dark matter candidate is identified as the right-handed Majorana neutrino with odd $Z_2$ parity, keeping the minimality of the particle content intact. When the dark matter particle communicates with the SM particles mainly through the $B-L$ gauge boson ($Z^\\prime_{BL}$ boson), its relic abundance is determined by only three free parameters, the $B-L$ ga...

  10. Commissioning and first results of scanning type EXAFS beamline (BL-09) at INDUS-2 synchrotron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poswal, A. K., E-mail: poswalashwini@gmail.com; Agrawal, A., E-mail: poswalashwini@gmail.com; Yadav, A. K., E-mail: poswalashwini@gmail.com; Nayak, C., E-mail: poswalashwini@gmail.com; Basu, S., E-mail: poswalashwini@gmail.com; Bhattachryya, D.; Jha, S. N.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai -400085 (India); Kane, S. R.; Garg, C. K. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore- 452013 (India)

    2014-04-24

    An Energy Scanning X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy beamline has recently been installed and commissioned at BL-09 bending magnet port of INDUS-2 synchrotron source, Indore. The beamline uses an UHV compatible fixed exit double crystal monochromator (DCM) with two Si (111) crystals. Two grazing incidence cylindrical mirrors are also used in this beamline; the pre-mirror is used as a collimating mirror while the post mirror is used for vertical focusing and higher harmonic rejection. In this beamline it is possible to carry out EXAFS measurements both in transmission and fluorescence mode on various types of samples, using Ionization chamber detectors and solid state drift detector respectively. In this paper, results from first experiments of the Energy Scanning EXAFS beamline are presented.

  11. Education & Training for CAD/CAM: Results of a National Probability Survey. Krannert Institute Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Ann

    A study was conducted of the training programs used by plants with Computer Automated Design/Computer Automated Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to help their employees adapt to automated manufacturing. The study sought to determine the relative priorities of manufacturing establishments for training certain workers in certain skills; the status of…

  12. CAD-CAM-generated hydroxyapatite scaffold to replace the mandibular condyle in sheep: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Leonardo; Donati, Davide; Fantini, Massimiliano; Landi, Elena; Piattelli, Adriano; Iezzi, Giovanna; Tampieri, Anna; Spadari, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Noemi; Scotti, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    In this study, rapid CAD-CAM prototyping of pure hydroxyapatite to replace temporomandibular joint condyles was tested in sheep. Three adult animals were implanted with CAD-CAM-designed porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds as condyle substitutes. The desired scaffold shape was achieved by subtractive automated milling machining (block reduction). Custom-made surgical guides were created by direct metal laser sintering and were used to export the virtual planning of the bone cut lines into the surgical environment. Using the same technique, fixation plates were created and applied to the scaffold pre-operatively to firmly secure the condyles to the bone and to assure primary stability of the hydroxyapatite scaffolds during masticatory function. Four months post-surgery, the sheep were sacrificed. The hydroxyapatite scaffolds were explanted, and histological specimens were prepared. Different histological tissues penetrating the scaffold macropores, the sequence of bone remodeling, new apposition of bone and/or cartilage as a consequence of the different functional anatomic role, and osseointegration at the interface between the scaffold and bone were documented. This animal model was found to be appropriate for testing CAD-CAM customization and the biomechanical properties of porous, pure hydroxyapatite scaffolds used as joint prostheses.

  13. New statistical results on the optical IDV data of BL Lac S5 0716+714

    CERN Document Server

    Danila, B; Mocanu, G

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the statistical behaviour of the optical IntraDay Variability of BL Lac S5 0716+714. Available IntraDay Variability data in the optical is tested to see whether or not the magnitude is log-normally distributed. It was consistently found that this is not the case. This is in agreement with a previous discussion for data for the same object but in a different observational period. Simultaneously, the spectral slope of the light curves is calculated. The implications of these findings for models which discuss both the location and the source of IntraDay Variability are presented.

  14. Impact of a Revised Convective Triggering Mechanism on CAM2 Model Simulations: Results from Short-Range Weather Forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, S; Boyle, J S; Cederwall, R T; Potter, G L; Zhang, M; Lin, W

    2004-02-19

    This study implements a revised convective triggering condition in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM2) model to reduce its excessive warm season daytime precipitation over land. The new triggering mechanism introduces a simple dynamic constraint on the initiation of convection that emulates the collective effects of lower level moistening and upward motion of the large-scale circulation. It requires a positive contribution from the large-scale advection of temperature and moisture to the existing positive Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) for model convection to start. In contrast, the original convection triggering function in CAM2 assumes that convection is triggered whenever there is positive CAPE, which results in too frequent warm season convection over land arising from strong diurnal variation of solar radiation. We examine the impact of the new trigger on CAM2 simulations by running the climate model in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) mode so that more available observations and high-frequency NWP analysis data can be used to evaluate model performance. We show that the modified triggering mechanism has led to considerable improvements in the simulation of precipitation, temperature, moisture, clouds, radiations, surface temperature, and surface sensible and latent heat fluxes when compared to the data collected from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program at its South Great Plains (SGP) site. Similar improvements are also seen over other parts of the globe. In particular, the surface precipitation simulation has been significantly improved over both the continental United States and around the globe; the overestimation of high clouds in the equatorial tropics has been substantially reduced; and the temperature, moisture, and zonal wind are more realistically simulated. Results from this study also show that some systematic errors in the CAM2 climate simulations can be detected in

  15. Persistent diet-induced obesity in male C57BL/6 mice resulting from temporary obesigenic diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Does diet-induced obesity persist after an obesigenic diet is removed? We investigated this question by providing male C57BL/6 mice with free access to two different obesigenic diets followed by a switch to chow to determine if obesity was reversible. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to five weight-matched groups: 1 C group that continuously received a chow diet; 2 HF group on a 60% high fat diet; 3 EN group on the high fat diet plus liquid Ensure; 4 HF-C group switched from high fat to chow after 7 weeks; 5 EN-C group switched from high fat plus Ensure to chow after 7 weeks. All food intake was ad libitum. Body weight was increased after 7 weeks on both obesigenic diets (44.6+/-0.65, 39.8+/-0.63, and 28.6+/-0.63 g for EN, HF, and C groups, respectively and resulted in elevated concentrations of serum insulin, glucose, and leptin and lower serum triglycerides. Development of obesity in HF and EN mice was caused by increased energy intake and a relative decrease of average energy output along with decreased ambulatory activity. After the switch to chow, the HF-C and EN-C groups lost weight but subsequently maintained a state of persistent obesity in comparison to the C group (34.8+/-1.2, 34.1+/-1.2 vs. 30.8+/-0.8 g respectively; P<0.05 with a 40-50% increase of body fat. All serum hormones and metabolites returned to control levels with the exception of a trend for increased leptin. The HF-C and EN-C groups had an average energy output in line with the C group and the persistent obesity was maintained despite a non-significant increase of energy intake of less than 1 kcal/d at the end of the study. CONCLUSION: Our results illustrate the importance of considering the history of energy imbalance in determining body weight and that a persistent elevation of body weight after removal of obesigenic diets can result from very small increases of energy intake.

  16. PreCam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, Sahar S. [Fermilab; Tucker, Douglas L. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) will be taking the next step in probing the properties of Dark Energy and in understanding the physics of cosmic acceleration. A step towards the photometric calibration of DES is to have a quick, bright survey in the DES footprint (PreCam), using a pre-production set of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) CCDs and a set of 100 mm×100 mm DES filters. The objective of the PreCam Survey is to create a network of calibrated DES grizY standard stars that will be used for DES nightly calibrations and to improve the DES global relative calibrations. Here, we describe the first year of PreCam observation, results, and photometric calibrations.

  17. Optimisation Methods for Cam Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia–Mari Popa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the criteria which represent the base of optimizing the cam mechanisms and also we perform the calculations for several types of mechanisms. We study the influence of the constructive parameters in case of the simple machines with rotation cam and follower (flat or curve of translation on the curvature radius and that of the transmission angle. As it follows, we present the optimization calculations of the cam and flat rotation follower mechanisms, as well as the calculations for optimizing the cam mechanisms by circular groove followers’ help. For an easier interpretation of the results, we have visualized the obtained cam in AutoCAD according to the script files generated by a calculation program.

  18. 3D planning in orthognathic surgery: CAD/CAM surgical splints and prediction of the soft and hard tissues results - our experience in 16 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Hosn Centenero, Samir; Hernández-Alfaro, Federico

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this article is to determine the advantages of 3D planning in predicting postoperative results and manufacturing surgical splints using CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) technology in orthognathic surgery when the software program Simplant OMS 10.1 (Materialise(®), Leuven, Belgium) was used for the purpose of this study which was carried out on 16 patients. A conventional preoperative treatment plan was devised for each patient following our Centre's standard protocol, and surgical splints were manufactured. These splints were used as study controls. The preoperative treatment plans devised were then transferred to a 3D-virtual environment on a personal computer (PC). Surgery was simulated, the prediction of results on soft and hard tissue produced, and surgical splints manufactured using CAD/CAM technology. In the operating room, both types of surgical splints were compared and the degree of similitude in results obtained in three planes was calculated. The maxillary osteotomy line was taken as the point of reference. The level of concordance was used to compare the surgical splints. Three months after surgery a second set of 3D images were obtained and used to obtain linear and angular measurements on screen. Using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient these postoperative measurements were compared with the measurements obtained when predicting postoperative results. Results showed that a high degree of correlation in 15 of the 16 cases. A high coefficient of correlation was obtained in the majority of predictions of results in hard tissue, although less precise results were obtained in measurements in soft tissue in the labial area. The study shows that the software program used in the study is reliable for 3D planning and for the manufacture of surgical splints using CAD/CAM technology. Nevertheless, further progress in the development of technologies for the acquisition of 3D images, new versions of software programs

  19. Cryogenic Cam Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Kenneth J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A cryogenic cam butterfly valve has a body that includes an axially extending fluid conduit formed there through. A disc lug is connected to a back side of a valve disc and has a circular bore that receives and is larger than a cam of a cam shaft. The valve disc is rotatable for a quarter turn within the body about a lug axis that is offset from the shaft axis. Actuating the cam shaft in the closing rotational direction first causes the camming side of the cam of the cam shaft to rotate the disc lug and the valve disc a quarter turn from the open position to the closed position. Further actuating causes the camming side of the cam shaft to translate the valve disc into sealed contact with the valve seat. Opening rotational direction of the cam shaft reverses these motions.

  20. Protein Malnutrition during Pregnancy in C57BL/6J Mice Results in Offspring with Altered Circadian Physiology before Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Gregory M.; Centanni, Armand V.; Butler, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms linking intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) with adulthood obesity and diabetes are unclear. These studies investigated energy homeostasis in 8- and 20-wk-old male and female mice subjected to protein deficiency in utero. Pregnant C57BL/6J female mice were fed a protein-deficient diet (6% protein). Undernourished offspring (UO) and controls (CO) were cross-fostered to lactating dams fed a 20% control diet. The 24-h profiles of energy expenditure, feeding behavior, physical activity, and whole-body substrate preference was assessed using 8-wk UO and CO weaned onto control diet. Blood chemistries, glucose tolerance, and expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism were analyzed in 8- and 20-wk-old CO and UO fed control or a high-fat diet. UO exhibited IUGR with catch-up growth at 8 wk of age and increased severity of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance by 20 wk of age. Therefore, fetal malnutrition in the C57BL/6J mouse increases sensitivity to diet-induced obesity. Abnormal daily rhythms in food intake and metabolism, increased lipogenesis, and inflammation preceded obesity in the UO group. Arrhythmic expression of circadian oscillator genes was evident in brain, liver, and muscle of UO at 8 and 20 wk of age. Expression of the clock-associated nuclear receptor and transcription repressor Rev-erbα was reduced in liver and muscle of UO. Altered circadian physiology may be symptomatic of the metabolic dysregulation associated with IUGR, and altered feeding behavior and substrate metabolism may contribute to the obese phenotype. PMID:20160133

  1. Scleroderma, Stress and CAM Utilization

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    Ka-Kit Hui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease influenced by interplay among genetic and environmental factors, of which one is stress. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is frequently used to treat stress and those diseases in which stress has been implicated. Results are presented from a survey of patients with scleroderma. Respondents were a convenient sample of those attending a national conference in Las Vegas in 2002. Findings implicate stress in the onset, continuation and exacerbation of scleroderma. The implication is that CAM providers may be filling an important patient need in their provision of services that identify and treat stress and its related disorders.

  2. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use by Malaysian oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Maryam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Abdul Shatar, Aishah Knight; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Seang, Tan Boon; Farooqui, Muhammad Aslam

    2012-05-01

    The current study sought to evaluate Malaysian oncology patients' decision making about the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for the management of their care. Patients were interviewed across three major Malaysian ethnic groups, Malay, Chinese and Indian. Thematic content analysis identified four central themes: Conceptualizing CAM, the decision making process; rationale given for selecting or rejecting CAM and barriers to CAM use. Participants generally used the term 'traditional medicine', referred to locally as 'ubat kampung', meaning medicine derived from 'local traditions'. Mixed reactions were shown concerning the effectiveness of CAM to cure cancer and the slow progression of CAM results and treatment costs were cited as major barriers to CAM use. Concerns regarding safety and efficacy of CAM in ameliorating cancer as well as potential interactions with conventional therapies highlighted the importance of patients' knowledge about cancer treatments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Consumer Health: CAM Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Consumer health Don't take all CAM claims at face value. Do your homework when considering CAM therapies. By ... dose of skepticism. Federal Trade Commission. http://www.consumer.ftc.gov/articles/0167-miracle-health-claims. Accessed ...

  4. Prospective clinical split-mouth study of pressed and CAD/CAM all-ceramic partial-coverage restorations: 7-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Petra C; Selz, Christian F; Steinhart, Yann-Niclas; Stampf, Susanne; Strub, Joerg R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical split-mouth study was to investigate the longterm performance of pressed and computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) all-ceramic partial-coverage restorations (PCRs). Twentyfive patients were restored with 40 lithium disilicate pressed PCRs (IPS e.max-Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) and 40 leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic CAD/CAM PCRs (ProCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent). All restorations were placed in vital first or second molars. The 7-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 100% for pressed PCRs and 97% for CAD/ CAM PCRs. Both systems showed significant deterioration over time in all modified United States Public Health Service criteria. Increased surface roughness and impaired color match were significantly more prevalent with pressed PCRs. Based on the 7-year data, both all-ceramic systems can be considered reliable treatment options for posterior PCRs.

  5. Composite cam carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, Christopher Donald; Madin, Mark Michael

    2017-03-14

    A cam carrier assembly includes a cylinder head having valves and a camshaft having lobes. A cam carrier has a first side coupled with the cylinder head engaging around the valves and a second side with bearing surfaces supporting the camshaft. A series of apertures extend between the first and second sides for the lobes to interface with the valves. The cam carrier is made of carbon fiber composite insulating the camshaft from the cylinder head and providing substantial weight reduction to an upper section of an associated engine.

  6. CAM and NK Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Takeda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that tumor development, outgrowth and metastasis are under the surveillance of the immune system. Although both innate and acquired immune systems play roles, innate immunity is the spearhead against tumors. Recent studies have revealed the critical role of natural killer (NK cells in immune surveillance and that NK cell activity is considerably influenced by various agents, such as environmental factors, stress, foods and drugs. Some of these NK cell stimulants have been used in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM since ancient times. Therefore, the value of CAM should be re-evaluated from this point of view. In this review, we overview the intimate correlation between NK cell functions and CAM agents, and discuss possible underlying mechanisms mediating this. In particular, neuro-immune crosstalk and receptors for CAM agents are the most important and interesting candidates for such mechanisms.

  7. Research on the processing speed of cam grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Baoying; Han, Qiushi

    2011-05-01

    Cam Grinding is a special kind of non-circular machining. The processing speed of cam grinding has a major influence on cam machining precision. In this paper, decomposed the X-axis feed speed and C-axis velocity by the tangential speed and normal speed in accordance with the curvature circle at the point of cam profile grinding. Proposed the cam grinding processing speed model and linear velocity calculation formula, the processing experiment on the CNC camshaft grinding machine results show that the cam grinding speed model is correct. Constant angular speed grinding and constant linear speed grinding are analyzed respectively, which provides a theoretical basis for cam grinding processing speed optimization.

  8. Z Cam Stars in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, M.; Boyd, D.; Goff, W.; Krajci, T.; Menzies, K.; Otero, S.; Padovan, S.; Poyner, G.; Roe, J.; Sabo, R.; Sjoberg, G.; Staels, B.; Stubbings, R.; Toone, J.; Wils, P.

    2014-05-01

    Z Cam (UGZ) stars are a small subset of dwarf novae that exhibit standstills in their light curves. Most modern literature and catalogs of cataclysmic variables quote the number of known Z Cams to be on the order of thirty or so systems. After a four-year observing campaign and an exhaustive examination of the data in the AAVSO International Database (AID) we have trimmed that number by a third. One of the reasons for the misclassification of some systems is the fact that the definition of what a Z Cam is has changed over the last eighty-five years. This has caused many stars formerly assumed to be Z Cams or rumored to be Z Cams to be eliminated from the final list. In this paper we present the results of our investigation into sixty-five stars listed at one time or another in the literature as Z Cams or possible Z Cams.

  9. Patients’ views of CAM as spiritual practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This paper explores Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs, practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry was used to understand how spiritual beliefs and practices might be related t....... For some individuals a belief in the ‘spiritual’ role of CAM per se may be analogous to religious belief.......Objectives: This paper explores Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs, practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry was used to understand how spiritual beliefs and practices might be related...... to CAM. Thirty-two cancer patients, family, friends and alternative practitioners were followed up over a two year period by face to face interview, telephone and focus groups. Results: Although religious and spiritual issues were not manifestly expressed by many of the subjects, these issues were...

  10. Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeker William C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions Data Sources A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. Data Selection A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including information about chiropractic utilization, CAM utilization and low back pain and other conditions. Data Synthesis Information was extracted from each paper addressing use of chiropractic and CAM, and is summarized in tabular form. Results Thematic analysis of the paper topics indicated that there were 5 functional areas covered by the literature: back pain papers, general chiropractic papers, insurance-related papers, general CAM-related papers; and worker's compensation papers. Conclusion Studies looking at chiropractic utilization demonstrate that the rates vary, but generally fall into a range from around 6% to 12% of the population, most of whom seek chiropractic care for low back pain and not for organic disease or visceral dysfunction. CAM is itself used by people suffering from a variety of conditions, though it is often used not as a primary intervention, but rather as an additional form of care. CAM and chiropractic often offer lower costs for comparable results compared to conventional medicine.

  11. Preparation and Preliminary Application of MAdCAM-1 Polyclonal Antibody in Dairy Cows with Subclinical Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Chen, Yuanyuan; Chang, Qiaocheng; Xia, Cheng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyou

    2015-08-01

    MAdCAM-1 plays an important role in mediating immune response and inflammation. This study aimed to express and purify a fusion protein of MAdCAM-1 in prokaryotic cells and to prepare rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibodies. Prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1-MAdCAM-1 and pET-28a-MAdCAM-1 were constructed, respectively. The above plasmids were transformed into BL21 Escherichia coli strain. These recombinant strains were induced by IPTG and identified by Western blot analysis and SDS-PAGE. Wistar rats were immunized with recombinant protein (pET-28a-MAdCAM-1) emulsified with Freund's adjuvant, and antibody titers were measured by indirect ELISA. Antibody titers reached the highest value (1:128,000) after the third immunization. Western blot showed that rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibody can not only recognize recombinant MAdCAM-1 protein expressed in E. coli but also recognizes natural MAdCAM-1 protein extracted from bovine tissues. However, commercial anti-mouse MAdCAM-1 monoclonal antibodies did not recognize the recombinant MAdCAM-1 protein or natural protein, which indicated no cross-reactivity between bovine MAdCAM-1 and mouse MAdCAM-1. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis showed that MAdCAM-1 expression was limited in mammary lymphoid nodes of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. We speculate that MAdCAM-1 expression is inconsistent in different periods of the dairy cows. The successful preparation of rat anti-bovine MAdCAM-1 polyclonal antibody and its preliminary application in dairy cows provide the foundation for further study of the mechanism of anti-inflammation of MAdCAM-1 in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis.

  12. CAD/CAM Zirconia vs. slip-cast glass-infiltrated Alumina/Zirconia all-ceramic crowns: 2-year results of a randomized controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Cavit Çehreli; Ali Murat Kökat; Kivanç Akça

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the early clinical outcome of slip-cast glass-infiltrated Alumina/Zirconia and CAD/CAM Zirconia all-ceramic crowns. A total of 30 InCeram® Zirconia and Cercon® Zirconia crowns were fabricated and cemented with a glass ionomer cement in 20 patients. At baseline, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year recall appointments, Californian Dental Association (CDA) quality evaluation system was used to evaluate the prosthetic replacements, and p...

  13. Variability Study of the SX Phoenicis Star BL Camelopardalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ning Fu; Chao Zhang; Kanokwan Marak; Chayan Boonyarak; Pongsak Khokhuntod; Shi-Yang Jiang

    2008-01-01

    New time-series photometric observations of BL Cam in the V band and white light were made during 2005 to 2007 at the Xinglong Station of China. The frequency analysis confirms two closely separated frequencies, 25.181 d-1 and 25.571 d-1, but the frequency of 31-32 d-1 reported in the literature was not detected in the new data. New times of maximum light were determined from both our light curves and those available on Internet, allowing a more comprehensive study of the O - C diagram, together with the times of maximum light in the literature. A new interpretation, including the period increasing before 1988 and decreasing since 1992 of BL Cam and the light-time effect in a binary system, looks plausible.

  14. Variability Study of the SX Phoenicis Star BL Camelopardalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian-Ning; Zhang, Chao; Marak, Kanokwan; Boonyarak, Chayan; Khokhuntod, Pongsak; Jiang, Shi-Yang

    2008-04-01

    New time-series photometric observations of BL Cam in the V band and white light were made during 2005 to 2007 at the Xinglong Station of China. The frequency analysis confirms two closely separated frequencies, 25.181 d-1 and 25.571 d-1, but the frequency of 31-32 d-1 reported in the literature was not detected in the new data. New times of maximum light were determined from both our light curves and those available on Internet, allowing a more comprehensive study of the O-C diagram, together with the times of maximum light in the literature. A new interpretation, including the period increasing before 1988 and decreasing since 1992 of BL Cam and the light-time effect in a binary system, looks plausible.

  15. Axiographic results of CAD/CAM-assisted microvascular, fibular free flap reconstruction of the mandible: A prospective study of 21 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschl, Lucas M; Mücke, Thomas; Fichter, Andreas M; Roth, Maximilian; Kaltenhauser, Clemens; Pho Duc, Jean Marc; Kesting, Marco R; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Loeffelbein, Denys J

    2017-01-01

    Virtual planning and guided reconstruction of the mandible following ablative surgery have become standard procedures in reconstructive surgery. Many advantages regarding operation time, morphology, bony fit, and consolidation have been described, but analyses of the functional outcome of virtually planned mandibular reconstructions are lacking. We prospectively analyzed 21 consecutive cases of mandibular reconstructions using CAD/CAM-assisted microvascular, fibular free flaps in operations between July 2014 and January 2016 at a single center. Axiographic measurements were performed preoperatively and at 10 days and 3 months postoperatively and were correlated with clinical findings. Uni- and multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine the association between possible predictor variables on functional outcomes. Overall, no statistical differences between the t1 and t3 measurements were seen in the analyzed variables. The univariate analysis showed a significant influence of indication and pre- and postoperative irradiation only on mouth opening (p = 0.018, p = 0.026, and p = 0.049). Timing, the number of osteotomies, and the incidence of wound healing disturbances had no significant influence on postoperative function (p = 0.753, p = 0.69 and p = 0.776). In particular, cases without malignancy or preoperative irradiation benefitted from the integration of the CAD/CAM technique and showed good functional outcomes.

  16. Fit of CAD/CAM implant frameworks: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar

    2014-12-01

    Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is a strongly emerging prosthesis fabrication method for implant dentistry. Currently, CAD/CAM allows the construction of implant frameworks from different materials. This review evaluates the literature pertaining to the precision fit of fixed implant frameworks fabricated by CAD/CAM. Following a comprehensive electronic search through PubMed (MEDLINE), 14 relevant articles were identified. The results indicate that the precision fit of CAD/CAM frameworks exceeded the fit of the 1-piece cast frameworks and laser-welded frameworks. A similar fit was observed for CAD/CAM frameworks and bonding of the framework body to prefabricated cylinders. The influence of CAD/CAM materials on the fit of a framework is minimal.

  17. Whipple Observations of BL Lac Objects

    CERN Document Server

    D'Vali, M; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Burdett, A M; Carter-Lewis, D A; Catanese, M; Cawley, M F; Fegan, D J; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Gaidos, J A; Hall, T A; Hillas, A M; Knapp, J; Krennrich, F; Le Bohec, S; Lessard, R W; Masterson, C; Myles, S D; Quinn, J; Rose, H J; Samuelson, F W; Sembroski, G H; Vasilev, V; Weekes, T C

    1999-01-01

    Only BL Lac objects have been detected as extragalactic sources of very high energy (E > 300 GeV) gamma rays. Using the Whipple Observatory Gamma-ray Telescope, we have attempted to detect more BL Lacs using three approaches. First, we have conducted surveys of nearby BL Lacs, which led to the detections of Mrk 501 and 1ES 2344+514. Second, we have observed X-ray bright BL Lacs when the RXTE All-Sky Monitor identifies high state X-ray emission in an object, in order to efficiently detect extended high emission states. Third, we have conducted rapid observations of several BL Lacs and QSOs located close together in the sky to search for very high flux, short time-scale flare states such as have been seen from Mrk 421. We will present the results of a survey using the third observational technique.

  18. Trace element geochemistry (Li, Ba, Sr, and Rb) using Curiosity's ChemCam: early results for Gale crater from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollila, Ann M.; Newsom, Horton E.; Clark, Benton; Wiens, Roger C.; Cousin, Agnes; Blank, Jen G.; Mangold, Nicolas; Sautter, Violaine; Maurice, Sylvestre; Clegg, Samuel M.; Gasnault, Olivier; Forni, Olivier; Tokar, Robert; Lewin, Eric; Dyar, M. Darby; Lasue, Jeremie; Anderson, Ryan; McLennan, Scott M.; Bridges, John; Vaniman, Dave; Lanza, Nina; Fabre, Cecile; Melikechi, Noureddine; Perett, Glynis M.; Campbell, John L.; King, Penelope L.; Barraclough, Bruce; Delapp, Dorothea; Johnstone, Stephen; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Rosen-Gooding, Anya; Williams, Josh

    2013-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars rover, Curiosity, provides new capabilities to probe the abundances of certain trace elements in the rocks and soils on Mars using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. We focus on detecting and quantifying Li, Ba, Rb, and Sr in targets analyzed during the first 100 sols, from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest. Univariate peak area models and multivariate partial least squares models are presented. Li, detected for the first time directly on Mars, is generally low (100 ppm and >1000 ppm, respectively. These analysis locations tend to have high Si and alkali abundances, consistent with a feldspar composition. Together, these trace element observations provide possible evidence of magma differentiation and aqueous alteration.

  19. Trace element geochemistry (Li, Ba, Sr, and Rb) using Curiosity's ChemCam: Early results for Gale crater from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollila, Ann M.; Newsom, Horton E.; Clark, Benton; Wiens, Roger C.; Cousin, Agnes; Blank, Jen G.; Mangold, Nicolas; Sautter, Violaine; Maurice, Sylvestre; Clegg, Samuel M.; Gasnault, Olivier; Forni, Olivier; Tokar, Robert; Lewin, Eric; Dyar, M. Darby; Lasue, Jeremie; Anderson, Ryan; McLennan, Scott M.; Bridges, John; Vaniman, Dave; Lanza, Nina; Fabre, Cecile; Melikechi, Noureddine; Perrett, Glynis M.; Campbell, John L.; King, Penelope L.; Barraclough, Bruce; Delapp, Dorothea; Johnstone, Stephen; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Rosen-Gooding, Anya; Williams, Josh

    2014-01-01

    ChemCam instrument package on the Mars rover, Curiosity, provides new capabilities to probe the abundances of certain trace elements in the rocks and soils on Mars using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. We focus on detecting and quantifying Li, Ba, Rb, and Sr in targets analyzed during the first 100 sols, from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest. Univariate peak area models and multivariate partial least squares models are presented. Li, detected for the first time directly on Mars, is generally low (100 ppm and >1000 ppm, respectively. These analysis locations tend to have high Si and alkali abundances, consistent with a feldspar composition. Together, these trace element observations provide possible evidence of magma differentiation and aqueous alteration.

  20. Trace element geochemistry (Li, Ba, Sr, and Rb) using Curiosity's ChemCam: early results for Gale crater from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollila, Ann M.; Newsom, Horton E.; Clark, Benton; Wiens, Roger C.; Cousin, Agnes; Blank, Jen G.; Mangold, Nicolas; Sautter, Violaine; Maurice, Sylvestre; Clegg, Samuel M.; Gasnault, Olivier; Forni, Olivier; Tokar, Robert; Lewin, Eric; Dyar, M. Darby; Lasue, Jeremie; Anderson, Ryan; McLennan, Scott M.; Bridges, John; Vaniman, Dave; Lanza, Nina; Fabre, Cecile; Melikechi, Noureddine; Perett, Glynis M.; Campbell, John L.; King, Penelope L.; Barraclough, Bruce; Delapp, Dorothea; Johnstone, Stephen; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Rosen-Gooding, Anya; Williams, Josh

    2014-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument package on the Mars rover, Curiosity, provides new capabilities to probe the abundances of certain trace elements in the rocks and soils on Mars using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. We focus on detecting and quantifying Li, Ba, Rb, and Sr in targets analyzed during the first 100 sols, from Bradbury Landing Site to Rocknest. Univariate peak area models and multivariate partial least squares models are presented. Li, detected for the first time directly on Mars, is generally low (100 ppm and >1000 ppm, respectively. These analysis locations tend to have high Si and alkali abundances, consistent with a feldspar composition. Together, these trace element observations provide possible evidence of magma differentiation and aqueous alteration.

  1. Modeled hydraulic redistribution in tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations: the implications of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; Foster, Adrianna

    2016-04-01

    Past studies have largely focused on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in trees, shrubs, and grasses, and recognized its role in interspecies interactions. HR in plants that conduct crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), however, remains poorly investigated, as does the effect of HR on transpiration in different vegetation associations (i.e., tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations). We have developed a mechanistic model to investigate the net direction and magnitude of HR at the patch scale for tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations at the growing season to yearly timescale. The modeling results show that deep-rooted CAM plants in CAM-grass associations could perform hydraulic lift at a higher rate than trees in tree-grass associations in a relatively wet environment, as explained by a significant increase in grass transpiration rate in the shallow soil layer, balancing a lower transpiration rate by CAM plants. By comparison, trees in tree-CAM associations may perform hydraulic descent at a higher rate than those in tree-grass associations in a dry environment. Model simulations also show that hydraulic lift increases the transpiration of shallow-rooted plants, while hydraulic descent increases that of deep-rooted plants. CAM plants transpire during the night and thus perform HR during the day. Based on these model simulations, we suggest that the ability of CAM plants to perform HR at a higher rate may have different effects on the surrounding plant community than those of plants with C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways (i.e., diurnal transpiration).

  2. Bridging CAM practice and research: teaching CAM practitioners about research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Suzanna M; Benn, Rita

    2004-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is continuing to provide funds directed to support research in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). CAM providers typically have insufficient knowledge of scientific language or research methodology to develop rigorous proposals. Their ability to contribute meaningfully as advisors, teachers, or research partners in academic settings, is hence limited. To address this issue, we have developed and implemented a 7-week course designed to teach community-based CAM providers: (1) to understand scientific terminology, research design and grantsmanship; (2) to critically evaluate the research literature; and (3) to design pilot studies in areas of their interest. In this article, we describe the recruitment process for selecting course participants, the course design and instructional process and the evaluation results based on qualitative and quantitative methodology. We offer suggestions for developing training opportunities both at the local and national level that would increase the expertise of CAM providers in participating and seeking funded research.

  3. RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 and Their Complex Proteins Implicated in Many Cellular Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorynia, Sabine; Bandeiras, Tiago M.; Matias, Pedro M.; Pinho, Filipa G.; McVey, Colin E.; Donner, Peter; Carrondo, Maria Arménia

    RuvBL1 and its homolog RuvBL2 belong to the AAA+ family of ATPases and play important roles in chromatin remodeling, in transcriptional regulation, in DNA repair and in the c-Myc and Wnt signaling pathways. Proteins involved in these pathways are often mutated in human cancers. Both RuvBL proteins form a complex and act alone or together in diverse cellular processes. The three-dimensional structures of human RuvBL1 refined using diffraction data to 2.2 Å resolution and of the human RuvBL1/RuvBL2 complex with a truncated domain II at 3 Å resolution are presented. The dodecameric RuvBL1/RuvBL2 complex structure differs from previously described models. It consists of two heterohexameric rings with alternating RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 monomers that interact with each other via domain II. ATPase and helicase activities of RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 were also tested. Interestingly, truncation of domain II resulted not only in a substantial increase of ATP consumption by the RuvBL proteins, but also in stimulation of helicase activity, which was not observed with the full-length proteins.

  4. Camønoen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Widtfeld Meged, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Coastal communities in Denmark have experienced a steady socioeconomic decline, which has further been aggravated by a stagnating tourism and agricultural sector. Within this context, coastal regions are attempting to harness the potentials of the emerging collaborative economy and its...... and citizens alike? The recently opened pilgrim trail, Camønoen represents an adapted collaborative business model and as such an appropriate case to study new coastal value creation processes. Camønoen is a 175 km long newly designed walking trail across the islands of Møn, Nyord and Bogø. The trail...... to determine the social and economic potentials as well as pitfalls of auto-mediated collaborative business models in a coastal context....

  5. Roller Cam Positioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon B.

    2010-12-07

    Roller Cam Positioners could support the LCLS undulator sections allowing micron sized alignment adjustment of each undulator in 5 degrees of freedom. The supports are kinematic with the number of degrees of freedom matched to the number of constraints. Ton loads are supported on simple ball bearings. Motion is intrinsically bounded. Positioning mechanisms are based on pure rolling motion with sub-micron hysteresis and micron resolution. This note describes a general purpose positioning mechanism suitable for undulator support.

  6. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  7. EpCAM : Structure and function in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnell, Ulrike; Cirulli, Vincenzo; Giepmans, Ben N. G.

    2013-01-01

    Injection of tumor cells in mice more than 30 years ago resulted in the discovery of an epithelial antigen, later defined as a cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). Although EpCAM has since evoked significant interest as a target in cancer therapy, mechanistic insights on the functions of this glycoprotei

  8. Thermography of semi-transparent materials by a FLIR ThermaCAM SC3000 infrared camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Tempel, L.

    2011-01-01

    An acceptance test for thermography of semi-transparent materials by a FLIR ThermaCAM SC3000 infrared camera with 8.0 µm low-wavelength-pass filter has been developed and performed on polycarbonate, PEN, quartz, Corning 1737 glass, G427 cone glas, G443 screen glass, Schott Zerodur, silicon and a bl

  9. CAD/CAM Zirconia vs. slip-cast glass-infiltrated Alumina/Zirconia all-ceramic crowns: 2-year results of a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Cavit Çehreli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the early clinical outcome of slip-cast glass-infiltrated Alumina/Zirconia and CAD/CAM Zirconia all-ceramic crowns. A total of 30 InCeram® Zirconia and Cercon® Zirconia crowns were fabricated and cemented with a glass ionomer cement in 20 patients. At baseline, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year recall appointments, Californian Dental Association (CDA quality evaluation system was used to evaluate the prosthetic replacements, and plaque and gingival index scores were used to explore the periodontal outcome of the treatments. No clinical sign of marginal discoloration, persistent pain and secondary caries was detected in any of the restorations. All InCeram® Zirconia crowns survived during the 2-year period, although one nonvital tooth experienced root fracture coupled with the fracture of the veneering porcelain of the restoration. One Cercon® Zirconia restoration fractured and was replaced. According to the CDA criteria, marginal integrity was rated excellent for InCeram® Zirconia (73% and Cercon® Zirconia (80% restorations, respectively. Slight color mismatch rate was higher for InCeram® Zirconia restorations (66% than Cercon® Zirconia (26% restorations. Plaque and gingival index scores were mostly zero and almost constant over time. Time-dependent changes in plaque and gingival index scores within and between groups were statistically similar (p>0.05. This clinical study demonstrates that single-tooth InCeram® Zirconia and Cercon® Zirconia crowns have comparable early clinical outcome, both seem as acceptable treatment modalities, and most importantly, all-ceramic alumina crowns strengthened by 25% zirconia can sufficiently withstand functional load in the posterior zone.

  10. Effects of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) on the Metabolism and Transport of Anticancer Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Mooiman, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), such as herbs and dietary supplements, has become more popular among cancer patients. Cancer patients use these supplements for different reasons such as reduction of side effects and improvement of their quality of life. In general, the use of CAM is considered as safe. However, concomitant use of CAM and anticancer drugs could result in serious safety issues since CAM have the potential to cause pharmacokinetic interactions with conv...

  11. Hydraulic involute cam actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Lonnie J.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-11-01

    Mechanical joints are provided in which the angle between a first coupled member and a second coupled member may be varied by mechanical actuators. In some embodiments the angle may be varied around a pivot axis in one plane and in some embodiments the angle may be varied around two pivot axes in two orthogonal planes. The joints typically utilize a cam assembly having two lobes with an involute surface. Actuators are configured to push against the lobes to vary the rotation angle between the first and second coupled member.

  12. Mechanics of post-cam engagement during simulated dynamic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Clare K; Clary, Chadd W; Cyr, Adam J; Maletsky, Lorin P; Rullkoetter, Paul J

    2013-09-01

    Posterior-stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) components employ a tibial post and femoral cam mechanism to guide anteroposterior knee motion in lieu of the posterior cruciate ligament. Some PS TKA patients report a clicking sensation when the post and cam engage, while severe wear and fracture of the post; we hypothesize that these complications are associated with excessive impact velocity at engagement. We evaluated the effect of implant design on engagement dynamics of the post-cam mechanism and resulting polyethylene stresses during dynamic activity. In vitro simulation of a knee bend activity was performed for four cadaveric specimens implanted with PS TKA components. Post-cam engagement velocity and flexion angle at initial contact were determined. The experimental data were used to validate computational predictions of PS mechanics using the same loading conditions. A lower limb model was subsequently utilized to compare engagement mechanics of eight TKA designs, relating differences between implants to geometric design features. Flexion angle and post-cam velocity at engagement demonstrated considerable ranges among designs (23°-89°, and 0.05-0.22 mm/°, respectively). Post-cam velocity was correlated (r = 0.89) with tibiofemoral condylar design features. Condylar geometry, in addition to post-cam geometry, played a significant role in minimizing engagement velocity and forces and stresses in the post. This analysis guides selection and design of PS implants that facilitate smooth post-cam engagement and reduce edge loading of the post.

  13. The Cosmological Evolution of BL Lacertae Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, P; Perri, M; Padovani, P

    2000-01-01

    We review the main results from several radio, X-ray and multi-frequency surveys on the topic of cosmological evolution of BL Lacertae objects. Updated findings on BL Lac evolution following the recent identification of many sources in the ``Sedentary Multi-Frequency survey'' are also discussed. By means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations we test some possible explanations for the peculiar cosmological evolution of BL Lacs. We find that a dependence of the relativistic Doppler factor on radio luminosity (as expected within the beaming scenario) may induce low values of V/V_max and that both edge effects at the low luminosity end of the BL Lacs radio luminosity function, and incompleteness at faint optical magnitudes may be the cause of the low V/V_max found for extreme HBL sources in X-ray selected samples.

  14. Thermoneutrality results in prominent diet-induced body weight differences in C57BL/6J mice, not paralleled by diet-induced metabolic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoevenaars, Femke P M; Bekkenkamp-Grovenstein, Melissa; Janssen, Rolf J R J; Heil, Sandra G; Bunschoten, Annelies; Hoek-van den Hil, Elise F; Snaas-Alders, Sophie; Teerds, Katja; van Schothorst, Evert M; Keijer, Jaap

    2014-04-01

    Mice are usually housed at 20-24 °C. At thermoneutrality (28 °C) larger diet-induced differences in obesity are seen. We tested whether this leads to large differences in metabolic health parameters. We performed a 14-wk dietary intervention in C57BL/6J mice at 28 °C and assessed adiposity and metabolic health parameters for a semipurified low fat (10 energy%) diet and a moderate high fat (30 energy%) diet. A large and significant diet-induced differential increase in body weight, adipose tissue mass, adipocyte size, serum leptin level, and, to some extent, cholesterol level was observed. No adipose tissue inflammation was seen. No differential effect of the diets on serum glucose, free fatty acids, triacylglycerides, insulin, adiponectin, resistin, PAI-1, MMP-9, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sE-selectin, IL-6, ApoE, fibrinogen levels, or HOMA index was observed. Also in muscle no differential effect on mitochondrial density, mitochondrial respiratory control ratio, or mRNA expression of metabolic genes was found. Finally, in liver no differential effect on weight, triacylglycerides level, aconitase/citrate synthase activity ratio was seen. Low fat diet and moderate high fat diet induce prominent body weight differences at thermoneutrality, which is not paralleled by metabolic differences. Our data rather suggest that thermoneutrality alters metabolic homeostasis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM providers’ views of chronic low back pain patients’ expectations of CAM therapies: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schafer Lisa M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some researchers think that patients with higher expectations for CAM therapies experience better outcomes and that enthusiastic providers can enhance treatment outcomes. This is in contrast to evidence suggesting conventional medical providers often reorient patient expectations to better match what providers believe to be realistic. However, there is a paucity of research on CAM providers’ views of their patients’ expectations regarding CAM therapy and the role of these expectations in patient outcomes. Methods To better understand how CAM providers view and respond to their patients’ expectations of a particular therapy, we conducted 32 semi-structured, qualitative interviews with acupuncturists, chiropractors, massage therapists and yoga instructors identified through convenience sampling. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically using Atlas ti version 6.1. Results CAM providers reported that they attempt to ensure that their patients’ expectations are realistic. Providers indicated they manage their patients’ expectations in a number of domains— roles and responsibilities of providers and patients, treatment outcomes, timeframe for improvement, and treatment experience. Providers reported that patients’ expectations change over time and that they need to continually manage these expectations to enhance patient engagement and satisfaction with treatment. Conclusions Providers of four types of CAM therapies viewed patients’ expectations as an important component of their experiences with CAM therapy and indicated that they try to align patient expectations with reality. These findings suggest that CAM providers are similar in this respect to conventional medical providers.

  16. DATA TRANSLATION BETWEEN PADS AND CAM350

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Romanova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the paper is the process of data translation between computer-aided design system for electronic devices PADS VX and system for technological preparation of production of printed circuit boards CAM350 10. The object of this study is two-way translation of data in these systems. Experimental researches are applied as research methods based on repeated playback of forward and reverse data translation process between PADS and CAM350 systems. The aim is to examine the challenges of data exchange between systems and to find out the ways of their solution. The basis of the work is functionality analysis of PADS and CAM350 systems while data translation, which was carried out in the course of operating experience of these systems. The paper presents advantages and disadvantages of translation methods and their comparison. Errors arising in the process are analyzed. Possible reasons of errors origination are described. The main results are recommendations for data exchange between PADS and CAM350 systems. The proposed recommendations give the possibility to optimize the exchange of data between these systems. Practical significance of the work lies in the implementation of results at LLC «Abeo». Recommendations have been used in the development of dozens of different electronic devices. The use of these results made it possible to reduce the production run-up time, to increase data transmission correctness, thereby improving the quality of products and reduction of their cost.

  17. CAD/CAM data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, O. H.

    1984-01-01

    The role of data base management in CAD/CAM, particularly for geometric data is described. First, long term and short term objectives for CAD/CAM data management are identified. Second, the benefits of the data base management approach are explained. Third, some of the additional work needed in the data base area is discussed.

  18. CAD/CAM data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, O. H.

    1984-01-01

    The role of data base management in CAD/CAM, particularly for geometric data is described. First, long term and short term objectives for CAD/CAM data management are identified. Second, the benefits of the data base management approach are explained. Third, some of the additional work needed in the data base area is discussed.

  19. Examining the association between patient-centered communication and provider avoidance, CAM use, and CAM-use disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Jennifer; Thorburn, Sheryl; Tippens, Kimberly M

    2015-01-01

    Patients' perceptions of the quality of their relationships with health care providers may influence their health care-seeking behaviors and future interactions with providers, including use of conventional health care, use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and disclosure of CAM use. The study examined the associations between perceived patient-centered communication and provider avoidance, CAM use, and CAM-use disclosure. This study used cross-sectional survey data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 3, a nationally representative survey of US adults collected between January 2008 and May 2008. Two questions asked about CAM use and CAM-use disclosure, and another asked about avoidance of doctors. For the independent variable, responses from 6 questions on patient-centered communication were averaged to create a scale score ranging from 1-4. The research team conducted multiple logistic regressions of the 3 primary outcome measures, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, presence or absence of a regular source of care, insurance status, frequency of visits to providers, and health status. All analyses were weighted to make the results representative of the US population aged ≥18 y. Approximately one-third of respondents (36%) had avoided seeing their doctors within the 12 mo prior to the survey. Approximately 24% had used CAM within the prior 12 mo, and 51.7% of CAM users had discussed their CAM use with their doctors. Higher levels of patient-centered communication were significantly associated with lower odds of provider avoidance (AOR=0.63; 95% CI=0.52, 0.76) and CAM use (AOR=0.60; 95% CI=0.46, 0.78) but were not associated with CAM-use disclosure. Findings suggest that patients may be more likely to avoid seeing their doctors and more likely to use CAM when they perceive low levels of patient-centered communication. Further research to understand the role of the characteristics of patient-provider relationships

  20. Evaluation of complementary-alternative medicine (CAM) questionnaire development for Indonesian clinical psychologists: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Andrian; Newcombe, Peter A; Pohlman, Annie

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate questionnaire development to measure the knowledge of Complementary-Alternative Medicine (CAM), attitudes towards CAM, CAM experiences, and CAM educational needs of clinical psychologists in Indonesia. A 26-item questionnaire was developed through an extensive literature search. Data was obtained from provisional psychologists from the Master of Professional Clinical Psychology programs at two established public universities in urban areas of Indonesia. To validate the questionnaire, panel reviews by executive members of the Indonesian Clinical Psychology Association (ICPA), experts in health psychology, and experts in public health and CAM provided their professional judgements. The self-reporting questionnaire consisted of four scales including: knowledge of CAM (6 items), attitudes towards CAM (10 items), CAM experiences (4 items), and CAM educational needs (6 items). All scales, except CAM Experiences, were assessed on a 7-point Likert scale. Sixty provisional psychologists were eligible to complete the questionnaire with a response rate of 73% (N=44). The results showed that the CAM questionnaire was reliable (Cronbach's coefficient alpha range=0.62-0.96; item-total correlation range=0.14-0.92) and demonstrated content validity. Following further psychometric evaluation, the CAM questionnaire may provide the evidence-based information to inform the education and practice of Indonesian clinical psychologists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative study of RetCamRetCam II vs. binocular ophthalmoscopy in a screening program for retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Palacios, P; Zarratea, L; Moral, M; de la Cruz-Bértolo, J

    2015-08-01

    To determine the performance of RetCam vs. binocular ophthalmoscopy (BIO) in a screening program for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Observational comparative study with prospective data collection. Examinations with RetCam (n=169) were performed on 83 infants included in a screening program for ROP and stored for analysis at a later stage. An experienced ophthalmologist examined the ocular fundus with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (BIO). The RetCam images were assessed for the presence of ROP, zone, grade, and presence of plus disease. RetCam and BIO data were compared by visually to estimate sensitivity, specificity, positive (VPP) and negative (VPN) predictive values. ROP disease was detected in 108 eyes with BIO, and in 74 with RetCam. Out of 306 eyes examined with RetCam, false negative results were found in 34 eyes, with no false positives. Sensitivity of RetCam exam vs. BIO was 0.68, and specificity was 0.99. Positive predictive value was 0.93 and negative predictive value was 0.85. All 34 ROP cases not detected with RetCam were in zone III or outer zone II. They were all mild and regressed spontaneously. No threshold ROP was missed with RetCam. Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy is the reference method for the diagnosis of ROP. RetCam may be used as an alternative for ROP screening. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Rad Pole Cam Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckendorn, F. M.; Odell, D. M. C; Harpring, L. J.; Peterson, K. D.

    2005-10-05

    The RadPoleCam was developed to provide Department Of Energy (DOE) first responders the capability to assess the radiological and visual condition of remote or inaccessible locations. Real time gamma isotopic identification is provided to the first responder in the form of audio feedback (i.e. spoken through head phones) from a gamma detector mounted on a collapsible pole that can extend from 1 to 9 meters (6 to 29 feet). Simultaneously, selectable direct and side looking visual images are provided from the 5cm (2in) diameter, waterproof probe tip. The lightweight, self contained, ruggedized, system will provide a rapidly deployable field system for visual and radiological search and assessment of confined spaces and extended reach locations.

  3. An investigation of cam-roller mechanism applied in sphere cam engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 潘存云; 徐小军; 徐海军; 张正洲

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative power source for hybrid electrical vehicle(HEV), electric generating system(EGS) driven by sphere cam engine(SCE) is said to own higher power density and integration. In this work, the structure and working principle of EGS were introduced, based on which the advantages of EGS were displayed. The profile of sphere cam was achieved after the desired motion of piston was given. After establishing the dynamic model of power transmission mechanism, the characteristics of cam-roller mechanism were studied. The results show that the optimal cam profile of SCE is a sinusoid curve which has two peaks and two valleys and a mean pressure angle of 47.19°. Because of the special cam shape, the trace of end surface center of piston is an eight-shape curve on a specific sphere surface. SCE running at speed of 3000 r/min can generate the power of 33.81 kW, which could satisfy the need of HEVs. However, the force between cylinder and piston skirt caused by Coriolis acceleration can reach up to 1182 N, which leads to serious wear between cylinder liner and piston skirt and may shorten the lifespan of SCE.

  4. Abnormal placental development and early embryonic lethality in EpCAM-null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nagao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: EpCAM (CD326 is encoded by the tacstd1 gene and expressed by a variety of normal and malignant epithelial cells and some leukocytes. Results of previous in vitro experiments suggested that EpCAM is an intercellular adhesion molecule. EpCAM has been extensively studied as a potential tumor marker and immunotherapy target, and more recent studies suggest that EpCAM expression may be characteristic of cancer stem cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain insights into EpCAM function in vivo, we generated EpCAM -/- mice utilizing an embryonic stem cell line with a tacstd1 allele that had been disrupted. Gene trapping resulted in a protein comprised of the N-terminus of EpCAM encoded by 2 exons of the tacstd1 gene fused in frame to betageo. EpCAM +/- mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no obvious abnormalities. Examination of EpCAM +/- embryos revealed that betageo was expressed in several epithelial structures including developing ears (otocysts, eyes, branchial arches, gut, apical ectodermal ridges, lungs, pancreas, hair follicles and others. All EpCAM -/- mice died in utero by E12.5, and were small, developmentally delayed, and displayed prominent placental abnormalities. In developing placentas, EpCAM was expressed throughout the labyrinthine layer and by spongiotrophoblasts as well. Placentas of EpCAM -/- embryos were compact, with thin labyrinthine layers lacking prominent vascularity. Parietal trophoblast giant cells were also dramatically reduced in EpCAM -/- placentas. CONCLUSION: EpCAM was required for differentiation or survival of parietal trophoblast giant cells, normal development of the placental labyrinth and establishment of a competent maternal-fetal circulation. The findings in EpCAM-reporter mice suggest involvement of this molecule in development of vital organs including the gut, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, eyes, and limbs.

  5. Surgical hip dislocation for treatment of cam femoroacetabular impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M Chaudhary

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Cam femoroacetabular Impingement causing pain and limitation of hip movements was treated by open osteochondroplasty after surgical hip dislocation. This reduced pain, improved hip motion and gave good to excellent results in the short term.

  6. IgCAMs redundantly control axon navigation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltmer-Irsch Susanne

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgCAMs form one of the largest and most diverse families of adhesion molecules and receptors in the nervous system. Many members of this family mediate contact and communication among neurons during development. The Caenorhabditis elegans genome contains a comparatively small number of IgCAMs, most of which are evolutionarily conserved and found across all animal phyla. Only some of these have been functionally characterized so far. Results We systematically analyzed previously uncharacterized IgCAMs in C. elegans. Green fluorescent protein reporter constructs of 12 IgCAMs revealed that expression generally is not confined to a single tissue and that all tissues express at least one of the IgCAMs. Most IgCAMs were expressed in neurons. Within the nervous system significant overlap in expression was found in central components of the motor circuit, in particular the command interneurons, ventral cord motoneurons as well as motoneurons innervating head muscles. Sensory neurons are underrepresented among the cells expressing these IgCAMs. We isolated mutations for eight of the genes showing neuronal expression. Phenotypic analysis of single mutants revealed limited neuronal defects, in particular axon navigation defects in some of the mutants. Systematic genetic interaction studies uncovered two cases of functional overlap among three and four genes, respectively. A strain combining mutations in all eight genes is viable and shows no additional defects in the neurons that were analyzed, suggesting that genetic interactions among those genes are limited. Conclusion Genetic interactions involving multiple IgCAMs affecting axon outgrowth demonstrate functional overlap among IgCAMs during nervous system development.

  7. Mitochondrial respiration in ME-CAM, PEPCK-CAM, and C₃ succulents: comparative operation of the cytochrome, alternative, and rotenone-resistant pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, Klaus; von Willert, Dieter J; Martin, Craig E; Herppich, Werner B

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondria are important in the function and control of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) during organic acid accumulation at night and acid decarboxylation in the day. In plants of the malic enzyme-(ME) type and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase- (PEPCK) type, mitochondria may exert their role in the control of the diurnal rhythm of malic and citric acids to a differential degree. In plants of both CAM types, the oxidative capacity of mitochondria, as well as the activity of CAM-linked mitochondrial enzymes, and of the alternative and the rotenone-resistant pathways of substrate oxidation were compared. Furthermore, a C₃ succulent was included, as well as both C₃ and CAM forms of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum during a salt-induced C₃-to-CAM shift. Mitochondria of PEPCK-type CAM plants exhibited a lower activity of malate oxidation, ratio of malate to succinate oxidation, and activity of mitochondrial NAD-ME. With the exception of Kalanchoë daigremontiana, leaf mitochondria of all other CAM species were highly sensitive to cyanide (80-100%), irrespective of the oxidant used. This indicates that the alternative oxidase is not of general importance in CAM. By contrast, rotenone-insensitive substrate oxidation was very high (50-90%) in all CAM species. This is the first comparison of the rotenone-insensitive pathway of respiration in plants with different CAM-types. The results of this study confirm that mitochondria are involved in the control of CAM to different degrees in the two CAM types, and they highlight the multiple roles of mitochondria in CAM.

  8. Cam-controlled boring bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatthorn, Raymond H.

    1986-01-01

    A cam-controlled boring bar system (100) includes a first housing (152) which is rotatable about its longitudinal axis (154), and a second housing in the form of a cam-controlled slide (158) which is also rotatable about the axis (154) as well as being translatable therealong. A tool-holder (180) is mounted within the slide (158) for holding a single point cutting tool. Slide (158) has a rectangular configuration and is disposed within a rectangularly configured portion of the first housing (152). Arcuate cam slots (192) are defined within a side plate (172) of the housing (152), while cam followers (194) are mounted upon the cam slide (158) for cooperative engagement with the cam slots (192). In this manner, as the housing (152) and slide (158) rotate, and as the slide (158) also translates, a through-bore (14) having an hourglass configuration will be formed within a workpiece (16) which may be, for example, a nuclear reactor steam generator tube support plate.

  9. Intermediate Scale Structures in BL Lac objects

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, C; Gabuzda, D C

    2004-01-01

    The parsec-scale total intensity structures of BL Lac objects share many characteristics with quasars: e.g. well-collimated jets and superluminal motion. However, the jets of BL Lac objects appear to fade much more quickly than those in quasars and on VLA scales many BL Lacs have structures comparable to those of low luminosity (FR I) radio galaxies, in which kpc-scale flow speeds are non-relativistic. The region between parsec and kiloparsec scales is therefore one of transition in BL Lac objects. We have carried out VLBI observations of a small sample of BL Lac objects at frequencies between 2.3 GHz and 327 MHz in order to investigate this transition region. Preliminary results for two of these sources are presented here. Coherent structures are detected in these sources out to a distance of several tens of parsecs. We find evidence for significant changes in jet structure on scales of a few tens of milliarcseconds, both in terms of the orientation and collimation of the jets.

  10. Analysis of the Eye Diseases Screening Results of 933 Newborns by Ret Cam III%Ret CamⅢ筛查新生儿眼底病933例结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 杜梅; 李一青; 李梅君; 刘丽清

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the application value of Ret Cam III in eye diseases screening in newborns, and to understand the oncome situation of fundus diseases for providing basis for the prevention and treatment of eye diseases in newborns. Methods: Ret Cam III was used to screen eye diseases in 933 newborns in this hospital from March 2015 to August 2015 and the discussion and analysis were carried out for the results. Results:87 cases of fundus diseases were detected among 933 newborns(9.32%), including 64 cases of fundus hemorrhage(6.86%);18 cases of retinopathy in premature infants(1.93%);5 cases of other eye diseases(0.54%);2 cases of optic atrophy(0.21%);2 cases of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy(0.21%);1 case of permanent hyaloid artery stump (0.11%). Conclusion:Because fundus diseases in newborns are not easy to be noticed at early stage, so it's necessary to pay attention to the screening, especially for the premature infants, and full term infants with high risk factors. Ret Cam III is easy to operate with wide range of observation, which is beneficial for promoting the diagnosis rate of fundus diseases in newborns, and for noticing and treating the diseases at early stage effectively.%目的:探讨Ret CamⅢ在新生儿眼底病筛查中的应用价值,了解新生儿眼底病发病情况,为新生儿眼病防治提供依据。方法:使用Ret CamⅢ对2015年3月至2015年8月生产及住院的933例新生儿进行眼病筛查,并对结果进行讨论分析。结果:933例新生儿中共检出眼底病变87例(占9.32%),其中眼底出血64例(占6.86%);早产儿视网膜病变18例(占1.93%);其他眼底病5例(占筛查总人数0.54%),其中视神经萎缩2例(占0.21%),家族渗出性玻璃体视网膜病变2例(占0.21%),永存性玻璃体动脉残留1例(占0.11%)。结论:新生儿眼底病早期可无明显症状,不易被发现,应重视早期筛查。早产儿及伴有高危因素的

  11. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Utilization During Definitive Radiation for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, William W. Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Ma Shuangge [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [University of Michigan, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Yang, Tzu-I Jonathan [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Higgins, Susan A. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Shoreline Medical Center, Guilford, Connecticut (United States); Weidhaas, Joanne B. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Lawrence and Memorial Hospital, New London, Connecticut (United States); Lloyd, Shane [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Peschel, Richard [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Therapy, Lawrence and Memorial Hospital, New London, Connecticut (United States); Gaudreau, Bryant [Department of Radiation Therapy, William W. Backus Hospital, Norwich, Connecticut (United States); Rockwell, Sara [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in breast cancer patients is reported to be high, there are few data on CAM practices in breast patients specifically during radiation. This prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to define CAM utilization in breast cancer during definitive radiation. Materials/Methods: A validated CAM instrument with a self-skin assessment was administered to 360 Stage 0-III breast cancer patients from 5 centers during the last week of radiation. All data were analyzed to detect significant differences between users/nonusers. Results: CAM usage was reported in 54% of the study cohort (n=194/360). Of CAM users, 71% reported activity-based CAM (eg, Reiki, meditation), 26% topical CAM, and 45% oral CAM. Only 16% received advice/counseling from naturopathic/homeopathic/medical professionals before initiating CAM. CAM use significantly correlated with higher education level (P<.001), inversely correlated with concomitant hormone/radiation therapy use (P=.010), with a trend toward greater use in younger patients (P=.066). On multivariate analysis, level of education (OR: 6.821, 95% CI: 2.307-20.168, P<.001) and hormones/radiation therapy (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.347-0.949, P=.031) independently predicted for CAM use. Significantly lower skin toxicity scores were reported in CAM users vs nonusers, respectively (mild: 34% vs 25%, severe: 17% vs 29%, P=.017). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study to assess CAM practices in breast patients during radiation, with definition of these practices as the first step for future investigation of CAM/radiation interactions. These results should alert radiation oncologists that a large percentage of breast cancer patients use CAM during radiation without disclosure or consideration for potential interactions, and should encourage increased awareness, communication, and documentation of CAM practices in patients undergoing radiation treatment for breast

  12. CAD/CAM approach to improving industry productivity gathers momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results and planning for the NASA/industry Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) program for improving productivity with CAD/CAM methods are outlined. The industrial group work is being mainly done by Boeing, and progress has been made in defining the designer work environment, developing requirements and a preliminary design for a future CAD/CAM system, and developing CAD/CAM technology. The work environment was defined by conducting a detailed study of a reference design process, and key software elements for a CAD/CAM system have been defined, specifically for interactive design or experiment control processes. Further work is proceeding on executive, data management, geometry and graphics, and general utility software, and dynamic aspects of the programs being developed are outlined

  13. Disclosure of Complementary and Alternative Medicine to Conventional Medical Providers: Variation by Race/Ethnicity and Type of CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Maria T.; Wade, Christine; Kronenberg, Fredi

    2009-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is often used alongside conventional medical care, yet fewer than half of patients disclose CAM use to medical doctors. CAM disclosure is particularly low among racial/ethnic minorities, but reasons for differences, such as type of CAM used or quality of conventional healthcare, have not been explored. Objective We tested the hypotheses that disclosure of CAM use to medical doctors is higher for provider-based CAM and among non-Hispanic whites, and that access to and quality of conventional medical care account for racial/ethnic differences in CAM disclosure. Methods Bivariate and multiple variable analyses of the 2002 National Health Interview Survey and 2001 Health Care Quality Survey were performed. Results Disclosure of CAM use to medical providers was higher for provider-based than self-care CAM. Disclosure of any CAM was associated with access to and quality of conventional care and higher among non-Latino whites relative to minorities. Having a regular doctor and quality patient–provider relationship mitigated racial/ethnic differences in CAM disclosure. Conclusion Insufficient disclosure of CAM use to conventional providers, particularly for self-care practices and among minority populations, represents a serious challenge in medical encounter communications. Efforts to improve disclosure of CAM use should be aimed at improving consistency of care and patient–physician communication across racial/ethnic groups. PMID:19024232

  14. CAM Provider Use and Expenditures by Cancer Treatment Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, William E.; Tyree, Patrick T.; Devlin, Sean M.; Andersen, M. Robyn; Diehr, Paula K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess cancer patients’ utilization of complementary and alternative medical providers and the associated expenditures by specific treatment phases. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis of medical services utilization and expenditures during three therapeutic intervals: an initial treatment phase, continuing care, and end-of-life. Methods Analysis of an insurance claims database that had been matched to the Washington State SEER cancer registry. Results Of 2,900 registry-matched cancer patients 63.2% were female, the median age was 54 years, and 92.7% were white. Breast cancer was the most frequent diagnosis (52.7%), followed by prostate cancer (24.7%), lung cancer (10.1%), colon cancer (7.0%), and hematologic malignancies (5.6%). CAM provider using patients were 26.5% of the overall cohort (18.5% used chiropractors, 7.7% naturopathic physicians, 5.3% massage therapists, and 4.2% saw acupuncturists). The proportion of CAM using patients was similar during each treatment phase. All patients used some conventional care. Female gender, a breast cancer diagnosis, age, and white race were significant predictors of CAM use. Diagnosis of a musculoskeletal problem occurred at sometime during the study for 72.1% of cancer patients. CAM provider visits were 7.2% of total outpatient medical visits and 85.1% of CAM visits resulted in a musculoskeletal diagnosis. Expenditures for CAM providers were 0.3%, 1.0%, and 0.1% of all expenditures during the initial, continuing, and end-of-life phases respectively. Conclusion For cancer patients, musculoskeletal issues were the most commonly listed diagnosis made by a CAM provider. Although expenditures associated with CAM are a small proportion of the total, additional studies are necessary to determine the importance patients place on access to these services. PMID:18471036

  15. Short-term high fat-feeding results in morphological and metabolic adaptations in the skeletal muscle of C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de J.; Mohren, R.; Berg, van den S.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Willems van Dijk, K.; Groot, de P.J.; Müller, M.R.; Mariman, E.; Smit, E.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) is rapidly increasing all over the world. Consequently, there is an urgent need for more effective intervention strategies. Both animal and human studies indicate that lipid oversupply to skeletal muscle can result in insulin resistance which is one of t

  16. Short-term high fat-feeding results in morphological and metabolic adaptations in the skeletal muscle of C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de J.; Mohren, R.; Berg, van den S.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Willems van Dijk, K.; Groot, de P.J.; Müller, M.R.; Mariman, E.; Smit, E.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) is rapidly increasing all over the world. Consequently, there is an urgent need for more effective intervention strategies. Both animal and human studies indicate that lipid oversupply to skeletal muscle can result in insulin resistance which is one of

  17. Molecular actions of two synthetic brassinosteroids, iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL, which cause altered physiological activities between Arabidopsis and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ayako; Tochio, Naoya; Fujioka, Shozo; Ito, Shinsaku; Kigawa, Takanori; Shimada, Yukihisa; Matsuoka, Makoto; Yoshida, Shigeo; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Asami, Tadao; Seto, Hideharu; Nakano, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) is an important plant hormone that is perceived by the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) receptor. BRI1 is conserved among dicot and monocot species; however, the molecular mechanism underlying BR perception in monocots is not fully understood. We synthesised two BRs, iso-carbabrassinolide (iso-carbaBL) and 6-deoxoBL, which have different BR activities in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and rice. Our bioassay indicated that iso-carbaBL has relatively strong BR activity in Arabidopsis, but is inactive in rice and competitively inhibits BR activity. The bioactivity of 6-deoxoBL was similar to that of BL in Arabidopsis, but was much lower in rice. Binding experiments using recombinant Arabidopsis and rice BRI1 protein fragments suggested that iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL bind to both receptors. These results showed that iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL act as an antagonist and agonist, respectively, of BRs in rice. A docking simulation analysis suggested that iso-carbaBL fits deeper in the binding pocket to block the binding of active BR to rice BRI1. The simulated binding energy of 6-deoxoBL with rice BRI1 is much lower than that with Arabidopsis BRI1. The possible structural characteristics of rice BRI1 were determined based on the difference in the BR activities of iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL in Arabidopsis and rice.

