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Sample records for bk bkv-associated cystitis

  1. Computed Tomography Findings of Human Polyomavirus BK (BKV)-Associated Cystitis in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

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    Schulze, M.; Beck, R.; Igney, A.; Vogel, M.; Maksimovic, O.; Claussen, C.D.; Faul, C.; Horger, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dept. of Internal Medicine-Oncology, and Inst. of Medical Virology, Eberhard-Karls Univ., Tbingen (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Background: Over 70% of the general population worldwide is positive for antibodies against polyomavirus hominis type 1 (BKV). Polyomavirus can be reactivated in immunocompromised patients and thereby induce urogenital tract infection, including cystitis. Purpose: To describe the computed tomography (CT) findings of human polyomavirus-induced cystitis in adult patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allogeneic HCT). Material and Methods: The study population was a retrospective cohort of 11 consecutive adult patients (eight men, three women; age range 22-59 years, mean 42.9 years) who received allogeneic HCT between December 2003 and December 2007 and were tested positive for urinary BKV infection. All CT scans were evaluated with regard to bladder wall thickness, mucosal enhancement, distinct layering of thickened bladder wall, and presence of intravesical clots, perivesical stranding as well as attenuation values of intravesical urine. Clinical data concerning transplant and conditioning regimen variables and laboratory parameters were correlated with degree and extent of imaging findings. Results: All patients had clinical signs of cystitis with different degrees of thickening of the urinary bladder wall. Well-delineated urinary bladder layers were present in six patients. Thickening of the urinary bladder wall was continuous in nine of 11 patients. Increased attenuation of intravesical urine was found in seven patients with hemorrhagic cystitis. Four patients had intraluminal clots. Perivesical stranding was not a major CT finding, occurring in a mild fashion in three of 11 patients. The clinical classification of hemorrhagic cystitis did not correlate with the analyzed imaging parameters. Patient outcome was not influenced by this infectious complication. Conclusion: CT findings in patients with polyomavirus BK cystitis consist of different degrees of bladder wall thickening usually with good delineation of all mural layers and

  2. Computed Tomography Findings of Human Polyomavirus BK (BKV)-Associated Cystitis in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, M.; Beck, R.; Igney, A.; Vogel, M.; Maksimovic, O.; Claussen, C.D.; Faul, C.; Horger, M. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dept. of Internal Medicine-Oncology, and Inst. of Medical Virology, Eberhard-Karls Univ., Tbingen (Germany))

    2008-12-15

    Background: Over 70% of the general population worldwide is positive for antibodies against polyomavirus hominis type 1 (BKV). Polyomavirus can be reactivated in immunocompromised patients and thereby induce urogenital tract infection, including cystitis. Purpose: To describe the computed tomography (CT) findings of human polyomavirus-induced cystitis in adult patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allogeneic HCT). Material and Methods: The study population was a retrospective cohort of 11 consecutive adult patients (eight men, three women; age range 22-59 years, mean 42.9 years) who received allogeneic HCT between December 2003 and December 2007 and were tested positive for urinary BKV infection. All CT scans were evaluated with regard to bladder wall thickness, mucosal enhancement, distinct layering of thickened bladder wall, and presence of intravesical clots, perivesical stranding as well as attenuation values of intravesical urine. Clinical data concerning transplant and conditioning regimen variables and laboratory parameters were correlated with degree and extent of imaging findings. Results: All patients had clinical signs of cystitis with different degrees of thickening of the urinary bladder wall. Well-delineated urinary bladder layers were present in six patients. Thickening of the urinary bladder wall was continuous in nine of 11 patients. Increased attenuation of intravesical urine was found in seven patients with hemorrhagic cystitis. Four patients had intraluminal clots. Perivesical stranding was not a major CT finding, occurring in a mild fashion in three of 11 patients. The clinical classification of hemorrhagic cystitis did not correlate with the analyzed imaging parameters. Patient outcome was not influenced by this infectious complication. Conclusion: CT findings in patients with polyomavirus BK cystitis consist of different degrees of bladder wall thickening usually with good delineation of all mural layers and

  3. Computed Tomography Findings of Human Polyomavirus BK (BKV)-Associated Cystitis in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Over 70% of the general population worldwide is positive for antibodies against polyomavirus hominis type 1 (BKV). Polyomavirus can be reactivated in immunocompromised patients and thereby induce urogenital tract infection, including cystitis. Purpose: To describe the computed tomography (CT) findings of human polyomavirus-induced cystitis in adult patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allogeneic HCT). Material and Methods: The study population was a retrospective cohort of 11 consecutive adult patients (eight men, three women; age range 22-59 years, mean 42.9 years) who received allogeneic HCT between December 2003 and December 2007 and were tested positive for urinary BKV infection. All CT scans were evaluated with regard to bladder wall thickness, mucosal enhancement, distinct layering of thickened bladder wall, and presence of intravesical clots, perivesical stranding as well as attenuation values of intravesical urine. Clinical data concerning transplant and conditioning regimen variables and laboratory parameters were correlated with degree and extent of imaging findings. Results: All patients had clinical signs of cystitis with different degrees of thickening of the urinary bladder wall. Well-delineated urinary bladder layers were present in six patients. Thickening of the urinary bladder wall was continuous in nine of 11 patients. Increased attenuation of intravesical urine was found in seven patients with hemorrhagic cystitis. Four patients had intraluminal clots. Perivesical stranding was not a major CT finding, occurring in a mild fashion in three of 11 patients. The clinical classification of hemorrhagic cystitis did not correlate with the analyzed imaging parameters. Patient outcome was not influenced by this infectious complication. Conclusion: CT findings in patients with polyomavirus BK cystitis consist of different degrees of bladder wall thickening usually with good delineation of all mural layers and

  4. BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after pediatric stem cell transplantation.

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    Han, Seung Beom; Cho, Bin; Kang, Jin Han

    2014-12-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common stem cell transplantation-related complication. The incidence of early-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, which is related to the pretransplant conditioning regimen, has decreased with the concomitant use of mesna and hyperhydration. However, late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, which is usually caused by the BK virus, continues to develop. Although the BK virus is the most common pathogenic microorganism of poststem cell transplantation late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, pediatricians outside the hemato-oncology and nephrology specialties tend to be unfamiliar with hemorrhagic cystitis and the BK virus. Moreover, no standard guidelines for the early diagnosis and treatment of BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after stem cell transplantation have been established. Here, we briefly introduce poststem cell transplantation BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis. PMID:25653684

  5. BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after pediatric stem cell transplantation

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    Han, Seung Beom; Cho, Bin; Kang, Jin Han

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common stem cell transplantation-related complication. The incidence of early-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, which is related to the pretransplant conditioning regimen, has decreased with the concomitant use of mesna and hyperhydration. However, late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, which is usually caused by the BK virus, continues to develop. Although the BK virus is the most common pathogenic microorganism of poststem cell transplantation late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, ...

  6. BK virus encephalopathy and sclerosing vasculopathy in a patient with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and immunodeficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Darbinyan, Armine; Major, Eugene O.; Morgello, Susan; Holland, Steven; Ryschkewitsch, Caroline; Monaco, Maria Chiara; Naidich, Thomas P.; Bederson, Joshua; Malaczynska, Joanna; Ye, Fei; Gordon, Ronald; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Fowkes, Mary; Tsankova, Nadejda M.

    2016-01-01

    Human BK polyomavirus (BKV) is reactivated under conditions of immunosuppression leading most commonly to nephropathy or cystitis; its tropism for the brain is rare and poorly understood. We present a unique case of BKV-associated encephalopathy in a man with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and immunodeficiency (HED-ID) due to IKK-gamma (NEMO) mutation, who developed progressive neurological symptoms. Brain biopsy demonstrated polyomavirus infection of gray and white matter, with predominan...

  7. Hemorrhagic Cystitis due to BK Reactivation in a Young Female Treated for Hodgkin-Disease

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    R. Le Calloch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hodgkin's lymphoma is a disease with a high rate of curability under classic chemo-radiotherapy regimes. Complications due to chemotherapy could include viral reactivation due to chronic lymphopenia. BK virus (BKV is a polyoma virus belonging to the Papovaviridae family with antibody seroprevalences in healthy populations varying from 60% to 80%. Initial infections are asymptomatic usually occur in early childhood, after which the viruses remain latent in the kidneys or urothelium. Reactivation of BKV occurs in individuals with severe immunosuppression during HIV infections, transplantation or, exceptionally, after classical chemotherapy. BKV incidence is approximately 0% to 5% in immunocompetent individuals. Reactivation is associated with nephropathy and haemorrhagic cystitis. Herein, we present a case of a haemorrhagic cystitis due to BKV reactivation in a patient with Hodgkin's disease treated with chemotherapy.

  8. Simultaneous BK Polyomavirus (BKPyV)-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis after living donor kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helanterä, Ilkka; Hirsch, Hans H; Wernli, Marion; Ortiz, Fernanda; Lempinen, Marko; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Auvinen, Eeva; Mannonen, Laura; Lautenschlager, Irmeli

    2016-03-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) commonly reactivates after kidney transplantation, and can cause polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PyVAN), whereas after allogeneic stem cell transplantation the most frequent manifestation of BKPyV is polyomavirus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (PyVHC). Despite high-level BKPyV replication in both, the pathogenesis and manifestation of both BKPyV entities appears to differ substantially. We describe an unusual case of simultaneous PyVAN and PyVHC presenting with acute symptoms in a BKPyV-IgG positive recipient eight months after kidney transplantation from a haploidentical living donor, who was BKPyV-IgG negative. Symptoms of cystitis and viremia subsided rapidly after reduction of immunosuppression. PMID:26771744

  9. Successful hyperbaric oxygen therapy for refractory BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after cord blood transplantation.

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    Hosokawa, K; Yamazaki, H; Nakamura, T; Yoroidaka, T; Imi, T; Shima, Y; Ohata, K; Takamatsu, H; Kotani, T; Kondo, Y; Takami, A; Nakao, S

    2014-10-01

    BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKV-HC) is a common and major cause of morbidity in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A 32-year-old woman developed severe BKV-HC on day 24 after cord blood transplantation (CBT). Despite supportive therapies - such as hyperhydration, forced diuresis, and urinary catheterization - macroscopic hematuria and bladder irritation persisted for over a month. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy at 2.1 atmospheres for 90 min per day was started on day 64 after CBT. Macroscopic hematuria resolved within a week, and microscopic hematuria was no longer detectable within 2 weeks. Hematuria did not recur after 11 sessions of HBO therapy, and no significant side effects were observed during or after treatment. HBO therapy could thus be useful in controlling refractory BKV-HC after CBT. PMID:25040402

  10. Urological management (medical and surgical) of BK-virus associated haemorrhagic cystitis in children following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Nikhil Vasdev; Angela Davidson; Christian Harkensee; Mary Slatter; Andrew Gennery; Ian Willetts; Andrew Thorpe

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is uncommon and in its severe form potentially life threatening complication of Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children. We present our single centre experience in the urological management of this clinically challenging condition. Patients and Methods: Fourteen patients were diagnosed with BK-Virus HC in our centre. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.8 years (range, 3.2-18.4 years). The mean number of days post-BMT until onset of HC was 20.8 (...

  11. Association between a High BK Virus Load in Urine Samples of Patients with Graft-Versus-Host Disease and Development of Hemorrhagic Cystitis after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanovic, G; Priftakis, P.; Giraud, G.; Kuzniar, M.; Ferraldeschi, R; Kokhaei, P.; Mellstedt, H.; Remberger, M; Ljungman, P.; Winiarski, J.; Dalianis, T

    2004-01-01

    BK virus (BKV) load in urine alone or in combination with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was correlated to development of hemorrhagic cystitis (HC). BKV load in combination with acute GVHD discriminated the best, while BKV and viral load alone, but not GVHD, still showed predictive ability for HC.

  12. Urological management (medical and surgical of BK-virus associated haemorrhagic cystitis in children following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Vasdev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Haemorrhagic cystitis (HC is uncommon and in its severe form potentially life threatening complication of Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT in children. We present our single centre experience in the urological management of this clinically challenging condition. Patients and Methods: Fourteen patients were diagnosed with BK-Virus HC in our centre. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.8 years (range, 3.2-18.4 years. The mean number of days post-BMT until onset of HC was 20.8 (range, 1 – 51. While all patients tested urine positive for BKV at the clinical onset of HC, only four patients had viral quantification, with viral loads ranging from 97,000 to >1 billion/ml. 8 patients had clinical HC. Ten patients experienced acute GVHD (grade I: 6 patients, grade II: 3 patients, grade 4: 1 patient.Results: Four patients received medical management for their HC. Treatments included hyperhydration, MESNA, blood and platelet transfusion, premarin and oxybutynin (Table 6.  Two patients received both medical and surgical management which included cystoscopy with clot evacuation, bladder irrigation and supra-pubic catheter insertion. One patient received exclusive surgical management. Seven patients were treated conservatively. Conclusion: There is limited available evidence for other potential therapeutic strategies highlighting the need for more research into the pathophysiology of HSCT-associated HC. Commonly used interventions with possible clinical benefit (e.g. cidofovir, ciprofloxacin still require to be evaluated in multi-centre, high-quality studies. Potential future preventative and therapeutic options, such as modulation of conditioning, immunosuppression and engraftment, new antiviral and anti-inflammatory and less nephrotoxic agents need to be assessed.---------------------------Cite this article as:Vasdev N, Davidson A, Harkensee C, Slatter M, Gennery A, Willetts I, Thorpe A.Urological management (medical and surgical of BK

  13. Association of renal adenocarcinoma and BK virus nephropathy post transplantation.

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    Kausman, Joshua Yehuda; Somers, Gino Rene; Francis, David Michael; Jones, Colin Lindsay

    2004-04-01

    While most BK virus infections are asymptomatic, immunosuppression has been associated with BK virus reactivation and impaired graft function or ureteric ulceration in renal transplant patients and hemorrhagic cystitis in bone marrow transplant patients. Oncogenicity is also postulated and this is the first report of a child with a carcinoma of the donor renal pelvis following BK virus allograft nephropathy. Removal of the primary tumor and cessation of immunosuppression led to regression of secondary tumors and a return to health. PMID:14986088

  14. [Emphysematous cystitis].

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    Hüsch, T; Rheinboldt, V; Thalhammer, A; Müller, T; Haferkamp, A

    2016-05-01

    Emphysematous cystitis is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. Generally elderly women with diabetes mellitus are affected. Diagnosis is made radiologically using plain abdominal X‑ray or computed tomography. The therapy includes urine drainage, antibiotic treatment and hyperglycaemic control to avoid progress of the infection and the development of complications. In the current report we present a case of a 79-year-old woman with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and an incidental diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis. PMID:27119961

  15. Polyomavirus BK infection in blood and marrow transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Dropulic, LK; Jones, RJ

    2007-01-01

    The association of BK virus infection with hemorrhagic cystitis in blood and marrow transplant (BMT) recipients was first demonstrated two decades ago. During this time, therapeutic interventions focused on supportive measures such as hyperhydration, continuous bladder irrigation and topical administration of agents that alter the mucosal surface of the bladder wall. In recent years, PCR amplification of viral DNA in the urine and plasma has solidified the association of BK virus infection wi...

  16. Polyomavirus BK-specific immunity after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comoli, Patrizia; Azzi, Alberta; Maccario, Rita; Basso, Sabrina; Botti, Gerardo; Basile, Giancarlo; Fontana, Iris; Labirio, Massimo; Cometa, Angela; Poli, Francesca; Perfumo, Francesco; Locatelli, Franco; Ginevri, Fabrizio

    2004-10-27

    Failure to mount or maintain a protective immune response may influence the development of polyomavirus BK (BKV)-associated nephropathy (PVAN). However, limited data are so far available on BKV-specific immunity after kidney transplantation. BKV-specific cellular immune response was retrospectively analyzed in kidney recipients with or without BKV infection/reactivation by measuring the frequency of interferon (IFN)-gamma-secreting cells in peripheral blood. Patients with BKV-active infection and good renal function (n=6) had a mean BKV-specific lymphocyte frequency 2 log lower than healthy controls and in the same range as BKV-seropositive recipients without active infection (n=7). Patients with PVAN (n=5) revealed undetectable levels of BKV-specific cells. However, two patients from the latter cohort treated with immunosuppression reduction showed the emergence of specific immunity, with IFN-gamma production in the same range as healthy controls. Our preliminary data suggest that lack of protective immunity toward BKV may favor the occurrence of BKV active infection and influence the progression to PVAN. PMID:15502726

  17. Interstitial Cystitis and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toolkit Donate Monthly Giving Corporate Giving Planned Gifts & Estate Planning Donor Stock Transfer Instructions IC Charity in ... questionnaire on IC and diet. Revised Tuesday, April 5th, 2016 Home About IC What is Interstitial Cystitis ( ...

  18. Interstitial Cystitis Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video ICA’s Online Support Community A place for peace, hope, and advice. Join the Community ICA’s Healthcare ... urine test for diagnosing IC (similar to a pregnancy test), the Interstitial Cystitis Association (ICA) partnered with ...

  19. Hemorrhagic radiation cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, William M; Henderson, Randal H; Costa, Joseph A; Hoppe, Bradford S; Dagan, Roi; Bryant, Curtis M; Nichols, Romaine C; Williams, Christopher R; Harris, Stephanie E; Mendenhall, Nancy P

    2015-06-01

    The optimal management of persistent hemorrhagic radiation cystitis is ill-defined. Various options are available and include oral agents (ie, sodium pentosan polysulfate), intravenous drugs (ie, WF10), topical agents (ie, formalin), hyperbaric oxygen, and endoscopic procedures (ie, electrical cautery, argon plasma coagulation, laser coagulation). In general, it is best to manage patients conservatively and intervene only when necessary with the option least likely to exacerbate the cystitis. More aggressive measures should be employed only when more conservative approaches fail. Bladder biopsies should be avoided, unless findings suggest a bladder tumor, because they may precipitate a complication. PMID:24322335

  20. Emphysematous cystitis: 3 cases report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emphysematous cystitis is a rare condition characterized by gas collection in the wall and lumen of the bladder. We experienced three cases of emphysematous cystitis. All patients were female; one was associated with a long term history of diabetes mellitus and another with urinary indwelling catheter. All of the cases were easily diagnosed on plain radiograph and CT scan, and were successfully treated with antibiotic therapy. In one of the cases, however, associated abscess due to perivesical extension of inflammation was treated by combined external drainage

  1. Diffuse gastrointestinal bleeding and BK polyomavirus replication in a pediatric allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskenvuo, M; Lautenschlager, I; Kardas, P; Auvinen, E; Mannonen, L; Huttunen, P; Taskinen, M; Vettenranta, K; Hirsch, H H

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at high risk of severe gastrointestinal bleeding caused by infections, graft versus host disease, and disturbances in haemostasis. BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is known to cause hemorrhagic cystitis, but there is also evidence of BKV shedding in stool and its association with gastrointestinal disease. We report putative association of BKPyV replication with high plasma viral loads in a pediatric HSCT patient developing hemorrhagic cystitis and severe gastrointestinal bleeding necessitating intensive care. The observation was based on chart review and analysis of BKPyV DNA loads in plasma and urine as well as retrospective BKPyV-specific IgM and IgG measurements in weekly samples until three months post-transplant. The gastrointestinal bleeding was observed after a >100-fold increase in the plasma BKPyV loads and the start of hemorrhagic cystitis. The BKPyV-specific antibody response indicated past infection prior to transplantation, but increasing IgG titers were seen following BKPyV replication. The gastrointestinal biopsies were taken at a late stage of the episode and were no longer informative of BK polyomavirus involvement. In conclusion, gastrointestinal complications with bleeding are a significant problem after allogeneic HSCT to which viral infections including BKPyV may contribute. PMID:25542476

  2. Series BK contactless DC motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, V.A.; Vevyurko, I.A.; Ivanov, G.V.; Kuzmin, V.N.; Mikhaylov, E.M.; Stoma, A.S.

    1985-05-01

    Implementation of principles described in a previous work has allowed development and introduction to series production of a motor series including 36 standard types and sizes. The series is designed to operate at a nominal voltage of 27 V and includes two main versions: the BK-1 for fans and BK-2 for pumps. The BK-2 motor differs from the BK-1 in that it has a thin sealed sleeve of high impedance nonmagnetic metal separating the rotor and stator cavities, allowing the rotor of the BK-2 to operate in the fluids or other media being pumped. Characteristics of the motors are presented. The BK-1316 has an operating life of about 50,000 hours at nominal speed of 6000 rpm. The experience of series production of the BK motors has shown the need for further improvement of the design and technology in order to decrease the number of metal cutting, winding and assembly operations required. The use of plastic structures is suggested to this end.

  3. BK channel modulators: a comprehensive overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardi, Antonio; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2008-01-01

    the multitude of chemical entities claimed to be BK-modulating agents. Such chemical entities are, herein, classified by both origin and chemical structure in 1) Endogenous BK channel modulators and structural analogues 2) Naturally-occurring BK channel inhibitors and blockers 3) Synthetic BK channel...... inhibitors and blockers 4) Marketed and/or investigational drugs with BK-modulating side properties and structural analogues 5) Naturally-occurring BK channel openers and structural analogues 6) Synthetic BK channel openers. This review is intended to provide readers with current opinion on the BK channel as...... a drug target, the chemical structures of BK channel modulators, the structural and chemical features involved in the BK channel modulating activity and, where and when possible, with highlights of structure-activity relationships....

  4. Ketamine-snorting associated cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Hsien; Lee, Ming-Huei; Chen, Yi-Chang; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2011-12-01

    Ketamine hydrochloride, commonly used as a pediatric anesthetic agent, is an N-methyl-D-aspartic (NMDA) acid receptor antagonist with rapid onset and short duration of action. It produces a cataleptic-like state where the patient is dissociated from the surrounding environment by direct action on the cortex and limbic system. It has emerged as an increasingly popular choice among young drug users, especially within dance club venues. Cases of bladder dysfunction among recreational ketamine users were reported since Shahani et al first reported nine cases of ketamine-associated ulcerative cystitis in 2007. We report on four patients who had history of ketamine abuse, presenting with dysuria, fluctuating lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), lower abdominal or perineal pain, and impaired functional bladder capacities. Urinalysis showed pyuria and microhematuria. Urine culture was sterile. Bladder ulceration with severe diffuse hemorrhage and low bladder capacity were noted under anesthetized cystoscopic examination. Transurethral bladder mucosa biopsy was consistent with chronic cystitis. Cessation of ketamine abuse was the milestone of treatment, followed by the administration of mucosal protective agents, such as pentosan polysulphate or hyaluronic acid. Suprapubic pain was improved in three patients during follow-up. However, the outcome of treatment depends on the severity of the disease process, similar to that of interstitial cystitis (IC). PMID:22248834

  5. EC decay of 244Bk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodaye, Suparna; Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Sharma, S. K.; Pujari, P. K.; Palit, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2014-12-01

    Berkelium isotopes have been produced in 11B-induced reaction on 238U. The EC decay of 244Bk → 244Cm has been studied by carrying out the single and coincidence measurements of the γ-rays emitted during the de-excitation of the 244Cm levels. Radiochemical separations have been carried out to minimize the contribution from the fission products and target. The new half-life of 244Bk is obtained as 5.02 ± 0.03 h, which is close to the theoretically calculated value. The relative intensities of the decay γ-rays have been re-evaluated. Based on the coincidence measurements, a tentative partial level scheme for 244Bk → 244Cm decay has been proposed.