  18. CAD/CAM for optomechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haiguang; Han, Min

    2003-10-01

    We focus at CAD/CAM for optomechatronics. We have developed a kind of CAD/CAM, which is not only for mechanics but also for optics and electronic. The software can be used for training and education. We introduce mechanical CAD, optical CAD and electrical CAD, we show how to draw a circuit diagram, mechanical diagram and luminous transmission diagram, from 2D drawing to 3D drawing. We introduce how to create 2D and 3D parts for optomechatronics, how to edit tool paths, how to select parameters for process, how to run the post processor, dynamic show the tool path and generate the CNC programming. We introduce the joint application of CAD&CAM. We aim at how to match the requirement of optical, mechanical and electronics.

  19. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM Use during Menopause in Sydney and Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne van der Sluijs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous surveys found CAM use during menopause to be popular. This paper compares the results from two surveys (Sydney and Bologna to examine factors that determine the extent and pattern of CAM use to alleviate menopausal symptoms. Methods. Women, aged 45–65 years, who were symptomatic when transitioning through menopause or asymptomatic but taking menopause-specific treatments, were recruited in Sydney (n=1,296 and Bologna (n=1,106 to complete the same voluntary, anonymous, and self-administered questionnaire. The results were reanalysed using stratified analyses to determine similarities and differences. Results. Demographics of the two cohorts differed significantly. CAM was more popular in Sydney. The most significant determinants of CAM use were the use of CAM for other conditions besides menopause and the severity of vasomotor symptoms. Occupational status was a determinant of CAM use amongst Bologna respondents only. In order to relieve symptoms, Australian and Italian women used different CAM modalities whose effectiveness was generally perceived as good. Conclusion. CAM use is popular amongst menopausal women from Sydney and Bologna. Differences in the patterns of CAM use seem to depend on CAM availability and on the educational level and professional status of users. The complex interaction between market, social, and cultural factors of CAM use seems to be more influential on women’s choice of CAM than the available evidence of their effectiveness.

  20. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3-CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-03-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3-CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Evaluating rare amino acid substitutions (RGC_CAMs in a yeast model clade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Polzin

    Full Text Available When inferring phylogenetic relationships, not all sites in a sequence alignment are equally informative. One recently proposed approach that takes advantage of this inequality relies on sites that contain amino acids whose replacement requires multiple substitutions. Identifying these so-called RGC_CAM substitutions (after Rare Genomic Changes as Conserved Amino acids-Multiple substitutions requires that, first, at any given site in the amino acid sequence alignment, there must be a minimum of two different amino acids; second, each amino acid must be present in at least two taxa; and third, the amino acids must require a minimum of two nucleotide substitutions to replace each other. Although theory suggests that RGC_CAM substitutions are expected to be rare and less likely to be homoplastic, the informativeness of RGC_CAM substitutions has not been extensively evaluated in biological data sets. We investigated the quality of RGC_CAM substitutions by examining their degree of homoplasy and internode certainty in nearly 2.7 million aligned amino acid sites from 5,261 proteins from five species belonging to the yeast Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade whose phylogeny is well-established. We identified 2,647 sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions, a number that contrasts sharply with the 100,887 sites containing RGC_non-CAM substitutions (i.e., changes between amino acids that require only a single nucleotide substitution. We found that RGC_CAM substitutions had significantly lower homoplasy than RGC_non-CAM ones; specifically RGC_CAM substitutions showed a per-site average homoplasy index of 0.100, whereas RGC_non-CAM substitutions had a homoplasy index of 0.215. Internode certainty values were also higher for sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions than for RGC_non-CAM ones. These results suggest that RGC_CAM substitutions possess a strong phylogenetic signal and are useful markers for phylogenetic inference despite their rarity.

  2. EpCAM modulates NF-κB signaling and interleukin-8 expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankpal, Narendra V; Fleming, Timothy P; Gillanders, William E

    2013-04-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a 40-kD type I transmembrane protein that is overexpressed in human epithelial cancers and is currently the target of molecular therapy based on its overexpression at the cell surface. Recently, we and others have shown a role for EpCAM in cell signaling and carcinogenesis, and EpCAM expression seems to promote breast cancer invasion. Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL-8) is an inflammatory cytokine that has recently been shown to modulate breast cancer invasion and angiogenesis. In preliminary experiments, we identified a correlation between EpCAM and IL-8 expression in primary human breast cancers. Specific ablation of EpCAM in breast cancer cell lines results in decreased IL-8 expression, and IL-8 contributes to EpCAM-dependent breast cancer invasion. Specific ablation of EpCAM is also associated with decreased NF-κB transcription factor activity, decreased phosphorylation of the NF-κB family member RELA, and increased IκBα protein expression. EpCAM modulates IL-8 expression at baseline, and following IL-1β stimulation, which is known to be a potent inducer of NF-κB in breast cancer. In functional rescue experiments, specific ablation of RELA or forced expression of the NF-κB inhibitor protein IκBα prevented EpCAM-dependent rescue of IL-8 promoter activity. These studies show for the first time that EpCAM can modulate NF-κB transcription factor activity and IL-8 expression in breast cancer and confirm the role of EpCAM signaling in modulating breast cancer invasion. Further study is required to define the molecular mechanism(s) of EpCAM signaling in breast cancer and to direct the rational development of molecular therapies targeting EpCAM.

  3. Depth Profiles Using ChemCam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, A.; Maurice, S.; Berger, G.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Wiens, R.

    2011-03-01

    ChemCam, which is in part of the MSL payload, uses the LIBS technique to investigate the martian surface. The capabilities of ChemCam for the depth profile have to be understood, as ChemCam will shoot several targets which can have alteration coating.

  4. The detection of EpCAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, De Sanne; Dalum, Van Guus; Lenferink, Aufried T.M.; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; Hiltermann, T.J.N.; Groen, Harry J.M.; Rijn, Van C.J.M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    EpCAM expressing circulating tumor cells, detected by CellSearch, are predictive of short survival in several cancers and may serve as a liquid biopsy to guide therapy. Here we investigate the presence of EpCAM+ CTC detected by CellSearch and EpCAM- CTC discarded by CellSear

  5. SWIFT XRT Observations of the Nova-like Cataclysmic Variables MV Lyr, BZ Cam and V592 Cas

    CERN Document Server

    Balman, Solen; Sion, Edward M

    2014-01-01

    We present a total of ~ 45 ksec (3$\\times$15 ksec) of SWIFT XRT observations for three non-magnetic nova-like (NL) Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) (MV Lyr, BZ Cam, V592 Cas) in order to study characteristics of Boundary Layers (BL) in CVs. The nonmagnetic NLs are found mostly in a state of high mass accretion rate ($\\ge$1$\\times$10$^{-9}$ Msun yr$^{-1}$) and some show occasional low states. Using the XRT data, we find optically thin multiple-temperature cooling flow type emission spectra with X-ray temperatures (kT$_{max}$) of 21-50 keV. These hard X-ray emitting boundary layers diverge from simple isobaric cooling flows indicating X-ray temperatures that are of virial values in the disk. In addition, we detect power law emission components from MV Lyr and BZ Cam and plausibly from V592 Cas which may be a result of the Compton scattering of the optically thin emission from the fast wind outflows in these systems and/or Compton up-scattering of the soft disk photons. The X-ray luminosities of the (multi-temperatur...

  6. Polarized targeting of L1-CAM regulates axonal and dendritic bundling in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Joshua; Gu, Yuanzheng; Gu, Chen

    2010-11-01

    Proper axonal and dendritic bundling is essential for the establishment of neuronal connections and the synchronization of synaptic inputs, respectively. Cell adhesion molecules of the L1-CAM (L1-cell adhesion molecule) family regulate axon guidance and fasciculation, neuron migration, dendrite morphology, and synaptic plasticity. It remains unclear how these molecules play so many different roles. Here we show that polarized axon-dendrite targeting of an avian L1-CAM protein, NgCAM (neuron-glia cell adhesion molecule), can regulate the switch of bundling of the two major compartments of rat hippocampal neurons. Using a new in-vitro model for studying neurite-neurite interactions, we found that expressed axonal NgCAM induced robust axonal bundling via the trans-homophilic interaction of immunoglobulin domains. Interestingly, dendritic bundling was induced by the dendritic targeting of NgCAM, caused by either deleting its fibronectin repeats or blocking activities of protein kinases. Consistent with the NgCAM results, expression of mouse L1-CAM also induced axonal bundling and blocking kinase activities disrupted its axonal targeting. Furthermore, the trans-homophilic interaction stabilized the bundle formation, probably through recruiting NgCAM proteins to contact sites and promoting guided axon outgrowth. Taken together, our results suggest that precise localization of L1-CAM is important for establishing proper cell-cell contacts in neural circuits.

  7. Effects of EpCAM overexpression on human breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krobitsch Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, EpCAM has attracted major interest as a target for antibody- and vaccine-based cancer immunotherapies. In breast cancer, the EpCAM antigen is overexpressed in 30-40% of all cases and this increased expression correlates with poor prognosis. The use of EpCAM-specific monoclonal antibodies is a promising treatment approach in these patients. Methods In order to explore molecular changes following EpCAM overexpression, we investigated changes of the transcriptome upon EpCAM gene expression in commercially available human breast cancer cells lines Hs578T and MDA-MB-231. To assess cell proliferation, a tetrazolium salt based assay was performed. A TCF/LEF Reporter Kit was used to measure the transcriptional activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. To evaluate the accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus, a subcellular fractionation assay was performed. Results For the first time we could show that expression profiling data of EpCAM transfected cell lines Hs578TEpCAM and MDA-MB-231EpCAM indicate an association of EpCAM overexpression with the downregulation of the Wnt signaling inhibitors SFRP1 and TCF7L2. Confirmation of increased Wnt signaling was provided by a TCF/LEF reporter kit and by the finding of the nuclear accumulation of ß-catenin for MDA-MB-231EpCAM but not Hs578TEpCAM cells. In Hs578T cells, an increase of proliferation and chemosensitivity to Docetaxel was associated with EpCAM overexpression. Conclusions These data show a cell type dependent modification of Wnt signaling components after EpCAM overexpression in breast cancer cell lines, which results in marginal functional changes. Further investigations on the interaction of EpCAM with SFRP1 and TCF7L2 and on additional factors, which may be causal for changes upon EpCAM overexpression, will help to characterize unique molecular properties of EpCAM-positive breast cancer cells.

  8. An open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and industrial CAM software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Liu, Shusheng; Shi, Shenggen; Yang, Jianzhong

    2011-10-01

    China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestically developed industrial computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology were used for full crown fabrication and measurement of crown accuracy, with an attempt to establish an open CAM system for dental processing and to promote the introduction of domestic dental computer-aided design (CAD)/CAM system. Commercially available scanning equipment was used to make a basic digital tooth model after preparation of crown, and CAD software that comes with the scanning device was employed to design the crown by using domestic industrial CAM software to process the crown data in order to generate a solid model for machining purpose, and then China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool was used to complete machining of the whole crown and the internal accuracy of the crown internal was measured by using 3D-MicroCT. The results showed that China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool in combination with domestic industrial CAM technology can be used for crown making and the crown was well positioned in die. The internal accuracy was successfully measured by using 3D-MicroCT. It is concluded that an open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestic industrial CAM software has been established, and development of the system will promote the introduction of domestically-produced dental CAD/CAM system.

  9. The use of CAM by women suffering from nausea and vomiting during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Michael

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP affects two-thirds of pregnant women to varying degrees and over the years many modalities have been used to try to alleviate this often debilitating condition. There is a paucity of information in the literature about the use or efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM for the treatment of this condition that affects so many women. Our primary objective was to examine the prevalence of CAM usage by women suffering from NVP. Our secondary objective was to ascertain if women had any supervision in the use of these treatments. Methods Women who called The Motherisk NVP helpline, were asked after the counseling session to complete a questionnaire, which included demographic data as well as information about their CAM use. Results Seventy women completed the questionnaire. 61% reported using CAM therapies, of which the three most popular were: ginger, vitamin B6 and acupressure. 21% of those who reported using CAM, had consulted CAM practitioners, 8% their physicians or pharmacists and 71% discussed the usage with family, friends and other allied health professionals. Women who did not use CAM stated they would probably use these modalities if there was more information about the safety in pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant women with NVP are mirroring the trend in the general population of the use of CAM. They are also using CAM therapies with little supervision from practitioners experienced in the use of these modalities.

  10. The Pleiotropic Role of L1CAM in Tumor Vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolini, Francesca; Cavallaro, Ugo

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new vessels, is a key step in the development, invasion, and dissemination of solid tumors and, therefore, represents a viable target in the context of antitumor therapy. Indeed, antiangiogenic approaches have given promising results in preclinical models and entered the clinical practice. However, in patients, the results obtained so far with antiangiogenic drugs have not completely fulfilled expectations, especially because their effect has been transient with tumors developing resistance and evasion mechanisms. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie tumor vascularization and the functional regulation of cancer vessels is a prerequisite for the development of novel and alternative antiangiogenic treatments. The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM), a cell surface glycoprotein previously implicated in the development and plasticity of the nervous system, is aberrantly expressed in the vasculature of various cancer types. L1CAM plays multiple pro-angiogenic roles in the endothelial cells of tumor-associated vessels, thus emerging as a potential therapeutic target. In addition, L1CAM prevents the maturation of cancer vasculature and its inhibition promotes vessel normalization, a process that is thought to improve the therapeutic response of tumors to cytotoxic drugs. We here provide an overview on tumor angiogenesis and antiangiogenic therapies and summarize the current knowledge on the biological role of L1CAM in cancer vasculature. Finally, we highlight the clinical implications of targeting L1CAM as a novel antiangiogenic and vessel-normalizing approach. PMID:28134764

  11. Behavioral profiles of three C57BL/6 substrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Matsuo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available C57BL/6 inbred strains of mice are widely used in knockout and transgenic research. To evaluate the loss-of-function and gain-of-function effects of the gene of interest, animal behaviors are often examined. However, an issue of C57BL/6 substrains that is not always appreciated is that behaviors are known to be strongly influenced by genetic background. To investigate the behavioral characteristics of C57BL/6 substrains, we subjected C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, and C57BL/6C mice to a behavior test battery. We performed both a regular-scale analysis, in which experimental conditions were tightly-controlled, and meta-analysis from large number of behavioral data that we have collected so far through the comprehensive behavioral test battery applied to 700-2,200 mice in total. Significant differences among the substrains were found in the results of various behavioral tests, including the open field, rotarod, elevated plus maze, prepulse inhibition, Porsolt forced swim, and spatial working memory version of the 8-arm radial maze. Our results show a divergence of behavioral performance in C57BL/6 substrains, which suggest that small genetic differences may have a great influence on behavioral phenotypes. Thus, the genetic background of different substrains should be carefully chosen, equated, and considered in the interpretation of mutant behavioral phenotypes.

  12. Renal dopaminergic defect in C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escano, Crisanto S; Armando, Ines; Wang, Xiaoyan; Asico, Laureano D; Pascua, Annabelle; Yang, Yu; Wang, Zheng; Lau, Yuen-Sum; Jose, Pedro A

    2009-12-01

    The C57Bl/6J mouse strain, the genetic background of many transgenic and gene knockout models, is salt sensitive and resistant to renal injury. We tested the hypothesis that renal dopaminergic function is defective in C57Bl/6J mice. On normal NaCl (0.8%, 1 wk) diet, anesthetized and conscious (telemetry) blood pressures were similar in C57Bl/6J and SJL/J mice. High NaCl (6%, 1 wk) increased blood pressure (approximately 30%) in C57Bl/6J but not in SJL/J mice and urinary dopamine to greater extent in SJL/J than in C57Bl/6J mice. Absolute and fractional sodium excretions were lower in SJL/J than in C57Bl/6J mice. The blood pressure-natriuresis plot was shifted to the right in C57Bl/6J mice. Renal expressions of D(1)-like (D(1)R and D(5)R) and angiotensin II AT(1) receptors were similar on normal salt, but high salt increased D(5)R only in C57Bl/6J. GRK4 expression was lower on normal but higher on high salt in C57Bl/6J than in SJL/J mice. Salt increased the excretion of microalbumin and 8-isoprostane (oxidative stress marker) and the degree of renal injury to a greater extent in SJL/J than in C57Bl/6J mice. A D(1)-like receptor agonist increased sodium excretion whereas a D(1)-like receptor antagonist decreased sodium excretion in SJL/J but not in C57Bl/6J mice. In contrast, parathyroid hormone had a similar natriuretic effect in both strains. These results show that defective D(1)-like receptor function is a major cause of salt sensitivity in C57Bl/6J mice, decreased renal dopamine production might also contribute. The relative resistance to renal injury of C57Bl/6J may be a consequence of decreased production of reactive oxygen species.

  13. The Discovery of Low-Luminosity BL Lacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Travis A.; Stocke, John T.

    1995-12-01

    Many of the properties of BL Lacs have become explicable in terms of the ``relativistic beaming'' hypothesis whereby BL Lacs are ``highly beamed'' FR-I radio galaxies (i.e. our line of sight to these objects is nearly along the jet axis). Further, radio-selected BL Lacs (RBLs) are believed to be seen nearly ``on-axis'' (the line-of-sight angle theta ~ 8deg ) while X-ray selected BL Lacs (XBLs) are seen at larger angles (theta ~ 30deg ; the X-ray emitting jet is believed to be less collimated). However, a major problem with this model was that a transition population between beamed BL Lacs and unbeamed FR-Is had not been detected. Low-luminosity BL Lacs may be such a transition population, and were predicted to exist by Browne and Marcha (1993). We present ROSAT HRI images, VLA radio maps and optical spectra which confirm the existence of low-luminosity BL Lacs, objects which were previously mis-identified in the EMSS catalog as clusters of galaxies. Thus our results strengthen the relativistic beaming hypothesis.

  14. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NrCAM Regulates Semaphorin 3F-Induced Dendritic Spine Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyanenko, Galina P.; Mohan, Vishwa; Zhang, Xuying; Brennaman, Leann H.; Dharbal, Katherine E.S.; Tran, Tracy S.; Manis, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Neuron-glial related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) is a regulator of axon growth and repellent guidance, and has been implicated in autism spectrum disorders. Here a novel postsynaptic role for NrCAM in Semaphorin3F (Sema3F)-induced dendritic spine remodeling was identified in pyramidal neurons of the primary visual cortex (V1). NrCAM localized to dendritic spines of star pyramidal cells in postnatal V1, where it was coexpressed with Sema3F. NrCAM deletion in mice resulted in elevated spine densities on apical dendrites of star pyramidal cells at both postnatal and adult stages, and electron microscopy revealed increased numbers of asymmetric synapses in layer 4 of V1. Whole-cell recordings in cortical slices from NrCAM-null mice revealed increased frequency of mEPSCs in star pyramidal neurons. Recombinant Sema3F-Fc protein induced spine retraction on apical dendrites of wild-type, but not NrCAM-null cortical neurons in culture, while re-expression of NrCAM rescued the spine retraction response. NrCAM formed a complex in brain with Sema3F receptor subunits Neuropilin-2 (Npn-2) and PlexinA3 (PlexA3) through an Npn-2-binding sequence (TARNER) in the extracellular Ig1 domain. A trans heterozygous genetic interaction test demonstrated that Sema3F and NrCAM pathways interacted in vivo to regulate spine density in star pyramidal neurons. These findings reveal NrCAM as a novel postnatal regulator of dendritic spine density in cortical pyramidal neurons, and an integral component of the Sema3F receptor complex. The results implicate NrCAM as a contributor to excitatory/inhibitory balance in neocortical circuits. PMID:25143608

  15. Biofuel crops with CAM photosynthesis: Economic potential on moisture-limited lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Mark; Hartzell, Samantha; Porporato, Amilcare

    2017-04-01

    As the demand for food and renewable energy increases, the intelligent utilization of marginal lands is becoming increasingly critical. In marginal lands classified by limited rainfall or soil salinity, the cultivation of traditional C3 and C4 photosynthesis crops often is economically infeasible. However, in such lands, nontraditional crops with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis show great economic potential for cultivation. CAM crops including Opuntia (prickly pear) and Ananas (pineapple) achieve a water use efficiency which is three fold higher than C4 crops such as corn and 6-fold higher than C3 crops such as wheat, leading to a comparable annual productivity with only 20% of the water demand. This feature, combined with a shallow rooting depth and a high water storage capacity, allows CAM plants to take advantage of small, infrequent rainfall amounts in shallow, quickly draining soils. Furthermore, CAM plants typically have properties (e.g., high content of non-structural carbohydrates) that are favorable for biofuel production. Here, for marginal lands characterized by low soil moisture availability and/or high salinity, we assess the potential productivity and economic benefits of CAM plants. CAM productivity is estimated using a recently developed model which simulates CAM photosynthesis under a range of soil and climate conditions. From these results, we compare the energy and water resource inputs required by CAM plants to those required by more traditional C3 and C4 crops (corn, wheat, sorghum), and we evaluate the economic potential of CAM crops as sources of food, fodder, or biofuel in marginal soils. As precipitation events become more intense and infrequent, we show that even though marginal land area may increase, CAM crop cultivation shows great promise for maintaining high productivity with minimal water inputs. Our analysis indicates that on marginal lands, widespread cultivation of CAM crops as biofuel feedstock may help

  16. Numerical verification of similar Cam-clay model based on generalized potential theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志辉; 杨光华; 傅旭东; 温勇; 张玉成

    2014-01-01

    From the mathematical principles, the generalized potential theory can be employed to create constitutive model of geomaterial directly. The similar Cam-clay model, which is created based on the generalized potential theory, has less assumptions, clearer mathematical basis, and better computational accuracy. Theoretically, it is more scientific than the traditional Cam-clay models. The particle flow code PFC3D was used to make numerical tests to verify the rationality and practicality of the similar Cam-clay model. The verification process was as follows: 1) creating the soil sample for numerical test in PFC3D, and then simulating the conventional triaxial compression test, isotropic compression test, and isotropic unloading test by PFC3D; 2) determining the parameters of the similar Cam-clay model from the results of above tests; 3) predicting the sample’s behavior in triaxial tests under different stress paths by the similar Cam-clay model, and comparing the predicting results with predictions by the Cam-clay model and the modified Cam-clay model. The analysis results show that the similar Cam-clay model has relatively high prediction accuracy, as well as good practical value.

  17. Blütenvielfalt auf dem Acker

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Früher zierten zahlreiche Blüten die Äcker. Heute sind die Äcker weitgehend blütenarm. Damit fehlt den Blütenbesuchern die Nahrungsquelle und den Landwirten die Blütenbestäuber. Blütenvielfalt bietet darüber hinaus noch viele weitere Vorteile - auch für den Landwirt. Das Merkblatt will Mut machen, wieder mehr Blüten- und Artenvielfalt auf den Acker zu bringen. Es liefert dem Landwirt dazu viele Ideen und Entscheidungshilfen.

  18. Connecting American Manufacturing (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    government products. The result of this evolution is the available supplier pool to provide manufacturing services for the government will continue to...34𔃺::~eJ’l)) $:ar;: erp »n:.g L?N ~.e::-:;?S tor OJS.l:J?"-:.$ O,?P’:r:::U."’::O<S., t ’ O’J @]’t OO:.H~J p~-:;tg 90P~’! ’t.O:Fk agalLI axu ltFG.onl o

  19. Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Young

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System and its application to emergency response involving chemical, biological or radiological contamination. The Idaho National Laboratory designed the Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System to assist the National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction - Civil Support Teams during their mission of emergency response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction. The lightweight, handheld camera transmits encrypted, real-time video from inside a contaminated area, or hot-zone, to a command post located a safe distance away. The system includes a small wireless video camera, a true-diversity receiver, viewing console, and an optional extension link that allows the command post to be placed up to five miles from danger. It can be fully deployed by one person in a standalone configuration in less than 10 minutes. The complete system is battery powered. Each rechargeable camera battery powers the camera for 3 hours with the receiver and video monitor battery lasting 22 hours on a single charge. The camera transmits encrypted, low frequency analog video signals to a true-diversity receiver with three antennas. This unique combination of encryption and transmission technologies delivers encrypted, interference-free images to the command post under conditions where other wireless systems fail. The lightweight camera is completely waterproof for quick and easy decontamination after use. The Hazmat Cam Wireless Video System is currently being used by several National Guard Teams, the US Army, and by fire fighters. The system has been proven to greatly enhance situational awareness during the crucial, initial phase of a hazardous response allowing commanders to make better, faster, safer decisions.

  20. The C. elegans ROR receptor tyrosine kinase, CAM-1, non-autonomously inhibits the Wnt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer L; Inoue, Takao; Sternberg, Paul W

    2007-11-01

    Inhibitors of Wnt signaling promote normal development and prevent cancer by restraining when and where the Wnt pathway is activated. ROR proteins, a class of Wnt-binding receptor tyrosine kinases, inhibit Wnt signaling by an unknown mechanism. To clarify how RORs inhibit the Wnt pathway, we examined the relationship between Wnts and the sole C. elegans ROR homolog, cam-1, during C. elegans vulval development, a Wnt-regulated process. We found that loss and overexpression of cam-1 causes reciprocal defects in Wnt-mediated cell-fate specification. Our molecular and genetic analyses revealed that the CAM-1 extracellular domain (ECD) is sufficient to non-autonomously antagonize multiple Wnts, suggesting that the CAM-1/ROR ECD sequesters Wnts. A sequestration model is supported by our findings that the CAM-1 ECD binds to several Wnts in vitro. These results demonstrate how ROR proteins help to refine the spatial pattern of Wnt activity in a complex multicellular environment.

  1. Ceramic dental biomaterials and CAD/CAM technology: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Raymond Wai Kim; Chow, Tak Wah; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka

    2014-10-01

    Ceramics are widely used as indirect restorative materials in dentistry because of their high biocompatibility and pleasing aesthetics. The objective is to review the state of the arts of CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials. CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials are highlighted and a subsequent literature search was conducted for the relevant subjects using PubMed followed by manual search. Developments in CAD/CAM technology have catalyzed researches in all-ceramic biomaterials and their applications. Feldspathic glass ceramic and glass infiltrated ceramic can be fabricated by traditional laboratory methods or CAD/CAM. The advent of polycrystalline ceramics is a direct result of CAD/CAM technology without which the fabrication would not have been possible. The clinical uses of these ceramics have met with variable clinical success. Multiple options are now available to the clinicians for the fabrication of aesthetic all ceramic restorations. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Doing Performance Appraisal the Right Way: The CAM Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsgard, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Explains the CAM (Clarity, Awareness, Merit Recognition) process for performance reviews in which supervisors declare personal values, expectations, and operational methods; select employee skills for enhancement and define results; provide feedback, recognition and reinforcement; and distribute merit rewards and build deeper mutual commitments to…

  3. Den Blå Drage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Gitte Holten

    Denne publikation i serien Læselyst tjener tre formål. Den evaluerer læseprojektet Den blå drage i efteråret 2004 på Byskolen i Svendborg ? et projekt ledet af forfatteren Josefine Ottesen. Desuden gøres der rede for nogle af de teorier der støtter og begrunder arbejdsmåde og resultater i projektet...

  4. Den Blå Drage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Gitte Holten

    Denne publikation i serien Læselyst tjener tre formål. Den evaluerer læseprojektet Den blå drage i efteråret 2004 på Byskolen i Svendborg ? et projekt ledet af forfatteren Josefine Ottesen. Desuden gøres der rede for nogle af de teorier der støtter og begrunder arbejdsmåde og resultater i projektet...

  5. Onzichtbare beugels dankzij CAD-CAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R. de Winter

    2011-01-01

    De introductie van de cad-cam-techniek in de tandheelkunde heeft in de orthodontie geleid tot het orthodontisch verplaatsen van gebitselementen met een serie opeenvolgende dieptrekplaten, ontworpen en gefabriceerd met behulp van cad-cam. Daarbij is iedere plaat een kleine stap in de richting van de

  6. Survey of UK dentists regarding the use of CAD/CAM technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D; Nesbit, M; Petridis, H

    2016-11-18

    Statement of the problem Digital workflows (CAD/CAM) have been introduced in dentistry during recent years. No published information exists on dentists' use and reporting of this technology.Purpose The purpose of this survey was to identify the infiltration of CAD/CAM technology in UK dental practices and to investigate the relationship of various demographic factors to the answers regarding use or non-use of this technology.Materials and methods One thousand and thirty-one online surveys were sent to a sample of UK dentists composing of both users and non-users of CAD/CAM. It aimed to reveal information regarding type of usage, materials, perceived benefits, barriers to access, and disadvantages of CAD/CAM dentistry. Statistical analysis was undertaken to test the influence of various demographic variables such as country of work, dentist experience, level of training and type of work (NHS or private).Results The number of completed responses totalled 385. Most of the respondents did not use any part of a digital workflow, and the main barriers to CAD/CAM use were initial costs and a lack of perceived benefit over conventional methods. Dentists delivering mostly private work were most likely to have adopted CAD/CAM technology (P CAD/CAM usage (P CAD/CAM had a big role to play in the future.Conclusion Most of the respondents did not use any part of a digital workflow. However, the majority of surveyed dentists were interested in incorporating CAD/CAM into their workflow, while most believed that it will have a big role in the future. There are still some concerns from dentists about the quality of chairside CAD/CAM restorations while the costs are still in the main hugely prohibitive (especially for NHS dentistry).

  7. CAM use in pediatric neurology: an exploration of concurrent use with conventional medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Galicia-Connolly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found that up to 60% of children with neurologic conditions have tried complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of CAM among patients presenting to neurology clinics at two academic centers in Canada. METHODS: A survey instrument was developed to inquire about use of CAM products and therapies, including reasons for use, perceived helpfulness, and concurrent use with conventional medicine, and administered to patients or their parents/guardians at the Stollery Children's Hospital in Edmonton and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO in Ottawa. RESULTS: Overall CAM use at the Stollery was 78%, compared to 48% at CHEO. The most common CAM products used were multi-vitamins (84%, vitamin C (37%, homeopathic remedies (24%, and fish oil/omega 3 s (22%. The most common CAM practices used were massage (47%, chiropractic (37%, faith healing (18%, aromatherapy (16%, homeopathy (16%, and relaxation (16%. Many patients used CAM products at the same time as conventional medicine but just over half (57% discussed this concurrent use with their physician. CONCLUSION: CAM use is common in pediatric neurology patients and most respondents felt that it was helpful, with few or no harms associated. However, this use is often undisclosed, increasing possibility of interactions with conventional drugs. We urge clinicians to inquire about CAM use during routine history taking at every patient visit. Parents would clearly like more information about CAM from their specialty clinics; such information would be easier to share if more primary data were available about the safety and effectiveness of commonly used therapies.

  8. Mechanical properties and DIC analyses of CAD/CAM materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperto, Renato; Akkus, Anna; Akkus, Ozan; Porto-Neto, Sizenando; Teich, Sorin; Lang, Lisa; Campos, Edson

    2016-01-01

    Background This study compared two well-known computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufactured (CAD/CAM) blocks (Paradigm MZ100 [3M ESPE] and Vitablocs Mark II [Vita] in terms of fracture toughness (Kic), index of brittleness (BI) and stress/strain distributions. Material and Methods Three-point bending test was used to calculate the fracture toughness, and the relationship between the Kic and the Vickers hardness was used to calculate the index of brittleness. Additionally, digital image correlation (DIC) was used to analyze the stress/strain distribution on both materials. Results The values for fracture toughness obtained under three-point bending were 1.87Pa√m (±0.69) for Paradigm MZ100 and 1.18Pa√m (±0.17) for Vitablocs Mark II. For the index of brittleness, the values for Paradigm and Vitablocs were 73.13μm-1/2 (±30.72) and 550.22μm-1/2 (±82.46). One-way ANOVA was performed to find differences (α=0.05) and detected deviation between the stress/strain distributions on both materials. Conclusions Both CAD/CAM materials tested presented similar fracture toughness, but, different strain/stress distributions. Both materials may perform similarly when used in CAD/CAM restorations. Key words:Ceramic, CAD/CAM, hybrid materials, composite resin, fracture toughness. PMID:27957262

  9. The prevalence, patterns of usage and people's attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM among the Indian community in Chatsworth, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raidoo Deshandra M

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine, among the Indian community of Chatsworth, South Africa, the prevalence and utilisation patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, attitudes associated with CAM use and communication patterns of CAM users with their primary care doctors. Methods Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted in Chatsworth, a suburb of Durban in which South Africans of Indian origin predominantly reside. Participants were 200 randomly selected adult English-speaking Indian residents. Results The prevalence of CAM usage for period 2000/2001 was 38.5% (95% confidence interval 31.7% to 45.6%. Spiritual healing and herbal/natural medicines, including vitamins were the most common types of CAM used, accounting for 42.8% and 48.1% respectively of overall CAM usage. People used CAM to treat conditions including diabetes mellitus, headaches, arthritis and joint pains, stress, skin disorders, backaches, hypertension and nasal disorders. Half of the CAM users used allopathic medicines concurrently. The cost of CAM utilization over this 1-year period, incurred by 80.5% of users for the duration of therapy for their most troublesome condition was below R500 (approximately US$50. Age, sex, marital status, religion, level of education and income were shown not to influence the use of CAM. Greater than half (51.9% of CAM users did so either upon the advice of someone they knew, or after noticing a CAM advertisement in the local press. Seventy-nine percent of CAM users indicated that they had positive outcomes with their treatments. Fifty four percent of CAM users (excluding those using spiritual healing only failed to inform their doctors that they used CAM. The main reason given by half of this group was that informing their doctors did not seem necessary. Conclusion The prevalence of CAM in Chatsworth is similar to findings in other parts of the world. Although CAM was used to treat many different

  10. The prevalence of cam-type deformity of the hip joint: a survey of 4151 subjects of the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, K.K.; Jacobsen, S.; Sonne-Holm, S.

    2008-01-01

    . The relationships between cam malformation and self-reported hip pain were evaluated, and the relative importance of known risk factors for cam malformation estimated. RESULTS: We found a pronounced sex-related difference in cam-deformity distribution. The overall prevalence of cam deformity was approximately 17......% in men and 4% in women. The distribution of cam deformity was unaltered in subjects with normal joint-space width or other features of hip-joint degeneration. We found no significant association with self-reported hip pain, nor did we find any relative importance of possible risk factors for hip...

  11. Materials for chairside CAD/CAM restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasbinder, Dennis J

    2010-01-01

    Chairside computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have become considerably more accurate, efficient, and prevalent as the technology has evolved in the past 25 years. The initial restorative material option for chairside CAD/CAM restorations was limited to ceramic blocks. Restorative material options have multiplied and now include esthetic ceramics, high-strength ceramics, and composite materials for both definitive and temporary restoration applications. This article will review current materials available for chairside CAD/CAM restorations.

  12. CAM Stochastic Volatility Model for Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled additive and multiplicative (CAM noises model is a stochastic volatility model for derivative pricing. Unlike the other stochastic volatility models in the literature, the CAM model uses two Brownian motions, one multiplicative and one additive, to model the volatility process. We provide empirical evidence that suggests a nontrivial relationship between the kurtosis and skewness of asset prices and that the CAM model is able to capture this relationship, whereas the traditional stochastic volatility models cannot. We introduce a control variate method and Monte Carlo estimators for some of the sensitivities (Greeks of the model. We also derive an approximation for the characteristic function of the model.

  13. Unbroken B-L Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Heeck, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The difference between baryon number B and lepton number L is the only anomaly-free global symmetry of the Standard Model, easily promoted to a local symmetry by introducing three right-handed neutrinos, which automatically make neutrinos massive. The non-observation of any (B-L)-violating processes leads us to scrutinize the case of unbroken gauged B-L; besides Dirac neutrinos, the model contains only three parameters, the gauge coupling strength g', the Stueckelberg mass $M_{Z'}$, and the kinetic mixing angle $\\chi$. The new force could manifest itself at any scale, and we collect and derive bounds on g' over the entire testable range $M_{Z'}$ = 0 - $10^{13}$ eV, also of interest for the more popular case of spontaneously broken B-L or other new light forces. We show in particular that successful Big Bang nucleosynthesis provides strong bounds for masses 10 eV < $M_{Z'}$ < 10 GeV due to resonant enhancement of the rate $\\overline{f} f \\leftrightarrow \\overline{\

  14. Comparative evaluation of RetCam vs. gonioscopy images in congenital glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj V Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare clarity, exposure and quality of anterior chamber angle visualization in congenital glaucoma patients, using RetCam and indirect gonioscopy images. Design: Cross-sectional study Participants. Congenital glaucoma patients over age of 5 years. Materials and Methods: A prospective consecutive pilot study was done in congenital glaucoma patients who were older than 5 years. Methods used are indirect gonioscopy and RetCam imaging. Clarity of the image, extent of angle visible and details of angle structures seen were graded for both methods, on digitally recorded images, in each eye, by two masked observers. Outcome Measures: Image clarity, interobserver agreement. Results: 40 eyes of 25 congenital glaucoma patients were studied. RetCam image had excellent clarity in 77.5% of patients versus 47.5% by gonioscopy. The extent of angle seen was similar by both methods. Agreement between RetCam and gonioscopy images regarding details of angle structures was 72.50% by observer 1 and 65.00% by observer 2. Conclusions: There was good agreement between RetCam and indirect gonioscopy images in detecting angle structures of congenital glaucoma patients. However, RetCam provided greater clarity, with better quality, and higher magnification images. RetCam can be a useful alternative to gonioscopy in infants and small children without the need for general anesthesia.

  15. Discrimination in health care and CAM use in a representative sample of U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, Sheryl; Faith, Jennifer; Keon, Karen Levy; Tippens, Kimberly M

    2013-06-01

    Discrimination in medical settings may influence patient attitudes about health care and health-seeking behaviors. Patients who experience discrimination may seek alternative means of health care, including use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between discrimination in health care and CAM use. Data come from the 2001 Health Care Quality Survey (HCQS), which used a multistage sampling design with random-digit dialing, oversampling telephone exchanges with higher densities of African-American, Hispanic, and Asian households. The 2001 HCQS sample consisted of 6722 adults living in the continental United States. To correct for the disproportionate sample design, data were adjusted using sample weights to make the results representative of the U.S. population 18 years and older. Present analyses were limited to 6008 respondents who had visited a doctor or clinic or had been admitted to the hospital in the last 2 years. Outcome measures were CAM use, practitioner-provided CAM use, and herbal medicine use. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, discrimination in health care was significantly associated with use of herbal medicines alone (adjusted odds ratio=1.47, confidence interval: 1.05, 2.04), but not with use of practitioner-provided CAM (i.e., use of acupuncture, chiropractor, traditional healer or herbalist, alone or in combination with herbal medicines). Further research is needed to examine the direction of the relationship between discrimination and CAM use and differences by CAM modality.

  16. Variability of the Blazar BL Lac in 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, D.; Carini, M.; Wills, W.; Atkerson, A.; Monroe, T.; Ryle, W.

    2002-06-01

    BL Lacertae (z=0.0686) is the archetype of a class of active galactic nuclei known as BL Lacertae objects. BL Lacertae objects are a branch of the class of objects known as blazars, and BL Lac is one of the best-observed blazars. It exhibits large amplitude (> 1 mag) variability at optical wavelengths over years, months, and weeks. In the last few years, BL Lac has returned to a highly active state, and a concerted effort is being made to discern the mechanism(s) responsible for this high-degree of variability. To do this many observatories have begun to monitor BL Lacertae regularly in an attempt to measure the light curve 24-hours per day in a collaboration called the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT). To date the WEBT results show an approximately 7-hour time scale for short outbursts and suggest a measurable distinction between spectral changes during low-brightness and out-burst phases. Western Kentucky University's Bell Astrophysical Observatory began regularly monitoring BL Lacertae in the latter half of 2001 with our newly refurbished 0.6meter telescope. We present an R-band light curve derived from photometric CCD observations covering the monitoring period. Generally, the light curve ranges between R=13.6-14.4, which is similar to the range measured by WEBT observers during the low-brightness phase in 2000. In addition to the long-term light curve, we present R-band microvariability light curves derived from persistent monitoring over 2 different nights during the same period. These show monotonic changes in R-band brightness of up 0.25 magnitudes over 3 hours. We gratefully acknowledge NASA for funding this research through grant NAG5-8762, and Western Kentucky University for funds provided through the Applied Research and Technology Program of Distinction.

  17. Computer-assisted myelography (CAM) in the diagnosis of cervical disk disease. Correlation with surgical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotwica, Z.; Kasprzak, P. (Medical Univ. of Lodz, Dept. of Neurosurgery (Poland)); Chmielowski, M. (Medical Univ. of Lodz, School of Medicine, Dept. of Medical Imaging (Poland))

    A comparison was made between results obtained from preoperative computer-assisted myelography (CAM), on the one hand, and surgical findings, on the other, for 45 patients with suspicion of cervical disk disease. Full and correct diagnosis, subsequently confirmed by surgery, was enabled by CAM in 98% of all cases. Only one case was left in which preoperative diagnosis had been extraspinal tumour, while surgery revealed prolapse of the nucleus pulposus, the latter lying exposed on the anterior wall of the dural sac. The authors feel CAM to be sufficient for planning of surgical treatment for cervical disk desease, with other neuroradiological investigations, myelography or magnetic resonance tomography usually not being necessary. (orig.).

  18. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A CRIMPING DEVICE WITH MULTIPLE CAMS USING MSC ADAMS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Through the present paper, the author presents the results of the dynamic analysis with MSC ADAMS of the mechanism with a crimping device with 12 tightening cams, designed and used in the technological process of assembly of the indigenous electrical detonators. In this sense, the mechanism with multiple cams is considered a mechanical system and is treated as an assembly of rigid bodies connected by mechanical connections and elastic elements. For shaping and simulation of the mechanism with multiple cams using ADAMS program, the author got through the following stages: construction of the pattern, its testing and simulation, validation, finishing, parametrization, optimization of the pattern.

  19. 基于CamShift的手势跟踪算法的定点实现%Fixed-Point Implementation of Gesture Tracking Algorithm Based on CamShift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖凌宇

    2012-01-01

    在OpenCV 1.0中CamShift浮点算法的基础上,对算法进行定点实现。介绍CamShift算法的基本原理,详细阐述对CamShift浮点程序定点化的方案、流程和具体方法。定点化结果表明,定点化后程序与原浮点程序偏差较小。满足跟踪性能的要求.可用于下一步的硬件实现。%Describes the fixed-point implementation of CamShift algorithm based on OpenCV 1.0. Intro- duces the basic principles of the CamShift algorithm, and elaborates the float-point to fixed- point program and flow of CamShift algorithm. The result of experimentation shows that the de- viation between the float-point and fixed-point is small, can meet the requirement of tracking application, and can be used to the hardware implementation of next step.

  20. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Germany – A focus group study of GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners, some general practitioners (GPs provide CAM in their practices. This paper aims to explore the attitudes of GPs about the role of CAM in Germany, in relation to the healthcare system, quality of care, medical education and research. Furthermore, experiences of GPs integrating CAM in their daily practice were explored. Methods Using a qualitative methodological approach 3 focus groups with a convenience sample of 17 GPs were conducted. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The majority of the participating GPs had integrated one or more CAM therapies into their every-day practice. Four key themes were identified based on the topics covered in the focus groups: the role of CAM within the German healthcare system, quality of care, education and research. Within the theme 'role of CAM within the healthcare system' there were five categories: integration of CAM, CAM in the Statutory Health Insurance, modernisation of the Statutory Health Insurance Act, individual healthcare services and 'Heilpraktiker'. Regarding quality of care there were two broad groups of GPs: those who thought patients would benefit from standardizing CAM and those who feared that quality control would interfere with the individual approach of CAM. The main issues identified relating to research and education were the need for the development of alternative research strategies and the low quality of existing CAM education respectively. Conclusion The majority of the participating GPs considered CAM as a reasonable complementary approach within primary care. The study increased our understanding of GPs attitudes about the role of CAM within the German healthcare system and the use of

  1. Knowledge and training needs among Danish nurses about CAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita

    2010-01-01

    to explore nurses’ knowledge about CAM and their needs for training. Methods: Similar to international investigations a Danish “CAM-knowledge” questionnaire was developed that included multiple choice, yes/no and 5 points scale answers. Validity was established through initial pilot testing. Contacts...... of CAM also tend to have a theoretical background of CAM. Around 75 % of the nurses agree or partly agree that it is important for nurses to receive education about CAM and that nurses have knowledge about CAM that enables them to advise patients. Training needs concerning CAM were indicated by 52....... Conclusion: Among Danish nurses CAM knowledge can be described as minor or average and a minority already has CAM education. Additional CAM training would be welcomed by more than half of the respondents in this survey....

  2. CAM therapies among primary care patients using opioid therapy for chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundt Marlon P

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is an increasingly common therapy used to treat chronic pain syndromes. However; there is limited information on the utilization and efficacy of CAM therapy in primary care patients receiving long-term opioid therapy. Method A survey of CAM therapy was conducted with a systematic sample of 908 primary care patients receiving opioids as a primary treatment method for chronic pain. Subjects completed a questionnaire designed to assess utilization, efficacy and costs of CAM therapies in this population. Results Patients were treated for a variety of pain problems including low back pain (38.4%, headaches (9.9%, and knee pain (6.5%; the average duration of pain was 16 years. The median morphine equivalent opioid dose was 41 mg/day, and the mean dose was 92 mg/day. Forty-four percent of the sample reported CAM therapy use in the past 12 months. Therapies utilized included massage therapy (27.3%, n = 248, chiropractic treatment (17.8%, n = 162, acupuncture (7.6%, n = 69, yoga (6.1%, n = 55, herbs and supplements (6.8%, n = 62, and prolotherapy (5.9%, n = 54. CAM utilization was significantly related to age female gender, pain severity income pain diagnosis of neck and upper back pain, and illicit drug use. Medical insurance covered chiropractic treatment (81.8% and prolotherapy (87.7%, whereas patients primarily paid for other CAM therapies. Over half the sample reported that one or more of the CAM therapies were helpful. Conclusion This study suggests CAM therapy is widely used by patients receiving opioids for chronic pain. Whether opioids can be reduced by introducing such therapies remains to be studied.

  3. Regulated intramembrane proteolysis and degradation of murine epithelial cell adhesion molecule mEpCAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Hachmeister

    Full Text Available Epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is highly and frequently expressed in carcinomas and (cancer-stem cells, and which plays an important role in the regulation of stem cell pluripotency. We show here that murine EpCAM (mEpCAM is subject to regulated intramembrane proteolysis in various cells including embryonic stem cells and teratocarcinomas. As shown with ectopically expressed EpCAM variants, cleavages occur at α-, β-, γ-, and ε-sites to generate soluble ectodomains, soluble Aβ-like-, and intracellular fragments termed mEpEX, mEp-β, and mEpICD, respectively. Proteolytic sites in the extracellular part of mEpCAM were mapped using mass spectrometry and represent cleavages at the α- and β-sites by metalloproteases and the b-secretase BACE1, respectively. Resulting C-terminal fragments (CTF are further processed to soluble Aβ-like fragments mEp-β and cytoplasmic mEpICD variants by the g-secretase complex. Noteworthy, cytoplasmic mEpICD fragments were subject to efficient degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. In addition the γ-secretase complex dependent cleavage of EpCAM CTF liberates different EpICDs with different stabilities towards proteasomal degradation. Generation of CTF and EpICD fragments and the degradation of hEpICD via the proteasome were similarly demonstrated for the human EpCAM ortholog. Additional EpCAM orthologs have been unequivocally identified in silico in 52 species. Sequence comparisons across species disclosed highest homology of BACE1 cleavage sites and in presenilin-dependent γ-cleavage sites, whereas strongest heterogeneity was observed in metalloprotease cleavage sites. In summary, EpCAM is a highly conserved protein present in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, and is subject to shedding, γ-secretase-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis, and proteasome-mediated degradation.

  4. AFSC/FMA/CAMS Data Objects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CAMS system consists of a set of tables and packages that provide authentication services to all other North Pacific Groundfish and Halibut Observing Program...

  5. CAM and stack air sampler design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T.D.

    1994-05-13

    About 128 air samplers and CAMs presently in service to detect and document potential radioactive release from `H` and `F` area tank farm ventilation stacks are scheduled for replacement and/or upgrade by Projects S-5764, S-2081, S-3603, and S-4516. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S-4516 during 1995 are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system.

  6. Model Documentation for the MiniCAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenkert, Antoinette L.; Smith, Steven J.; Kim, Son H.; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2003-07-17

    The MiniCAM, short for the Mini-Climate Assessment Model, is an integrated assessment model of moderate complexity focused on energy and agriculture sectors. The model produces emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) and other radiatively important substances such as sulfur dioxide. Through incorporation of the simple climate model MAGICC, the consequences of these emissions for climate change and sea-level rise can be examined. The MiniCAM is designed to be fast and flexible.

  7. Radio outburst of BL Lacertae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, C. S.; Leto, P.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Giroletti, M.; Orienti, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Bach, U.

    2013-04-01

    We report on extremely high radio flux of BL Lacertae at 43 and 8 GHz. Observations at 43 GHz with the 32 m radio telescope in Noto (Italy) revealed a flux density of 10.5 +/- 0.2 Jy on 2013 April 10.65, while observations at 8 GHz with the 32 m radio telescope in Medicina (Italy) detected a flux density of 8.2 +/- 0.7 Jy on April 12.22. These extremely high radio fluxes show that the radio activity likely correlated to the strong optical, near-infrared, and gamma-ray activity of 2011-2012 (see ATels #4028, #4031, #4155, #4271, #4277, #4349, #4565, #4600), and X-ray activity of late 2012 (ATels #4557, #4627), is far to be exhausted.

  8. Multifrequency observations of BL Lacertae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.

    1990-01-01

    Optical, IR, and radio monitoring data covering 20 years are presented for BL Lac. Also, four simultaneous multifrequency spectra are given, covering the range 10 to the 9th - 10 to the 18th Hz. These spectra include ground-based observations and data from the Einstein, Exosat, IUE, and IRAS satellites. From the monitoring data, the character of emission variability is determined using structure functions. The multifrequency spectra are used to study the origin of X-ray emission and to determine the physical parameters of emitting regions. The data show that the emitting region is inhomogeneous, with a small inner region of high density and magnetic field that eventually becomes a large, partially opaque radio emitting region with a low density and magnetic fields. Also, the two simple predictions of the synchrotron self-Compton model are reproduced by the multifrequency spectra.

  9. Genomic analyses of the CAM plant pineapple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jisen; Liu, Juan; Ming, Ray

    2014-07-01

    The innovation of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis in arid and/or low CO2 conditions is a remarkable case of adaptation in flowering plants. As the most important crop that utilizes CAM photosynthesis, the genetic and genomic resources of pineapple have been developed over many years. Genetic diversity studies using various types of DNA markers led to the reclassification of the two genera Ananas and Pseudananas and nine species into one genus Ananas and two species, A. comosus and A. macrodontes with five botanical varieties in A. comosus. Five genetic maps have been constructed using F1 or F2 populations, and high-density genetic maps generated by genotype sequencing are essential resources for sequencing and assembling the pineapple genome and for marker-assisted selection. There are abundant expression sequence tag resources but limited genomic sequences in pineapple. Genes involved in the CAM pathway has been analysed in several CAM plants but only a few of them are from pineapple. A reference genome of pineapple is being generated and will accelerate genetic and genomic research in this major CAM crop. This reference genome of pineapple provides the foundation for studying the origin and regulatory mechanism of CAM photosynthesis, and the opportunity to evaluate the classification of Ananas species and botanical cultivars.

  10. Relativistic Beaming and Orientation Effects in BL Lacertae Objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F. C. Odo; A. A. Ubachukwu; A. E. Chukwude

    2012-09-01

    We use the correlation between the core-to-lobe radio luminosity ratio () and the linear size () of a sample of BL Lacertae objects to investigate the relativistic beaming and radio source orientation paradigm for high peaked and low-peaked BL Lacs (X-ray and radio selected BL Lacs respectively) and to constrain relativistic beaming model for this extreme class of active galactic nuclei. We show that the - distributions of the BL Lac populations contradict blazar orientation sequence, with the X-ray selected BL Lacs (XBLs) being more consistent with the beaming and orientation model. On the premise that Fanaroff-Riley Type I radio galaxies are the unbeamed parent population of these objects, we derive the bulk Lorentz factor of the jets, ∼ 7-20 corresponding to a critical cone angle for optimum boosting, c of ∼ 1° - 4°, while on average, these objects are inclined at 5° - 12° to the line-of-sight. The implications of these results for the blazar unification sequence are discussed.

  11. Transcriptional analysis of oligosaccharide utilization by Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Joakim Mark; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2013-01-01

    transcriptomes of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04, induced by 11 potential prebiotic oligosaccharides were analyzed to identify the genetic loci involved in the uptake and catabolism of α- and β-linked hexoses, and β-xylosides. RESULTS: The overall transcriptome was modulated dependent on the type...... in the breadth and selectivity of prebiotic utilization by bifidobacteria. CONCLUSION: This study identified the differential gene expression for utilization of potential prebiotics highlighting the extensive capabilities of Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04 to utilize oligosaccharides. Results provide insights...

  12. CAM Modalities Can Stimulate Advances in Theoretical Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hankey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most complementary medicine is distinguished by not being supported by underlying theory accepted by Western science. However, for those who accept their validity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM modalities offer clues to understanding physiology and medicine more deeply. Ayurveda and vibrational medicine are stimulating new approaches to biological regulation. The new biophysics can be integrated to yield a single consistent theory, which may well underly much of CAM—a true ‘physics of physick’. The resulting theory seems to be a new, fundamental theory of health and etiology. It suggests that many CAM approaches to health care are scientifically in advance of those based on current Western biology. Such theories may well constitute the next steps in our scientific understanding of biology itself. If successfully developed, these ideas could result in a major paradigm shift in both biology and medicine, which will benefit all interested parties—consumers, health professionals, scientists, institutions and governments.

  13. Understanding BL Lac objects Structural & kinematic mode changes in the BL Lac object PKS 0735+178

    CERN Document Server

    Britzen, S; Gong, B P; Zhang, J W; Gopal-Krishna,; Goyal, Arti; Aller, M F; Aller, H D; Zensus, J A

    2010-01-01

    Context. We present evidence that parsec-scale jets in BL Lac objects may be significantly distinct in kinematics from their counterparts in quasars. We argued this previously for the BL lac sources 1803+784 and 0716+714, report here a similar pattern for another well-known BL Lac object, PKS 0735+178, whose nuclear jet is found to exhibit kinematics atypical of quasars. Aims. A detailed study of the jet components' motion reveals that the standard AGN paradigm of apparent superluminal motion does not always describe the kinematics in BL Lac objects. We study 0735+178 here to augment and improve the understanding of the peculiar motions in the jets of BL Lac objects as a class. Methods. We analyzed 15 GHz VLBA (Very Long Baseline Array) observations (2cm/MOJAVE survey) performed at 23 epochs between 1995.27 and 2008.91. Results. We found a drastic structural mode change in the VLBI jet of 0735+178, between 2000.4 and 2001.8 when its twice sharply bent trajectory turned into a linear shape.We further found tha...

  14. The structure of the cytochrome P450cam-putidaredoxin complex determined by paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy and crystallography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiruma, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    By utilizing paramagnetic NMR techniques, the structure and dynamics of the P450cam system were investigated. The analysis of PCS and RDC illuminated the stereo-specific final complex of Pdx and P450cam, while the results of PRE demonstrated the presence of a transient encounter complex.

  15. Ep-CAM expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a potential therapeutic target and prognostic marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiper Matthias

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the expression and test the clinical significance of the epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC to check the suitability of esophageal SCC patients for Ep-CAM directed targeted therapies. Methods The Ep-CAM expression was immunohistochemically investigated in 70 primary esophageal SCCs using the monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4. For the interpretation of the staining results, we used a standardized scoring system ranging from 0 to 3+. The survival analysis was calculated from 53 patients without distant metastasis, with R0 resection and at least 2 months of clinical follow-up. Results Ep-CAM neo-expression was observed in 79% of the tumors with three expression levels, 1+ (26%, 2+ (11% and 3+ (41%. Heterogeneous expression was observed at all expression levels. Interestingly, tumors with 3+ Ep-CAM expression conferred a significantly decreased median relapse-free survival period (log rank, p = 0.0001 and median overall survival (log rank, p = 0.0003. Multivariate survival analysis disclosed Ep-CAM 3+ expression as independent prognostic factor. Conclusion Our results suggest Ep-CAM as an attractive molecule for targeted therapy in esophageal SCC. Considering the discontenting results of the current adjuvant concepts for esophageal SCC patients, Ep-CAM might provide a promising target for an adjuvant immunotherapeutic intervention.

  16. Blødningsforstyrrelser hos kvinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Efteruddannelsesartikel for praktiserende læger om undersøgelse og behandling af blødningsforstyrrelser hos kvinder i almen praksis. Udgivelsesdato: 1994......Efteruddannelsesartikel for praktiserende læger om undersøgelse og behandling af blødningsforstyrrelser hos kvinder i almen praksis. Udgivelsesdato: 1994...

  17. Transparency in Dutch CAM practices: a comparison between CAM and GP physicians.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.; Dulmen, S. van

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: CAM (Complementary and Alternative Medicine) is increasing worldwide because the demand is growing. Transparency is needed to provide more objective information about CAM services, to date largely unknown by a majority of care users and mainstream care providers. Despite the fact that

  18. An automated qualification framework for the MeerKAT CAM (Control-And-Monitoring)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heever, Lize; Marais, Neilen; Slabber, Martin

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces and discusses the design of an Automated Qualification Framework (AQF) that was developed to automate as much as possible of the formal Qualification Testing of the Control And Monitoring (CAM) subsystem of the 64 dish MeerKAT radio telescope currently under construction in the Karoo region of South Africa. The AQF allows each Integrated CAM Test to reference the MeerKAT CAM requirement and associated verification requirement it covers and automatically produces the Qualification Test Procedure and Qualification Test Report from the test steps and evaluation steps annotated in the Integrated CAM Tests. The MeerKAT System Engineers are extremely happy with the AQF results, but mostly by the approach and process it enforces.

  19. Involvement of Ca2+/CaM in the signal transduction of acetylcholine regulating stomatal movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    It has been known that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) also exists in plants and is able to regulate the movement of stomata. In another aspect, Ca2+/CaM as the second messengers have a critical role of signal transduction in stomatal guard-cell. Here we showed that Ca2+/CaM were also involved in theACh regulated stomatal movement. In the medium containing Ca2+, the Ca2+ channel blockers (NIF and Ver) and CaM inhibitors (TFP and W7) could neutralize the ACh induced stomatal opening, however, they are ineffective in the medium containing K+. Those results indicated that Ca2+/CaM were involved in the signal transduction pathway of ACh regulating stomatal movement.

  20. PillCam ESO versus esophagogastroduodenoscopy in esophageal variceal screening: A decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christopher M; Kilgore, Meredith L

    2009-01-01

    PillCam ESO has been evaluated as a possible strategy to screen patients with cirrhosis for esophageal varices, but current guidelines recommend patients undergo screening with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), as it is currently the gold standard. Although recent data have suggested that PillCam ESO may be an acceptable alternative for screening, there is limited data on its cost-effectiveness compared with other screening modalities. This study was performed to compare the cost-effectiveness of PillCam ESO versus EGD for esophageal variceal screening. Markov models were constructed to compare 2 screening strategies: PillCam ESO versus EGD. In each arm, patients were followed for a time horizon of 15 years in 1-year transition intervals. All variables, transition probabilities, and costs were derived from the medical literature, and sensitivity analyses were performed on the different variables in the model. Base-case analysis shows that PillCam ESO is associated with an average expected cost of $22,589 and an average expected effectiveness measure of 12.81 life-years. EGD is associated with an average expected cost of $23,083 and an average expected effectiveness measure of 12.67 life-years. PillCam ESO was found to dominate EGD as a screening strategy for patients with cirrhosis. Sensitivity analyses found several variables within the model to have influential effects on the results. PillCam ESO is the dominant strategy for screening patients with cirrhosis for esophageal varices. However, based on a small difference in costs and effectiveness between each strategy, the results would suggest that PillCam ESO and EGD are essentially equivalent strategies.

  1. Chairside CAD/CAM materials. Part 2: Flexural strength testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Michael; Belli, Renan; Petschelt, Anselm; Mevec, Daniel; Harrer, Walter; Lube, Tanja; Danzer, Robert; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Strength is one of the preferred parameters used in dentistry for determining clinical indication of dental restoratives. However, small dimensions of CAD/CAM blocks limit reliable measurements with standardized uniaxial bending tests. The objective of this study was to introduce the ball-on-three-ball (B3B) biaxial strength test for dental for small CAD/CAM block in the context of the size effect on strength predicted by the Weibull theory. Eight representative chairside CAD/CAM materials ranging from polycrystalline zirconia (e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent), reinforced glasses (Vitablocs Mark II, VITA; Empress CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and glass-ceramics (e.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent; Suprinity, VITA; Celtra Duo, Dentsply) to hybrid materials (Enamic, VITA; Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE) have been selected. Specimens were prepared with highly polished surfaces in rectangular plate (12×12×1.2mm(3)) or round disc (Ø=12mm, thickness=1.2mm) geometries. Specimens were tested using the B3B assembly and the biaxial strength was determined using calculations derived from finite element analyses of the respective stress fields. Size effects on strength were determined based on results from 4-point-bending specimens. A good agreement was found between the biaxial strength results for the different geometries (plates vs. discs) using the B3B test. Strength values ranged from 110.9MPa (Vitablocs Mark II) to 1303.21MPa (e.max ZirCAD). The strength dependency on specimen size was demonstrated through the calculated effective volume/surface. The B3B test has shown to be a reliable and simple method for determining the biaxial strength restorative materials supplied as small CAD/CAM blocks. A flexible solution was made available for the B3B test in the rectangular plate geometry. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of denture tooth movement between CAD-CAM and conventional fabrication techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, Brian J; Goodacre, Charles J; Baba, Nadim Z; Kattadiyil, Mathew T

    2017-05-12

    Data comparing the denture tooth movement of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) and conventional denture processing techniques are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the denture tooth movement of pack-and-press, fluid resin, injection, CAD-CAM-bonded, and CAD-CAM monolithic techniques for fabricating dentures to determine which process produces the most accurate and reproducible prosthesis. A total of 50 dentures were evaluated, 10 for each of the 5 groups. A master denture was fabricated and milled from prepolymerized poly(methyl methacrylate). For the conventional processing techniques (pack-and-press, fluid resin, and injection) a polyvinyl siloxane putty mold of the master denture was made in which denture teeth were placed and molten wax injected. The cameo surface of each wax-festooned denture was laser scanned, resulting in a standard tessellation language (STL) format file. The CAD-CAM dentures included 2 subgroups: CAD-CAM-bonded teeth in which the denture teeth were bonded into the milled denture base and CAD-CAM monolithic teeth in which the denture teeth were milled as part of the denture base. After all specimens had been fabricated, they were hydrated for 24 hours, and the cameo surface laser scanned. The preprocessing and postprocessing scan files of each denture were superimposed using surface-matching software. Measurements were made at 64 locations, allowing evaluation of denture tooth movement in a buccal, lingual, mesial-distal, and occlusal direction. The use of median and interquartile range values was used to assess accuracy and reproducibility. Levene and Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance were used to evaluate differences between processing techniques (α=.05). The CAD-CAM monolithic technique was the most accurate, followed by fluid resin, CAD-CAM-bonded, pack-and-press, and injection. CAD-CAM monolithic technique was the most reproducible, followed by pack-and-press, CAD-CAM

  3. Mutation in the sixth immunoglobulin domain of L1CAM is associated with migrational brain anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Christine; Moser, Franklin; Graham, John M.; Watiker, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the phenotype of a patient with classical features of X-linked L1 syndrome associated with novel brain malformations. Methods: Diagnostic analysis included physical and dysmorphology examinations, MRI of the brain, and exome sequencing of the family trio. Results: We report a 2.5-year-old boy with developmental delay, dysmorphic facies, and adducted thumbs. MRI of the brain showed a truncated corpus callosum and periventricular heterotopias associated with polymicrogyria (PMG). Variant segregation analysis with exome sequencing discovered a novel maternally derived hemizygous variant in exon 14 of the L1CAM gene (c.1759 G>C; p.G587R). Conclusions: This novel L1CAM mutation was located in the protein's sixth immunoglobin domain and involved glycine-587, a key residue in the structure of L1CAM because of its interactions with lysine-606, which indicates that any mutation at this site would likely affect the secondary structure and function of the protein. The replacement of the small nonpolar glycine residue with a large basic arginine would have an even more dramatic result. The presentation of periventricular nodular heterotopias with overlying PMG is very uncommon, and its association with L1CAM may provide insight into other similar cases. Furthermore, this presentation indicates the important role that L1CAM plays in neuronal migration and brain development and extends the phenotype associated with L1CAM-associated disorders. PMID:27066571

  4. C57BL/6N Mice Are More Resistant to Ehrlich Ascites Tumors Than C57BL/6J Mice: The Role of Macrophage Nitric Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Sergey; Lyamina, Svetlana; Chausova, Svetlana; Kochetova, Lada; Malyshev, Yuri; Manukhina, Eugenia; Malyshev, Igor

    2015-10-20

    BACKGROUND Effectiveness of the immune defense formed by the genotype often determines the predisposition to cancer. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by macrophages is an important element in this defense. MATERIAL AND METHODS We hypothesized that genetic characteristics of NO generation systems can predetermine the vulnerability to tumor development. The study was conducted on mice of 2 genetic substrains - C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N - with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). NO production in the tumor was changed using ITU, an iNOS inhibitor; c-PTIO, a NO scavenger; and SNP, a NO donor. Macrophage NO production was estimated by nitrite concentration in the culture medium. iNOS content was measured by Western blot analysis. Macrophage phenotype was determined by changes in NO production, iNOS level, and CD markers of the phenotype. RESULTS The lifespan of C57BL/6N mice (n=10) with EAC was 25% longer (p<0.01) than in C57BL/6J mice (n=10). Decreased NO production 23% reduced the survival duration of C57BL/6N mice (p<0.05), which were more resistant to tumors. Elevated NO production 26% increased the survival duration of C57BL/6J mice (p<0.05), which were more susceptible to EAC. Both the NO production and the iNOS level were 1.5 times higher in C57BL/6N than in C57BL/6J mice (p<0.01). CD markers confirmed that C57BL/6N macrophages had the M1 and C57BL/6J macrophages had the M2 phenotype. CONCLUSIONS The vulnerability to the tumor development can be predetermined by genetic characteristics of the NO generation system in macrophages. The important role of NO in anti-EAC immunity should be taken into account in elaboration of new antitumor therapies.

  5. Cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-myc genes in malignant breast tumours

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAMIRA SADEGHI; ZOHREH HOJATI; HOSSEIN TABATABAEIAN

    2017-03-01

    The overexpression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), a proto-oncogene, affects progression, treatment, and diagnosis of many adenocarcinomas. C-myc has been shown to be a downstream target of EpCAM and is also one of the most important proto-oncogenes routinely overexpressed in breast cancer. However, cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-mycgenes has not been investigated in breast cancer tissues, particularly in Iranian population. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of EpCAM and c-myc genes in malignant breast cancer tissues using reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) followed by analyses of the association between the outcomes. In this study, 122 fresh tissues, including 104 malignant and 18 benign samples, were disrupted by mortar and pestle, and then the RNA was isolated from the samples and converted to cDNA. The relative expression levels of EpCAM and c-myc genes were measured by2−ΔΔCt method using RT-qPCR. EpCAM protein level was also assessed in 66 cases using Western blot technique. UsingRT-qPCR method, our results showed that EpCAM was overexpressed in 48% of malignant and 11.1% of benign samples. Evaluating EpCAM protein overexpression in a portion of samples depicted the fully concordance rate between Western blot and RT-qPCR techniques. C-myc expression was first evaluated by RT-qPCR method, showing the overexpression rate of 39%and 28% in malignant and benign samples, respectively. These data were also quite concordant with the clinically available immunohistochemistry reports of the same samples studied in this study. Importantly, overexpression of EpCAM and c-myc was significantly associated and showed an agreement of 57.3%. This study demonstrated the cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-myc in breast tumours collected from breast cancer patients of the Iranian population. EpCAM and c-myc positive cases were significantly associated with reduced and enhanced risk of ER/PR positivity

  6. Cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-myc genes in malignant breast tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Samira; Hojati, Zohreh; Tabatabaeian, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    The overexpression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), a proto-oncogene, affects progression, treatment, and diagnosis of many adenocarcinomas. C-myc has been shown to be a downstream target of EpCAM and is also one of the most important proto-oncogenes routinely overexpressed in breast cancer. However, cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-myc genes has not been investigated in breast cancer tissues, particularly in Iranian population. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of EpCAM and c-myc genes in malignant breast cancer tissues using reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) followed by analyses of the association between the outcomes. In this study, 122 fresh tissues, including 104 malignant and 18 benign samples, were disrupted by mortar and pestle, and then the RNA was isolated from the samples and converted to cDNA. The relative expression levels of EpCAM and c-myc genes were measured by 2(-ΔΔCt) method using RT-qPCR. EpCAM protein level was also assessed in 66 cases using Western blot technique. Using RT-qPCR method, our results showed that EpCAM was overexpressed in 48% of malignant and 11.1% of benign samples. Evaluating EpCAM protein overexpression in a portion of samples depicted the fully concordance rate between Western blot and RT-qPCR techniques. C-myc expression was first evaluated by RT-qPCR method, showing the overexpression rate of 39% and 28% in malignant and benign samples, respectively. These data were also quite concordant with the clinically available immunohistochemistry reports of the same samples studied in this study. Importantly, overexpression of EpCAM and c-myc was significantly associated and showed an agreement of 57.3%. This study demonstrated the cooverexpression of EpCAM and c-myc in breast tumours collected from breast cancer patients of the Iranian population. EpCAM and c-myc positive cases were significantly associated with reduced and enhanced risk of ER/PR positivity

  7. Understanding, perceptions and self-use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM among Malaysian pharmacy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baig Mirza R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent times the basic understanding, perceptions and CAM use among undergraduate health sciences students have become a topic of interest. This study was aimed to investigate the understanding, perceptions and self-use of CAM among pharmacy students in Malaysia. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 systematically sampled pharmacy students from two private and one public university. A validated, self-administered questionnaire comprised of seven sections was used to gather the data. A systematic sampling was applied to recruit the students. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using SPSS® version 18. Results Overall, the students tend to disagree that complementary therapies (CM are a threat to public health (mean score = 3.6 and agreed that CMs include ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit (mean score = 4.7. More than half (57.8% of the participants were currently using CAM while 77.6% had used it previously. Among the current CAM modalities used by the students, CM (21.9% was found to be the most frequently used CAM followed by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM (21%. Most of the students (74.8% believed that lack of scientific evidence is one of the most important barriers obstructing them to use CAM. More than half of the students perceived TCM (62.8% and music therapy (53.8% to be effective. Majority of them (69.3% asserted that CAM knowledge is necessary to be a well-rounded professional. Conclusions This study reveals a high-percentage of pharmacy students who were using or had previously used at least one type of CAM. Students of higher professional years tend to agree that CMs include ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit.

  8. EpCAM-independent capture of circulating tumor cells with a 'universal CTC-chip'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaishi, Yasuhiro; Yoneda, Kazue; Ohnaga, Takashi; Tanaka, Fumihiro

    2017-01-01

    Capture of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which are shed from the primary tumor site and circulate in the blood, remains a technical challenge. CellSearch® is the only clinically approved CTC detection system, but has provided only modest sensitivity in detecting CTCs mainly because epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-negative tumor cells may not be captured. To achieve more sensitive CTC‑capture, we have developed a novel microfluidic platform, a 'CTC-chip' comprised of light-curable resins that has a unique advantage in that any capture antibody is easily conjugated. In the present study, we showed that EpCAM-negative tumor cells as well as EpCAM-positive cells were captured with the novel 'universal CTC-chip' as follows: i) human lung cancer cells (PC-9), with strong EpCAM expression, were efficiently captured with the CTC-chip coated with an anti-EpCAM antibody (with an average capture efficiency of 101% when tumor cells were spiked in phosphate‑buffered saline (PBS) and 88% when spiked in blood); ii) human mesothelioma cells (ACC-MESO-4), with no EpCAM expression but with podoplanin expression, were captured with the CTC-chip coated with an anti-podoplanin antibody (average capture efficiency of 78% when tumor cells were spiked in PBS and 38% when spiked in blood), whereas ACC-MESO-4 cells were not captured with the CTC-chip coated with the anti-EpCAM antibody. These results indicate that the novel 'CTC-chip' can be useful in sensitive EpCAM-independent detection of CTCs, which may provide new insights into personalized medicine.

  9. Predictable aesthetic replacement of a metal-ceramic crown using CAD/CAM technology: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poticny, Daniel; Conrad, Robert

    2005-08-01

    The currently available CAD/CAM technologies present clinicians with various clinical benefits that include durability, marginal adaptation, and precision aesthetics. The clinical and laboratory procedures associated with these CAD/CAM systems differ from one another, and practitioners must understand the indications for each. Office-based systems, as demonstrated in the following case presentation, allow excellent results to be achieved in a single patient visit and provide a viable alternative for today's practice. This case report describes the associated sequences for a posterior CAD/CAM restoration. Learning Objectives This article discusses a protocol for the use of CAD/CAM restorations in the aesthetic replacement of defective posterior crowns. Upon reading this article, the reader should have: * Greater understanding of the in-office CAD/CAM procedures used to fabricate single-visit crowns. * Improved awareness of the bonding protocol used for these all-ceramic crowns.

  10. Validation of aerosols, reactive gases and greenhouse gases in the CAMS forecasts, analyses and reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Henk; Basart, Sara; Blechschmidt, Anne; Chabrillat, Simon; Clark, Hannah; Cuevas, Emilio; Engelen, Richard; Kapsomenakis, John; Katragkou, Eleni; Mantzius Hansen, Kaj; Niemeijer, Sander; Ramonet, Michel; Schulz, Michael; Sudarchikova, Natalia; Wagner, Annette; Warneke, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    The Atmosphere Monitoring Service of the European Copernicus Programme (CAMS) is an operational service providing analyses, reanalyses and daily forecasts of aerosols, reactive gases and greenhouse gases on a global scale, and air quality forecasts and reanalyses on a regional scale. CAMS is based on the systems developed during the European MACC I-II-III (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) research projects. In CAMS data assimilation techniques are applied to combine in-situ and remote sensing observations with global and European-scale models of atmospheric reactive gases, aerosols and greenhouse gases. The global component is based on the Integrated Forecast System of the ECMWF, and the regional component on an ensemble of 7 European air quality models. CAMS is implemented by ECMWF, and the transition from MACC to CAMS is currently being implemented (2015-2016). CAMS has a dedicated validation activity, a partnership of 13 institutes co-ordinated by KNMI, to document the quality of the atmospheric composition products. In our contribution we discuss this validation activity, including the measurement data sets, validation requirements, the operational aspects, the upgrade procedure, the validation reports and scoring methods, and the model configurations and assimilation systems validated. Of special concern are the forecasts of high pollution concentration events (fires, dust storms, air pollution events, volcano ash and SO2). A few interesting validation results will be shown.

  11. Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains presentations from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems held at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia on March 18-19, 1997. The presentations focused on current capabilities and future directions of CAD/CAM/CAE systems, aerospace industry projects, and university activities related to simulation-based design. Workshop attendees represented NASA, commercial software developers, the aerospace industry, government labs, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the potential of emerging CAD/CAM/CAE technology for use in intelligent simulation-based design and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of CAE systems for simulating the entire life cycle of aerospace systems.

  12. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2017-06-01

    During avian development the mesodermal layers of the allantois and chorion fuse to form the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). This structure rapidly expands generating a rich vascular network that provides an interface for gas and waste exchange. The CAM allows to study tissue grafts, tumor growth and metastasis, drugs delivery and toxicologic analysis, and angiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules. The CAM is relatively simple, quick, and low-cost model that allows screening of a large number of pharmacological samples in a short time; does not require administrative procedures for obtaining ethics committee approval for animal experimentation. Moreover, being naturally immunodeficient, the chick embryo may receive transplantations from different tissues and species, without immune responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CAM practitioners in the Australian health workforce: an underutilized resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Sandra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CAM practitioners are a valuable but underutilizes resource in Australian health care. Despite increasing public support for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM little is known about the CAM workforce. Apart from the registered professions of chiropractic, osteopathy and Chinese medicine, accurate information about the number of CAM practitioners in the workforce has been difficult to obtain. It appears that many non-registered CAM practitioners, although highly qualified, are not working to their full capacity. Discussion Increasing public endorsement of CAM stands in contrast to the negative attitude toward the CAM workforce by some members of the medical and other health professions and by government policy makers. The marginalisation of the CAM workforce is evident in prejudicial attitudes held by some members of the medical and other health professions and its exclusion from government policy making. Inconsistent educational standards has meant that non-registered CAM practitioners, including highly qualified and competent ones, are frequently overlooked. Legitimising their contribution to the health workforce could alleviate workforce shortages and provide opportunities for redesigned job roles and new multidisciplinary teams. Priorities for better utilisation of the CAM workforce include establishing a guaranteed minimum education standard for more CAM occupation groups through national registration, providing interprofessional education that includes CAM practitioners, developing courses to upgrade CAM practitioners' professional skills in areas of indentified need, and increasing support for CAM research. Summary Marginalisation of the CAM workforce has disadvantaged those qualified and competent CAM practitioners who practise evidence-informed medicine on the basis of many years of university training. Legitimising and expanding the important contribution of CAM practitioners could alleviate projected health

  14. Web-based CAD and CAM for optomechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min; Zhou, Hai-Guang

    2001-10-01

    CAD & CAM technologies are being used in design and manufacturing process, and are receiving increasing attention from industries and education. We have been researching to develop a new kind of software that is for web-course CAD & CAM. It can be used either in industries or in training, it is supported by IE. Firstly, we aim at CAD/CAM for optomechatronics. We have developed a kind of CAD/CAM, which is not only for mechanics but also for optics and electronic. That is a new kind of software in China. Secondly, we have developed a kind of software for web-course CAD & CAM, we introduce the basis of CAD, the commands of CAD, the programming, CAD/CAM for optomechatronics, the joint application of CAD & CAM. We introduce the functions of MasterCAM, show the whole processes of CAD/CAM/CNC by examples. Following the steps showed on the web, the trainer can not miss. CAD & CAM are widely used in many areas, development of web-course CAD & CAM is necessary for long- distance education and public education. In 1992, China raised: CAD technique, as an important part of electronic technology, is a new key technique to improve the national economic and the modernization of national defence. As so for, the education. Of CAD & CAM is mainly involved in manufacturing industry in China. But with the rapidly development of new technology, especially the development of optics and electronics, CAD & CAM will receive more attention from those areas.

  15. Georeferencing CAMS data: Polynomial rectification and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghe

    The Calibrated Airborne Multispectral Scanner (CAMS) is a sensor used in the commercial remote sensing program at NASA Stennis Space Center. In geographic applications of the CAMS data, accurate geometric rectification is essential for the analysis of the remotely sensed data and for the integration of the data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The commonly used rectification techniques such as the polynomial transformation and ortho rectification have been very successful in the field of remote sensing and GIS for most remote sensing data such as Landsat imagery, SPOT imagery and aerial photos. However, due to the geometric nature of the airborne line scanner which has high spatial frequency distortions, the polynomial model and the ortho rectification technique in current commercial software packages such as Erdas Imagine are not adequate for obtaining sufficient geometric accuracy. In this research, the geometric nature, especially the major distortions, of the CAMS data has been described. An analytical step-by-step geometric preprocessing has been utilized to deal with the potential high frequency distortions of the CAMS data. A generic sensor-independent photogrammetric model has been developed for the ortho-rectification of the CAMS data. Three generalized kernel classes and directional elliptical basis have been formulated into a rectification model of summation of multisurface functions, which is a significant extension to the traditional radial basis functions. The preprocessing mechanism has been fully incorporated into the polynomial, the triangle-based finite element analysis as well as the summation of multisurface functions. While the multisurface functions and the finite element analysis have the characteristics of localization, piecewise logic has been applied to the polynomial and photogrammetric methods, which can produce significant accuracy improvement over the global approach. A software module has been implemented with full

  16. GENERALIZED FUZZY FILTERS OF BL-ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The concept of quasi-coincidence of a fuzzy interval value with an interval valued fuzzy set is considered. In fact, this is a generalization of quasi-coincidence of a fuzzy point with a fuzzy set. By using this new idea, the notion of interval valued (∈, ∈∨q)-fuzzy filters in BL-algebras which is a generalization of fuzzy filters of BL-algebras, is defined, and related properties are investigated. In particular, the concept of a fuzzy subgroup with thresholds is extended to the concept of an interval valued fuzzy filter with thresholds in BL-algebras.

  17. Clustering environments of BL Lac objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Ronald; Ellingson, Erica; Stocke, John T.; Yee, H. K. C.

    1993-01-01

    We report measurements of the amplitude of the BL Lac galaxy spatial covariance function, B(gb), for the fields of five BL Lacertae objects. We present evidence for rich clusters around MS 1207+39 and MS 1407+59, and confirm high richness for the cluster containing H0414+009. We discuss the ease of 3C 66 A and find evidence for a poor cluster based on an uncertain redshift of z = 0.444. These data suggest that at least some BL Lac objects are consistent with being FR 1 radio galaxies in rich clusters.

  18. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) routines and rituals in men with cancer and their significant others (SOs): a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klafke, Nadja; Eliott, Jaklin A; Olver, Ian N; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-05-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used in cancer patients, often with contribution of the significant others (SOs), but without consultation of healthcare professionals. This research explored how cancer patients integrate and maintain CAM use in their everyday life, and how SOs are involved in it. In this qualitative study, male participants were selected from a preceding Australian survey on CAM use in men with cancer (94 % response rate and 86 % consent rate for follow-up interview). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 26 men and 24 SOs until data saturation was reached. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed thematically, thereby paying close attention to participants' language in use. A major theme associated with high CAM use was "CAM routines and rituals," as it was identified that men with cancer practiced CAM as (1) functional routines, (2) meaningful rituals, and (3) mental/spiritual routines or/and rituals. Regular CAM use was associated with intrapersonal and interpersonal benefits: CAM routines provided men with certainty and control, and CAM rituals functioned for cancer patients and their SOs as a means to create meaning, thereby working to counter fear and uncertainty consequent upon a diagnosis of cancer. SOs contributed most to men's uptake and maintenance of dietary-based CAM in ritualistic form resulting in interpersonal bonding and enhanced closeness. CAM routines and rituals constitute key elements in cancer patients' regular and satisfied CAM use, and they promote familial strengthening. Clinicians and physicians can convey these benefits to patient consultations, further promoting the safe and effective use of CAM.

  19. Criterios para Seleccionar Sistemas de Diseño y Manufactura Asistidos por Computadora (CAD/CAM Criteria for the Selection of Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing Systems (CAD/CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Martínez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo presentar en forma clara los principios fundamentales que se requieren para tener un criterio sobre las bondades e inconvenientes de los sistemas Diseño y Manufactura Asistidos por Computadora (CAD/CAM. La inquietud nació por algunos problemas presentados en la primera adquisición de un sistema de CAD/CAM. Se adaptó a una máquina de Control Numérico por Computadora (CNC las dos modalidades de CAM, el primero con el sistema de CAD integrado y la otra con interacción en AutoCAD. Del análisis se determinó la indiferencia de usar un software de CAD desarrollado por la misma compañía del CAM. El resultado de estos experimentos y observaciones proporciona una herramienta fundamental para seleccionar un sistema de CAD/CAM eficienteThe objective of this study was to present in clear form the fundamental principles required to obtain a criterion of the advantages and disadvantages of computer aided design and manufacturing systems (CAD/CAM. The idea for setting these selection criteria were obtained during the initial acquisition of a CAD/CAM system. A Numerical Control by Computer (CNC machine was adapted to two modalities of CAM, the first with an integrated CAD system and another with AutoCAD interaction. From the analysis it was determined that it was immaterial whether or not the use of CAD software was from the same company that produced the CAM software. The results of these experiments and observations provide a fundamental tool for selecting an efficient CAD/CAM system

  20. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  1. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  2. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Thyroid Disease Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease (CAM) WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE ( ... medicine Vodun/Expiritism Ayurvedic medicine REASONS PATIENTS WITH THYROID CANCER/THYROID DISEASE CHOOSE CAM There are few ...

  3. Integrated design of cam mechanisms and servo-control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚燕安[1; 颜鸿森[2; 张策[3; 邹慧君[4

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, in a cam mechanism, the cam is driven by an actuator at a constant speed. The motion characteristics of the follower are determined once the cam profile is designed. This paper presents a novel theory named "integrated design of cam mechanisms and servo-control systems" whose basic idea is varying the input speed trajectory of the cam by a microcomputer-controlled servomotor to improve kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the follower system. The philosophy of the theory is developing superior machines by taking advantage of the flexibility of servo-control systems to compensate for disadvantages of rigid cam mechanisms. The systematic design criteria of the cam-servo-integrated system are developed and an approach based on optimal-control theory is presented for to select suitable cam speed functions, hence the basis of the theory is formed.

  4. DFM/CAPP/CAM System in a Concurrent Engineering Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the importance of DFM/CAPP/CAM system in Concurrent Engineering (CE) is discussed. Based on the analyses of the character of concurrent product design and manufacturing process design, the workflow of DFM/CAPP/CAM system in CE is given. DFM/CAPP/CAM theories, methods and functions are investigated in a delicate and all-round way, and are implemented in the developed DFM/CAPP/CAM system.

  5. Probing classically conformal $B-L$ model with gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jinno, Ryusuke

    2016-01-01

    We study the cosmological history of the classical conformal $B-L$ gauge extension of the standard model, in which the physical scales are generated via the Coleman-Weinberg-type symmetry breaking. Especially, we consider the thermal phase transition of the U$(1)_{B-L}$ symmetry in the early universe and resulting gravitational-wave production. Due to the classical conformal invariance, the phase transition tends to be a first-order one with ultra-supercooling, which enhances the strength of the produced gravitational waves. We show that, requiring (1) U$(1)_{B-L}$ is broken after the reheating, (2) the $B-L$ gauge coupling does not blow up below the Planck scale, (3) the thermal phase transition completes in almost all the patches in the universe, the gravitational wave spectrum can be as large as $\\Omega_{\\rm GW} \\sim 10^{-8}$ at the frequency $f \\sim 0.01$-$1$Hz for some model parameters, and a vast parameter region can be tested by future interferometer experiments such as eLISA, LISA, BBO and DECIGO.

  6. CAD/CAM. High-Technology Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuleger, Robert

    This high technology training module is an advanced course on computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for grades 11 and 12. This unit, to be used with students in advanced drafting courses, introduces the concept of CAD/CAM. The content outline includes the following seven sections: (1) CAD/CAM software; (2) computer…

  7. Education and Training Packages for CAD/CAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, I. C.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses educational efforts in the fields of Computer Assisted Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Describes two educational training initiatives underway in the United Kingdom, one of which is a resource materials package for teachers of CAD/CAM at the undergraduate level, and the other a training course for managers of CAD/CAM systems. (TW)

  8. Current techniques in CAD/CAM denture fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Nadim Z; AlRumaih, Hamad S; Goodacre, Brian J; Goodacre, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) to produce complete dentures has seen exponential growth in the dental market, and the number of commercially available CAD/CAM denture systems grows every year. The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical and laboratory procedures of 5 CAD/CAM denture systems.

  9. Faint stars and OmegaCAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K; Cristiani, S; Renzini, A; Williams, RE

    2001-01-01

    OmegaCAM will be the wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope. In this contribution I present applications of this instrument to the study of faint stellar populations. Two projects are highlighted: a proper motion study to uncover the galactic halo population, and a microlensing study towards

  10. Faint stars and OmegaCAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K; Cristiani, S; Renzini, A; Williams, RE

    2001-01-01

    OmegaCAM will be the wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope. In this contribution I present applications of this instrument to the study of faint stellar populations. Two projects are highlighted: a proper motion study to uncover the galactic halo population, and a microlensing study towards

  11. EpCAM-targeted induction of apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, Edwin; Helfrich, Wijnand

    2008-01-01

    EpCAM is a well-established pancarcinoma-associated target antigen that has been used in a variety of therapeutic approaches. Of particular appeal are those strategies that aim to retarget and locally activate immune effector mechanisms involving apoptosis. Cancer cells typically employ various stra

  12. EpCAM Aptamer-siRNA Chimera Targets and Regress Epithelial Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Subramanian

    Full Text Available Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, a cancer stem cell (CSC marker is over expressed in epithelial cancers and in retinoblastoma (RB. We fabricated an EpCAM targeting aptamer-siRNA chimera and investigated its anti-tumor property and EpCAM intracellular domain (EpICD mediated signaling in epithelial cancer. The anti-tumor efficacy of EpCAM aptamer-siEpCAM chimera (EpApt-siEp was evaluated by qPCR, northern and Western blotting in WERI-Rb1- RB cell line, primary RB tumor cells and in MCF7- breast cancer cell line. Anti-tumor activity of EpApt-siEp was studied in vivo using epithelial cancer (MCF7 mice xenograft model. The mechanism and pathways involved in the anti-tumor activity was further studied using protein arrays and qPCR. EpApt-siEp chimera was processed in vitro by dicer enzyme. Treatment of the WERI-Rb1 and MCF7 cells with EpApt-siEp revealed statistically significant down regulation of EpCAM expression (P<0.005 and concomitant reduction in cellular proliferation. In primary RB cells cultured from RB tumors, EpApt-siEp silenced EpCAM, significantly inhibited (P<0.01 cell proliferation and induced cytotoxicity. Knockdown of EpICD expressed in RB primary tumors led to repression of pluripotency markers, SOX2, OCT4, NANOG, and CD133. In vivo studies showed complete tumor growth regression without any toxicity in animals (P<0.001 and tumor tissues showed significant downregulation (P<0.05 of EpCAM, MRP1, ABCG2, stathmin, survivin and upregulation of ATM (P<0.05 leading to apoptosis by intrinsic pathway with minor alteration in cytokines. Our results revealed that EpApt-siEp potentially eradicated EpCAM positive cancer cells through CSC marker suppression and apoptosis, while sparing normal EpCAM negative adjacent cells.

  13. EpCAM aptamer-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for efficient colon cancer cell-targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaodong; Li, Fengqiao; Zhang, Huijuan; Lu, Yusheng; Lian, Shu; Lin, Hang; Gao, Yu; Jia, Lee

    2016-02-15

    Targeted delivery of anticancer agents by functional nanoparticles is an attractive strategy to increase their therapeutic efficacy while reducing toxicity. In this work, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were modified with aptamer (Ap) against the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for targeted delivery of DOX to colon cancer cells. These nanoparticles (Ap-MSN-DOX) were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, aptamer conjugation efficiency, drug encapsulation efficiency, and drug release properties. The in vitro cell recognition, cellular uptake, EpCAM protein inhibition efficiency, and cytotoxicity of Ap-MSN-DOX were also studied. Results demonstrated that EpCAM conjugation increased binding of Ap-MSN-DOX to EpCAM over-expressing SW620 colon cancer cells but not EpCAM-negative Ramos cells, resulting in enhanced cellular uptake and increased cytotoxicity of the DOX in SW620 cells when compared to non-Ap-modified nanoparticles (MSN-DOX). Additionally, Ap-MSN-DOX exhibited significant inhibition effects on the expression of EpCAM on SW620 cells. These results suggested that Ap-MSN-DOX has the potential for the targeted delivery of therapeutic agents into EpCAM positive colon cancer cells to improve therapeutic index while reducing side effects.

  14. Complementary and alternative medicine use of women with breast cancer : Self-help CAM attracts other women than guided CAM therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo-Fo-Wong, Deborah N. N.; Ranchor, Adelita V.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Henselmans, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine stability of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) of breast cancer patients, reasons for CAM use, and sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological predictors of CAM use. Methods: CAM use was assessed after adjuvant therapy and six months later. Following the CAM He

  15. The Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Michael A.; Hyper Suprime-Cam Team

    2017-01-01

    High-latitude wide-field optical imaging surveys allow us to address scientific questions ranging from the properties of asteroids in the Solar System, to the structure of the Milky Way halo, to galaxy evolution, to the distribution of dark matter in the universe and the properties and evolution of dark energy. Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) is an imaging camera with a 1.77 deg2 field of view, mounted at the Prime Focus of the Subaru 8.2-m telescope operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan on the summit of Maunakea in Hawaii. A consortium of astronomers from Japan, Taiwan and Princeton University is carrying out a three-layer, 300-night, multiband survey with this instrument. The Wide Layer will cover 1400 deg2 in five broad bands (grizy), to a 5 sigma point-source depth of r~26. The Deep Layer will cover 28 deg2 in four separate fields, going a magnitude deeper, and including narrow-band imaging to identify Lyman-alpha emitters at high redshift. The Ultradeep Layer will go a magnitude deeper still in two pointings (3.5 deg2), allowing studies of supernovae and other variable phenomenae.The survey started in 2014, and will continue through 2019. We have covered 240 deg2 of the Wide Layer in all five bands, and the median seeing in the i band is 0.60 arcseconds. In this introductory talk to the HSC special session, I will describe the quality of the data, plans for public data release, and touch upon some of the early science results, which range from the discovery of an ultrafaint dwarf galaxy in the Milky Way halo, to significant numbers of quasars and galaxies with redshifts between 5.7 and 7, to measurements of gravitational weak lensing around clusters.

  16. Information management and complementary alternative medicine: the anatomy of information about CAMs through PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Colomba, Daniela; Ippolito, Calogero; Gargano, Vincenzo; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Licata, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and the use of CAM interventions has become more common among people. For these reasons, health professionals must be able to effectively manage information in this field of knowledge according to an evidence-based point of view. This study assessed the anatomy of the available information about CAMs using PubMed, to give practical instructions to manage information in this field. We also analyzed the anatomy of information according to each alternative medicine branch, narrow and broad search methods, subset filters for indexed-for-Medline and non-indexed citations, and different publication types including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses. Our results demonstrated that the use of CAMs subset (supplied by PubMed search engine) leads to a great number of citations determining an information overload. Our data reveal that it would be more useful to search for the CAM separately, identifying specific items and study design. Moreover, we found the largest number of randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses related to herbal medicine and acupuncture, neither RCTs nor meta-analyses were available for bach and flower remedies, auriculoacupuncture, iridology, and pranotherapy. For the first time, our study gives a comprehensive view of the anatomy of information regarding CAMs and each branch of them. We suggest a methodological approach to face with searching information about this emerging issue from an evidence-based point of view. Finally, our data pointed out some "grey zones" since neither RCTs nor meta-analyses were available for some CAMs.

  17. Correlation between citric acid and nitrate metabolisms during CAM cycle in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi, Luciano; Rodrigues, Maria Aurineide; Tiné, Marco Aurélio Silva; Mercier, Helenice

    2010-12-15

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) confers crucial adaptations for plants living under frequent environmental stresses. A wide metabolic plasticity can be found among CAM species regarding the type of storage carbohydrate, organic acid accumulated at night and decarboxylating system. Consequently, many aspects of the CAM pathway control are still elusive while the impact of this photosynthetic adaptation on nitrogen metabolism has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated a possible link between the CAM cycle and the nitrogen assimilation in the atmospheric bromeliad Tillandsia pohliana by simultaneously characterizing the diel changes in key enzyme activities and metabolite levels of both organic acid and nitrate metabolisms. The results revealed that T. pohliana performed a typical CAM cycle in which phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase phosphorylation seemed to play a crucial role to avoid futile cycles of carboxylation and decarboxylation. Unlike all other bromeliads previously investigated, almost equimolar concentrations of malate and citrate were accumulated at night. Moreover, a marked nocturnal depletion in the starch reservoirs and an atypical pattern of nitrate reduction restricted to the nighttime were also observed. Since reduction and assimilation of nitrate requires a massive supply of reducing power and energy and considering that T. pohliana lives overexposed to the sunlight, we hypothesize that citrate decarboxylation might be an accessory mechanism to increase internal CO₂ concentration during the day while its biosynthesis could provide NADH and ATP for nocturnal assimilation of nitrate. Therefore, besides delivering photoprotection during the day, citrate might represent a key component connecting both CAM pathway and nitrogen metabolism in T. pohliana; a scenario that certainly deserves further study not only in this species but also in other CAM plants that nocturnally accumulate citrate

  18. Use of selected complementary and alternative medicine (CAM treatments in veterans with cancer or chronic pain: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebschutz Jane M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is emerging as an important form of care in the United States. We sought to measure the prevalence of selected CAM use among veterans attending oncology and chronic pain clinics and to describe the characteristics of CAM use in this population. Methods The self-administered, mail-in survey included questions on demographics, health beliefs, medical problems and 6 common CAM treatments (herbs, dietary supplements, chiropractic care, massage therapy, acupuncture and homeopathy use. We used the chi-square test to examine bivariate associations between our predictor variables and CAM use. Results Seventy-two patients (27.3% reported CAM use within the past 12 months. CAM use was associated with more education (p = 0.02, higher income (p = 0.006, non-VA insurance (p = 0.003, additional care outside the VA (p = 0.01 and the belief that lifestyle contributes to illness (p = 0.015. The diagnosis of chronic pain versus cancer was not associated with differential CAM use (p = 0.15. Seventy-six percent of CAM non-users reported that they would use it if offered at the VA. Conclusion Use of 6 common CAM treatments among these veterans is lower than among the general population, but still substantial. A large majority of veterans reported interest in using CAM modalities if they were offered at the VA. A national assessment of veteran interest in CAM may assist VA leaders to respond to patients' needs.

  19. Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J J

    2013-01-01

    Modern design methods of Automotive Cam Design require the computation of a range of parameters. This book provides a logical sequence of steps for the derivation of the relevant equations from first principles, for the more widely used cam mechanisms. Although originally derived for use in high performance engines, this work is equally applicable to the design of mass produced automotive and other internal combustion engines.   Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms provides the equations necessary for the design of cam lift curves with an associated smooth acceleration curve. The equations are derived for the kinematics and kinetics of all the mechanisms considered, together with those for cam curvature and oil entrainment velocity. This permits the cam shape, all loads, and contact stresses to be evaluated, and the relevant tribology to be assessed. The effects of asymmetry on the manufacture of cams for finger follower and offset translating curved followers is ...

  20. Concurrent Complementary and Alternative Medicine CAM and Conventional Rehabilitation Therapy in the Management of Children with Developmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Yeon Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the concurrent use of conventional rehabilitations and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies for the long-term management of children with developmental disorders (DDs. Methods. The parents or caregivers of 533 children with DDs (age range, 1–19 years who visited the rehabilitation centers were surveyed using in depth face-to-face interviews. Results. Of the 533 patients enrolled, 520 completed the questionnaire (97% response rate. A total of 292 (56% children were receiving multiple therapies, more than two conventional rehabilitations and CAM, at the time of the interview. A total of 249 (48% children reported lifetime CAM use, 23% used CAM at the time of the interview, and 62% of the patients planned to use CAM therapy in the future. Conventional rehabilitation therapies used at the time of the interview included physical therapy (30%, speech therapy (28%, and occupational therapy (19%, and the CAM therapies included herbal medicine (5% and acupuncture or moxibustion (3%. The respondents indicated that in the future they planned to use acupuncture or moxibustion (57%, occupational therapy (18%, cognitive behavioral therapy (16%, speech therapy (10%, and physical therapy (8%. Conclusion. Concurrent management as conventional rehabilitations and CAM therapies is widely used by children with DDs.

  1. A focus Group Study of Medical Students’ Views of an Integrated Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM Curriculum: Students Teaching Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Lie, M.D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Student views of new curricula can shape training outcomes. This qualitative study elicited student opinions of CAM instruction to examine and distill best strategies.Methods: 49 second, third and fourth year students participated in focus groups using a predefined question route. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed.Results: Students successfully differentiated CAM curricula from other academic content and were supportive of a longitudinal integrated approach. They had positive disposition toward CAM use for themselves but this did not necessarily translate into patient recommendations. They agreed that goals of the CAM curriculum should center on awareness of patient use and evidence and information relevant to clinical practice. They advocated a case-based, hands-on, experiential strategy vs lectures. Students proposed greater institutional commitment to strengthen curricular effectiveness. The majority did not intend to practice CAM modalities but valued skills to assess them. Patient-centeredness was recognized. As training progressed, students exhibited a growing tendency to evaluate CAM efficacy, and therefore value, exclusively according to evidence.Conclusions: In-depth student input allowed examination of the effectiveness of a CAM curriculum,permitting improvement and assessment of program effectiveness.

  2. PreCam: A Precursor Observational Campaign for Calibration of the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Allam, S.; Annis, J. T.; Bailey, T.; Balbinot, E.; Bernstein, J. P.; Biesiadzinski, T.; Burke, D. L.; Butner, M.; Camargo, J. I. B.; da Costa, L. A. N.; DePoy, D.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Estrada, J.; Fausti, A.; Gerke, B.; Guarino, V.; Head, H. H.; Kessler, R.; Lin, H.; Lorenzon, W.; Maia, M. A. G.; Maki, L.; Marshall, J.; Nord, B.; Neilsen, E.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Park, D.; Peoples, J.; Rastawicki, D.; Rheault, J. -P.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Seitzer, P.; Smith, J. A.; Spinka, H.; Sypniewski, A.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D. L.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.

    2013-04-01

    PreCam, a precursor observational campaign supporting the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is designed to produce a photometric and astrometric catalog of nearly a hundred thousand standard stars within the DES footprint, while the PreCam instrument also serves as a prototype testbed for the Dark Energy Camera's hardware and software. This catalog represents a potential 100-fold increase in Southern Hemisphere photometric standard stars, and therefore will be an important component in the calibration of the Dark Energy Survey. We provide details on the PreCam instrument's design, construction, and testing, as well as results from a subset of the 51 nights of PreCam survey observations on the University of Michigan Department of Astronomy's Curtis-Schmidt telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). We briefly describe the preliminary data processing pipeline that has been developed for PreCam data and the preliminary results of the instrument performance, as well as astrometry and photometry of a sample of stars previously included in other southern sky surveys.

  3. SenseCam as a rehabilitation tool in a child with anterograde amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly-Takacs, Katalin; Moulin, Chris J A; Estlin, Edward J

    2011-10-01

    We present the case of a 13-year-old boy, CJ, with profound episodic memory difficulties following the diagnosis of a metastatic intracranial germ cell tumour and subsequent treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. At the core of this study is the first application of SenseCam to a child with severe memory impairment. CJ was taken for a walk while he was wearing SenseCam. This included visiting four different locations. We manipulated the number of locations he could review on SenseCam "films" and then tested recognition memory (forced choice) for both reviewed and non-reviewed locations. We also collected his justifications for the choices he made. Our results indicate that repeated viewings of SenseCam images support the formation of personal semantic memories. Overall our results suggest that the use of SenseCam in memory rehabilitation extends beyond supporting episodic memory and recollection, and supports the feasibility of its use with children who have marked memory difficulties.

  4. Majorana Dark matter with B+L gauge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Wei; Zhang, Yongchao

    2016-01-01

    We present a new model that extends the Standard Model (SM) with the local B+L symmetry, and point out that the lightest new fermion $\\zeta$, introduced to cancel anomalies and stabilized automatically by the B+L symmetry, can serve as the cold dark matter candidate. We study constraints on the model from Higgs measurements, electroweak precision measurements as well as the relic density and direct detections of the dark matter. Numerical results reveal that the pseudo-vector coupling of $\\zeta$ with $Z$ and the Yukawa coupling with the SM Higgs are highly constrained by the latest results of LUX, while there are viable parameter space that could satisfy all the constraints and give testable predictions.

  5. Chaos in hydrodynamic BL Herculis models

    CERN Document Server

    Smolec, R

    2014-01-01

    We present non-linear, convective, BL Her-type hydrodynamic models that show complex variability characteristic for deterministic chaos. The bifurcation diagram reveals a rich structure, with many phenomena detected for the first time in hydrodynamic models of pulsating stars. The phenomena include not only period doubling cascades en route to chaos (detected in earlier studies) but also periodic windows within chaotic band, type-I and type-III intermittent behaviour, interior crisis bifurcation and others. Such phenomena are known in many textbook chaotic systems, from the simplest discrete logistic map, to more complex systems like Lorenz equations. We discuss the physical relevance of our models. Although except of period doubling such phenomena were not detected in any BL Her star, chaotic variability was claimed in several higher luminosity siblings of BL Her stars - RV Tau variables, and also in longer-period, luminous irregular pulsators. Our models may help to understand these poorly studied stars. Pa...

  6. Enhanced in vitro antiproliferative effects of EpCAM antibody-functionalized paclitaxel-loaded PLGA nanoparticles in retinoblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Moutushy; Misra, Ranjita; Harilal, Anju; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2011-01-01

    Background To specifically deliver paclitaxel (PTX) to retinoblastoma (RB) cells, the anionic surface-charged poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs loaded with paclitaxel were conjugated with epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody for enhancing site-specific intracellular delivery of paclitaxel against EpCAM overexpressing RB cells. Methods PTX-loaded PLGA NPs were prepared by the oil-in-water single emulsion solvent evaporation method, and the PTX content in NPs was estimated by the reverse phase isocratic mode of high performance liquid chromatography. Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry was employed for the covalent attachment of monoclonal EpCAM antibody onto the NP surface. In vitro cytotoxicity of native PTX, unconjugated PTX-loaded NPs (PTX-NPs), and EpCAM antibody-conjugated PTX-loaded nanoparticles (PTX-NP-EpCAM) were evaluated on a Y79 RB cell line by a dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, while cellular apoptosis, cysteinyl-aspartic acid protease (caspase)-3 activation, Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and cell-cycle arrest were quantified by flow cytometry. By employing flow cytometry and fluorescence image analyses, the extent of cellular uptake was comparatively evaluated. Results PTX-NP-EpCAM had superior antiproliferation activity, increased arrested cell population at the G2-M phase, and increased activation of caspase-3, followed by PARP cleavage in parallel with the induction of apoptosis. Increased uptake of PTX-Np-EpCAM by the cells suggests that they were mainly taken up through EpCAM mediated endocytosis. Conclusions EpCAM antibody-functionalized biodegradable NPs for tumor-selective drug delivery and overcoming drug resistance could be an efficient therapeutic strategy for retinoblastoma treatment. PMID:22065926

  7. Differential effects of human L1CAM mutations on complementing guidance and synaptic defects in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirisha Kudumala

    Full Text Available A large number of different pathological L1CAM mutations have been identified that result in a broad spectrum of neurological and non-neurological phenotypes. While many of these mutations have been characterized for their effects on homophilic and heterophilic interactions, as well as expression levels in vitro, there are only few studies on their biological consequences in vivo. The single L1-type CAM gene in Drosophila, neuroglian (nrg, has distinct functions during axon guidance and synapse formation and the phenotypes of nrg mutants can be rescued by the expression of human L1CAM. We previously showed that the highly conserved intracellular FIGQY Ankyrin-binding motif is required for L1CAM-mediated synapse formation, but not for neurite outgrowth or axon guidance of the Drosophila giant fiber (GF neuron. Here, we use the GF as a model neuron to characterize the pathogenic L120V, Y1070C, C264Y, H210Q, E309K and R184Q extracellular L1CAM missense mutations and a L1CAM protein with a disrupted ezrin-moesin-radixin (ERM binding site to investigate the signaling requirements for neuronal development. We report that different L1CAM mutations have distinct effects on axon guidance and synapse formation. Furthermore, L1CAM homophilic binding and signaling via the ERM motif is essential for axon guidance in Drosophila. In addition, the human pathological H210Q, R184Q and Y1070C, but not the E309K and L120V L1CAM mutations affect outside-in signaling via the FIGQY Ankyrin binding domain which is required for synapse formation. Thus, the pathological phenotypes observed in humans are likely to be caused by the disruption of signaling required for both, guidance and synaptogenesis.

  8. Formal Management of CAD/CAM Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhase, Michael; Lemburg, Johannes; Schröder, Lutz; Schulz, Ewaryst

    Systematic engineering design processes have many aspects in common with software engineering, with CAD/CAM objects replacing program code as the implementation stage of the development. They are, however, currently considerably less formal. We propose to draw on the mentioned similarities and transfer methods from software engineering to engineering design in order to enhance in particular the reliability and reusability of engineering processes. We lay out a vision of a document-oriented design process that integrates CAD/CAM documents with requirement specifications; as a first step towards supporting such a process, we present a tool that interfaces a CAD system with program verification workflows, thus allowing for completely formalised development strands within a semi-formal methodology.

  9. CAM/LIFTER forces and friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbey, D. J.; Lee, J.; Patterson, D. J.

    1992-02-01

    This report details the procedures used to measure the cam/lifter forces and friction. The present effort employed a Cummins LTA-10, and focuses on measurements and dynamic modeling of the injector train. The program was sponsored by the US Department of Energy in support of advanced diesel engine technology. The injector train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod force, injector link force, and cam speed. These measurements, together with lift profiles for pushrod and injector link displacement, enabled the friction work loss in the injector train to be determined. Other significant design criteria such as camshaft roller follower slippage and maximum loads on components were also determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the dynamic model, with tests run as required for correlation.

  10. CAM and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hankey

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the form of the Transcendental Meditation program CAM offers a method of eliminating deep-rooted stress, the efficacy of which has been demonstrated in several related studies. Any discussion of CAM and post-traumatic stress disorder should include a study of its application to Vietnam War Veterans in which improvements were observed on all variables, and several participants were able to return to work after several years of being unable to hold a job. The intervention has been studied for its impact on brain and autonomic nervous system function. It has been found to be highly effective against other stress-related conditions such as hypertension, and to improve brain coherence—a measure of effective brain function. It should be considered a possible ‘new and improved mode of treatment’ for PTSD, and further studies of its application made.

  11. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchels, Ferry; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059 (Australia); Wiggenhauser, Paul Severin; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten [Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Warne, David; Barry, Mark [High Performance Computing and Research Support, Queensland University of Technology, Gardens Point Road, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Ong, Fook Rhu; Chong, Woon Shin, E-mail: Dietmar.Hutmacher@qut.edu.au, E-mail: jtschantz@lrz.tu-muenchen.de [Singapore Polytechnic, 500 Dover Road, 139651 Singapore (Singapore)

    2011-09-15

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate.

  12. Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review

    OpenAIRE

    Meeker William C; Lawrence Dana J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Objective To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions Data Sources A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. Data Selection A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including inform...

  13. ANATOMIC STUDY OF THE PROXIMAL THIRD OF THE FEMUR: FEMOROACETABULAR IMPACT AND THE CAM EFFECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labronici, Pedro José; Alves, Sergio Delmonte; da Silva, Anselmo Fernandes; Giuberti, Gilberto Ribeiro; de Azevedo Neto, Justino Nóbrega; Mezzalira Penedo, Jorge Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To analyze anatomical variations of the proximal end of femur that could cause a femoroacetabular impact. Methods: 199 skeletically mature anatomical specimens of femurs were used. The femurs were measured in order to determine the anteversion angle of the femoral neck, neckshaft angle, sphericity of the femoral head at anteroposterior and superoinferior, angle between epiphysis and the anterior femoral neck, angle between epiphysis and the neck at lateral plane, anteroposterior distance at 5mm of the head and neck junction and anteroposterior distance of the neck base. Results: we found that the impact subgroup presented a significantly larger junction diameter of 5mm (p = 0.0001) and cam-head (%) (p= 0.0001), while base-cam (%) (p = 0.0001) showed a significantly smaller diameter than the subgroup without impact. It was identified that cam-head (%) ≤ 80 e base-cam (%) ≤ 73 were identified as the optimal impact points. Conclusion: our study showed that the effect cam, caused by anatomical variations of the proximal femoral end focused the head-neck junction and base of the neck-junction head-neck. These rates can be predictive factors of the impact. PMID:26998462

  14. Treatment Expectations for CAM Interventions in Pediatric Chronic Pain Patients and their Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient expectations regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM interventions have important implications for treatment adherence, attrition and clinical outcome. Little is known, however, about parent and child treatment expectations regarding CAM approaches for pediatric chronic pain problems. The present study examined ratings of the expected benefits of CAM (i.e. hypnosis, massage, acupuncture, yoga and relaxation and conventional medicine (i.e. medications, surgery interventions in 45 children (32 girls; mean age = 13.8 years ± 2.5 and parents (39 mothers presenting for treatment at a specialty clinic for chronic pediatric pain. Among children, medications and relaxation were expected to be significantly more helpful than the remaining approaches (P < 0.01. However, children expected the three lowest rated interventions, acupuncture, surgery and hypnosis, to be of equal benefit. Results among parents were similar to those found in children but there were fewer significant differences between ratings of the various interventions. Only surgery was expected by parents to be significantly less helpful than the other approaches (P < 0.01. When parent and child perceptions were compared, parents expected hypnosis, acupuncture and yoga, to be more beneficial than did children, whereas children expected surgery to be more helpful than did parents (P < 0.01. Overall, children expected the benefits of CAM to be fairly low with parents' expectations only somewhat more positive. The current findings suggest that educational efforts directed at enhancing treatment expectations regarding CAM, particularly among children with chronic pain, are warranted.

  15. TROP-1/Ep-CAM and CD24 are potential candidates for ovarian cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihong; Zhang, Zhenhua; Ren, Yongqiang

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the possible roles of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (TROP-1/Ep-CAM) and CD24 molecule (CD24) in ovarian tumorigenesis, and explore the possible mechanism underlying this disease. Recombinant eukaryotic expression vectors pCIneo-TROP-1/Ep-CAM and pCIneo-CD24 were transfected into human normal ovarian surface epithelia cell line IOSE-80 respectively, with IOSE-80 cells transfected with the empty vector pCIneo as control. MRNA and protein expression of TROP-1/Ep-CAM and CD24 were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Cell migration was assayed by trans-well inserts; cell proliferation and adhesion were analyzed by CCK-8 Cell Counting kit; cell cycle and cell apoptosis analysis were performed by flow cytometer. The expressions of TROP-1/Ep-CAM and CD24 were obviously up-regulated in TROP-1/Ep-CAM group and CD24 group compared to that in control group (PCAM group and CD24 group was significantly promoted migratory and proliferation abilities, but inhibited cell apoptosis and adhesive than that of control group (PCAM and CD24 may play key roles in the progression of ovarian cancer through promoting migration, proliferation, inhibiting cell apoptosis and adhesion, and disturbing cell cycle. They may be used as specific therapeutic targets in the treatment of ovarian cancer. However, further experiments are still needed to confirm our results.

  16. Blå Barracuda -formidling for sjov?

    OpenAIRE

    Fjeldsted, Tobias; Tarp, Ditte Clement; Find, Ditte Vig; Lottrup, Gry; Espensen, Maia Linnea; Lilliedal, Mathilde Raad; Olsen, Rasmus; Storm, Søren

    2004-01-01

    (DK) Rapporten indeholder en undersøgelse af en 5. klasses faglige og interessemæssige udbytte, af henholdsvis indslaget Dagens Forsøg i det naturvidenskabelige tv-program Blå Barracuda, og en konstruktivistisk undervisningssituation svarende til Dagens Forsøg. Denne problemstilling løses ved en teoretisk indføring i læringsteorier og interviewteknikker, samt en analyse af Blå Barracudas formidlingsmetoder. Der udvælges to programmer, og der udføres to sideløbne praktiske forløb med 5. kla...

  17. The NectarCAM camera project

    CERN Document Server

    Glicenstein, J-F; Barrio, J-A; Blanch, O; Boix, J; Bolmont, J; Boutonnet, C; Cazaux, S; Chabanne, E; Champion, C; Chateau, F; Colonges, S; Corona, P; Couturier, S; Courty, B; Delagnes, E; Delgado, C; Ernenwein, J-P; Fegan, S; Ferreira, O; Fesquet, M; Fontaine, G; Fouque, N; Henault, F; Gascón, D; Herranz, D; Hermel, R; Hoffmann, D; Houles, J; Karkar, S; Khelifi, B; Knödlseder, J; Martinez, G; Lacombe, K; Lamanna, G; LeFlour, T; Lopez-Coto, R; Louis, F; Mathieu, A; Moulin, E; Nayman, P; Nunio, F; Olive, J-F; Panazol, J-L; Petrucci, P-O; Punch, M; Prast, J; Ramon, P; Riallot, M; Ribó, M; Rosier-Lees, S; Sanuy, A; Siero, J; Tavernet, J-P; Tejedor, L A; Toussenel, F; Vasileiadis, G; Voisin, V; Waegebert, V; Zurbach, C

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the next generation of Cherenkov telescopes, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), NectarCAM is a camera designed for the medium size telescopes covering the central energy range of 100 GeV to 30 TeV. NectarCAM will be finely pixelated (~ 1800 pixels for a 8 degree field of view, FoV) in order to image atmospheric Cherenkov showers by measuring the charge deposited within a few nanoseconds time-window. It will have additional features like the capacity to record the full waveform with GHz sampling for every pixel and to measure event times with nanosecond accuracy. An array of a few tens of medium size telescopes, equipped with NectarCAMs, will achieve up to a factor of ten improvement in sensitivity over existing instruments in the energy range of 100 GeV to 10 TeV. The camera is made of roughly 250 independent read-out modules, each composed of seven photo-multipliers, with their associated high voltage base and control, a read-out board and a multi-service backplane board. The read-out b...

  18. EpCAM-targeted induction of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Edwin; Helfrich, Wijnand

    2008-05-01

    EpCAM is a well-established pancarcinoma-associated target antigen that has been used in a variety of therapeutic approaches. Of particular appeal are those strategies that aim to retarget and locally activate immune effector mechanisms involving apoptosis. Cancer cells typically employ various strategies to evade recognition and elimination by immune effector cells, including low or absent expression of MHCI molecules and active elimination of tumor infiltrating immune cells. In addition, cancer cells show an increased resistance towards endogenous pro-apoptotic stimuli due to aberrancies in their apoptotic machinery. However, compelling evidence indicates that cancer cells are often reliant on these molecular aberrations for continued cell survival. This pivotal role of immune evasion and apoptosis resistance has fueled the quest for therapeutic strategies that can selectively retarget and reactivate immune effector cells or molecules, whereby the balance of cellular fate of cancer cells is selectively tipped towards apoptosis. Here we review and discuss the perspectives for EpCAM-targeted apoptosis induction in cancer by EpCAM-selective bispecific antibodies and TRAIL fusion proteins.

  19. Is complementary and alternative medicine (CAM cost-effective? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspi Opher

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-pocket expenditures of over $34 billion per year in the US are an apparent testament to a widely held belief that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies have benefits that outweigh their costs. However, regardless of public opinion, there is often little more than anecdotal evidence on the health and economic implications of CAM therapies. The objectives of this study are to present an overview of economic evaluation and to expand upon a previous review to examine the current scope and quality of CAM economic evaluations. Methods The data sources used were Medline, AMED, Alt-HealthWatch, and the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Citation Index; January 1999 to October 2004. Papers that reported original data on specific CAM therapies from any form of standard economic analysis were included. Full economic evaluations were subjected to two types of quality review. The first was a 35-item checklist for reporting quality, and the second was a set of four criteria for study quality (randomization, prospective collection of economic data, comparison to usual care, and no blinding. Results A total of 56 economic evaluations (39 full evaluations of CAM were found covering a range of therapies applied to a variety of conditions. The reporting quality of the full evaluations was poor for certain items, but was comparable to the quality found by systematic reviews of economic evaluations in conventional medicine. Regarding study quality, 14 (36% studies were found to meet all four criteria. These exemplary studies indicate CAM therapies that may be considered cost-effective compared to usual care for various conditions: acupuncture for migraine, manual therapy for neck pain, spa therapy for Parkinson's, self-administered stress management for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, pre- and post-operative oral nutritional supplementation for lower gastrointestinal tract surgery, biofeedback for patients with

  20. [Study on identification of Gastrodia elata Bl. by Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ze-Feng; Xu, Rui; Cheng, Cun-Gui

    2007-09-01

    In the present article the FTIR spectra of the wild and planting Gastrodia elata Bl. from different habitats and its confusable varieties such as Canna edulis Ker-Gawl, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott and Solanum tuberosum L. were obtained by horizontal attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (HATR-FTIR), and were all transformed by Fourier self-deconvolution. The authors investigated the discrepancy extent of Fourier self-deconvolution of Gastrodia elata Bl and confusable varieties under various bandwidth and enhancement, and found that the discrepancy extent of Gastrodia elata Bl and confusable varieties was the most obvious when the bandwidth was between 75.0 and 76.0 and enhancement was 3.2. By adopting Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy (FSD-IR) analytical method the samples were studied in detail. The results showed that we could find out the difference among them by means of Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy, although it was very difficult to find out the difference in FSD-IR spectra of wild and planting Gastrodia elata Bl., and asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction Gastrodia elata Bl. The difference in FSD-IR spectra between Gastrodia elata Bl. and its confusable varieties is also very great. Therefore, this method can be used to recognize different Gastrodia elata Bl. and its confusable varieties simply, rapidly and accurately.