  6. EC decay of 244Bk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkelium isotopes have been produced in 11B-induced reaction on 238U. The EC decay of 244Bk → 244Cm has been studied by carrying out the single and coincidence measurements of the γ-rays emitted during the de-excitation of the 244Cm levels. Radiochemical separations have been carried out to minimize the contribution from the fission products and target. The new half-life of 244Bk is obtained as 5.02 ± 0.03 h, which is close to the theoretically calculated value. The relative intensities of the decay γ-rays have been re-evaluated. Based on the coincidence measurements, a tentative partial level scheme for 244Bk → 244Cm decay has been proposed. (paper)

  7. Biophysics of BK Channel Gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, A; Olcese, R

    2016-01-01

    BK channels are universal regulators of cell excitability, given their exceptional unitary conductance selective for K(+), joint activation mechanism by membrane depolarization and intracellular [Ca(2+)] elevation, and broad expression pattern. In this chapter, we discuss the structural basis and operational principles of their activation, or gating, by membrane potential and calcium. We also discuss how the two activation mechanisms interact to culminate in channel opening. As members of the voltage-gated potassium channel superfamily, BK channels are discussed in the context of archetypal family members, in terms of similarities that help us understand their function, but also seminal structural and biophysical differences that confer unique functional properties. PMID:27238260

  8. Microbiological Characteristics of Unresolved Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Youn; Lee, Seung-Ju; Lee, Dong Sup; Yoo, Jae Mo; Choe, Hyun-Sop

    2016-07-01

    This study sought to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility rates between acute uncomplicated cystitis patients with failed initial antimicrobial treatment, who were considered unresolved cases, and newly presenting acute uncomplicated cystitis patients without recent antimicrobial use within 3 months and to determine whether different treatment strategies should be applied according to recent antimicrobial exposure (RAE). Female acute uncomplicated cystitis patients with Escherichia coli growth, who visited our hospital's urology department from 2010 to 2014, were divided according to RAE. The antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli was compared between the group with RAE and the group with no antimicrobial exposure (NAE) within 3 months. The total number of acute uncomplicated cystitis patients with E. coli growth was 259: 40 patients comprised the RAE group and 219 patients formed the NAE group. The mean age was significantly older and previous recurrent cystitis history was higher in the RAE group (p RAE group, with susceptibility results of 64.7%/88.0% (RAE/NAE), 77.5%/89.0%, 79.4%/95.3%, 31.3%/64.2%, and 42.5%/70.6%, respectively. RAE was an independent factor for antimicrobial resistance. This study showed that antimicrobial susceptibilities were significantly lower in acute uncomplicated cystitis patients with failed initial antimicrobial treatment, who are defined as unresolved cases. Our results suggest that first-line antimicrobials might show poor efficacy in cases of unresolved, acute uncomplicated cystitis and alternative or secondary antimicrobials should be considered in these cases. PMID:26780182

  9. Emfysematøs cystitis med blaerenekrose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindom, Alesia Bembel; Gudnason, Haraldur M; Thind, Peter O

    2008-01-01

    treatment to prostatocystectomy. We report the case of a 74-year old male diabetic presenting who was found to have emphysematous cystitis with total necrotization of the bladder. To our knowledge this is the only reported case with a totally necrotized bladder in emphysematous cystitis.......Emphysematous cystitis is a rare disease of the bladder caused by gas-forming bacteria. Diabetics are the most commonly infected and the clinical picture ranges from dysuria to sepsis and peritonitis. The diagnosis is primarily radiological. Treatment ranges from catheterization and antibiotic...

  10. POLYPOID CYSTITIS: A FINDING AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Pushkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polypoid cystitis may simulate urothelial neoplasias cystoscopically and histologically. The frequency of polypoid cystitis is 0.38%; that among patients undergoing bladder catheterization is 6 %.Subjects and methods. The authors estimated the frequency of polypoid cystitis among chronic cystitis patients admitted to City Clinical Hospital Fifty, a base of the Clinic of Urology, Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, in the period from February 2008 to February 2010. Out of 819 patients followed up, 3 who had diagnosed as having polypoid cystitis complained of pollakiuria, imperative micturate urges, and macrohematuria. They underwent ultrasonography, computed tomography, and cystoscopy; bladder masses measured 1.0, 7.0, and 11.5 cm, respectively; extensive growth was verified in 2 cases. Endoscopic studies identified procumbent rough-villous masses without well-defined outlines with the signs of bullous edema, decay, hemorrhages, and urinary salt encrustations. By taking into account the clinical picture and laboratory and instrumental findings, the authors suspected stage T3bNхMх bladder tumor in 2 patients and T1NхMх stage in 1. According to the European Association of Urology guidelines for management of bladder cancer, the patients underwent transurethral bladder resection. The patients were diagnosed as having polypoid cystitis on the basis of postmortem evidence.Results. In this study the frequency of polypoid cystitis was 37 %. Polypoid cystitis, a benign mass without a risk for malignancy, had signs of invasive transitional cell carcinoma.Conclusion. Such cases that rarely occur in practice are of clinical value and interest to urologists, pathologists, and oncologists.

  11. Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Lucan; EnachDan Enache; Bodo Ors Zsombor

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study will follow the effectiveness of treatment of chronic cystitis in menopausal women, associated with overactive bladder syndrome, performed by endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin type A to patients who previously attended drug treatment and bladder instilational treatment but with persistence of clinical manifestations.Materials and methods. We studied 43 patients, in menopause with chronic recurrent cystitis and overactive bladder. The data were statistically analyze...

  12. New berkelium isotope: 242Bk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new isotope of berkelium, 242Bk, was produced with a cross section of approx. 10 μb in reactions of boron on uranium and nitrogen on thorium. It decays by electron capture with a half-life of 7 +- 1.3 minutes. The branching ratio for this isotope for alpha decay is less than 1% and that for spontaneous fission is less than 0.03%. 2 figures, 2 tables

  13. Polypoid cystitis in an adult without history of catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polypoid cystitis is a benign exophytic mucosal lesion of the bladder. Differentiating it from papillary transitional cell carcinoma is difficult due to their similar characteristics. Although indwelling catheter is the main well-known cause of polypoid cystitis, some case reports unrelated to catheterization have been described. However, the radiological findings of polypoid cystitis have rarely been reported. We hereby describe polypoid cystitis in a 20-year-old man without a history of catheterization along with the computed tomographic findings.

  14. Update on BK with Wilson fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The K-anti K mixing matrix element is a hadronic matrix element that is of crucial importance to electroweak phenomenology. For convenience, the authors introduce the so called bag parameter, BK. It has been known for a long time that BK is amenable to lattice Monte-Carlo methods. Indeed, recently Sharpe and collaborators, using staggered formulation for fermions have made remarkable progress in calculating BK and have reported a result with an impressive accuracy. In this work the authors will present their results for BK using the Wilson formulation for fermions

  15. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for radiation cystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gakiya, Munehisa [Okinawa Prefectural Miyako Hospital, Hirara (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We used hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) on 11 patients with radiation cystitis from 1996 to 1998. The patients aged from 46 to 78 years with a mean of 64 years underwent one or more courses of HBO consisting of 20 sessions. During the 60 min HBO patients received 100% oxygen at 2.5 absolute atmosphere pressure in the Simple Hyperbaric Chamber. Hematuria improved in all patients. Cystoscopic findings of mucosal edema, redness and capillary dilatation were improved. HBO appears to be useful for radiation cystitis. (author)

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for radiation cystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) on 11 patients with radiation cystitis from 1996 to 1998. The patients aged from 46 to 78 years with a mean of 64 years underwent one or more courses of HBO consisting of 20 sessions. During the 60 min HBO patients received 100% oxygen at 2.5 absolute atmosphere pressure in the Simple Hyperbaric Chamber. Hematuria improved in all patients. Cystoscopic findings of mucosal edema, redness and capillary dilatation were improved. HBO appears to be useful for radiation cystitis. (author)

  17. B_K from improved staggered quarks

    OpenAIRE

    Gamiz, E.; Collins, S.; Davies, C. T. H.; Shigemitsu, J.; Wingate, M

    2004-01-01

    We compare calculations of B_K with improved staggered quarks (HYP, Asqtad) and demonstrate the improved scaling behaviour that this gives rise to over previous calculations with unimproved staggered quarks. This enables us to perform the calculation of B_K on the MILC dynamical configurations (n_f=2+1), for which we give preliminary results.

  18. Emphysematous cystitis of the diabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affes Nejmeddine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Emphysematous cystitis is defined by the presence of gas in the urinary bladder wall. It complicates urinary tract infections especially in diabetic patients. Aims : We present a case of emphysematous cystitis in a diabetic patient with a poor glycemia control and we discuss diagnostics and treatment items of this uncommon and serious infection. Methods and Results : A 45-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with confusion and abdominal pain. The clinical examination found a septic shock the Ultra-sonography (US showed a cholecystitis the patient was operated without amelioration. A post operative pelvic computed tomography (CT demonstrated intramural gas in the urinary bladder, which suggested a diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis. The treatment was based on an antibiotics associated with a bladder drainage. The evolution was in favor. Conclusion : Every diabetic patient with a urinary tract infection who seems to be severely ill should have an abdominal X-ray as a minimal screening tool to detect emphysematous complications. (Nejmeddine A, Atef B, Youssef D, Ramez B, Issam BM. Emphysematous cystitis of the diabetic patient.

  19. BK channel activators and their therapeutic perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Rønn, Lars C B;

    2014-01-01

    The large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated K(+) channel (KCa1.1, BK, MaxiK) is ubiquitously expressed in the body, and holds the ability to integrate changes in intracellular calcium and membrane potential. This makes the BK channel an important negative feedback system linking increase...... years. After a short introduction to the structure, function and regulation of BK channels, we review the small organic molecules activating BK channels and how these tool compounds have helped delineate the roles of BK channels in health and disease.......The large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated K(+) channel (KCa1.1, BK, MaxiK) is ubiquitously expressed in the body, and holds the ability to integrate changes in intracellular calcium and membrane potential. This makes the BK channel an important negative feedback system linking increases...... in intracellular calcium to outward hyperpolarizing potassium currents. Consequently, the channel has many important physiological roles including regulation of smooth muscle tone, neurotransmitter release and neuronal excitability. Additionally, cardioprotective roles have been revealed in recent...

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment for haemorrhagic radiation cystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevers, R.F.M.; Kurth, K.H. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Academic Medical Center; Bakker, D.J. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Depts. of Urology and Surgery

    1995-09-23

    Radiation-induced severe haemorrhagic cystitis is difficult to treat. Conventional treatments may decrease haematuria but do not affect the radiocystitis itself. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment has been reported to do both. We report the results of a prospective study of hyperbaric oxygen (20 sessions of 100% oxygen inhalation at 3 bar for 90 min in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber) to 40 patients with biopsy-proven radiation cystitis and severe haematuria. Haematuria disappeared completely or improved in 37 patients after treatment. Mean follow-up was 23.1 months (range 1-74); and the recurrence rate was 0.12/year. There were no adverse effects. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment should be considered for patients with severe radiation-induced haematuria. (author).

  1. Emphysematous cystitis in a patient with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathosh Gangadhar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emphysematous cystitis is a relatively rare clinical entity caused by gas-fermenting bacteria or fungus. Presentation is often nonspecific and imaging is the best diagnostic modality. We report a case of a 45-year-old male who presented with fever, dysuria, and pneumaturia, and was found to have emphysematous cystitis.

  2. Cystitis: From Urothelial Cell Biology to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilho Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystitis is a urinary bladder disease with many causes and symptoms. The severity of cystitis ranges from mild lower abdominal discomfort to life-threatening haemorrhagic cystitis. The course of disease is often chronic or recurrent. Although cystitis represents huge economical and medical burden throughout the world and in many cases treatments are ineffective, the mechanisms of its origin and development as well as measures for effective treatment are still poorly understood. However, many studies have demonstrated that urothelial dysfunction plays a crucial role. In the present review we first discuss fundamental issues of urothelial cell biology, which is the core for comprehension of cystitis. Then we focus on many forms of cystitis, its current treatments, and advances in its research. Additionally we review haemorrhagic cystitis with one of the leading causative agents being chemotherapeutic drug cyclophosphamide and summarise its management strategies. At the end we describe an excellent and widely used animal model of cyclophosphamide induced cystitis, which gives researches the opportunity to get a better insight into the mechanisms involved and possibility to develop new therapy approaches.

  3. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Benedikte; Hesse, Ulrik; Hansen, Alastair B; Horn, Thomas; Mortensen, Svend O; Nordling, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    To characterize and evaluate a Danish patient population with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), using a working definition for BPS/IC incorporating six variables, and a set of criteria defined by the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC); to describe ...

  4. Vibrio cholerae non-serogroup O1 cystitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Dumler, J.S.; Osterhout, G J; Spangler, J G; Dick, J D

    1989-01-01

    We report a case of a patient who developed cystitis caused by non-serogroup O1 Vibrio cholerae after swimming in the Chesapeake Bay. Treatment was empirical, with complete symptomatic resolution. Genitourinary tract infections by Vibrio spp. are uncommon but should be considered when cystitis occurs after saltwater exposure in appropriate geographic regions.

  5. [BK virus infections in kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanot, Antoine; Bouvier, Nicolas; Chatelet, Valérie; Dina, Julia; Béchade, Clémence; Ficheux, Maxence; Henri, Patrick; Lobbedez, Thierry; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    BK virus is near ubiquitous, with a seroprevalence of around 80% in the general population. Subsequent to an asymptomatic primary infection, BK virus then remains dormant in healthy subjects. Reactivation occurs in immunocompromised people. BKv is pathogenic mainly among patients who have received a kidney transplant, in whom the virus can cause specific tubulo-interstitial nephritis and even result in graft failure among approximately 20 to 30% of nephritic cases. Since the mid 90s, incidence has increased with the use of new powerful immunosuppressor treatments. The cornerstone of BK virus infection or BK virus-associated nephropathy treatment is a decrease of the immunosuppressive regimen, which must then be offset with the risk of rejection. The use of several adjuvant therapies has been submitted (fluoroquinolones, leflunomide, intravenous immunoglobulins, cidofovir), with no sufficient proof enabling the recommendation of first-line prescription. The high frequency of this infection and its potential harmfulness argue for the use of prevention strategies, at least among patients presenting risk factors. Retransplantation is safe after a first kidney allograft loss caused by BK-virus nephropathy, on condition that a screening for viremia is frequently conducted. PMID:26827190

  6. Hemorrhagic Cystitis Requiring Bladder Irrigation is Associated with Poor Mortality in Hospitalized Stem Cell Transplant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valary T. Raup

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the overall prognosis of post-stem cell transplant inpatients who required continuous bladder irrigation (CBI for hematuria. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of adult stem cell transplant recipients who received CBI for de novo hemorrhagic cystitis as inpatients on the bone marrow transplant service at Washington University from 2011-2013. Patients who had a history of genitourinary malignancy and/or recent surgical urologic intervention were excluded. Multiple variables were examined for association with death. Results: Thirty-three patients met our inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 48 years (23-65. Common malignancies included acute myelogenous leukemia (17/33, 57%, acute lymphocytic leukemia (3/33, 10%, and peripheral T cell lymphoma (3/33, 10%. Median time from stem cell transplant to need for CBI was 2.5 months (0 days-6.6 years. All patients had previously undergone chemotherapy (33/33, 100% and 14 had undergone prior radiation therapy (14/33, 42%. Twenty-eight patients had an infectious disease (28/33, 85%, most commonly BK viremia (19/33, 58%, cytomegalovirus viremia (17/33, 51%, and bacterial urinary tract infection (8/33, 24%. Twenty-two patients expired during the same admission as CBI treatment (22/33 or 67% of total patients, 22/28 or 79% of deaths, with a 30-day mortality of 52% and a 90-day mortality of 73% from the start of CBI. Conclusions: Hemorrhagic cystitis requiring CBI is a symptom of severe systemic disease in stem cell transplant patients. The need for CBI administration may be a marker for mortality risk from a variety of systemic insults, rather than directly attributable to the hematuria.

  7. Eosinophilic cystitis in a 3-year-old boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare in children; it also affects adults. Clinical manifestations are variable. The diagnosis can be confirmed by cystoscopy and biopsy, both rather invasive procedures, especially in younger patients. We report a 3-year-old boy with eosinophilic cystitis. The most important radiological finding was marked thickening of the bladder wall, documented on ultrasound, cystography and CT. The CT findings of eosinophilic cystitis have, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported before. In addition to ultrasound and cystography, CT clearly demonstrates extension of the inflammatory process into the perivesical tissues. (orig.)

  8. [Emphysematous cystitis with total necrotization of the bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindom, A.B.; Gudnason, H.M.; Thind, Peter

    2008-01-01

    treatment to prostatocystectomy. We report the case of a 74-year old male diabetic presenting who was found to have emphysematous cystitis with total necrotization of the bladder. To our knowledge this is the only reported case with a totally necrotized bladder in emphysematous cystitis Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/17......Emphysematous cystitis is a rare disease of the bladder caused by gas-forming bacteria. Diabetics are the most commonly infected and the clinical picture ranges from dysuria to sepsis and peritonitis. The diagnosis is primarily radiological. Treatment ranges from catheterization and antibiotic...

  9. [Suicide attempt by an interstitial cystitis patient : a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahisa; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kato, Taiki; Furuse, Hiroshi; Ozono, Seiichiro

    2014-11-01

    We report a suicide attempt by an interstitial cystitis patient. A 68-year-old woman consulted several clinics with complaints of urinary frequency and bladder pain, but her symptoms did not improve. She was admitted to our hospital and diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Hydrodistention was performed, and the urethral catheter removed one day after surgery. The next day, the patient was afraid that her symptoms had not improved and, due to this physical and mental distress, cut her wrist with a razor. Vascular anastomosis and neuroanastomosis were performed accordingly. Eighteen months after hydrodistention, the patient's symptoms of interstitial cystitis have much improved. PMID:25511944

  10. [Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Christophe; Irani, Jacques; Ouaki, Frédéric; Murat, François-Joseph; Doré, Bertrand

    2002-12-01

    Radiotherapy alone or in combination with other modalities is used in the treatment of a large number of pelvic tumours of urological or gynaecological origin. Despite constant progress in this field, medium-term and long-term complications remain frequent and often require difficult long-term management. Radiation cystitis is one of the most frequent complications and directly concerns urologists. Among the various treatment options for haemorrhagic cystitis, hyperbaric oxygen therapy appears to give good short-term and medium-term results. It is currently reserved for cases refractory to the standard treatments for radiation cystitis. PMID:12545623

  11. The H2BK123Rgument

    OpenAIRE

    Latham, John A.; Dent, Sharon Y. R.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of trans-regulation of histone H3K4 methylation by ubiquitination of histone H2BK123 generated much excitement in the field of chromatin biology. Recently, the veracity of this example of cross talk between histone modifications in yeast was challenged (Foster and Downs, 2009. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.200812088) but ultimately reconfirmed in a study in this issue (Nakanishi et al., 2009. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.200906005).

  12. Exposing the Molecular Machinery of BK Polyomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Christopher B

    2016-04-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKV) is an opportunistic pathogen that poses a serious threat to organ transplant recipients. In this issue of Structure, Hurdiss and colleagues' (Hurdiss et al., 2016) beautiful new high-resolution cryo-EM reconstruction of BKV provides a structural roadmap for the ongoing development of therapeutic antibodies and vaccines targeting this potentially deadly virus. The study also serves as a platform for exploring the basic biology of virion assembly and infectious entry. PMID:27050683

  13. Early monitoring of the human polyomavirus BK replication and sequencing analysis in a cohort of adult kidney transplant patients treated with basiliximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischitelli Monica

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, better immunosuppressors have decreased the rates of acute rejection in kidney transplantation, but have also led to the emergence of BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN. Therefore, we prospectively investigated BKV load in plasma and urine samples in a cohort of kidney transplants, receiving basiliximab combined with a mycophenolate mofetil-based triple immunotherapy, to evaluate the difference between BKV replication during the first 3 months post-transplantation, characterized by the non-depleting action of basiliximab, versus the second 3 months, in which the maintenance therapy acts alone. We also performed sequencing analysis to assess whether a particular BKV subtype/subgroup or transcriptional control region (TCR variants were present. Methods We monitored BK viruria and viremia by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR at 12 hours (Tx, 1 (T1, 3 (T2 and 6 (T3 months post-transplantation among 60 kidney transplant patients. Sequencing analysis was performed by nested-PCR with specific primers for TCR and VP1 regions. Data were statistically analyzed using χ2 test and Student's t-test. Results BKV was detected at Tx in 4/60 urine and in 16/60 plasma, with median viral loads of 3,70 log GEq/mL and 3,79 log GEq/mL, respectively, followed by a significant increase of both BKV-positive transplants (32/60 and median values of viruria (5,78 log GEq/mL and viremia (4,52 log GEq/mL at T2. Conversely, a significantly decrease of patients with viruria and viremia (17/60 was observed at T3, together with a reduction of the median urinary and plasma viral loads (4,09 log GEq/mL and 4,00 log GEq/mL, respectively. BKV TCR sequence analysis always showed the presence of archetypal sequences, with a few single-nucleotide substitutions and one nucleotide insertion that, interestingly, were all representative of the particular subtypes/subgroups we identified by VP1 sequencing analysis: I/b-2 and IV/c-2. Conclusions Our

  14. Hemorrhagic cystitis with massive bleeding from nontyphoidal Salmonella infection: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Sun-Kyung; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Young Shin; Yun, Hye-Won; Chung, Jung-Wha; Jung, Ka-Young; Shim, Ki-Nam; Jung, Sung-Ae

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is defined by lower urinary tract symptoms that include dysuria, hematuria, and hemorrhage and is caused by viral or bacterial infection or chemotherapeutic agents. Reports of hemorrhagic cystitis caused by non-typhoidal salmonella (NTS) are extremely rare. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with hemorrhagic cystitis from NTS that caused massive bleeding and shock. The patient was hospitalized for uncontrolled diabetes and obstructive uropathy related to severe cystiti...

  15. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazato, Tomonori; Yusa, Toshiko; Onaga, Tomohiro; Sugaya, Kimio; Koyama, Yuzo; Hatano, Tadashi; Ogawa, Yoshihide [Ryukyus Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1998-05-01

    Radiation therapy has widely been used for cancers in the pelvis. Radiation cystitis, one of the late complications, presents often as hemorrhagic cystitis, which is refractory to the conventional therapy and may threaten the patient`s life. We used hyperbaric oxygen therapy on patients with radiation cystitis to test its potential benefit. Ten patients aged from 46 to 81 years with a mean of 62 years underwent one or more courses of hyperbaric oxygen therapy according to their symptoms, consisting of 20 sessions (3 to 5 sessions a week) at the Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, the University of the Ryukyus Hospital in the 9-year period from 1985 to 1994. They included 8 patients having a history of cervical cancer, one with external genital cancer and one with vaginal cancer. During the 75 min hyperbaric oxygen therapy patients received 100% oxygen at 2 absolute atmosphere pressure in the Multiplace Hyperbaric Chamber. Hematuria subsided and subjective symptoms including urinary frequency improved in seven patients. Cystoscopic findings including mucosal edema, redness, and capillary dilation were partially improved. The procedure subjectively and objectively palliated the 10 patients in a favorable manner. To date we have not armed any active procedure to control radiation-induced refractory hemorrhagic cystitis in terms of efficacy, invasiveness, and adverse effects. Therefore, in consideration of our clinical results, hyperbaric oxygen therapy appears to be useful for radiation cystitis. (author)

  16. Radiation Induced Cystitis and Proctitis - Prediction, Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Supriya; Madan, Renu; Julka, Pramod K; Rath, Goura K

    2015-01-01

    Cystitis and proctitis are defined as inflammation of bladder and rectum respectively. Haemorrhagic cystitis is the most severe clinical manifestation of radiation and chemical cystitis. Radiation proctitis and cystitis are major complications following radiotherapy. Prevention of radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis has been investigated using various oral agents with minimal benefit. Bladder irrigation remains the most frequently adopted modality followed by intra-vesical instillation of alum or formalin. In intractable cases, surgical intervention is required in the form of diversion ureterostomy or cystectomy. Proctitis is more common in even low dose ranges but is self-limiting and improves on treatment interruption. However, treatment of radiation proctitis is broadly non-invasive or invasive. Non-invasive treatment consists of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), anti-oxidants, sucralfate, short chain fatty acids and hyperbaric oxygen. Invasive treatment consists of ablative procedures like formalin application, endoscopic YAG laser coagulation or argon plasma coagulation and surgery as a last resort. PMID:26320421

  17. Empirical treatment of acute cystitis in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2003-07-01

    Empirical antimicrobial treatment for acute cystitis in women requires continuing reassessment as the antimicrobial susceptibility of community isolates of Escherichia coli evolves. Current recommendations for 3 days trimethoprim or trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole are compromised by increasing resistance of community E. coli to these agents. Fluoroquinolones are an alternate 3-day therapy, but increasing resistance is being reported from some countries, and widespread community use may promote resistance, limiting effectiveness of these agents for more serious infections. Alternate regimens supported by recent clinical trials suggest pivmecillinam given twice daily for 7 days is as effective as 3 days of quinolone therapy, while microbiological cure is 80% with 3 days therapy twice daily, and 90% with 3 days therapy thrice daily. Nitrofurantoin given for 7 days has a cure rate of 80-85%. Fosfomycin trometamol as a single dose has cure rates of 75-85%. All these agents are effective, but a compromise in efficacy or duration of therapy compared with current 3-day regimens may have to be considered. PMID:12842322

  18. An Echo of Supernova 2008bk

    CERN Document Server

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D

    2013-01-01

    I have discovered a prominent light echo around the low-luminosity Type II-Plateau Supernova (SN) 2008bk in NGC 7793, seen in archival images obtained with the Wide Field Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on-board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The echo is a partial ring, brighter to the north and east than to the south and west. The analysis of the echo I present suggests that it is due to the SN light pulse scattered by a sheet, or sheets, of dust located ~15 pc from the SN. The composition of the dust is assumed to be of standard Galactic diffuse interstellar grains. The visual extinction of the dust responsible for the echo is A_V ~ 0.05 mag, in addition to the extinction due to the Galactic foreground toward the host galaxy. That the SN experienced much less overall extinction implies that it is seen through a less dense portion of the interstellar medium in its environment. The late-time HST photometry of SN 2008bk also clearly demonstrates that the progenitor star has vanished.