  1. Applying DER-CAM for IIT Microgrid Explansion Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Li, Zuyi [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chen, Chen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-19

    The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is an economic and environmental model of customer DER adoption. This model has been in development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory since 2000. The objective of the model is to find optimal DER investments while minimizing total energy costs or carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, or achieving a weighted objective that simultaneously considers both criteria. The Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Microgrid project started in August 2008, and the majority of the project was completed in May 2013. IIT Microgrid, funded mostly by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy as well as State and philanthropic contributions, empowers the campus consumers with the objective of establishing a smart microgrid that is highly reliable, economically viable, environmentally friendly, fuel-efficient, and resilient in extreme circumstances with a self-healing capability. In this project, we apply DER-CAM to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid. First, the load data, environmental data, utility data, and technology data for the IIT Microgrid are gathered and organized to follow the DER-CAM input requirements. Then, DERCAM is applied to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid for different cases, where different objectives in DER-CAM and different utility conditions are tested. Case 1 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with fixed utility rates and 100% electric utility availability. Case 2 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with real-time utility rates and 4 emergency weeks when the IIT Microgrid does not have access to the electric utility grid and has to operate in island mode. In Case 3, the utility rates are restored to fixed values and 100% electric utility availability is assumed, but a weighted multi-objective (Obj: a × costs + b × CO2 emissions, where a and b are weights for cost minimization and CO2 emissions minimization) is utilized to

  2. JunoCam's Imaging of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn; Hansen, Candice; Momary, Thomas; Caplinger, Michael; Ravine, Michael; Atreya, Sushil; Ingersoll, Andrew; Bolton, Scott; Rogers, John; Eichstaedt, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    Juno's visible imager, JunoCam, is a wide-angle camera (58° field of view) with 4 color filters: red, green and blue (RGB) and methane at 889 nm, designed for optimal imaging of Jupiter's poles. Juno's elliptical polar orbit offers unique views of Jupiter's polar regions with spatial scales as good as 50 km/pixel. At closest approach ("perijove") the images have spatial scale down to ˜3 km/pixel. As a push-frame imager on a rotating spacecraft, JunoCam uses time-delayed integration to take advantage of the spacecraft spin to extend integration time to increase signal. Images of Jupiter's poles reveal a largely uncharted region of Jupiter, as nearly all earlier spacecraft except Pioneer 11 have orbited or flown by close to the equatorial plane. Poleward of 64-68° planetocentric latitude, Jupiter's familiar east-west banded structure breaks down. Several types of discrete features appear on a darker, bluish-cast background. Clusters of circular cyclonic spirals are found immediately around the north and south poles. Oval-shaped features are also present, ranging in size down to JunoCam's resolution limits. The largest and brightest features usually have chaotic shapes; animations over ˜1 hour can reveal cyclonic motion in them. Narrow linear features traverse tens of degrees of longitude and are not confined in latitude. JunoCam also detected optically thin clouds or hazes that are illuminated beyond the nightside ˜1-bar terminator; one of these detected at Perijove lay some 3 scale heights above the main cloud deck. Tests have been made to detect the aurora and lightning. Most close-up images of Jupiter have been acquired at lower latitudes within 2 hours of closest approach. These images aid in understanding the data collected by other instruments on Juno that probe deeper in the atmosphere. When Jupiter was too close to the sun for ground-based observers to collect data between perijoves 1 and 2, JunoCam took a sequence of routine images to monitor large

  3. Survey on the use of CAD-CAM technology by UK and Irish dental technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, E; Nesbit, M; Petridis, H

    2017-05-12

    Statement of the problem Digital workflows (CAD/CAM) have been introduced in dentistry during recent years. No published information exists on dental technicians' use and reporting of this technology.Purpose The aim of this cross sectional survey was to identify the extent digital technology has infiltrated the workplace and to investigate the factors affecting the use of CAD-CAM technology by dental laboratory technicians within Ireland and the UK.Materials and methods A web-based questionnaire was composed (Opinio, Object Planet Inc. Oslo, Norway) and distributed to UK and Irish dental technicians. Answers to all questions were anonymous and grouped such that general information was gathered initially, followed by branching of the survey into two sections depending on whether or not the respondent worked with CAD-CAM technology. Results were compiled and statistical analysis (Fisher's Exact test, SPSS, IBM, Armonk, New York, USA) was performed in order to investigate any correlation between various demographic variables and the answers provided.Results The survey was distributed to 760 UK technicians and 77 Irish technicians. The total number of completed surveys was 105, which yielded a total response rate of 14%. Most technicians reported using some form of CAD/CAM aspect in the workflow, and this was more significant for technicians working in large laboratories. Most training received was company-led. Large laboratories were also significantly correlated with less outsourcing of CAD/CAM work and a change in dental material use leading to the increase of zirconia and the decrease of noble alloys. Dental technicians did not report any significant change in working relationships and staffing as a result of CAD/CAM incorporation. High initial investment cost was the most common reason quoted from non-users, along with the lack of such technology in their working environment.

  4. Cooling Tests of the NectarCAM camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Moulin, E; Durand, D; Feirreira, O; Fesquet, M; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J -F; Loiseau, D; Louis, F; Nunio, F; Rateau, S; consortia, CTA

    2015-01-01

    The NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next-generation observatory for very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. The cameras are designed to operate in an open environment and their mechanics must provide protection for all their components under the conditions defined for the CTA observatory. In order to operate in a stable environment and ensure the best physics performance, each NectarCAM will be enclosed in a slightly overpressurized, nearly air-tight, camera body, to prevent dust and water from entering. The total power dissipation will be ~7.7 kW for a 1855-pixel camera. The largest fraction is dissipated by the readout electronics in the modules. We present the design and implementation of the cooling system together with the test bench results obtained on the NectarCAM thermal demonstrator.

  5. On Fuzzy Ideals of BL-Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Long Meng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate further properties of fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra. The notions of fuzzy prime ideals, fuzzy irreducible ideals, and fuzzy Gödel ideals of a BL-algebra are introduced and their several properties are investigated. We give a procedure to generate a fuzzy ideal by a fuzzy set. We prove that every fuzzy irreducible ideal is a fuzzy prime ideal but a fuzzy prime ideal may not be a fuzzy irreducible ideal and prove that a fuzzy prime ideal ω is a fuzzy irreducible ideal if and only if ω0=1 and |Im⁡(ω|=2. We give the Krull-Stone representation theorem of fuzzy ideals in BL-algebras. Furthermore, we prove that the lattice of all fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra is a complete distributive lattice. Finally, it is proved that every fuzzy Boolean ideal is a fuzzy Gödel ideal, but the converse implication is not true.

  6. On Fuzzy Ideals of BL-Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate further properties of fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra. The notions of fuzzy prime ideals, fuzzy irreducible ideals, and fuzzy Gödel ideals of a BL-algebra are introduced and their several properties are investigated. We give a procedure to generate a fuzzy ideal by a fuzzy set. We prove that every fuzzy irreducible ideal is a fuzzy prime ideal but a fuzzy prime ideal may not be a fuzzy irreducible ideal and prove that a fuzzy prime ideal ω is a fuzzy irreducible ideal if and only if ω(0) = 1 and |Im⁡(ω)| = 2. We give the Krull-Stone representation theorem of fuzzy ideals in BL-algebras. Furthermore, we prove that the lattice of all fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra is a complete distributive lattice. Finally, it is proved that every fuzzy Boolean ideal is a fuzzy Gödel ideal, but the converse implication is not true. PMID:24892085

  7. Blöte and Nienhuis reply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blöte, H.W.; Nienhuis, B.

    1994-01-01

    A reply to the comment by Jané Kondev and Christopher L. Henley, Conformal Charge and Exact Exponents in the n=2 Fully Packed Loop Model, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2786 (1994) on Original: H. W. Blöte and B. Nienhuis, Fully packed loop model on the honeycomb lattice, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1372 (1994)

  8. On annihilators in BL-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Yu Xi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we introduce the notion of annihilators in BL-algebras and investigate some related properties of them. We get that the ideal lattice (I(L, ⊆ is pseudo-complemented, and for any ideal I, its pseudo-complement is the annihilator I⊥ of I. Also, we define the An (L to be the set of all annihilators of L, then we have that (An(L; ⋂,∧An(L,⊥,{0}, L is a Boolean algebra. In addition, we introduce the annihilators of a nonempty subset X of L with respect to an ideal I and study some properties of them. As an application, we show that if I and J are ideals in a BL-algebra L, then JI⊥$J_I^ \\bot $ is the relative pseudo-complement of J with respect to I in the ideal lattice (I(L, ⊆. Moreover, we get some properties of the homomorphism image of annihilators, and also give the necessary and sufficient condition of the homomorphism image and the homomorphism pre-image of an annihilator to be an annihilator. Finally, we introduce the notion of α-ideal and give a notation E(I . We show that (E(I(L, ∧E, ∨E, E(0, E(L is a pseudo-complemented lattice, a complete Brouwerian lattice and an algebraic lattice, when L is a BL-chain or a finite product of BL-chains.

  9. CamShift Tracking Method Based on Target Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunbo Xiu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid the inaccurate location or the failure tracking caused by the occlusion or the pose variation, a novel tracking method is proposed based on CamShift algorithm by decomposing the target into multiple subtargets for location separately. Distance correlation matrices are constructed by the subtarget sets in the template image and the scene image to evaluate the correctness of the location results. The error locations of the subtargets can be corrected by resolving the optimization function constructed according to the relative positions among the subtargets. The directions and sizes of the correctly located subtargets with CamShift algorithm are updated to reduce the disturbance of the background in the tracking progress. Simulation results show that the method can perform the location and tracking of the target and has better adaptability to the scaling, translation, rotation, and occlusion. Furthermore, the computational cost of the method increases slightly, and its average tracking computational time of the single frame is less than 25 ms, which can meet the real-time requirement of the TV tracking system.

  10. Research in non-equalization machining method for spatial cam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-hua CHEN; Yi-jie WU

    2008-01-01

    Many kinds of devices with cam have been widely used in various mechanical equipments.However,non-equalization machining for spatial cam trough remains to be a difficult problem.This paper focuses on the analysis of ruaning conditions and machining processes of spatial cam with oscillating follower.We point out the common errors in the biased distance cutting.By analyzing the motion of oscillating follower of spatial cam,we present a new 3D curve expansion model of spatial cam trough-outline.Based on this model.we have proposed a machining method for trochoidal milling with non-equalization diameter cutter.This new method has led to a creative and effective Way for non.equalization diameter machining for spatial cam with oscillating follower.

  11. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for Carbonate Minerals on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Ollila, Ann M.; Barefield, James E.; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton E.

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  12. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for carbonate minerals on Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ollila, Ann M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lanza, Nina [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Newsom, Horton E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  13. Development of bioluminescent chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) models for primary pancreatic cancer cells: a platform for drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovithi, Maria; Avan, Amir; Funel, Niccola; Leon, Leticia G; Gomez, Valentina E; Wurdinger, Thomas; Griffioen, Arjan W; Verheul, Henk M W; Giovannetti, Elisa

    2017-03-17

    The aim of the present study was to develop chick-embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) bioluminescent tumor models employing low passage cell cultures obtained from primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Primary PDAC cells transduced with lentivirus expressing Firefly-luciferase (Fluc) were established and inoculated onto the CAM membrane, with >80% engraftment. Fluc signal reliably correlated with tumor growth. Tumor features were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and genetic analyses, including analysis of mutations and mRNA expression of PDAC pivotal genes, as well as microRNA (miRNA) profiling. These studies showed that CAM tumors had histopathological and genetic characteristic comparable to the original tumors. We subsequently tested the modulation of key miRNAs and the activity of gemcitabine and crizotinib on CAM tumors, showing that combination treatment resulted in 63% inhibition of tumor growth as compared to control (p testing, providing insights on molecular mechanisms underlying antitumor activity of new drugs/combinations.

  14. FlashCam: a fully-digital camera for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Pühlhofer, G; Bernhard, S; Capasso, M; Diebold, S; Eisenkolb, F; Florin, D; Föhr, C; Funk, S; Gadola, A; Garrecht, F; Hermann, G; Jung, I; Kalekin, O; Kalkuhl, C; Kasperek, J; Kihm, T; Lahmann, R; Manalaysay, A; Marszalek, A; Pfeifer, M; Rajda, P J; Reimer, O; Santangelo, A; Schanz, T; Schwab, T; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Tenzer, C; Vollhardt, A; Weitzel, Q; Werner, F; Wolf, D; Zietara, K

    2015-01-01

    The FlashCam group is currently preparing photomultiplier-tube based cameras proposed for the medium-sized telescopes (MST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The cameras are designed around the FlashCam readout concept which is the first fully-digital readout system for Cherenkov cameras, based on commercial FADCs and FPGAs as key components for the front-end electronics modules and a high performance camera server as back-end. This contribution describes the progress of the full-scale FlashCam camera prototype currently under construction, as well as performance results also obtained with earlier demonstrator setups. Plans towards the production and implementation of FlashCams on site are also briefly presented.

  15. A panorama of dental CAD/CAM restorative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Perng-Ru

    2005-07-01

    In the last 2 decades, exciting new developments in dental materials and computer technology have led to the success of contemporary dental computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. Several highly sophisticated chairside and laboratory CAD/CAM systems have been introduced or are under development. This article provides an overview of the development of various CAD/CAM systems. Operational components, methodologies, and restorative materials used with common CAD/CAM systems are discussed. Research data and clinical studies are presented to substantiate the clinical performance of these systems.

  16. Panorama of dental CAD/CAM restorative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Perng-Ru; Essig, Milton E

    2008-10-01

    In the past two decades, exciting new developments in dental materials and computer technology have led to the success of contemporary dental computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology. Several highly sophisticated in-office and laboratory CAD/CAM systems have been introduced or are under development. This article provides an overview of the development of various CAD/CAM systems. Operational components, methodologies, and restorative materials used with common CAD/CAM systems are discussed. Research data and clinical studies are presented to substantiate the clinical performance of these systems.

  17. Sandblasting may damage the surface of composite CAD-CAM blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Kumiko; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; Maruo, Yukinori; Nishigawa, Goro; Irie, Masao; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2017-03-01

    CAD-CAM blocks to fabricate semi-direct and indirect restorations are available in different sorts of ceramics as well as composite. In order to bond restorations prepared out of composite blocks into tooth cavities, it is recommended to gently sandblast the surface prior to the application of a primer/adhesive. Today, the effect of sandblasting composite block surfaces has not thoroughly been investigated. In this study, the ultra-structure of composite CAD-CAM blocks was investigated with special attention to the effect of sandblasting on the surface topography and of silanization on the bonding performance. Five different composite CAD-CAM blocks were involved. We correlatively investigated their structural and chemical composition using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). The effect of sandblasting was also imaged in cross-section and at the interface with composite cement. Finally, we measured the shear bond strength to the sandblasted block surface with and without silanization. All composite blocks revealed a different ultra-structure. Sandblasting increased surface roughness and resulted in an irregular surface with some filler exposure. Sandblasting also damaged the surface. When the sandblasted composite blocks were silanized, superior bonding receptiveness in terms of higher bond strength was achieved except for Shofu Block HC. Sandblasting followed by silanization improved the bond strength to composite CAD-CAM blocks. However, sandblasting may also damage the composite CAD-CAM block surface. For the composite CAD-CAM block Shofu Block HC, the damage was so severe that silanization did not improve bond strength. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optical integration of CAD/CAM materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Magne, Pascal

    The optical integration (OI) of monolithic CAD/CAM materials under 4 illuminations was evaluated using a standardized and clinically relevant method. Eighteen inlays were manufactured and placed (glycerin gel). Standardized photos were taken under 4 illuminations (neutral white light direct and indirect illumination, cross-polarized light, fluorescent light). Six evaluators defined the optical integration score (OIS) as the "visibility" of the restoration (0 = worst OI, 4 = optimal OI). The intact tooth served as control. The null hypothesis was that different illuminations did not influence the OI of CAD/CAM inlays. One-way ANOVA, followed by Scheffe's post hoc, was applied (P = 0.05). Neutral light direct illumination: OIS between 2.67 (IPS e.max CAD LT A1, ENAMIC A1) and 3.83 (IPS e.max CAD HT A1) with a mean of 3.28 (± 0.339). Indirect illumination: OIS from 1.00 (Paradigm MZ100 A1) to 2.41 (ENAMIC A1) with a mean of 1.88 (± 0.598). Fluorescent light: OIS between 0.75 and 3.25 with a mean of 1.67 (± 1.025). ENAMIC and VITA BLOCS Mark II showed the best optical integration in fluorescence. IPS e.max CAD, Paradigm MZ 100 demonstrated low fluorescence; Lava Ultimate high fluorescence. OI was influenced by different illumination. A simple method accessible to clinicians for additional evaluation of CAD/CAM materials in daily practice is presented. All materials showed excellent OI under direct illumination with neutral white light. The most pronounced differences in optical integration between tooth and evaluated materials were observed under fluorescent light.

  19. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Low Back Pain and CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back, he has used conventional and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches, including regular visits to the chiropractor and massage therapist to address his pain. "I'm looking for something so that I don't ... with other alternative and traditional therapies to help them resume normal ...

  20. Cam deformity and the omega angle, a novel quantitative measurement of femoral head-neck morphology: a 3D CT gender analysis in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Vasco V.; Gaspar, Augusto [Hospital da Luz, MSK imaging Unit (UIME), Imaging Center, Lisbon (Portugal); Rego, Paulo [Hospital da Luz, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lisbon (Portugal); Dantas, Pedro [Hospital CUF Descobertas, Lisbon (Portugal); Soldado, Francisco [Universitat de Barcelona, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona (Spain); Consciencia, Jose G. [NOVA Medical School, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2017-05-15

    Our objectives were to use 3D computed tomography (CT) to define head-neck morphologic gender-specific and normative parameters in asymptomatic individuals and use the omega angle (Ω ) to provide quantification data on the location and radial extension of a cam deformity. We prospectively included 350 individuals and evaluated 188 asymptomatic hips that underwent semiautomated CT analysis. Different thresholds of alpha angle (α ) were considered in order to analyze cam morphology and determine Ω . We calculated overall and gender-specific parameters for imaging signs of cam morphology (Ω and circumferential α ). The 95 % reference interval limits were beyond abnormal thresholds found in the literature for cam morphology. Specifically, α at 3/1 oclock were 46.9 /60.8 overall, 51.8 /65.4 for men and 45.7 /55.3 for women. Cam prevalence, magnitude, location, and epicenter were significantly gender different. Increasing α correlated with higher Ω , meaning that higher angles correspond to larger cam deformities. Hip morphometry measurements in this cohort of asymptomatic individuals extended beyond current thresholds used for the clinical diagnosis of cam deformity, and α was found to vary both by gender and measurement location. These results suggest that α measurement is insufficient for the diagnosis of cam deformity. Enhanced morphometric evaluation, including 3D imaging and Ω , may enable a more accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Evolutionary physiology: the extent of C4 and CAM photosynthesis in the genera Anacampseros and Grahamia of the Portulacaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, Lonnie J; Cline, Amanda; Smith, Monica; Sage, Rowan F

    2008-01-01

    The Portulacaceae is one of the few terrestrial plant families known to have both C(4) and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. There may be multiple origins of the evolution of CAM within the Portulacaceae but the only clear evidence of C(4) photosynthesis is found in members of the genus Portulaca. In the Portulaca, CAM succulent tissue is overlaid with the C(4) tissue in a unique fashion where both pathways are operating simultaneously. Earlier reports have shown that the clade containing the genera Anacampseros and Grahamia may also contain C(4) photosynthetic species similar to the Portulaca, which would indicate multiple origins of C(4) photosynthesis within the family. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the true photosynthetic nature of these genera. An initial survey of the carbon isotope composition of the Anacampseros ranged from -12.6 per thousand to -24.0 per thousand, indicating very little CAM activity in some species, with other values close to the C(4) range. Anacampseros (=Grahamia) australiana which had been previously identified as a C(4) species had a carbon isotope composition value of -24.0 per thousand, which is more indicative of a C(3) species with a slight contribution of CAM activity. Other Anacampseros species with C(4)-like values have been shown to be CAM plants. The initial isotope analysis of the Grahamia species gave values in the range of -27.1 per thousand to -23.6 per thousand, placing the Grahamia species well towards the C(3) photosynthetic range. Further physiological studies indicated increased night-time CO(2) uptake with imposition of water stress, associated with a large diurnal acid fluctuation and a marked increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity. This showed that the Grahamia species are actually facultative CAM plants despite their C(3)-like carbon isotope values. The results indicate that the Grahamia and Anacampseros species do not utilize the C(4) photosynthetic pathway. This is the first

  2. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity-a comparison between binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and RetCam 120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Parag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the photographic screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP using RetCam 120 with binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO, which is the current gold standard. Setting and Design: Prospective, comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 RetCam examinations were performed on 27 premature babies. They were stored in a separate file after deleting the identifying information. At the same visit using the BIO with scleral depression, an experienced vitreoretinal surgeon evaluated the fundus in detail. A masked examiner then evaluated the RetCam photographs for presence or absence of ROP, the stage and zone of the disease, and the presence or absence of plus disease. These data were then compared with the BIO findings to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values of the method. Results: ROP was detected in 63 of 87 examinations by BIO and in 56 of 87 RetCam examinations. Nine RetCam examinations were false-negative and two were false-positive. Sensitivity of RetCam was 85.71% (54/63 and specificity was 91.66% (22/24. The positive and negative predictive values were 96.43% and 70.97% respectively. Conclusion: Nine cases having ROP were missed by the RetCam. All these cases were either in zone 3 or the outer part of zone 2, which later regressed. These were missed mostly because of the restricted mobility of the camera head caused by its size and the barrier caused by the lid speculum arms. No case of threshold ROP was missed. RetCam may replace BIO for screening of ROP.

  3. Chick ex ovo culture and ex ovo CAM assay: how it really works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohle, Daniel S; Pasa, Susanne D; Gustmann, Sebastian; Laub, Markus; Wissler, Josef H; Jennissen, Herbert P; Dünker, Nicole

    2009-11-30

    Chicken eggs in the early phase of breeding are between in vitro and in vivo systems and provide a vascular test environment not only to study angiogenesis but also to study tumorigenesis. After the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) has developed, its blood vessel network can be easily accessed, manipulated and observed and therefore provides an optimal setting for angiogenesis assays. Since the lymphoid system is not fully developed until late stages of incubation, the chick embryo serves as a naturally immunodeficient host capable of sustaining grafted tissues and cells without species-specific restrictions. In addition to nurturing developing allo- and xenografts, the CAM blood vessel network provides a uniquely supportive environment for tumor cell intravasation, dissemination, and vascular arrest and a repository where arrested cells extravasate to form micro metastatic foci. For experimental purposes, in most of the recent studies the CAM was exposed by cutting a window through the egg shell and experiments were carried out in ovo, resulting in significant limitations in the accessibility of the CAM and possibilities for observation and photo documentation of effects. When shell-less cultures of the chick embryo were used(1-4), no experimental details were provided and, if published at all, the survival rates of these cultures were low. We refined the method of ex ovo culture of chick embryos significantly by introducing a rationally controlled extrusion of the egg content. These ex ovo cultures enhance the accessibility of the CAM and chick embryo, enabling easy in vivo documentation of effects and facilitating experimental manipulation of the embryo. This allows the successful application to a large number of scientific questions: (1) As an improved angiogenesis assay(5,6), (2) an experimental set up for facilitated injections in the vitreous of the chick embryo eye(7-9), (3) as a test environment for dissemination and intravasation of dispersed tumor

  4. Climate-resilient agroforestry: physiological responses to climate change and engineering of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as a mitigation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Anne M; Wullschleger, Stan D; Weston, David J; Hartwell, James; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C

    2015-09-01

    Global climate change threatens the sustainability of agriculture and agroforestry worldwide through increased heat, drought, surface evaporation and associated soil drying. Exposure of crops and forests to warmer and drier environments will increase leaf:air water vapour-pressure deficits (VPD), and will result in increased drought susceptibility and reduced productivity, not only in arid regions but also in tropical regions with seasonal dry periods. Fast-growing, short-rotation forestry (SRF) bioenergy crops such as poplar (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) are particularly susceptible to hydraulic failure following drought stress due to their isohydric nature and relatively high stomatal conductance. One approach to sustaining plant productivity is to improve water-use efficiency (WUE) by engineering crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) into C3 crops. CAM improves WUE by shifting stomatal opening and primary CO2 uptake and fixation to the night-time when leaf:air VPD is low. CAM members of the tree genus Clusia exemplify the compatibility of CAM performance within tree species and highlight CAM as a mechanism to conserve water and maintain carbon uptake during drought conditions. The introduction of bioengineered CAM into SRF bioenergy trees is a potentially viable path to sustaining agroforestry production systems in the face of a globally changing climate.

  5. Effects of Redshift on the Classifying Criteria of BL Lacertae Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ma; Luo-En Chen; Guang-Zhong Xie; Ji-Yang Ren; Zhao-Hua Xie; Shu-Bai Zhou; Hui Wu; Dong-Cheng Mei

    2007-01-01

    We have collected a sample of 70 BL Lacs(33 radio-selected BL Lacs and 37 X-ray selected BL Lacs) with multi-waveband data for investigating the classifying criteria of BL Lacertae Objects.For each source,we estimate its luminosities in radio.optical and X-ray,the broad-band spectral index from radio to X-ray and the peak frequency of the synchrotron emission,and make a statistical analysis of the data obtained.Our main results are as follows:(1)The broad-band spectral index and the peak frequency have no correlation with the redshift.while they are inversely correlated with each other and they could be regarded as equivalent classifying criteria of BL Lac objects.(2)There are significant effects of the luminosity/redshift relation on the observed luminosity distribution in our sample,hence,if the radio luminosity is to be used as a classifying criterion of BL Lac objects.it should not be regarded as equivalent to the broad-band spectral index or the peak frequency.(3)Our results supply a specific piece of evidence for the suggestion that the use of luminosities always introduces a redshift bias to the data and show that the location of the peak frequency is not always linked to the luminosity of any wave band.

  6. A Search for Low-Luminosity BL Lacertae Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Travis A.; Stocke, John T.; Perlman, Eric S.

    1999-05-01

    Many properties of BL Lacs have become explicable in terms of the ``relativistic beaming'' hypothesis, whereby BL Lacs are FR 1 radio galaxies viewed nearly along the jet axis. However, a possible problem with this model is that a transition population between beamed BL Lacs and unbeamed FR 1 galaxies has not been detected. A transition population of ``low-luminosity BL Lacs'' was predicted to exist in abundance in X-ray-selected samples such as the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) by Browne & Marcha. However, these BL Lacs may have been misidentified as clusters of galaxies. We have conducted a search for such objects in the EMSS with the ROSAT High-Resolution Imager (HRI) here we present ROSAT HRI images, optical spectra, and VLA radio maps for a small number of BL Lacs that were previously misidentified in the EMSS catalog as clusters of galaxies. While these objects are slightly lower in luminosity than other EMSS BL Lacs, their properties are too similar to the other BL Lacs in the EMSS sample to ``bridge the gap'' between BL Lacs and FR 1 radio galaxies. Also, the number of new BL Lacs found is too low to alter significantly the X-ray luminosity function or value for the X-ray-selected EMSS BL Lac sample. Thus, these observations do not explain fully the discrepancy between the X-ray- and radio-selected BL Lac samples.

  7. Observations of BL Lacertae with MAGIC telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Lindfors

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BL Lacertae fue observado con el telescopio MAGIC de agosto a diciembre de 2005 (22.2 horas y de julio a septiembre de 2006 (26.0 horas. En 2005 se detectó, con un nivel de significación 5.1 σ, una fuerte emisión de rayos γ de muy alta energía (VHE. BL Lacertae es el primer objeto BL Lac con un pico de emisión a bajas frecuencias, en el cual se detecta este tipo de emisión. En los datos de 2006, no hay detección en la región de los rayos γ, lo que se atribuye a un menor nivel de flujo en este periodo. En este trabajo mostramos que también se observa una caida en el flujo óptico y milimétrico, lo cual sugiere una conexión entre estas tres bandas de emisión.

  8. Subaru Prime Focus Camera -- Suprime-Cam --

    CERN Document Server

    Miyazaki, S; Sekiguchi, M; Okamura, S; Doi, M; Furusawa, H; Hamabe, M; Imi, K; Kimura, M; Nakata, F; Okada, N; Ouchi, M; Shimasaku, K; Yagi, M; Yasuda, N; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Maki; Okamura, Sadanori; Doi, Mamoru; Furusawa, Hisanori; Hamabe, Masaru; Imi, Katsumi; Kimura, Masahiki; Nakata, Fumiaki; Okada, Norio; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Masafumi; Yasuda, Naoki

    2002-01-01

    We have built an 80 mega pixels (10240 X 8192) mosaic CCD camera, called Suprime-Cam, for the wide field prime focus of the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. Suprime-Cam covers a field of view 34 arcmin X 27 arcmin, a unique facility among the the 8 - 10 m class telescopes, with a resolution of 0.202 arcsec per pixel. The focal plane consists of ten high-resistivity 2kX4k CCDs developed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory and these are cooled by a large stirling cycle cooler. The CCD readout electronics are developed originally by our group (M-Front & Messia-III) and the system is designed scalable that allows multiple read-out of tens of CCDs. It takes 50 seconds to readout entire arrays. We have designed a filter exchange mechanism of jukebox type that can holds up to ten large filters (205 X 170 X 15 mm^3). The wide field corrector is basically a three-lens Wynne-type but has a new type of atmospheric dispersion corrector. The corrector provides flat focal plane and un-vignetted field of view of 30 arcmin in diameter. Ach...

  9. CAD/CAM: Practical and Persuasive in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willms, Ed

    2007-01-01

    Chances are that many high school students would not know how to use drafting instruments, but some might want to gain competence in computer-assisted design (CAD) and possibly computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM). These students are often attracted to tech courses by the availability of CAD/CAM instructions, and many go on to impress employers…

  10. A systematic review of CAD/CAM fit restoration evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitelle, P; Mawussi, B; Tapie, L; Fromentin, O

    2014-11-01

    The evolution and development of CAD/CAM systems have led to the production of prosthetic reconstructions by going beyond the use of traditional techniques. Precision adjustment of prosthetic elements is considered essential to ensure sustainable restoration and dental preparation. The purpose of this article was to summarise the current literature on the fitting quality of fixed prostheses obtained by CAD/CAM technology.

  11. [Prooxidant and cytotoxic action of N-acetylcysteine and glutathione combined with vitamin Bl2b].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solov'eva, M E; Solov'ev, V V; Faskhutdinova, A A; Kudriavtsev, A A; Akatov, V S

    2007-01-01

    We studied the prooxidant and cytotoxic action of thiols N-acetylcystein (NAC) and glutathione (GSH) combined with vitamin Bl2b. The synergism of action of the thiols and Bl2b resulted in human carcinoma cell damage was found. It was shown that GSH and NAC in physiological doses combined with Bl2b caused the initiation of apoptosis. It was established that prooxidant action of the thiols combined with vitamin Bl2b, i. e. generation and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in culture medium, led to intracellular oxidative stress and injury of cell redox system. These effects were completely abolished by nonthiol antioxidants catalase and pyruvate. The chelators of iron phenanthroline and deferoxamine did not suppress the H2O2 accumulation in culture medium but significantly inhibited the cell death induced by the thiols combined with Bl2b. Therefore, the thiols GSH and NAC widely used as antioxidants, in combination with vitamin Bl2b show prooxidant characteristics and induce, with the participation of intracellular iron, apoptotic HEp-2 cell death.

  12. Gamma-ray Emission from the γ-ray-loud BL Lac Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using the HST observation data of BL Lac objects by Urry et al. and γγ-ray observation data, we find that there is a correlation between Fγ and FO nucleifor γ-ray-loud BL Lac objects (correlation coefficients: γ = 0.63,p = 4.0 × 10-2),but no correlation between Fγ and Fohost, where FO nuclei and Fohost are the fluxes ofnuclei and host galaxy in V-band. For 19 γ-ray-loud BL Lac objects with observedspectral index in multi-wavebands, the spectral index correlations between any twobands are as follow: (1) there is a strong correlation between αγ and αK for 15 BLLac objects(γ = 0.84,p = 3.11 × 10-4); (2) the correlation between αγ and αo for12 BL Lac objects is γ = 0.82,p = 1.5 × 10-3; (3) there is no correlation betweenαγ and αx for 16 BL Lac objects. The results, together with characteristic double-humped shape of their SEDs, show that the synchrotron self-Compton mechanismmight be a main mechanism for the γ-ray emission of the BL Lac objects. Theelectrons emitting IR and optical radiation via synchrotron are also responsible forupscattering these photons to γ-rays, and a variability in IR-optical regime shouldbe accompanied by a change in the γ-rays.

  13. The host galaxies of BL Lac objects in the near-infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Kotilainen, J K; Scarpa, R

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of near-infrared H band (1.65 microns) imaging of 11 BL Lac objects with redshifts ranging from z = 0.05 to 0.9. We are able to clearly detect the host galaxy in seven low redshift (z<=0.24) BL Lacs, while the four unresolved BL Lacs have either high or unknown redshift. The galaxies hosting the low redshift BL Lacs are large (average bulge scale length R(e) = 8.8+-9.9 kpc) and luminous (average M(H) = -25.8+-0.5), i.e. slightly brighter than the typical galaxy luminosity L* (M*(H) = -25.0+-0.2), and of similar luminosity to or slightly fainter than brightest cluster galaxies (M(H) = -26.3+-0.3). The average optical/near-infrared colour and colour gradient of the BL Lac hosts (R-H = 2.2+-0.5; d(R-H)/d(log r) = -0.09$+-0.04) are consistent with the hosts being normal ellipticals, indicating that the nuclear activity has only a marginal effect on the star formation history and other properties of the hosts. The BL Lac hosts appear slightly less luminous than those of higher redshift fl...

  14. Chemical composition of umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Vilela Borges

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The umbu tree (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam is an important fruit tree the economy of the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil. With the objective of finding use for the seeds, physical and chemical characterizations of the seeds from 2 cultivars in 2 maturation stages were carried out and their fatty acid and mineral profiles determined. The results showed no differences between the seeds analyzed. The yield was about 10% and the dimensions as follows: length from 1.48 to 2.11 cm and width from 0.76 to 1.16 cm. The average lipid content was 55% of which 69% was unsaturated and the average protein content was 24%. The seeds were a good source of the following minerals: P, K, Mg, Fe and Cu. The overall results indicated that the oil or the seeds could be used for food stuffs if no toxic agents were found.

  15. Lacie phase 1 Classification and Mensuration Subsystem (CAMS) rework experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, R. S.; Hsu, E. M.; Liszcz, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment was designed to test the ability of the Classification and Mensuration Subsystem rework operations to improve wheat proportion estimates for segments that had been processed previously. Sites selected for the experiment included three in Kansas and three in Texas, with the remaining five distributed in Montana and North and South Dakota. The acquisition dates were selected to be representative of imagery available in actual operations. No more than one acquisition per biophase were used, and biophases were determined by actual crop calendars. All sites were worked by each of four Analyst-Interpreter/Data Processing Analyst Teams who reviewed the initial processing of each segment and accepted or reworked it for an estimate of the proportion of small grains in the segment. Classification results, acquisitions and classification errors and performance results between CAMS regular and ITS rework are tabulated.

  16. UY Puppis A New Anomalous Z Cam Type Dwarf Nova

    CERN Document Server

    Stubbings, Rod

    2016-01-01

    The defining characteristic of Z Cam stars are standstills in their light curves. Some Z Cams exhibit atypical behaviour by going into outburst from a standstill. It has previously been suggested that UY Pup had been a Z Cam star, but it was ruled out due to its long-term light curve. However, in December 2015 UY Pup went into outburst and unexpectedly entered into a short standstill instead of returning to quiescence. Furthermore, UY Pup exhibited additional unusual behaviour with two outbursts detected during its standstill. After this standstill UY Pup made a brief excursion to a quiescence state and slowly rose to a longer and well-defined standstill, where it again went into another outburst. Through comparative analysis, researching and observational data of UY Pup it is evident and thus concluded that it is indeed a Z Cam star, in which renders it to be one of only four known anomalous Z Cam stars.

  17. Input torque balancing using a cam-based centrifugal pendulum: design procedure and example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeulenaere, Bram; Spaepen, Pieter; De Schutter, Joris

    2005-05-01

    Input torque balancing is a well-known way to reduce drive speed fluctuations in high-speed machinery and combustion engines. This paper introduces a cam-based centrifugal pendulum (CBCP) and a design procedure for it which results in quasi-perfect balancing of inertial torques for any drive speed. The CBCP combines the centrifugal pendulum vibration absorber, well-known in mechanical vibration literature, with a torque balancing principle well-known in mechanism literature, that is, the use of cams to generate arbitrary torques. For given design parameters (such as the link lengths and link inertial parameters), the cam design is governed by a nonlinear, second-order, explicit differential equation. This differential equation is numerically solved by reformulating it as a nonlinear least-squares problem. The design parameters themselves are determined by means of an optimization problem, the goal of which is to minimize the (constant) equivalent inertia of the combined system, consisting of the original mechanism to be balanced and the CBCP. Application of the CBCP to torque balance a high-speed, purely inertial cam-follower mechanism, driving the sley of a weaving loom, shows that the optimization results in a compact and technologically feasible mechanism.

  18. Spatial patterns of photosynthesis in thin- and thick-leaved epiphytic orchids: unravelling C3–CAM plasticity in an organ-compartmented way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria Aurineide; Matiz, Alejandra; Cruz, Aline Bertinatto; Matsumura, Aline Tiemi; Takahashi, Cassia Ayumi; Hamachi, Leonardo; Félix, Lucas Macedo; Pereira, Paula Natália; Latansio-Aidar, Sabrina Ribeiro; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Demarco, Diego; Freschi, Luciano; Mercier, Helenice; Kerbauy, Gilberto Barbante

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims A positive correlation between tissue thickness and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) expression has been frequently suggested. Therefore, this study addressed the question of whether water availability modulates photosynthetic plasticity in different organs of two epiphytic orchids with distinct leaf thickness. Methods Tissue morphology and photosynthetic mode (C3 and/or CAM) were examined in leaves, pseudobulbs and roots of a thick-leaved (Cattleya walkeriana) and a thin-leaved (Oncidium ‘Aloha’) epiphytic orchid. Morphological features were studied comparing the drought-induced physiological responses observed in each organ after 30 d of either drought or well-watered treatments. Key Results Cattleya walkeriana, which is considered a constitutive CAM orchid, displayed a clear drought-induced up-regulation of CAM in its thick leaves but not in its non-leaf organs (pseudobulbs and roots). The set of morphological traits of Cattleya leaves suggested the drought-inducible CAM up-regulation as a possible mechanism of increasing water-use efficiency and carbon economy. Conversely, although belonging to an orchid genus classically considered as performing C3 photosynthesis, Oncidium ‘Aloha’ under drought seemed to express facultative CAM in its roots and pseudobulbs but not in its leaves, indicating that such photosynthetic responses might compensate for the lack of capacity to perform CAM in its thin leaves. Morphological features of Oncidium leaves also indicated lower efficiency in preventing water and CO2 losses, while aerenchyma ducts connecting pseudobulbs and leaves suggested a compartmentalized mechanism of nighttime carboxylation via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) (pseudobulbs) and daytime carboxylation via Rubisco (leaves) in drought-exposed Oncidium plants. Conclusions Water availability modulated CAM expression in an organ-compartmented manner in both orchids studied. As distinct regions of the same orchid could perform

  19. Functional analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 sortases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Monedero, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent.

  20. Functional Analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 Sortases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.

    2012-01-01

    Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent. PMID:23042174

  1. Treatment Preferences for CAM in Children with Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls (mean age = 14.5 years ± 2.4; range = 8–18 years presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between CAM treatment preferences and patient's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their self-reported level of functioning. Over 60% of patients elected to try at least one CAM approach for pain. The most popular CAM therapies were biofeedback, yoga and hypnosis; the least popular were art therapy and energy healing, with craniosacral, acupuncture and massage being intermediate. Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (80% were the most likely to try CAM versus those with other pain diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, pain duration emerged as a significant predictor of CAM preferences. For mind-based approaches (i.e. hypnosis, biofeedback and art therapy, pain duration and limitations in family activities were both significant predictors. When given a choice of CAM therapies, this sample of children with chronic pain, irrespective of pain diagnosis, preferred non-invasive approaches that enhanced relaxation and increased somatic control. Longer duration of pain and greater impairment in functioning, particularly during family activities increased the likelihood that such patients agreed to engage in CAM treatments, especially those that were categorized as mind-based modalities.

  2. Treatment Preferences for CAM in children with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jennie C I; Meldrum, Marcia; Kim, Su C; Jacob, Margaret C; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2007-09-01

    CAM therapies have become increasingly popular in pediatric populations. Yet, little is known about children's preferences for CAM. This study examined treatment preferences in chronic pediatric pain patients offered a choice of CAM therapies for their pain. Participants were 129 children (94 girls) (mean age = 14.5 years +/- 2.4; range = 8-18 years) presenting at a multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships between CAM treatment preferences and patient's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as their self-reported level of functioning. Over 60% of patients elected to try at least one CAM approach for pain. The most popular CAM therapies were biofeedback, yoga and hypnosis; the least popular were art therapy and energy healing, with craniosacral, acupuncture and massage being intermediate. Patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia (80%) were the most likely to try CAM versus those with other pain diagnoses. In multivariate analyses, pain duration emerged as a significant predictor of CAM preferences. For mind-based approaches (i.e. hypnosis, biofeedback and art therapy), pain duration and limitations in family activities were both significant predictors. When given a choice of CAM therapies, this sample of children with chronic pain, irrespective of pain diagnosis, preferred non-invasive approaches that enhanced relaxation and increased somatic control. Longer duration of pain and greater impairment in functioning, particularly during family activities increased the likelihood that such patients agreed to engage in CAM treatments, especially those that were categorized as mind-based modalities.

  3. Machinability of CAD-CAM materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, Ramakiran; Nejat, Amir H; Lawson, Nathaniel C

    2017-08-01

    Although new materials are available for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) fabrication, limited information is available regarding their machinability. The depth of penetration of a milling tool into a material during a timed milling cycle may indicate its machinability. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the tool penetration rate for 2 polymer-containing CAD-CAM materials (Lava Ultimate and Enamic) and 2 ceramic-based CAD-CAM materials (e.max CAD and Celtra Duo). The materials were sectioned into 4-mm-thick specimens (n=5/material) and polished with 320-grit SiC paper. Each specimen was loaded into a custom milling apparatus. The apparatus pushed the specimens against a milling tool (E4D Tapered 2016000) rotating at 40 000 RPM with a constant force of 0.98 N. After a 6-minute timed milling cycle, the length of each milling cut was measured with image analysis software under a digital light microscope. Representative specimens and milling tools were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The penetration rate of Lava Ultimate (3.21 ±0.46 mm/min) and Enamic (2.53 ±0.57 mm/min) was significantly greater than that of e.max CAD (1.12 ±0.32 mm/min) or Celtra Duo (0.80 ±0.21 mm/min) materials. SEM observations showed little tool damage, regardless of material type. Residual material was found on the tools used with polymer-containing materials, and wear of the embedding medium was seen on the tools used with the ceramic-based materials. Edge chipping was noted on cuts made in the ceramic-based materials. Lava Ultimate and Enamic have greater machinability and less edge chipping than e.max CAD and Celtra Duo. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. BL-代数的严格滤子%On strict filters of BL-algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永伟; 贺鹏飞; 李毅君

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the filter theory of BL-algebras, the concept of strict filters is introduced, and relationships between strict filters and SBL-algebra are showed. It is proved that if F is both a fantastic and strict filter of a BL-alge-bra L, then L/F is a Göodel algebra. Finally, relationships among strict filters, integral filters, prime filters and other kinds of filters are displayed.%引入了严格滤子的概念,给出了严格滤子与SBL-代数的关系,证明了若BL-代数L的滤子F是奇异的和严格的,则L/F是Gödel代数。揭示了严格滤子与整滤子、素滤子等的关系。

  5. THE FOURIER SERIES USED IN ANALYSE OF THE CAM MECHANISMS FOR THE SHOEMAKING MACHINES (PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOVAN-DRAGOMIR Alina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A computer assisted procedure for the cinematic analysis of the mechanism of a cam is essential in making a certain type of research operations. They mainly refer to the optimization of operations running on specific machinery, or to the re-design of the mechanism, in order to make the mechanism digital. This analysis seems even more important, when we consider the fact that most of the machines used in shoe industry nowadays use a cam mechanism. The paper is devided in two parts. In first part, it is elaborated a method of finding of a function G(x, belonging to a Fourier series, which approximates the numerical values {xi, yi}, with the biggest accuracy. Finding the function that approximates the most accurately the data set, for the position parameters of the follower S(ω, ( will lead to a complete kinematic and dynamic analysis of the cam mechanism. These values repeat with T = 2π period. In second part, the method is tasted using MatCAD work sessions which allow a numerical and graphical analysis of the mathematical relations involved, in order to test the reability of the method. The set of experimental data are resulted after measuring a cam mechanism of a machine used in shoemaking.

  6. Comparison of CAD-CAM and hand made sockets for PTB prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, P; Lindh, L; Netz, P

    1989-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare sockets for below-knee (BK) prostheses made by Computer Aided Design-Computer Aided Manufacture (CAD-CAM) to those made by hand. The patients in the study were provided with two prostheses each, which apart from the sockets, were identical. One socket was made by the CAD-CAM technique developed at the Bioengineering Centre, Roehampton, University College London and one was made by hand at the OT-Centre, Stockholm, Sweden. The results were based on investigation of eight unilateral below-knee amputees evaluating their own sockets by Visual Analogous Scale with respect to comfort, pressure, and pain. The sockets were evaluated on seven occasions, at two tests, on delivery, after use every second day for six days and every second week for two weeks. All CAD-CAM sockets except one had to be changed once as compared to the hand made of which only two had to be changed. As to comfort it could not be demonstrated that there was any significant difference between the two types of sockets and both types were well accepted by all patients. Differences in pressure and pain were rarely reported. There were obvious differences between the two types of socket with respect to height, width, and inner surface configuration. The authors feel that CAD-CAM will in the near future be an excellent tool for design and manufacture of prosthetic sockets.

  7. THE FOURIER SERIES USED IN ANALYSE OF THE CAM MECHANISMS FOR THE SHOEMAKING MACHINES (PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOVAN-DRAGOMIR Alina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A computer assisted procedure for the cinematic analysis of the mechanism of a cam is essential in making a certain type of research operations. They mainly refer to the optimization of operations running on specific machinery, or to the re-design of the mechanism, in order to make the mechanism digital. This analysis seems even more important, when we consider the fact that most of the machines used in shoe industry nowadays use a cam mechanism. The paper is devided in two parts. In first part, it is elaborated a method of finding of a function G(x, belonging to a Fourier series, which approximates the numerical values {xi, yi}, with the biggest accuracy. Finding the function that approximates the most accurately the data set, for the position parameters of the follower S(ω, ( will lead to a complete kinematic and dynamic analysis of the cam mechanism. These values repeat with T = 2π period. In second part, the method is tasted using MatCAD work sessions which allow a numerical and graphical analysis of the mathematical relations involved, in order to test the reability of the method. The set of experimental data are resulted after measuring a cam mechanism of a machine used in shoemaking.

  8. Force Analysis of Geneva Wheel and Face Cam Used In Automat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhoo G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Glazerol Automat is a dedicated machine used in the Insulator pre assembly line. This automat is driven using single motor for different operations. Here the focus is on two main parts they are Geneva wheel and Face cam which are used for their respective operations. Geneva Wheel is used to index the drum which consists of 96 spindles. Due to this Geneva mechanism each of the spindles will hold the ceramic body when the drum is being indexed. Due to which there is a force which is generated in the Geneva wheel in maximum and minimum position. Face cam which is used while indexing the work piece carrier There are 2 tangential forces which are acting, one at the indexing side and the other at the driving side /cam side. The effective resultant force which is acting on the face cam while indexing work piece carrier is calculated. And these forces are analyzed using ansys and their respective Von Mises stresses and displacement plots are obtained for both the conditions based on boundary and loading conditions.

  9. Molecular replacement studies on crystal structure of DesBl-B2 Despentapeptide (B26-B30) insulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁家升; 万柱礼; 常文瑞; 梁栋材

    1997-01-01

    Using the crystal structure of Despentapeptide (B26-B30) insulin (DPI) as the search model, the crystal structure of DesBl-B2 Despentapeptide (B26-B30) insulin (DesBl-2 DPI) has been studied by the molecular replacement method. There is one DesBl-2 DPI molecule in each crystallographic asymmetric unit. The cross rotation function search and the translation function search show apparent peaks and thus determine the orientation and position of DesBl-2 DPI molecule in the cell respectively. The subsequent three-dimensional structural rebuilding and refine-ment of DesBl-2 DPI molecule confirm the results by molecular replacement method.

  10. Using CAD/CAM to improve productivity - The IPAD approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Progress in designing and implementing CAD/CAM systems as a result of the NASA Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design is discussed. Essential software packages have been identified as executive, data management, general user, and geometry and graphics software. Data communication, as a means to integrate data over a network of computers of different vendors, provides data management with the capability of meeting design and manufacturing requirements of the vendors. Geometry software is dependent on developmental success with solid geometry software, which is necessary for continual measurements of, for example, a block of metal while it is being machined. Applications in the aerospace industry, such as for design, analysis, tooling, testing, quality control, etc., are outlined.

  11. Innovative Design of Cam-Controlled Planetary Gear Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiang Hsieh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to perform the innovation design for the new structures of cam-controlled planetary gear trains (CCPGTs, based on the creative mechanism design methodology. Firstly, the design requirements and design constraints are summarized according to the kinematics characteristics of existing CCPGTs. Then, the (4, 5 and (5, 7 graphs are generated by the theory of number synthesis. After that, the atlas of feasible specialized graphs is obtained. Finally, the atlas of new designs is obtained through the particularization process. In addition, an illustrated example is given, and the feasibility of the design is verified by computer simulation using ADAMS software. The result indicates that new design can produce a more wide range of non-uniform motion than the existing design. Therefore, they are better alternatives for driving a variable speed input mechanism.

  12. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS: rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waslick Bruce D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To present the design, methods, and rationale of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS, a recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT, sertraline (SRT, and their combination (COMB against pill placebo (PBO for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and social phobia (SoP in children and adolescents. Methods Following a brief review of the acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the CAMS trial are described. Results CAMS was a six-year, six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred eighty-eight (N = 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT, SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety, and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and moderators of treatment response were completed in a multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A multi-layered administrative structure with representation from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance. Conclusions CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also provided a large-scale examination of the relative and combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based psychosocial (CBT and pharmacologic (SSRI treatments to date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Primary and secondary results

  13. 2-Cam LWIR imaging Stokes polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudenov, Michael W.; Dereniak, Eustace L.; Pezzaniti, Larry; Gerhart, Grant R.

    2008-04-01

    A 2-Cam micro-bolometer imaging polarimeter operating in the LWIR is presented. The system is capable of snapshot imaging Stokes polarimetry in any one channel (S I, S II, or S 3) by taking two simultaneous measurements of a scene. For measurements of S I or S II, the instrument relies on a specially optimized wire-grid beam-splitter. For measurements of S 3, a form birefringent quarter-wave retarder is inserted into the optical path. Specifics associated with the design of the wire-grid beam-splitter and the form birefringent quarter-wave retarder will be overviewed, with inclusion of RCWA simulations. Calibration and simulation procedures, as well as calibration targets, will be highlighted, and initial data from the instrument are presented.

  14. Distribution and role in regeneration of N-CAM in the basal laminae of muscle and Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, F; Nicolet, M; Pinçon-Raymond, M; Murawsky, M; Levi, G; Edelman, G M

    1988-08-01

    results suggest that N-CAM may play an important role not only in the determination of synaptic areas but also in Schwann cell-axon interactions during nerve regeneration.

  15. Immediate CAD/ CAM Custom Fabricated Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There will almost always be gaps between cylin-drical or screw shaped prefabricated implant surface and funnel-shaped tooth socket when an implant is placed immediately after tooth extraction. Hence expensive and difficult bone grafting is re-quired. A custom fabricated implant will be a pragmatic solution for this limitation.The hypothesis: First step following extraction of a tooth is data capture or scanning via a 3D scan method e.g. coordinate measuring machine or non-contact laser scanners such as triangulation range finder. Second step is reconstruction or modeling via editable CAD (computer-aided design model, allowing us to add retentive holes and correction of implant angle. Third step is fabrication via CAM (computer aided manufacturing followed by plasma cleaning process. Fourth step is insertion of the CAD/CAM custom fabricated one-stage implant in the fresh tooth socket. Optimal time for this step is 24-48 hours after extraction. The custom fabricated implant should not load 3-4 months. Usage of chlorhexidine mouth-rinse or chewing gum twice daily for 2 weeks and, in some cases oral antibiotic is recommended. Evaluation of the hypothesis: Contemporary dental implant system faced with several clinical and anatomical limitations such is low sinuses or nerve bundles. Complex and expensive surgical procedures such as nerve repositioning and sinus lift are frequently required. With custom fabricated implant we can overcome several of these limitations because insertion of custom fabricated implant will perform before alveolar bone recession.

  16. Hydrogen detection with ChemCam at Gale crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, S.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Gasnault, O.; Maurice, S.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Rapin, W.; Dyar, M. D.; Mangold, N.; Forni, O.; Nachon, M.; Clegg, S.; Johnson, J. R.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Ollila, A.; Pinet, P.; Sautter, V.; Vaniman, D.

    2015-03-01

    One of the main advantages of ChemCam's LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover is its potential to detect light elements such as hydrogen at fine scales, which has never been achieved on Mars. Hydrogen lines are detected in most of the data obtained within the first 320 sols of the mission at Gale crater, Mars. This work is a description of the hydrogen signal and its variability in the ChemCam LIBS spectra; it discusses the challenges of qualitative and quantitative analysis. Data acquisition and processing steps are investigated and optimized for the detection of hydrogen on Mars. Subtraction of an appropriate dark spectrum and the deconvolution of the superimposed emission of carbon from the low-pressure CO2-dominated atmosphere are particularly important. Because the intensities of hydrogen are also affected by matrix effects, the hydrogen signal was investigated within groups of targets sharing common chemical features and similar matrices. The different groups cover a variety of rock and soil compositions encountered along the traverse (calcium sulfate veins, mafic soils, felsic, Mg-rich and Fe-rich rocks) including data from both drill holes and their tailings. Almost all these targets were found to be hydrated to variable extents. Soils have systematically higher hydrogen signals than rocks and pebbles, probably as a result of their alteration. The results from rocks suggest that various alteration processes leading to their hydration have taken place, which is consistent with the fluvial lacustrine context, the diagenetic features, and the mineralogy observed by Curiosity in Yellowknife Bay.

  17. Black hole masses of BL Lac objects

    OpenAIRE

    J. K. Kotilainen; Falomo, R.; Treves, A.

    2002-01-01

    The correlation between black hole mass M(BH) and the central stellar velocity dispersion sigma in nearby elliptical galaxies affords a novel way to determine M(BH) in active galaxies. We report on measurements of sigma from optical spectra of 7 BL Lac host galaxies. The range of sigma (160 - 290 km/s) corresponds to estimated M(BH) of 5 x 10^7 - 9 x 10^8 Mo. The average ratio of M(BH) to the host galaxy mass is 1.4 x 10^-3, consistent with that estimated in other active and inactive galaxies...

  18. Hip Joint Stresses Due to Cam-Type Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Systematic Review of Finite Element Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Geoffrey Ng

    Full Text Available The cam deformity causes the anterosuperior femoral head to obstruct with the acetabulum, resulting in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI and elevated risks of early osteoarthritis. Several finite element models have simulated adverse loading conditions due to cam FAI, to better understand the relationship between mechanical stresses and cartilage degeneration. Our purpose was to conduct a systematic review and examine the previous finite element models and simulations that examined hip joint stresses due to cam FAI.The systematic review was conducted to identify those finite element studies of cam-type FAI. The review conformed to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and studies that reported hip joint contact pressures or stresses were included in the quantitative synthesis.Nine articles studied FAI morphologies using finite element methods and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Four articles specifically examined contact pressures and stresses due to cam FAI and were included in the quantitative synthesis. The studies demonstrated that cam FAI resulted in substantially elevated contact pressures (median = 10.4 MPa, range = 8.5-12.2 MPa and von Mises stresses (median 15.5 MPa, range = 15.0-16.0 MPa at the acetabular cartilage; and elevated maximum-shear stress on the bone (median = 15.2 MPa, range = 14.3-16.0 MPa, in comparison with control hips, during large amplitudes of hip motions. Many studies implemented or adapted idealized, ball-and-cup, parametric models to predict stresses, along with homogeneous bone material properties and in vivo instrumented prostheses loading data.The formulation of a robust subject-specific FE model, to delineate the pathomechanisms of FAI, remains an ongoing challenge. The available literature provides clear insight into the estimated stresses due to the cam deformity and provides an assessment of its risks leading to early joint degeneration.

  19. Spectrum and Prevalence of CALM1-, CALM2-, and CALM3-Encoded Calmodulin (CaM) Variants in Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) and Functional Characterization of a Novel LQTS-Associated CaM Missense Variant, E141G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Melissa L.; Tester, David J.; Kryshtal, Dmytro; Hwang, Hyun Seok; Johnson, Christopher N.; Chazin, Walter J.; Loporcaro, Christina G.; Shah, Maully; Papez, Andrew L.; Lau, Yung R.; Kanter, Ronald; Knollmann, Bjorn C.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Calmodulin (CaM) is encoded by three genes, CALM1, CALM2, and CALM3, all of which harbor pathogenic variants linked to long QT syndrome (LQTS) with early and severe expressivity. These LQTS-causative variants reduce CaM affinity to Ca2+ and alter the properties of the cardiac L-type calcium channel (CaV1.2). CaM also modulates NaV1.5 and the ryanodine receptor, RyR2. All of these interactions may play a role in disease pathogenesis. Here, we determine the spectrum and prevalence of pathogenic CaM variants in a cohort of genetically elusive LQTS, and functionally characterize the novel variants. Methods and Results Thirty-nine genetically elusive LQTS cases underwent whole exome sequencing to identify CaM variants. Non-synonymous CaM variants were overrepresented significantly in this heretofore LQTS cohort (15.4%) compared to exome aggregation consortium (0.04%; p<0.0001). When the clinical sequelae of these 6 CaM-positive cases was compared to the 33 CaM-negative cases, CaM-positive cases had a more severe phenotype with an average age of onset of 8 months, an average QTc of 679 ms, and a high prevalence of cardiac arrest. Functional characterization of one novel variant, E141G-CaM, revealed an 11-fold reduction in Ca2+ binding affinity and a functionally-dominant loss of inactivation in CaV1.2, mild accentuation in NaV1.5 late current, but no effect on intracellular RyR2-mediated calcium release. Conclusions Overall, 15% of our genetically elusive LQTS cohort harbored non-synonymous variants in CaM. Genetic testing of CALM1-3 should be pursued for individuals with LQTS, especially those with early childhood cardiac arrest, extreme QT prolongation, and a negative family history. PMID:26969752

  20. EpCAM expression in normal, non-pathological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Eva; Reid, Lola M

    2008-01-01

    Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is associated with various cancers. Most normal, non-pathological epithelial tissue is EpCAM positive with the exception of epidermal keratinocytes, gastric parietal cells, myoepithelial cells, thymic cortical epithelial, and hepatocytes. However, during early liver development EpCAM expression is also observed. In our studies, we have demonstrated that EpCAM is expressed in non-pathological human livers on hepatic progenitors in livers of all donor ages, from 16 weeks gestation fetal livers to adult. Hepatic progenitors of the liver consist of the stem cells and their descendants, the hepatoblasts, that give rise to the hepatocytic and biliary lineages. Both hepatic stem cells and most hepatoblasts express EpCAM, but only hepatoblasts are alpha-fetoprotein positive. The percentage of EpCAM positive progenitors in human livers varies with donor age and is about 2.5% in the adult and 12.1% in fetuses. In vivo, hepatic stem cells have been found associated with the canals of Hering. Xeno-transplantation experiments with EpCAM positive human liver cells have revealed their potential for proliferation and differentiation to mature liver parenchymal cells.

  1. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among Australian hospital-based nurses: knowledge, attitude, personal and professional use, reasons for use, CAM referrals, and socio-demographic predictors of CAM users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorofi, Seyed Afshin; Arbon, Paul

    2017-05-01

    This study was intended to examine CAM among Australian hospital-based nurses, identifying their knowledge, attitude, personal and professional use, reasons for use, CAM referrals, and socio-demographic predictors of CAM users. Nurses holding a qualification in nursing and working in surgical wards were included using a convenience sampling technique. A self-complete questionnaire was developed to achieve the aims of the study. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were calculated to describe and analyse data. Overall, 95.7% and 49.7% of nurses reported personal and professional use of CAM, respectively. The most popular CAM/CAM domain personally and professionally used by nurses was massage therapy and mind-body therapies. The primary reason for personal use of CAM was "[it] fits into my way of life/philosophy". Furthermore, massage therapists were the most commonly recommended CAM practitioners to patients. Only 15.8% of nurses would always ask patients about use of herbal medicines as part of nursing history taking. Over one-fifth (22.4%) of nurses rated their attitude as having a very positive, and 60.3% rated themselves as having very little or no knowledge of CAM. A positive correlation was also found between knowledge and attitude about CAM. Positive attitude and higher knowledge about CAM were positively correlated to CAM referrals. Several socio-demographic factors predicted personal and professional use of CAM. This study revealed that nurses generally believe not to have sufficient knowledge of CAM but are open to use CAM with patients. Nurses' positive attitude toward and personal use of CAM could be an indication that they are poised for further integration of evidence-based CAM into nursing practice to treat whole person. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optical CAM architecture for address lookup at 10 Gbps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniotis, P.; Terzenidis, N.; Pleros, N.

    2017-02-01

    Content Addressable Memories (CAMs) are widely used in nowadays router applications due to their fast bit searching capabilities. However, address loop-up operation cannot still keep up with high data-rate speeds of optical packet payload due to the limited speeds offered by electronic technology, which hardly can reach a few GHz. Despite this limitation, optics has still not managed to penetrate in the area of address look-up and forwarding operations due to the complete lack of optical CAM-based solutions. To the best of our knowledge, the first all-optical binary CAM cell has been only recently experimentally demonstrated by our group using an all-optical monolithically integrated InP Flip-Flop and an optical XOR gate, revealing error-free operation at 10 Gbps for both Content Addressing and Content Writing operations. In this paper, we extend our previous work by presenting for the first time to our knowledge an all-optical Ternary CAM cell architecture that allows also for a third matching state of "X" or "don't care", thus adding the necessary searching flexibility required by modern CAM-based solutions for supporting subnet-masked addresses. Moreover, we exploit the optical Ternary CAM cell towards deploying a complete CAM row formed by 4 Ternary CAM cells, demonstrating its operation through VPI simulations at 10 Gbps for an indicative 2 bit packet address and for both Content Addressing and Content Writing functionalities. The potential of this memory architecture to allow for up to 40 Gbps operation could presumably lead to fast CAM-based routing applications by enabling all-optical Address Lookup schemes.

  3. Diagnosing delirium in elderly Thai patients: Utilization of the CAM algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerttrakarnnon Peerasak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium is a common illness among elderly hospitalized patients. However, under-recognition of the condition by non-psychiatrically trained personnel is prevalent. This study investigated the performance of family physicians when detecting delirum in elderly hospitalized Thai patients using the Thai version of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM algorithm. Methods A Thai version of the CAM algorithm was developed, and three experienced Thai family physicians were trained in its use. The diagnosis of delirium was also carried out by four fully qualified psychiatrists using DSM-IV TR criteria, which can be considered the gold standard. Sixty-six elderly patients were assessed with MMSE Thai 2002, in order to evaluate whether they had dementia upon admission. Within three days of admission, each patient was interviewed separately by a psychiatrist using DSM-IV TR, and a family physician using the Thai version of the CAM algorithm, with both sets of interviewers diagnosing for delirium. Results The CAM algorithm tool, as used by family physicians, demonstrated a sensitivity of 91.9% and a specificity of 100.0%, with a PPV of 100.0% and an NPV of 90.6%. Interrater agreement between the family physicians and the psychiatrists was good (Cohen's Kappa = 0.91, p Conclusions Family physicians performed well when diagnosing delirium in elderly hospitalized Thai patients using the Thai version of the CAM algorithm, showing that this measurement tool is suitable for use by non-psychiatrically trained personnel, being short, quick, and easy to administer. However, proper training on use of the algorithm is required.

  4. Discoloration of various CAD/CAM blocks after immersion in coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasipin Lauvahutanon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated color differences (ΔEs and translucency parameter changes (ΔTPs of various computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM blocks after immersion in coffee. Materials and Methods Eight CAD/CAM blocks and four restorative composite resins were evaluated. The CIE L*a*b* values of 2.0 mm thick disk-shaped specimens were measured using the spectrophotometer on white and black backgrounds (n = 6. The ΔEs and ΔTPs of one day, one week, and one month immersion in coffee or water were calculated. The values of each material were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons (α = 0.05. The ΔEs after prophylaxis paste polishing of 1 month coffee immersion specimens, water sorption and solubility were also evaluated. Results After one month in coffee, ΔEs of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks and restorative composites ranged from 1.6 to 3.7 and from 2.1 to 7.9, respectively, and ΔTPs decreased. The ANOVA of ΔEs and ΔTPs revealed significant differences in two main factors, immersion periods and media, and their interaction except for ΔEs of TEL (Telio CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent. The ΔEs significantly decreased after prophylaxis polishing except GRA (Gradia Block, GC. There was no significant correlation between ΔEs and water sorption or solubility in water. Conclusions The ΔEs of CAD/CAM blocks after immersion in coffee varied among products and were comparable to those of restorative composite resins. The discoloration of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks could be effectively removed with prophylaxis paste polishing, while that of some restorative composites could not be removed.

  5. Discoloration of various CAD/CAM blocks after immersion in coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauvahutanon, Sasipin; Shiozawa, Maho; Iwasaki, Naohiko; Oki, Meiko; Finger, Werner J.; Arksornnukit, Mansuang

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated color differences (ΔEs) and translucency parameter changes (ΔTPs) of various computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) blocks after immersion in coffee. Materials and Methods Eight CAD/CAM blocks and four restorative composite resins were evaluated. The CIE L*a*b* values of 2.0 mm thick disk-shaped specimens were measured using the spectrophotometer on white and black backgrounds (n = 6). The ΔEs and ΔTPs of one day, one week, and one month immersion in coffee or water were calculated. The values of each material were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons (α = 0.05). The ΔEs after prophylaxis paste polishing of 1 month coffee immersion specimens, water sorption and solubility were also evaluated. Results After one month in coffee, ΔEs of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks and restorative composites ranged from 1.6 to 3.7 and from 2.1 to 7.9, respectively, and ΔTPs decreased. The ANOVA of ΔEs and ΔTPs revealed significant differences in two main factors, immersion periods and media, and their interaction except for ΔEs of TEL (Telio CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent). The ΔEs significantly decreased after prophylaxis polishing except GRA (Gradia Block, GC). There was no significant correlation between ΔEs and water sorption or solubility in water. Conclusions The ΔEs of CAD/CAM blocks after immersion in coffee varied among products and were comparable to those of restorative composite resins. The discoloration of CAD/CAM composite resin blocks could be effectively removed with prophylaxis paste polishing, while that of some restorative composites could not be removed. PMID:28194359

  6. Stain susceptibility of composite and ceramic CAD/CAM blocks versus direct resin composites with different resinous matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Amal; Ardu, Stefano; Bortolotto, Tissiana; Krejci, Ivo

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the stain susceptibility of CAD/CAM blocks and direct composite after long term exposure to various staining agents. 40 disk-shaped samples were fabricated from each of nine materials; six CAD/CAM (Vitablocs Mark II, Paradigm MZ100, Experimental Vita Hybrid Ceramic, Vita Enamic, Experimental Kerr and Lava Ultimate) and three direct composites (Filtek Supreme, Venus Diamond and Filtek Silorane). Samples were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8) according to different staining solutions (distilled water, tea, red wine, coffee and artificial saliva). Initial L*a*b* values were assessed using a calibrated digital spectrophotometer. Specimens were immersed in staining solutions and stored in an incubator at 37 °C for 120 days. L*a*b* values were assessed again and color change (∆E) was calculated as difference between recorded L*a*b* values. ANOVA, and Duncan test were used to identify differences between groups (α = 0.05). Significant differences in ∆E values were detected between materials (p = 0.000). Among all staining solutions, the highest ∆E value was observed with red wine. The new CAD/CAM blocks (Vita Enamic, Vita Hybrid Ceramic and Lava Ultimate) showed the highest resistance to staining compared to the MZ100 composite resin blocks. Filtek Silorane, a direct composite, showed high stain resistance values compared to CAD/CAM materials and other direct composites. Ceramic and composite CAD/CAM blocks had lower staining susceptibility than methacrylate based direct composite. Staining susceptibility of the new resin based CAD/CAM materials Vita Enamic and Lava Ultimate was comparable to feldspathic ceramic blocks (Vitablocs Mark II). Filtek Silorane showed promising results that were comparable to some CAD/CAM blocks.

  7. Turnkey CAD/CAM systems' integration with IPAD systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauth, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Today's commercially available turnkey CAD/CAM systems provide a highly interactive environment, and support many specialized application functions for the design/drafting/manufacturing process. This paper presents an overview of several aerospace companies which have successfully integrated turnkey CAD/CAM systems with their own company wide engineering and manufacturing systems. It also includes a vendor's view of the benefits as well as the disadvantages of such integration efforts. Specific emphasis is placed upon the selection of standards for representing geometric engineering data and for communicating such information between different CAD/CAM systems.

  8. Single unit CAD/CAM restorations: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Michael; Quinn, Frank; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) has been used in dentistry since 1987. Since then, many CAD/CAM systems have been described, which enable the production of chair-side single unit dental restorations. These restorations are of comparable quality to those made by conventional techniques and have some specific advantages, including rapid production, improved wear properties, decreased laboratory fee and improved cross infection control. This literature review investigates the evidence base for the use of single unit CAD/CAM restorations. Materials, marginal gap, aesthetics, post-operative sensitivity, cementation, cost-effectiveness and longevity are discussed.

  9. Camønoen: Mobilizing pilgrim trails along collaborative platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Widtfeld Meged, Jane

    2016-01-01

    and citizens alike? The recently opened pilgrim trail, Camønoen represents an adapted collaborative business model and as such an appropriate case to study new coastal value creation processes. Camønoen is a 175 km long newly designed walking trail across the islands of Møn, Nyord and Bogø. The trail...... is augmented by a digital platform on which hikers may directly connect with local citizens and book experiences ranging from private dinners to bird-watching and berry-picking. The platform Camønoen.org is hosted by the regional museum, which neither charges for intermediation, nor is responsible for vetting...

  10. Optical and Radio Variability of BL Lacertae

    CERN Document Server

    Gaur, Haritma; Bachev, R; Strigachev, A; Semkov, E; Wiita, Paul J; Volvach, A E; Gu, Minfeng; Agarwal, A; Agudo, I; Aller, M F; Aller, H D; Kurtanidze, O M; Kurtanidze, S O; Lahteenmaki, A; Peneva, S; Nikolashvili, M G; Sigua, L A; Tornikoski, M; Volvach, L N

    2015-01-01

    We observed the prototype blazar, BL Lacertae, extensively in optical and radio bands during an active phase in the period 2010--2013 when the source showed several prominent outbursts. We searched for possible correlations and time lags between the optical and radio band flux variations using multifrequency data to learn about the mechanisms producing variability. During an active phase of BL Lacertae, we searched for possible correlations and time lags between multifrequency light curves of several optical and radio bands. We tried to estimate any possible variability timescales and inter-band lags in these bands. We performed optical observations in B, V, R and I bands from seven telescopes in Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece and India and obtained radio data at 36.8, 22.2, 14.5, 8 and 4.8 GHz frequencies from three telescopes in Ukraine, Finland and USA. Significant cross-correlations between optical and radio bands are found in our observations with a delay of cm-fluxes with respect to optical ones of ~250 days...

  11. Development of bioluminescent chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) models for primary pancreatic cancer cells: a platform for drug testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovithi, Maria; Avan, Amir; Funel, Niccola; Leon, Leticia G.; Gomez, Valentina E.; Wurdinger, Thomas; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Verheul, Henk M. W.; Giovannetti, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop chick-embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) bioluminescent tumor models employing low passage cell cultures obtained from primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Primary PDAC cells transduced with lentivirus expressing Firefly-luciferase (Fluc) were established and inoculated onto the CAM membrane, with >80% engraftment. Fluc signal reliably correlated with tumor growth. Tumor features were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and genetic analyses, including analysis of mutations and mRNA expression of PDAC pivotal genes, as well as microRNA (miRNA) profiling. These studies showed that CAM tumors had histopathological and genetic characteristic comparable to the original tumors. We subsequently tested the modulation of key miRNAs and the activity of gemcitabine and crizotinib on CAM tumors, showing that combination treatment resulted in 63% inhibition of tumor growth as compared to control (p < 0.01). These results were associated with reduced expression of miR-21 and increased expression of miR-155. Our study provides the first evidence that transduced primary PDAC cells can form tumors on the CAM, retaining several histopathological and (epi)genetic characteristics of original tumors. Moreover, our results support the use of these models for drug testing, providing insights on molecular mechanisms underlying antitumor activity of new drugs/combinations. PMID:28304379

  12. Exploring the magnetic field configuration in BL Lac using GMVA

    CERN Document Server

    Rani, B; Hodgson, J; Koyama, S; Zensus, J A; Fuhrmann, L; Marscher, A P; Jorstad, S G

    2016-01-01

    The high radio frequency polarization imaging of non-thermal emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a direct way to probe the magnetic field strength and structure in the immediate vicinity of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and is crucial in testing the jet-launching scenario. To explore the the magnetic field configuration at the base of jets in blazars, we took advantage of the full polarization capabilities of the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA). With an angular resolution of $\\sim$50 micro-arcseconds ($\\mu$as) at 86 GHz, one could resolve scales up to $\\sim$450 gravitational radii (for a 10$^9$ solar mass black hole at a redshift of 0.1). We present here the preliminary results of our study on the blazar BL~Lac. Our results suggest that on sub-mas scales the core and the central jet of BL Lac are significantly polarized with two distinct regions of polarized intensity. We also noted a great morphological similarity between the 7mm/3mm VLBI images at very similar angular resolution.

  13. Addressing holistic healthcare needs of oncology patients: Implementation and evaluation of a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) course within an elective module designed for healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klafke, Nadja; Homberg, Angelika; Glassen, Katharina; Mahler, Cornelia

    2016-12-01

    Patients, and especially oncology patients, increasingly demand information and application of complementary therapies to supplement their conventional medical treatment and follow-up care. Due to the widespread interest in holistic treatment opportunities in oncology populations, healthcare professionals need to be prepared in differentiating evidence-based methods of the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) spectrum and how to consult with patients about it. This paper reports on the implementation and evaluation of a newly designed module "Complementary and Alternative Medicine in oncological healthcare" in the bachelor degree program Interprofessional Health Care (B.Sc.). The study applied a developed evaluation questionnaire to capture students' perspectives on the CAM contents. This assessment instrument was administered pre and post the CAM teaching unit. Interprofessional medical education, University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany. The integration of the CAM elective module was possible and was met by positive response. Students' interest was reflected in an increase of their self-reported knowledge gain and positive CAM attitude. Comparison of pre and post evaluation data demonstrate that, particularly, students' expectations on developing their own opinion about CAM, and getting an overview of the evidence-base of different CAM methods have been met. Evaluation results indicate that the module content was in line with the students' expectations and may have positively impacted on their general CAM attitude. The results support us in continuing to offer this CAM course within the elective module to prepare today's healthcare professionals for patient-oriented healthcare delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Decisions to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM by male cancer patients: information-seeking roles and types of evidence used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Trevor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM is increasingly popular with cancer patients and yet information provision or discussion about CAM by health professionals remains low. Previous research suggests that patients may fear clinicians' 'disapproval' if they raise the subject of CAM, and turn to other sources to acquire information about CAM. However, little empirical research has been conducted into how cancer patients acquire, and, more importantly evaluate CAM information before deciding which CAM therapies to try. Methods Qualitative study, comprising semi-structured interviews with 43 male cancer patients of varying ages, cancer type and stage of illness, 34 of whom had used CAM. They were recruited from a range of NHS and non-NHS settings in Bristol, England. Results As a result of the lack of CAM information from health professionals, men in this study became either 'pro-active seekers' or 'passive recipients' of such information. Their main information resource was the 'lay referral' network of family, friends and acquaintances, especially females. 'Traditional' information sources, including books, magazines, leaflets and the media were popular, more so in fact than the internet. Views on the internet ranged from enthusiasm or healthy scepticism through to caution or disinterest. CAM information was generally regarded as 'empowering' as it broadened treatment and self-care options. A minority of participants were information averse fearing additional choices that might disrupt their fragile ability to cope. There was general consensus that CAM information should be available via the NHS, to give it a 'stamp of approval', which combined with guidance from informed health professionals, could help patients to make 'guided' choices. However, a small minority of these men valued the independence of CAM from the NHS and deliberately sought 'alternative' information sources and treatment options. Men were selective in

  15. Effects of Cerium Nitrate on Expression of CaM Ⅰ and PMCA Ca2+-ATPase mRNA in Rat Liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨维东; 王艇; 刘洁生; 雷衡毅; 杨燕生

    2001-01-01

    The effect of cerium nitrate on expression of CaM Ⅰ and PMCA1b in rat liver was studied by means of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The result shows that neither a high dose (50 mg*kg-1) nor a low dose (1 mg*kg-1) of cerium nitrate induces any alterations of expression of CaM Ⅰ and PMCA 1b mRNA after recurrent intraperitoneal injection of cerium nitrate, which suggests that effect of cerium nitrate on CaM and Ca2+-ATPase might be at posttranscription level.

  16. Eye tracking method on improved CamShift algorithm%改进CamShift算法的眼动跟踪方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yuan-gang; SANG Nan; HAO Zong-bo; JIANG Wei

    2014-01-01

    Since the CamShift algorithm only adopted color feature, which would result in the inaccuracy or failure of eye tracking in the situation of similar color objects,rapid movement of the head or deformation of the iris, this paper proposed an eye tracking m%针对CamShift跟踪算法仅采用颜色特征,在存在颜色相近干扰目标、头部快速运动或者虹膜发生形变等情况易发生眼动跟踪不准确或失败等问题,提出一种基于改进CamShift算法的眼动跟踪方法。在CamShift算法中,计算边缘直方图分布,在颜色特征基础上融合边缘特征,同时通过分析饱和度分量抑制噪声影响,并利用基于边缘特征的自定义方法判断虹膜是否发生形变。当发生形变时,自动更新模板,根据历史运动轨迹预测虹膜中心。实验表明,该方法能有效改善眼动跟踪性能,且定位虹膜精确、错误率低、速度快,预测虹膜中心与实际虹膜中心

  17. BL LAC candidates for TeV observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Paggi, A.; Errando, M.; D' Abrusco, R.; Masetti, N.; Tosti, G.; Funk, S.

    2013-07-01

    BL Lac objects are the most numerous class of extragalactic TeV-detected sources. One of the biggest difficulties in investigating their TeV emission is due to their limited number, since only 47 BL Lac objects are known to be TeV emitters. In this paper, we propose new criteria to select TeV BL Lac candidates based on infrared and X-ray observations. We apply our selection criteria to the BL Lac objects listed in the ROMA-BZCAT catalog, thereby identifying 41 potential TeV emitters. We then perform a search over a more extended sample combining the ROSAT bright source catalog and the WISE all-sky survey, revealing 54 additional candidates for TeV observations. Our investigation also led to a tentative classification of 16 unidentified X-ray sources as BL Lac candidates. This analysis provides new interesting BL Lac targets for future observations with ground-based Cherenkov telescopes.

  18. BL Lacertae objects and the extragalactic γ-ray background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Li; Xin-Wu Cao

    2011-01-01

    A tight correlation between γ-ray and radio emission is found for a sample of BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) and the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET).The γ-ray emission of BL Lac objects exhibits strong variability,and the detection rate of γ-ray BL Lac objects is low,which may be related to the γ-ray duty cycle of BL Lac objects.We estimate the γ-ray duty cycle,δγ (≌)0.11,for BL Lac objects detected by EGRET and Fermi.Using the empirical relation ofγ-ray emission with radio emission and the estimated γ-ray duty cycle δγ,we derive the γ-ray luminosity function (LF) of BL Lac objects from their radio LF.Our derived γ-ray LF of BL Lac objects can almost reproduce that calculated with the recently released Fermi bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) sample.Comparison of the derived LF of the γ-ray BL Lac objects in this work with that derived by Abdo et al.(2009a) requires the γ-ray duty cycle of BL Lac objects to be almost luminosity-independent.We find that ~ 45% of the extragalactic diffuse γ-ray background (EGRB) is contributed by BL Lac objects.Combining the estimate of the quasar contribution to the EGRB in the previous work,we find that ~ 77% of the EGRB is contributed by BL Lac objects and radio quasars.

  19. Extreme BL Lacs: probes for cosmology and UHECR candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Tavecchio, F

    2015-01-01

    High-energy observations of extreme BL Lac objects, such as 1ES0229+200 or 1ES 0347-121, recently focused interest both for blazar and jet physics and for the implication on the extragalactic background light and intergalactic magnetic field estimate. Moreover, their enigmatic properties have been interpreted in a scenario in which their primary high- energy output is through a beam of high-energy hadrons. However, despite their possible important role in all these topics, the number of these extreme highly peaked BL Lac objects (EHBL) is still rather small. Aiming at increase their number, we selected a group of EHBL candidates considering those undetected (or only barely detected) by the LAT onboard Fermi and characterized by a high X-ray versus radio flux ratio. We assembled the multi-wavelength spectral energy distribution of the resulting 9 sources, using available archival data of Swift, GALEX, and Fermi satellites, confirming their nature. Through a simple one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model we est...

  20. Broadband Spectra and Variability of BL Lacertae in 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Böttcher, M; Aller, M F; Mang, O; Raiteri, C M; Ravasio, M; Tagliaferri, G; Teraesranta, H; Villata, M

    2002-01-01

    We have organized an extensive multiwavelength campaign on BL Lacertae in the second half of 2000. Simultaneous or quasi-simultaneous observations were taken at radio frequencies, in the optical - carried out by the WEBT collaboration -, in X-rays - using BeppoSAX and RXTE -, and at VHE gamma-rays with the CAT and HEGRA Cherenkov telescope facilities. In this paper, we are presenting first results from this campaign. The WEBT optical campaign achieved an unprecedented time coverage, virtually continuous over several 10 - 20 hour segments, and revealed intraday variability on time scales of ~ 1.5 hours. The X-ray observations of Nov. 1 - 2, 2000, revealed significant variability on similar time scales, and provided evidence for the synchrotron spectrum extending out to ~ 10 keV during that time. At higher energies, the onset of the hard power-law commonly observed in radio-loud quasars and radio-selected BL Lac objects is seen. From the energy-resolved X-ray variability patterns, we find evidence that electron...

  1. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Time to Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with your health care providers any complementary and alternative medicines you take or are thinking about starting. Photo: ... and older use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). But less than one-third who use ...

  2. Resin-composite blocks for dental CAD/CAM applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, N D; Sadoun, M J

    2014-12-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials.

  3. Finding the Evidence in CAM: a Student's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Ghassemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This commentary offers a future health care provider's perspective on the role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Western (namely, in US medical education and practice. As a student of both public health and medicine in the United States, Jeffrey Ghassemi is interested in CAM's contribution to improving medical practice and teaching. The commentary highlights the ambiguous definitions of CAM to Westerners despite the rising popularity of and expenditures for alternative modalities of care. It then argues for collaboration between alternative and established medical communities to ascertain the scientific merits of CAM. It concludes by calling for a new medical paradigm that embraces the philosophies of both communities to advance education and patient care.

  4. Complementary and alternative (CAM) dietary therapies for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Sheila

    2008-02-01

    Complementary and alternative (CAM) therapies include a wide spectrum of dietary practices, some of which are claimed to cure cancer. Observational studies have shown consistently that predominantly plant-based diets reduce the risk for some adult type cancers such as breast cancer and prostate cancer. These studies form the basis of the American Cancer Society (ACS) nutritional guidelines. Many CAM diets prescribe a similar low fat, high fiber, high fruit and vegetable type diet, but also add detoxification and many different supplements to the basic diet which is then claimed to cure cancer. The potential advantages and disadvantages of CAM diets are discussed. Many aspects can be potentially harmful, particularly to the child with cancer. Advantages include involvement of the child and family in decision-making and care. There is no evidence to support the claims that CAM dietary therapies cure cancer.

  5. BL Lacertae Objects and the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Fan

    2011-01-01

    A tight correlation between gamma-ray and radio emission is found for a sample of BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects detected by Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) and the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). The gamma-ray emission of BL Lac objects exhibits strong variability, and the detection rate of gamma-ray BL Lac objects is low, which may be related to the gamma-ray duty cycle of BL Lac objects. We estimate the gamma-ray duty cycle ~ 0.11, for BL Lac objects detected by EGRET and Fermi. Using the empirical relation of gamma-ray emission with radio emission and the estimated gamma-ray duty cycle, we derive the gamma-ray luminosity function (LF) of BL Lac objects from their radio LF. Our derived gamma-ray LF of BL Lac objects can almost reproduce that calculated with the recently released Fermi bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) sample. We find that about 45% of the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background (EGRB) is contributed by BL Lac objects. Combining the estimate of the quasar contri...

  6. Isolation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative cell clones from the EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) line Akata: malignant phenotypes of BL cells are dependent on EBV.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    During cultivation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) line Akata, it was noted that EBV DNA is lost from some of the cells. Isolation of EBV-positive and EBV-negative clones with the same origin made it possible to examine the effects of EBV in BL cells. The results indicate that malignant phenotypes of BL, such as growth in low serum, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, and tumorigenicity in nude mice, are dependent on the presence of EBV genomes and unde...

  7. Prognostic significance of L1CAM expression and its association with mutant p53 expression in high-risk endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gool, Inge C; Stelloo, Ellen; Nout, Remi A; Nijman, Hans W; Edmondson, Richard J; Church, David N; MacKay, Helen J; Leary, Alexandra; Powell, Melanie E; Mileshkin, Linda; Creutzberg, Carien L; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Bosse, Tjalling

    2016-02-01

    Studies in early-stage, predominantly low- and intermediate-risk endometrial cancer have demonstrated that L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) overexpression identifies patients at increased risk of recurrence, yet its prognostic significance in high-risk endometrial cancer is unclear. To evaluate this, its frequency, and the relationship of L1CAM with the established endometrial cancer biomarker p53, we analyzed the expression of both markers by immunohistochemistry in a pilot series of 116 endometrial cancers (86 endometrioid, 30 non-endometrioid subtype) with high-risk features (such as high tumor grade and deep myometrial invasion) and correlated results with clinical outcome. We used The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) endometrial cancer series to validate our findings. Using the previously reported cutoff of 10% positive staining, 51/116 (44%) tumors were classified as L1CAM-positive, with no significant association between L1CAM positivity and the rate of distant metastasis (P=0.195). However, increasing the threshold for L1CAM positivity to 50% resulted in a reduction of the frequency of L1CAM-positive tumors to 24% (28/116), and a significant association with the rate of distant metastasis (P=0.018). L1CAM expression was strongly associated with mutant p53 in the high-risk and TCGA series (Pp53-mutant endometrial cancers displayed p53-wild-type non-endometrioid endometrial cancers demonstrated diffuse L1CAM staining, suggesting p53-independent mechanisms of L1CAM overexpression. In conclusion, the previously proposed threshold for L1CAM positivity of >10% does not predict prognosis in high-risk endometrial cancer, whereas an alternative threshold (>50%) does. L1CAM expression is strongly, but not universally, associated with mutant p53, and may be strong enough for clinical implementation as prognostic marker in combination with p53. The high frequency of L1CAM expression in high-risk endometrial cancers suggests that it may also be a promising therapeutic target

  8. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Young, J

    2000-01-01

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies, and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability.

  9. CAM Use and Suggestions for Medical Care of Senior Citizens: A Qualitative Study Using the World Café Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stöckigt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little data exists concerning the reasons for using complementary and alternative (CAM therapies by seniors. Therefore, the aim of this study is to learn about motives of German seniors for using CAM therapies and their wishes for health care in general. Methods. One focus group and one “World Café” following a semistructured interview guide were conducted. All discussions were recorded digitally, transcribed, and analyzed according to Qualitative Content Analysis using the software MAXQDA. Results. In total 21 seniors participated (eighteen female, three male, mean age 72.5 ± 4.3 years. Most of the participants had lifelong experiences with medicinal herbs and home remedies due to unavailable conventional care during childhood. Also important for them were nutrition and exercise. These methods were often used as self-care to enhance wellbeing, to prevent and to cure illnesses. The participants would welcome an integration of CAM in health care services. They asked especially for more empathic physicians who are better trained in CAM and respect their experiences. Conclusion. The importance of life experience in regard to health care by senior can be seen as a resource. Qualitative studies investigating physician-patient relationships and intergenerational aspects in CAM use could be of interest for further studies.

  10. Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Effects of CAM Therapies: An In Vitro Study in Normal Kidney Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagun Arora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this current study was to justify the incorporation of complementary and alternate medicine (CAM in current cancer treatments. The major drawback of anticancer drugs is their nonselective killing, which ultimately leads to attrition of normal cells. Keeping this as the foundation of our study, we made an effort to compare the cytotoxicity associated with a known chemotherapeutic drug 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU, with certain CAM therapies previously reported to have anticancer activity. The parameters chosen for the study were based on antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on normal, kidney epithelial cells (NRK-52E. The MTT assay, colony formation assay, DNA fragmentation, and differential staining using AO/EB, following treatment with either 5-FU or CAM therapies, were performed. The CAM therapies under study were various extracts of wheatgrass, roots of Achyranthes aspera (AA, mushroom extracts (Pleurotus ostreatus, Macrolepiota procera, and Auricularia polytricha, and a homeopathic drug, Ruta graveolens (Ruta. The results showed that treatment of normal cells with the CAM therapies led to minimum cell damage in comparison to 5-FU. This evidence-based study will lead to greater acceptance of alternative therapies against cancer.

  11. Comparison of the marginal gap of zirconia-fabricated copings generated by CAD/CAM and Copy-Milling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Alhavaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was conducted to compare the marginal fit of single-tooth zirconia-based copings fabricated by CAD/CAM process (Cercon; Degudent and Copy Milling (Dentium. Materials and Methods: One in vitro prepared abutment from one mandibular molar model served as a template for replication of 40 epoxy resin (highly filled dies, which had been taken by polyvinyl siloxane impression material. Copings were manufactured on epoxy replicas by two processes: the CAD/CAM (Cercon; Degudent (n = 20 and the Copy-Milling (Dentium (n = 20 processes. Four measurements were performed for each surface coping (Buccal, Lingual, Mesial, and Distal. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 statistical software using independent t-test. Results: There was a significant difference in the marginal gap values between CAD/CAM and Copy-Milling groups (P < 0.001. The mean value of the marginal gap (SD for CAD/CAM Copings (56.87 μm was significantly less than that of Copy-Milling (136.12 μm (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The marginal fit of CAD/CAM copings was better than that of Copy-Milling copings.

  12. Intraday optical variability of BL Lacertae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Nankun; Wu, Jianghua; Webb, James R.; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Dai, Yan

    2017-08-01

    We monitored BL Lacertae simultaneously in the optical B, V, R and I bands for 13 nights during the period 2012-2016. The variations were well correlated in all bands and the source showed significant intraday variability (IDV). We also studied its optical flux and colour behaviour, and searched for inter-band time lags. A strong bluer-when-brighter chromatism was found on the intra-night time-scale. The spectral changes are not sensitive to the host galaxy contribution. Cross-correlation analysis revealed possible time delay of about 10 min between variations in the V and R bands. We interpreted the observed flares in terms of the model consisting of individual synchrotron pulses.

  13. Photohadronic origin of $\\gamma$-ray BL Lac emission: implications for IceCube neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Petropoulou, Maria; Padovani, Paolo; Mastichiadis, Apostolos; Resconi, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    The recent IceCube discovery of 0.1-1 PeV neutrinos of astrophysical origin opens up a new era for high-energy astrophysics. Although there are various astrophysical candidate sources, a firm association of the detected neutrinos with one (or more) of them is still lacking. A recent analysis of plausible astrophysical counterparts within the error circles of IceCube events showed that likely counterparts for nine of the IceCube neutrinos include mostly BL Lacs, among which Mrk 421. Motivated by this result and a previous independent analysis on the neutrino emission from Mrk 421, we test the BL Lac-neutrino connection in the context of a specific theoretical model for BL Lac emission. We model the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the BL Lacs selected as counterparts of the IceCube neutrinos using a one-zone leptohadronic model and mostly nearly simultaneous data. The neutrino flux for each BL Lac is self-consistently calculated, using photon and proton distributions specifically derived for every individ...

  14. U(1)B-L symmetry restoration and effective neutrino species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2014-06-01

    The U(1)B-L symmetry could be restored during inflation, since the BICEP2 results suggest a GUT-scale inflation with the Hubble parameter, Hinf≃1014 GeV, close to the U(1)B-L breaking scale. We consider a scenario in which the B-L Higgs field dominates the Universe after inflation, and mainly decays into the U(1)B-L gauge bosons, whose subsequent decays reheat the Universe. Interestingly, if one of the right-handed neutrinos is extremely light and behaves as dark radiation or hot dark matter, its abundance is determined by the B-L charge assignment and the relativistic degree of freedom in plasma. We find that ΔNeff takes discrete values between 0.188 and 0.220 in the standard model plus three right-handed neutrinos, depending on whether the decay into heavier right-handed neutrinos is kinematically accessible or not. In the fiveness U(1)5 case, we find that ΔNeff takes discrete values between 0.313 and 0.423. The tension between BICEP2 and Planck can be partially relaxed by dark radiation.

  15. U(1)$_{B-L}$ Symmetry Restoration and Effective Neutrino Species

    CERN Document Server

    Ishida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The U(1)$_{B-L}$ symmetry could be restored during inflation, since the BICEP2 results suggest a GUT-scale inflation with the Hubble parameter, $H_{\\rm inf} \\simeq 10^{14}$ GeV, close to the U(1)$_{B-L}$ breaking scale. If the ${B-L}$ Higgs field dominates the Universe after inflation, it can mainly decay into the U(1)$_{B-L}$ gauge bosons, whose subsequent decays reheat the Universe. Interestingly, if one (or more) of the right-handed neutrinos is extremely light and behaves as dark radiation or hot dark matter, its abundance is determined solely by the $B-L$ charge assignment and the relativistic degree of freedom in plasma. We find that $\\Delta N_{\\rm eff}$ takes discrete values between $0.188$ and $0.220$ in the standard model plus three right-handed neutrinos, depending on whether the decay into heavier right-handed neutrinos are kinematically accessible or not. In the fiveness U(1)$_{\\bf 5}$ case, we find that $\\Delta N_{\\rm eff}$ takes discrete values between $0.274$ and $0.386$. The tension between BI...

  16. Aquatic CAM photosynthesis: a brief history of its discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) photosynthesis was discovered while investigating an unrelated biochemical pathway concerned with anaerobic metabolism. George Bowes was a significant contributor to this project early in its infancy. Not only did he provide me with some valuable perspectives on peer review rejections, but by working with his gas exchange system I was able to take our initial observations of diel fluctuations in malic acid to the next level, showing this aquatic plant exhibited dark CO2 uptake. CAM is universal in all aquatic species of the worldwide Lycophyta genus Isoetes and non-existent in terrestrial Isoetes. Outside of this genus aquatic CAM has a limited occurrence in three other families, including the Crassulaceae. This discovery led to fascinating adventures in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes in search of Stylites, a terrestrial relative of Isoetes. Stylites is a plant that is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere and obtains all of its carbon from terrestrial sources and recycles carbon through CAM. Considering the Mesozoic origin of Isoetes in shallow pools, coupled with the fact that aquatic Isoetes universally possess CAM, suggests the earliest evolution of CAM photosynthesis was most likely not in terrestrial plants.

  17. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C; Bowers, John E; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C; Priest, Henry D; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Wright, Chris L; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J Andrew C; Cushman, John C; Paull, Robert E; Yu, Qingyi

    2015-12-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ρ duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements associated with the regulation of circadian clock genes, providing the first cis-regulatory link between CAM and circadian clock regulation. Pineapple CAM photosynthesis evolved by the reconfiguration of pathways in C3 plants, through the regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting genes and not through the acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole-genome or tandem gene duplication.

  18. CAMS 2009 PC Co-chairs' Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinze, Annika; Buchanan, George

    In the four years since the first CAMS workshop, context awareness has become an increasingly commonplace tool for mobile developers. The limited screen displays of many mobile devices mean that content must be carefully selected to match the user's needs and expectations, and context provides one powerful means of performing such tailoring. Furthermore, increasing availability of additional hardware sensors has bolstered the use of context. GPS, Near-Field Communication, Bluetooth and WiFi have all been used to sense the general environment and to determine the devices' location. Light and tilt sensors have also been used to tune simple features such as the strength of the display lighting, through to complex uses in game control. Context-aware mobile systems are becoming ubiquitous. With this hardware comes the opportunity for "on-board" applications to use location data to provide new services - until recently such systems could only be created with complex and expensive components. Furthermore, the current "mode" of the phone (e.g., silent, meeting, outdoors), contents of the built-in calendar, etc., can all used to provide a rich context for the user's immediate environment.

  19. Surface roughness and gloss of current CAD/CAM resin composites before and after toothbrush abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Saiki, Osamu; Nogawa, Hiroshi; Hiraba, Haruto; Okazaki, Tomoyo; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gloss and surface roughness behaviors of newly developed CAD/CAM composite blocks with different filler contents and characteristics. The gloss and surface roughness were quantified before and after a toothbrush dentifrice abrasion test; the results were compared to the gloss and surface roughness of a ceramic CAD/CAM block. Knoop hardness was determined before abrasion test. The results were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey HSD, and Dunnett t test (pVita Enamic>Gradia block>Shofu Block HC, Lava Ultimate≥Katana Avencia block≥Cerasmart. After toothbrush abrasion, a significant difference in the gloss unit was detected between the Shofu Block HC material and the ceramic block. The Ra and Rz of the Cerasmart and Shofu Block HC materials were significantly larger than those of the ceramic block after toothbrush abrasion.

  20. The Multiperiodic Pulsating Star Y Cam A as a Musical Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Ulas, Burak

    2015-01-01

    In this study we generate musical chords from the oscillation frequencies of the primary component of oscillating eclipsing Algol system Y Cam. The parameters and the procedure of the musical chord generation process from the stellar oscillations are described in detail. A musical piece is also composed in appropriate scale for Y Cam A by using the generated chords from the results of the asteroseismic analysis of the stellar data. The music scores and the digital sound files are provided for both the generated chords and the musical composition. Our study shows that the further orchestral compositions can be made from the frequency analysis results of several pulsating stars by using the procedure stated in present study.

  1. Secondary Metabolites Analysis of Methanol Extract of Surian (Toona sureni (Bl. Merr Leaf as Antioxidant Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhernita

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Secondary Metabolites Analysis of Methanol Extract of Surian (Toona sureni (Bl. Merr Leaf as AntioxidantPotential. The study of performed secondary metabolites from the methanol extract of Surian (Toona sureni (Bl. Merrleaves have been done by thin-layer chromatography (TLC method. The result showed that methanol extract of Surianleaves consist of alkaloid, flavonoid, polyphenol and terpenoid. All of them positively have the ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. It has IC50 (4.80 are smaller than the ascorbat acid standard (IC50 = 9.23.

  2. The physical properties of \\textit{Fermi} TeV BL Lac objects jets

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, N; Xiong, D R; Zhang, H J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the physical properties of \\textit{Fermi} TeV BL Lac objects jets by modeling the quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distribution of 29 \\textit{Fermi} TeV BL Lacs in the frame of a one-zone leptonic synchrotron self-Compton model. Our main results are the following: (i) There is a negative correlation between $B$ and $\\delta$ in our sample, which suggests that $B$ and $\\delta$ are dependent on each other mainly in Thomson regime. (ii) There are negative correlations between $\

  3. Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence at BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, M. K.; Singh, A. K.; Das, Gangadhar; Chowdhury, Anupam; Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-01

    Determination of ultra trace elements is important in many disciplines both in basic and applied sciences. Numerous applications show their importance in medical science, environmental science, materials science, food processing and semiconductor industries and in maintaining the quality control of ultra pure chemicals and reagents. We report commissioning of a synchrotron based total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) facility on the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2. This paper describes the performance of the BL-16 TXRF spectrometer and the detailed description of its capabilities through examples of measured results.

  4. A Search for Low-Luminosity BL Lacertae Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Rector, T A; Perlman, E S; Rector, Travis A.; Stocke, John T.; Perlman, Eric S.

    1999-01-01

    Many properties of BL Lacs have become explicable in terms of the "relativistic beaming" hypothesis whereby BL Lacs are FR-1 radio galaxies viewed nearly along the jet axis. However, a possible problem with this model is that a transition population between beamed BL Lacs and unbeamed FR-1s has not been detected. A transition population of "low-luminosity BL Lacs" was predicted to exist in abundance in X-ray-selected samples such as the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) by Browne & Marcha. However, these BL Lacs may have been misidentified as clusters of galaxies. We have conducted a search for such objects in the EMSS with the ROSAT HRI; and here we present ROSAT HRI images, optical spectra and VLA radio maps for a small number of BL Lacs which were previously misidentified in the EMSS catalog as clusters of galaxies. While these objects are slightly lower in luminosity than other EMSS BL Lacs, their properties are too similar to the other BL Lacs in the EMSS sample to "bridge the gap" b...

  5. Blåt friluftsliv i Nationalpark Skjoldungernes Land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Kaae, Berit Charlotte; Draux, Hélène

    Formålet med nærværende rapport er at dokumentere og redegøre for karakteren og udbredelsen af blåt friluftsliv i Nationalpark Skjoldungernes Land som input til den kommende nationalparkplan. Blåt friluftsliv skal i denne forbindelse forstås som vandorienterede friluftsliv, dvs. rekreative...

  6. Evaluation of tropical cloud and precipitation statistics of CAM3 using CloudSat and CALIPSO data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Klein, S; Boyle, J; Mace, G G

    2008-11-20

    The combined CloudSat and CALIPSO satellite observations provide the first simultaneous measurements of cloud and precipitation vertical structure, and are used to examine the representation of tropical clouds and precipitation in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 3 (CAM3). A simulator package utilizing a model-to-satellite approach facilitates comparison of model simulations to observations, and a revised clustering method is used to sort the subgrid-scale patterns of clouds and precipitation into principal cloud regimes. Results from weather forecasts performed with CAM3 suggest that the model underestimates the horizontal extent of low and mid-level clouds in subsidence regions, but overestimates that of high clouds in ascending regions. CAM3 strongly overestimates the frequency of occurrence of the deep convection with heavy precipitation regime, but underestimates the horizontal extent of clouds and precipitation at low and middle levels when this regime occurs. This suggests that the model overestimates convective precipitation and underestimates stratiform precipitation consistent with a previous study that used only precipitation observations. Tropical cloud regimes are also evaluated in a different version of the model, CAM3.5, which uses a highly entraining plume in the parameterization of deep convection. While the frequency of occurrence of the deep convection with heavy precipitation regime from CAM3.5 forecasts decreases, the incidence of the low clouds with precipitation and congestus regimes increases. As a result, the parameterization change does not reduce the frequency of precipitating convection that is far too high relative to observations. For both versions of CAM, clouds and precipitation are overly reflective at the frequency of the CloudSat radar and thin clouds that could be detected by the lidar only are underestimated.

  7. Quasi-BL-Algebras and Their Equivalence with BL-Algebras%QBL-代数及其与BL-代数的等价性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高李红; 吴洪博

    2011-01-01

    By means of the characters that the basic logic algebra BL is matched with the fuzzy propositional logic system BL, the new logic algebraic structure called QBL-algebra has been established from the algebraizing of the axioms of fuzzy propositional logic system BL.The equivalence between the QBL-algebras and the BL-logic algebras have been proved.Consequentely, the presentative theorem of the BL-logic algebras has been given with two kinds of binary operations (×),→ on a general set.%根据命题逻辑系统BL与基础逻辑代数BL在语义方面相匹配的特征,将基础逻辑系统BL中的部分公理代数化,建立一种新的代数结构QBL-代数,并证明了QBL-代数与BL-代数的等价性,以两种二元运算(╳),→为基础在一般集合上给出了基础逻辑代数BL的表示定理.

  8. Prediction for Dynamic Characteristics of Ring-Plate Planetary Indexing Cam Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yimin; TIAN Guangcai; ZHANG Jun; LIU Mingtao; LIU Jianping

    2009-01-01

    This paper is aimed to propose an approach to predict the dynamic characteristics of ring-plate planetary indexing cam mechanism, which is a novel type of indexing mechanism that employs internal planetary transmis-sion structure. Firstly, the geometry and structure of the mechanism are discussed and the kinematic practicability is simulated with virtual prototype design. Then a 3D finite element model of the ring-plate planetary indexing cam mechanism is developed with the commercial software of MATLAB and ANSYS. Through the finite element analysis, the natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes are predicted in one motion cycle. On the basis of the virtual prototype design and finite element analysis, an experimental prototype is made and tested to validate the prediction of the dynamic characteristics. The agreement between experimental results and the finite element analysis testifies that the finite element model developed is applicable to the prediction of the dynamic characteris-tics of this type of mechanism.

  9. NectarCAM, a camera for the medium sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Glicenstein, J-F

    2016-01-01

    NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) which covers the core energy range of ~100 GeV to ~30 TeV. It has a modular design and is based on the NECTAr chip, at the heart of which is a GHz sampling Switched Capacitor Array and 12-bit Analog to Digital converter. The camera will be equipped with 265 7-photomultiplier modules, covering a field of view of 8 degrees. Each module includes photomultiplier bases, high voltage supply, pre-amplifier, trigger, readout and Ethernet transceiver. The recorded events last between a few nanoseconds and tens of nanoseconds. The expected performance of the camera are discussed. Prototypes of NectarCAM components have been built to validate the design. Preliminary results of a 19-module mini-camera are presented, as well as future plans for building and testing a full size camera.

  10. An Efficient Test Facility For The Cherenkov Telescope Array FlashCam Readout Electronics Production

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenkolb, F; Kalkuhl, C; Pühlhofer, G; Santangelo, A; Schanz, T; Tenzer, C

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the planned next-generation instrument for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy, currently under preparation by a world-wide consortium. The FlashCam group is preparing a photomultiplier-based camera for the Medium Size Telescopes of CTA, with a fully digital Readout System (ROS). For the forthcoming mass production of a substantial number of cameras, efficient test routines for all components are currently under development. We report here on a test facility for the ROS components. A test setup and routines have been developed and an early version of that setup has successfully been used to test a significant fraction of the ROS for the FlashCam camera prototype in January 2016. The test setup with its components and interface, as well as first results, are presented here.

  11. Analysis of ocular toxicity of fluconazole and voriconazole eyedrops using HET-CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández-Ferreiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Purpose: The objective of the study is to provide toxicological information through the HET-CAM test of Fluconazole and Voriconazole eye drops prepared commonly in Pharmacy Servi - ces for the treatment of fungal keratitis. Method: Experimental Study. The ocular toxicity of topical voriconazole 10 mg/ml and fluconazole 2 mg/ml were evalua ted by the hen‘s egg test (HET on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM. The effects on blood vessels were based on its behavior during 300 seconds and processes that may occur at each time, then we calculated the irritation index (is, irritation score. Results and conclusions: Both eye drops, voriconazol and fluconazole have been proven to be safe, since the IS that we obtained was zero for both samples and did not present significant signs of irritation. Therefore, these eyedrops are conside red suitable for ocular use from a toxicological point of view.

  12. In vitro evaluation of marginal discrepancy of monolithic zirconia restorations fabricated with different CAD-CAM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Tamer A; Sherif, Rana M

    2017-06-01

    Dental laboratories use different computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) systems to fabricate fixed prostheses; however, limited evidence is available concerning which system provides the best marginal discrepancy. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal fit of 5 different monolithic zirconia restorations milled with different CAD-CAM systems. Thirty monolithic zirconia crowns were fabricated on a custom-designed stainless steel die and were divided into 5 groups according to the type of monolithic zirconia crown and the CAD-CAM system used: group TZ, milled with an MCXL milling machine; group CZ, translucent zirconia milled with a motion milling machine; group ZZ, zirconia milled with a dental milling unit; group PZ, translucent zirconia milled with a zirconia milling unit; and group BZ, solid zirconia milled using an S1 VHF milling machine. The marginal fit was measured with a binocular microscope at an original magnification of ×100. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed with 1-way ANOVA and post hoc surface range test, and pairwise multiple comparisons were made using Bonferroni correction (α=.05). The type of CAD-CAM used affected the marginal fit of the monolithic restoration. The mean (±SD) highest marginal discrepancy was recorded in group TZI at 39.3 ±2.3 μm, while the least mean marginal discrepancy was recorded in group IZ (22.8 ±8.9 μm). The Bonferroni post hoc test showed that group TZI was significantly different from all other groups tested (PCAD-CAM systems produced monolithic zirconia restorations with clinically acceptable marginal discrepancies; however, the CAD-CAM system with the 5-axis milling unit produced the best marginal fit. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical Evaluation of Indirect Particle-Filled Composite Resin CAD/CAM Partial Crowns after 24 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Moritz; Koller, Christina; Reymus, Marcel; Mehl, Albert; Hickel, Reinhard

    2017-04-19

    Resin-based CAD/CAM compound materials might be promising for single-tooth restorations. Insufficient clinical data are available for this new material class. The purpose of this study was to describe initial clinical in vivo results for indirect particle-filled composite resin CAD/CAM restorations after 24 months. Indirect particle-filled composite resin restorations were fabricated with a CAD/CAM method (CEREC Bluecam intraoral scanner, CEREC MCXL milling unit) by calibrated dental students. Forty-two partial crown restorations were seated adhesively in 30 patients with caries lesions or insufficient restorations (baseline). Strict inclusion criteria were defined for the patient collective. Follow-up evaluation comprised 40 restorations after 12 months and 33 restorations after 24 months. Evaluation criteria were modified FDI criteria with grades (1) to (5). Rating with FDI criteria (5) was defined as clinical failure. Statistical analysis was performed with Wilcoxon-Test (p CAD/CAM restorations after 12 months was 95.0% with two debondings observed. The cumulative success rate for indirect particle-filled composite resin CAD/CAM restorations after 24 months was 85.7% with two tooth fractures and one debonding. Statistically significant differences were found for baseline and 24-month follow-up evaluation for anatomic form and marginal adaptation criterion examined in respect to FDI criteria guidelines (Wilcoxon-Test, p CAD/CAM restorations having a clinical success rate of 85.7% after 24 months. Adhesive bonding procedures need to be ensured carefully. A longer clinical evaluation period is necessary to draw further conclusions. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  14. EpCAM is a putative stem marker in retinoblastoma and an effective target for T-cell-mediated immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Moutushy; Kandalam, Mallikarjuna; Harilal, Anju; Verma, Rama Shenkar; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Swaminathan, Sethuraman

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The molecular markers cluster of differentiation (CD)24, CD44, adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) binding cassette protein G2 (ABCG2), and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) are widely used, individually or in combination, to characterize some types of cancer stem cells. In this study we characterized the EpCAM+ retinoblastoma (RB) cells for their cancer stem-like properties in vitro. Additionally, we targeted RB tumor cells via redirecting T cells using bispecific EpCAM×CD3 antibody. Methods Flow cytometry was used to study the co-expression of EpCAM with putative cancer stem cell markers, such as CD44, CD24, and ABCG2, in RB primary tumors. In vitro methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay, invasion assay, and neurosphere formation assay were performed to characterize EpCAM+ cells for their cancer stem/progenitor cell-like properties. We assessed the in vitro efficacy of bispecific EpCAM×CD3 antibody on RB tumor cell proliferation and validated the results by evaluating effector cytokine production in the culture medium with the ELISA method. Results EpCAM was co-expressed with all cancer stem cell markers (CD44, CD24, and ABCG2) in primary RB tumors. EpCAM+ cells showed significantly higher proliferative invasive potential and neurosphere formation in vitro compared to EpCAM– Y79 cells. EpCAM+ cells showed higher β-catenin expression compared to EpCAMˉ cells. EpCAM×CD3 significantly retarded proliferation of RB primary tumor cells. EpCAM×CD3 effectively induced the secretion of effector cytokines, such as interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-2, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and also perforin levels by pre-activated lymphocytes. Conclusions EpCAM might be a novel cancer stem cell marker in RB. EpCAM×CD3 antibody redirecting T cells to attack RB tumor cells may prove effective in RB management. Further preclinical studies are needed to confirm the initial findings of our study. PMID:22328825

  15. On the magnetization of BL Lac jets

    CERN Document Server

    Tavecchio, F

    2015-01-01

    The current paradigm foresees that relativistic jets are launched as magnetically dominated flows, whose magnetic power is progressively converted to kinetic power of of the matter of the jet, until equipartition is reached. Therefore, at the end of the acceleration phase, the jet should still carry a substantial fraction ($\\approx$ half) of its power in the form of a Poynting flux. It has been also argued that, in these conditions, the best candidate particle acceleration mechanism is efficient reconnection of magnetic field lines, for which it is predicted that magnetic field and accelerated relativistic electron energy densities are in equipartition.Through the modeling of the jet non--thermal emission, we explore if equipartition is indeed possible in BL Lac objects, i.e. low-power blazars with weak or absent broad emission lines. We find that one-zone models (for which only one region is involved in the production of the radiation we observe) the particle energy density is largely dominating (by 1-2 orde...

  16. Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay as an in vivo model to study the effect of newly identified molecules on ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokman, Noor A; Elder, Alison S F; Ricciardelli, Carmela; Oehler, Martin K

    2012-01-01

    The majority of ovarian cancer patients present with advanced disease and despite aggressive treatment, prognosis remains poor. Significant improvement in ovarian cancer survival will require the development of more effective molecularly targeted therapeutics. Commonly, mouse models are used for the in vivo assessment of potential new therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer. However, animal models are costly and time consuming. Other models, such as the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, are therefore an attractive alternative. CAM assays have been widely used to study angiogenesis and tumor invasion of colorectal, prostate and brain cancers. However, there have been limited studies that have used CAM assays to assess ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis. We have therefore developed a CAM assay protocol to monitor the metastatic properties of ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and OV-90) and to study the effect of potential therapeutic molecules in vivo. The results from the CAM assay are consistent with cancer cell motility and invasion observed in in vitro assays. Our results demonstrate that the CAM assay is a robust and cost effective model to study ovarian cancer cell metastasis. It is therefore a very useful in vivo model for screening of potential novel therapeutics.

  17. PRODUCT DATA MANAGEMENT DALAM KAITAN DENGAN CAD/CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Nugroho Yahya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The future industry is the one who can manage the information system. Today, communication technology and distributed system computerization already have the ability to implement system that able to exchange and share information between different users. Product Data Management (PDM is an up-to-date and excellent method on managing the exchange and share of information. PDM is able to integrate and manage data analyzing process and documentation of the related product component physically. By adjusting the CAD/CAM on certain condition, the PDM will function maximally by using the information based on STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product Data model. This article will explain the relationship between PDM system and CAD/CAM on industry. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sistem informasi merupakan ujung tombak sebuah perusahaan yang unggul di masa depan. Komputerisasi dengan sistem yang terdistribusi dan teknologi komunikasi saat ini memiliki kemampuan untuk mengimplementasikan sistem yang dapat menukar dan men-share informasi antar user yang berbeda. Teknologi yang mendapat cukup perhatian luas dalam hal pertukaran dan sharing informasi ini adalah Product Data Management (PDM. PDM dapat mengintegrasikan dan mengatur proses pengolahan data dan dokumen teknik yang berhubungan dengan komponen fisik produk yang bersangkutan. PDM akan berfungsi maksimal apabila kesesuaian dengan CAD/CAM diatur sedemikian rupa, dihubungkan dengan informasi berbasiskan STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product Data model. Artikel ini akan menjelaskan hubungan antara sistem PDM dengan CAD/CAM dalam industri. Kata kunci: PDM, Manajemen Data, CAD/CAM, STEP.

  18. CamBAfx: Workflow Design, Implementation and Application for Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cinly; Bullmore, Edward T; Wink, Alle-Meije; Sendur, Levent; Barnes, Anna; Achard, Sophie; Aspden, John; Abbott, Sanja; Yue, Shigang; Kitzbichler, Manfred; Meunier, David; Maxim, Voichita; Salvador, Raymond; Henty, Julian; Tait, Roger; Subramaniam, Naresh; Suckling, John

    2009-01-01

    CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers) and those who design them (designers). It provides a front-end (user interface) optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platform application, CamBAfx's pipelines and functions can be bundled with the software or downloaded post-installation. The user interface contains all the workflow facilities expected by consumers. Using the Eclipse Extension Mechanism designers are encouraged to customize CamBAfx for their own pipelines. CamBAfx wraps a workflow facility around neuroinformatics software without modification. CamBAfx's design, licensing and Eclipse Branding Mechanism allow it to be used as the user interface for other software, facilitating exchange of innovative computational tools between originating labs.

  19. CamBAfx: workflow design, implementation and application for neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinly Ooi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available CamBAfx is a workflow application designed for both researchers who use workflows to process data (consumers and those who design them (designers. It provides a front-end (user interface optimized for data processing designed in a way familiar to consumers. The back-end uses a pipeline model to represent workflows since this is a common and useful metaphor used by designers and is easy to manipulate compared to other representations like programming scripts. As an Eclipse Rich Client Platform application, CamBAfx's pipelines and functions can be bundled with the software or downloaded post-installation. The user interface contains all the workflow facilities expected by consumers. Using the Eclipse Extension Mechanism designers are encouraged to customize CamBAfx for their own pipelines. CamBAfx wraps a workflow facility around neuroinformatics software without modification. CamBAfx's design, licensing and Eclipse Branding Mechanism allow it to be used as the user interface for other software, facilitating exchange of innovative computational tools between originating labs.

  20. A spontaneous mutation characterized by chronic proliferative dermatitis in C57BL mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HogenEsch, H.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Offerman, E.; Hooft, J. van; Bekkum, D.W. van; Zurcher, C.

    1993-01-01

    Chronic proliferative dermatitis is a new spontaneous mutation in C57BL/Ka mice. Breeding results suggest an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Mutant mice develop skin lesions at the age of 5 to 6 weeks. The lesions occur in the ventral and dorsal skin of the body, whereas ears, footpads, and

  1. A spontaneous mutation characterized by chronic proliferative dermatitis in C57BL mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HogenEsch, H.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Offerman, E.; Hooft, J. van; Bekkum, D.W. van; Zurcher, C.

    1993-01-01

    Chronic proliferative dermatitis is a new spontaneous mutation in C57BL/Ka mice. Breeding results suggest an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Mutant mice develop skin lesions at the age of 5 to 6 weeks. The lesions occur in the ventral and dorsal skin of the body, whereas ears, footpads, and

  2. L1CAM and its cell-surface mutants: new mechanisms and effects relevant to the physiology and pathology of neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliavacca, Luigina; Colombo, Federico; Racchetti, Gabriella; Meldolesi, Jacopo

    2013-02-01

    The L1 syndrome, a genetic disease that affects 1/30 000 newborn males, is sustained by numerous missense mutations of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM), an adhesion surface protein active also in transmembrane signaling, essential for the development and function of neurons. To investigate the cell biology of L1CAM, we employed a high RE1-silencing transcription (factor) clone of the pheochromocytoma PC12 line, defective in L1CAM expression and neurite outgrowth. The clone was transfected with wild-type L1CAM and four missense, disease-inducing point mutants encoding proteins distributed to the cell surface. The mutant-expressing cells, defective in adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and in migration, exhibited unchanged proliferation. The nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth was re-established in defective clone cells transfected with the wild-type and the H210Q and I219T L1CAMs mutants, but not in the others. The stimulated outgrowth was confirmed in a second defective PC12 clone over-expressing the NGF receptor TrkA, treated with NGF and/or a recombinant L1CAM chimera. These results revealed a new function of L1CAM, a positive, robust and dose-dependent modulation of the TrkA receptor activated spontaneously or by NGF. The variable effects observed with the different L1CAM mutants suggest that this function contributes to the marked heterogeneity of symptoms and severity observed in the patients affected by the L1 syndrome. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Perioperative cancer cell dissemination detected with a real-time RT-PCR assay for EpCAM is not associated with worse prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houtmeyers François

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM has been used as surrogate marker for the quantification of circulating tumour cells (CTC. Our aim was to prospectively study the value of a real-time RT-PCR assay for EpCAM detection in the peripheral blood and peritoneal cavity of patients undergoing pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. Methods From 48 patients with PDAC (40 resectable, 8 unresectable and 10 patients with chronic pancreatitis undergoing pancreatectomy 10 ml of venous blood was drawn preoperatively (PB and postoperatively (POB, day 1 (D1B, day 7 (D7B and after 6 weeks (6WB. Of all patients undergoing pancreatectomy, 40 ml peritoneal lavage fluid was taken preoperatively and postoperatively. A real-time RT-PCR assay (TaqMan, ABI Prism 7700 was developed for the detection of EpCAM mRNA. To discriminate between EpCAM-positive and negative samples a cut-off was applied. Median postoperative follow-up was 24.0 months (range: 0.7 - 41.3. Results PB was EpCAM-positive (+ in 25% of patients versus 65% of patients in POB (p At none of the time-points, an association was found between EpCAM positivity in blood and/or peritoneal cavity and cancer-specific or disease-free survival. Also, no significant associations were found between clinicopathological variables and perioperative EpCAM positivity. Conclusions Despite a significant increase in EpCAM counts in postoperative blood and peritoneal lavage fluid this was not associated with worse prognosis after pancreatectomy for PDAC. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00495924

  4. Shear Bond Strength of Repair Systems to New CAD/CAM Restorative Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün, Özlem; Büyükhatipoğlu, Işıl Keçik; Seçilmiş, Aslı

    2016-11-23

    To evaluate the bond strength of repair systems (Ceramic Repair, Clearfil Repair) to computer-aided design/computer-assisted machining (CAD/CAM) restorative materials (IPS e.max CAD, Vita Suprinity, Vita Enamic, Lava Ultimate). Thermally aged CAD/CAM restorative material specimens (5000 cycles between 5°C and 55°C) were randomly divided into two groups according to the repair system: Ceramic Repair (37% phosphoric acid + Monobond-S + Heliobond + Tetric N Ceram) or Clearfil Repair (40% phosphoric acid + mixture of Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator and Clearfil SE Bond Primer + Clearfil SE Bond + Filtek Z250). The resin composite was light-cured on conditioned specimens. All specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours and then additionally aged for 5000 thermal cycles. The shear bond strength test was performed using a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). Two-way ANOVA was used to detect significance differences according to the CAD/CAM material and composite repair system factors. Subgroup analyses were conducted using the least significant difference post-hoc test. The results of two-way ANOVA indicated that bond strength values varied according to the restorative materials (p CAD/CAM restorative materials (p > 0.05), except in the Vita Suprinity group (p < 0.05). Moreover, no differences were observed between the repair systems. Both the Clearfil and Ceramic repair systems used in the study allow for successful repairs. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. Surface Evaluation of Polishing Techniques for New Resilient CAD/CAM Restorative Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasbinder, Dennis J; Neiva, Gisele F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the surface roughness of milled chairside computer-assisted design/computer assisted machining (CAD/CAM) restorations using several contouring/polishing systems as to their effectiveness for creating a clinically acceptable surface. One hundred onlays were milled from monolithic CAD/CAM blocks with an MCXL milling chamber (Sirona Dental) as follows: 30 resin nano-ceramic (Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE), 30 hybrid ceramic (Enamic, Vita) and 40 leucite-reinforced ceramic (EmpressCAD, Ivoclar). A single group of EmpressCAD onlays was glazed-fired in a porcelain oven (Programat CS2, Ivoclar). Finishing and polishing systems consisted of either an abrasive-polish technique or a brush-polish technique. Roughness values were measured using a three-dimensional measuring laser microscope (OLS4000 LEXT by Olympus). There was a significant difference in the baseline surface roughness of the CAD/CAM materials (p ≤ 0.05), with the resin nano-ceramic (Lava Ultimate) being smoother than the hybrid ceramic (Enamic), and both being smoother than the leucite-reinforced ceramic (EmpressCAD). All polishing techniques resulted in a smoother surface compared with the baseline surface for the leucite-reinforced ceramic (p ≤ 0.05), with both techniques resulting in a significantly smoother surface than glazing in a porcelain oven (p ≤ 0.05). Both polishing techniques resulted in a smoother surface compared with the baseline surface for both the nano-ceramic and hybrid ceramic materials (p ≤ 0.05). It is possible to create an equally smooth surface for chairside CAD/CAM resilient materials compared with milled ceramics using several finishing and polishing techniques. In general, the polished ceramic surfaces were smoother than the glazed ceramic surfaces. The results of the study indicate that it is possible to create an equally smooth surface for chairside CAD/CAM resilient materials compared with milled ceramics using several

  6. Digital dentistry: an overview of recent developments for CAD/CAM generated restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuer, F; Schweiger, J; Edelhoff, D

    2008-05-10

    As in many other industries, production stages are increasingly becoming automated in dental technology. As the price of dental laboratory work has become a major factor in treatment planning and therapy, automation could enable more competitive production in high-wage areas like Western Europe and the USA. Advances in computer technology now enable cost-effective production of individual pieces. Dental restorations produced with computer assistance have become more common in recent years. Most dental companies have access to CAD/CAM procedures, either in the dental practice, the dental laboratory or in the form of production centres. The many benefits associated with CAD/CAM generated dental restorations include: the access to new, almost defect-free, industrially prefabricated and controlled materials; an increase in quality and reproducibility and also data storage commensurate with a standardised chain of production; an improvement in precision and planning, as well as an increase in efficiency. As a result of continual developments in computer hardware and software, new methods of production and new treatment concepts are to be expected, which will enable an additional reduction in costs. Dentists, who will be confronted with these techniques in the future, require certain basic knowledge if they are to benefit from these new procedures. This article gives an overview of CAD/CAM-technologies and systems available for dentistry today.