  19. Co-morbidities of Interstitial Cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela eChelimsky

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients with Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/BPS with systemic dysfunction associated co-morbidities such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and fibromyalgia (FM. Material and Methods: Two groups of subjects with IC/BPS were included: 1 Physician diagnosed patients with IC/BPS and 2 Subjects meeting NIDDK IC/PBS criteria based on a questionnaire (ODYSA. These groups were compared to healthy controls matched for age and socio-economic status. NIDDK criteria required: pain with bladder filling that improves with emptying, urinary urgency due to discomfort or pain, polyuria > 11 times/24 hrs, and nocturia > 2 times/night. The ODYSA instrument evaluates symptoms pertaining to a range of disorders including chronic fatigue, orthostatic intolerance, syncope, IBS, dyspepsia, cyclic vomiting syndrome, headaches and migraines, sleep, Raynaud’s syndrome and chronic aches and pains. Results: IC/BPS was diagnosed in 26 subjects (mean age 47 +/- 16 yrs, 92% females, 58 had symptoms of IC/BPS by NIDDK criteria, (mean age 40 +/- 17 yrs, 79% females and 48 were healthy controls (mean age 31+/- 14 yrs, mean age 77%. Co-morbid complaints in the IC/BPS groups included gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of IBS and dyspepsia, sleep abnormalities with delayed onset of sleep, feeling poorly refreshed in the morning, waking up before needed, snoring, severe chronic fatigue and chronic generalized pain, migraines and syncope. Discussion: Patients with IC/BPS had co-morbid central and autonomic nervous system disorders. Our findings mirror those of others in regard to IBS, symptoms suggestive of FM, chronic pain and migraine. High rates of syncope and functional dyspepsia found in the IC/BPS groups merit further study to determine if IC/BPS is part of a diffuse disorder of central, autonomic and sensory processing affecting multiple organs outside the bladder.

  20. Developmental expression of BK channels in chick cochlear hair cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Mingjie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cochlear hair cells are high-frequency sensory receptors. At the onset of hearing, hair cells acquire fast, calcium-activated potassium (BK currents, turning immature spiking cells into functional receptors. In non-mammalian vertebrates, the number and kinetics of BK channels are varied systematically along the frequency-axis of the cochlea giving rise to an intrinsic electrical tuning mechanism. The processes that control the appearance and heterogeneity of hair cell BK currents remain unclear. Results Quantitative PCR results showed a non-monotonic increase in BK α subunit expression throughout embryonic development of the chick auditory organ (i.e. basilar papilla. Expression peaked near embryonic day (E 19 with six times the transcript level of E11 sensory epithelia. The steady increase in gene expression from E11 to E19 could not explain the sudden acquisition of currents at E18-19, implicating post-transcriptional mechanisms. Protein expression also preceded function but progressed in a sequence from diffuse cytoplasmic staining at early ages to punctate membrane-bound clusters at E18. Electrophysiology data confirmed a continued refinement of BK trafficking from E18 to E20, indicating a translocation of BK clusters from supranuclear to subnuclear domains over this critical developmental age. Conclusions Gene products encoding BK α subunits are detected up to 8 days before the acquisition of anti-BK clusters and functional BK currents. Therefore, post-transcriptional mechanisms seem to play a key role in the delayed emergence of calcium-sensitive currents. We suggest that regulation of translation and trafficking of functional α subunits, near voltage-gated calcium channels, leads to functional BK currents at the onset of hearing.

  1. Granulomatous cystitis in chronic granulomatous disease: Ultrasound diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a fatal hereditary disease of childhood characterized by chronic recurrent bacterial infections. Involvement of the genitourinary tract is uncommon. We report a child with CGD with granulomatous cystitis demonstrated by both ultrasound and computed tomography. (orig.)

  2. A case of emphysematous pyelonephritis with emphysematous cystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is rare but frequently fatal disease that usually occurs in disease that usually occurs in diabetic patients 6 cases having been reported in Korea. We have experienced a case of simultaneously occurring emphysematous pyelonephritis and emphysematous cystitis in 54 years old female patient, which have never been reported in Korea, and got satisfactory improvement with medical treatment.

  3. Cystitis as a correlate of female urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommsen, S.; Foldspang, Anders; Elving, Lisbeth Bach;

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of the research were to study the association between prevalent urge and stress urinary incontinence (UI) and a history of cystitis in adult females. A cross-section of the adult female population, aged 30–59 years, in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark, was studied, using self...

  4. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy has recently emerged as a potential primary option for the management of hemorrhagic cystitis. We review our experience treating hemorrhagic cystitis with HBO. Between January 2001 and May 2007, eight patients with radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis underwent HBO therapy. There were five men and three women with a mean age of 64.3 years (47-73). Radiation was given for local disease, and the mean dosage delivered was 56.6 Gy (42-70). The mean duration between the onset of hematuria and the beginning of HBO therapy was 8.9 months (3-34). Mean follow-up period was 15.5 months (2-31). Hematuria resolved completely in six of the eight patients, one of whom suffered recurrence of hematuria and was treated with HBO until the hematuria resolved again. The response rate was 75%, compatible with the previous reports, and no side-effects of HBO were noted. HBO treatment should be attempted for radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. (author)

  5. Global concepts of bladder pain syndrome (interstitial cystitis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus; Hanno, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS), commonly referred to as "interstitial cystitis", is no longer considered a rare disorder. It may affect up to 2.7% of the adult female population (Ueda et al. in Int J Urol 10:1-70, 2003) with up to 20% of cases occurring in men....

  6. Address Points, areas-bk, Published in 2005, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'areas-bk'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  7. BK polyomavirus association with colorectal cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabaz, M N; Nedjadi, T; Gari, M A; Al-Maghrabi, J A; Atta, H M; Basuni, A A; Elderwi, D A

    2016-01-01

    The development of human neoplasms can be provoked by exposure to one of several viruses. Burkitt lymphoma, cervical carcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma are associated with Epstein-Barr, human papilloma, and hepatitis B virus infections, respectively. Over the past three decades, many studies have attempted to establish an association between colorectal cancer and viruses, with debatable results. The aim of the present research was to assess the presence of BK polyomavirus (BKV) DNA and protein in colorectal cancer samples from patients in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. DNA extracted from archival samples of colorectal cancer tissues was analyzed for BKV sequences using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. In addition, expression of a BKV protein was assessed using immunohistochemical staining. None of the tumor and control samples examined tested positive for BKV DNA in PCR assays. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining failed to detect viral proteins in both cancer and control specimens. These results may indicate that BKV is not associated with the development of colorectal adenocarcinoma in patients in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. PMID:27173319

  8. BK Polyomavirus Infection and Renourinary Tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, J C; Randhawa, P; Rinaldo, C Hanssen; Drachenberg, C B; Alexiev, B; Hirsch, H H

    2016-02-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) infection represents a major problem in transplantation, particularly for renal recipients developing polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PyVAN). The possibility that BKPyV may also be oncogenic is not routinely considered. Twenty high-grade renourinary tumors expressing polyomavirus large T antigen in the entirety of the neoplasm in 19 cases, including the metastases in six, have been reported in transplant recipients with a history of PyVAN or evidence of BKPyV infection. Morphological and phenotypical features consistent with inactivation of the tumor suppressors pRB and p53 were found in the bladder tumors, suggesting a carcinogenesis mechanism involving the BKPyV large tumor oncoprotein/antigen. The pathogenesis of these tumors is unclear, but given the generally long interval between transplantation and tumor development, the risk for neoplasms after BKPyV infections may well be multifactorial. Other elements potentially implicated include exposure to additional exogenous carcinogens, further viral mutations, and cell genomic instability secondary to viral integration, as occurs with the Merkel cell PyV-associated carcinoma. The still scarce but increasingly reported association between longstanding PyVAN and renourinary neoplasms requires a concerted effort from the transplant community to better understand, diagnose, and treat the putative association between the BKPyV and these neoplasms. PMID:26731714

  9. The Significance of Ultrasonography in Diagnosing and Follow-up of Cystic Cystitis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Vrljičak, Kristina; Milošević, Danko; Batinić, Danica; Kniewald , Hrvoje; Nižić, Ljiljana

    2006-01-01

    Cystic cystitis is a separate form of urinary bladder inflammation, detected by cystoscopy in children with recurrent urinary infections. Cystoscopy is an invasive method, so the aim of this investigation was to determine the ultrasonographic characteristics of cystic cystitis and to assess the reliability of ultrasound in relation to cystoscopy in diagnosing cystic cystitis. The study included 115 girls with repeated urinary infections. Cystoscopy and ultrasonography was performed in all. Ac...

  10. Lupus cystitis with hydroureteronephrosis in a young female with lupus nephritis

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Ete; Sumantro Mondal; Debanjali Sinha; Soumik Sarkar; Abhirup Bhunia; Shingamlung Kamei; Jyotirmoy Pal; Alakendu Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune, multisystem disorder. Lupus nephritis is a common manifestation of SLE. Though rare, SLE may also involve lower urinary tract in the form of lupus cystitis with associated complications like hydroureteronephrosis. Lupus cystitis may present with gastro intestinal (GI) symptoms as the initial manifestation. The case reported herein is concerned with concomitant lupus nephritis and cystitis in a young female who also had associated GI symptoms and ...

  11. Universal features of JIMWLK and BK evolution at small x

    OpenAIRE

    Rummukainen, Kari; Weigert, Heribert

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of numerical studies of the JIMWLK and BK equations with a particular emphasis on the universal scaling properties and phase space structure involved. The results are valid for near zero impact parameter in DIS. We demonstrate IR safety due to the occurrence of a rapidity dependent saturation scale Q_s(\\tau). Within the set of initial conditions chosen both JIMWLK and BK equations show remarkable agreement. We point out the crucial importance of running co...

  12. Polyomavirus specific cellular immunity: from BK-virus-specific cellular immunity to BK-virus-associated nephropathy ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    manon edekeyser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In renal transplantation, BK-virus-associated nephropathy has emerged as a major complication, with a prevalence of 5–10% and graft loss in >50% of cases. BK-virus is a member of the Polyomavirus family and rarely induces apparent clinical disease in the general population. However, replication of polyomaviruses, associated with significant organ disease, is observed in patients with acquired immunosuppression, which suggests a critical role for virus-specific cellular immunity to control virus replication and prevent chronic disease. Monitoring of specific immunity combined with viral load could be used to individually assess the risk of viral reactivation and virus control. We review the current knowledge on BK-virus specific cellular immunity and, more specifically, in immunocompromised patients. In the future, immune-based therapies could allow us to treat and prevent BK-virus-associated nephropathy.

  13. Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 Prevents Chronic and Recurrent Cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Hannan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The spread of multidrug-resistant microorganisms globally has created an urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies to combat urinary tract infections (UTIs. Immunomodulatory therapy may provide benefit, as treatment of mice with dexamethasone during acute UTI improved outcome by reducing the development of chronic cystitis, which predisposes to recurrent infection. Here we discovered soluble biomarkers engaged in myeloid cell development and chemotaxis that were predictive of future UTI recurrence when elevated in the sera of young women with UTI. Translation of these findings revealed that temperance of the neutrophil response early during UTI, and specifically disruption of bladder epithelial transmigration of neutrophils by inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2, protected mice against chronic and recurrent cystitis. Further, proteomics identified bladder epithelial remodeling consequent to chronic infection that enhances sensitivity to neutrophil damage. Thus, cyclooxygenase-2 expression during acute UTI is a critical molecular trigger determining disease outcome and drugs targeting cyclooxygenase-2 could prevent recurrent UTI.

  14. Nerve hyperplasia: a unique feature of ketamine cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Simon C.; Stahlschmidt, Jens; Oxley, Jon; Hinley, Jennifer; Eardley, Ian; Marsh, Fiona; Gillatt, David; Fulford, Simon; Southgate, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an emerging association between ketamine abuse and the development of urological symptoms including dysuria, frequency and urgency, which have a neurological component. In addition, extreme cases are associated with severe unresolving bladder pain in conjunction with a thickened, contracted bladder and an ulcerated/absent urothelium. Here we report on unusual neuropathological features seen by immunohistology in ketamine cystitis. Results In all cases, the lamina propria w...

  15. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and glycosaminoglycans replacement therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Cervigni, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating chronic disease characterized by discomfort or recurrent abdominal and pelvic pains in the absence of urinary tract infections. Its symptomatology includes discomfort, increased bladder pressure, sensitivity and intense pain in the bladder and pelvic areas, increased voiding frequency and urgency, or a combination of these symptoms. For these reasons, this pathology has a very negative impact on quality of life. The etiolo...

  16. Neuromodulation attenuates bladder hyperactivity in a rat cystitis model

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Xin; Nickles, Angela; Nelson, Dwight E.

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated the regulation of urinary bladder function by electrical stimulation of the L6 spinal nerve (SN) using cystometry in normal rats and in rats with cystitis induced by intravesical infusion of dilute acetic acid. Methods In anesthetized rats, a cannula was placed into the bladder dome for saline/acetic acid infusion and intravesical pressure monitoring. Threshold pressure (TP), basal pressure (BP) and inter-contraction interval (ICI) were measured from the bladder pre...

  17. A model of hemorrhagic cystitis induced with acrolein in mice

    OpenAIRE

    C.K.L.P. Batista; Brito, G A C; De Souza, M. L. P.; B.T.A. Leitão; Cunha, F.Q.; Ribeiro, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Acrolein is a urinary metabolite of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, which has been reported to be the causative agent of hemorrhagic cystitis induced by these compounds. A direct cytotoxic effect of acrolein, however, has not yet been demonstrated. In the present study, the effects of intravesical injection of acrolein and mesna, the classical acrolein chemical inhibitor, were evaluated. Male Swiss mice weighing 25 to 35 g (N = 6 per group) received saline or acrolein (25, 75, 225 µg) intrav...

  18. Mast cell-derived histamine mediates cystitis pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N Rudick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mast cells trigger inflammation that is associated with local pain, but the mechanisms mediating pain are unclear. Interstitial cystitis (IC is a bladder disease that causes debilitating pelvic pain of unknown origin and without consistent inflammation, but IC symptoms correlate with elevated bladder lamina propria mast cell counts. We hypothesized that mast cells mediate pelvic pain directly and examined pain behavior using a murine model that recapitulates key aspects of IC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Infection of mice with pseudorabies virus (PRV induces a neurogenic cystitis associated with lamina propria mast cell accumulation dependent upon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF, TNF-mediated bladder barrier dysfunction, and pelvic pain behavior, but the molecular basis for pelvic pain is unknown. In this study, both PRV-induced pelvic pain and bladder pathophysiology were abrogated in mast cell-deficient mice but were restored by reconstitution with wild type bone marrow. Pelvic pain developed normally in TNF- and TNF receptor-deficient mice, while bladder pathophysiology was abrogated. Conversely, genetic or pharmacologic disruption of histamine receptor H1R or H2R attenuated pelvic pain without altering pathophysiology. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that mast cells promote cystitis pain and bladder pathophysiology through the separable actions of histamine and TNF, respectively. Therefore, pain is independent of pathology and inflammation, and histamine receptors represent direct therapeutic targets for pain in IC and other chronic pain conditions.

  19. [Application of Monural to treat pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria and acute cystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michova, M; Ivanov, St; Batashki, I

    2009-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) and cystitis affect 4-9% of pregnancies and are associated with pyelonephritis and preterm labor. Screening for AB and adequate antimicrobal therapy prevent most of these serious complications. Twenty- nine pregnant patients, suffering from AB and 9 cases with cystitis were treated with single dose Monura (Fosfomycin trometamol) in a prospective study. PMID:20387275

  20. Emphysematous cystitis: An unusual disease of the Genito-Urinary system suspected on imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarna Pawanjit S

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emphysematous cystitis is a rare disease entity caused by gas fermenting bacterial and fungal pathogens. Clinical symptoms are nonspecific and diagnostic clues often arise from the unanticipated imaging findings. We report a case of 52-year-old male who presented with fever, dysuria and gross hematuria who was found to have emphysematous cystitis.

  1. Universal features of JIMWLK and BK evolution at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present the results of numerical studies of the JIMWLK and BK equations with a particular emphasis on the universal scaling properties and phase space structure involved. The results are valid for near zero impact parameter in DIS. We demonstrate IR safety due to the occurrence of a rapidity-dependent saturation scale Qs(τ). Within the set of initial conditions chosen, both JIMWLK and BK equations show remarkable agreement. We point out the crucial importance of running coupling corrections to obtain consistency in the UV for both equations. Explicit studies of this have been performed with BK. Despite the scale breaking induced by the running coupling we find that evolution drives correlators towards an asymptotic form with near scaling properties. We discuss asymptotic features of the evolution, such as the τ- and A-dependence of Qs away from the initial condition

  2. Universal features of JIMWLK and BK evolution at small x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummukainen, Kari; Weigert, Heribert E-mail: heribert.weigert@physik.uni-regensburg.de

    2004-07-12

    In this paper we present the results of numerical studies of the JIMWLK and BK equations with a particular emphasis on the universal scaling properties and phase space structure involved. The results are valid for near zero impact parameter in DIS. We demonstrate IR safety due to the occurrence of a rapidity-dependent saturation scale Q{sub s}({tau}). Within the set of initial conditions chosen, both JIMWLK and BK equations show remarkable agreement. We point out the crucial importance of running coupling corrections to obtain consistency in the UV for both equations. Explicit studies of this have been performed with BK. Despite the scale breaking induced by the running coupling we find that evolution drives correlators towards an asymptotic form with near scaling properties. We discuss asymptotic features of the evolution, such as the {tau}- and A-dependence of Q{sub s} away from the initial condition.

  3. Coronary arterial BK channel dysfunction exacerbates ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial injury in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tong; Jiang, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Li; Lee, Hon-Chi

    2016-09-01

    The large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channels, abundantly expressed in coronary artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs), play a pivotal role in regulating coronary circulation. A large body of evidence indicates that coronary arterial BK channel function is diminished in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, the consequence of coronary BK channel dysfunction in diabetes is not clear. We hypothesized that impaired coronary BK channel function exacerbates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Combining patch-clamp techniques and cellular biological approaches, we found that diabetes facilitated the colocalization of angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptors and BK channel α-subunits (BK-α), but not BK channel β1-subunits (BK-β1), in the caveolae of coronary SMCs. This caveolar compartmentation in vascular SMCs not only enhanced Ang II-mediated inhibition of BK-α but also produced a physical disassociation between BK-α and BK-β1, leading to increased infarct size in diabetic hearts. Most importantly, genetic ablation of caveolae integrity or pharmacological activation of coronary BK channels protected the cardiac function of diabetic mice from experimental I/R injury in both in vivo and ex vivo preparations. Our results demonstrate a vascular ionic mechanism underlying the poor outcome of myocardial injury in diabetes. Hence, activation of coronary BK channels may serve as a therapeutic target for cardiovascular complications of diabetes. PMID:27574914

  4. What is new in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, P.; Nordling, J.; Ophoven, A. van

    2008-01-01

    . Recent findings The perspective from which we view bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is evolving, as is apparent in the literature this year. It is best perceived as one of many chronic pain syndromes, some of which may be related. International efforts aimed at consistent definition and...... nomenclature are ongoing. Some new treatments have been reported that may be of benefit. Summary In the age of the internet, it is incumbent upon the clinician to keep up with current ideas, epidemiology, and treatment findings to be able to discuss these with well informed patients who come to clinics around...

  5. Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder updated in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yukio; Ueda, Tomohiro; Tomoe, Hikaru; Lin, Alex Tl; Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Lee, Ming-Huei; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Joon Chul; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2016-07-01

    Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder have been updated as of 2015. The guidelines define interstitial cystitis by the presence of hypersensitive bladder symptoms (discomfort, pressure or pain in the bladder usually associated with urinary frequency and nocturia) and bladder pathology, after excluding other diseases explaining symptoms. Interstitial cystitis is further classified by bladder pathology; either Hunner type interstitial cystitis with Hunner lesions or non-Hunner type interstitial cystitis with mucosal bleeding after distension in the absence of Hunner lesions. Hypersensitive bladder refers to a condition, where hypersensitive bladder symptoms are present, but bladder pathology or other explainable diseases are unproven. Interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder severely affect patients' quality of life as a result of disabling symptoms and/or comorbidities. Reported prevalence suggestive of these disorders varies greatly from 0.01% to >6%. Pathophysiology would be an interaction of multiple factors including urothelial dysfunction, inflammation, neural hyperactivity, exogenous substances and extrabladder disorders. Definite diagnosis of interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder requires cystoscopy with or without hydrodistension. Most of the therapeutic options lack a high level of evidence, leaving a few as recommended therapeutic options. PMID:27218442

  6. Treatment options for acute uncomplicated cystitis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, K G

    2000-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is classified as uncomplicated if it occurs in a patient with a structurally and functionally normal urinary tract. Acute uncomplicated cystitis is observed chiefly in women. It needs, however, to be differentiated depending on whether it occurs in premenopausal, postmenopausal or pregnant women. Only a small number of 15-50 year old, otherwise healthy men suffer acute uncomplicated cystitis. In premenopausal, non-pregnant women, single-dose antimicrobial therapy is generally less effective than the same antibiotic used for longer duration. However, most antimicrobial agents given for 3 days are as effective as those given for longer duration, and adverse events tend to be found more often with longer treatment. Trimethoprim (or co-trimoxazole) can be recommended as first-line empirical therapy only in communities with resistance rates of uropathogens to trimethoprim of pivmecillinam, especially when fluoroquinolones are contraindicated or a high proportion (>10%) of Escherichia coil strains in the community are already resistant to fluoroquinolones, as in Spain, for example. Recurrent UTIs are common among young, healthy women even though they generally have anatomically and physiologically normal urinary tracts. The following prophylactic antimicrobial regimens are recommended: (i) the use of long-term, low-dose prophylactic antimicrobials taken at bedtime; (ii) post-coital prophylaxis for women in whom episodes of infection are associated with sexual intercourse. Other prophylactic methods are not as yet as effective as antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:11051620

  7. Emphysematous cystitis: A rare disease of Genito-urinary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Emphysematous cystitis (EC is a rare infection of the urinary tract that results in gas production in the bladder. It is more common in diabetic and female patients, and can be associated with more serious complications, including pyelonephritis. Case Report: We describe a case of recurrent bacterial cystitis caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli. An incidental finding in our patient of pneumaturia on computed tomography (CT scan prompted further work-up. Differential diagnoses for pneumaturia include infection, trauma, and fistula, most commonly colovesicular. The patient history ruled out trauma and CT scanning ruled out a fistula; culture of the urine then showed a bacterial load greater than 100,000 E. coli/mL. The patient was then diagnosed with EC. She was treated with ceftriaxone and released in stable condition. Conclusion: The literature was scarce when it came to diagnoses of EC based on bacterial load. We present this case to increase health care providers′ awareness of recurrent EC with a urine culture bacterial load greater than 100,000 E. coli/mL.

  8. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the successful treatment of two cases of radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Akihito; Ohkubo, Yuhei; Takashima, Rikiya; Furugen, Nobuaki; Tochimoto, Masato; Tsuchiya, Akira (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan). Kasumigaura Hospital)

    1994-08-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis resulting from radiation to pelvic visceral malignant lesions often might be incurable and there have been established no definitive treatment. We experienced 2 cases of radiation-induced severe hemorrhagic cystitis refractory to conventional therapy. The treatment with hyperbaric oxygen to control hematuria was performed and obtained successful results. Gross hematuria was disappeared and cystoscopic figure was remarkably improved. No remarkable side-effect was observed in both patients. This experience suggested that hyperbaric oxygen could be considered as the primary treatment for patient with radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis instead of usual treatment. (author).

  9. Interacting influence of diuretics and diet on BK channel-regulated K homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Donghai; Cornelius, Ryan J; Sansom, Steven C

    2014-04-01

    Large conductance, Ca-activated K channels (BK) are abundantly located in cells of vasculature, glomerulus, and distal nephron, where they are involved in maintaining blood volume, blood pressure, and K homeostasis. In mesangial cells and smooth muscle cells of vessels, the BK-α pore associates with BK-β1 subunits and regulates contraction in a Ca-mediated feedback manner. The BK-β1 also resides in connecting tubule cells of the nephron. BK-β1 knockout mice (β1KO) exhibit fluid retention, hypertension, and compromised K handling. The BK-α/β4 resides in acid/base transporting intercalated cells (IC) of the distal nephron, where they mediate K secretion in mammals on a high K, alkaline diet. BK-α expression in IC is increased by a high K diet via aldosterone. The BK-β4 subunit and alkaline urine are necessary for the luminal expression and function of BK-α in mouse IC. In distal nephron cells, membrane BK-α expression is inhibited by WNK4 in in vitro expression systems, indicating a role in the hyperkalemic phenotype in patients with familial hyperkalemic hypertension type 2 (FHHt2). β1KO and BK-β4 knockout mice (β4KO) are hypertensive because of exaggerated epithelial Na channels (ENaC) mediated Na retention in an effort to secrete K via only renal outer medullary K channels (ROMK). BK hypertension is resistant to thiazides and furosemide, and would be more amenable to ENaC and aldosterone inhibiting drugs. Activators of BK-α/β1 or BK-α/β4 might be effective blood pressure lowering agents for a subset of hypertensive patients. Inhibitors of renal BK would effectively spare K in patients with Bartter Syndrome, a renal K wasting disease. PMID:24721651

  10. A Narrative Review on the Pathophysiology and Management for Radiation Cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Browne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation cystitis is a recognised complication of pelvic radiotherapy. Incidence of radiation cystitis ranges from 23 to 80% and the incidence of severe haematuria ranges from 5 to 8%. High quality data on management strategies for radiation cystitis is sparse. Treatment modalities are subclassified into systemic therapies, intravesical therapies, and hyperbaric oxygen and interventional procedures. Short-term cure rates range from 76 to 95% for hyperbaric oxygen therapy and interventional procedures. Adverse effects of these treatment strategies are acceptable. Ultimately, most patients require multimodal treatment for curative purposes. Large randomised trials exploring emergent management strategies are required in order to strengthen evidence-based treatment strategies. Urologists encounter radiation cystitis commonly and should be familiar with diagnostic modalities and treatment strategies.

  11. Diagnosis of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is better understood. The American Urological Association (AUA) defines IC/BPS as an unpleasant sensation (pain, pressure, ... Am 1994; 21:7. Rosenberg MT, Hazzard M. Prevalence of interstitial cystitis symptoms in women: a population ...

  12. Ibuprofen versus mecillinam for uncomplicated cystitis - a randomized controlled trial study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vik, Ingvild; Bollestad, Marianne; Grude, Nils;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundAlthough uncomplicated cystitis is often self-limiting, most such patients will be prescribed antibiotic treatment. We are investigating whether treatment of cystitis with an NSAID is as effective as an antibiotic in achieving symptomatic resolution.Methods/DesignThis is a randomized......, controlled, double blind trial following the principles of Good Clinical Practice. Women between the ages of 18 to 60 presenting with symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis are screened for eligibility. 500 women from four sites in Norway, Sweden and Denmark are allocated to treatment with 600 mg ibuprofen three.......DiscussionIf treatment of uncomplicated cystitis with ibuprofen is as effective as mecillinam for symptom relief, we can potentially reduce the use of antibiotics on a global scale.Trial registrationEudraCTnr: 2012-002776-14. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01849926....

  13. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic response in a private urogynecology unit

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Carreras, Oscar; González-Ruiz, Maria Isabel; Martínez-Espinoza, Claudia J.; Monroy-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Zaragoza-Torres, Rocio M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a spectrum of pelvic, bladder or urethral pain, as well as irritative voiding symptoms. The term interstitial cystitis (IC) is reserved for patients with typical cystoscopic features. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult. The aim of this study was to describe endoscopic features and our experience on the treatment of this syndrome in Urodifem de Occidente S.C., a private urogynecology unit. Methods Obs...

  14. Estrogen receptor β-deficient female mice develop a bladder phenotype resembling human interstitial cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Imamov, Otabek; Yakimchuk, Konstantin; Morani, Andrea; Schwend, Thomas; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Razumov, Sergei; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2007-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome is a disease seen mostly in women, and symptoms tend to be worse premenopausally or during ovulation. The four cardinal symptoms of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome are bladder pain, urgency, frequency, and nocturia. Estrogen has been implicated in the etiology of this disease, but the role of the two estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, has not been investigated. We found that, in the bladders of WT mice, ERβ is expressed in the b...

  15. BK-parameter from Nf=2 twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an unquenched Nf = 2 lattice computation of the BK parameter which controls K0- anti K0 oscillations. A partially quenched setup is employed with two maximally twisted dynamical (sea) light Wilson quarks, and valence quarks of both the maximally twisted and the Osterwalder-Seiler variety. Suitable combinations of these two kinds of valence quarks lead to a lattice definition of the BK parameter which is both multiplicatively renormalizable and O(a) improved. Employing the non-perturbative RI-MOM scheme, in the continuum limit and at the physical value of the pion mass we get BRGIK=0.729±0.030, a number well in line with the existing quenched and unquenched determinations. (orig.)

  16. Universal features of JIMWLK and BK evolution at small x

    CERN Document Server

    Rummukainen, K; Rummukainen, Kari; Weigert, Heribert

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of numerical studies of the JIMWLK and BK equations with a particular emphasis on the universal scaling properties and phase space structure involved. The results are valid for near zero impact parameter in DIS. We demonstrate IR safety due to the occurrence of a rapidity dependent saturation scale Q_s(\\tau). Within the set of initial conditions chosen both JIMWLK and BK equations show remarkable agreement. We point out the crucial importance of running coupling corrections to obtain consistency in the UV. Despite the scale breaking induced by the running coupling we find that evolution drives correlators towards an asymptotic form with near scaling properties. We discuss asymptotic features of the evolution, such as the \\tau- and A-dependence of Q_s away from the initial condition.

  17. [Cytomegalovirus and BK polyomavirus infection after renal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paolis, P; Gervasio, E; Tedesco, M; Favaro', A; Iappelli, M; Di Giulio, S

    2009-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and BK polyomavirus (BKV) infections have been described in a high percentage of renal transplant patients and are known to cause various complications in renal transplantation. They are closely related to immunosuppressive therapy and implicated in the progression of graft failure. This review focuses on the clinical aspects of CMV and BKV infection after renal transplantation, optimal monitoring, and recent preventive measures and interventions to improve graft function and recipient survival. PMID:19382094

  18. Inhibition of Human BK Polyomavirus Replication by Small Noncoding RNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Tikhanovich, I.; Liang, B.; Seoighe, C.; et al.

    2011-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs regulate a variety of cellular processes, including genomic imprinting, chromatin remodeling, replication, transcription, and translation. Here, we report small replication-regulating RNAs (srRNAs) that specifically inhibit DNA replication of the human BK polyomavirus (BKV) in vitro and in vivo. srRNAs from FM3A murine mammary tumor cells were enriched by DNA replication assay-guided fractionation and hybridization to the BKV noncoding control region (NCCR) and synthesize...

  19. Inhibition of Human BK Polyomavirus Replication by Small Noncoding RNAs▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tikhanovich, Irina; Liang, Bo; Seoighe, Cathal; Folk, William R.; Nasheuer, Heinz Peter

    2011-01-01

    Small noncoding RNAs regulate a variety of cellular processes, including genomic imprinting, chromatin remodeling, replication, transcription, and translation. Here, we report small replication-regulating RNAs (srRNAs) that specifically inhibit DNA replication of the human BK polyomavirus (BKV) in vitro and in vivo. srRNAs from FM3A murine mammary tumor cells were enriched by DNA replication assay-guided fractionation and hybridization to the BKV noncoding control region (NCCR) and synthesize...

  20. Crucial Role of TRPC1 and TRPC4 in Cystitis-Induced Neuronal Sprouting and Bladder Overactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Boudes; Pieter Uvin; Silvia Pinto; Marc Freichel; Lutz Birnbaumer; Thomas Voets; Dirk De Ridder; Rudi Vennekens

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: During cystitis, increased innervation of the bladder by sensory nerves may contribute to bladder overactivity and pain. The mechanisms whereby cystitis leads to hyperinnervation of the bladder are, however, poorly understood. Since TRP channels have been implicated in the guidance of growth cones and survival of neurons, we investigated their involvement in the increases in bladder innervation and bladder activity in rodent models of cystitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To induce bladde...

  1. The use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from an unrelated donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak-Kujda, Donata; Kapelko-Słowik, Katarzyna; Biernat, Monika; Dybko, Jarosław; Laszkowska, Magdalena; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a diffuse inflammation of the bladder of an infectious or non-infectious etiology, causing bleeding of the bladder mucosa. There are no explicit guidelines defining the appropriate treatment of HC. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) is a non-invasive method involving the use of 100 % oxygen under increased pressure, which penetrates to poorly perfused areas. The most appropriate group for treatment with HBO is patients with BK virus-associated HC after allogenic human stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). In this report, we present five patients after alloHSCT from a matched unrelated donor with symptoms of HC successfully treated with HBO. All patients received therapy with 100 % oxygen in a hyperbaric chamber at 2.5 atmospheres for 60 min, delivered 5 days per week. Complete response with resolution of pain and hematuria, as well as eradication of viral load, was achieved by all the patients after a mean of 13 sessions (range 11-30) of HBO. These data indicate that HBO therapy is sufficient and effective in the treatment of HC, and represents a well-tolerated procedure with good clinical and laboratory results after ineffective primary treatment. PMID:26121955

  2. BK channel activation by NS11021 decreases excitability and contractility of urinary bladder smooth muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Layne, Jeffrey J; Nausch, Bernhard; Olesen, Søren-Peter;

    2009-01-01

    activation of BK channels has the converse effect of reducing UBSM excitability and contractility. Here, we have sought to investigate this possibility by using the novel BK channel opener NS11021. NS11021 (3 microM) caused an approximately threefold increase in both single BK channel open probability (P......Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels play an important role in regulating the function and activity of urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM), and the loss of BK channel function has been shown to increase UBSM excitability and contractility. However, it is not known whether......(o)) and whole cell BK channel currents. The frequency of spontaneous action potentials in UBSM strips was reduced by NS11021 from a control value of 20.9 + or - 5.9 to 10.9 + or - 3.7 per minute. NS11021 also reduced the force of UBSM spontaneous phasic contractions by approximately 50%, and this force...

  3. Unique Inner Pore Properties of BK Channels Revealed by Quaternary Ammonium Block

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Weiyan; Aldrich, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    Potassium channels have a very wide distribution of single-channel conductance, with BK type Ca2+-activated K+ channels having by far the largest. Even though crystallographic views of K+ channel pores have become available, the structural basis underlying BK channels' large conductance has not been completely understood. In this study we use intracellularly applied quaternary ammonium compounds to probe the pore of BK channels. We show that molecules as large as decyltriethylammonium (C10) a...

  4. Pengaruh Sumber Karbon dan Nitrogen Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Pembentukan Spora Bacillus sp. Bk17

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmi

    2014-01-01

    Study of the effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on the growth and sporulation of Bacillus sp. BK17 has been conducted. Bacillus sp. BK17 was cultured in broth medium containing different carbon and nitrogen sources, and incubated for 6 days. The highest growth of Bacillus sp. BK17 was obtained on molasses-tryptone medium incubated during 3 days and the lowest growth obtained on whey-sodium nitrate. The highest spore formation was also obtained from molasses-tryptone mediu...

  5. Reactivation of BK polyomavirus in patients with multiple sclerosis receiving natalizumab therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lonergan, Roisin M

    2012-02-01

    Natalizumab therapy in multiple sclerosis has been associated with JC polyomavirus-induced progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. We hypothesized that natalizumab may also lead to reactivation of BK, a related human polyomavirus capable of causing morbidity in immunosuppressed groups. Patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis treated with natalizumab were prospectively monitored for reactivation of BK virus in blood and urine samples, and for evidence of associated renal dysfunction. In this cohort, JC and BK DNA in blood and urine; cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in blood and urine; CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte counts and ratios in peripheral blood; and renal function were monitored at regular intervals. BK subtyping and noncoding control region sequencing was performed on samples demonstrating reactivation. Prior to commencement of natalizumab therapy, 3 of 36 patients with multiple sclerosis (8.3%) had BK viruria and BK reactivation occurred in 12 of 54 patients (22.2%). BK viruria was transient in 7, continuous in 2 patients, and persistent viruria was associated with transient viremia. Concomitant JC and CMV viral loads were undetectable. CD4:CD8 ratios fluctuated, but absolute CD4 counts did not fall below normal limits. In four of seven patients with BK virus reactivation, transient reductions in CD4 counts were observed at onset of BK viruria: these resolved in three of four patients on resuppression of BK replication. No renal dysfunction was observed in the cohort. BK virus reactivation can occur during natalizumab therapy; however, the significance in the absence of renal dysfunction is unclear. We propose regular monitoring for BK reactivation or at least for evidence of renal dysfunction in patients receiving natalizumab.

  6. Calcium-Activated Potassium (BK) Channels Are Encoded by Duplicate slo1 Genes in Teleost Fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Rohmann, Kevin N.; Deitcher, David L.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    Calcium-activated, large conductance potassium (BK) channels in tetrapods are encoded by a single slo1 gene, which undergoes extensive alternative splicing. Alternative splicing generates a high level of functional diversity in BK channels that contributes to the wide range of frequencies electrically tuned by the inner ear hair cells of many tetrapods. To date, the role of BK channels in hearing among teleost fishes has not been investigated at the molecular level, although teleosts account ...

  7. Interacting influence of diuretics and diet on BK channel-regulated K homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Donghai; Cornelius, Ryan J.; Sansom, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Large conductance, Ca-activated K channels are abundantly located in cells of vasculature, glomerulus and distal nephron, where they are involved in maintaining blood volume, blood pressure and K homeostasis. In mesangial cells and smooth muscle cells of vessels, the BK-α pore associates with BK-β1 subunits and regulates contraction in a Ca-mediated feedback manner. The BK-β1 also resides in connecting tubule cells of the nephron. BK-β1 knockout mice (β1KO) exhibit fluid retention, hypertensi...

  8. BK virus infection in a renal transplant Saudi child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BK human polyomavirus (BKV) causes an asymptomatic primary infection in children, but later, establishes latency mainly in the urinary tract. Virus-host interactions influencing persistence and pathogenicity are not well-understood. We present here a 12-year-old Saudi boy, who had renal transplant in Egypt. Seven months later, he was admitted to our Pediatric Nephrology Unit as a case of renal impairment. He developed BKV infection, diagnosed and successfully managed in our hospital. This case demonstrates the expanding clinical importance of BKV in a post renal transplant patient. This virus can be detected in transitional cells in the urine (decoy cells) using cytology. Testing for BKV deoxyribonucleic acid in urine and blood is an early detection assay, and can be used as a screening test in the early stages. The early reduction of immunosuppression can improve the prognosis. No specific antiviral treatment has been established yet. This is the first report of detecting BK virus in a Saudi post-transplant child in urine and blood specimens by using polymerase chain reaction. (author)

  9. Collinearly-improved BK evolution meets the HERA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Iancu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In a previous publication, we have established a collinearly-improved version of the Balitsky–Kovchegov (BK equation, which resums to all orders the radiative corrections enhanced by large double transverse logarithms. Here, we study the relevance of this equation as a tool for phenomenology, by confronting it to the HERA data. To that aim, we first improve the perturbative accuracy of our resummation, by including two classes of single-logarithmic corrections: those generated by the first non-singular terms in the DGLAP splitting functions and those expressing the one-loop running of the QCD coupling. The equation thus obtained includes all the next-to-leading order corrections to the BK equation which are enhanced by (single or double collinear logarithms. We then use numerical solutions to this equation to fit the HERA data for the electron–proton reduced cross-section at small Bjorken x. We obtain good quality fits for physically acceptable initial conditions. Our best fit, which shows a good stability up to virtualities as large as Q2=400 GeV2 for the exchanged photon, uses as an initial condition the running-coupling version of the McLerran–Venugopalan model, with the QCD coupling running according to the smallest dipole prescription.

  10. Collinearly-improved BK evolution meets the HERA data

    CERN Document Server

    Iancu, E; Mueller, A H; Soyez, G; Triantafyllopoulos, D N

    2015-01-01

    In a previous publication, we have established a collinearly-improved version of the Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation, which resums to all orders the radiative corrections enhanced by large double transverse logarithms. Here, we study the relevance of this equation as a tool for phenomenology, by confronting it to the HERA data. To that aim, we first improve the perturbative accuracy of our resummation, by including two classes of single-logarithmic corrections: those generated by the first non-singular terms in the DGLAP splitting functions and those expressing the one-loop running of the QCD coupling. The equation thus obtained includes all the next-to-leading order corrections to the BK equation which are enhanced by (single or double) collinear logarithms. We then use numerical solutions to this equation to fit the HERA data for the electron-proton reduced cross-section at small Bjorken x. We obtain good quality fits for physically acceptable initial conditions. Our best fit, which shows a good stability ...

  11. Botulinum Toxin A for Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Bin; Tai, Huai-Ching; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Birder, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A), derived from Clostridium botulinum, has been used clinically for several diseases or syndrome including chronic migraine, spasticity, focal dystonia and other neuropathic pain. Chronic pelvic or bladder pain is the one of the core symptoms of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). However, in the field of urology, chronic bladder or pelvic pain is often difficult to eradicate by oral medications or bladder instillation therapy. We are looking for new treatment modality to improve bladder pain or associated urinary symptoms such as frequency and urgency for patients with BPS/IC. Recent studies investigating the mechanism of the antinociceptive effects of BoNT A suggest that it can inhibit the release of peripheral neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators from sensory nerves. In this review, we will examine the evidence supporting the use of BoNTs in bladder pain from basic science models and review the clinical studies on therapeutic applications of BoNT for BPS/IC. PMID:27376330

  12. Hemorrhagic cystitis; an old story with new advancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Yildirim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CP, an oxazaphosphorine alkylating agent introduced in 1958, is widely used in the treatment of solid tumors and B-cell malignant disease, such as lymphoma, myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Furthermore, CP and ifosfamide, a synthetic analogue of CP, have had an increasing role in the treatment of nonneoplastic diseases, such as thrombocytopenic purpura, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosis, nephritic syndrome, and Wegener granulomatosis, and as a conditioner before bone marrow transplantation. Soon after their discovery, as early as 1960, the first side-effects of CP were reported by Coggins and co-workers. These side-effects have been reported as transient irritative voiding symptoms, including urinary frequency, dysuria, urgency, suprapubic discomfort and strangury with microhematuria as well as life-threatening hemorrhagic cystitis. Bladder fibrosis, necrosis, contracture, and vesicoureteral reflux also have been reported. Hemorrhage usually occurs during or immediately after treatment, whether with short-term high or long-term low dosages. In 1981, Brock et al have documented that... [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(2.000: 93-94

  13. Polaprezinc attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis and related bladder pain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami-Nakayama, Masahiro; Tsubota, Maho; Hiruma, Saki; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Matsuyama, Kenji; Kimura, Takeshi; Moriyama, Masahiro; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2015-02-01

    Cav3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels targeted by H2S, a gasotransmitter, participate in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis and bladder pain. Given that zinc selectively inhibits Cav3.2 among T-channel isoforms and also exhibits antioxidant activity, we examined whether polaprezinc (zinc-l-carnosine), a medicine for peptic ulcer treatment and zinc supplementation, reveals preventive or therapeutic effects on bladder inflammation and/or pain in the mouse with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis, a model for interstitial cystitis. Systemic administration of cyclophosphamide caused cystitis-related symptoms including increased bladder weight and vascular permeability, and histological signs of bladder edema, accompanied by bladder pain-like nociceptive behavior/referred hyperalgesia. All these symptoms were significantly attenuated by oral preadministration of polaprezinc at 400 mg/kg. The same dose of polaprezinc also prevented the increased malondialdehyde level, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, and protein upregulation of cystathionine-γ-lyase, an H2S-generating enzyme, but not occludin, a tight junction-related membrane protein, in the bladder tissue of cyclophosphamide-treated mice. Oral posttreatment with polaprezinc at 30-100 mg/kg reversed the nociceptive behavior/referred hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner without affecting the increased bladder weight. Together, our data show that zinc supplementation with polaprezinc prevents the cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis probably through the antioxidant activity, and, like T-channel blockers, reverses the established cystitis-related bladder pain in mice, suggesting novel therapeutic usefulness of polaprezinc. PMID:25727961

  14. Nursing Care of Women With Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMullen, Nancy J; Dulski, Laura A; Martin, Patricia B; Blobaum, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome is a chronic condition affecting approximately 3.3 million women in the United States. It is defined by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases as "urinary pain that can't be attributed to other causes such as infection or urinary stones." Because of the intimate nature of the symptoms, women are often reluctant to seek treatment. When they do, they require a care provider with specialized nursing skills. Nursing practice based on carefully reviewed literature will result in the provision of comprehensive and compassionate nursing care for women with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. PMID:27067933

  15. InterProScan Result: BK005919 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BK005919 BK005919_1_ORF1 CAA510C026AD7115 PANTHER PTHR21137 7tm6_olfct_rcpt 9.800002721303041E-2 ... t binding (GO:0005549)|Biological Process: sensory perception ... of smell (GO:0007608)|Cellular Component: membrane ...

  16. InterProScan Result: BK005919 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BK005919 BK005919_1_ORF1 CAA510C026AD7115 PFAM PF02949 7tm_6 6.900000000000011E-20 T IPR004117 O ... t binding (GO:0005549)|Biological Process: sensory perception ... of smell (GO:0007608)|Cellular Component: membrane ...

  17. Cochlear function in mice lacking the BK channel alpha, beta1, or beta4 subunits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyott, Sonja J; Meredith, Andrea L; Fodor, Anthony A; Vázquez, Ana E; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Aldrich, Richard W

    2007-01-01

    Large conductance voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels are important for regulating many essential cellular functions, from neuronal action potential shape and firing rate to smooth muscle contractility. In amphibians, reptiles, and birds, BK channels mediate the intrinsic frequenc

  18. KCNMA1 encoded cardiac BK channels afford protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltysinska, Ewa; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Barthmes, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial potassium channels have been implicated in myocardial protection mediated through pre-/postconditioning. Compounds that open the Ca2+- and voltage-activated potassium channel of big-conductance (BK) have a pre-conditioning-like effect on survival of cardiomyocytes after ischemia....../reperfusion injury. Recently, mitochondrial BK channels (mitoBKs) in cardiomyocytes were implicated as infarct-limiting factors that derive directly from the KCNMA1 gene encoding for canonical BKs usually present at the plasma membrane of cells. However, some studies challenged these cardio-protective roles of mito......BKs. Herein, we present electrophysiological evidence for paxilline- and NS11021-sensitive BK-mediated currents of 190 pS conductance in mitoplasts from wild-type but not BK-/- cardiomyocytes. Transmission electron microscopy of BK-/- ventricular muscles fibres showed normal ultra-structures and matrix...

  19. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and glycosaminoglycans replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervigni, Mauro

    2015-12-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating chronic disease characterized by discomfort or recurrent abdominal and pelvic pains in the absence of urinary tract infections. Its symptomatology includes discomfort, increased bladder pressure, sensitivity and intense pain in the bladder and pelvic areas, increased voiding frequency and urgency, or a combination of these symptoms. For these reasons, this pathology has a very negative impact on quality of life. The etiology of IC/BPS is still not well understood and different hypotheses have been formulated, including autoimmune processes, allergic reactions, chronic bacterial infections, exposure to toxins or dietary elements, and psychosomatic factors. The finding of an effective and specific therapy for IC/BPS remains a challenge for the scientific community because of the lack of a consensus regarding the causes and the inherent difficulties in the diagnosis. The last recent hypothesis is that IC/BPS could be pathophysiologically related to a disruption of the bladder mucosa surface layer with consequent loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This class of mucopolysaccharides has hydrorepellent properties and their alteration expose the urothelium to many urinary toxic agents. It has been hypothesized that when these substances penetrate the bladder wall a chain is triggered in the submucosa. In order to improve the integrity and function of the bladder lining, GAG layer replenishment therapy is widely accepted as therapy for patients with IC/BPS who have poor or inadequate response to conventional therapy. Currently, Chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparin, hyaluronic acid (HA), and pentosan polysulphate (PPS), and combinations of two GAGs (CS and HA) are the available substances with different effectiveness rates in patients with IC/BPS. There are four different commercially available products for GAG replenishment including CS, heparin, HA and PPS. Each product has different concentrations and

  20. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is associated with hyperthyroidism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Dong Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC is still unclear, a common theme with BPS/IC patients is comorbid disorders which are related to the autonomic nervous system that connects the nervous system to end-organs. Nevertheless, no study to date has reported the association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. In this study, we examined the association of IC/BPS with having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism in Taiwan. DESIGN: Data in this study were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Our study consisted of 736 female cases with BPS/IC and 2208 randomly selected female controls. We performed a conditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR for having previously been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism between cases and controls. RESULTS: Of the 2944 sampled subjects, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior hyperthyroidism between cases and controls (3.3% vs. 1.5%, p<0.001. The conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to controls, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.27∼3.66. Furthermore, the OR for prior hyperthyroidism among cases was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.15∼3.53 compared to controls after adjusting for diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, hyperlipidemia, chronic pelvic pain, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, panic disorder, migraines, sicca syndrome, allergies, endometriosis, and asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Our study results indicated an association between hyperthyroidism and BPS/IC. We suggest that clinicians treating female subjects with hyperthyroidism be alert to urinary complaints in this population.