  7. Usability of Calibrating Monitor for Soft Proof According to CIE CAM02 Colour Appearance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoljub Novakovic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Colour appearance models describe viewing conditions and enable simulating appearance of colours under different illuminants and illumination levels according to human perception. Since it is possible to predict how colour would look like when different illuminants are used, colour appearance models are incorporated in some monitor profiling software. Owing to these software, tone reproduction curve can be defined by taking into consideration viewing condition in which display is observed. In this work assessment of CIE CAM02 colour appearance model usage at calibrating LCD monitor for soft proof was tested in order to determine which tone reproduction curve enables better reproduction of colour. Luminance level was kept constant, whereas tone reproduction curves determined by gamma values and by parameters of CIE CAM02 model were varied. Testing was conducted in case where physical print reference is observed under illuminant which has colour temperature according to iso standard for soft-proofing (D50 and also for illuminants D65.  Based on the results of calibrations assessment, subjective and objective assessment of created profiles, as well as on the perceptual test carried out on human observers, differences in image display were defined and conclusions of the adequacy of CAM02 usage at monitor calibration for each of the viewing conditions reached.

  8. Effects of light intensity on the morphology and CAM photosynthesis of Vanilla planifolia Andrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Claudia Díez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla planifolia is a neotropical orchid, whose fruits produce the natural vanilla, a fundamental ingredient for the food and cosmetic industry. Because of its importance in the world market, it is cultivated in many tropical countries and recently its cultivation has started in Colombia. This species requires shade for its development; however, the optimal of light conditions are unknown. This work evaluates the effect of different light intensities on CAM photosynthesis, physiology, morphology, and growth of this species. For this, vanilla seedlings were subjected to four treatments of relative illumination (RI (T1=8%, T2=17%, T3=31% and T4=67%. Most CO2 assimilation occurred along night in all treatments, which confirms that vanilla is a strong CAM species. Plants grown under high lighting (67% RI had almost half of the photosynthesis in treatments of intermediate lighting (17 and 31%, which is consistent with the lower nocturnal acid accumulation in that treatment. Likewise, the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv / Fm showed that in plants of the 67% RI occurred high radiation stress. On the other hand, vanilla plants reached greater length, leaf area, and total biomass when grown under intermediate radiation (17 and 31% RI. These results suggest that high radiation alters the functioning of vanilla plants, inhibiting photosynthesis and growth, and that highly shaded environments not significantly affected the CAM photosynthesis of vanilla; however, in the long-term this species showed higher photosynthesis and growth under intermediate levels of radiation

  9. Relationship Between Ca2+-CaM and Ethylene-Induced PG Activity in Tomato Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Cai-qin; XI Yu-fang; GUAN Jun-feng; LI Guang-min

    2003-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) was studied during ripening and senescence of postharvest tomatofruit at pink stage at low and normal temperature. The results showed that the PG activity increased, thendecreased during ripening and senescence of tomato. Low temperature inhibited but ethylene enhanced PGactivity. Ethylene also enhanced caimodulin content, which was dependent on Ca2+ concentration in cell.When EGTA(Ca2+ chelator), verapamil (Vp) and LaCl3 (Ca2+ channel blockers), trifluoperazine and chloro-promaize (two CaM antagonisms) were used to treat tomato fruit at green mature stage with ethylene, theycould reverse ethylene-induced increase in PG activity, but Vp, chloropromaize (CPZ), trifluoperazine(TFP) could not directly influence PG activity, which indirectly indicated that influx of Ca2+ from the ex-tracellular space including the cell wall via the Ca2+ channel localized in plasma membrane and CaM were re-quired for ethylene-induced PG activity increase and that ethylene signal transduction may be related to Ca2+- CaM messenger system.

  10. C4 and CAM Plant Biology Symposium 2013 Website

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leakey, Andrew D. B. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2013-08-09

    This project funded the C4 and CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) Plant Biology 2013 symposium, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, on August 6-9, 2013. The symposium brought together a diverse group of scientists to discuss the evolution, ecology, functional biology, genomics and biotechnological engineering of C4 and CAM plants. These two groups of plants possess evolutionary modifications to their photosynthetic machinery that improve their performance in hot and dry conditions. Maize and pineapple are classic examples of C4 and CAM plants, respectively. The meeting discussed how lessons learned from these groups of plants can be harnessed to improve crop production of biofuel feedstocks in an era of global climate change. The interdisciplinary nature of the meeting meant that the delegation members typically do not collectively attend any one scientific society meeting. As a result, the symposium was a unique opportunity for knowledge transfer, initiation of new collaborations, and recruitment and exposure of early career scientists.

  11. The effect of milling and postmilling procedures on the surface roughness of CAD/CAM materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Smidt, Laura Nunes; Fracasso, Lisiane Martins; Burnett, Luiz Henrique; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2017-09-11

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness and analyze the surface topography of five different CAD/CAM ceramics and one CAD/CAM composite resin for CEREC after milling and postmilling procedures. Blocks of the ceramics Mark II, IPS Empress CAD, IPS e.max CAD, Suprinity and Enamic, and blocks of the composite resin Lava Ultimate were milled at CEREC MCXL. Ten flat samples of each material were obtained. The surface roughness (Ra) test was performed before and after milling, crystallization, polishing, and glaze when indicated, followed by SEM and AFM analysis. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA with repeated measures and the Tukey HSD test (α = 0.05). The milling step significantly increased the roughness of all the tested materials (P CAD and Suprinity) were more suitable to roughness than the other tested materials (P CAD/CAM materials, that is, fully sintered, should be only hand polished. The glaze step can be suppressed resulting in time saving. However, the glaze step in soft-milling lithium disilicate is imperative. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Design and manufacture of turbine runner blades using CAD/CAM technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmer, F.; Winkler, S.

    1986-05-01

    Advances in hydraulic and mechanical design and manufacture of hydraulic turbines have occured over the last years. The turbines have reached a high level of performance. This is especially a result of a proper design and accurate manufacture of the turbine runner due to the application of the computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing systems combined with new computerized analysis techniques. The various steps of the modular numerical system - hydraulic computation, interactive blade design, fluid flow analysis, stress analysis and CNC-manufacture of the model blade - are shown on the example of a runner blade for axial turbines. For optimizing the manufacturing of the prototype blade the CAD/CAM-technology is applied. The data flow from the model blade, measured on an electronic coordinate measurement machine, via the CAD/CAM-system, which represents the blade surface in a mathematical form and calculates the tool paths, to the five axis CNC-milling machine is demonstrated. Through the application of the CAD/CAM-technology to hydraulic blades the time frame for designing and manufacturing has been reduced while improving quality and accuracy of the blades.

  13. Usability of Calibrating Monitor for Soft Proof According to cie cam02 Colour Appearance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Tomić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Colour appearance models describe viewing conditions and enable simulating appearance of colours under different illuminants and illumination levels according to human perception. Since it is possible to predict how colour would look like when different illuminants are used, colour appearance models are incorporated in some monitor profiling software. Owing to these software, tone reproduction curve can be defined by taking into consideration viewing condition in which display is observed. In this work assessment of cie cam02 colour appearance model usage at calibrating lcd monitor for soft proof was tested in order to determine which tone reproduction curve enables better reproduction of colour. Luminance level was kept constant, whereas tone reproduction curves determined by gamma values and by parameters of cie cam02 model were varied. Testing was conducted in case where physical print reference is observed under illuminant which has colour temperature according to iso standard for soft-proofing (d50 and also for illuminants d65. Based on the results of calibrations assessment, subjective and objective assessment of created profiles, as well as on the perceptual test carried out on human observers, differences in image display were defined and conclusions of the adequacy of cam02 usage at monitor calibration for each of the viewing conditions reached.

  14. 带冠涡轮盘电火花加工专用CAD/CAM软件开发%A special CAD/CAM software for electro-discharge machining of shrouded turbine blisks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 赵万生; 王振龙; 吴湘

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a special-purpose CAD/CAM software package, BliskCad/Cam, based on a commercial CAD/CAM software Unigraphics is developed to reduce difficulties in CNC-EDM of the shrouded turbine blisks. The software package consists of five modules such as electrode design, path searching, and machining simulation module. Functions of BliskCad/Cam include parametrical reconstruction of 3-D model of the blisk, intelligent design of complex shaped electrode, automatic generation of NC codes, search of interference-free tool path for multi-axis NC-EDM and machining simulation, etc. Experimental verification is conducted by using BliskCad/Cam and the results show that it satisfies the requirements, and can realize precision machining and reduce accessorial time remarkably.

  15. On the nature of facultative and constitutive CAM: environmental and developmental control of CAM expression during early growth of Clusia, Kalanchöe, and Opuntia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Klaus; Garcia, Milton; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2008-01-01

    The capacity to induce crassulacean acid metabolism developmentally (constitutive CAM) and to up-regulate CAM expression in response to drought stress (facultative CAM) was studied in whole shoots of seven species by measuring net CO(2) gas exchange for up to 120 day-night cycles during early growth. In Clusia rosea, CAM was largely induced developmentally. Well-watered seedlings began their life cycle as C(3) plants and developed net dark CO(2) fixation indicative of CAM after the initiation of the fourth leaf pair following the cotyledons. Thereafter, CAM activity increased progressively and drought stress led to only small additional, reversible increases in dark CO(2) fixation. In contrast, CAM expression was overwhelmingly under environmental control in seedlings and mature plants of Clusia pratensis. C(3)-type CO(2) exchange was maintained under well-watered conditions, but upon drought stress, CO(2) exchange shifted, in a fully reversible manner, to a CAM-type pattern. Clusia minor showed CO(2) exchange reponses intermediate to those of C. rosea and C. pratensis. Clusia cretosa operated in the C(3) mode at all times. Notably, reversible stress-induced increases of dark CO(2) fixation were also observed during the developmental progression to pronounced CAM in young Kalanchoë daigremontiana and Kalanchoë pinnata, two species considered constitutive CAM species. Drought-induced up-regulation of CAM was even detected in young cladodes of a cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica, an archetypal constitutive CAM species. Evidently, the defining characteristics of constitutive and facultative CAM are shared, to variable degrees, by all CAM species.

  16. B-L assisted anomaly mediation and the radiative B-L symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuru [Theory Division, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)], E-mail: tatsuru@post.kek.jp; Kubo, Takayuki [Theory Division, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)], E-mail: kubotaka@post.kek.jp

    2008-10-30

    Anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking implemented in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) is known to suffer from the tachyonic slepton problem leading to breakdown of electric charge conservation. We show however that when MSSM is extended to explain small neutrino masses by gauging the B-L symmetry, the slepton masses can be positive due to the Z{sup '} mediation contributions. We obtain various soft supersymmetry breaking mass spectra, which are different from those obtained in the conventional anomaly mediation scenario. Then there would be a distinct signature of this scenario at the LHC.

  17. Full-mouth rehabilitation with monolithic CAD/CAM-fabricated hybrid and all-ceramic materials: A case report and 3-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selz, Christian F; Vuck, Alexander; Guess, Petra C

    2016-02-01

    Esthetic full-mouth rehabilitation represents a great challenge for clinicians and dental technicians. Computer-aided design/ computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology and novel ceramic materials in combination with adhesive cementation provide a reliable, predictable, and economic workflow. Polychromatic feldspathic CAD/CAM ceramics that are specifically designed for anterior indications result in superior esthetics, whereas novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramics provide sufficient fracture resistance and adsorption of the occlusal load in posterior areas. Screw-retained monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate crowns (ie, hybrid abutment crowns) represent a reliable and time- and cost-efficient prosthetic implant solution. This case report details a CAD/CAM approach to the full-arch rehabilitation of a 65-year-old patient with toothand implant-supported restorations and provides an overview of the applied CAD/CAM materials and the utilized chairside intraoral scanner. The esthetics, functional occlusion, and gingival and peri-implant tissues remained stable over a follow-up period of 3 years. No signs of fractures within the restorations were observed.

  18. Novel Diagnosis of Lyme Disease: Potential for CAM Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristo Vojdani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease (LD is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere, producing a wide range of disabling effects on multiple human targets, including the skin, the nervous system, the joints and the heart. Insufficient clinical diagnostic methods, the necessity for prompt antibiotic treatment along with the pervasive nature of infection impel the development and establishment of new clinical diagnostic tools with increased accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The goal of this article is 4-fold: (i to detail LD infection and pathology, (ii to review prevalent diagnostic methods, emphasizing inherent problems, (iii to introduce the usage of in vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT in clinical diagnostics and (iv to underscore the relevance of a novel comprehensive LD diagnostic approach to practitioners of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM. Utilization of this analytical method will increase the accuracy of the diagnostic process and abridge the time to treatment, with antibiotics, herbal medicines and nutritional supplements, resulting in improved quality of care and disease prognosis.

  19. The properties of X-ray selected and radio-selected BL Lacertae objects%X-选择和射电选择BL Lax天体的性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊军辉; 王洪光; 刘怡; 张江水; 袁聿海; 张永伟; 苏江波

    2007-01-01

    BL Lac天体表现出一系列特殊的观测性质.按照巡天方式可以分为X-选择和射电选择BL Lac天体.很多人讨论了这两者之间的关系.文章的主要工作是:①选取了两个样本;②收集了最高观测偏振读,寄主星系的绝对星等、核主导系数等;③计算了热光度、同步辐射峰频以及峰频所对应的光度、有效谱指数.基于这些数据,考察了两类BL Lac天体的性质.结果表明:X-选择和射电选择BL Lac天体在热光度、核主导系数以及有效谱指教等性质是不同的,但它们具有很相似的同步峰频光度.%BL Lacertae objects show some particularly observational properties. They were classified as radio-selected and X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects from surveys. Many authors have investigated maximum optical polarization, absolute magnitude of the host galaxy, and core-dominance parameter,cy, and the effective spectral indexes for some objects. Based on those data, we revisited the properties of BL Lacertae objects. The results show that radio-selected and X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects are different in the bolometric luminosity, the core-dominance parameters, and the effective spectral indexes, but they have similar peak-frequency luminosity.

  20. Dicty_cDB: FC-BL11 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-BL11 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15198-1 FC-BL11Z (Li...nk to Original site) - - FC-BL11Z 671 - - - - Show FC-BL11 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-BL11 (Li.../dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-BL/FC-BL11Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-BL1...1Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-BL11 (FC-BL11Q) /CSM/FC/FC-BL/FC-BL11Q.Seq....ALDNSCSLVDGTEDVYQQIFYSPSFQ*in*ifeitikkkkk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant align

  1. Principle and curve of planetary indexing cam mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming-tao; ZHANG Ce; YANG Yu-hu

    2006-01-01

    A new type of planetary indexing cam mechanism called type IV is presented.The transmission principle of type IV is discussed.Based on the principle of formarion of conjugate tooth contour,the equations of the cam's pitch curve are derived.The continuity and symmetry of the cain's pitch curve are also analyzed.It can be concluded that:1) This type has no output institution so the output precision can be improved;2) The asymmetrical two-ring structure is used to-overcome dead point and its phase angle is equal to (π-2π/n) ;3) The continuous condition of the cam's pitch curve is that the average transmission ratio is -n in an intermittent motion period.

  2. Xi-CAM v1.2.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-06

    Xi-CAM aims to provide a community driven platform for multimodal analysis in synchrotron science. The platform core provides a robust plugin infrastructure for extensibility, allowing continuing development to simply add further functionality. Current modules include tools for characterization with (GI)SAXS, Tomography, and XAS. This will continue to serve as a development base as algorithms for multimodal analysis develop. Seamless remote data access, visualization and analysis are key elements of Xi-CAM, and will become critical to synchrotron data infrastructure as expectations for future data volume and acquisition rates rise with continuously increasing throughputs. The highly interactive design elements of Xi-cam will similarly support a generation of users which depend on immediate data quality feedback during high-throughput or burst acquisition modes.

  3. MegaPipe: the MegaCam image stacking pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Gwyn, Stephen D J

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the MegaPipe image processing pipeline at the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre (CADC). The pipeline takes multiple images from the MegaCam mosaic camera on CFHT and combines them into a single output image. MegaPipe takes as input detrended MegaCam images and does a careful astrometric and photometric calibration on them. The calibrated images are then resampled and combined into image stacks. MegaPipe is run on PI data by request, data from large surveys (the CFHT Legacy Survey and the Next Generation Virgo Survey) and all non-proprietary MegaCam data in the CFHT archive. The stacked images and catalogs derived from these images are available through the CADC website. Currently, 1500 square degrees have been processed.

  4. GravityCam: Higher Resolution Visible Wide-Field Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Craig; Steele, Iain

    2016-01-01

    The limits to the angular resolution achievable with conventional ground-based telescopes are unchanged over 70 years. Atmospheric turbulence limits image quality to typically ~1 arcsec in practice. We have developed a new concept of ground-based imaging instrument called GravityCam capable of delivering significantly sharper images from the ground than is normally possible without adaptive optics. The acquisition of visible images at high speed without significant noise penalty has been made possible by advances in optical and near IR imaging technologies. Images are recorded at high speed and then aligned before combination and can yield a 3-5 fold improvement in image resolution. Very wide survey fields are possible with widefield telescope optics. We describe GravityCam and detail its application to accelerate greatly the rate of detection of Earth size planets by gravitational microlensing. GravityCam will also improve substantially the quality of weak shear studies of dark matter distribution in distant...

  5. Passivity of conventional and CAD/CAM fabricated implant frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Gabriela Monteiro; de França, Danilo Gonzaga Bernardo; Silva Neto, João Paulo; Barbosa, Gustavo Augusto Seabra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the passivity by measuring the passive fit and strain development of frameworks screwed on abutments, made by CAD/CAM technology, and to compare these parts with samples manufactured by conventional casting. Using CAD/CAM technology, four samples were made from zirconia (Zircad) and four samples were manufactured from cobalt-chrome (CoCrcad). The control groups were four specimens of cobalt-chrome, made by one-piece casting (CoCrci), with a total of 12 frameworks. To evaluate the passive fit, the vertical misfit at the abutment-framework interface was measured with scanning electron microscopy (250×) when only one screw was tightened. The mean strain in these frameworks was analyzed by photoelasticity test. A significant difference in the passive fit was observed between the control and sample groups. CoCrcad exhibited the best value of passive fit (48.76±13.45 µm) and CoCrci the worst (187.55±103.63 µm); Zircad presented an intermediate value (103.81±43.15 µm). When compared to the other groups, CoCrci showed the highest average stress around the implants (17.19±7.22 kPa). It was concluded that CAD/CAM-fabricated frameworks exhibited better passivity compared with conventionally fabricated frameworks. CAD/CAM-fabricated Co-Cr frameworks may exhibit better passive fit compared with CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia frameworks. Even so, similar levels of stress were achieved for CAD/CAM-fabricated frameworks.

  6. The application of CAD / CAM technology in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susic, I.; Travar, M.; Susic, M.

    2017-05-01

    Information and communication technologies have found their application in the healthcare sector, including the frameworks of modern dentistry. CAD / CAM application in dentistry is the process by which is attained finished dental restoration through fine milling process of ready ceramic blocks. CAD / CAM is an acronym of english words Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) / Computer-Aided-Manufacture (CAM), respectively dental computer aided design and computer aided manufacture of inlays, onlays, crowns and bridges. CAD / CAM technology essentially allows you to create a two-dimensional and three-dimensional models and their materialization by numerical controlled machines. In order to operate more efficiently, reduce costs, increase user/patient satisfaction and ultimately achieve profits, many dental offices in the world have their attention focused on implementation of modern IT solutions in everyday practice. In addition to the specialized clinic management software, inventory control, etc., or hardware such as the use of lasers in cosmetic dentistry or intraoral scanning, recently the importance is given to the application of CAD / CAM technology in the field of prosthetic. After the removal of pathologically altered tooth structure, it is necessary to achieve restoration that will be most similar to the anatomy of a natural tooth. Applying CAD / CAM technology on applicable ceramic blocks it can be obtained very quick, but also very accurate restoration, in the forms of inlays, onlays, bridges and crowns. The paper presents the advantages of using this technology as well as satisfaction of the patients and dentists by using systems as: Cercon, Celay, Cerec, Lava, Everest, which represent imperative of modern dentistry in creating fixed dental restorations.

  7. CAD/CAM generated all-ceramic primary telescopic prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbad, A; Ganz, S; Kurbad, S

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems have proven effective not only for the manufacture of crown and bridge frameworks, inlays, onlays and veneers, but also for the generation of all-ceramic primary telescopic prostheses in more than 10 years of use in dental technology. The new InLab 4.0 software generation makes it possible to design and mill primary telescopic prostheses with CAD/CAM technology. The computer-generated raw crowns for these restorations require very little manual adaptation. The secondary crowns are manufactured by electroforming and bonded onto the tertiary structure or framework.

  8. Impact of IPAD on CAD/CAM database university research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, L. M.; Wozny, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    IPAD program has provided direction, focus and software products which impacted on CAD/CAM data base research and follow-on research. The relationship of IPAD to the research projects which involve the storage of geometric data in common data ase facilities such as data base machines, the exchange of data between heterogeneous data bases, the development of IGES processors, the migration of lrge CAD/CAM data base management systems to noncompatible hosts, and the value of RIM as a research tool is described.

  9. FlashCam: A fully digital camera for CTA telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pühlhofer, G; Biland, A; Florin, D; Föhr, C; Gadola, A; Hermann, G; Kalkuhl, C; Kasperek, J; Kihm, T; Koziol, J; Manalaysay, A; Marszalek, A; Rajda, P J; Schanz, T; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Tenzer, C; Vogler, P; Vollhardt, A; Weitzel, Q; Winiarski, K; Zietara, K

    2012-01-01

    The future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will consist of several tens of telescopes of different mirror sizes. CTA will provide next generation sensitivity to very high energy photons from few tens of GeV to >100 TeV. Several focal plane instrumentation options are currently being evaluated inside the CTA consortium. In this paper, the current status of the FlashCam prototyping project is described. FlashCam is based on a fully digital camera readout concept and features a clean separation between photon detector plane and signal digitization/triggering electronics.

  10. The use of CAD/CAM in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidowitz, Gary; Kotick, Philip G

    2011-07-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) have become an increasingly popular part of dentistry over the past 25 years. The technology, which is used in both the dental laboratory and the dental office, can be applied to inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns, fixed partial dentures, implant abutments, and even full-mouth reconstruction. This article discusses the history of CAD/CAM in dentistry and gives an overview of how it works. It also provides information on the advantages and disadvantages, describes the main products available, discusses how to incorporate the new technology into your practice, and addresses future applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CAD/CAM in the Brazilian aeronautical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampi, L. H.; Embraer, S. A.

    Features, applications and progress in the usage of CAD/CAM since 1980 by an aircraft manufacturer in Brazil are described. The system comprises 34 graphics work stations dedicated to structural design, lofting, electrical cable routing, finite element modeling and quality control. Standardized work methods have been devised to enhance productivity. Programs have been defined for finite element stress analysis and generating wiring diagrams. The computerized design capabilities have increased productivity for hole boring accuracy through work on digitized controllers. Psychological testing has been initiated to identify users who can adapt more easily to CAD/CAM utilization.

  12. Induced immune response of Escherichia coli BL21 expressing recombinant MSP1a and MSP1b proteins of Anaplasma marginale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Tamekuni

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the potential of immunization with E. coli BL21 expressing the recombinant rMSP1a and rMSP1b proteins of Anaplasma marginale. E. coli BL21 was transformed with recombinant plasmids pET102/msp1α and pET101/msp1β, and rMSP1a and rMSP1b were expressed after induction by IPTG. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with formolized BL21/rMSP1a and BL21/rMSP1b, and the production in mice sera of whole IgG was determined by ELISA. The mice immunized with BL21/rMSP1a showed a better humoral response for whole IgG when compared to the mice immunized with BL21/rMSP1b; these mice exhibited a small response after the second vaccination. Sera of mice immunized with BL21/rMSP1a reacted via western blot with BL21 and rMSP1a, with molecular masses varying from 70 to 105 kDa. Sera of mice immunized with BL21/rMSP1b reacted with BL21 and rMSP1b with a molecular mass of 100 kDa. These results demonstrate that BL21 containing rMSP1a and rMSP1b in the outer membrane were able to produce an immune response in mice, reinforcing its use in vaccine models against bovine anaplasmosis.Esse trabalho avaliou o potencial de imunização de Escherichia coli BL21 expressando as proteínas recombinantes rMSP1a e rMSP1b de Anaplasma marginale. A E. coli BL21 foi transformada com os plasmídios recombinantes pET102/msp1α e pET101/msp1β e as proteínas rMSP1a e rMSP1b foram expressas após indução com IPTG. Camundongos BALB/c foram vacinados com BL21/rMSP1a e BL21/rMSP1b formolisadas, e a produção de IgG total foi determinada pelo teste de ELISA nos soros dos camundongos imunizados. Os camundongos imunizados com a BL21/rMSP1a mostraram uma melhor resposta humoral para IgG total, comparada à resposta apresentada pelos camundongos imunizados com BL21/rMSP1b; estes camundongos exibiram uma menor resposta após a segunda vacinação. Soros de camundongos imunizados BL21/rMSP1a reagiram pelo western blot com BL21 e rMSP1a, com massa molecular variando de 70 a

  13. Crystal Structure of Crataeva tapia Bark Protein (CrataBL and Its Effect in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Silva Ferreira

    Full Text Available A protein isolated from the bark of Crataeva tapia (CrataBL is both a Kunitz-type plant protease inhibitor and a lectin. We have determined the amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure of CrataBL, as well as characterized its selected biochemical and biological properties. We found two different isoforms of CrataBL isolated from the original source, differing in positions 31 (Pro/Leu; 92 (Ser/Leu; 93 (Ile/Thr; 95 (Arg/Gly and 97 (Leu/Ser. CrataBL showed relatively weak inhibitory activity against trypsin (Kiapp = 43 µM and was more potent against Factor Xa (Kiapp = 8.6 µM, but was not active against a number of other proteases. We have confirmed that CrataBL contains two glycosylation sites and forms a dimer at high concentration. The high-resolution crystal structures of two different crystal forms of isoform II verified the β-trefoil fold of CrataBL and have shown the presence of dimers consisting of two almost identical molecules making extensive contacts (∼645 Å(2. The structure differs from those of the most closely related proteins by the lack of the N-terminal β-hairpin. In experiments aimed at investigating the biological properties of CrataBL, we have shown that addition of 40 µM of the protein for 48 h caused maximum growth inhibition in MTT assay (47% of DU145 cells and 43% of PC3 cells. The apoptosis of DU145 and PC3 cell lines was confirmed by flow cytometry using Annexin V/FITC and propidium iodide staining. Treatment with CrataBL resulted in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and in the activation of caspase-3 in DU145 and PC3 cells.

  14. NLO+NLL Collider Bounds, Dirac Fermion and Scalar Dark Matter in the B-L Model

    CERN Document Server

    Klasen, Michael; Queiroz, Farinaldo S

    2016-01-01

    Baryon and lepton numbers being accidental global symmetries of the Standard Model (SM), it is natural to promote them to local symmetries. However, to preserve anomaly freedom, only combinations of B-L are viable. In this spirit, we investigate possible dark matter realizations in the context of the $U(1)_{B-L}$ model: (i) Dirac fermion with unbroken B-L; (ii) Dirac fermion with broken B-L; (iii) scalar dark matter; (iv) two component dark matter. We compute the relic abundance, direct and indirect detection observables and confront them with recent results from Planck, LUX-2016, and Fermi-LAT and prospects from XENON1T. In addition to the well known LEP bound $M_{Z^{\\prime}}/g_{BL} \\gtrsim 7$ TeV, we include often ignored LHC bounds using 13 TeV dilepton (dimuon+dielectron) data at next-to-leading order plus next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. We show that, for gauge couplings smaller than $0.4$, the LHC gives rise to the strongest collider limit. In particular, we find $M_{Z^{\\prime}}/g_{BL} > 8.7$ TeV f...

  15. CAM visual stimulation with conventional method of occlusion treatment in amblyopia: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Using of CAM visual stimulation along with conventional occlusion will further improve visual acuity and stereopsis in amblyopic children. These findings recommended the CAM visual stimulation as an accompanying and complementary method in amblyopia treatment.

  16. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... for low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  17. Radio Detection of 18 RASS BL Lac Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson M. W. B.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the radio detection of 18 BL Lac objects from oursurvey of over 575 deg$^2$ of sky. These 18 objects are located within$20arcsec$ of the X-ray position, of which 11 have a measuredred-shift. All candidates are radio emitters above $sim$1 mJy and fall within the range of existing samples on the two colour, $alpha _mathrm{RO}$ vs $alpha _mathrm{OX}$, diagram with a transitional population of three evident. Two unusual sources have been identified, a candidate radio quiet BL Lac, RX J0140.9-4130, and an extreme HBL, RX J0109.9-4020, with $log( u _mathrm{peak}approx 19.2$. The BL Lac $log(N-log(S$ relation is consistent with other samples and indicates the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS could contain ($2000{pm}400$ BL Lac objects.

  18. Gender differences in autobiographical memory for everyday events: Retrieval elicited by SenseCam Images vs. Verbal Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Jacques, Peggy L.; Conway, Martin A.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences are frequently observed in autobiographical memory (AM). Few studies, however, have investigated the neural basis of potential gender differences in AM. In the present functional MRI (fMRI) study we investigated gender differences in AMs elicited using dynamic visual images vs. verbal cues. We used a novel technology called a SenseCam, a wearable device that automatically takes thousands of photographs. SenseCam differs considerably from other prospective methods of generating retrieval cues because it does not disrupt the ongoing experience. This allowed us to control for potential gender differences in emotional processing and elaborative rehearsal, while manipulating how the AMs were elicited. We predicted that males would retrieve more richly experienced AMs elicited by the SenseCam images vs. the verbal cues, whereas females would show equal sensitivity to both cues. The behavioral results indicated that there were no gender differences in subjective ratings of reliving, importance, vividness, emotion and uniqueness, suggesting that gender differences in brain activity were not due to differences in these measures of phenomenological experience. Consistent with our predictions, the fMRI results revealed that males showed a greater difference in functional activity associated with the rich experience of SenseCam vs. Verbal Cues, than did females. PMID:20981611

  19. Responses of Green Leaves and Green Pseudobulbs of CAM Orchid Cattleya laeliocattleya Aloha Case to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the responses of green leaves (GL and green pseudobulbs (GPSB of CAM orchid Cattleya laeliocattleya Aloha Case to drought stress. After being subjected to drought stress, the decrease in water content (WC was much greater in GPSB than in GL, indicating that GPSB facilitated a slow reduction in the WC of GL. This finding was further supported by the result of relative water content (RWC of GL, which started to decrease only after 3 weeks of drought stress. Decreases of midday Fv/Fm ratios of GL occurred in all plants. However, the degrees of decrease were much greater in drought-stressed GL than in well-watered GL. Reduced Fv/Fm ratio (<0.8 at early morning was observed in drought-stressed GL after 3 weeks of treatments. Decreases in total chlorophyll (Chl content, electron transport rate (ETR, photochemical quenching, qP, and nonphotochemical quenching, qN, were severer in GPSB than in GL after drought treatment. CAM acidity was significantly lower in both GL and GPSB after 2 weeks of drought treatment compared to well-watered plants. However, decrease of CAM acidity was smaller in GL than in GPSB. These results suggest that both GL and GPSB of CAM orchid Cattleya plantswere susceptible to drought stress.

  20. Knowledge about complementary, alternative and integrative medicine (CAM among registered health care providers in Swedish surgical care: a national survey among university hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjerså Kristofer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies show an increased interest and usage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in the general population and among health care workers both internationally and nationally. CAM usage is also reported to be common among surgical patients. Earlier international studies have reported that a large amount of surgical patients use it prior to and after surgery. Recent publications indicate a weak knowledge about CAM among health care workers. However the current situation in Sweden is unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to explore perceived knowledge about CAM among registered healthcare professions in surgical departments at Swedish university hospitals. Method A questionnaire was distributed to 1757 registered physicians, nurses and physiotherapists in surgical wards at the seven university hospitals in Sweden from spring 2010 to spring 2011. The questionnaire included classification of 21 therapies into conventional, complementary, alternative and integrative, and whether patients were recommended these therapies. Questions concerning knowledge, research, and patient communication about CAM were also included. Result A total of 737 (42.0% questionnaires were returned. Therapies classified as complementary; were massage, manual therapies, yoga and acupuncture. Alternative therapies; were herbal medicine, dietary supplements, homeopathy and healing. Classification to integrative therapy was low, and unfamiliar therapies were Bowen therapy, iridology and Rosen method. Therapies recommended by > 40% off the participants were massage and acupuncture. Knowledge and research about CAM was valued as minor or none at all by 95.7% respectively 99.2%. Importance of possessing knowledge about it was valued as important by 80.9%. It was believed by 61.2% that more research funding should be addressed to CAM research, 72.8% were interested in reading CAM-research results, and 27.8% would consider taking part in

  1. The Hubble Space Telescope Survey of BL Lacertae Objects. IV. Infrared Imaging of Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Urry, C. Megan; Padovani, Paolo; Calzetti, Daniela; O'Dowd, Matthew

    2000-11-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Camera 2 was used for H-band imaging of 12 BL Lacertae objects taken from the larger sample observed with the WFPC2 in the R band by Urry and coworkers and Scarpa and coworkers. Ten of the 12 BL Lacs are clearly resolved, and the detected host galaxies are large, bright ellipticals with average absolute magnitude =-26.2+/-0.45 mag and effective radius =10+/-5 kpc. The rest-frame integrated color of the host galaxies is on average =2.3+/-0.3, consistent with the value for both radio galaxies and normal, nonactive elliptical galaxies and indicating that the dominant stellar population is old. The host galaxies tend to be bluer in their outer regions than in their cores, with average color gradient Δ(R-H)/Δlogr=-0.2 mag, again consistent with results for normal nonactive elliptical galaxies. The infrared Kormendy relation, derived for the first time for BL Lac host galaxies, is μe=3.8logre+14.8, fully in agreement with the relation for normal ellipticals. The close similarity between BL Lac host galaxies and normal ellipticals suggests that the active nucleus has surprisingly little effect on the host galaxy. This supports a picture in which all elliptical galaxies harbor black holes that can be actively accreting for some fraction of their lifetime.

  2. Establishment of Germ-line Competent C57BL/6J Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-jun YAN; Zheng GU; Jian WANG; Jia-ke TSO

    2004-01-01

    Objective To establish C57BL/6J embryonic stem (ES) cell lines with potential germline contribution Methods ES cells were isolated from blastocyst inner cell mass of C57BL/6J mice, and cultured for 15 passages, and then injected into blastococels of lCR mice blastocysts to establish chimeric mice.Results Three ES cell lines (mC57ESl,mC57ES3, mC57ES7) derived from the inner cell mass of C57BL/6J mice blastocysts were established. They were characteristic of undifferentiated state, including normal XY karyotype, expression of a specific cell surface marker "stage-specific embryonic antigen-1" and alkaline phosphatase in continuous passage. When injected into immunodeficient mice, mC5 7ES1 cells consis tently differentiated into derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. When mC57ES1cells were transferred into ICR mice blastocysts, 4 chimeric mice have been obtained.One male of them revealed successful germ-line transmission. Conclussion We have obtained C57BL/6J ES cell lines with a potential germ-line contribution, which can be used to generate transgenic and gene knock-out mice.

  3. Optical imaging of the host galaxies of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects

    CERN Document Server

    Falomo, R

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the properties of the host galaxies of X-ray selected (high frequency peaked) BL Lac objects using a large and homogeneous data set of high spatial resolution R-band observations of 52 BL Lacs in the EMSS and Slew samples. The redshift distribution of the BL Lacs ranges from z = 0.04 to z>0.7, with average and median redshifts z = 0.26 and z = 0.24, respectively. Eight objects are at unknown redshift. We are able to resolve 45 objects out of the 52 BL Lacs. For all the well-resolved sources, we find the host to be a luminous elliptical galaxy. In a few cases a disk is not ruled out but an elliptical model is still preferred. The average absolute magnitude of the host galaxies is = -23.9+-0.6, while the average scale length of the host is = 9+-5 kpc. There is no difference in the host properties between the EMSS and Slew samples. We find a good agreement between the results derived by the surveys of Wurtz et al. (ground-based data) and Urry et al. (HST data), and by our new deeper imaging. The...

  4. EFFECTS OF MODERATE NOISE EXPOSURE ON HEARING FUNCTION IN C57BL/6J MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Chuang; SHI Lei; JIANG Xuejun; YANG Shiming; LIU Ke

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study characteristics of hearing loss after exposure to moderate noise exposure in C57BL/6J mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice with normal hearing at age of 5-6 weeks were chosen for this study. The mice were randomly selected to be studied immediately after exposure (Group P0), or 1 day (Group P1), 3 days (Group P3), 7 days (Group P7) or 14 days (P14) after exposure. Their before exposure condition served as the normal control. All mice were exposed to a broad-band white noise at 100 dB SPL for 2 hours, ABR thresholds were used to estimate hearing status at each time point. Results ABR threshold elevation was seen at every tested frequency at P0 (P0.05). Conclusion There is a frequency specific re-sponse to 100 dB SPL broad-band white noise in C57BL/6J mice, with the high-frequency being more susceptible. Hearing loss induced by moderate noise exposure appears reversible in C57BL/6J mice.

  5. EpCAM and the biology of hepatic stem/progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theise, Neil D.; Schmelzer, Eva; Boulter, Luke; Gires, Olivier; van Grunsven, Leo A.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is frequently and highly expressed on carcinomas, tumor-initiating cells, selected tissue progenitors, and embryonic and adult stem cells. During liver development, EpCAM demonstrates a dynamic expression, since it can be detected in fetal liver, including cells of the parenchyma, whereas mature hepatocytes are devoid of EpCAM. Liver regeneration is associated with a population of EpCAM-positive cells within ductular reactions, which gradually lose the expression of EpCAM along with maturation into hepatocytes. EpCAM can be switched on and off through a wide panel of strategies to fine-tune EpCAM-dependent functional and differentiative traits. EpCAM-associated functions relate to cell–cell adhesion, proliferation, maintenance of a pluripotent state, regulation of differentiation, migration, and invasion. These functions can be conferred by the full-length protein and/or EpCAM-derived fragments, which are generated upon regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Control by EpCAM therefore not only depends on the presence of full-length EpCAM at cellular membranes but also on varying rates of the formation of EpCAM-derived fragments that have their own regulatory properties and on changes in the association of EpCAM with interaction partners. Thus spatiotemporal localization of EpCAM in immature liver progenitors, transit-amplifying cells, and mature liver cells will decisively impact the regulation of EpCAM functions and might be one of the triggers that contributes to the adaptive processes in stem/progenitor cell lineages. This review will summarize EpCAM-related molecular events and how they relate to hepatobiliary differentiation and regeneration. PMID:25477371

  6. Construction of interference vector targeting Ep-CAM gene and its effects on colorectal cancer cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Y

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yanmei Qi,1 Fengqiang Zhou,2 Lu Zhang,2 Lei Liu,2 Hong Xu,2 Huiguang Guo2 1Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of General Surgery, Binzhou People’s Hospital, Binzhou, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Background: Prior study indicates that abnormal protein expression and functional changes in the development and progression of colorectal cancer is related to gene expression. The aim of this study was to construct an interference plasmid targeting the Ep-CAM gene and to investigate its effects on the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells.  Methods: In this study, HT-29 and HCT-116 colorectal cancer cell lines were selected as cell models. The double-stranded micro (miRNA oligo was inserted into the pcDNATM6.2-GW/EmGFPmiR vector, which is an expression of miRNA. Lipofectamine™ 2000 was used to transfer plasmid into the empty plasmid group (transfected pcDNATM6.2-GW/EmGFPmiR-neg and the interference group (transfected pcDNATM6.2-GW/EmGFPmiR-Ep-CAM-1, respectively. Meanwhile, the nontransferred HT-29 and HCT-116 acts as the blank control group. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to detect the transfection efficiency. Western blot was used to detect Ep-CAM protein expression. The cell proliferation in each group was detected by using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results: The results indicated that the Ep-CAM messenger (mRNA expression in the interference group was lower significantly compared with that of the empty plasmid group and control group (P<0.01. Western blot analysis results showed that Ep-CAM protein expression was significantly lower in interference group compared with that of the empty plasmid group and the control group (P<0.01. MTT assay results demonstrated that the proliferation ability of cells in the interference group was significantly inhibited compared with the two other groups (P<0.05.  Conclusion: Silencing of Ep-CAM can

  7. Highlights of SPring-8 BL23SU in 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agui, Akane; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Nakatani, Takeshi; Saitoh, Yuji; Teraoka, Yuden; Yokoya, Akinari [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Commissioning of SPring-8 BL23SU started in 1996 and the beamline has been constructed. The insertion device, monochromator and other beamline equipments have been installed and tuned. The beamline setting and tuning have been continued. Experiments using synchrotron radiation tried in this year. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurement has been tried and achieved by driving periodic phase shift of ID23. In this document, we report highlights of BL23SU in 2000. (author)

  8. Analyses of the Light Variations of OJ 287, 0716+714 and BL Lacertae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-tao; Pan, Yan-ping

    2013-01-01

    OJ 287 is a BL Lac object which exhibits intense activities of low peak-frequencies. Its energy spectrum in low frequency band is quite similar with those of two other TeV BL Lac objects (i.e., 0716+714 and BL Lacertae). However, the Cerenkov telescope did not detect its TeV rays. By using the observational data of these three heavenly bodies and comparing the discrepan- cies of their minimal periods of light variations and delays at 22 GHz, 37 GHz and B-waveband, we have further investigated the possible reason why the TeV gamma-rays of OJ 287 have not been observed. The results of analyses are as fol- lows. (1) For the minimal periods of light variations, the periods of OJ 287 at 37 GHZ and B-waveband are short. At 22 GHz the results of OJ 287 and 0716+714 are comparable, but the period of OJ 287 is much shorter in comparison with that of BL Lacertae, and this shows that its activity is more intense. However, the TeV gamma-rays of OJ 287 have not been detected, which implies that the radiation of OJ 287 in TeV waveband may have no connection with the minimal periods of light variations in these three low-energy wavebands. (2) In respect of delays, the delay of OJ 287 in the B waveband with respect to 37 GHz is longer than that of 0716+714, but shorter than that of BL Lacertae. Its delay at 37 GHz in respect to 22 GHz is shorter than that of 0716+714. Meanwhile, the delay of BL Lacertae at 37 GHz in respect to 22 GHz is negative, which implies that 22 GHz precedes 37 GHz. Via the comparison and analysis of delays, no obvious differences between OJ 287 and 0716+714 as well as BL Lacertae have been found. On the side of energy spectra, it is quite possible that due to the steep energy spectrum of OJ 287 in TeV waveband, the Cerenkov telescope has not detected the gamma radiation of OJ 287. However, nowadays it is still not clear whether the steep energy spectrum in TeV energy range has some influence on the light variations in low energy realm.

  9. Validity of PALMS GPS Scoring of Active and Passive Travel Compared to SenseCam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Jankowska, Marta M.; Meseck, Kristin; Godbole, Suneeta; Natarajan, Loki; Raab, Fredric; Demchak, Barry; Patrick, Kevin; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess validity of the Personal Activity Location Measurement System (PALMS) for deriving time spent walking/running, bicycling, and in vehicle, using SenseCam as the comparison. Methods 40 adult cyclists wore a Qstarz BT-Q1000XT GPS data logger and SenseCam (camera worn around neck capturing multiple images every minute) for a mean of 4 days. PALMS used distance and speed between GPS points to classify whether each minute was part of a trip (yes/no), and if so, the trip mode (walking/running, bicycling, in vehicle). SenseCam images were annotated to create the same classifications (i.e., trip yes/no and mode). 2×2 contingency tables and confusion matrices were calculated at the minute-level for PALMS vs. SenseCam classifications. Mixed-effects linear regression models estimated agreement (mean differences and intraclass correlations [ICCs]) between PALMS and SenseCam with regards to minutes/day in each mode. Results Minute-level sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value were ≥88%, and positive predictive value was ≥75% for non mode-specific trip detection. 72–80% of outdoor walking/running minutes, 73% of bicycling minutes, and 74–76% of in-vehicle minutes were correctly classified by PALMS. For minutes/day, PALMS had a mean bias (i.e., amount of over or under estimation) of 2.4–3.1 minutes (11–15%) for walking/running, 2.3–2.9 minutes (7–9%) for bicycling, and 4.3–5 minutes (15–17%) for vehicle time. ICCs were ≥.80 for all modes. Conclusions PALMS has validity for processing GPS data to objectively measure time walking/running, bicycling, and in vehicle in population studies. Assessing travel patterns is one of many valuable applications of GPS in physical activity research that can improve our understanding of the determinants and health outcomes of active transportation as well as its impact on physical activity. PMID:25010407

  10. In God and CAM we trust. Religious faith and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide cohort of women treated for early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Christina Gundgaard; Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Zachariae, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Turning to faith in God or a higher spiritual power is a common way of coping with life-threatening disease such as cancer. Little, however, is known about religious faith among cancer patients in secular societies. The present study aimed at exploring the prevalence of religious faith among Danish breast cancer patients and at identifying whether socio-demographic, pre-cancer health status, clinical, and health behavior characteristics, including their use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), were associated with their degree of faith. Information on faith in God or a higher spiritual power and use of CAM was provided by a nationwide sample of 3,128 recurrence-free Danish women who had received surgery for early-stage breast cancer 15-16 months earlier. Socio-demographic, clinical, and health status variables were obtained from national longitudinal registries, and health behaviors had been assessed at 3-4 months post-surgery. Of the women, 47.3% reported a high degree of faith (unambiguous believers), 35.9% some degree of faith (ambiguous believers), while the remaining 16.8% were non-believers. Unambiguous believers were more likely than ambiguous believers to experience their faith as having a positive impact on their disease and their disease-related quality-of-life. When compared to non-believers, unambiguous believers were also older, had poorer physical function, and were more frequent users of CAM, and more inclined to believe that their use of CAM would have a beneficial influence on their cancer. Disease- and treatment-related variables were unrelated to faith. While overall religious faith appears equally prevalent among Danish and US breast cancer patients, the majority of Danish breast cancer patients experienced ambiguous faith, whereas the majority of US patients have been found to express unambiguous faith. Our results suggest that future studies may benefit from exploring the role of faith for health behaviors, adherence to

  11. 21 CFR 872.3661 - Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM. 872.3661... (CAD/CAM) is a device used to record the topographical characteristics of teeth, dental impressions, or... Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of Dental Restorations; Guidance for Industry and FDA.” For...

  12. Footage: Action Cam Shorts as Cartographic Captures of Time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, N.

    2015-01-01

    This short article reflects on short videos of action cam footage that are widely disseminated on online platforms. These first-person perspective shorts are compared to early cinema’s phantom rides in the use of point-of-view shots, and a dizzying effect of heightened mobility and versatility in ca

  13. Schools (Students) Exchanging CAD/CAM Files over the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Gary S.; Smallwood, James E.

    This document discusses how students and schools can benefit from exchanging computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) files over the Internet, explains how files are exchanged, and examines the problem of selected hardware/software incompatibility. Key terms associated with information search services are defined, and several…

  14. Fabricating Complete Dentures with CAD/CAM and RP Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Erdem, Ali; Aglarci, Osman Sami; Dilber, Erhan

    2015-06-01

    Two techological approaches for fabricating dentures; computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and rapid prototyping (RP), are combined with the conventional techniques of impression and jaw relation recording to determine their feasibility and applicability. Maxillary and mandibular edentulous jaw models were produced using silicone molds. After obtaining a gypsum working model, acrylic bases were crafted, and occlusal rims for each model were fabricated with previously determined standard vertical and centric relationships. The maxillary and mandibular relationships were recorded with guides. The occlusal rims were then scanned with a digital scanner. The alignment of the maxillary and mandibular teeth was verified. The teeth in each arch were fabricated in one piece, or set, either by CAM or RP. Conventional waxing and flasking was then performed for both methods. These techniques obviate a practitioner's need for technicians during design and provide the patient with an opportunity to participate in esthetic design with the dentist. In addition, CAD/CAM and RP reduce chair time; however, the materials and techniques need further improvements. Both CAD/CAM and RP techniques seem promising for reducing chair time and allowing the patient to participate in esthetics design. Furthermore, the one-set aligned artificial tooth design may increase the acrylic's durability.

  15. Including CAD/CAM dentistry in a dental school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, William D; Reifeis, Paul; Willis, Lisa; Kirkup, Michele L

    2013-01-01

    Shaping a clinical curriculum that is appropriate for novice dentists, is based on high-quality evidence of efficacy, yet reflects current practices is challenging. CAD/CAM units have been available to dentists since the late '80s. Recent improvements in the software, hardware and the clinical performance of available all-ceramic blocks have keyed a surge in interest. Based on a careful review of the systems available and, equally importantly, a review of the research regarding the longevity of reinforced glass ceramics, IUSD decided to add training on the use of the E4D CAD/CAM system to the curriculum. Students now receive lectures, preclinical hands-on training and clinical experience in fabricating all-ceramic restorations. At present any student who is interested in providing an all-ceramic restoration for his/her patient can do so using our CAD/CAM system. In a little less than one year our undergraduate dental students have provided 125 all-ceramic crowns to their patients. Clinical faculty have been impressed with the marginal fit and esthetics of the crowns. Finally, with students designing, milling, sintering and staining the restorations the CAD/CAM systems has reduced lab costs significantly.

  16. Footage: Action Cam Shorts as Cartographic Captures of Time.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, N.

    2015-01-01

    This short article reflects on short videos of action cam footage that are widely disseminated on online platforms. These first-person perspective shorts are compared to early cinema’s phantom rides in the use of point-of-view shots, and a dizzying effect of heightened mobility and versatility in

  17. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 ...

  18. SenseCam: A new tool for memory rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubourg, L; Silva, A R; Fitamen, C; Moulin, C J A; Souchay, C

    2016-12-01

    The emergence of life-logging technologies has led neuropsychologist to focus on understanding how this new technology could help patients with memory disorders. Despite the growing number of studies using life-logging technologies, a theoretical framework supporting its effectiveness is lacking. This review focuses on the use of life-logging in the context of memory rehabilitation, particularly the use of SenseCam, a wearable camera allowing passive image capture. In our opinion, reviewing SenseCam images can be effective for memory rehabilitation only if it provides more than an assessment of prior occurrence in ways that reinstates previous thoughts, feelings and sensory information, thus stimulating recollection. Considering the fact that, in memory impairment, self-initiated processes are impaired, we propose that the environmental support hypothesis can explain the value of SenseCam for memory retrieval. Twenty-five research studies were selected for this review and despite the general acceptance of the value of SenseCam as a memory technique, only a small number of studies focused on recollection. We discuss the usability of this tool to improve episodic memory and in particular, recollection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and analysis of coupler curves with combined planar cam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    works are done on the synthesis of coupler curves or path generation using four bar mechanism. The present work ..... Sadler, J.P., and Yang, Z. 1990. Optimal design of cam-linkage mechanisms for dynamic-force characteristics. Journal of.

  20. Intuitionistic fuzzy filters of BL-algebras%BL-代数的直觉模糊滤子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房卫平

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theory of BL-algebras and intuitionistic fuzzy sets ,intuitionistic fuzzy filters and intuitionistic fuzzy prime filters are defined through the method of intuitionistic sets .Moreover ,some properties of intuitionistic fuzzy filters and intuitionistic fuzzy prime filters of BL-algebras are discussed and the relations between them are studied .Then ,the intuitionistic fuzzy filters generated by intuition-istic fuzzy set in BL-algebras is studied .Finally ,the algebraic structure of all intuitionistic fuzzy filters is discussed .%在 BL-代数和直觉模糊集理论的基础上,应用直觉模糊集的方法,定义了 BL-代数上直觉模糊滤子和直觉模糊素滤子。然后,讨论了直觉模糊滤子和直觉模糊素滤子的相关性质以及如何由直觉模糊集生成直觉模糊滤子的方法;最后,研究了 BL-代数上的直觉模糊滤子的全体的代数结构。

  1. SALL4 Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinomas Is Associated with EpCAM-Positivity and a Poor Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjin Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is increasing interest in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC expressing “stemness”-related markers, as they have been associated with aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4, a recently proposed candidate marker of “stemness.” Methods: Immunohistochemical stains were performed for SALL4, K19, and epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM on tissue microarrays constructed from 190 surgically resected HCCs, and the results were correlated with the clinicopathological features and patient survival data. Results: Nuclear SALL4 expression was observed in 39/190 HCCs (20.5%, while K19 and EpCAM were expressed in 30 (15.9% and 92 (48.7% HCCs, respectively. The nuclear expression was generally weak, punctate or clumped. SALL4 expression was significantly associated with a poor overall survival compared to SALL4-negative HCCs (p = .014 compared to SALL4-negative HCCs. On multivariate analysis adjusted for tumor size, multiplicity, vascular invasion, and pathological tumor stage, SALL4 remained as a significant independent predictor of decreased overall survival (p= .004. SALL4 expression was positively correlated with EpCAM expression (p = .013 but not with K19 expression. HCCs that expressed both SALL4 and EpCAM were associated with significantly decreased overall survival, compared to those cases which were negative for both of these markers (p = .031. Conclusions: Although SALL4 expression was not significantly correlated with other clinicopathological parameters suggestive of tumor aggressiveness, SALL4 expression was an independent predictor of poor overall survival in human HCCs, and was also positively correlated with EpCAM expression.

  2. Downscale cascades in tracer transport test cases: an intercomparison of the dynamical cores in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kent

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The accurate modelling of cascades to unresolved scales is an important part of the tracer transport component of dynamical cores of weather and climate models. This paper aims to investigate the ability of the advection schemes in the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5 to model this cascade. In order to quantify the effects of the different advection schemes in CAM5, four two-dimensional tracer transport test cases are presented. Three of the tests stretch the tracer below the scale of coarse resolution grids to ensure the downscale cascade of tracer variance. These results are compared with a high resolution reference solution, which is simulated on a resolution fine enough to resolve the tracer during the test. The fourth test has two separate flow cells, and is designed so that any tracer in the Western Hemisphere should not pass into the Eastern Hemisphere. This is to test whether the diffusion in transport schemes, often in the form of explicit hyper-diffusion terms or implicit through monotonic limiters, contains unphysical mixing.

    An intercomparison of three of the dynamical cores of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Atmosphere Model version 5 is performed. The results show that the finite-volume (CAM-FV and spectral element (CAM-SE dynamical cores model the downscale cascade of tracer variance better than the semi-Lagrangian transport scheme of the Eulerian spectral transform core (CAM-EUL. Each scheme tested produces unphysical mass in the Eastern Hemisphere of the separate cells test.

  3. Downscale cascades in tracer transport test cases: an intercomparison of the dynamical cores in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kent

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The accurate modeling of cascades to unresolved scales is an important part of the tracer transport component of dynamical cores of weather and climate models. This paper aims to investigate the ability of the advection schemes in the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5 to model this cascade. In order to quantify the effects of the different advection schemes in CAM5, four two-dimensional tracer transport test cases are presented. Three of the tests stretch the tracer below the scale of coarse resolution grids to ensure the downscale cascade of tracer variance. These results are compared with a high resolution reference solution, which is simulated on a resolution fine enough to resolve the tracer during the test. The fourth test has two separate flow cells, and is designed so that any tracer in the western hemisphere should not pass into the eastern hemisphere. This is to test whether the diffusion in transport schemes, often in the form of explicit hyper-diffusion terms or implicit through monotonic limiters, contains unphysical mixing.

    An intercomparison of three of the dynamical cores of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Atmosphere Model version 5 is performed. The results show that the finite-volume (CAM-FV and spectral element (CAM-SE dynamical cores model the downscale cascade of tracer variance better than the semi-Lagrangian transport scheme of the Eulerian spectral transform core (CAM-EUL. Each scheme tested produces unphysical mass in the eastern hemisphere of the separate cells test.

  4. Marginal fit and photoelastic stress analysis of CAD-CAM and overcast 3-unit implant-supported frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presotto, Anna Gabriella Camacho; Bhering, Cláudia Lopes Brilhante; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have shown the superiority of computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology compared with conventional casting. However, an advanced technology exists for casting procedures (the overcasting technique), which may serve as an acceptable and affordable alternative to CAD-CAM technology for fabricating 3-unit implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate, using quantitative photoelastic analysis, the effect of the prosthetic framework fabrication method (CAD-CAM and overcasting) on the marginal fit and stress transmitted to implants. The correlation between marginal fit and stress was also investigated. Three-unit implant-supported FDP frameworks were made using the CAD-CAM (n=10) and overcasting (n=10) methods. The frameworks were waxed to simulate a mandibular first premolar (PM region) to first molar (M region) FDP using overcast mini-abutment cylinders. The wax patterns were overcast (overcast experimental group) or scanned to obtain the frameworks (CAD-CAM control group). All frameworks were fabricated from cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy. The marginal fit was analyzed according to the single-screw test protocol, obtaining an average value for each region (M and PM) and each framework. The frameworks were tightened for the photoelastic model with standardized 10-Ncm torque. Stress was measured by quantitative photoelastic analysis. The results were submitted to the Student t test, 2-way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation test (α=.05). The framework fabrication method (FM) and evaluation site (ES; M and PM regions) did not affect the marginal fit values (P=.559 for FM and P=.065 for ES) and stress (P=.685 for FM and P=.468 for ES) in the implant-supported system. Positive correlations between marginal fit and stress were observed (CAD-CAM: r=0.922; PCAD-CAM and overcasting methods present similar marginal fit and stress values for 3-unit FDP frameworks. The

  5. The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Lebanese Adults: Results from a National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Naja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the prevalence and correlates of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM use in Lebanon. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face to face interviews on a nationally representative sample of 1,475 Lebanese adults. The survey questionnaire explored the sociodemographic and health related characteristics as well as the types and modes of CAM use. The main outcome in this study was the use of CAM during the last 12 months. Results. Prevalence of CAM use was 29.87% with “folk herbs” being the most commonly used (75%. Two out of five CAM users indicated using it as alternative to conventional therapies and only 28.4% of users disclosed the use of CAM to their physician. CAM use was significantly associated with higher income, presence of a chronic disease, and lack of access to needed health care. Lower odds of CAM use were observed among older adults and those with a higher education level. Conclusions. This study revealed a high prevalence of CAM use in Lebanon. Health policy and decision makers need to facilitate proper regulation and integration of CAM into mainstream medicine and educate health care providers and the public alike on the safe and effective use of CAM therapies.

  6. Additive CAD/CAM process for dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nelson R F A; Witek, Lukasz; Coelho, Paulo G; Thompson, Van P; Rekow, Elizabeth D; Smay, Jim

    2011-02-01

    This article describes the evolution of a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) process where ceramic paste is deposited in a layer-by-layer sequence using a computer numerical control machine to build up core and fixed partial denture (FPD) structures (robocasting). Al(2)O(3) (alumina) or ZrO(2) (Y-TZP) are blended into a 0.8% aqueous solution of ammonium polyacrylate in a ratio of approximately 1:1 solid:liquid. A viscosifying agent, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, is added to a concentration of 1% in the liquid phase, and then a counter polyelectrolyte is added to gel the slurry. There are two methods for robocasting crown structures (cores or FPD framework). One is for the core to be printed using zirconia ink without support materials, in which the stereolithography (STL) file is inverted (occlusal surface resting on a flat substrate) and built. The second method uses a fugitive material composed of carbon black codeposited with the ceramic material. During the sintering process, the carbon black is removed. There are two key challenges to successful printing of ceramic crowns by the robocasting technique. First is the development of suitable materials for printing, and second is the design of printing patterns for assembly of the complex geometry required for a dental restoration. Robocasting has room for improvement. Current development involves enhancing the automation of nozzle alignment for accurate support material deposition and better fidelity of the occlusal surface. An accompanying effort involves calculation of optimal support structures to yield the best geometric results and minimal material usage.

  7. OPTIMAL PREPARATION JUNCTIONS FOR ALL-CERAMIC FIXED RESTORATIONS MADE BY CAM 5 – S 2 IMPRESSION, VHF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Vlahova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The type of the preparation junction is determined by a number of factors that need to be taken in consideration with CAD/CAM Fixed Prosthodontics: the material of which the construction will be made; the type and condition of the retainer teeth, of their periodontium and the occlusion; the design software, the CAM setting and the type of drills; the working protocol; the type of the cement and the method of cementation.Purpose: The aim of this publication is to describe the optimal preparation junctions for all-ceramic crown and bridge restorations made by CAM 5 - S 2 Impression, VHF.Materials and methods: Suitable are chamfer and shoulder preparation junction with rounded inner angle (width 1 - 1, 5 mm. Trimming of 1.5 – 2 mm dental tissues is necessary on the occlusal surface. The homothetic reduction of teeth is optimal.Results and discussion: The width depends on the size and vitality of the tooth. In stained teeth and those built with metal pins the removal of more tissues provides a greater volume needed to disguise the dark color. Vestibular preparation under the level of the gingiva is preferable to ensure optimal aesthetics. Preparation junction is determined also by the CAD/CAM technology - the type of drills and protocol of impression taking (classical or digital. The creation of a working model with TRIOS, 3Shape intraoral scanner is greatly facilitated by preparation junctions made above the gingival margin.Conclusion: Knowledge about the criteria for selection the preparation junctions is essential for fabrication accurate and aesthetic CAD/CAM restorations.

  8. SmeltCam: underwater video codend for trawled nets with an application to the distribution of the imperiled delta smelt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Feyrer

    Full Text Available Studying rare and sensitive species is a challenge in conservation biology. The problem is exemplified by the case of the imperiled delta smelt Hypomesus transpacificus, a small delicate fish species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary, California. Persistent record-low levels of abundance and relatively high sensitivity to handling stress pose considerable challenges to studying delta smelt in the wild. To attempt to overcome these and other challenges we have developed the SmeltCam, an underwater video camera codend for trawled nets. The SmeltCam functions as an open-ended codend that automatically collects information on the number and species of fishes that pass freely through a trawled net without handling. We applied the SmeltCam to study the fine-scale distribution of juvenile delta smelt in the water column in the upper San Francisco Estuary. We learned that during flood tides delta smelt were relatively abundant throughout the water column and that during ebb tides delta smelt were significantly less abundant and occurred only in the lower half and sides of the water column. The results suggest that delta smelt manipulate their position in the water column to facilitate retention in favorable habitats. With the application of the SmeltCam we increased the survival of individual delta smelt by 72% compared to using a traditional codend, where all of the fish would have likely died due to handling stress. The SmeltCam improves upon similar previously developed silhouette photography or video recording devices and demonstrates how new technology can be developed to address important questions in conservation biology as well as lessen the negative effects associated with traditional sampling methods on imperiled species.