  1. Bladder substitution by ileal neobladder for women with interstitial cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wachira Kochakarn

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report our experience with cystectomy and ileal neobladder for women with interstitial cystitis (IC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five female patients treated during 2000-2005 with the mean age of 45.9 ± 4.4 years were included in this study. All of them had experience suprapubic pain with irritative voiding symptoms and were diagnosed as having IC based on NIDDK criteria for at least 2 years. Conservative treatments had failed to relieve their symptoms; and therefore all of them agreed to undergo a bladder removal. For cystectomy, the urethra was cut 0.5 cm below the bladder neck, proximal to the pubourethral ligament, leaving the endopelvic fascia intact. An ileal segment of 65 cm was used to create the neobladder with the Studer's technique. RESULTS: All patients presented good treatment outcome with regard to both diurnal and nocturnal urinary control without any pain. Quality of life using the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement of both physical health and mental health. Spontaneous voiding with minimal residual urine was found in 33 cases (94.3%, and the remaining 2 cases (5.7% had spontaneous voiding with residual urine and were placed on clean intermittent catheterization (CIC. Twelve out of 30 cases with sexually active ability had a mild degree of dyspareunia but without disturbance to sexual life. CONCLUSION: Bladder substitution by ileal neobladder for women who suffer from IC can be a satisfactory option after failure of conservative treatment. Resection of the urethra distal to the bladder neck can preserve continence and allow spontaneous voiding in almost all patients.

  2. Covariance fitting of highly correlated $B_K$ data

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Boram; Jung, Chulwoo; Lee, Weonjong

    2011-01-01

    We present the reason why we use the diagonal approximation (uncorrelated fitting) when we perform the data analysis of highly correlated $B_K$ data on the basis of the SU(2) staggered chiral perturbation theory. Basically, the essence of the problem is that we do not have enough statistics to determine the small eigenvalues of the covariance matrix with a high precision. As a result, we have the smallest eigenvalue, which is smaller than the statistical error of the covariance matrix, corresponding to an unphysical eigenmode. We have applied a number of prescriptions available in the market such as the cutoff method and modified covariance matrix method. It turns out that the cutoff method is not a good prescription and the modified covariance matrix method is an even worse one. The diagonal approximation turns out to be a good prescription if the data points are somehow correlated and the statistics are relatively poor.

  3. Oxidative Stress and Maxi Calcium-Activated Potassium (BK Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Hermann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available All cells contain ion channels in their outer (plasma and inner (organelle membranes. Ion channels, similar to other proteins, are targets of oxidative impact, which modulates ion fluxes across membranes. Subsequently, these ion currents affect electrical excitability, such as action potential discharge (in neurons, muscle, and receptor cells, alteration of the membrane resting potential, synaptic transmission, hormone secretion, muscle contraction or coordination of the cell cycle. In this chapter we summarize effects of oxidative stress and redox mechanisms on some ion channels, in particular on maxi calcium-activated potassium (BK channels which play an outstanding role in a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological functions in almost all cells and tissues. We first elaborate on some general features of ion channel structure and function and then summarize effects of oxidative alterations of ion channels and their functional consequences.

  4. Expression of BK Ca channels and the modulatory beta-subunits in the rat and porcine trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Helle Wulf; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Klærke, Dan Arne; Olesen, Jes; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    2009-01-01

    cerebral arteries. We hypothesize that BK(Ca) channel alpha- and beta-subunits are present in the rat and porcine trigeminal ganglion (TG) thus enabling a role in migraine. BK(Ca) channel mRNA was detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization. BK...

  5. Fusion and quasifission dynamics in the reactions $^{48}$Ca+$^{249}$Bk and $^{50}$Ti+$^{249}$Bk using TDHF

    CERN Document Server

    Umar, A S; Simenel, C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Synthesis of superheavy elements (SHE) with fusion-evaporation reactions is strongly hindered by the quasifission (QF) mechanism which prevents the formation of an equilibrated compound nucleus and which depends on the structure of the reactants. New SHE have been recently produced with doubly-magic $^{48}$Ca beams. However, SHE synthesis experiments with single-magic $^{50}$Ti beams have so far been unsuccessful. Purpose: In connection with experimental searches for $Z=117,119$ superheavy elements, we perform a theoretical study of fusion and quasifission mechanisms in $^{48}$Ca,$^{50}$Ti+$^{249}$Bk reactions in order to investigate possible differences in reaction mechanisms induced by these two projectiles. Methods: The collision dynamics and the outcome of the reactions are studied using unrestricted time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) calculations as well as the density-constrained TDHF method to extract the nucleus-nucleus potentials and the excitation energy in each fragment. Results: Nucleu...

  6. Childhood sexual trauma in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickel, J Curtis; Tripp, Dean A; Pontari, Michel; Moldwin, Robert; Mayer, Robert; Carr, Lesley K; Doggweiler, Ragi; Yang, Claire C; Mishra, Nagendra; Nordling, Jorgen

    2011-01-01

    The impact of early lifetime trauma on symptom severity and quality of life of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) has not been fully elucidated. We wanted to determine and compare the prevalence and impact of childhood traumatic events, with an emphasis on childhoo...... sexual abuse, on patient symptoms, quality of life and other biopsychosocial parameters....

  7. Childhood sexual trauma in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickel, J Curtis; Tripp, Dean A; Pontari, Michel;

    2011-01-01

    The impact of early lifetime trauma on symptom severity and quality of life of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) has not been fully elucidated. We wanted to determine and compare the prevalence and impact of childhood traumatic events, with an emphasis on childhood...

  8. Adrenaline-induced colonic K+ secretion is mediated by KCa1.1 (BK) channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Sausbier, Matthias; Ruth, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    anion secretion and a smaller electrically opposing K(+) secretion. Using tissue from (i) BK wildtype (BK(+/+)) and knockout (BK(/)) and (ii) cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) wildtype (CFTR(+/+)) and knockout (CFTR(/)) mice we were able to isolate the adrenaline-induced K(+) secretion. We...... found that adrenaline-induced K(+) secretion: (1) is absent in colonic epithelia from BK(/) mice, (2) is greatly up-regulated in mice on a high K(+) diet and (3) is present as sustained positive current in colonic epithelia from CFTR(/) mice. We identified two known C-terminal BK alpha-subunit splice...

  9. Bk and Cf chromatographic separation and 249Bk/248Cm and 249Cf/248Cm elemental ratios determination by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French Atomic Energy Commission has carried out several experiments for the study of minor-actinide transmutation processes in high intensity thermal neutron flux. In this context a Cm sample enriched in 248Cm (97%) was irradiated in a thermal neutron flux at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). The precise and accurate determination of Cf isotope ratios and of 249Bk/248Cm and 249Cf/248Cm elemental ratios in the 248Cm irradiated sample is crucial for the calculation of actinide neutron capture cross-sections.This work describes an analytical procedure for the separation and the isotope ratio measurement of Bk and Cf in the irradiated sample.The Bk and Cf separation is based on a lanthanides separation protocol previously developed by the laboratory. Well-defined retention times for Bk and Cf were obtained by coupling the Ionic Chromatography (IC) with an ICP-QMS. All conditions of element separation by IC and the different steps of the analytical protocol in order to obtain the isotopic and elemental ratios are presented. Relative uncertainties of Cf isotopic ratios range from 0.3% to 0.5% and the uncertainty of the 249Bk/248Cm and 249Cf/248Cm elemental ratios are respectively 6.1% and 3.2%.This level of uncertainty for both isotopic and elemental ratios is in perfect agreement with the requirement for transmutation studies. (authors)

  10. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliai, Caspian; Fisher, Brandon; Jani, Ashish; Wong, Michael; Poli, Jaganmohan; Brady, Luther W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Komarnicky, Lydia T., E-mail: lydia.komarnicky-kocher@drexelmed.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a retrospective analysis of the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for treating hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and proctitis secondary to pelvic- and prostate-only radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients were treated with HBOT for radiation-induced HC and proctitis. The median age at treatment was 66 years (range, 15-84 years). The range of external-beam radiation delivered was 50.0-75.6 Gy. Bleeding must have been refractory to other therapies. Patients received 100% oxygen at 2.0 atmospheres absolute pressure for 90-120 min per treatment in a monoplace chamber. Symptoms were retrospectively scored according to the Late Effects of Normal Tissues-Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic (LENT-SOMA) scale to evaluate short-term efficacy. Recurrence of hematuria/hematochezia was used to assess long-term efficacy. Results: Four of the 19 patients were lost to follow-up. Fifteen patients were evaluated and received a mean of 29.8 dives: 11 developed HC and 4 proctitis. All patients experienced a reduction in their LENT-SOMA score. After completion of HBOT, the mean LENT-SOMA score was reduced from 0.78 to 0.20 in patients with HC and from 0.66 to 0.26 in patients with proctitis. Median follow-up was 39 months (range, 7-70 months). No cases of hematuria were refractory to HBOT. Complete resolution of hematuria was seen in 81% (n = 9) and partial response in 18% (n = 2). Recurrence of hematuria occurred in 36% (n = 4) after a median of 10 months. Complete resolution of hematochezia was seen in 50% (n = 2), partial response in 25% (n = 1), and refractory bleeding in 25% (n = 1). Conclusions: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is appropriate for radiation-induced HC once less time-consuming therapies have failed to resolve the bleeding. In these conditions, HBOT is efficacious in the short and long term, with minimal side effects.

  11. The influence of montelukast on the autonomic nervous system activity in rats with cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrek Lukasz; Skowron Beata; Baranowska Agnieszka; Thor Piotr Jan

    2015-01-01

    The complex pathogenesis of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis involves arachidonic acid-derived inflammatory mediators, among them leukotrienes. Montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, is reported to exert an alleviatory effect in the course of cystitis associated with overactive bladder symptoms. The aim of this study was to verify whether the effect of montelukast is also associated with its influence on autonomic activity. The experiment included 20 rats with cyclophosp...

  12. Long-term experience of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for refractory radio- or chemotherapy-induced haemorrhagic cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Degener, Stephan; Pohle, Alexander; Strelow, Hartmut; Mathers, Michael J.; Zumbé, Jürgen; Roth, Stephan; Brandt, Alexander S

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy and cyclophosphamide-induced haemorrhagic cystitis are rare but severe complications occurring in 3–6% of patients. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for haematuria not responding to conventional management. Only very few data exist for long-term follow-up after HBOT. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 15 patients referred for HBOT for haemorrhagic cystitis (HC). HBOT was performed for 130 min/day at a pressure of 2....

  13. BK channels in microglia are required for morphine-induced hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshinori; Morinaga, Saori; Zhang, Jing; Satoh, Yasushi; Meredith, Andrea L; Nakata, Takahiro; Wu, Zhou; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Although morphine is a gold standard medication, long-term opioid use is associated with serious side effects, such as morphine-induced hyperalgesia (MIH) and anti-nociceptive tolerance. Microglia-to-neuron signalling is critically involved in pain hypersensitivity. However, molecules that control microglial cellular state under chronic morphine treatment remain unknown. Here we show that the microglia-specific subtype of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channel is responsible for generation of MIH and anti-nociceptive tolerance. We find that, after chronic morphine administration, an increase in arachidonic acid levels through the μ-opioid receptors leads to the sole activation of microglial BK channels in the spinal cord. Silencing BK channel auxiliary β3 subunit significantly attenuates the generation of MIH and anti-nociceptive tolerance, and increases neurotransmission after chronic morphine administration. Therefore, microglia-specific BK channels contribute to the generation of MIH and anti-nociceptive tolerance. PMID:27241733

  14. Froth characteristic of MIBC and BK-201 frothers%起泡剂MIBC和BK-201的浮选泡沫特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾培; 欧乐明; 冯其明; 李洪强; 张福亚

    2015-01-01

    选用非极性基结构不同的起泡剂MIBC和BK-201,利用自制的泡沫性能测试系统,在两相泡沫体系下,测定两相泡沫不同高度处的气泡直径、静压强、表观溢流速度,研究起泡剂对泡沫特征及夹带的影响.结果表明:增加起泡剂浓度,气泡的兼并行为受到抑制,气泡直径逐渐减小;当MIBC浓度超过75 mg/L、BK-201浓度超过150 mg/L时,兼并行为受到显著抑制,气泡直径基本保持不变.在相同的浓度下,相比MIBC,BK-201产生的泡沫气泡直径大、含液率低、水回收速率低.因而,微细粒脉石在BK-201所形成泡沫中夹带更弱,浮选选择性更好.%By using self-designed foam property testing system, two nonpolar base structure frothers, MIBC and BK-201 were chosen to study the influences of frothers on the foam characteristic and entrainment by measuring the bubble diameter, static pressure and apparent flooding velocity in the two-phase foam. The results show that bubble merger degree reduces and air bubble diameter decreases with increasing frothers concentration. When the concentrations of MIBC and BK-201 are more than 75 and 150 mg/L, respectively, the air bubble diameter basically remains unchanged because the merger behavior is dramatically depressed. Under the same concentration, BK-201 generates larger diameter bubble, lower liquid holdup and lower water recovery compared with MIBC. As a result, the foam entrainment of fine gangue is weaker and the selectivity of flotation is better when BK-201 is used.

  15. BK channel β1 and β4 auxiliary subunits exert opposite influences on escalated ethanol drinking in dependent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifeldt, Max; Le, David; Treistman, Steven N; Koob, George F; Contet, Candice

    2013-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels play a key role in the control of neuronal activity. Ethanol is a potent activator of BK channel gating, but how this action may impact ethanol drinking still remains poorly understood. Auxiliary β subunits are known to modulate ethanol-induced potentiation of BK currents. In the present study, we investigated whether BK β1 and β4 subunits influence voluntary ethanol consumption using knockout (KO) mice. In a first experiment, mice were first subjected to continuous two-bottle choice (2BC) and were then switched to intermittent 2BC, which progressively increased ethanol intake as previously described in wildtype mice. BK β1 or β4 subunit deficiency did not affect ethanol self-administration under either schedule of access. In a second experiment, mice were first trained to drink ethanol in a limited-access 2BC paradigm. BK β1 or β4 deletion did not affect baseline consumption. Weeks of 2BC were then alternated with weeks of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) or air inhalation. As expected, a gradual escalation of ethanol drinking was observed in dependent wildtype mice, while intake remained stable in non-dependent wildtype mice. However, CIE exposure only produced a mild augmentation of ethanol consumption in BK β4 KO mice. Conversely, ethanol drinking increased after fewer CIE cycles in BK β1 KO mice than in wildtype mice. In conclusion, BK β1 or β4 did not influence voluntary ethanol drinking in non-dependent mice, regardless of the pattern of access to ethanol. However, deletion of BK β4 attenuated, while deletion of BK β1 accelerated, the escalation of ethanol drinking during withdrawal from CIE. Our data suggest that BK β1 and β4 subunits have an opposite influence on the negative reinforcing properties of ethanol withdrawal. Modulating the expression, distribution or interactions of BK channel auxiliary subunits may therefore represent a novel avenue for the treatment of alcoholism

  16. BK channel β1 and β4 auxiliary subunits exert opposite influences on escalated ethanol drinking in dependent mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max eKreifeldt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK channels play a key role in the control of neuronal activity. Ethanol is a potent activator of BK channel gating, but how this action may impact ethanol drinking still remains poorly understood. Auxiliary β subunits are known to modulate ethanol-induced potentiation of BK currents. In the present study, we investigated whether BK β1 and β4 subunits influence voluntary ethanol consumption using knockout mice. In a first experiment, mice were first subjected to continuous two-bottle choice (2BC and were then switched to intermittent 2BC, which progressively increased ethanol intake as previously described in wildtype mice. BK β1 or β4 subunit deficiency did not affect ethanol self-administration under either schedule of access. In a second experiment, mice were first trained to drink ethanol in a limited-access 2BC paradigm. BK β1 or β4 deletion did not affect baseline consumption. Weeks of 2BC were then alternated with weeks of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE or air inhalation. As expected, a gradual escalation of ethanol drinking was observed in dependent wildtype mice, while intake remained stable in non-dependent wildtype mice. However, CIE exposure only produced a mild augmentation of ethanol consumption in BK β4 knockout mice. Conversely, ethanol drinking increased after fewer CIE cycles in BK β1 knockout mice than in wildtype mice. In conclusion, BK β1 or β4 did not influence voluntary ethanol drinking in non-dependent mice, regardless of the pattern of access to ethanol. However, deletion of BK β4 attenuated, while deletion of BK β1 accelerated, the escalation of ethanol drinking during withdrawal from CIE. Our data suggest that BK β1 and β4 subunits have an opposite influence on the negative reinforcing properties of ethanol withdrawal. Modulating the expression, distribution or interactions of BK channel auxiliary subunits may therefore represent a novel avenue for the

  17. [Recurrent cystitis and vaginitis: role of biofilms and persister cells. From pathophysiology to new therapeutic strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, A; Zanello, P P; D'Errico, G

    2014-10-01

    Recurrent vaginitis and cystitis are a daily challenge for the woman and the physician. The recurrence worsens the symptoms' severity, increases comorbidities, both pelvic (provoked vestibulodynia, bladder pain syndrome, levator ani hyperactivity, introital dyspareunia, obstructive constipation, chronic pelvic pain) and cerebral (neuroinflammation and depression), increases health costs, worsens the quality of life. Antibiotics increase the risk of bacterial resistences and devastate the ecosystems: intestinal, vaginal and mucocutaneous. Pathogenic biofilms are the (still) neglected etiology of recurrences. Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria and yeasts, protected by a self-produced polymeric matrix adherent to a living or inert structures, such as medical devices. Biofims can be intra or extracellular. Pathogens live in a resting state in the deep biofilm layers as "persister cells", resistant to antibiotics and host defences and ready to re-attack the host. The paper updates the evidence on biofilms and introduces new non-antibiotic strategies of preventing and modulating recurrent vaginitis and cystitis. PMID:25245998

  18. Diagnostic criteria, classification, and nomenclature for painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis: An ESSIC proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merwe, J.P.V. de; Nordling, J.; Bouchelouche, P.;

    2008-01-01

    to overcome the lack of international agreement on various aspects of IC. Methods: ESSIC has discussed definitions, diagnostic criteria, and disease classification in four meetings and extended e-mail correspondence. Results: It was agreed to name the disease bladder pain syndrome (BPS) BPS would be......Objectives: Because the term ''interstitial cystitis'' (IC) has different meanings in different centers and different parts of the world, the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC) has worked to create a consensus on definitions, diagnosis, and classification in an attempt...... diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom such as persistent urge to void or urinary frequency. Confusable diseases as the cause of the symptoms must be excluded. Classification of...

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen: an important treatment modality in severe hemorrhagic cystitis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Sargın; Murat Tunç; Nuray Gürses; Oktay Perdeci; Sevgi Kalayoğlu-Beşışık; Mustafa Nuri Yenerel

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a generally self-limited complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It may occur in the early or late posttransplant period and can promote sometimes severe morbidity. We analyzed our data regarding HC in allogeneic HSCT patients in order to establish the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in severe HC and to document the main problems during its use. Material and Methods: Between March 1993 and August 2006, 161 patients re...

  20. Chemical- and radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis: current treatments and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Heather; Adamson, Andrew; Bahl, Amit; Borwell, Jonathan; Dodds, David; Heath, Catherine; Huddart, Robert; McMenemin, Rhona; Patel, Prashant; Peters, John L; Thompson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    To review the published data on predisposing risk factors for cancer treatment-induced haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and the evidence for the different preventive and therapeutic measures that have been used in order to help clinicians optimally define and manage this potentially serious condition. Despite recognition that HC can be a significant complication of cancer treatment, there is currently a lack of UK-led guidelines available on how it should optimally be defined and managed. A systema...

  1. Chemotherapy-induced hemorrhagic cystitis: pathogenesis, pharmacological approaches and new insights

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos V.A. Lima; Macedo, Francisco Y B; Jose Mauricio S.C. Mota; Caio Abner V.G. Leite; Lima-Junior, Roberto C.P.; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Brito, Gerly A. C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) remains a common and life-threatening clinical complication, mainly due to the increasing usage of alkylating agents during conditioning regimen for hematopoietic cell transplantation. Currently, mesna and hyperhydration are the two more employed preventive measures. However, these prophylactic approaches have been proven not to be completely effective, since cystoscopic and histopathologic bladder damage are evidenced. Therefore, understanding t...

  2. Montelukast as a Successful Treatment for Eosinophilic Cystitis in an Asthmatic Woman Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Shicheng; ZHANG, ZHIGEN; Li, Gonghui

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare inflammatory disorder. We herein report a case of EC in an asthmatic female patient who had a recent exacerbation with none known allergen. She was administered montelukast sodium orally for four weeks and received complete remission. This medication was successfully discontinued after a three-month follow up period. This case report about successful treatment of an adult EC patient using montelukast sodium may provide a new option for EC patients with all...

  3. Comparison of uroprotective efficacy of mesna and amifostine in Cyclophosphamide- induced hemorrhagic cystitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kanat Ozkan; Kurt E; Yalcinkaya U; Evrensel T; Manavoglu O

    2006-01-01

    Background:Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a dose limiting side effect of cyclophosphamide (CYP). AIM: In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of amifostine in the protection of CYP-induced HC and compare its efficacy with mesna. SETTING AND DESIGN: This animal study was conducted in the Experimental Animals Breeding and Research Center of the Medical Faculty of Uludag University. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (150-200 g; 10 rats per group) were randomly assigned to four ...

  4. Intrathecal cannabinoid-1 receptor agonist prevents referred hyperalgesia in acute acrolein-induced cystitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Marsha Ritter; Wang, Zun-Yi; Bjorling, Dale E

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the capacity of intrathecal arachidonyl-2’-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist, to inhibit referred hyperalgesia and increased bladder contractility resulting from acute acrolein-induced cystitis in rats. 24 female rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) intrathecal vehicle/intravesical saline; 2) intrathecal vehicle/intravesical acrolein; 3) intrathecal ACEA/intravesical saline; and 4) intrathecal ACEA/intravesical acrolein. Bladder catheters were pla...

  5. A rare case of recurrent urinary obstruction and acute renal failure from cystitis cystica et glandularis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Justin X.G.; Gabril, Manal Y; Sener, Alp

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare case of recurrent florid cystitis cystica et glandularis (CCEG), common type, causing obstruction of the left ureterovesicle junction (UVJ) leading to renal colic and hydronephrosis. A 43-year-old man was admitted with renal colic, left UVJ obstruction, left hydronephrosis and azotemia. Cystoscopy showed a >4-cm bladder lesion compressing the left UVJ. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT) was performed and pathology revealed the lesion as CCEG. Two months lat...

  6. Hemorrhagic cystitis after hematopoietic stem cell trans-plantation: much progress and many remaining issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edmund K. Waller

    2007-01-01

    @@ The manuscript by Xu et al1 addresses an important question in the field of allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (HPCT): how to identify those patients at risk for hemmoraghic cystitis. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 250 patients undergoing allogeneic HPCT following myeloablative conditioning with busulfan and cyclophosphamide using a standard post-transplant immunoprophylaxis with cyclosporine, short-course methotrexate and mycophenylate.

  7. Cystitis glandularis forming a tumorous lesion in the urinary bladder: A rare appearance of disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Miyagi, Tohru; Nakashima, Takao; Shimamura, Masayoshi

    2008-01-01

    We report a rare appearance of cystitis glandularis forming a tumorous lesion with blueberry spots in the urinary bladder. A 49-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with pollakisuria and recurrent gross hematuria. Urine examination showed no pyuria. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed an extravesical invasive mass and cystoscopy revealed a non-papillary tumor with blueberry spots in the bladder. Transurethral resection (TUR) was performed. Histopathological examination revealed cystit...

  8. Tizanidine-induced acute severe cystitis in a female taking famotidine

    OpenAIRE

    Poudel RR; Kafle NK

    2015-01-01

    Resham Raj Poudel,1 Nisha Kusum Kafle2 1Department of Medicine, Om Saibaba Memorial Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2Department of Public Health, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal Abstract: Cystitis is a possible adverse drug reaction associated with the use of tizanidine. Such cases have been rarely reported in literature because of the difficulty in establishing the causality. However, from a pharmacovigilance point of view, it is better to report such cases of a possible association bet...

  9. Oral administration of vitamin C and histidine attenuate cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Abbas Farshid; Esmaeal Tamaddonfard; Sepideh Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Cyclophosphamide (CP), a widely used antineoplastic drug causes hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) mainly via induction of oxidative stress. Both vitamin C and histidine have antioxidant properties. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral (p.o.) administration of vitamin C and histidine on the CP-induced HC in rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into two major groups I and II with four subgroups (a, b, c, and d) in each. Groups I and II were treated...

  10. Emphysematous pyelitis and cystitis associated with vesicoureteral reflux in a diabetic dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbi, Martina; Manfredi, Sabrina; Bianchi, Ezio; Gnudi, Giacomo; Miduri, Francesca; Volta, Antonella

    2016-04-01

    A 12-year-old female dog with a 3-month history of poor response to diabetes treatment had an acute worsening of symptoms, including weakness and blindness. The dog had elevated blood glucose, alkaline phosphatase and urea concentration, hyposthenuria, glycosuria, hematuria, and pyuria. Escherichia coli was isolated from the urine. Radiographs and ultrasound examination showed that the dog had unilateral emphysematous pyelitis and concurrent cystitis associated with vesicoureteral reflux. PMID:27041755

  11. Hypersensitive bladder: a solution to confused terminology and ignorance concerning interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yukio

    2014-04-01

    Taxonomy or nomenclature concerning interstitial cystitis and its related symptom syndromes is in a state of confusion. After analyzing the reasons for confusion in regard to three components (disease name, symptoms, Hunner's lesion), I would like to propose a new term, "hypersensitive bladder", taking after overactive bladder, as a solution. Hypersensitive bladder symptoms are defined as "increased bladder sensation, usually associated with urinary frequency and nocturia, with or without bladder pain." The proposal of hypersensitive bladder is based on: (i) it does not appear a symptom syndrome, but a disease by ending with an organ name, "bladder"; (ii) it does not contain confusable symptom terms (pain and urgency), but indicates irritative symptoms including pain and urgency; and (iii) it suggests pathophysiological hyperactivity of sensory nerves. Interstitial cystitis is defined by three requirements: (i) hypersensitive bladder symptoms; (ii) bladder pathology; and (iii) no other diseases, where bladder pathology should be clearly stated either as Hunner's lesion or glomerulations after hydrodistention. Hypersensitive bladder can be used for the condition with hypersensitive bladder symptoms, but no obvious disease explaining hypersensitive bladder symptoms identified. Interstitial cystitis is a representative disease causing hypersensitive bladder symptoms, most typically with pain, but might be painless and indistinguishable from overactive bladder. Introducing hypersensitive bladder as a counter concept of overactive bladder into bladder dysfunction taxonomy will facilitate clinical practice and research progress, and attract considerable attention from the medical world. PMID:24807494

  12. Beneficial effects of Gosha-jinki-gan and green tea extract in rats with chemical cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrin, Sweety; Osano, Ayaka; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize pharmacological effects of gosha-jinki-gan (GJG) and green tea extract (GTE), on urodynamic parameters, bladder receptors, and urinary cytokines in rats with cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis. Urodynamic parameters in CYP-treated rats were measured using the cystometric method. Muscarinic and purinergic receptors in rat tissues were measured by radioreceptor assays. Urinary cytokine levels were measured with ELISA kits. GJG and GTE were orally administered to rats once a day for 7 days. The GJG treatment significantly ameliorated changes in urodynamic parameters in CYP-treated rats. Similar treatment with GTE slightly attenuated changes in urodynamic parameters. The maximal number of binding sites for [³H]NMS and [³H]αβ-MeATP in the bladder was significantly lower in CYP-treated rats than in sham rats. Such a reduction in receptor density was significantly attenuated by the GJG treatment. GTE treatment also significantly attenuated the down-regulation of muscarinic receptors, but not P2X receptors in bladders of rats with CYP-induced cystitis. The elevation in urinary cytokine levels in CYP-treated rats was effectively attenuated by GJG treatment. The elevation in cytokine levels in CYP-treated rats was alleviated by GTE treatment. In conclusion, GJG may be a pharmacologically useful plant extract for cystitis. PMID:23842285

  13. Pharmacologic attenuation of pelvic pain in a murine model of interstitial cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaeffer Anthony J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS is a bladder disease that causes debilitating pelvic pain of unknown origin, and IC/PBS symptoms correlate with elevated bladder lamina propria mast cell counts. Similar to IC/PBS patients, pseudorabies virus (PRV infection in mice induces a neurogenic cystitis associated with bladder lamina propria mast cell accumulation and pelvic pain. We evaluated several drugs to determine the effectiveness of reducing PRV-induced pelvic pain. Methods Neurogenic cystitis was induced by the injection of Bartha's strain of PRV into the abductor caudalis dorsalis tail base muscle of female C57BL/6 mice. Therapeutic modulation of pelvic pain was assessed daily for five days using von Frey filament stimulation to the pelvic region to quantify tactile allodynia. Results Significant reduction of PRV-induced pelvic pain was observed for animals treated with antagonists of neurokinin receptor 1 (NK1R and histamine receptors. In contrast, the H1R antagonist hydroxyzine, proton pump inhibitors, a histamine receptor 3 agonist, and gabapentin had little or no effect on PRV-induced pelvic pain. Conclusion These data demonstrate that bladder-associated pelvic pain is attenuated by antagonists of NK1R and H2R. Therefore, NK1R and H2Rrepresent direct therapeutic targets for pain in IC/PBS and potentially other chronic pain conditions.

  14. Molecular basis for differential modulation of BK channel voltage-dependent gating by auxiliary γ subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Fan, Fei; Kwak, Ha Rim; Yan, Jiusheng

    2015-06-01

    Large conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels are comprised of pore-forming α subunits and various regulatory auxiliary subunits. The BK channel auxiliary γ (BKγ) subunits are a newly identified class of proteins containing an extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain (LRRD), a single transmembrane (TM) segment, and a short cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail). Although each of the four BKγ proteins shifts the voltage dependence of BK channel activation in a hyperpolarizing direction, they show markedly different efficacies, mediating shifts over a range of 15-145 mV. Analyses of chimeric BKγ subunits created by swapping individual structural elements, and of BKγ deletion and substitution mutants, revealed that differential modulation of BK gating by the four BKγ subunits depends on a small region consisting of the TM segment and the adjacent intracellular cluster of positively charged amino acids. The γ1 and γ2 TM segments contributed approximately -100 mV, and the γ1 and γ3 C-tails contributed approximately -40 mV, to shifting the voltage dependence of BK channel activation, whereas the γ3 and γ4 TM segments and the γ2 and γ4 C-tails contributed much less. The large extracellular LRRDs were mainly functionally interchangeable, although the γ1 LRRD was slightly less effective at enhancing (or slightly more effective at attenuating) the shift in BK channel voltage-dependent gating toward hyperpolarizing potentials than those of the other BKγ subunits. Analysis of mutated BKγ subunits revealed that juxta-membrane clusters of positively charged amino acids determine the functions of the γ1 and γ3 C-tails. Therefore, the modulatory functions of BKγ subunits are coarse- and fine-tuned, respectively, through variations in their TM segments and in the adjacent intracellular positively charged regions. Our results suggest that BK channel modulation by auxiliary γ subunits depends on intra- and/or juxta-membrane mechanisms

  15. BK K+ channel blockade inhibits radiation-induced migration/brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edalat, Lena; Stegen, Benjamin; Klumpp, Lukas; Haehl, Erik; Schilbach, Karin; Lukowski, Robert; Kühnle, Matthias; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin; Zips, Daniel; Ruth, Peter; Huber, Stephan M

    2016-03-22

    Infiltration of the brain by glioblastoma cells reportedly requires Ca2+ signals and BK K+ channels that program and drive glioblastoma cell migration, respectively. Ionizing radiation (IR) has been shown to induce expression of the chemokine SDF-1, to alter the Ca2+ signaling, and to stimulate cell migration of glioblastoma cells. Here, we quantified fractionated IR-induced migration/brain infiltration of human glioblastoma cells in vitro and in an orthotopic mouse model and analyzed the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and BK channels. To this end, the radiation-induced migratory phenotypes of human T98G and far-red fluorescent U-87MG-Katushka glioblastoma cells were characterized by mRNA and protein expression, fura-2 Ca2+ imaging, BK patch-clamp recording and transfilter migration assay. In addition, U-87MG-Katushka cells were grown to solid glioblastomas in the right hemispheres of immunocompromised mice, fractionated irradiated (6 MV photons) with 5 × 0 or 5 × 2 Gy, and SDF-1, CXCR4, and BK protein expression by the tumor as well as glioblastoma brain infiltration was analyzed in dependence on BK channel targeting by systemic paxilline application concomitant to IR. As a result, IR stimulated SDF-1 signaling and induced migration of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, paxilline blocked IR-induced migration in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that fractionated IR of glioblastoma stimulates and BK K+ channel targeting mitigates migration and brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells in vivo. This suggests that BK channel targeting might represent a novel approach to overcome radiation-induced spreading of malignant brain tumors during radiotherapy. PMID:26893360

  16. Pharmacological consequences of the coexpression of BK channel α and auxiliary β subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Yolima P.; Granados, Sara T.; Latorre, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Coded by a single gene (Slo1, KCM) and activated by depolarizing potentials and by a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BK) is unique among the superfamily of K+ channels. BK channels are tetramers characterized by a pore-forming α subunit containing seven transmembrane segments (instead of the six found in voltage-dependent K+ channels) and a large C terminus composed of two regulators of K+ conductance domains (RCK domains), where the Ca2+-binding sites reside. BK channels can be associated with accessory β subunits and, although different BK modulatory mechanisms have been described, greater interest has recently been placed on the role that the β subunits may play in the modulation of BK channel gating due to its physiological importance. Four β subunits have currently been identified (i.e., β1, β2, β3, and β4) and despite the fact that they all share the same topology, it has been shown that every β subunit has a specific tissue distribution and that they modify channel kinetics as well as their pharmacological properties and the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of the α subunit in different ways. Additionally, different studies have shown that natural, endogenous, and synthetic compounds can modulate BK channels through β subunits. Considering the importance of these channels in different pathological conditions, such as hypertension and neurological disorders, this review focuses on the mechanisms by which these compounds modulate the biophysical properties of BK channels through the regulation of β subunits, as well as their potential therapeutic uses for diseases such as those mentioned above. PMID:25346693

  17. Tuning the mechanosensitivity of a BK channel by changing the linker length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Some large-conductance Ca2+ and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channels are activated by membrane stretch. However, the mechanism of mechano-gating of the BK channels is still not well understood. Previous studies have led to the proposal that the tinker-gating ring complex functions as a passive spring, transducing the force generated by intraceilular Ca2+ to the gate to open the channel. This raises the question as to whether membrane stretch is also transmitted to the gate of mechanosensitive (MS) BK channels via the tinker-gating complex. To study this, we changed the linker length in the stretch-activated BK channel (SAKCaC), and examined the effect of membrane stretch on the gating of the resultant mutant channels. Shortening the tinker increased, whereas extending the tinker reduced, the channel mechanosensitivity both in the presence and in the absence of intracellular Ca2+. However, the voltage and Ca2+ sensitivities were not significantly altered by membrane stretch. Furthermore, the SAKCaC became less sensitive to membrane stretch at relatively high intracellular Ca2+ concentrations or membrane depolarization. These observations suggest that once the channel is in the open-state conformation, tension on the spring is partially released and membrane stretch is less effective. Our results are consistent with the idea that membrane stretch is transferred to the gate via the tinker-gating ring complex of the MS BK channels.

  18. Cistite glandular evoluindo com uropatia obstrutiva Cystitis glandularis evolving with obstructive uropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Elias Lopes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Cistite glandular é um processo proliferativo benigno e infrequente da mucosa vesical, caracterizado por proliferação do epitélio e, em alguns casos, formação de glândulas intestinais. Alterações metaplásicas na cistite glandular são bem documentadas na literatura, embora sua etiologia não seja totalmente esclarecida. RELATO DO CASO: Relatamos um caso de cistite glandular em um paciente de 55 anos, apresentando sintomas miccionais irritativos e obstrutivos persistentes sem resposta à terapia com alfabloqueadores. Ultrassonografia evidenciou lesão vegetante no trígono vesical e o paciente foi submetido à ressecção endoscópica por duas vezes e evoluiu com ureterohidronefrose bilateral. Dado o extenso acometimento vesical e a persistência dos sintomas, o paciente foi submetido a cistoprostatectomia e neobexiga ileal com boa evolução pós-operatória. DISCUSSÃO: Há duas formas de cistite glandular: típica e intestinal. A forma típica é a mais comum e a intestinal é marcada pela produção de mucina, mais frequentemente associada ao adenocarcinoma de bexiga. A maioria dos casos de cistite glandular é assintomática, sendo que os pacientes sintomáticos normalmente apresentam hematúria, sintomas urinários irritativos e típicos de cistite crônica. Há controvérsias sobre o tratamento precoce agressivo, sendo que vários estudos propõem a ressecção transuretral e o acompanhamento com biópsias.INTRODUCTION: Cystitis glandularis is a rare, benign, proliferative process of the mucosa of the urinary bladder characterized by epithelial proliferation and occasional formation of intestinal glands. Although its etiology is unknown, cystitis glandularis has been associated with chronic stimulation of the mucosa of the urinary bladder due to urinary tract infection, obstruction, and indwelling catheters, which may lead to overproductive changes in mucosal cells and glandular metaplasia of transitional epithelial

  19. Fusion and quasifission dynamics in the reactions 48Ca+249Bk and 50Ti+249Bk using a time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, A. S.; Oberacker, V. E.; Simenel, C.

    2016-08-01

    Background: Synthesis of superheavy elements (SHEs) with fusion-evaporation reactions is strongly hindered by the quasifission (QF) mechanism which prevents the formation of an equilibrated compound nucleus and which depends on the structure of the reactants. New SHEs have been recently produced with doubly-magic 48Ca beams. However, SHE synthesis experiments with single-magic 50Ti beams have so far been unsuccessful. Purpose: In connection with experimental searches for Z =117 ,119 superheavy elements, we perform a theoretical study of fusion and quasifission mechanisms in 48Ca,50Ti+249Bk reactions in order to investigate possible differences in reaction mechanisms induced by these two projectiles. Methods: The collision dynamics and the outcome of the reactions are studied using unrestricted time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) calculations as well as the density-constrained TDHF method to extract the nucleus-nucleus potentials and the excitation energy in each fragment. Results: Nucleus-nucleus potentials, nuclear contact times, masses and charges of the fragments, as well as their kinetic and excitation energies strongly depend on the orientation of the prolate 249Bk nucleus. Long contact times associated with fusion are observed in collisions of both projectiles with the side of the 249Bk nucleus, but not on collisions with its tip. The energy and impact parameter dependencies of the fragment properties, as well as their mass-angle and mass-total kinetic energy correlations are investigated. Conclusions: Entrance channel reaction dynamics are similar with both 48Ca and 50Ti projectiles. Both are expected to lead to the formation of a compound nucleus by fusion if they have enough energy to get in contact with the side of the 249Bk target.

  20. Molecular investigations of BK(Ca) channels and the modulatory beta-subunits in porcine basilar and middle cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Helle Wulf; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Poulsen, Asser Nyander;

    2009-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels are fundamental in the regulation of cerebral vascular basal tone. We investigated the expression of the mRNA transcripts for the BK(Ca) channel and its modulatory beta-subunits (beta1-beta4) in porcine basilar and middle cerebral...

  1. Reduced recurrence of late hemorrhagic radiation cystitis by WF10 therapy in cervical cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and the safety of WF10 as adjunct to standard treatment in the management of late hemorrhagic radiation cystitis compared to standard treatment alone. Patients and methods: Cervical cancer patients with Grade 2 or 3 late hemorrhagic radiation cystitis, were randomized and treated with WF10 0.5 ml/kg body weight, diluted in physiological saline or 5% dextrose water 250 ml, intravenous infusions over 2 h on 5 consecutive days, every 3 weeks for 2 cycles plus standard treatment (WF10 group) or standard treatment alone (control group). Fifty patients in each group were evaluated by questioning; urinalysis and cystoscopy during a 1 year follow up. Results: At week 7, 37 patients (74%) in the WF10 group and 32 patients (64%) in the control group showed complete resolution in objective hematuria (P=0.28). Significantly lower use of antibiotics (P=0.002) and antispasmodics (P<0.001) was found in the WF10 group. Among the responders, 24 patients (77%) in the control group experienced recurrent objective hematuria, whereas in the WF10 group only 17 patients (47%) experienced a recurrence (P=0.01). Recurrence of objective hematuria occurred significantly faster in the control group as evidenced by Kaplan-Meier and log-rank statistics (P=0.004), suggesting a long-term effect of WF10. Cystoscopy, at the end of the treatment period and after the one year follow up showed overall improvement without significant difference between two groups. No severe toxicity was monitored. Conclusions: WF10 therapy is a safe, non-invasive and convenient method in the management of late hemorrhagic radiation cystitis. WF10 therapy, as adjunct to standard treatment, has significantly reduced recurrence of objective hematuria, compared to standard treatment alone, during a one year follow up

  2. Airway Hydration, Apical K(+) Secretion, and the Large-Conductance, Ca(2+)-activated and Voltage-dependent Potassium (BK) Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Adrian; Krick, Stefanie; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Large-conductance, calcium-activated, and voltage-gated K(+) (BK) channels are expressed in many tissues of the human body, where they play important roles in signaling not only in excitable but also in nonexcitable cells. Because BK channel properties are rendered in part by their association with four β and four γ subunits, their channel function can differ drastically, depending on in which cellular system they are expressed. Recent studies verify the importance of apically expressed BK channels for airway surface liquid homeostasis and therefore of their significant role in mucociliary clearance. Here, we review evidence that inflammatory cytokines, which contribute to airway diseases, can lead to reduced BK activity via a functional down-regulation of the γ regulatory subunit LRRC26. Therefore, manipulation of LRRC26 and pharmacological opening of BK channels represent two novel concepts of targeting epithelial dysfunction in inflammatory airway diseases. PMID:27115952

  3. The protective effect of green tea catechins on ketamine-induced cystitis in a rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Yu Jang; Yi-Lun Lee; Cheng-Yu Long; Chung-Hwan Chen; Shu-Mien Chuang; Hsiang-Ying Lee; Jung-Tsung Shen; Wen-Jeng Wu; Yung-Shun Juan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of green tea epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on long-term ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis (KIC) using a ketamine addiction rat model. Materials and methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups which received saline, ketamine (25 mg/kg/d), or ketamine combined with EGCG (10 μM/kg) for a period of 28 days. In each group, cystometry and a metabolic cage micturition pattern study were performed weekly. Masson's trichrom...

  4. Eosinophilic cystitis mimicking tuberculosis: An analysis of five cases with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic cystitis (EC is a rare disease. It is a transmural inflammation of the bladder, predominantly with eosinophils. High index of suspicion is needed for timely intervention. EC should be kept as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms due to small capacity bladder with a negative workup for urinary tuberculosis and in patients having hematuria and negative cytology, or incidentally found bladder lesions with known risk factors. Initial treatment is conservative with removal of risk factor, anti-histaminics and steroids. Augmentation cystoplasty should be considered in patients with a small capacity bladder. These patients need a strict and long term follow-up.

  5. The Disappearance of the Red Supergiant Progenitor of Supernova 2008bk

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Seppo; Smartt, Stephen; Maund, Justyn; Benetti, Stefano; Ergon, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    Massive stars end their lives in spectacular supernova explosions. Identifying the progenitor star is a test of stellar evolution and explosion models. Here we show that the progenitor star of the supernova SN 2008bk has now disappeared, which provides conclusive evidence that this was the death of a red supergiant star.

  6. New properties of BK-spaces defined by using regular matrix of Fibonacci numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Sinan; Bektaş, ćiǧdem A.

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, we studied the new properties of BK-spaces which were defined using regular matrix of Fibonacci numbers in [1]. We computed alpha-, beta-, gamma- duals of these spaces and obtained Schauder basis. We also derived some topological properties of these spaces.

  7. Evaluation of polyomavirus BK reactivation in lupus patients who underwent kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A pathogenic role for polyomavirus BK in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE has been proposed, however no study evaluated the occurrence of BK replication in renal transplant recipients according to the underlying disease leading to transplantation and its potential impact. Methods. The occurrence of BK reactivation was serially evaluated in 468 renal transplant recipients, including 11 patients with SLE as underlying disease (overall, 2370 serum and 2370 urine specimens; 65 from SLE patients. Results. Considering the overall occurrence of viral reactivation (viremia and/or viruria, 26/65 (40% specimens were positive in four SLE patients (36.3% versus 331/2143 (15.4% in 130/227 (57.3% non-SLE patients. A patient transplanted for class III lupus nephritis evidenced sustained BK viremia and viruria (with viremia values potentially indicative of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy in the absence of clinical features of renal dysfunction or recurrence of lupus nephritis. Conclusions. Further studies on larger populations and for a longer follow-up should be required to evaluate the impact of BKV reactivation in renal transplant patients with SLE as underlying disease, as well as the potential therapeutic implications.

  8. Differential expression of BK channel isoforms and beta-subunits in rat neuro-vascular tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Johansson, Helle Wulf; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the expression of splice variants and beta-subunits of the BK channel (big conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, Slo1, MaxiK, K(Ca)1.1) in rat cerebral blood vessels, meninges, trigeminal ganglion among other tissues. An alpha-subunit splice variant X1(+24) was found expressed...

  9. Molecular studies of BKCa channels in intracranial arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf, Helle; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Poulsen, Asser Nyander;

    2008-01-01

      Large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK(ca)) are crucial for the regulation of cerebral vascular basal tone and might be involved in cerebral vasodilation relevant to migraine and stroke. We studied the differential gene expression of mRNA transcript levels and protein...

  10. Activities of Different Classes of Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates against BK Virus in Primary Human Renal Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topalis, D.; Lebeau, I.; Krečmerová, Marcela; Andrei, G.; Snoeck, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2011), s. 1961-1967. ISSN 0066-4804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : polyomavirus * BK virus * nephropathy * acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * HPMP-5-azaC Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.841, year: 2011

  11. Intermediate-dose cidofovir without probenecid in the treatment of BK virus allograft nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Carlos E; Lew, Judy F; Fennell, Robert S; Neiberger, Richard E; Dharnidharka, Vikas R

    2006-02-01

    BK virus allograft nephropathy (BKVAN) is a rising complication in kidney transplant recipients. Reducing immunosuppression has been the initial form of therapy in most cases, but is not always associated with improvement in graft function. Anti-viral therapy with low-dose cidofovir (0.25-0.42 mg/kg/dose) has been used successfully in some patients, but dose-related nephrotoxicity has limited its use. We present our experience with 3 kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with BKVAN who received intermediate-dose cidofovir (0.75-1.0 mg/kg/dose) without probenecid, and without concomitant nephrotoxicity. Three female patients, ages 8, 19 and 20 yr, presented with elevated serum creatinine (SCr) values, BK virus stain positive on renal biopsy and high plasma BK viral loads. As a result of viral loads being >2 million copies/ml in two patients and a lack of response to reduction in immunosuppression in the third, we initiated therapy with low-dose cidofovir. Because of persistent positive BK stain and positive plasma viral load, we then administered intermediate-dose cidofovir, without probenecid, for several subsequent doses (seven to 15 infusions till date). All patients tolerated the intermediate-dose cidofovir with no significant rise in SCr during the course of the infusions. The most recent SCr values in all three patients were improved from those at the initial diagnosis of BKVAN. All three patients showed a marked drop in BK viral loads when on intermediate-dose cidofovir, with complete clearing of viremia in two patients. In our experience, intermediate-dose cidofovir without probenecid, used judiciously, is not associated with additional nephrotoxicity and may provide an additional alternative for treatment. PMID:16499584

  12. Surveillance of polyomavirus BK in relation to immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reactivation of polyomavirus BK in kidney transplant recipients has been associated to the development of nephropathy (polyomavirus-associated nephropathy, PVAN, possibly leading to the loss of the transplanted organ. Immunosuppression is the condicio sine qua non for the onset of PVAN; however, a lower incidence of BK viremia has been reported with low-level tacrolimus based immunosuppressive protocols in comparison to cyclosporine A.Aim of this study was to compare the two immunosuppressive protocols. Methods. Virological monitoring of BK was performed in 468 consecutive renal transplant patients over a period of 3 years (2370 urine e 2370 serum specimens: in particular, 1780 specimens from 362 patients treated with tacrolimus and 590 from 106 treated with cyclosporine A. Results. BK viremia was evidenced in 124 (7.0% and 12 (2.0% specimens from 40 (11.0% and 11 (10.4% patients treated with tacrolimus and cyclosporine A, respectively; similarly, BK viruria in 289 (16.2% and 58 (9.8% specimens from 67 (18.5% and 27 (25.5% patients, being the difference of incidence highly significant (p <0.0001 for both viremia and viruria at comparison between specimens and not significant for patients. No case of PVAN was diagnosed at histophatology evaluation. Conclusions. The incidence of viremia and viruria was similar to that previously reported. Our results evidenced that with low-level tacrolimus-based protocols the overall incidence of reactivation in renal transplant patients is not significantly different and there is no increased risk of PVAN, nevertheless the higher incidence of episodes of reactivation.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells protect against the tissue fibrosis of ketamine-induced cystitis in rat bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Aram; Yu, Hwan Yeul; Heo, Jinbeom; Song, Miho; Shin, Jung-Hyun; Lim, Jisun; Yoon, Soo-Jung; Kim, YongHwan; Lee, Seungun; Kim, Seong Who; Oh, Wonil; Choi, Soo Jin; Shin, Dong-Myung; Choo, Myung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abuse of the hallucinogenic drug ketamine promotes the development of lower urinary tract symptoms that resemble interstitial cystitis. The pathophysiology of ketamine-induced cystitis (KC) is largely unknown and effective therapies are lacking. Here, using a KC rat model, we show the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord-blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Daily injection of ketamine to Sprague-Dawley rats for 2-weeks resulted in defective bladder function, indicated by irregular voiding frequency, increased maximum contraction pressure, and decreased intercontraction intervals and bladder capacity. KC bladders were characterized by severe mast-cell infiltration, tissue fibrosis, apoptosis, upregulation of transforming growth factor-β signaling related genes, and phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 proteins. A single administration of MSCs (1 × 10(6)) into bladder tissue not only significantly ameliorated the aforementioned bladder voiding parameters, but also reversed the characteristic histological and gene-expression alterations of KC bladder. Treatment with the antifibrotic compound N-acetylcysteine also alleviated the symptoms and pathological characteristics of KC bladder, indicating that the antifibrotic capacity of MSC therapy underlies its benefits. Thus, this study for the first-time shows that MSC therapy might help to cure KC by protecting against tissue fibrosis in a KC animal model and provides a foundation for clinical trials of MSC therapy. PMID:27481042

  14. Intrauterine growth restriction is a direct consequence of localized maternal uropathogenic Escherichia coli cystitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bolton

    Full Text Available Despite the continually increasing rates of adverse perinatal outcomes across the globe, the molecular mechanisms that underlie adverse perinatal outcomes are not completely understood. Clinical studies report that 10% of pregnant women will experience a urinary tract infection (UTI and there is an association of UTIs with adverse perinatal outcomes. We introduced bacterial cystitis into successfully outbred female mice at gestational day 14 to follow pregnancy outcomes and immunological responses to determine the mechanisms that underlie UTI-mediated adverse outcomes. Outbred fetuses from mothers experiencing localized cystitis displayed intrauterine growth restriction (20-80% as early as 48 hours post-infection and throughout the remainder of normal gestation. Robust infiltration of cellular innate immune effectors was observed in the uteroplacental tissue following introduction of UTI despite absence of viable bacteria. The magnitude of serum proinflammatory cytokines is elevated in the maternal serum during UTI. This study demonstrates that a localized infection can dramatically impact the immunological status as well as the function of non-infected distal organs and tissues. This model can be used as a platform to determine the mechanism(s by which proinflammatory changes occur between non-contiguous genitourinary organs.