  9. The Role of Circulation Features on Black Carbon Transport into the Arctic in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Kai; Easter, Richard C.; Tilmes, S.; Fast, Jerome D.; Liu, Xiaohong; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

    2013-05-28

    Current climate models generally under-predict the surface concentration of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic due to the uncertainties associated with emissions, transport, and removal. This bias is also present in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 5.1 (CAM5). In this study, we investigate the uncertainty of Arctic BC due to transport processes simulated by CAM5 by configuring the model to run in an “offline mode” in which the large-scale circulations are prescribed. We compare the simulated BC transport when the offline model is driven by the meteorology predicted by the standard free-running CAM5 with simulations where the meteorology is constrained to agree with reanalysis products. Some circulation biases are apparent: the free-running CAM5 produces about 50% less transient eddy transport of BC than the reanalysis-driven simulations, which may be attributed to the coarse model resolution insufficient to represent eddies. Our analysis shows that the free-running CAM5 reasonably captures the essence of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), but some discernable differences in the spatial pattern of the AO between the free-running CAM5 and the reanalysis-driven simulations result in significantly different AO modulation of BC transport over Northeast Asia and Eastern Europe. Nevertheless, we find that the overall climatological circulation patterns simulated by the free-running CAM5 generally resembles those from the reanalysis products, and BC transport is very similar in both simulation sets. Therefore, the simulated circulation features regulating the long-range BC transport is unlikely the most important cause of the large under-prediction of surface BC concentration in the Arctic.

  10. The Unsuspecting CAM User: Cancer patients and the changing nature of holistic health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M. Kabel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of cancer patients using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in the United States is growing, yet little is known about the meaning these activities have for users. Current literature supports the assumption that stigma surrounding CAM and holistic health practices are responsible for the reluctance of many cancer patients to self-identify as CAM users. This study explored the frequency of use, and familiarity with CAM among 25 female patients at a Midwestern oncology clinic. Findings suggest that patients need to be asked about CAM use multiple times and in multiple formats to gain an accurate assessment. Also, the assumptions about stigma may no longer be the reason patients are less than forthcoming about CAM use. The rise of integrative medicine and shifting boundaries of the holistic health movement may be equally, or in some cases, more responsible for the reluctance for CAM users to self-identify.

  11. Perspectives of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners in the support and treatment of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Erin; Sevigny, Marika; Sabarre, Kelley-Anne; Phillips, Karen P

    2014-10-14

    Infertility patients are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to supplement or replace conventional fertility treatments. The objective of this study was to determine the roles of CAM practitioners in the support and treatment of infertility. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted in Ottawa, Canada in 2011 with CAM practitioners who specialized in naturopathy, acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, hypnotherapy and integrated medicine. CAM practitioners played an active role in both treatment and support of infertility, using a holistic, interdisciplinary and individualized approach. CAM practitioners recognized biological but also environmental and psychosomatic determinants of infertility. Participants were receptive to working with physicians, however little collaboration was described. Integrated infertility patient care through both collaboration with CAM practitioners and incorporation of CAM's holistic, individualized and interdisciplinary approaches would greatly benefit infertility patients.

  12. NLO+NLL collider bounds, Dirac fermion and scalar dark matter in the B-L model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, Michael [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Muenster (Germany); Lyonnet, Florian [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States); Queiroz, Farinaldo S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Particle and Astroparticle Physics Division, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Baryon and lepton numbers being accidental global symmetries of the Standard Model (SM), it is natural to promote them to local symmetries. However, to preserve anomaly-freedom, only combinations of B-L are viable. In this spirit, we investigate possible dark matter realizations in the context of the U(1){sub B-L} model: (i) Dirac fermion with unbroken B-L; (ii) Dirac fermion with broken B-L; (iii) scalar dark matter; (iv) two-component dark matter. We compute the relic abundance, direct and indirect detection observables and confront them with recent results from Planck, LUX-2016, and Fermi-LAT and prospects from XENON1T. In addition to the well-known LEP bound M{sub Z}{sup {sub '}}/g{sub BL} >or similar 7 TeV, we include often ignored LHC bounds using 13 TeV dilepton (dimuon + dielectron) data at next-to-leading order plus next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. We show that, for gauge couplings smaller than 0.4, the LHC gives rise to the strongest collider limit. In particular, we find M{sub Z}{sup {sub '}}/g{sub BL} > 8.7 TeV for g{sub BL} = 0.3. We conclude that the NLO+NLL corrections improve the dilepton bounds on the Z{sup '} mass and that both dark matter candidates are only viable in the Z{sup '} resonance region, with the parameter space for scalar dark matter being fully probed by XENON1T. Lastly, we show that one can successfully have a minimal two-component dark matter model. (orig.)

  13. On the relationship between BL Lacertae objects and radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Landt, Hermine

    2008-01-01

    We present deep radio images at 1.4 GHz of a large and complete sample of BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) selected from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS). We have observed 24 northern sources with the Very Large Array (VLA) in both its A and C configurations and 15 southern sources with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) in its largest configuration. We find that in the DXRBS, as in the 1-Jy survey, which has a radio flux limit roughly ten times higher than the DXRBS, a considerable number (about a third) of BL Lacs can be identified with the relativistically beamed counterparts of Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II) radio galaxies. We attribute the existence of FR II-BL Lacs, which is not accounted for by current unified schemes, to an inconsistency in our classification scheme for radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). Taking the extended radio power as a suitable measure of intrinsic jet power, we find similar average values for low- (LBL) and high-energy peaked BL Lacs (HBL), contrary to the...

  14. Establishing CAD/CAM in Preclinical Dental Education: Evaluation of a Hands-On Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindling, Franz Sebastian; Deisenhofer, Ulrich Karl; Porsche, Monika; Rammelsberg, Peter; Kappel, Stefanie; Stober, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a hands-on computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) module in a preclinical dental course in restorative dentistry. A controlled trial was conducted by dividing a class of 56 third-year dental students in Germany into study and control groups; allocation to the two groups depended on student schedules. Prior information about CAD/CAM-based restorations was provided for all students by means of lectures, preparation exercises, and production of gypsum casts of prepared resin teeth. The study group (32 students) then participated in a hands-on CAD/CAM module in small groups, digitizing their casts and designing zirconia frameworks for single crowns. The digitization process was introduced to the control group (24 students) solely by means of a video-supported lecture. To assess the knowledge gained, a 20-question written examination was administered; 48 students took the exam. The results were analyzed with Student's t-tests at a significance level of 0.05. The results on the examination showed a significant difference between the two groups: the mean scores were 16.8 (SD 1.7, range 13-19) for the study group and 12.5 (SD 3, range 4-18) for the control group. After the control group had also experienced the hands-on module, a total of 48 students from both groups completed a questionnaire with 13 rating-scale and three open-ended questions evaluating the module. Those results showed that the module was highly regarded by the students. This study supports the idea that small-group hands-on courses are helpful for instruction in digital restoration design. These students' knowledge gained and satisfaction seemed to justify the time, effort, and equipment needed.

  15. Different CAD/CAM-processing routes for zirconia restorations: influence on fitting accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohorst, Philipp; Junghanns, Janet; Dittmer, Marc P; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch, Meike

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different processing routes on the fitting accuracy of four-unit zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) fabricated by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Three groups of zirconia frameworks with ten specimens each were fabricated. Frameworks of one group (CerconCAM) were produced by means of a laboratory CAM-only system. The other frameworks were made with different CAD/CAM systems; on the one hand by in-laboratory production (CerconCAD/CAM) and on the other hand by centralized production in a milling center (Compartis) after forwarding geometrical data. Frameworks were then veneered with the recommended ceramics, and marginal accuracy was determined using a replica technique. Horizontal marginal discrepancy, vertical marginal discrepancy, absolute marginal discrepancy, and marginal gap were evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with the level of significance chosen at 0.05. Mean horizontal discrepancies ranged between 22 μm (CerconCAM) and 58 μm (Compartis), vertical discrepancies ranged between 63 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 162 μm (CerconCAM), and absolute marginal discrepancies ranged between 94 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 181 μm (CerconCAM). The marginal gap varied between 72 μm (CerconCAD/CAM) and 112 μm (CerconCAM, Compartis). Statistical analysis revealed that, with all measurements, the marginal accuracy of the zirconia FDPs was significantly influenced by the processing route used (p CAD/CAM systems are more precise than the CAM-only system for the manufacture of four-unit FDPs.

  16. The long-term optical spectral variability of BL Lacertae

    CERN Document Server

    Papadakis, I E; Raiteri, C M

    2007-01-01

    We present the results from a study of the long-term optical spectral variations of BL Lacertae, using the long and well-sampled B and R-band light curves of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) collaboration, binned on time intervals of 1 day. The relation between spectral slope and flux (the spectrum gets bluer as the source flux increases) is well described by a power-law model, although there is significant scatter around the best-fitting model line. To some extent, this is due to the spectral evolution of the source (along well-defined loop-like structures) during low-amplitude events, which are superimposed on the major optical flares, and evolve on time scales of a few days. The "bluer-when-brighter" mild chromatism of the long-term variations of the source can be explained if the flux increases/decreases faster in the B than in the R band. The B and R-band variations are well correlated, with no significant, measurable delays larger than a few days. On the other hand, we find that the spectral vari...

  17. DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF ROLLER GEAR INDEXING CAM SYSTEM CONSIDERING CLEARANCE AND MOTOR CHARACTERISTIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The dynamic responses of roller gear indexing cam mechanism are investigated .With applying Lagarange equation and Gear method,motion equations of this mechanism including clearance,motor characteristic,torsion flexibility are developed and solved.The results show that clearance affects primarily the response on turret,and has little effects on the responses on rotary table.At the same time,the velocity fluctuation of motor shaft is not serious for the existence of inertia of reducer,and the high frequency of velocity fluctuation of camshaft is related with the torsion stiffness of shaft and the clearance between pairs.

  18. Vane Pump Casing Machining of Dumpling Machine Based on CAD/CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yusen; Li, Shilong; Li, Chengcheng; Yang, Zhen

    Automatic dumpling forming machine is also called dumpling machine, which makes dumplings through mechanical motions. This paper adopts the stuffing delivery mechanism featuring the improved and specially-designed vane pump casing, which can contribute to the formation of dumplings. Its 3D modeling in Pro/E software, machining process planning, milling path optimization, simulation based on UG and compiling post program were introduced and verified. The results indicated that adoption of CAD/CAM offers firms the potential to pursue new innovative strategies.

  19. Simulation and Analyis of a Continuous Variable Cam Phasing Internal Combustion Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarlund, Pär

    2008-01-01

    The development of fuel efficient internal combustion engines (ICE)have resulted in a variety of different solutions. One of those are the variable valve timing and an implemenation of such is the Continuous Variable Cam Phasing (CVCP). This thesis have used a simulation package, psPack, for the simulation of the gas exchange process for an ICE with CVCP. The purpose of the simulations was to investigate what kind of design parameters, e.g. the length of an intake pipe or the duration of comb...

  20. C57BL/6J小鼠听力损失与认知功能下降的相关性%Correlation between age-related hearing loss and impairment of cognition in C57BL/6J mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于亚峰; 翟丰; 戴春富; 胡金家

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation of age-related hearing loss and cognition impairment in C57BL/6J mice by observing hearing, cognitive function and synapses. Methods C57BL/6J and CBA/CaJ mice were divided into 3 groups. The hearing and cognitive functions of each animal was tested. And the ultrastructure of synapses was simultaneously observed for C57BL/6J mice. Results The 24-26-week-old C57BL/6J mice developed moderate hearing loss while the 42- 44-week-old C57BL/6J counterparts suffered profound hearing loss. Whereas excellent hearing was maintained in 3 groups of CBA/CaJ mice within 44 weeks. During cognitive test, the performance of 42 -44-week-old C57BL/6J mice was significantly worse than CBA/CaJ mice. During probe test, the number of platform crossing of 42 - 44-week-old C57BL/6J mice was smaller than that of CBA/CaJ mice(0.5 ± 0.6 vs 1.9 ± 1.6; P < 0.05 ). The 42 -44-week-old C57BL/6J mice had a wider synaptic cleft and a thinner postsynaptic density than the 24 -26-week-old C57 BL/6J counterparts [synaptic cleft: ( 19.4 ± 0.5 ) nm vs ( 1 1. 9 ± 0.7 ) nm; postsynaptic density:(15.2 ±0. 5) nm vs (27.8 ±2.0) nm; both P <0.05]. Furthermore, the degeneration of synapses in hippocampus CA3 area of C57BL/6J mice were clearly observed at 42 -44 weeks of age, but not seen in CBA/CaJ mice. Conclusion Age-related hearing loss might impact on the cognition impairment in C57 BL/6J mice.%目的 通过对老年性聋模型鼠C57BL/6J和对照组CBA/CaJ小鼠听力检测,认知行为检测以及海马CA3区突触超微结构的观察,探讨C57BL/6J小鼠年龄相关性听力损失与认知功能下降的关系。方法 将C57BL/6J小鼠根据听力随年龄的变化,按年龄分为3组:6~8周、24~26周、42~44周,每组10只。CBA/CaJ小鼠按同样的年龄也分为3组,每组9只。以TDT-Ⅲ型ABR测试仪检测听力,Morris水迷宫实验检测认知行为,透射电镜观察海马突触超微结构。结果 C57 BL/6J小鼠24~ 26

  1. The faulty statistics of complementary alternative medicine (CAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Maurizio; Carreras, Giulia

    2014-09-01

    The authors illustrate the difficulties involved in obtaining a valid statistical significance in clinical studies especially when the prior probability of the hypothesis under scrutiny is low. Since the prior probability of a research hypothesis is directly related to its scientific plausibility, the commonly used frequentist statistics, which does not take into account this probability, is particularly unsuitable for studies exploring matters in various degree disconnected from science such as complementary alternative medicine (CAM) interventions. Any statistical significance obtained in this field should be considered with great caution and may be better applied to more plausible hypotheses (like placebo effect) than that examined - which usually is the specific efficacy of the intervention. Since achieving meaningful statistical significance is an essential step in the validation of medical interventions, CAM practices, producing only outcomes inherently resistant to statistical validation, appear not to belong to modern evidence-based medicine.

  2. Illness narratives in cancer: CAM and spiritual practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: In this paper,we investigate Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs and practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry is used to uncover how spiritual beliefs and practices may......, religious and spiritual issues were not extensively unfolded in participants’ illness narratives. However, these issues were significantly elaborated on in narratives by four female participants. Conclusion: We propose that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not only or primarily as a treatment...... for cancer related symptoms and side effects, but as a spiritual practice as well. For some individuals this may be true to an even higher extent than in established religious institutions....

  3. Tufting enteropathy with EpCAM mutation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Lais Pêgas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tufting enteropathy (TE, also known as intestinal epithelial dysplasia (IED, is a rare congenital enteropathy related to an earlyonset of severe intractable diarrhea due to specific abnormalities of the intestinal epithelium and mutations of the EpCAM gene. TE is characterized by clinical and histological heterogeneity, such as with low or without mononuclear cell infiltration of the lamina propria, and abnormalities of basement membrane. TE can be associated with malformations, other epithelial diseases, or to abnormal enterocytes development and/or differentiation. The authors report a case of a Brazilian child with TE associated with c.556-14A>G mutation in the EpCAM gene (NM_002354.2.

  4. Integrated CAD/CAM: Problems, prognosis, and role of IPAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Major technology problems impede the development and evolution of totally integrated interactive CAD/CAM systems. IPAD is playing an important role in the identification of these problems and is contributing significantly to their solution. It is the purpose of this presentation to examine some of these issues, look at the prognosis of obtaining effective solutions, and point up some of the past and expected contributions of IPAD to this technology.

  5. Lucrécio, Camões e os deuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata do uso que Lucrécio e Camões fizeram dos deuses da mitologia clássica, por razões pertinentes às convenções da poesia épica e a despeito de sua descrença na existência dos mesmos, sugerindo que ambos constróem os deuses para depois desconstruí-los de forma cabal e definitiva.

  6. Highlights of SPring-8 BL23SU in 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Agui, A; Nakatani, T; Yokoya, A; Yoshigoe, A

    2002-01-01

    BL23SU in SPring-8 is a soft x-ray beamline for the material science project in JAERI. The insertion device, monochromator and other beamline equipments have been installed or developed. The beamline maintenance has also been continued. We report highlights of these activities for the BL23SU in 2001. Specially, it has proceeded with the countermeasure against the rise in the maximum radiant power, toward the low-energy operation realization. And, improvement in that precision proceeds through the COD correlation to the ID drive as well.

  7. Metabolic deficiences revealed in the biotechnologically important model bacterium Escherichia coli BL21(DE3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Pinske

    activities of both enzymes. Taken together these results demonstrate that BL21(DE3 has major defects in anaerobic metabolism, metal ion transport and metalloprotein biosynthesis.

  8. Pengaruh Pembelajaran Project Based Learning (PjBL pada Materi Ekosistem terhadap Sikap dan Hasil Belajar Siswa SMAN 2 Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susriyati Mahanal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know the effect of Project Based Learning (PjBL to the attitude and student cognitive achievement in SMAN 2 Malang. This research applied quasy experimental with non-equivalent control group design. The populations of this research is all student of class X SMAN 2 Malang on academic year 2008/2009. The samples of this research were class X7 as experimental (PjBL and class X8 as control (conventional. The instrument of this research namely cognitive achievement test and attitude scale questionnaire to river ecosystem. This research data are quantitative data consisted by score cognitive achievement and attitude scale questionnaire to river ecosystem, collected on 14 Maret until 31 May 2009. Data were analysed by bilinear covariant statistical analysis (Ancova, continued with LSD test. The result of this research indicated that there were PjBL toward the cognitive achievement and student attitude to river ecosystem. Students with PjBl having attitude higher 11,65% from conventional students. Beside, students with PjBl having cognitive achievement higher 81,05% from conventional students. Based on this research, the researcher suggest to the teacher that this strategy can be implemented in biology learning.   Kata kunci: Project Based Learning, sikap terhadap ekosistem sungai, hasil belajar

  9. Product Recommendation System Based on Personal Preference Model Using CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tomoko; Yoshioka, Nobukazu; Orihara, Ryohei; Furukawa, Koichi

    Product recommendation system is realized by applying business rules acquired by data maining techniques. Business rules such as demographical patterns of purchase, are able to cover the groups of users that have a tendency to purchase products, but it is difficult to recommend products adaptive to various personal preferences only by utilizing them. In addition to that, it is very costly to gather the large volume of high quality survey data, which is necessary for good recommendation based on personal preference model. A method collecting kansei information automatically without questionnaire survey is required. The constructing personal preference model from less favor data is also necessary, since it is costly for the user to input favor data. In this paper, we propose product recommendation system based on kansei information extracted by text mining and user's preference model constructed by Category-guided Adaptive Modeling, CAM for short. CAM is a feature construction method that can generate new features constructing the space where same labeled examples are close and different labeled examples are far away from some labeled examples. It is possible to construct personal preference model by CAM despite less information of likes and dislikes categories. In the system, retrieval agent gathers the products' specification and user agent manages preference model, user's likes and dislikes. Kansei information of the products is gained by applying text mining technique to the reputation documents about the products on the web site. We carry out some experimental studies to make sure that prefrence model obtained by our method performs effectively.

  10. Comparison Between GAMIL, and CAM2 on Interannual Variability Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Recently, a new atmospheric general circulation model (GAMIL: Grid-point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG) has been developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), which is based on the Community Atmospheric Model Version 2 (CAM2) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Since the two models have the same physical processes but different dynamical cores, the interannual variability simulation performances of the two models are compared. The ensemble approach is used to reduce model internal variability.In general, the simulation performances of the two models are similar. Both models have good performance in simulating total space-time variability and the Southern Oscillation Index. GAMIL performs better in the Eastern Asian winter circulation simulation than CAM2, and the model internal variability of GAMIL has a better response to external forcing than that of CAM2. These indicate that the improvement of the dynamic core is very important. It is also verified that there is less predictability in the middle and high latitudes than in the low latitudes.

  11. Optical spectroscopy of RU Cam, a pulsating carbon star

    CERN Document Server

    Kipper, Tonu

    2007-01-01

    We analysed the high resolution spectra of a RU Cam, classified as W Vir type star. The atmospheric parameters of RU Cam were estimated Teff=5250K and log g=1.0. The hydrogen deficiency of RU Cam was not confirmed. The iron abundance, [Fe/H]=-0.37, is close to the solar one. Abundances of most other elements are also close to normal. We found considerable excesses of carbon and nitrogen: [C/Fe]=+0.98, [N/Fe]=+0.60. The carbon to oxygen ratio is C/O$\\ge$1. The carbon isotopic abundance ratio is equal to C^12/C^13=4.5. For sodium a moderate overabundance Na/Fe=+0.55 was obtained. For two moments of observations we found close heliocentric velocity values, Vr=-21.7+/-0.8 and -23.1+/-1.0 km/s. Both spectra contain a peculiar feature - an emission component of NaI doublet which location agrees with the radial velocity from the bulk of metallic lines. For our two observing moments we found no dependence of radial velocities on the formation depth or on excitation energy for metallic lines.

  12. ChemCam analysis of Martian fine dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Mangold, Nicolas; Cousin, Agnes; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Wiens, Roger; Gasnault, Olivier; Rapin, William; Schroder, Susanne; Ollila, Ann; Fabre, Cécile; Berger, Gilles; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Dehouck, Erwin; Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Anderson, Ryan; Bridges, Nathan; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Samuel; d'Uston, Claude; Goetz, Walter; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lanza, Nina; Madsen, Morten; Melikechi, Noureddine; Newsom, Horton; Sautter, Violaine; Martin-Torres, Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we examine the chemical composition of dust observed by the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover at Gale Crater. The Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique analyses samples without preparation, which allows detection of the elemental composition of surface deposits. Mars aeolian fine dust (soils encountered at Gale crater. The composition is also similar to the soils and fine dust measured by APXS for the elements common to both instruments. The minor elements quantified by ChemCam (Ba, Sr, Rb, Li, Mn, Cr) are within the range of soil surveys, but we see a higher concentration of Li than in other types of remotely characterized targets. Sulfur is possibly detected at the ChemCam limit of detection. Hydrogen is clearly identified, indicating that this fine dust is a contributor to the H content of the martian soils, as also detected by the SAM and CheMin instruments, and provides constraints as to which fraction of the Martian surface is hydrated and altered. In conclusion, the finest fraction of dust particles on the surface of Mars contains hydrated components mixed intimately within the fine aeolian dust fraction, suggesting that this dust likely originates from mechanical weathering of altered grains.

  13. Eddy covariance measurements of net C exchange in the CAM bioenergy crop, Agave tequiliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Nick A.; Choncubhair, Órlaith Ní; Males, Jamie; del Real Laborde, José Ignacio; Rubio-Cortés, Ramón; Griffiths, Howard; Lanigan, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Bioenergy crop cultivation may focus more on low grade and marginal lands in order to avoid competition with food production for land and water resources. However, in many regions, this would require improvements in plant water-use efficiency that are beyond the physiological capacity of most C3 and C4 bioenergy crop candidates. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, such as Agave tequiliana, can combine high above-ground productivity with as little as 20% of the water demand of C3 and C4 crops. This is achieved through temporal separation of carboxylase activities, with stomata opening at night to allow gas exchange and minimise transpirational losses. Previous studies have employed 'bottom-up' methodologies to investigate carbon (C) accumulation and productivity in Agave, by scaling leaf-level gas exchange and titratable acidity (TA) with leaf area index or maximum productivity. We used the eddy covariance (EC) technique to quantify ecosystem-scale gas exchange over an Agave plantation in Mexico ('top-down' approach). Measurements were made over 252 days, including the transition from wet to dry periods. Results were cross-validated against diel changes in titratable acidity, leaf-unfurling rates, energy exchange fluxes and reported biomass yields. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 displayed a CAM rhythm that alternated from a net C sink at night to a net C source during the day and partitioned canopy fluxes (gross C assimilation, FA,EC) showed a characteristic four-phase CO2 exchange pattern. The projected ecosystem C balance indicated that the site was a net sink of -333 ± 24 g C m-2 y-1, comprising cumulative soil respiration of 692 ± 7 g C m-2 y-1 and FA,EC of -1025 ± 25 g C m-2 y-1. EC-estimated biomass yield was 20.1 Mg ha-1 y-1. Average integrated daily FA,EC was -234 ± 5 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 and persisted almost unchanged after 70 days of drought conditions. Our results suggest that the carbon acquisition strategy of drought avoidance employed by Agave

  14. Application of distance correction to ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, A.; Melikechi, N.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Lasue, J.; Clegg, S. M.; Tokar, R.; Bender, S.; Lanza, N. L.; Maurice, S.; Berger, G.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Dyar, M. D.; Boucher, T.; Lewin, E.; Fabre, C.

    2016-06-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides chemical information from atomic, ionic, and molecular emissions from which geochemical composition can be deciphered. Analysis of LIBS spectra in cases where targets are observed at different distances, as is the case for the ChemCam instrument on the Mars rover Curiosity, which performs analyses at distances between 2 and 7.4 m is not a simple task. In our previous work we showed that spectral distance correction based on a proxy spectroscopic standard created from first-shot dust observations on Mars targets ameliorates the distance bias in multivariate-based elemental-composition predictions of laboratory data. In this work, we correct an expanded set of neutral and ionic spectral emissions for distance bias in the ChemCam data set. By using and testing different selection criteria to generate multiple proxy standards, we find a correction that minimizes the difference in spectral intensity measured at two different distances and increases spectral reproducibility. When the quantitative performance of distance correction is assessed, there is improvement for SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, FeOT, Na2O, K2O, that is, for most of the major rock forming elements, and for the total major-element weight percent predicted. However, for MgO the method does not provide improvements while for TiO2, it yields inconsistent results. In addition, we have observed that many emission lines do not behave consistently with distance, evidenced from laboratory analogue measurements and ChemCam data. This limits the effectiveness of the method.

  15. Reliability, failure probability, and strength of resin-based materials for CAD/CAM restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiatlin Lim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study investigated the Weibull parameters and 5% fracture probability of direct, indirect composites, and CAD/CAM composites. Material and Methods: Discshaped (12 mm diameter x 1 mm thick specimens were prepared for a direct composite [Z100 (ZO, 3M-ESPE], an indirect laboratory composite [Ceramage (CM, Shofu], and two CAD/CAM composites [Lava Ultimate (LU, 3M ESPE; Vita Enamic (VE, Vita Zahnfabrik] restorations (n=30 for each group. The specimens were polished, stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C. Weibull parameters (m= modulus of Weibull, σ0= characteristic strength and flexural strength for 5% fracture probability (σ5% were determined using a piston-on-three-balls device at 1 MPa/s in distilled water. Statistical analysis for biaxial flexural strength analysis were performed either by both one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc (α=0.05 or by Pearson's correlation test. Results: Ranking of m was: VE (19.5, LU (14.5, CM (11.7, and ZO (9.6. Ranking of σ0 (MPa was: LU (218.1, ZO (210.4, CM (209.0, and VE (126.5. σ5% (MPa was 177.9 for LU, 163.2 for CM, 154.7 for Z0, and 108.7 for VE. There was no significant difference in the m for ZO, CM, and LU. VE presented the highest m value and significantly higher than ZO. For σ0 and σ5%, ZO, CM, and LU were similar but higher than VE. Conclusion: The strength characteristics of CAD/ CAM composites vary according to their composition and microstructure. VE presented the lowest strength and highest Weibull modulus among the materials.

  16. Are different generations of CAD/CAM milling machines capable to produce restorations with similar quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperto, Renato; Assaf, Hussein; Soares-Porto, Thiago; Lang, Lisa; Teich, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    Background Different CAD/CAM machines’ generation may impact the restoration overall quality. The present study evaluated the marginal fit of CAD/CAM restorations manufactured with different generations of CEREC milling unit systems. Material and Methods Sixteen typodont teeth were divided into two groups (n=8) according to the machine’s generation assigned. These are control group (G1): Cerec AC with Bluecam/Cerec 3 milling unit and (G2): Cerec AC with Bluecam/MC XL Premium Package milling unit. Scanning of the preparation were performed and crowns were milled using the Vita Mark II blocks. Blocks were cemented using epoxy glue on the pulpal floor only and finger pressure applied for 1 min. Upon completion of the cementation step, misfits between the restoration and abutment were measured by microphotography and the silicone replica technique using light body silicon material on Mesial (M) and Distal (D) surfaces. Results Mean and SDs of marginal gaps in micrometers were: G1/M: 94.90 (±38.52), G1/D: 88.53 (±44.87), G2/M: 85.65 (±29.89), G2/D: 95.28 (±28.13). Two-way ANOVA indicated no significant differences among different groups (P>0.05); surface area (P>0.05) and the interaction (P>0.05). Overall, G2 had greater margin gaps than G1, however, without statistical difference (P>0.05). Conclusions Difference in milling unit generation did not significantly affect the marginal fit. Marginal gap means were in the range of the clinical acceptance levels for both generations of Cerec milling units, regardless the teeth site area. Key words:CAD/CAM, margin, ceramics. PMID:27703611

  17. Reliability, failure probability, and strength of resin-based materials for CAD/CAM restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kiatlin; Yap, Adrian U-Jin; Agarwalla, Shruti Vidhawan; Tan, Keson Beng-Choon; Rosa, Vinicius

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study investigated the Weibull parameters and 5% fracture probability of direct, indirect composites, and CAD/CAM composites. Material and Methods: Discshaped (12 mm diameter x 1 mm thick) specimens were prepared for a direct composite [Z100 (ZO), 3M-ESPE], an indirect laboratory composite [Ceramage (CM), Shofu], and two CAD/CAM composites [Lava Ultimate (LU), 3M ESPE; Vita Enamic (VE), Vita Zahnfabrik] restorations (n=30 for each group). The specimens were polished, stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C. Weibull parameters (m= modulus of Weibull, σ0= characteristic strength) and flexural strength for 5% fracture probability (σ5%) were determined using a piston-on-three-balls device at 1 MPa/s in distilled water. Statistical analysis for biaxial flexural strength analysis were performed either by both one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc (α=0.05) or by Pearson's correlation test. Results: Ranking of m was: VE (19.5), LU (14.5), CM (11.7), and ZO (9.6). Ranking of σ0 (MPa) was: LU (218.1), ZO (210.4), CM (209.0), and VE (126.5). σ5% (MPa) was 177.9 for LU, 163.2 for CM, 154.7 for Z0, and 108.7 for VE. There was no significant difference in the m for ZO, CM, and LU. VE presented the highest m value and significantly higher than ZO. For σ0 and σ5%, ZO, CM, and LU were similar but higher than VE. Conclusion: The strength characteristics of CAD/ CAM composites vary according to their composition and microstructure. VE presented the lowest strength and highest Weibull modulus among the materials.

  18. Cloning, localization and expression analysis of vacuolar sugar transporters in the CAM plant Ananas comosus (pineapple).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Edna; Taybi, Tahar; Courbot, Mikaël; Mugford, Sam T; Smith, J Andrew C; Borland, Anne M

    2008-01-01

    In photosynthetic tissues of the CAM plant pineapple (Ananas comosus), storage of soluble sugars in the central vacuole during the daytime and their remobilization at night is required to provide carbon skeletons for nocturnal CO(2) fixation. However, soluble sugars produced photosynthetically must also be exported to support growth processes in heterotrophic tissues. To begin to address how vacuolar sugar storage and assimilate partitioning are regulated in A. comosus, degenerate PCR and cDNA library screening were used to clone three candidate sugar transporters from the leaves of this species. Subcellular localization of the three transporters was investigated via expression of YFP-fusion proteins in tobacco epidermal cells and their co-localization with subcellular markers by confocal microscopy. Using this strategy, a putative hexose transporter (AcMST1) and a putative inositol transporter (AcINT1) were identified that both localized to the tonoplast, whereas a putative sucrose transporter (AcSUT1) was found to localize to prevacuolar compartments. A cDNA (AcMST2) with high similarity to a recently characterized tonoplast hexose transporter in Arabidopsis was also identified from an A. comosus fruit EST database. Analyses of transcript abundance indicated that AcMST1 was more highly expressed in fruits compared to leaves of A. comosus, whilst transcripts of AcINT1, AcSUT1, and AcMST2 were more abundant in leaves. Transcript abundance of AcINT1, the putative inositol transporter, showed day-night changes comparable to those of other CAM-related transcripts described in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. The results are discussed in terms of the role of vacuolar sugar transporters in regulating carbon flow during the diel cycle in CAM plants.

  19. Validation of the 'FeMorph' software in planning cam osteochondroplasty by incorporating labral morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi, Milad; Mandalia, Rakhee; Aqil, Adeel; Cobb, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Impingement resulting from a cam deformity may cause pain, limit the hip joint range of motion (RoM) and lead to osteoarthritis. We have previously developed FeMorph software to quantify and plan corrective surgery and predict hip RoM post surgery. This study aimed to validate the software and evaluate the influence of the acetabular labrum on hip RoM. Computed tomography data from 92 femur-pelvis pairs were analysed in conjunction with the inter/intra-observer reliability. Four cadaveric hips were dissected, and the three-dimensional (3D) shape and size of the acetabular labrum for these hips was obtained using laser scan. The influence of the acetabular labrum in the RoM and subsequent planning for corrective surgery were then evaluated in cadavers for models with and without a labrum, and used as a first step towards validation of FeMorph RoM prediction. FeMorph was successfully used to model cam deformities and plan corrective surgery. Three-dimensional alpha angles were reduced to below 50° after virtual surgery without an excessive reduction in femoral neck cross-sectional area, which could increase fracture risk. A mean increase of 8° ± 2° in permitted internal rotation was observed during impingement testing following removal of the labrum. FeMorph provides a reliable and useful method to model and plan cam deformity correction. This study indicates that the presence of the labrum is responsible for a substantial decrease in permitted internal rotation at the hip joint. This has implications for surgical planning models which often only account for bony impingement.

  20. The Preschool Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (psCAM-ICU): Valid and Reliable Delirium Monitoring for Critically Ill Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heidi A.B.; Gangopadhyay, Maalobeeka; Goben, Christina M.; Jacobowski, Natalie L.; Chestnut, Mary Hamilton; Savage, Shane; Rutherford, Michael T.; Denton, Danica; Thompson, Jennifer L.; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Acton, Michelle; Newman, Jessica; Noori, Hannah P.; Terrell, Michelle K.; Williams, Stacey R.; Griffith, Katherine; Cooper, Timothy J.; Ely, E. Wesley; Fuchs, D. Catherine; Pandharipande, Pratik P.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE and OBJECTIVE Delirium assessments in critically ill infants and young children pose unique challenges due to evolution of cognitive and language skills. The objectives of this study were to determine the validity and reliability of a fundamentally objective and developmentally appropriate delirium assessment tool for critically ill infants and preschool-aged children, and to determine delirium prevalence. DESIGN and SETTING Prospective, observational cohort validation study of the PreSchool Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (psCAM-ICU) in a tertiary medical center pediatric ICU. PATIENTS Participants aged 6 months to 5 years and admitted to the pediatric ICU regardless of admission diagnosis were enrolled. INTERVENTIONS, MEASUREMENTS and MAIN RESULTS An interdisciplinary team created the psCAM-ICU for pediatric delirium monitoring. To assess validity, patients were independently assessed for delirium daily by the research team using the psCAM-ICU and by a child psychiatrist using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. Reliability was assessed using blinded, concurrent psCAM-ICU evaluations by research staff. A total of 530-paired delirium assessments were completed among 300 patients, with a median age of 20 months (IQR 11, 37) and 43% requiring mechanical ventilation. The psCAM-ICU demonstrated a specificity of 91% (95%CI 90, 93), sensitivity of 75% (72, 78), negative predictive value of 86% (84, 88), positive predictive value of 84% (81, 87), and a reliability kappa statistic of 0.79 (0.76, 0.83). Delirium prevalence was 44% using the psCAM-ICU and 47% by the reference-rater. The rates of delirium were 53% vs. 56% in patients patients ≥ 2 - 5 years of age using the psCAM-ICU and reference-rater respectively. The short-form psCAM-ICU maintained a high specificity (87%) and sensitivity (78%) in post-hoc analysis. CONCLUSIONS The psCAM-ICU is a highly valid and reliable delirium instrument for critically ill infants

  1. A modified HET-CAM assay approach to the assessment of anti-irritant properties of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T D; Steck, W F

    2000-10-01

    Hen's egg--chorioallantoic membranes were used to screen for and assess anti-irritant properties among aqueous extracts of plants (HET-CAM tests), in connection with searches for plant-derived substances with topical anti-irritant action. The main question to be answered was whether CAM-assay screening of plant extracts could provide a useful route to identifying promising anti-irritant extracts for follow-up clinical testing. To be useful, the method would have to flag materials with strong anti-irritant properties, and would have to avoid registering false negatives. The tests conducted provided positive indications. We measured the delays in onset of three manifestations of membrane irritation-vascular hemorrhaging, membrane lysis and membrane coagulation-observed with test substances relative to positive controls. Aqueous 15% lactic acid, a commonly used irritant in direct tests on human skin, was employed as the test irritant in this study. The ratio [irritation onset times after test substance pre-treatment]:[onset times without test substance pretreatment] was used to measure the anti-irritant power of test substances. A scoring notation was devised for this which treats the delay parameters as independent effects. Most tested plant extracts showed no significant irritant or anti-irritant effects. Among the apparently anti-irritant plant extracts (approx. 10% of all those tested), most showed their greatest effect against hemorrhaging. Lesser but still readily measurable effects against membrane lysis and coagulation were also observed in nearly all the apparently anti-irritant extracts. Two of the tested extracts proved to be membrane irritants. Some key CAM assay results were compared with results obtained in direct tests on human skin using the same test irritant (15% lactic acid). In these comparative tests on skin, an essentially similar pattern of efficacy was obtained, with the plant extract deemed best in the CAM screenings, outperforming the

  2. Computational design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of a novel ERK inhibitor (BL-EI001) with apoptosis-inducing mechanisms in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Fu, Leilei; Zhang, Cui; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Yonghui; Ouyang, Liang; He, Gu; Huang, Jian

    2015-03-30

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) plays a crucial role in the resistance of apoptosis in carcinogenesis; however, its targeted small-molecule inhibitors still remain to be discovered. Thus, in this study, we computationally and experimentally screened a series of small-molecule inhibitors targeting ERK toward different types of human breast cancer cells. Subsequently, we synthesized some candidate ERK inhibitors, identified a novel ERK inhibitor (BL-EI001) with anti-proliferative activities, and analyzed the BL-EI001/ERK complex. Moreover, we found that BL-EI001 induced breast cancer cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway but independent on Ras/Raf/MEK pathway. In addition, we carried out proteomics analyses for exploring some possible BL-EI001-induced apoptotic pathways, and further found that BL-EI001-induced apoptosis affected ERK phosphorylation in breast cancer. Further, we found that BL-EI001 bear anti-tumor activities without remarkable toxicities, and also induced mitochondrial apoptosis by targeting ERK in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in silico design and experimental discovery of a synthesized small-molecule ERK inhibitor (BL-EI001)as a potential novel apoptosis-inducing drug in the treatment of breast cancer.

  3. An examination of atmospheric river moisture transport and hydrology using isotope-enabled CAM5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaumer, Jesse

    Atmospheric rivers are a feature of the atmospheric circulation that play a major role in terms of precipitation, flooding, drought, and even the global climate system itself. Thus understanding what the main controls on these weather systems are is critical if one wants to be able to determine the impact they could eventually impose on society. Also too, almost all climate projections are performed by global climate or earth system models. Thus there is a need to ensure that these sorts of models can accurately simulate atmospheric rivers, and the global hydrologic cycle in general, if one is to have confidence in the projections generated by these programs. These concerns are examined in this thesis. In particular, the CAM5 model is used to generate a climatology of extreme moisture transport from transient eddies and atmospheric rivers, which is compared to a reanalysis. It is found that although the average climatological results are similar, the average moisture flux per event was too weak, indicating that the model may not adequately simulate the more extreme flux and/or precipitation events, which can have the largest impact on society. To further investigate what might be causing this bias, water tracer and isotope physics were added to CAM5, where the biases present in the isotope-enabled simulations show that CAM5 generates too much precipitation. A sensitivity analysis is performed to try and determine the specific cause of the bias, and it is found that CAM5 generates deep convection too frequently, particularly in the winter midlatitudes over the ocean. This could also help explain the weakened moisture fluxes in atmospheric rivers, as too much moisture is lost in the model due to overly active convection. Finally, water tracers are used to examine the moisture sources for the West Coast of the United States, including in atmospheric rivers. It is found that atmospheric rivers pull more moisture from the tropics than average. It is also found that in

  4. Clinical outcomes of three different crown systems with CAD/CAM technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Emily R; Cooper, Lyndon F; Duqum, Ibrahim; Mendonça, Gustavo

    2014-10-01

    probing was affected by the explanatory variables. One-way ANOVA was used to assess marginal discrepancy values among the crown systems (α=.05 for all tests). Twelve metal ceramic, 10 lithium disilicate, and 10 zirconia restorations were fabricated for 22 participants. Zirconia restorations were significantly different from the other 2 crown systems (Pcontrol groups, or over time. The average horizontal marginal discrepancy was significantly different between lithium disilicate and zirconia crowns (P=.027), with zirconia crowns having the least amount of horizontal marginal discrepancy. Given the small sample size and limitations of this study, CAD/CAM-generated restorations for posterior teeth made from different materials had acceptable clinical results. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pattern and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among pediatric patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Jan H; Reuner, Gitta; Kadish, Navah E; Pietz, Joachim; Schubert-Bast, Susanne

    2013-10-01

    Parents of pediatric patients with chronic conditions such as epilepsy increasingly opt for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, data on the pattern and reasons of CAM use in childhood epilepsy are scarce. The objectives of this study were as follows: first, to characterize CAM use among pediatric patients with epilepsy by assessing its spectrum, prevalence, costs, and frequency of use; second, to evaluate the influence of CAM use on compliance and satisfaction with conventional care as well as to explore parent-child neurologist communication concerning CAM; and third, to investigate predictors of CAM use. A postal survey was administered to all parents of pediatric outpatients with epilepsy aged 6 to 12, who have received treatment at the neuropediatric outpatient clinic of the University Children's Hospital Heidelberg between 2007 and 2009. One hundred thirty-two of the 297 distributed questionnaires were suitable for inclusion in statistical analysis (44.7%). Forty-nine participants indicated that their children used CAM during the previous year (37.1%). Thirty different types of CAM were used, with homeopathy (55.1%), osteopathy (24.5%), and kinesiology (16.3%) being the most commonly named. A mean of 86€ (0€-500€) and 3h (1 h-30 h) per month was committed to CAM treatment. Only 53% of the users informed their child neurologist of the additional CAM treatment, while 85.6% of all parents wished to discuss CAM options with their child neurologist. Seventy-five percent of users considered the CAM treatment effective. Among the participants most likely to seek CAM treatment are parents whose children show a long duration of epileptic symptoms, parents who make use of CAM treatment themselves, and parents who value a holistic and natural treatment approach. A substantial portion of pediatric patients with epilepsy receive CAM treatment. The high prevalence of use and significant level of financial and time resources spent on CAM indicate the

  6. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in obstetrics and gynaecology: a survey of office-based obstetricians and gynaecologists regarding attitudes towards CAM, its provision and cooperation with other CAM providers in the state of Hesse, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münstedt, K; Maisch, M; Tinneberg, H R; Hübner, J

    2014-12-01

    Whereas we have some information on complementary medicine in the field of oncology, little is known about complementary medicine in the field of obstetrics and gynaecology especially outside of hospitals. All office-based obstetricians and gynaecologists in the state of Hesse, Germany, were contacted and asked to fill in an assessment form regarding cooperation in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as well as the perceived efficacy of various CAM methods for a number of pathological conditions in the field of obstetrics and gynaecology. It was found that more than half of Hessian office-based obstetricians and gynaecologists had existing cooperation regarding CAM, especially with colleagues, but also midwives, pharmacists, physiotherapists, and health practitioners. The probability of cooperation was significantly inversely associated with age. It was found that the probability for advising CAM differed between various health problems. The following CAM methods were considered reasonable for the treatment of different conditions: phytotherapy for climacteric complaints and premenstrual syndrome; homoeopathy for puerperal problems; acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine for complaints during pregnancy; and dietary supplements for the side effects of cancer therapy. The analysis shows that there is much cooperation in the field of CAM. Comparison between physicians' perceived efficacy of CAM methods and objective findings shows that there is a need for the provision of valid information in the field.

  7. IDV Observations of BL0716+714 at 5 GHz

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H.-G Song; X. Liu; J. Liu; N. Marchili; T. P. Krichbaum

    2011-03-01

    A selected sample of intra-day variable AGN had been observed for 3–4 days per month at the Urumqi Observatory. The sample includes 7 target sources and 7 calibrators. The BL Lac object B0716+714 shows prominent intraday and long term variations.

  8. Radio-weak BL Lac Objects in the Fermi Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, F.; Marchesini, E. J.; D’Abrusco, R.; Masetti, N.; Andruchow, I.; Smith, Howard A.

    2017-01-01

    The existence of “radio-weak BL Lac objects” (RWBLs) has been an open question, and has remained unsolved since the discovery that quasars could be radio-quiet or radio-loud. Recently, several groups identified RWBL candidates, mostly found while searching for low-energy counterparts of the unidentified or unassociated gamma-ray sources listed in the Fermi catalogs. Confirming RWBLs is a challenging task since they could be confused with white dwarfs (WDs) or weak emission line quasars (WELQs) when there are not sufficient data to precisely draw their broadband spectral energy distribution, and their classification is mainly based on a featureless optical spectra. Motivated by the recent discovery that Fermi BL Lacs appear to have very peculiar mid-IR emission, we show that it is possible to distinguish between WDs, WELQs, and BL Lacs using the [3.4]–[4.6]–[12] μm color–color plot built using the WISE magnitudes when the optical spectrum is available. On the basis of this analysis, we identify WISE J064459.38+603131 and WISE J141046.00+740511.2 as the first two genuine RWBLs, both potentially associated with Fermi sources. Finally, to strengthen our identification of these objects as true RWBLs, we present multifrequency observations for these two candidates to show that their spectral behavior is indeed consistent with that of the BL Lac population.

  9. The gravitational wave spectrum from cosmological B-L breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Kamada, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Schmitz, K., E-mail: buchmuwi@mail.desy.de, E-mail: valerie.domcke@desy.de, E-mail: kohei.kamada@desy.de, E-mail: kai.schmitz@ipmu.jp [Kavli IPMU (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Cosmological B-L breaking is a natural and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, the false vacuum phase drives hybrid inflation, ending in tachyonic preheating. The decays of heavy B-L Higgs bosons and heavy neutrinos generate entropy, baryon asymmetry and dark matter and also control the reheating temperature. The different phases in the transition from inflation to the radiation dominated phase produce a characteristic spectrum of gravitational waves. We calculate the complete gravitational wave spectrum due to inflation, preheating and cosmic strings, which turns out to have several features. The production of gravitational waves from cosmic strings has large uncertainties, with lower and upper bounds provided by Abelian Higgs strings and Nambu-Goto strings, implying Ω{sub GW}h{sup 2} ∼ 10{sup −13}–10{sup −8}, much larger than the spectral amplitude predicted by inflation. Forthcoming gravitational wave detectors such as eLISA, advanced LIGO, ET, BBO and DECIGO will reach the sensitivity needed to test the predictions from cosmological B-L breaking.

  10. The gravitational wave spectrum from cosmological B-L breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, W.; Domcke, V.; Kamada, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Schmitz, K. [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI)

    2013-05-15

    Cosmological B-L breaking is a natural and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, the false vacuum phase drives hybrid inflation, ending in tachyonic preheating. The decays of heavy B-L Higgs bosons and heavy neutrinos generate entropy, baryon asymmetry and dark matter and also control the reheating temperature. The different phases in the transition from inflation to the radiation dominated phase produce a characteristic spectrum of gravitational waves. We calculate the complete gravitational wave spectrum due to inflation, preheating and cosmic strings, which turns out to have several features. The production of gravitational waves from cosmic strings has large uncertainties, with lower and upper bounds provided by Abelian Higgs strings and Nambu-Goto strings, implying {Omega}{sub GW}h{sup 2}{proportional_to}10{sup -13}-10{sup -8}, much larger than the spectral amplitude predicted by inflation. Forthcoming gravitational wave detectors such as eLISA, advanced LIGO and BBO/DECIGO will reach the sensitivity needed to test the predictions from cosmological B-L breaking.

  11. VLBI observations of seven BL Lac objects from RGB sample

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhongzu; Gu, Minfeng; Liu, Yi

    2007-01-01

    We present EVN observations of seven BL Lac objects selected from the RGB sample. To investigate the intrinsic radiation property of BL Lac objects, we estimated the Doppler factor with the VLA or MERLIN core and the total 408 MHz luminosity for a sample of 170 BL Lac objects. The intrinsic (comoving) synchrotron peak frequency was then calculated by using the estimated Doppler factor. Assuming a Lorentz factor of 5, the viewing angle of jets was constrained. The high-resolution VLBI images of seven sources all show a core-jet structure. We estimated the proper motions of three sources with the VLBI archive data, and find that the apparent speed increases with the distance of components to the core for all of them. In our BL Lacs sample, the Doppler factor of LBLs is systematically larger than that of IBLs and HBLs. We find a significant anti-correlation between the total 408 MHz luminosity and the intrinsic synchrotron peak frequency. However, the scatter is much larger than for the blazar sequence. Moreover...

  12. Centronotus fasciatus Bl. & Schn. aan de Nederlandsche kust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popta, C.M.L.

    1916-01-01

    In de collectie van het Leidsche Museum bevindt zich een Centronotus fasciatus Bl. & Sch., volgens de opgave op het etiket afkomstig van de Hollandsche kust. De kenmerken van dit individu, dat 230 mm. lang is, zijn: De hoogte van het langwerpige lichaam gaat 9 7/12 en de lengte van den, evenals het

  13. Impact of different adhesives on work of adhesion between CAD/CAM polymers and resin composite cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keul, Christine; Müller-Hahl, Manuel; Eichberger, Marlis; Liebermann, Anja; Roos, Malgorzata; Edelhoff, Daniel; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2014-09-01

    To determine the impact of pre-treatment of adhesive systems on the work of adhesion (WA) between CAD/CAM polymers and resin composite cements and compare with conventional tests of previous studies. Surface parameters were measured by contact angle measurement (2700 measurements) and WA was calculated. Five CAD/CAM polymers were used for fabrication of specimens (n=75/subgroup): artBloc Temp (A), Telio CAD (B), Nano Composite CFI-C (C), exp. CAD/CAM nanohybrid composite (D), and LAVA Ultimate (E). Then, air-abraded specimens were pre-treated (n=15 per group): Ambarino P60 (I), Monobond Plus/Heliobond (II), visio.link (III), VP connect (IV), and no pre-treatment (V). Resin composite cement specimens (n=75) were smoothed out homogeneously on a glass plate (n=15/group): RelyX ARC (RXA), Variolink II (VAR), Panavia F2.0 (PAN), RelyX Unicem (RXU), and Clearfil SA Cement (CSA). Contact angles were determined with 3 drops of distilled water and diiodomethane each. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis-H test and Spearman-Rho correlation (pCAD/CAM materials (B), (A), and (C) showed higher WA compared to (D) and (E). (II) and (IV) resulted in higher WA than (I), (III) and (V). VAR had the significantly lowest WA, followed by RXU, RXA, CSA and PAN. No correlation occurred between WA and TBS/SBS whereas polar component of surface free energy of CAD/CAM resin and spreading coefficient showed significant positive correlation with TBS/SBS. Determination of WA is not a proper method to draw conclusions about the bond between resin materials. Destructive test methods are not dispensable. The successful outcome of fixed dental restorations depends, among others, on the quality of bonding between the tooth and the restoration. Additional pre-treatment of the dental CAD/CAM resin restoration by bonding systems can be recommended for clinical use. Pre-treatment showed a significant impact on the surface properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Validity and reliability of the Thai version of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipanmekaporn T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tanyong Pipanmekaporn,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,2 Sirirat Mueankwan,3 Piyawat Dendumrongkul,2 Kaweesak Chittawatanarat,3 Nantiya Khongpheng,3 Nongnut Duangsoy31Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Division of Surgical Critical Care and Trauma, Department of Surgery, Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Thai version of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU, when compared to the diagnoses made by delirium experts.Patients and methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in both surgical intensive care and subintensive care units in Thailand between February–June 2011. Seventy patients aged 60 years or older who had been admitted to the units were enrolled into the study within the first 48 hours of admission. Each patient was randomly assessed as to whether they had delirium by a nurse using the Thai version of the CAM-ICU algorithm (Thai CAM-ICU or by a delirium expert using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision.Results: The prevalence of delirium was found to be 18.6% (n=13 by the delirium experts. The sensitivity of the Thai CAM-ICU’s algorithms was found to be 92.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] =64.0%-99.8%, while the specificity was 94.7% (95% CI =85.4%-98.9%. The instrument displayed good interrater reliability (Cohen’s κ=0.81; 95% CI =0.64-0.99. The time taken to complete the Thai CAM-ICU was 1 minute (interquatile range, 1-2 minutes.Conclusion: The Thai CAM-ICU demonstrated good validity, reliability, and ease of use when diagnosing delirium in a surgical intensive care unit setting. The use of this diagnostic tool should be encouraged for daily, routine use, so as to promote the early detection

  15. Compare and Selection of Sloped Surfaces Machining Methods in MasterCAM9.0%MasterCAM9.0中斜面加工方案的比较与选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟

    2014-01-01

    Taking sloped surfaces feature in actual processing as research object,all kinds machining methods were compared and studied by using MasterCAM9.0, by the research results, how to choose the proper machining methods is known on the premise of assuring quality and efficiency of processing.%本文以实际生产加工过程中的斜面特征为研究对象,通过MasterCAM9.0中各种斜面加工方法的比较研究,论述了在保证加工质量和效率的前提下,如何选择适合的加工方法。

  16. Multi-Wave Luminosity of High-Synchrotron-Peaked TeV BL Lacs Detected by Fermi LAT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dingrong Xiong; Xiong Zhang; Yonggang Zheng

    2014-09-01

    We have studied the correlations between luminosities (R, IR, ) in the radio, near-infrared and -ray wave bands for HSP TeV BL Lacs. The results show that there are significant intrinsic correlations between R and and between IR and in all states (high/average/low), and suggest that for HSP TeV BL Lacs, the Synchrotron Self-Compton radiation (SSC) is the main mechanism of high energy -ray emission, and the inverse Compton scattering of circum-nuclear dust is likely to be an important complementary mechanism.

  17. Photometric Studies of Three Neglected Short-period Contact Binaries GN Bootis, BL Leonis, and V1918 Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Qian, S.-B.; Dai, H.-F.

    2013-03-01

    We present new photometry for three short-period contact binaries, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg, observed from 2008 December to 2012 April using several small telescopes in China. Photometric models were deduced from new observations using the updated Wilson-Devinney Code. The results show that GN Boo and BL Leo are W-type contact binaries, while V1918 Cyg is an A-type one. The mass ratios and fill-out factors are q = 0.320(± 0.002) and f = 5.8(± 0.1)% for GN Boo, q = 0.476(± 0.005) and f = 21.3(± 1.1)% for BL Leo, q = 0.264(± 0.002), and f = 49.7(± 0.7)% for V1918 Cyg, respectively. From the (O - C) curves, it is discovered that the orbital periods of three binaries have varied in a complicated way, i.e., cyclic oscillation for GN Boo, long-term period decrease for BL Leo, and both for V1918 Cyg. The cyclic variations for GN Boo and V1918 Cyg may probably be attributed to the magnetic activity of the primary component or light-time effect due to the third body. Meanwhile, the secular period decreases for BL Leo and V1918 Cyg may result from mass transfer from the primary to the secondary, accompanying the mass and angular momentum loss from the central system. Finally, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg will evolve into deep contact binaries. Additionally, a statistical study of 37 contact binaries with decreasing periods is given. We obtained the relations of q - f and q - dln P/dt, and preliminarily determined the mass loss rate of dln M/dt from the binary system.

  18. A study to investigate needle insertion atShenshu (BL23) to puncture psoas major muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwan Leung Chia; Rainer Viktor Haberberger

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unknown whether the psoas major muscle, thought to be a key muscle for treatment of lower back pain, can be punctured at Shenshu (BL23). METHODS: Twelve dissected specimens were used for studying the needling pathway of BL23 by perpendicularly inserting the depth-measuring blade of a vernier caliper at BL23. Dimensions of psoas muscle were measured. Correlation studies were conducted. In addition, our samples were grouped by gender and underlying medical conditions for analysis. RESULTS:Half (50%) of the needle insertions successfully punctured psoas muscle. The mean depth of needle insertion to puncture psoas muscle (Dmin) in the group with short-term underlying medical conditions was 38.0 mm (interquartile range 29.0–51.8 mm), approximately 6 mm deeper than 32.0 (29.3–42.5) mm in the group with long-term health problems (P = 0.041). The cross-sectional area (CSA) of psoas muscle in the former group was on average approximately 1.5 times that of the latter group (P = 0.04). When the data were analysed by gender, the thickness of psoas muscle in the male group was 19.0 (6.5–24.0) mm compared to 19.5 (5.8–34.8) mm in the female group (P = 0.02). The age in the female group (P = 0.04) and the body length of the total group (P = 0.04) negatively correlated to Dmin. CONCLUSION: Needle insertion at BL23 might be able to puncture psoas muscle. Differences in the CSA of psoas muscle and Dmin were observed in groups with short-term and long-term underlying medical conditions.

  19. A Variable-Speed Approach for Preventing Cam-Follower Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Sen; Tsai, Wu-Jung

    The follower separation is a major impediment to the operating speed increase of force-closed cam mechanisms. This problem traditionally is solved by increasing the spring preload or spring rate to enlarge the return force. An alternative approach with variable cam speed is proposed to prevent follower separation and thereby to raise the average operating speed. By properly designing the cam speed to change the follower motion, the critical motion characteristics leading to follower separation can be avoided. The cam speed trajectory is expressed using the Bezier function. A mathematical model is developed for analyzing the cycle time and the critical times of follower separation. Then a design model for optimizing the critical average cam speed without follower separation is developed to specify the design parameters of this trajectory. Two design examples with different cam motion programs are given for demonstrating the feasibility of this approach.

  20. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--the digital workflow from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapie, L; Lebon, N; Mawussi, B; Fron Chabouis, H; Duret, F; Attal, J-P

    2015-01-01

    As digital technology infiltrates every area of daily life, including the field of medicine, so it is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Apart from chairside practice, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental solutions can be considered a chain of digital devices and software for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use the technology often do not have the time or knowledge to understand it. A basic knowledge of the CAD/CAM digital workflow for dental restorations can help dentists to grasp the technology and purchase a CAM/CAM system that meets the needs of their office. This article provides a computer-science and mechanical-engineering approach to the CAD/CAM digital workflow to help dentists understand the technology.

  1. The C57BL/6J mouse exhibits sporadic congenital portosystemic shunts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cudalbu

    Full Text Available C57BL/6 mice are the most widely used strain of laboratory mice. Using in vivo proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1H MRS, we have repeatedly observed an abnormal neurochemical profile in the brains of both wild-type and genetically modified mice derived from the C57BL/6J strain, consisting of a several fold increase in cerebral glutamine and two fold decrease in myo-inositol. This strikingly abnormal neurochemical "phenotype" resembles that observed in chronic liver disease or portosystemic shunting and appeared to be independent of transgene, origin or chow and was not associated with liver failure. As many as 25% of animals displayed the abnormal neurochemical profile, questioning the reliability of this model for neurobiology. We conducted an independent study to determine if this neurochemical profile was associated with portosystemic shunting. Our results showed that 100% of the mice with high brain glutamine displayed portosystemic shunting by concomitant portal angiography while all mice with normal brain glutamine did not. Since portosystemic shunting is known to cause alterations in gene expression in many organs including the brain, we conclude that portosystemic shunting may be the most significant problem associated with C57BL/6J inbreeding both for its effect on the central nervous system and for its systemic repercussions.

  2. The HST Survey of BL~Lacertae Objects. IV. Infrared Imaging of Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Scarpa, R; Padovani, P; O'Dowd, M; Scarpa, Riccardo; Padovani, Paolo; O'Dowd, Matthew; Calzetti, Daniela

    2000-01-01

    The HST NICMOS Camera 2 was used for H-band imaging of 12 BL Lacertae objects taken from the larger sample observed with the WFPC2 in the R band (Urry et al. 2000; Scarpa et al. 2000). Ten of the 12 BL Lacs are clearly resolved, and the detected host galaxies are large, bright ellipticals with average H-band absolute magnitude M=-26.2+-0.45 mag and effective radius 10+-5 kpc. The rest-frame integrated color of the host galaxies is on average R-H=2.3+-0.3, consistent with the value for both radio galaxies and normal, non-active elliptical galaxies, and indicating the dominant stellar population is old. The host galaxies tend to be bluer in their outer regions than in their cores, with average color gradient Delta(R-H)/Delta(log r)=-0.2 mag, again consistent with results for normal non-active elliptical galaxies. The infrared Kormendy relation, derived for the first time for BL Lac host galaxies, is m(e) = 3.8*log(R)+14.8 (where m(e) is the surface brightness at the effective radius R), fully in agreement with ...

  3. The Sedentary Multi-Frequency Survey; 1, Statistical Identification and Cosmological Properties of HBL BL Lacs

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, P; Padovani, P

    1999-01-01

    We have assembled a multi-frequency database by cross-correlating the NVSS catalog of radio sources with the RASSBSC list of soft X-ray sources, obtaining optical magnitude estimates from the Palomar and UK Schmidt surveys as provided by the APM and COSMOS on-line services. By exploiting the nearly unique broad-band properties of High-Energy Peaked (HBL) BL Lacs we have statistically identified a sample of 218 objects that is expected to include about 85% of BL Lacs and that is therefore several times larger than all other published samples of HBLs. Using a subset (155 objects) that is radio flux limited and statistically well-defined we have derived the \\vovm distribution and the LogN-LogS of extreme HBLs (fx/fr >= 3E-10 erg/cm2/s/Jansky) down to 3.5 mJy. We find that the LogN-LogS flattens around 20 mJy and that = 0.42 +/- 0.02. This extends to the radio band earlier results, based on much smaller X-ray selected samples, about the anomalous cosmological observational properties of HBL BL Lacs. A comparison...

  4. Photometric Redshifts of High-z BL Lacs from 3FGL Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, A.; Rau, Arne; Ajello, Marco; Paliya, Vaidehi; Hartmann, Dieter; Greiner, Jochen; Bolmer, Jan; Schady, Patricia

    2017-08-01

    Determining redshifts for BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects using the traditional spectroscopic method is challenging due to the absence of strong emission lines in their optical spectra. We employ the photometric dropout technique to determine redshifts for this class of blazars using the combined 13 broad-band filters from Swift-UVOT and the multi-channel imager GROND at the MPG 2.2 m telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. The wavelength range covered by these 13 filters extends from far ultraviolet to the near-Infrared. We report results on 40 new Fermi detected BL Lacs with the photometric redshifts determinations for 5 sources, with 3FGL J1918.2-4110 being the most distance in our sample at z=2.16. Reliable upper limits are provided for 20 sources in this sample. Using the highest energy photons for these Fermi-LAT sources, we evaluate the consistency with the Gamma-ray horizon due to the extragalactic background light.