  15. Innovative Approach for Interstitial Cystitis: Vaginal Pessaries Loaded Diazepam—A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Capra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder pain is a characteristic disorder of interstitial cystitis. Diazepam is well known for its antispasmodic activity in the treatment of muscular hypertonus. The aim of this work was to develop and characterize vaginal pessaries as an intravaginal delivery system of diazepam for the treatment of interstitial cystitis. In particular, the performance of two types of formulations, with and without beta-glucan, was compared. In particular, the preparation of pessaries, according to the modified Pharmacopeia protocol, the setup of the analytical method to determine diazepam, pH evaluation, dissolution profile, and photostability assay were reported. Results showed that the modified protocol permitted obtaining optimal vaginal pessaries, without air bubbles, with good consistency and handling and with good pH profiles. In order to determine the diazepam amount, calibration curves with good correlation coefficients were obtained, by the spectrophotometric method, using placebo pessaries as matrix with the addition of diazepam standard solution. This method was demonstrated sensible and accurate to determine the amount of drug in batches. Dissolution profiles showed a complete diazepam release just after 15 minutes, even if beta-glucan pessaries released drug more gradually. Finally, a possible drug photodegradation after exacerbated UV-visible exposition was evaluated.

  16. Crucial role of TRPC1 and TRPC4 in cystitis-induced neuronal sprouting and bladder overactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Boudes

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: During cystitis, increased innervation of the bladder by sensory nerves may contribute to bladder overactivity and pain. The mechanisms whereby cystitis leads to hyperinnervation of the bladder are, however, poorly understood. Since TRP channels have been implicated in the guidance of growth cones and survival of neurons, we investigated their involvement in the increases in bladder innervation and bladder activity in rodent models of cystitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To induce bladder hyperactivity, we chronically injected cyclophosphamide in rats and mice. All experiments were performed a week later. We used quantitative transcriptional analysis and immunohistochemistry to determine TRP channel expression on retrolabelled bladder sensory neurons. To assess bladder function and referred hyperalgesia, urodynamic analysis, detrusor strip contractility and Von Frey filament experiments were done in wild type and knock-out mice. RESULTS: Repeated cyclophosphamide injections induce a specific increase in the expression of TRPC1 and TRPC4 in bladder-innervating sensory neurons and the sprouting of sensory fibers in the bladder mucosa. Interestingly, cyclophosphamide-treated Trpc1/c4(-/- mice no longer exhibited increased bladder innervations, and, concomitantly, the development of bladder overactivity was diminished in these mice. We did not observe a difference neither in bladder contraction features of double knock-out animals nor in cyclophosphamide-induced referred pain behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data suggest that TRPC1 and TRPC4 are involved in the sprouting of sensory neurons following bladder cystitis, which leads to overactive bladder disease.

  17. Similar enhancement of BK(Ca) channel function despite different aerobic exercise frequency in aging cerebrovascular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N; Liu, B; Xiang, S; Shi, L

    2016-07-18

    Aerobic exercise showed beneficial influence on cardiovascular systems in aging, and mechanisms underlying vascular adaption remain unclear. Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels play critical roles in regulating cellular excitability and vascular tone. This study determined the effects of aerobic exercise on aging-associated functional changes in BK(Ca) channels in cerebrovascular myocytes, Male Wistar rats aged 20-22 months were randomly assigned to sedentary (O-SED), low training frequency (O-EXL), and high training frequency group (O-EXH). Young rats were used as control. Compared to young rats, whole-cell BK(Ca) current was decreased, and amplitude of spontaneous transient outward currents were reduced. The open probability and Ca(2+)/voltage sensitivity of single BK(Ca) channel were declined in O-SED, accompanied with a reduction of tamoxifen-induced BK(Ca) activation; the mean open time of BK(Ca) channels was shortened whereas close time was prolonged. Aerobic exercise training markedly alleviated the aging-associated decline independent of training frequency. Exercise three times rather than five times weekly may be a time and cost-saving training volume required to offer beneficial effects to offset the functional declines of BK(Ca) during aging. PMID:27070745

  18. Diagnóstico y clasificación molecular del virus BK en receptores de trasplante renal

    OpenAIRE

    Riva, Omar; Cobos, Marisa; Clemente, J

    2010-01-01

    La infección primaria por virus BK ocurre durante la infancia permaneciendo latente en el tracto urogenital. En individuos que presentan alteraciones en la inmunidad celular, el virus se reactiva haciendo posible su detección en orina y sangre. En receptores de trasplante renal, la nefropatía producida por el virus BK puede llevar a la pérdida de la función del injerto. El virus BK es miembro de la familia Polyomaviridae, presenta un genoma de ADN circular doble cadena unido en forma covalent...

  19. Ethanol modulation of mammalian BK channels in excitable tissues: molecular targets and their possible contribution to alcohol-induced altered behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Dopico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In most tissues, the function of calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK channels is modified in response to ethanol concentrations reached in human blood during alcohol intoxication. In general, modification of BK current from ethanol-naïve preparations in response to brief ethanol exposure results from changes in channel open probability without modification of unitary conductance or change in BK protein levels in the membrane. Protracted and/or repeated ethanol exposure, however, may evoke changes in BK expression. The final ethanol effect on BK open probability leading to either BK current potentiation or BK current reduction is determined by an orchestration of molecular factors, including levels of activating ligand (cytosolic calcium, BK subunit composition and posttranslational modifications, and the channel’s lipid microenvironment. These factors seem to allosterically regulate a direct interaction between ethanol and a recognition pocket of discrete dimensions recently mapped to the channel-forming (slo1 subunit. Type of ethanol exposure also plays a role in the final BK response to the drug: in several central nervous system regions (e.g., striatum, primary sensory neurons, and supraoptic nucleus, acute exposure to ethanol reduces neuronal excitability by enhancing BK activity. In contrast, protracted or repetitive ethanol administration may alter BK subunit composition and membrane expression, rendering the BK complex insensitive to further ethanol exposure. In neurohypophysial axon terminals, ethanol potentiation of BK channel activity leads to a reduction in neuropeptide release. In vascular smooth muscle, however, ethanol inhibition of BK current leads to cell contraction and vascular constriction.

  20. Effect of Lycopene on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Jamshidzadeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cylophosphamide is used alone or in combinationwith other drugs for treatment of neoplastic diseases.Hemorrhagic cystitis is a major potential toxicity and doselimiting side effect of cyclophosphamide. The aim of thisstudy was to evaluate the effects of lycopene compared withsome antioxidants for the prevention of cyclophosphamideinduced hemorrhagic cystitis in rats.Methods: In this study, male Sparague-Dawley rats dividedinto 17 groups of six animals. Group 1 received saline (10ml/kg, i.p as normal control, group 2 received cyclophosphamide(200 mg/kg, i.p as a single dose, groups 3-10 receivedMesna (40 mg/kg, i.p, N-acetylcysteine (100 mg/kg i.p, dithiotheritol(50 mg/kg, i.p, L-carnitine (200 and 400 mg/kg,i.p, grape seed extract (500 mg/kg i.p and lycopene (0.1 and0.5 mg/kg, i.p alone. Groups 11-17 received Mesna (40 mg/kg,i.p, N-acetylcysteine (100 mg/kg, i.p, dithiotheritol (50 mg/kg,i.p, L-carnitine (400 mg/kg, i.p, grape seed extract (500mg/kg, i.p and lycopene (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, i.p, 5 minutesbefore, and 2 and 6 hours after administration of 200 mg/kgcyclophosphamide. Pathological and biochemical analysis wasevaluated 24 hours after cyclophosphamide administration.Results: Mesna and N-acetylcysteine resulted in some but notfull protection against cyclophosphamide toxicity compared tothe controls. Lycopene (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg was efficient inprotecting the bladder from cyclophosphamide induced hemorrhagiccystitis. However, dithiotheritol, L- carnitine andgrape seed extract did not prevent hemorrhagic cystitis.Conclusion: Our results suggest that pre and co- treatment oflycopene (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg with cyclophosphamide mayhave therapeutic potential to inhibit the hemorrhagic cystitisby cyclophosphamide.

  1. An Association between BK Virus Replication in Bone Marrow and Cytopenia in Kidney-Transplant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Emilie Pambrun; Catherine Mengelle; Geneviève Fillola; Patrick Laharrague; Laure Esposito; Isabelle Cardeau-Desangles; Arnaud Del Bello; Jacques Izopet; Lionel Rostaing; Nassim Kamar

    2014-01-01

    The human polyomavirus BK (BKV) is associated with severe complications, such as ureteric stenosis and polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN), which often occur in kidney-transplant patients. However, it is unknown if BKV can replicate within bone marrow. The aim of this study was to search for BKV replication within the bone marrow of kidney-transplant patients presenting with a hematological disorder. Seventy-two kidney-transplant patients underwent bone-marrow aspiration for cytopenia....

  2. Inhibition of intestinal motility by the putative BK(Ca) channel opener LDD175.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Peña, Ike Campomayor; Yoon, Seo Young; Kim, Sung Mok; Lee, Geum Seon; Park, Chul-Seung; Kim, Yong Chul; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2009-03-01

    LDD175 (4-chloro-7-trifluoromethyl-10H-benzo[4,5]furo[3,2-b]indole-1-carboxylic acid) is a benzofuroindole compound characterized previously as a potent opener of the large conductance calcium activated (BK(Ca)) channels. Activators of the BK(Ca) channels are potential therapies for smooth muscle hyperactivity disorders. The present study investigates the influence of LDD175 on the mechanical activity of the ileum smooth muscle. LDD175 inhibited spontaneous contractions of the ileum in a concentration-dependent manner (pEC(50)=5.9 +/- 0.1) (E (max)=96 +/- 1.0% at 100 muM, n=3). It also remarkably inhibited contractions due to acetylcholine (ACh) (pEC(50)=5.3 +/- 0.1)(E (max)=97.7 +/- 2.3%, n=6) and electrical field stimulation (EFS) (pEC(50)=5.5 +/- 0.1) (E (max)=83.3 +/- 6.0%, n=6). In strips precontracted by 20 mM KCl, LDD175 significantly reduced the contractions yielding a pEC(50) of 6.1 +/- 0.1 and E (max) of 96.6 +/- 0.9%, (n=6). In 60 mM KCl, a concentration-dependent inhibition was observed with respective pEC(50) and E (max) values of 4.1 +/- 0.1 and 50.8 +/- 5.0% (n=3). BK(Ca) channel blockers iberiotoxin (IbTX) and tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA, 1 mM) attenuated the relaxative effect of LDD175 but not barium chloride (BaCl(2)), and glibenclamide (K(IR) and K(ATP) channel blockers, respectively). These data demonstrate the antispasmodic activity of LDD175 attributable to the potentiation of the BK(Ca) channels. PMID:19387586

  3. BK channels regulate spontaneous action potential rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Kent

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian ( approximately 24 hr rhythms are generated by the central pacemaker localized to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of the hypothalamus. Although the basis for intrinsic rhythmicity is generally understood to rely on transcription factors encoded by "clock genes", less is known about the daily regulation of SCN neuronal activity patterns that communicate a circadian time signal to downstream behaviors and physiological systems. Action potentials in the SCN are necessary for the circadian timing of behavior, and individual SCN neurons modulate their spontaneous firing rate (SFR over the daily cycle, suggesting that the circadian patterning of neuronal activity is necessary for normal behavioral rhythm expression. The BK K(+ channel plays an important role in suppressing spontaneous firing at night in SCN neurons. Deletion of the Kcnma1 gene, encoding the BK channel, causes degradation of circadian behavioral and physiological rhythms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis that loss of robust behavioral rhythmicity in Kcnma1(-/- mice is due to the disruption of SFR rhythms in the SCN, we used multi-electrode arrays to record extracellular action potentials from acute wild-type (WT and Kcnma1(-/- slices. Patterns of activity in the SCN were tracked simultaneously for up to 3 days, and the phase, period, and synchronization of SFR rhythms were examined. Loss of BK channels increased arrhythmicity but also altered the amplitude and period of rhythmic activity. Unexpectedly, Kcnma1(-/- SCNs showed increased variability in the timing of the daily SFR peak. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that BK channels regulate multiple aspects of the circadian patterning of neuronal activity in the SCN. In addition, these data illustrate the characteristics of a disrupted SCN rhythm downstream of clock gene-mediated timekeeping and its relationship to behavioral rhythms.

  4. Menthol increases human glioblastoma intracellular Ca2+, BK channel activity and cell migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartley Jeremy W

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined the effect of menthol, an agonist for transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8 ion channels, to increase intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, in human glioblastoma cells (DBTRG cells, which resulted in activation of the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ membrane ion channels (BK channels. Voltage ramps applied over 300 ms from -100 to 100 mV resulted in membrane currents with marked inwardly- and outwardly-rectifying components. Paxilline (2 μM abolished the outwardly-rectifying current. Outwardly-rectifying on-cell patch currents were increased markedly by menthol (100 μM added to the bath. The estimated on-cell conductance of these channels was 253 pS. Kinetic analysis showed that added menthol increased channel open probability and mean open frequency after 5 min. In a similar time course menthol increased [Ca2+]i, and this increase was abolished either by added paxilline, tetraethylammonium ion or by Ca2+-free external solution. Finally, menthol stimulated the rate of DBTRG cell migration into scratch wounds made in confluent cells, and this also was inhibited by paxilline or by tetraethylammonium ion. We conclude that menthol, a TRPM8 agonist, increases DBTRG cell [Ca2+]i that in turn activates membrane BK ion channels. Inhibition of BK channels by paxilline reverses menthol-stimulated increase of [Ca2+]i and of cell migration. Thus, BK channels function to maintain elevations in [Ca2+]i needed to sustain increases in DBTRG cell migration.

  5. Viral DNA Replication-Dependent DNA Damage Response Activation during BK Polyomavirus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Verhalen, Brandy; Justice, Joshua L.; Imperiale, Michael J; Jiang, Mengxi

    2015-01-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) reactivation is associated with severe human disease in kidney and bone marrow transplant patients. The interplay between viral and host factors that regulates the productive infection process remains poorly understood. We have previously reported that the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) is activated upon lytic BKPyV infection and that its activation is required for optimal viral replication in primary kidney epithelial cells. In this report, we set out to determine...

  6. BK/TD models for analyzing in vitro impedance data on cytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Sophie; Barcellini-Couget, Sylvie; Beaudoin, Rémy; Desousa, Georges; Rahmani, Roger; Pery, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The ban of animal testing has enhanced the development of new in vitro technologies for cosmetics safety assessment. Impedance metrics is one such technology which enables monitoring of cell viability in real time. However, analyzing real time data requires moving from static to dynamic toxicity assessment. In the present study, we built mechanistic biokinetic/toxicodynamic (BK/TD) models to analyze the time course of cell viability in cytotoxicity assay using impedance. These models accou...

  7. Restriction of Human Polyomavirus BK Virus DNA Replication in Murine Cells and Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Mahon, C.; Liang, B.; Tikhanovich, I.; et al

    2009-01-01

    BK virus (BKV) causes persistent and asymptomatic infections in most humans and is the etiologic agent of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) and other pathologies. Unfortunately, there are no animal models with which to study activation of BKV replication in the human kidney and the accompanying PVAN. Here we report studies of the restriction of BKV replication in murine cells and extracts and the cause(s) of this restriction. Upon infection of murine cells, BKV expressed large T anti...

  8. Transient versus Persistent BK Viremia and Long-Term Outcomes after Kidney and Kidney–Pancreas Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfadawy, Nissreen; Schold, Jesse D.; Srinivas, Titte R.; Poggio, Emilio; Fatica, Richard; Avery, Robin; Mossad, Sherif B.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives The objective was to study the long-term impact of transient versus persistent BK viremia on kidney transplant outcomes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In total, 609 recipients who underwent kidney transplant from 2007 to 2011 were screened at months 1–12 for the occurrence of polyomavirus BK viremia; 130 patients (21.7%) developed BK viremia during the first year post-transplant. BK viremia patients were classified according to duration of infection (more or less than 3 months), and BK viral loads (more or less than 10,000 copies/ml) were classified as transient low viremia (n=42), transient high viremia (n=18), persistent low viremia (n=23), and persistent high viremia (n=47). All patients were followed a median of 36 (3–66) months. The rates of BK polyomavirus–associated nephropathy, acute rejection, and 1-year graft function were compared with the polyomavirus BK–negative control group. Results Patient and graft survival were not significantly different among the groups. Graft function (creatinine; milligrams per deciliter) at 1 year was significantly worse in the persistent high viremia (1.75±0.6) and transient high viremia (1.85±0.7) groups compared with aviremic controls (1.47±0.4; P=0.01 and P=0.01, respectively). The incidence of BK polyomavirus–associated nephropathy was limited to the persistent high viremia group (1.3%, P<0.001). The transient high viremia (50%) and persistent high viremia (34%) groups showed significantly (P=0.01) increased incidence of acute rejection versus aviremic controls (21.5%), transient low viremia (19%), or persistent low viremia (17.3%) groups. Conclusion Low viral load BK viremia, either transient or persistent, was not associated with long-term transplant outcomes. Persistent high viremia was associated with a greater risk for BK polyomavirus–associated nephropathy and subsequent graft dysfunction. Although transient high viremia was not associated with BK

  9. BK virus has tropism for human salivary gland cells in vitro: Implications for transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In this study, it was determined that BKV is shed in saliva and an in vitro model system was developed whereby BKV can productively infect both submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) salivary gland cell lines. Results: BKV was detected in oral fluids using quantitative real-time PCR (QRTPCR). BKV infection was determined using quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays. The infectivity of BKV was inhibited by pre-incubation of the virus with gangliosides that saturated the major capsid protein, VP1, halting receptor mediated BKV entry into salivary gland cells. Examination of infected cultures by transmission electron microscopy revealed 45-50 nm BK virions clearly visible within the cells. Subsequent to infection, encapsidated BK virus was detected in the supernatant. Conclusion: We thus demonstrated that BKV was detected in oral fluids and that BK infection and replication occur in vitro in salivary gland cells. These data collectively suggest the potential for BKV oral route of transmission and oral pathogenesis.

  10. A non-cardiomyocyte autonomous mechanism of cardioprotection involving the SLO1 BK channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Wojtovich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Opening of BK-type Ca2+ activated K+ channels protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. However, the location of BK channels responsible for cardioprotection is debated. Herein we confirmed that openers of the SLO1 BK channel, NS1619 and NS11021, were protective in a mouse perfused heart model of IR injury. As anticipated, deletion of the Slo1 gene blocked this protection. However, in an isolated cardiomyocyte model of IR injury, protection by NS1619 and NS11021 was insensitive to Slo1 deletion. These data suggest that protection in intact hearts occurs by a non-cardiomyocyte autonomous, SLO1-dependent, mechanism. In this regard, an in-situ assay of intrinsic cardiac neuronal function (tachycardic response to nicotine revealed that NS1619 preserved cardiac neurons following IR injury. Furthermore, blockade of synaptic transmission by hexamethonium suppressed cardioprotection by NS1619 in intact hearts. These results suggest that opening SLO1 protects the heart during IR injury, via a mechanism that involves intrinsic cardiac neurons. Cardiac neuronal ion channels may be useful therapeutic targets for eliciting cardioprotection.

  11. BK/TD models for analyzing in vitro impedance data on cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, S; Barcellini-Couget, S; Beaudouin, R; Brochot, C; Desousa, G; Rahmani, R; Pery, A R R

    2015-06-01

    The ban of animal testing has enhanced the development of new in vitro technologies for cosmetics safety assessment. Impedance metrics is one such technology which enables monitoring of cell viability in real time. However, analyzing real time data requires moving from static to dynamic toxicity assessment. In the present study, we built mechanistic biokinetic/toxicodynamic (BK/TD) models to analyze the time course of cell viability in cytotoxicity assay using impedance. These models account for the fate of the tested compounds during the assay. BK/TD models were applied to analyze HepaRG cell viability, after single (48 h) and repeated (4 weeks) exposures to three hepatotoxic compounds (coumarin, isoeugenol and benzophenone-2). The BK/TD models properly fit the data used for their calibration that was obtained for single or repeated exposure. Only for one out of the three compounds, the models calibrated with a single exposure were able to predict repeated exposure data. We therefore recommend the use of long-term exposure in vitro data in order to adequately account for chronic hepatotoxic effects. The models we propose here are capable of being coupled with human biokinetic models in order to relate dose exposure and human hepatotoxicity. PMID:25827406

  12. Systematic study of spatiotemporal dynamics of intense femtosecond laser pulses in BK-7 glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Gopal; V Deepak; S Sivaramakrishnan

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present a systematic study of the spatial and temporal effects of intense femtosecond laser pulses in BK-7 over a broad range of input powers, 1–1000 times the critical power for self-focusing (cr) by numerically solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). Most numerical studies have not been extended to such high powers. A clear-cut classification of spatio-temporal dynamics up to very high powers into three regimes – the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) regime, the ionization regime and the dominant plasma regime – as done here, is a significant step towards a better understanding. Further, we examine in detail the role of GVD in channel formation by comparing BK-7 to an `artificial' medium. Our investigations bring forth the important observation that diffraction plays a minimal role in the formation of multiple cones and that plasma plays a diffraction-like role at very high powers. A detailed study of the spatio-temporal dynamics in any condensed medium over this range of powers has not been reported hitherto, to the best of our knowledge. We also suggest appropriate operational powers for various applications employing BK-7 on the basis of our results.

  13. Selective inhibition of phosphodiesterase 1 relaxes urinary bladder smooth muscle: role for ryanodine receptor-mediated BK channel activation

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Wenkuan; Soder, Rupal P; Cheng, Qiuping; Eric S. Rovner; Petkov, Georgi V.

    2012-01-01

    The large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel is a major regulator of detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) excitability and contractility. Recently, we showed that nonselective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition reduces guinea pig DSM excitability and contractility by increasing BK channel activity. Here, we investigated how DSM excitability and contractility changes upon selective inhibition of PDE type 1 (PDE1) and the underlying cellular mechanism involving ryanodine receptors ...