  5. Surface and interface analysis of nanomaterials at microfocus beamline (BL-16) of Indus-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gangadhar; Khooha, Ajay; Kane, S. R.; Singh, A. K.; Tiwari, M. K.

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of chemical nature and electronic structure at the interface of a thin film medium is important in many technological applications as well as to understand overall efficiency of a thin film device. Synchrotron radiation based x-ray spectroscopy is a promising technique to study interface nature of the nanomaterials with atomic resolutions. A combined x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence measurement facility has been recently constructed at the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2 synchrotron facility to accomplish surface-interface microstructural characterization of thin layered materials. It is also possible to analyze contaminates or adsorbed ad-atoms on the surface of the thin nanostructure materials. The BL-16 beamline also provides an attractive platform to perform a variety of analytical research activities especially in the field of micro x-ray fluorescence and ultra-trace elements analysis using Synchrotron radiation. We describe various salient features of the BL-16 reflectometer experimental station and the detailed description of its capabilities through the measured results, obtained for various thin layered nanomaterials.

  6. New High-z Fermi BL Lacs with the Photometric Dropout Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, A.; Rau, A.; Ajello, M.; Greiner, J.; Hartmann, D. H.; Paliya, V. S.; Domínguez, A.; Bolmer, J.; Schady, P.

    2017-01-01

    Determining redshifts for BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects using the traditional spectroscopic method is challenging due to the absence of strong emission lines in their optical spectra. We employ the photometric dropout technique to determine redshifts for this class of blazars using the combined 13 broadband filters from Swift-UVOT and the multi-channel imager GROND at the MPG 2.2 m telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. The wavelength range covered by these 13 filters extends from far-ultraviolet to the near-infrared. We report results on 40 new Fermi-detected BL Lacs with the photometric redshift determinations for five sources, with 3FGL J1918.2–4110 being the most distant in our sample at z = 2.16. Reliable upper limits are provided for 20 sources in this sample. Using the highest energy photons for these Fermi-LAT sources, we evaluate the consistency with the gamma-ray horizon due to the extragalactic background light.

  7. Identification of mutations through dominant screening for obesity using C57BL/6 substrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Sarowar; Asano, Fuyuki; Fujiyama, Tomoyuki; Miyoshi, Chika; Sato, Makito; Ikkyu, Aya; Kanno, Satomi; Hotta, Noriko; Kakizaki, Miyo; Honda, Takato; Kim, Staci J.; Komiya, Haruna; Miura, Ikuo; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Kimio; Kaneda, Hideki; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Wakana, Shigeharu; Funato, Hiromasa; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of leptin substantiated the usefulness of a forward genetic approach in elucidating the molecular network regulating energy metabolism. However, no successful dominant screening for obesity has been reported, which may be due to the influence of quantitative trait loci between the screening and counter strains and the low fertility of obese mice. Here, we performed a dominant screening for obesity using C57BL/6 substrains, C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N, with the routine use of in vitro fertilization. The screening of more than 5000 mutagenized mice established two obese pedigrees in which single nucleotide substitutions in Mc4r and Sim1 genes were identified through whole-exome sequencing. The mutation in the Mc4r gene produces a premature stop codon, and the mutant SIM1 protein lacks transcriptional activity, showing that the haploinsufficiency of SIM1 and MC4R results in obesity. We further examined the hypothalamic neuropeptide expressions in the mutant pedigrees and mice with diet-induced obesity, which showed that each obesity mouse model has distinct neuropeptide expression profiles. This forward genetic screening scheme is useful and applicable to any research field in which mouse models work. PMID:27585985

  8. New High-z Fermi BL Lacs with the Photometric Dropout Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, A; Ajello, M; Greiner, J; Hartmann, D H; Paliya, V S; Dominguez, A; Bolmer, J; Schady, P

    2016-01-01

    Determining redshifts for BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects using the traditional spectroscopic method is challenging due to the absence of strong emission lines in their optical spectra. We employ the photometric dropout technique to determine redshifts for this class of blazars using the combined 13 broad-band filters from Swift-UVOT and the multi-channel imager GROND at the MPG 2.2 m telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. The wavelength range covered by these 13 filters extends from far ultraviolet to the near-Infrared. We report results on 40 new Fermi detected BL Lacs with the photometric redshifts determinations for 5 sources, with 3FGL J1918.2-4110 being the most distant in our sample at z=2.16. Reliable upper limits are provided for 20 sources in this sample. Using the highest energy photons for these Fermi-LAT sources, we evaluate the consistency with the Gamma-ray horizon due to the extragalactic background light.

  9. H 0323 + 022 - A new BL Lacertae object with extremely rapid variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Bradt, H.; McClintock, J.; Remillard, R.; Urry, C. M.; Tapia, S.; Geldzahler, B.; Johnston, K.; Romanishin, W.; Wehinger, P. A.; Wyckoff, S.; Madejski, G.; Schwartz, D. A.; Thorstensen, J.; Schaefer, B. E.

    1986-03-01

    H0323+022 is a highly variable X-ray source discovered in the HEAO 1 all-sky survey coincident with a 16th mag stellar object. Optical nebulosity around the object strongly suggests that it is a BL Lac object. This paper presents the results of a multiband, multiepoch series of observations that demonstrate beyond reasonable doubt that H0323+022 is a remarkably variable BL Lac object. The optical nebulosity around the stellar object is confirmed, the stellar optical radiation is polarized, and the radio characteristics and the overall electromagnetic spectrum resemble those of other BL Lac objects. Variability is seen in all bands, including radio and broad-band optical variations in days, optical polarization changes on time scales of tens of minutes, and X-ray changes on time scales of ≡30 s. H0323+022 is thus an active galactic nucleus with much of the observed emission emerging from a region ⪉1012 - 1014cm in size.

  10. Effect of preparation angles on the precision of zirconia crown copings fabricated by CAD/CAM system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuer, Florian; Edelhoff, Daniel; Gernet, Wolfgang; Naumann, Michael

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different preparation angles on the precision of fit of zirconia crown frameworks. Dies were fabricated with three different preparation angles: 4, 8, and 12 degrees total taper. Ten copings were fabricated for each angle by a laboratory and a milling-center CAD/CAM system. After cementation, cross-sections were obtained and cement gaps were measured. Preparation angle (ANOVA, p CAD/CAM systems (ANOVA, p = 0.92). All groups showed marginal openings ranging between 36.6 and 45.5 microm. In light of the results obtained in this study, a preparation angle of 12 degrees is hence recommended with the confidence that the marginal gap will be consistently less than 50 microm.

  11. Development of an Eccentric CAM Based Active Pre-Alignment System for the CLIC Main Beam Quadrupole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, F; Collette, C; Mainaud Durand, H; Hauviller, C; Kemppinen, J; Leuxe, R

    2010-01-01

    CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) is a study for a future electron-positron collider that would allow physicists to explore a new energy region beyond the capabilities of today's particle accelerators. The demanding transverse and vertical beam sizes and emittance specifications are resulting in stringent alignment and a nanometre stability requirement. In the current feasibility study, the main beam quadrupole magnets have to be actively pre-aligned with a precision of 1 µm in 5 degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) before being mechanically stabilized to the nm scale above 1 Hz. This contribution describes the approach of performing this active pre-alignment based on an eccentric cam system. In order to limit the amplification of the vibration sources at resonant frequencies a sufficiently high Eigenfrequency is required. Therefore the contact region between cam and support was optimized for adequate stiffness based on the Hertzian theory. Furthermore, practical tests performed on a single degree of freedom mock-up wil...

  12. A novel technique for preparing dental CAD/CAM composite resin blocks using the filler press and monomer infiltration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Koichi; Kameya, Takehiro; Ishino, Hiroshige; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    The authors have developed a new technique for preparing dental CAD/CAM composite resin blocks (CRBs): the filler press and monomer infiltration (FPMI) method. In this method, surface-treated filler is molded into a green body in which the filler particles are compressed to form an agglomeration. The green body is then infiltrated with a monomer mixture before being polymerized. It is possible to produce CRBs using this method through which densely packed nanofiller is uniformly dispersed. The greater the pressure of the filler molding, the more filler in the CRB, resulting at high pressure in a very dense CRB. A CRB obtained by applying 170 MPa of pressure contained up to 70 wt% of nano-silica filler and had a flexural strength of 200 MPa, as well. It is anticipated that CRBs obtained using the FPMI method will be useful as a dental CAD/CAM material for the fabrication of permanent crown restorations.

  13. Clinical procedure in sealing pit and fissure using technological aids: VistaCam iX Proof and Combi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of sealants in preventing pits and fissures decay is currently assessed by retention as principal clinical evaluation criteria. Among the determinants for sealant retention, an incomplete removal of plaque debris can cause lack of adhesion at the sealant-enamel interface. Therefore, in order to optimize the caries prevention outcome, clinical procedures of biofilm detection and cleansing are crucial. Technological aids can help clinicians in these critical phases. A clinical procedure is described of sealant application using VistaCam iX Proof fluorescence camera for quantitative assessment of surface demineralization and Combi air polishing unit for plaque removal. Pre and post air polishing intraoral VistaCam iX Proof images show the effectiveness of glycine airpolish technology in plaque removal. The results encourage technological aided clinical procedures in enhancing sealant application for pit and fissures caries prevention. Further clinical research is needed to validate our preliminary outcomes.

  14. A cascaded charge-sharing technique for an EDP-efficient match-line design in CAMs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jianwei; Ye Yizheng; Liu Binda; Lan Jinbao

    2009-01-01

    A novel cascaded charge-sharing technique is presented in content-addressable memories (CAMs), which not only effectively reduces the match-line (ML) power by using a pre-select circuit, but also realizes a high search speed. Pre-layout simulation results show a 75.9% energy-delay-product (EDP) reduction of the MLs over the traditional precharge-high ML scheme and 41.3% over the segmented ML method. Based on this technique, a test-chip of 64-word × 144-bit ternary CAM (TCAM) is implemented using a 0.18-μm 1.8-V CMOS process, achieving an 1.0 ns search delay and 4.81 fJ/bit/search for the MLs.

  15. Direct composite resin layering techniques for creating lifelike CAD/CAM-fabricated composite resin veneers and crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSage, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Direct composite resin layering techniques preserve sound tooth structure and improve function and esthetics. However, intraoral placement techniques present challenges involving isolation, contamination, individual patient characteristics, and the predictability of restorative outcomes. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restorations enable dentists to better handle these variables and provide durable restorations in an efficient and timely manner; however, milled restorations may appear monochromatic and lack proper esthetic characteristics. For these reasons, an uncomplicated composite resin layering restoration technique can be used to combine the benefits of minimally invasive direct restorations and the ease and precision of indirect CAD/CAM restorations. Because most dentists are familiar with and skilled at composite resin layering, the use of such a technique can provide predictable and highly esthetic results. This article describes the layered composite resin restoration technique.

  16. Differences in bone structure and unloading-induced bone loss between C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Jeyantt S; Varshney, Manasvi; Judex, Stefan

    2017-09-14

    The C57BL/6 mouse, the most frequently utilized animal model in biomedical research, is in use as several substrains, all of which differ by a small array of genomic differences. Two of these substrains, C57BL/6J (B6J) and C57BL/6N (B6N), are commonly used but it is unclear how phenotypically similar or different they are. Here, we tested whether adolescent B6N mice have a bone phenotype and respond to the loss of weightbearing differently than B6J. At 9 weeks of age, normally ambulating B6N had lower trabecular bone volume fraction but greater bone formation rates and osteoblast surfaces than corresponding B6J. At 11 weeks of age, differences in trabecular indices persisted between the substrains but differences in cellular activity had ceased. Cortical bone indices were largely similar between the two substrains. Hindlimb unloading (HLU) induced similar degeneration of trabecular architecture and cellular activity in both substrains when comparing 11-week-old HLU mice to 11-week-old controls. However, unloaded B6N mice had smaller cortices than B6J. When comparing HLU to 9 weeks baseline control mice, deterioration in trabecular separation, osteoblast indices, and endocortical variables was significantly greater in B6N than B6J. These data indicate specific developmental differences in bone formation and morphology between B6N and B6J mice, giving rise to a differential response to mechanical unloading that may be modulated, in part, by the genes Herc2, Myo18b, and Acan. Our results emphasize that these substrains cannot be used interchangeably at least for investigations in which the phenotypic makeup and its response to extraneous stimuli are of interest.

  17. Extrasolar and Bl Lac observations at OARPAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, C.

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the work done at the Osservatorio Astronomico Regionale Parco Antola comune di Fascia (OARPAF), as a part of my master thesis. The paper is divided in three parts: the first part describes the instrumentation at the OARPAF; the second part shows the characterization of the instrumentation, from the pointing model of the telescope to the conception and the realization of the software for data analysis; the third part illustrates the results of the photometric calibration.

  18. CAM for Pediatric Pain: What is State-of-the-Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we reviewed the evidence for the efficacy of CAM approaches for pediatric pain (volume 2; issue 2; 2005 using criteria developed by the American Psychological Association Division 12 Task Force. Our review focused on CAM modalities that had been tested with at least one controlled trial or multiple baseline study. In addition, only those trials in which children comprised the study sample were included. Thus, several CAM modalities were not included in our review. Key ethical and other reasons for the limited literature on CAM for pediatric pain as well as directions for future studies are discussed.

  19. Initiating a Reiki or CAM program in a healthcare organization--developing a business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) services, such as Reiki, continue to be offered to consumers in many hospitals and other health care organizations. There is growing interest among nurses, doctors, and other health care providers for the integration of CAM therapies into traditional settings. Health care organizations are responding to this need but may not know how to start CAM programs. Starting a Reiki program in a health care setting must be envisioned in a business model approach. This article introduces nurses and other health care providers to the basic concepts of business plan development and important steps to follow when starting a Reiki or CAM program.

  20. Examining CAM use disclosure using the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Jennifer; Thorburn, Sheryl; Tippens, Kimberly M

    2013-10-01

    To improve understanding of factors that may influence disclosure of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in the U.S. Cross-sectional survey. Data are from the 2001 Health Care Quality Survey (HCQS), a nationally representative study of adults aged 18 and older living in the continental United States. Using the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use, we conducted multivariate logistic regressions to identify factors associated with disclosing CAM use among the sub-sample of recent CAM users (n=1995). Disclosure of CAM use. Most CAM users (71.0%) disclosed their use of CAM to their doctors. Contextual, individual, and health behavior factors were associated with CAM use disclosure. Of particular interest, disclosure was significantly more likely among those who perceived high quality relationships with their providers (AOR=1.59, CI: 1.01, 2.49) and among those who had a regular source of medical care (AOR=1.54, CI: 1.03, 2.29). The odds of disclosure were also higher among those who used practitioner-provided CAM, with (AOR=2.02, CI: 1.34, 3.06) or without (AOR=1.52, CI: 1.05, 2.20) concurrent herbal medicine use, compared to those who used herbal medicines only. The Behavioral Model of Health Services Use is a useful framework for examining factors that may influence disclosure of CAM use. Further research should examine these relationships using more comprehensive measures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mind-body CAM interventions: current status and considerations for integration into clinical health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly used for treating myriad health conditions and for maintaining general health. The present article provides an overview of current CAM use with a specific focus on mind-body CAM and its efficacy in treating health conditions. Characteristics of CAM users are presented, and then evidence regarding the efficacy of mind-body treatments (biofeedback, meditation, guided imagery, progressive muscle relaxation, deep breathing, hypnosis, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong) is reviewed. Demographics associated with CAM use are fairly well-established, but less is known about their psychological characteristics. Although the efficacy of mind-body CAM modalities for health conditions is receiving a great deal of research attention, studies have thus far produced a weak base of evidence. Methodological limitations of current research are reviewed. Suggestions are made for future research that will provide more conclusive knowledge regarding efficacy and, ultimately, effectiveness of mind-body CAM. Considerations for clinical applications, including training and competence, ethics, treatment tailoring, prevention efforts, and diversity, conclude the article. Integration of CAM modalities into clinical health psychology can be useful for researchers taking a broader perspective on stress and coping processes, illness behaviors, and culture; for practitioners seeking to incorporate CAM perspectives into their work; and for policy makers in directing healthcare resources wisely. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The sL1CAM in sera of patients with endometrial and ovarian cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Michał; Głowacka, Ewa; Wilczyński, Miłosz; Pękala-Wojciechowska, Anna; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    L1CAM is a cell adhesion molecule suspected to play an important role in carcinogenesis. The objective of the study was to evaluate the level of soluble L1CAM in the sera of patients with endometrial and ovarian carcinomas and verify the feasibility of the sL1CAM as a marker of these carcinomas. 35 endometrial and 18 ovarian cancer patients were enrolled in the study. 43 patients with benign gynecological conditions constituted a control group. The sL1CAM serum level was measured with ELISA test in each patient and it was referred to the data from the surgical staging of the cancers. The sL1CAM serum level was significantly lower in patients with endometrial cancer than in healthy women and slightly lower in the ovarian cancer group than in the control group. In the endometrial cancer group there was no correlation between sL1CAM concentration and cancer histopathology, stage or grade. sL1CAM concentration positively correlated with ovarian cancer stage and (not significantly) with grade. Despite the increasing data about the possible role of L1CAM as a strong prognostic factor of poor outcome in many cancers, we did not find evidence supporting the use of sL1CAM as a marker of endometrial or ovarian cancers.

  3. A simple method of image analysis to estimate CAM vascularization by APERIO ImageScope software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaccio, Christian; Ribatti, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is a well-established method to test the angiogenic stimulation or inhibition induced by molecules and cells administered onto the CAM. The quantification of blood vessels in the CAM assay relies on a semi-manual image analysis approach which can be time consuming when considering large experimental groups. Therefore we present here a simple and fast volumetric method to inspect differences in vascularization between experimental conditions related to the stimulation and inhibition of CAM angiogenesis based on the Positive Pixel Count algorithm embedded in the APERIO ImageScope software.

  4. Chick ex ovo culture and ex ovo CAM assay: how it really works

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dohle, Daniel S; Pasa, Susanne D; Gustmann, Sebastian; Laub, Markus; Wissler, Josef H; Jennissen, Herbert P; Dünker, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    .... After the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) has developed, its blood vessel network can be easily accessed, manipulated and observed and therefore provides an optimal setting for angiogenesis assays...

  5. ON DESIGN METHOD OF THE PRECISION CAM PROFILE WITH RANDOM PROCESSING ERRORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on probability and statistic, a design method of precision cam profile concerning the influence of random processing errors is advanced. Combining the design with the process, which can be used to predict that cam profiles will be successfully processed or not in the design stage, design of the cam can be done by balancing the economization and reliability. In addition, an fuzzy deduction method based on Bayers formula is advanced to estimate processing reasonable of the designed precision cam profile, and it take few samples.

  6. A comparative evaluation of implant supported zirconia framework gap of two CAD/CAM systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Ameri

    2016-11-01

    computer-aided manufacturing (CAM systems (AmannGirrbach and Zirkonzahn. Materials and Methods: The master model of 3-unit FDP was made of two implant abutments (AmannGirrbach and Zirkonzahn from canine to second premolar. Twelve frameworks were manufactured using each fabricating system from semi-sintered zirconia blanks, which had to be sintered for final density after milling. After manufacturing, the absolute marginal discrepancy in each abutment were determined by means of Video Measurement System (VMS. The data were analyzed, using independent and paired t test (P=0.05. Results: For the premolar abutment, the absolute marginal discrepancy of frameworks fabricated by AmannGirrbach system was significantly greater than those of the other system (P=0.005. There was no significant difference between the marginal discrepancy of canine and premolar abutments (P>0.05. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it could be concluded that the marginal fit of zirconia FDPs was significantly dependent on the CAD/CAM system used, but the abutment size was not an effective factor.

  7. Kinetic consequences of introducing a proximal selenocysteine ligand into cytochrome P450cam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandemeulebroucke, An; Aldag, Caroline; Stiebritz, Martin T; Reiher, Markus; Hilvert, Donald

    2015-11-10

    The structural, electronic, and catalytic properties of cytochrome P450cam are subtly altered when the cysteine that coordinates to the heme iron is replaced with a selenocysteine. To map the effects of the sulfur-to-selenium substitution on the individual steps of the catalytic cycle, we conducted a comparative kinetic analysis of the selenoenzyme and its cysteine counterpart. Our results show that the more electron-donating selenolate ligand has only negligible effects on substrate, product, and oxygen binding, electron transfer, catalytic turnover, and coupling efficiency. Off-pathway reduction of oxygen to give superoxide is the only step significantly affected by the mutation. Incorporation of selenium accelerates this uncoupling reaction approximately 50-fold compared to sulfur, but because the second electron transfer step is much faster, the impact on overall catalytic turnover is minimal. Density functional theory calculations with pure and hybrid functionals suggest that superoxide formation is governed by a delicate interplay of spin distribution, spin state, and structural effects. In light of the remarkably similar electronic structures and energies calculated for the sulfur- and selenium-containing enzymes, the ability of the heavier atom to enhance the rate of spin crossover may account for the experimental observations. Because the selenoenzyme closely mimics wild-type P450cam, even at the level of individual steps in the reaction cycle, selenium represents a unique mechanistic probe for analyzing the role of the proximal ligand and spin crossovers in P450 chemistry.

  8. The Role of Th17 in Neuroimmune Disorders: Target for CAM Therapy. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristo Vojdani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Decades of research went into understanding the role that Th1 autoreactive T-cells play in neuroinflammation. Here we describe another effector population, the IL-17-producing T-helper lineage (Th17, which drives the inflammatory process. Through the recruitment of inflammatory infiltration neutrophils and the activation of matrix metalloproteinases, IL-17, a cytokine secreted by Th17 cells, contributes to blood-brain barrier breakdown and the subsequent attraction of macrophages and monocytes into the nervous system. The entry of cells along with the local production of inflammatory cytokines leads to myelin and axonal damage. This activation of the inflammatory response system is induced by different pathogenic factors, such as gut bacterial endotoxins resulting in progressive neurodegeneration by Th17 cells. Through the understanding of the role of bacterial endotoxins and other pathogenic factors in the induction of autoimmune diseases by Th17 cells, CAM practitioners will be able to design CAM therapies targeting IL-17 activity. Targeted therapy can restore the integrity of the intestinal and blood-brain barriers using probiotics, N-acetyl-cysteine, α-lipoic acid, resveratrol and others for their patients with autoimmunities, in particular those with neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.

  9. NectarCAM : a camera for the medium size telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Glicenstein, J-F; Barrio, J-A; Blanch~Bigas, O; Bolmont, J; Bouyjou, F; Brun, P; Chabanne, E; Champion, C; Colonges, S; Corona, P; Delagnes, E; Delgado, C; Ginzov, C Diaz; Durand, D; Ernenwein, J-P; Fegan, S; Ferreira, O; Fesquet, M; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Fouque, N; Gascon, D; Giebels, B; Henault, F; Hermel, R; Hoffmann, D; Horan, D; Houles, J; Jean, P; Jocou, L; Karkar, S; Knoedlseder, J; Kossakowski, R; Lamanna, G; LeFlour, T; Lenain, J-P; Leveque, A; Louis, F; Martinez, G; Moudden, Y; Moulin, E; Nayman, P; Nunio, F; Olive, J-F; Panazol, J-L; Pavy, S; Petrucci, P-O; Pierre, E; Prast, J; Punch, M; Ramon, P; Rateau, S; Ravel, T; Rosier-Lees, S; Sanuy, A; Shayduk, M; Sizun, P-Y; Sulanke, K-H; Tavernet, J-P; Tejedor~Alvarez, L-A; Toussenel, F; Vasileiadis, G; Voisin, V; Waegebert, V; Wischnewski, R

    2015-01-01

    NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) covering the central energy range of ~100 GeV to ~30 TeV. It has a modular design and is based on the NECTAr chip, at the heart of which is a GHz sampling Switched Capacitor Array and a 12-bit Analog to Digital converter. The camera will be equipped with 265 7-photomultiplier modules, covering a field of view of 8 degrees. Each module includes the photomultiplier bases, high voltage supply, pre-amplifier, trigger, readout and Ethernet transceiver. The recorded events last between a few nanoseconds and tens of nanoseconds. The camera trigger will be flexible so as to minimize the read-out dead-time of the NECTAr chips. NectarCAM is designed to sustain a data rate of more than 4 kHz with less than 5\\% dead time. The camera concept, the design and tests of the various subcomponents and results of thermal and electrical prototypes are presented. The design includes the mechanical structure, cooling of the electro...

  10. Comparative in vitro evaluation of CAD/CAM vs conventional provisional crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Othman ABDULLAH

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This study compared the marginal gap, internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture of CAD/CAM provisional crowns with that of direct provisional crowns. Material and Methods An upper right first premolar phantom tooth was prepared for full ceramic crown following tooth preparation guidelines. The materials tested were: VITA CAD-Temp®, Polyetheretherketone “PEEK”, Telio CAD-Temp, and Protemp™4 (control group. The crowns were divided into four groups (n=10, Group1: VITA CAD-Temp®, Group 2: PEEK, Group 3: Telio CAD-Temp, and Group 4: Protemp™4. Each crown was investigated for marginal and internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism software version 6.0. Results The average marginal gap was: VITA CAD-Temp® 60.61 (±9.99 µm, PEEK 46.75 (±8.26 µm, Telio CAD-Temp 56.10 (±5.65 µm, and Protemp™4 193.07(±35.96 µm (P0.05. Conclusions CAD/CAM fabricated provisional crowns demonstrated superior fit and better strength than direct provisional crowns.

  11. An Overture for eCAM: Science, Technology and Innovation Initiation for Prosperous, Healthy Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kaphle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nepal the “Shangri-La” in the lap of the Himalayas is gearing up for modern times as it starts rebuilding after a decade of senseless violence and destruction. The nation one of the poorest in the global development index is rich in natural resources and biodiversity. Reports of medicinal plants far exceeding those recorded and reported so far are encouraging and at the same time concerns for medicinal plants under threat as a result of overexploitation are emerging from Nepal. The harsh mountain terrains, lack of industrialization and harnessing potentiality of its areas of strength; water; natural resources and tourism make it poor in per capita income which averages ~ 300 US$, with half the population living under >1$ a day. Nepal is beginning to realize that the way ahead is only possible through the path of Science and Technology (ST. Nepal Academy of Science and Technology formerly known as Royal Academy of Science and Technology organized the fifth national conference held every 4 years that took place in the capital Kathmandu during November 10-12, 2008. The ST initiation event saw the participation of ~ 1400 people representing over 150 organizations from the country and experts from abroad. The theme for the fifth national meet was “Science, Technology and Innovation for Prosperous Nepal”. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM was an important theme in the event as the realization for the need of ST research focused in CAM for harnessing the chemo diversity potential was univocally approved.

  12. Wear Behavior of Ceramic CAD/CAM Crowns and Natural Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella A. Naumova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluation of wear behavior of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM crowns from various restorative materials and natural antagonists. Method: Full CAD/CAM crowns fabricated with nanoceramic resin (Lava Ultimate (LU, a glass ceramic in a resin interpenetrating matrix (Vita Enamic (VE and a lithium silicate reinforced ceramic enriched with zirconia (Vita Suprinity (VS were cemented on human molars. The crown and antagonists were subjected to simulated chewing. 3D data sets, before and after the chewing simulation, were generated and matched. Occlusal surface roughness, vertical and volume loss of the crowns and antagonists were analyzed. Results: Crown roughness was significantly different between the LU and VE groups after chewing simulation. Crown vertical loss differed in all groups. The highest crown volume loss was found in the LU group, and the lowest in the VE group. Comparisons between the LU and VE groups and the LU and VS groups were significantly different. The highest antagonist volume loss was reached in the VE group, the lowest was in the LU group. Conclusion: Roughness increased after chewing simulation. LU crowns are the most natural antagonist-friendly; these were the most susceptible to vertical and volume loss. Of the tested materials, the VE crowns are the most stable regarding occlusion.

  13. Novel compact airborne platform for remote sensing applications using the Hyper-Cam infrared hyperspectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Caroline S.; Puckrin, Eldon; Aube, Françoys; Farley, Vincent; Savary, Simon; Chamberland, Martin

    2013-05-01

    High resolution broad-band imagery in the visible and infrared bands provides valuable detection capabilities based on target shapes and temperatures. However, the spectral resolution provided by a hyperspectral imager adds a spectral dimension to the measurements, which leads to an additional means of detecting and identifying targets based on their spectral signature. The Telops Hyper-Cam sensor is an interferometer-based imaging system that enables the spatial and spectral analysis of targets using a single sensor. It is based on the Fourier-transform technology, which yields high spectral resolution and enables a high accuracy radiometric calibration. It provides datacubes of up to 320×256 pixels at spectral resolutions as fine as 0.25 cm-1. The LWIR version covers the 8.0 to 11.8 μm spectral range. The Hyper-Cam has been recently integrated and flown on a novel airborne gyro-stabilized platform inside a fixed-wing aircraft. The new platform, more compact and more advanced than its predecessor, is described in this paper. The first results of target detection and identification are also presented.

  14. Comparative in vitro evaluation of CAD/CAM vs conventional provisional crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABDULLAH, Adil Othman; TSITROU, Effrosyni A; POLLINGTON, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective This study compared the marginal gap, internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture of CAD/CAM provisional crowns with that of direct provisional crowns. Material and Methods An upper right first premolar phantom tooth was prepared for full ceramic crown following tooth preparation guidelines. The materials tested were: VITA CAD-Temp®, Polyetheretherketone “PEEK”, Telio CAD-Temp, and Protemp™4 (control group). The crowns were divided into four groups (n=10), Group1: VITA CAD-Temp®, Group 2: PEEK, Group 3: Telio CAD-Temp, and Group 4: Protemp™4. Each crown was investigated for marginal and internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism software version 6.0. Results The average marginal gap was: VITA CAD-Temp® 60.61 (±9.99) µm, PEEK 46.75 (±8.26) µm, Telio CAD-Temp 56.10 (±5.65) µm, and Protemp™4 193.07(±35.96) µm (P0.05). Conclusions CAD/CAM fabricated provisional crowns demonstrated superior fit and better strength than direct provisional crowns. PMID:27383707

  15. Comparative study of flexural strength test methods on CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongxiang; Han, Jianmin; Lin, Hong; An, Linan

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, fractures are the main cause of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) 3 mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) all-ceramic dental restorations failure because of repetitive occlusal loading. The goal of this work is to study the effect of test methods and specimen’s size on the flexural strength of five ceramic products. Both bi-axial flexure test (BI) and uni-axial flexure tests (UNI), including three-point flexure test (3PF) and four-point flexure test (4PF), are used in this study. For all five products, the flexural strength is as follows: BI > 3PF > 4PF. Furthermore, specimens with smaller size (3PF-s) have higher values than the bigger ones (3PF). The difference between BI and UNI resulted from the edge flaws in ceramic specimens. The relationship between different UNI (including 3PF-s, 3PF and 4PF) can be explained according to Weibull statistical fracture theory. BI is recommended to evaluate the flexural strength of CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics. PMID:26816646

  16. The Systemic Theory of Living Systems and Relevance to CAM: the Theory (Part III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Western medical science lacks a solid philosophical and theoretical approach to disease cognition and therapeutics. My first two articles provided a framework for a humane medicine based on Modern Biophysics. Its precepts encompass modern therapeutics and CAM. Modern Biophysics and its concepts are presently missing in medicine, whether orthodox or CAM, albeit they probably provide the long sought explanation that bridges the abyss between East and West. Key points that differentiate Systemic from other systems' approaches are ‘Intelligence’, ‘Energy’ and the objective ‘to survive’. The General System Theory (GST) took a forward step by proposing a departure from the mechanistic biological concept—of analyzing parts and processes in isolation—and brought us towards an organismic model. GST examines the system's components and results of their interaction. However, GST still does not go far enough. GST assumes ‘Self-Organization’ as a spontaneous phenomenon, ignoring a causative entity or central controller to all systems: Intelligence. It also neglects ‘Survive’ as the directional motivation common to any living system, and scarcely assigns ‘Energy’ its true inherent value. These three parameters, Intelligence, Energy and Survive, are vital variables to be considered, in our human quest, if we are to achieve a unified theory of life. PMID:16136205

  17. The physiology of ex vitro pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr. var MD-2) as CAM or C3 is regulated by the environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, C; Carvalho, L; González, J; Escalona, M; Amancio, S

    2012-04-01

    Many plant species grown under in vitro controlled conditions can be used as models for the study of physiological processes. Adult pineapple can display CAM physiology while in vitro it functions as a C3 plant. Ex vitro Ananas comosus has plastic morphology and physiology, both easy to modify from C3 to CAM by changing the environmental conditions. The yield of survival for a rentable propagation protocol of pineapple is closely related with the C3/CAM shift and the associated physiological characteristics. In the present work, ex vitro pineapple plants were divided in two sets and subjected to C3 and CAM-inducing environmental conditions, determined by light intensity and relative humidity, respectively, 40 μmol m(-2) s(-1)/85% and 260 μmol m(-2) s(-1)/50%. The results demonstrated that the stress imposed by the environmental conditions switched pineapple plants from C3 to CAM behavior. Comparing to CAM induced, C3-induced pineapple plants showed substandard growth parameters and morphological leaf characteristics but a better rooting process and a higher ABA production, a phenotype closer to adult plants, which are expected to produce fruits in a normal production cycle. We conclude that the upholding of these characteristics is conditioned by low light intensity plus high relative humidity, especially during the first 8 weeks of ex vitro growth. It is expected that the better understanding of pineapple acclimatization will contribute to the design of a protocol to apply as a rentable tool in the pineapple agronomic industry.

  18. Adjustments in CAM and enzymatic scavenging of H2O2 in juvenile plants of the epiphytic bromeliad Guzmania monostachia as affected by drought and rewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Victória; Abreu, Maria E; Mercier, Helenice; Nievola, Catarina C

    2017-04-01

    Juvenile plants of epiphytes such as bromeliads are highly prone to dehydration under drought conditions. It is likely that young epiphytes evolved mostly metabolic strategies to resist drought, which may include the plastic modulation of the enzymatic antioxidant system and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Few studies have investigated such strategies in juvenile epiphytes, although such research is important to understand how these plants might face drought intensification derived from potential climatic alterations. The epiphytic CAM bromeliad Guzmania monostachia (L.) Rusby ex Mez var. monostachia is known to have plastic responses to drought, but no reports have focused on the metabolism of juvenile plants to drought and recovery. Hence, we aimed to verify how juvenile G. monostachia plants adjust malate (indicative of CAM), H2O2 content and enzymatic scavenging in response to drought (eight days without irrigation) and rewatering (six days of irrigation post-drought). Interestingly, drought decreased H2O2 content and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the pre-dusk period, although glutathione reductase (GR) and CAM activity increased. Rewatering restored H2O2, but activities of APX, CAT and GR exceeded pre-stress levels in the pre-dusk and/or pre-dawn periods. Results suggest that recovery from a first drought redefines the homeostatic balance of H2O2 scavenging, in which rewatered plants stimulate the enzymatic antioxidant system while drought-exposed plants intensify CAM activity to regulate H2O2 content, a photosynthetic pathway known to prevent oxidative stress. Such data show that young G. monostachia plants adjust CAM and H2O2 scavenging to adapt to water availability.

  19. The fracture resistance of a CAD/CAM Resin Nano Ceramic (RNC) and a CAD ceramic at different thicknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chenfeng; Trindade, Flávia Zardo; de Jager, Niek; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J; Feilzer, Albert J

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of restoration thickness to the fracture resistance of adhesively bonded Lava™ Ultimate CAD/CAM, a Resin Nano Ceramic (RNC), and IPS e.max CAD ceramic. Polished Lava™ Ultimate CAD/CAM (Group L), sandblasted Lava™ Ultimate CAD/CAM (Group LS), and sandblasted IPS e.max CAD (Group ES) discs (n=8, Ø=10 mm) with a thickness of respectively 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm, and 3.0 mm were cemented to corresponding epoxy supporting discs, achieving a final thickness of 3.5 mm. All the 120 specimens were loaded with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The load (N) at failure was recorded as fracture resistance. The stress distribution for 0.5 mm restorative discs of each group was analyzed by Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The results of facture resistances were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and regression. For the same thickness of testing discs, the fracture resistance of Group L was always significantly lower than the other two groups. The 0.5 mm discs in Group L resulted in the lowest value of 1028 (112) N. There was no significant difference between Group LS and Group ES when the restoration thickness ranged between 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm. There was a linear relation between fracture resistance and restoration thickness in Group L (R=0.621, PCAD/CAM is used, sandblasting is suggested to get a better bonding. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bonding between CAD/CAM resin and resin composite cements dependent on bonding agents: three different in vitro test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Simona; Keul, Christine; Roos, Malgorzata; Edelhoff, Daniel; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the bonding properties between CAD/CAM resin and three resin composite cements combined with different bonding agents using three test methods. Four hundred twenty CAD/CAM resin substrates were fabricated and divided into three test methods (shear bond strength (SBS, n = 180), tensile bond strength (TBS, n = 180) and work of adhesion (WA, n = 60)), further into four pretreatment methods (VP connect (VP), visio.link (VL), Clearfil Ceramic Primer (CP) and no pretreatment (CG)) and three cements (RelyX ARC, Variolink II and Clearfil SA Cement). Each subgroup contained 15 specimens. SBS and TBS were measured after 24 h H2O/37 °C + 5000 thermal-cycles (5/55 °C) and failure types were assessed. WA was determined for pretreated CAD/CAM resin and non-polymerized resin composite cements. Data were analysed with Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H, Chi(2) and Spearman's Rho tests. Within SBS and TBS tests, CGs and groups pretreated with CP (regardless of resin composite cements), and VP pretreated with Clearfil SA Cement showed no bond. However, CG combined with RelyX ARC showed a TBS of 5.6 ± 1.3 MPa. In general, highest bond strength was observed for groups treated with VL. CG and groups pretreated using VL showed lower WA than the groups treated with VP or CP. Measured TBS values were higher than SBS ones. In general, SBS and TBS showed similar trends for the ranges of the values for the groups. WA results were not comparable with SBS/TBS results and admitted, therefore, no conclusions on it. For a clinical use of XHIP-CAD/CAM resin, the bond surface should be additionally pretreated with visio.link as bonding agent.

  1. Construction of interference vector targeting Ep-CAM gene and its effects on colorectal cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanmei; Zhou, Fengqiang; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Lei; Xu, Hong; Guo, Huiguang

    2015-01-01

    Prior study indicates that abnormal protein expression and functional changes in the development and progression of colorectal cancer is related to gene expression. The aim of this study was to construct an interference plasmid targeting the Ep-CAM gene and to investigate its effects on the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. In this study, HT-29 and HCT-116 colorectal cancer cell lines were selected as cell models. The double-stranded micro (mi)RNA oligo was inserted into the pcDNATM6.2-GW/EmGFPmiR vector, which is an expression of miRNA. Lipofectamine™ 2000 was used to transfer plasmid into the empty plasmid group (transfected pcDNATM6.2-GW/EmGFPmiR-neg) and the interference group (transfected pcDNATM6.2-GW/EmGFPmiR-Ep-CAM-1), respectively. Meanwhile, the nontransferred HT-29 and HCT-116 acts as the blank control group. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the transfection efficiency. Western blot was used to detect Ep-CAM protein expression. The cell proliferation in each group was detected by using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results indicated that the Ep-CAM messenger (m)RNA expression in the interference group was lower significantly compared with that of the empty plasmid group and control group (PCAM protein expression was significantly lower in interference group compared with that of the empty plasmid group and the control group (Passay results demonstrated that the proliferation ability of cells in the interference group was significantly inhibited compared with the two other groups (PCAM can significantly inhibit the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells.

  2. Why do general circulation models overestimate the aerosol cloud lifetime effect? A case study comparing CAM5 and a CRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cheng; Penner, Joyce E.

    2017-01-01

    Observation-based studies have shown that the aerosol cloud lifetime effect or the increase of cloud liquid water path (LWP) with increased aerosol loading may have been overestimated in climate models. Here, we simulate shallow warm clouds on 27 May 2011 at the southern Great Plains (SGP) measurement site established by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program using a single-column version of a global climate model (Community Atmosphere Model or CAM) and a cloud resolving model (CRM). The LWP simulated by CAM increases substantially with aerosol loading while that in the CRM does not. The increase of LWP in CAM is caused by a large decrease of the autoconversion rate when cloud droplet number increases. In the CRM, the autoconversion rate is also reduced, but this is offset or even outweighed by the increased evaporation of cloud droplets near the cloud top, resulting in an overall decrease in LWP. Our results suggest that climate models need to include the dependence of cloud top growth and the evaporation/condensation process on cloud droplet number concentrations.

  3. Using stochastic sampling of parametric uncertainties to quantify relationships between CAM3.1 bias and climate sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. S.; Tobis, M.

    2011-12-01

    It is an untested assumption in climate model evaluation that climate model biases affect its credibility. Models with the smaller biases are often regarded as being more plausible than models with larger biases. However not all biases affect predictions. It is only those biases that are involved with feedback mechanisms can lead to scatter in its predictions of change. To date no metric of model skill has been defined that can predict a model's sensitivity greenhouse gas forcing. Being able to do so will be an important step to how we can use observations to define a model's credibility. We shall present results of a calculation in which we attempt to isolate the contribution of errors in particular regions and fields to uncertainties in CAM3.1 equilibrium sensitivity to a doubling of CO2 forcing. In this calculation, observations, Bayesian inference, and stochastic sampling are used to identify a large ensemble of CAM3.1 configurations that represent uncertainties in selecting 15 model parameters important to clouds, convection, and radiation. A slab ocean configuration of CAM3.1 is then used to estimate the effects of these parametric uncertainties on projections of global warming through its equilibrium response to 2 x CO2 forcing. We then correlate the scatter in the control climate at each grid point and field to the scatter in climate sensitivities. The presentation will focus on the analysis of these results.

  4. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as part of primary health care in Germany-comparison of patients consulting general practitioners and CAM practitioners: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Katja; Kraus, Katharina I; Herrmann, Kathrin; Joos, Stefanie

    2016-10-24

    In Germany, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in primary health care is offered by general practitioners (GPs) and by natural health practitioners, so called 'Heilpraktiker' (HPs). Considering the steadily growing number of unregulated HPs, the aim of the study was to assess characteristics of patients consulting HPs in comparison to patients consulting GPs. In a cross-sectional study, patients of randomly selected GPs and HPs were asked to complete a questionnaire about their health care status, health care behavior, and symptoms rated on the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP-D). Patient groups were compared based on health care provider (HP, GP with high use of CAM (CAM-GP), and GP with no/little use of CAM (nCAM-GP)) using Kruskal-Wallis tests and analyses of variance (ANOVA). Altogether, 567 patients (91 of 11 HPs, 223 of 15 CAM-GPs, 253 of 19 nCAM-GPs) filled in the questionnaire. Patients of HPs had a higher education level and were more often female. The most common reason for encounter among all three groups were musculoskeletal problems (30.2-31.1 %). Patients seeing HPs reported more psychological (4.4 % vs. 17.8 %), but less respiratory problems (19.9 % vs. 7.8 %), and longer symptom duration (>5 years: 21.1 % vs. 40.7 %), than patients of nCAM-GPs. The high percentage of patients with psychological illness and chronic health problems consulting HPs demonstrates the urgent need for action with regard to CAM therapy in primary care and regulation of natural health practitioners. Appropriate measures with regard to quality and patient safety should be taken given the growing numbers of HPs and the absence of a regulatory body.

  5. Expression of L1 CAM in intestinal wall tissues of Hirschsprung disease%先天性巨结肠肠壁组织中 L1 CAM 的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹振杰; 杜俊鹏; 杨婵婵; 孙雪花; 黄华; 谷雅川; 陈琦

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨先天性巨结肠(HD)肠壁组织中L1CAM的表达情况,从而分析L1CAM与HD的关系。方法:利用免疫组化SP法和RT-PCR法检测48例HD患儿狭窄段和扩张段肠壁组织以及46例正常结肠肠壁组织中L1CAM蛋白和mRNA的表达。结果:HD狭窄段肠壁组织中L1CAM蛋白表达量为(13.1470±0.5198),低于HD扩张段及正常结肠肠壁组织的(16.9618±0.9054)、(17.9083±0.7406)(t配对/t=27.697、25.346,P均<0.001)。 HD狭窄段肠壁组织中L1CAM mRNA表达量为(4.3164±0.3870),低于HD扩张段及正常结肠肠壁组织的(5.7178±0.4860)、(6.3443±0.2366)(t配对/t=19.661、14.237,P均<0.001)。狭窄段肠壁组织中L1CAM蛋白和mRNA的表达呈正相关(r=0.968,P<0.001)。结论:L1CAM蛋白和mRNA的异常低表达可能参与了HD的发生过程。%To investigate the expression of L1CAM in intestinal wall tissues of Hirschsprung disease (HD), and to analyze the relationship between L 1CAM and HD.Methods:SP method and RT-PCR were used to detected the protein and mRNA expression of L1CAM in the stenotic and ectatic intestinal wall tissues of 48 patients with HD and 46 cases of normal colon intestinal wall tissues .Results:The protein expression of L1CAM in the stenotic intestinal wall tissues of HD was (13.147 0 ±0.519 8),which was lower than those of the ectatic intestinal wall tissues of HD (16.961 8 ±0.905 4) and the normal colon intestinal wall tissues (17.908 3 ±0.740 6) (tpaired/t=27.697, 25.346, P<0.001).The mRNA expression of L1CAM in the stenotic intestinal wall tissues of HD was (4.316 4 ±0.387 0),which was lower than those of the ectatic intestinal wall tissues of HD (5.717 8 ±0.486 0) and the normal colon intestinal wall tissues (6.344 3 ± 0.236 6) (tpaired/t=19.661, 14.237, P<0.001).The protein and mRNA expression of L1CAM in the stenotic intestinal wall tissues of HD had the

  6. Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM Assay as an In Vivo Model to Study the Effect of Newly Identified Molecules on Ovarian Cancer Invasion and Metastasis

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    Carmela Ricciardelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of ovarian cancer patients present with advanced disease and despite aggressive treatment, prognosis remains poor. Significant improvement in ovarian cancer survival will require the development of more effective molecularly targeted therapeutics. Commonly, mouse models are used for the in vivo assessment of potential new therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer. However, animal models are costly and time consuming. Other models, such as the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay, are therefore an attractive alternative. CAM assays have been widely used to study angiogenesis and tumor invasion of colorectal, prostate and brain cancers. However, there have been limited studies that have used CAM assays to assess ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis. We have therefore developed a CAM assay protocol to monitor the metastatic properties of ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and OV-90 and to study the effect of potential therapeutic molecules in vivo. The results from the CAM assay are consistent with cancer cell motility and invasion observed in in vitro assays. Our results demonstrate that the CAM assay is a robust and cost effective model to study ovarian cancer cell metastasis. It is therefore a very useful in vivo model for screening of potential novel therapeutics.

  7. Fatigue resistance of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shembish, Fatma A; Tong, Hui; Kaizer, Marina; Janal, Malvin N; Thompson, Van P; Opdam, Niek J; Zhang, Yu

    2016-04-01

    To demonstrate the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns using a mouth-motion step-stress fatigue test. Monolithic leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic crowns were used as a reference. Fully anatomically shaped monolithic resin composite molar crowns (Lava Ultimate, n=24) and leucite reinforced glass-ceramic crowns (IPS Empress CAD, n=24) were fabricated using CAD/CAM systems. Crowns were cemented on aged dentin-like resin composite tooth replicas (Filtek Z100) with resin-based cements (RelyX Ultimate for Lava Ultimate or Multilink Automix for IPS Empress). Three step-stress profiles (aggressive, moderate and mild) were employed for the accelerated sliding-contact mouth-motion fatigue test. Twenty one crowns from each group were randomly distributed among these three profiles (1:2:4). Failure was designated as chip-off or bulk fracture. Optical and electron microscopes were used to examine the occlusal surface and subsurface damages, as well as the material microstructures. The resin composite crowns showed only minor occlusal damage during mouth-motion step-stress fatigue loading up to 1700N. Cross-sectional views revealed contact-induced cone cracks in all specimens, and flexural radial cracks in 2 crowns. Both cone and radial cracks were relatively small compared to the crown thickness. Extending these cracks to the threshold for catastrophic failure would require much higher indentation loads or more loading cycles. In contrast, all of the glass-ceramic crowns fractured, starting at loads of approximately 450N. Monolithic CAD/CAM resin composite crowns endure, with only superficial damage, fatigue loads 3-4 times higher than those causing catastrophic failure in glass-ceramic CAD crowns. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optical properties of CAD-CAM ceramic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Bona, Alvaro; Nogueira, Audrea D; Pecho, Oscar E

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the direct transmittance (T%), translucency, opacity and opalescence of CAD-CAM ceramic systems and the correlation between the translucency parameter (TP) and the contrast ratio (CR). Specimens of shades A1, A2 and A3 (n=5) were fabricated from CAD-CAM ceramic blocks (IPS e.max(®) CAD HT and LT, IPS Empress(®) CAD HT and LT, Paradigm™ C, and VITABLOCS(®) Mark II) and polished to 1.0±0.01mm in thickness. A spectrophotometer (Lambda 20) was used to measure T% on the wavelength range of 400-780nm. Another spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade(®) Advance) was used to measure the CIE L(*)a(*)b(*) coordinates and the reflectance value (Y) of samples on white and black backgrounds. TP, CR and the opalescence parameter (OP) were calculated. Data were statistically analysed using VAF (variance accounting for) coefficient with Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test, Bonferroni correction and Pearson's correlation. T% of some ceramic systems is dependent on the wavelength. The spectral behaviour showed a slight and constant increase in T% up to approximately 550nm, then some ceramics changed the behaviour as the wavelength gets longer. TP and CR values ranged, respectively, from 16.79 to 21.69 and from 0.52 to 0.64 (r(2)=-0.97). OP values ranged from 3.01 to 7.64. The microstructure of CAD-CAM ceramic systems influenced the optical properties. TP and CR showed a strong correlation for all ceramic systems evaluated. Yet, all ceramics showed some degree of light transmittance. In addition to shade, this study showed that other optical properties influence on the natural appearance of dental ceramics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. METHANOL EXPOSURE DURING GASTRULATION CAUSES HOLOPROSENCEPHALY, FACIAL DYSGENESIS AND CERVICAL VERTEBRAL MALFORMATIONS IN C57BL/6J MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of pregnant CD-1 mice to methanol during the period of gastrulation results in exencephaly, cleft palate, and cervical vertebra malformations (Rogers and Mole, 1997, Teratology 55, 364). C57BL/6J mice are sensitive to the teratogenicity of ethanol; fetuses of this strai...

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF GLYPHOSATE AND 2.4 D AMIN HERBICIDES TO CONTROL WEEDS UNDER Shorea selanica Bl. PLANTATION IN CARITA TRIAL GARDEN, BANTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Wibowo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out in Carita, West Java, to identify the effectiveness of Glyphosate and 2.4 D Amin Herbicide to control weeds under Shorea selanica Bl. plantation. The trial was conducted through the application of Glyphosate and 2.4 D Amin Herbicide with dosages of 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 liter per ha and compared with Glyphosate herbicide 5 liter per ha, manual treatment, and control (no treatment. The result showed that Glyphosate and 2.4 D Amin Herbicide could be used to control weeds in order to maintaining S. selanica Bl. plantation. Minimum dosage of 6 liter/ha was effective to control weeds such as Chromolaena odorata DC, Mikania micrantha Will, Lantana camara L, Imperata cylindrica Beauv., Melastoma malabathricum L, and Boreria latifolia Bl. Furthermore, there was no symptom of poison on S. selanica Bl. plantation after herbicide application with all dosages applied.

  11. CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, P.

    1984-01-01

    The history of CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault are presented. Emphasis is put on the targets of the now commercially available software CATIA. The links with scientific computations such as aerodynamics and structural analysis are presented. Comments are made on the principles followed within the company. The consequences of the approximative nature of scientific data are examined. Consequence of the new history function is mainly its protection against copy or alteration. Future plans at Dassault for scientific data appear to be in opposite directions compared to some general tendencies.

  12. Experimental and analytical investigation of finger-follower cam systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wensyang

    A predictive dynamic model to compute the motions of components in cam systems, along with the experimental work to verify the model are described. The major components in finger-follower cam systems include the cam, the follower, the hydraulic lash adjuster, and the valve spring, equipped sometimes with a helical valve spring cup damper. In order to fully describe the dynamics of such a system, a lumped/distributed parameter model for the finger-follower cam system with a moving follower pivot is proposed. The valve spring is modeled as a distributed parameter element, and the adjuster is modeled as a stiff spring with viscous damping. The coulomb friction combined with viscous damping between sliding surfaces are also considered. The model predicts toss between the adjuster and the follower at 2535 rpm, and experiment indicates toss starting at 2520 rpm. It is found by simulation that designing hydraulic lash adjuster to be as rigid as possible is essential to successful high speed operation of finger-follower valve trains because a 50 percent decrease in the compliance of the adjuster could increase the maximum camshaft operating speed 150 rpm. Total elimination of the hydraulic lash adjuster is not always feasible because hydraulic lash adjusters can eliminate the clearance between components and do not need to be mechanically, manually adjusted. In order to provide a more stable and precise description on the dynamic response of the adjuster, a two-mode dynamic model for the adjuster is proposed by considering the oil compressibility in the oil chamber, as well as the oil leakage through the annular gap. Furthermore, the effect due to the oil flow from the central orifice to the oil chamber is also studied analytically and experimentally. The inertia effects of the helical valve spring can be suppressed by a cup damper. Damping between the damper and spring wire is found to depend only weakly on relative sliding velocity. The current formula in computing

  13. Relevant Applications of Tools in UG NX CAM Module

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    Zhang En Guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the methods to establish the custom magazine have been proposed while the UG NX CAM module is employed to conduct the CNC milling programming. At the same time, how to set the parameters of the cutting tool has been also analyzed; in the creation of tools, the use of shank and holder as well as the use of handle check functions in NC machining has been introduced; meanwhile, the secondary rough machining of corner and the application of clean-cut features have been discussed.

  14. CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, P.

    1984-01-01

    The history of CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault are presented. Emphasis is put on the targets of the now commercially available software CATIA. The links with scientific computations such as aerodynamics and structural analysis are presented. Comments are made on the principles followed within the company. The consequences of the approximative nature of scientific data are examined. Consequence of the new history function is mainly its protection against copy or alteration. Future plans at Dassault for scientific data appear to be in opposite directions compared to some general tendencies.

  15. CAD/CAM from the graphic-design perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, A.

    1982-11-01

    CAD/CAM systems have evolved elaborate human-computer interfaces in order to facilitate the creation of highly detailed and specialized schematic diagrams and texts. Although these systems have powerful capacities in terms of graphics editing, data manipulation, and data storage, insufficient attention has been given to making the online interface (together with supporting documentation) user-friendly, i.e., understandable, memorable, and appealing to the general user. Graphic-design considerations in particular have been routinely overlooked. Graphic design concerns typography, symbol design, color, spatial layout, and temporal sequencing. Graphic design can assist computer science by providing insight and expertise in designing effective communication between human being and machine.

  16. Survey of CAM interest, self-care, and satisfaction with health care for type 2 diabetes at group health cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Ryan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little research has explored the factors that influence interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM treatments. We surveyed persons with sub-optimally controlled type 2 diabetes to evaluate potential relationships between interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM treatments, current self-care practices, motivation to improve self-care practices and satisfaction with current health care for diabetes. Methods 321 patients from a large integrated healthcare system with type 2 diabetes, who were not using insulin and had hemoglobin A1c values between 7.5-9.5%, were telephoned between 2009-2010 and asked about their self-care behaviors, motivation to change, satisfaction with current health care and interest in trying naturopathic (ND care for their diabetes. Responses from patients most interested in trying ND care were compared with those from patients with less interest. Results 219 (68.5% patients completed the survey. Nearly half (48% stated they would be very likely to try ND care for their diabetes if covered by their insurance. Interest in trying ND care was not related to patient demographics, health history, clinical status, or self-care behaviors. Patients with greater interest in trying ND care rated their current healthcare as less effective for controlling their blood sugar (mean response 5.9 +/- 1.9 vs. 6.6 +/- 1.5, p = 0.003, and were more determined to succeed in self-care (p = 0.007. Current CAM use for diabetes was also greater in ND interested patients. Conclusions Patients with sub-optimally controlled type 2 diabetes expressed a high level of interest in trying ND care. Those patients with the greatest interest were less satisfied with their diabetes care, more motivated to engage in self-care, and more likely to use other CAM therapies for their diabetes.

  17. Comparison of the fit accuracy of zirconia-based prostheses generated by two CAD/CAM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purposes of this study are to evaluate the internal and marginal adaptation of two widely used CAD/CAM systems and to study the effect of porcelain press veneering process on the prosthesis adaptation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Molar of a lower jaw typodont resin model was prepared by adjusting a 1.0 mm circumferential chamfer, an occlusal reduction of 2.0 mm, and a 5° convergence angle and was duplicated as an abrasion-resistant master die. The monolithic crowns and copings were fabricated with two different CAD/CAM system-Ceramil and Zirkonzahn systems. Two kinds of non-destructive analysis methods are used in this study. First, weight technique was used to determine the overall fitting accuracy. And, to evaluate internal and marginal fit of specific part, replica technique procedures were performed. RESULTS The silicone weight for the cement space of monolithic crowns and copings manufactured with Ceramil system was significantly higher than that from Zirkonzahn system. This gap might cause the differences in the silicone weight because the prostheses were manufactured according to the recommendation of each system. Marginal discrepancies of copings made with Ceramil system were between 106 and 117 µm and those from Zirkonzahn system were between 111 and 115 µm. Marginal discrepancies of copings made with Ceramil system were between 101 and 131 µm and those from Zirkonzahn system were between 116 and 131 µm. CONCLUSION Marginal discrepancy was relatively lower in Ceramil system and internal gap was smaller in Zirkonzahn system. There were significant differences in the internal gap of monolithic crown and coping among the 2 CAD/CAM systems. Marginal discrepancy produced from the 2 CAD/CAM systems were within a reported clinically acceptable range of marginal discrepancy. PMID:28018561

  18. Microscopical and chemical surface characterization of CAD/CAM zircona abutments after different cleaning procedures. A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Peter; Tabellion, Astrid; Fischer, Carsten

    2015-04-01

    To describe and characterize the surface topography and cleanliness of CAD/CAM manufactured zirconia abutments after steaming and ultrasonic cleaning. A total of 12 ceramic CAD/CAM implant abutments of various manufacturers were produced and randomly divided into two groups of six samples each (control and test group). Four two-piece hybrid abutments and two one-piece abutments made of zirconium-dioxide were assessed per each group. In the control group, cleaning by steam was performed. The test group underwent an ultrasonic cleaning procedure with acetone, ethyl alcohol and antibacterial solution. Groups were subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to verify and characterize contaminant chemical characterization non-quantitatively. All zirconia CAD/CAM abutments in the present study displayed production-induced wear particles, debris as well as organic and inorganic contaminants. The abutments of the test group showed reduction of surface contamination after undergoing an ultrasonic cleaning procedure. However, an absolute removal of pollutants could not be achieved. The presence of debris on the transmucosal surface of CAD/CAM zirconia abutments of various manufacturers was confirmed. Within the limits of the study design, the results suggest that a defined ultrasonic cleaning process can be advantageously employed to reduce such debris, thus, supposedly enhancing soft tissue healing. Although the adverse long-term influence of abutment contamination on the biological stability of peri-implant tissues has been evidenced, a standardized and validated polishing and cleaning protocol still has to be implemented.

  19. Translucency of esthetic dental restorative CAD/CAM materials and composite resins with respect to thickness and surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Daniel; Stawarczyk, Bogna; Liebermann, Anja; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2015-06-01

    Little information is available about the translucency of monolithic CAD/CAM materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the translucency of restorative CAD/CAM materials and direct composite resins with respect to thickness and surface roughness. In total, 240 disk-shaped specimens (12×14×1 mm and 12×14×2 mm) of 3 different CAD/CAM glass ceramics (CELTRA Duo, IPS e.max CAD, IPS Empress CAD), a fine-structure feldspathic ceramic (VITA Mark II), a hybrid ceramic (VITA Enamic), a resin nanoceramic composite resin (LAVA Ultimate), an experimental (CAD/CAM nanohybrid composite resin), 2 interim materials (Telio CAD; VITA CAD-Temp), and 3 direct composite resins (Tetric EvoCeram; Filtek Supreme XTE; Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) were fabricated (n=10). After 3 different surface pretreatments (polished, rough SiC P1200, or SiC P500), absolute translucency and surface roughness were measured using spectrophotometry and tactile profilometry. The influence of material type, thickness, and roughness on absolute translucency was analyzed using a multivariate analysis, 1-way ANOVA, and the Tukey HSD post hoc test (P<.05). Pearson correlations and statistical hypothesis tests were used to assess the results (P<.05). The effect of all tested parameters was significant among the materials (P<.05). The greatest influence on the measured translucency was thickness (partial eta squared ηP²=.988), closely followed by material (.982), and the pretreatment method (.835). The surface roughness was strongly influenced by the pretreatment method (.975) and type of material (.941). Thickness and surface roughness are major factors affecting the absolute translucency of adhesively luted restorations. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Precision Fit of Screw-Retained Implant-Supported Fixed Dental Prostheses Fabricated by CAD/CAM, Copy-Milling, and Conventional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Danilo Gonzaga; Morais, Maria Helena; das Neves, Flávio D; Carreiro, Adriana Fonte; Barbosa, Gustavo As

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fabrication methods (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture [CAD/CAM], copy-milling, and conventional casting) in the fit accuracy of three-unit, screw-retained fixed dental prostheses. Sixteen three-unit implant-supported screw-retained frameworks were fabricated to fit an in vitro model. Eight frameworks were fabricated using the CAD/CAM system, four in zirconia and four in cobalt-chromium. Four zirconia frameworks were fabricated using the copy-milled system, and four were cast in cobalt-chromium using conventional casting with premachined abutments. The vertical and horizontal misfit at the implant-framework interface was measured using scanning electron microscopy at ×250. The results for vertical misfit were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The horizontal misfits were categorized as underextended, equally extended, or overextended. Statistical analysis established differences between groups according to the chi-square test (α = .05). The mean vertical misfit was 5.9 ± 3.6 μm for CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia, 1.2 ± 2.2 μm for CAD/CAM-fabricated cobalt-chromium frameworks, 7.6 ± 9.2 μm for copy-milling-fabricated zirconia frameworks, and 11.8 (9.8) μm for conventionally fabricated frameworks. The Mann-Whitney test revealed significant differences between all but the zirconia-fabricated frameworks. A significant association was observed between the horizontal misfits and the fabrication method. The percentage of horizontal misfits that were underextended and overextended was higher in milled zirconia (83.3%), CAD/CAM cobaltchromium (66.7%), cast cobalt-chromium (58.3%), and CAD/CAM zirconia (33.3%) frameworks. CAD/CAM-fabricated frameworks exhibit better vertical misfit and low variability compared with copy-milled and conventionally fabricated frameworks. The percentage of interfaces equally extended was higher when CAD/CAM and zirconia were used.