  14. Urinary tract analgesics for the treatment of patients with acute cystitis: where is the clinical evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergialiotis, Vassilis; Arnos, Pantelis; Mavros, Michael N; Pitsouni, Eleni; Athanasiou, Stavros; Falagas, Matthew E

    2012-08-01

    Acute cystitis is one of the most common health-related problems in the female population. Over the last few decades, a number of drugs labeled as 'urinary tract analgesics' were released; these are available over the counter and are gaining widespread resonance among the North American population. The main representatives of this class of drugs are phenazopyridine and methenamine hippurate. Methenamine's efficacy and side effects have been well studied in a recent systematic review. On the other hand, in contrast to its widespread use, the published clinical evidence regarding phenazopyridine's effectiveness and safety is scarce. In addition, consumers (potentially patients) appear to ignore the limitations of this kind of treatment. In this article, concerns regarding the use of over-the-counter uroanalgesics, with a focus on the relevant clinical evidence, are discussed. PMID:23030327

  15. The Chinese approach to complementary and alternative medicine treatment for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ran; Ali, Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    Management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) remains a challenge due to poor understanding on its etiology. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as an optional treatment, has been widely used, because no definitive conventional therapy is available. The different domain of CAM provides miscellaneous treatments for IC/BPS, which mainly include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, biofeedback, yoga, massage, physical therapy, Qigong, traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Clinical evidence has shown that each therapy can certainly benefit a portion of IC/BPS patients. However, the target patient group of each therapy has not been well studied and randomized, controlled trials are needed to further confirm the efficacy and reliability of CAM on managing IC/BPS. Despite these limitations, CAM therapeutic characteristics including non-invasive and effectiveness for specific patients allow clinicians and patients to realize multimodal and individualized therapy for IC/BPS. PMID:26816867

  16. The impact of surveillance and rapid reduction in immunosuppression to control BK virus-related graft injury in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfadawy, Nissreen; Flechner, Stuart M; Liu, Xiaobo; Schold, Jesse; Tian, Devin; Srinivas, Titte R; Poggio, Emilio; Fatica, Richard; Avery, Robin; Mossad, Sherif B

    2013-08-01

    We prospectively screened 609 consecutive kidney (538) and kidney-pancreas (71) transplant recipients for BK viremia over a 4-year interval using polymerase chain reaction viral load detection and protocol kidney biopsies. We found that BK viremia is common at our center: total cases 26.7%, cases during first year 21.3% (mean 4 months), and recipients with ≥ 10 000 copies/ml 12.3%. We found few predictive clinical or demographic risk factors for any BK viremia or viral loads ≥ 10,000 copies/ml, other than prior treatment of biopsy confirmed acute rejection and/or higher immunosuppressive blood levels of tacrolimus (P = 0.001) or mycophenolate mofetil (P = 0.007). Viral loads at diagnosis (185 000 copies/ml at diagnosis were predictive of BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN; OR: 113.25, 95% CI: 17.22-744.6, P < 0.001). Surveillance for BK viremia and rapid reduction of immunosuppression limited the incidence of BKVAN to 1.3%. The addition of leflunomide or ciprofloxacin to immunosuppressive dose reduction did not result in greater rates of viral clearance. These data support the role of early surveillance for BK viremia to limit the impact on transplant outcome, although the most effective schedule for screening awaits further investigation. PMID:23763289

  17. Chemical- and radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis: current treatments and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Heather; Adamson, Andrew; Bahl, Amit; Borwell, Jonathan; Dodds, David; Heath, Catherine; Huddart, Robert; McMenemin, Rhona; Patel, Prashant; Peters, John L; Thompson, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    • To review the published data on predisposing risk factors for cancer treatment-induced haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and the evidence for the different preventive and therapeutic measures that have been used in order to help clinicians optimally define and manage this potentially serious condition. • Despite recognition that HC can be a significant complication of cancer treatment, there is currently a lack of UK-led guidelines available on how it should optimally be defined and managed. • A systematic literature review was undertaken to evaluate the evidence for preventative measures and treatment options in the management of cancer treatment-induced HC. • There is a wide range of reported incidence due to several factors including variability in study design and quality, the type of causal agent, the grading of bleeding, and discrepancies in definition criteria. • The most frequently reported causal factors are radiotherapy to the pelvic area, where HC has been reported in up to 20% of patients, and treatment with cyclophosphamide and bacillus Calmette-Guérin, where the incidence has been reported as up to 30%. • Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sodium sulphonate), hyperhydration and bladder irrigation have been the most frequently used prophylactic measures to prevent treatment-related cystitis, but are not always effective. • Cranberry juice is widely cited as a preventative measure and sodium pentosanpolysulphate as a treatment, although the evidence for both is very limited. • The best evidence exists for intravesical hyaluronic acid as an effective preventative and active treatment, and for hyperbaric oxygen as an equally effective treatment option. • The lack of robust data and variability in treatment strategies used highlights the need for further research, as well as best practice guidance and consensus on the management of HC. PMID:24000900

  18. Interstitial Cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as urinary tract infections, bladder cancer, endometriosis, kidney stones, sexually transmitted infections, chronic prostatitis in men and ... trying one or more of the following treatments: Diet. Your doctor may tell you to change what ...

  19. Eosinophilic cystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosholt, Karina Sif Søndergaard; Dahl, Claus; Azawi, Nessn Htum

    2014-01-01

    frequency, dysuria, urgency, pain and haematuria. Common clinical findings were presence of bladder mass, peripheral eosinophilia and thickened bladder wall. A variety of medical treatments were used, most frequently steroids, antibiotics and antihistamines. Recurrence occurred in patients on tapering or...... discontinuing prednisone, among other reasons. There is no consensus about the treatment of EC, but In light of our findings in this review, the treatment of choice in our department will be tapered prednisone over 6-8 weeks in combination with antihistamine....

  20. Combined site-specific sacral neuromodulation and pudendal nerve release surgery in a patient with interstitial cystitis and persistent arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Georgina Louise; Vancaillie, Thierry Georges

    2016-01-01

    A variety of neuromodulation approaches have been described for the management of pelvic neuropathies, including interstitial cystitis, pudendal neuralgia and persistent genital arousal disorder. The benefits of a combined sacral and pudendal nerve neuromodulator has yet to be explored for these patients. In this report, we describe the case of a 35-year-old woman with a complex pelvic neuropathy resulting in urinary, sexual and gastro-intestinal dysfunction. She presented with an established diagnosis of interstitial cystitis; however, she also fulfilled diagnostic criteria for pudendal neuralgia and persistent genital arousal disorder. The patient underwent implantation of a combined sacral and pudendal nerve neuoromodulation device at the time of surgical decompression of the pudendal nerves. An impressive clinical response followed. This case demonstrates a unique clinical presentation and highlights the value of a combined surgical and neuromodulatory approach in the management of patients with complex pelvic neuropathies. PMID:27284095

  1. Emphysematous cystitis in a patient presenting with paradoxical arterial embolism and intestinal mycobacteriosis without evidence of diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the case of a 72-year-old woman who displayed massive multiple intramural gas collections of the bladder wall as an incidental finding on CT. The patient presented with critical ischemia of the left leg caused by paradoxical arterial embolism, raised corpuscular sedimentation rate, anemia by gastrointestinal blood loss, hypoproteinemia, diarrhea, malabsorption, and exudative enteropathia caused by mycobacterial ileocolitis. The patient had no dysuria and there was no evidence of diabetes. The intramural gas collections of the bladder wall, as shown by CT, were compatible with emphysematous cystitis. Urine samples proved infection by a multi-resistant strain of E. coli. Emphysematous cystitis is a rare form of bladder infection that can be diagnosed by plain-film radiograms or CT. (orig.)

  2. Group B streptococcus cystitis presenting in a diabetic patient with a massive abdominopelvic abscess: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ulett Kimberly B; Shuemaker Jennifer H; Benjamin William H; Tan Chee K; Ulett Glen C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus is a Gram-positive pathogen that is typically associated with neonatal disease and infection in pregnant women. Group B streptococcus also causes invasive infections in non-pregnant adults including urinary tract infections. The spectrum of urinary tract infections caused by group B streptococcus includes cystitis, pyelonephritis, urosepsis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, which is particularly common among elderly individua...

  3. Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis through Inhibiting DNA Damage and Upregulation of Nrf2 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Prashant R.; Prajapati, Chaitali P.; Mahajan, Umesh B.; Goyal, Sameer N.; Belemkar, Sateesh; Ojha, Shreesh; Patil, Chandragouda R.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYP) induced hemorrhagic cystitis is a dose-limiting side effect involving increased oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and suppressed activity of nuclear factor related erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Thymoquinone (TQ), an active constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, is reported to increase the expression of Nrf2, exert antioxidant action, and anti-inflammatory effects in the experimental animals. The present study was designed to explore the effects of TQ on CYP-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in Balb/c mice. Cystitis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of CYP (200 mg/kg). TQ was administered intraperitoneally at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg doses twice a day, for three days before and three days after the CYP administration. The efficacy of TQ was determined in terms of the protection against the CYP-induced histological perturbations in the bladder tissue, reduction in the oxidative stress, and inhibition of the DNA fragmentation. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the expression of Nrf2. TQ protected against CYP-induced oxidative stress was evident from significant reduction in the lipid peroxidation, restoration of the levels of reduced glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. TQ treatment significantly reduced the DNA damage evident as reduced DNA fragmentation. A significant decrease in the cellular infiltration, edema, epithelial denudation and hemorrhage were observed in the histological observations. There was restoration and rise in the Nrf2 expression in the bladder tissues of mice treated with TQ. These results confirm that, TQ ameliorates the CYP-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in mice through reduction in the oxidative stress, inhibition of the DNA damage and through increased expression of Nrf2 in the bladder tissues. PMID:27489498

  4. Ultrasound Distinction between Simple Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and a Specific Bladder Wall Inflammatory Entity called Cystitis Cystica

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević, Danko; Batinić, Danica; Vrljičak, Kristina; Skitarelić, Nataša; Potkonjak, Ana-Meyra; Turudić, Daniel; Bambir, Ivan; Cvitković Roić, Andrea; Spajić, Marija; Spajić, Borislav

    2014-01-01

    A specific representative of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) called cystitis cystica (CC) was assessed by ultrasound. The aim of the study was to delineate, by means of ultrasound measurement (US) of bladder wall thickness (BWT), the children with mere repeated UTI from those prone to frequent UTI due to CC. Two groups were compared, the control group of 30 with recurrent UTI without US CC BWT changes, and the group of 30 children with characteristic CC bladder wall thickening in who...

  5. Antibiotic treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis based on rapid urine test and local epidemiology: lessons from a primary care series

    OpenAIRE

    Etienne, Manuel; Lefebvre, Emmanuel; Frebourg, Noëlle; Hamel, Hélène; Pestel-Caron, Martine; Caron, François

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) is an ideal target of optimization for antibiotic therapy in primary care. Because surveillance networks on urinary tract infections (UTI) mix complicated and uncomplicated UTI, reliable epidemiological data on AUC lack. Whether the antibiotic choice should be guided by a rapid urine test (RUT) for leukocytes and nitrites has not been extensively studied in daily practice. The aim of this primary care study was to investigate local epidemiology an...

  6. Unusual case of severe late-onset cytomegalovirus-induced hemorrhagic cystitis and ureteritis in a renal transplant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersan, Sibel; Yorukoglu, Kutsal; Sert, Mehmet; Atila, Koray; Celik, Ali; Gulcu, Aytac; Cavdar, Caner; Sifil, Aykut; Bora, Seymen; Gulay, Hüseyin; Camsari, Taner

    2012-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common in solid organ transplant recipients and accounts for the majority of graft compromise. Major risk factors include primary exposure to CMV infection at the time of transplantation and the use of antilymphocyte agents such as OKT3 (the monoclonal antibody muromonab-CD3) and antithymocyte globulin. It most often develops during the first 6 months after transplantation. Although current prophylactic strategies and antiviral agents have led to decreased occurrence of CMV disease in early posttransplant period, the incidence of late-onset CMV disease ranges from 2% to 7% even in the patients receiving prophylaxis with oral ganciclovir. The most common presentation of CMV disease in transplant patients is CMV pneumonitis followed by gastrointestinal disease. Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The condition is usually due to cyclophosphamide-based myeloablative regimens and infectious agents. Even in these settings, CMV-induced cases occur only sporadically. Ureteritis and hemorrhagic cystitis due to CMV infection after kidney transplantation is reported very rarely on a case basis in the literature so far. We report here a case of late-onset CMV-induced hemorrhagic cystitis and ureteritis presenting with painful macroscopic hematuria and ureteral obstruction after 4 years of renal transplantation. The diagnosis is pathologically confirmed by the demonstration of immunohistochemical staining specific for CMV in a resected ureteral section. We draw attention to this very particular presentation of CMV hemorrhagic cystitis with ureteral obstruction in order to emphasize atypical presentation of tissue-invasive CMV disease far beyond the timetable for posttransplant CMV infection. PMID:22251223

  7. Causative Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Development of Chronic Cystitis Complicated with Leukoplakia of the Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander I. Neymark, PhD, ScD; Yuliya S. Kondratyeva, PhD

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was the investigation of the influence of chlamydial, mycoplasmal and trichomonas infection on the development of urinary bladder leukoplakia. The article presents the results of the examination of women with chronic cystitis complicated with leukoplakia of the bladder, and associated with concomitant sexually transmitted infections, including the results of culture analysis of the cervical canal content and urinary bladder biopsy samples, as well as molecular-biol...

  8. Scutellaria baicalensis Alleviates Cantharidin-Induced Rat Hemorrhagic Cystitis through Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 Overexpression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Lin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cantharidin, an active component in mylabris, is used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM to treat scabies and hepatoma, but accompanied by hemorrhagic cystitis. Evidence shows that cantharidin induces human bladder carcinoma cell death through COX-2 overexpression in vitro. In TCM, Scutellaria baicalensis is usually used to cure mylabris-induced hematuria. This work was undertaken to determine the mechanisms of cantharidin-induced rat hemorrhagic cystitis and explore the uroprotective effect of S. baicalensis. In vitro results showed cantharidin could induce cytotoxicity through prostaglandin (PGE2 overproduction of T24 cells. Boiling-water extract of S. baicalensis (SB-WE could significantly inhibit PGE2 production and COX-2 expression in lipo-polysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells, indicating obvious anti-inflammatory abilities. In vivo results indicated that cantharidin caused rat hemorrhagic cystitis with hematuria via c-Fos and COX-2 overexpression. SB-WE was given orally to cantharidin-treated rats, whereby hematuria level, elevated PGE2 and COX-2 protein overexpression were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by SB-WE. The anti-inflammatory components of SB-WE are baicalin and wogonin, whose contents were 200.95 ± 2.00 and 31.93 ± 0.26 μg/mg, respectively. In conclusion, cantharidin induces rat cystitis through c-Fos and COX-2 over-expression and S. baicalensis can prevent the resulting hematuria because of its anti-inflammatory effects.

  9. A C-type lectin receptor pathway is responsible for the pathogenesis of acute cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejima, Takashi; Shibata, Kensuke; Yamada, Hisakata; Takeuchi, Ario; Hara, Hiromitsu; Eto, Masatoshi; Naito, Seiji; Yoshikai, Yasunobu

    2013-12-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis often arises after cyclophosphamide (CYP) administration. As yet, however, the mechanism involved in its pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, it was found that the Fc receptor γ chain (FcRγ)- caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9)-dependent pathway rather than the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of acute CYP-induced cystitis in mice. Rapid and transient production of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β was detected in the bladder at 4 hr, preceding IL-23 and IL-17A production and an influx of neutrophils, which reached a peak at 24 hr after injection. As assessed by weight, edema and neutrophil infiltration, cystitis was significantly attenuated in CARD9 knockout (KO) and FcRγKO mice, this attenuation being accompanied by impaired production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23 and IL-17A. The major source of IL-17A is the vesical γδ T cell population: IL-17AKO, CδKO and Tyk2KO mice showed little IL-17A production and reduced neutrophil infiltration in the bladder after CYP injection. These results suggest that FcRγ-CARD9-dependent production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23 and the subsequent activation of IL-17A-producing γδ T cells are at least partly involved in the pathogenesis of acute CYP-induced cystitis in mice. PMID:24102807

  10. The influence of montelukast on the autonomic nervous system activity in rats with cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrek Lukasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The complex pathogenesis of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis involves arachidonic acid-derived inflammatory mediators, among them leukotrienes. Montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, is reported to exert an alleviatory effect in the course of cystitis associated with overactive bladder symptoms. The aim of this study was to verify whether the effect of montelukast is also associated with its influence on autonomic activity. The experiment included 20 rats with cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (75 mg/kg, four doses every second day, among them, 10 treated with oral montelukast (10 mg/kg for 8 days and 10 controls. Time and frequency domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV were conducted in all the rats as an indirect measure of their autonomic activity. The montelukast-treated animals showed an increase in root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD, as well as an increase in HRV spectrum total power (TP and power of very low (VLF spectral component. This suggests that due to its anti-inflammatory and its anti-leukotriene effect, montelukast improves overall autonomic activity, with no preferential influence on either the sympathetic or parasympathetic part. Furthermore, the increase in VLF corresponds to attenuation of inflammatory response. In conclusion, this study showed that aside from its antagonistic effect on leukotriene receptors, montelukast can also modulate autonomic activity.

  11. The role of bilateral internal iliac arterial embolization in the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis after bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of bilateral internal iliac arterial embolization in the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis after bone marrow transplantation. Methods: Among 28 patients with hemorrhagic cystitis, 7 patients experienced bilateral internal iliac artery embolization because of serious hemorrhage that could not be controlled by conservative treatments, including CML (n=3), AML (n=2), ALL(n=1), acute myelomonocytic leukemia (M4, n=1). Embolization of the target vessels was performed by using gelfoam particles for bilateral internal iliac arterial visceral branches. Results: Gross hematuria disappeared in 4 cases after embolization by gelfoam particles. The time of bleeding controlled continued 2-10 d (mean 6 d). No rebleeding was observed in all of the cases during the 12-82 days follow up. Gross hematuria markedly reduced in another 3 cases after embolization. But failure occurred in other two patients. No definite complication related to the procedure ws noted. Conclusion: Bilateral internal iliac arterial embolization is an effective, less invasive, and safe method for serious hemorrhagic cystitis after bone marrow transplantation. (authors)

  12. Emergence of antimicrobial-resistant uropathogens isolated from pediatric patients with cystitis on daily clean intermittent catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Uehara, Teruhisa; Hashimoto, Jiro; Nishinaka, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Masumori, Naoya

    2015-10-01

    One of the major complications of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) is urinary tract infection (UTI). Recent reports showed that community-acquired UTIs caused by antimicrobial-resistant pathogens were gradually presenting in adults. However, there have been few reports about UTIs caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in pediatric patients. Therefore, we retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 45 children with CIC due to neurogenic bladder dysfunction from January 2010 to March 2013. Sixty-two episodes of cystitis occurred in 27 patients. Seventy bacterial strains were isolated from urine samples. The rate of Gram-negative bacteria was 84.3%. Six extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains were isolated from 4 patients. An ESBL-producing Proteus mirabilis strain and a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain were isolated from one patient each. Most of the pathogens of cystitis in the pediatric patients with CIC were Gram-negative bacilli, especially E. coli. We should be aware that ESBL producing E. coli as potential pathogens cause cystitis and regularly survey antimicrobial susceptibility to understand the resistant strains that develop. PMID:26194974

  13. S-acylation dependent post-translational cross-talk regulates large conductance calcium- and voltage- activated potassium (BK channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MichaelJShipston

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms that control surface expression and/or activity of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK channels are important determinants of their (pathophysiological function. Indeed, BK channel dysfunction is associated with major human disorders ranging from epilepsy to hypertension and obesity. S-acylation (S-palmitoylation represents a major reversible, post-translational modification controlling the properties and function of many proteins including ion channels. Recent evidence reveals that both pore-forming and regulatory subunits of BK channels are S-acylated and control channel trafficking and regulation by AGC-family protein kinases. The pore-forming α-subunit is S-acylated at two distinct sites within the N- and C-terminus, each site being regulated by different palmitoyl acyl transferases (zDHHCs and acyl thioesterases. (APTs. S-acylation of the N-terminus controls channel trafficking and surface expression whereas S-acylation of the C-terminal domain determines regulation of channel activity by AGC-family protein kinases. S-acylation of the regulatory β4-subunit controls ER exit and surface expression of BK channels but does not affect ion channel kinetics at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, a significant number of previously identified BK-channel interacting proteins have been shown, or are predicted to be, S-acylated. Thus, the BK channel multi-molecular signalling complex may be dynamically regulated by this fundamental post-translational modification and thus S-acylation likely represents an important determinant of BK channel physiology in health and disease.

  14. Suppression of the PI3K pathway in vivo reduces cystitis-induced bladder hypertrophy and restores bladder capacity examined by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Qiao

    Full Text Available This study utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to monitor the real-time status of the urinary bladder in normal and diseased states following cyclophosphamide (CYP-induced cystitis, and also examined the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K pathway in the regulation of urinary bladder hypertrophy in vivo. Our results showed that under MRI visualization the urinary bladder wall was significantly thickened at 8 h and 48 h post CYP injection. The intravesical volume of the urinary bladder was also markedly reduced. Treatment of the cystitis animals with a specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reduced cystitis-induced bladder wall thickening and enlarged the intravesical volumes. To confirm the MRI results, we performed H&E stain postmortem and examined the levels of type I collagen by real-time PCR and western blot. Inhibition of the PI3K in vivo reduced the levels of type I collagen mRNA and protein in the urinary bladder ultimately attenuating cystitis-induced bladder hypertrophy. The bladder mass calculated according to MRI data was consistent to the bladder weight measured ex vivo under each drug treatment. MRI results also showed that the urinary bladder from animals with cystitis demonstrated high magnetic signal intensity indicating considerable inflammation of the urinary bladder when compared to normal animals. This was confirmed by examination of the pro-inflammatory factors showing that interleukin (IL-1α, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα levels in the urinary bladder were increased with cystitis. Our results suggest that MRI can be a useful technique in tracing bladder anatomy and examining bladder hypertrophy in vivo during disease development and the PI3K pathway has a critical role in regulating bladder hypertrophy during cystitis.

  15. Bk and Cf chromatographic separation and ²⁴⁹Bk/²⁴⁸Cm and ²⁴⁹Cf/²⁴⁸Cm elemental ratios determination by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgiotis, A; Isnard, H; Nonell, A; Aubert, M; Stadelmann, G; Dupont, E; AlMahamid, I; Tiang, G; Rao, L; Lukens, W; Cassette, P; Panebianco, S; Letourneau, A; Chartier, F

    2013-03-15

    The French Atomic Energy Commission has carried out several experiments for the study of minor-actinide transmutation processes in high intensity thermal neutron flux. In this context a Cm sample enriched in (248)Cm (∼97%) was irradiated in a thermal neutron flux at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). The precise and accurate determination of Cf isotope ratios and of (249)Bk/(248)Cm and (249)Cf/(248)Cm elemental ratios in the (248)Cm irradiated sample is crucial for the calculation of actinide neutron capture cross-sections. This work describes an analytical procedure for the separation and the isotope ratio measurement of Bk and Cf in the irradiated sample. The Bk and Cf separation is based on a lanthanides separation protocol previously developed by the laboratory. Well-defined retention times for Bk and Cf were obtained by coupling the Ionic Chromatography (IC) with an ICP-QMS. All conditions of element separation by IC and the different steps of the analytical protocol in order to obtain the isotopic and elemental ratios are presented. Relative uncertainties of Cf isotopic ratios range from 0.3% to 0.5% and the uncertainty of the (249)Bk/(248)Cm and (249)Cf/(248)Cm elemental ratios are respectively 6.1% and 3.2%. This level of uncertainty for both isotopic and elemental ratios is in perfect agreement with the requirement for transmutation studies. PMID:23598093

  16. Ca2+- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channel activators in the 5β-cholanic acid-3α-ol analogue series with modifications in lateral chain

    OpenAIRE

    Bukiya, Anna N.; Patil, Shivaputra; Li, Wei; Miller, Duane; Dopico, Alex M.

    2012-01-01

    Large conductance, calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channels regulate various physiological processes and represent an attractive target for drug discovery. Numerous BK channel activators are available. However, these agents usually interact with the ubiquitously distributed channel-forming subunit and thus cannot selectively target a particular tissue. Here, we performed structure-activity relationship study of lithocholic acid (LCA), a cholane that activates BK channels via the acc...

  17. Intracellular segment between transmembrane helices S0 and S1 of BK channel α subunit contains two amphipathic helices connected by a flexible loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Pan [Hefei National Laboratory of Microscale Physical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Li, Dong; Lai, Chaohua [Hefei National Laboratory of Microscale Physical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Zhang, Longhua, E-mail: zlhustc@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory of Microscale Physical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Tian, Changlin, E-mail: cltian@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory of Microscale Physical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •The loop between S0 and S1 of BK channel was overexpressed and purified in DPC. •NMR studies indicated BK-IS1 contained two helices connected by a flexible loop. •Mg{sup 2+} titration of BK-IS1 indicated two possible binding sites of divalent ions. -- Abstract: The BK channel, a tetrameric potassium channel with very high conductance, has a central role in numerous physiological functions. The BK channel can be activated by intracellular Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}, as well as by membrane depolarization. Unlike other tetrameric potassium channels, the BK channel has seven transmembrane helices (S0–S6) including an extra helix S0. The intracellular segment between S0 and S1 (BK-IS1) is essential to BK channel functions and Asp99 in BK-IS1 is reported to be responsible for Mg{sup 2+} coordination. In this study, BK-IS1 (44–113) was over-expressed using a bacterial system and purified in the presence of detergent micelles for multidimensional heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural studies. Backbone resonance assignment and secondary structure analysis showed that BK-IS1 contains two amphipathic helices connected by a 36-residue loop. Amide {sup 1}H–{sup 15}N heteronuclear NOE analysis indicated that the loop is very flexible, while the two amphipathic helices are possibly stabilized through interaction with the membrane. A solution NMR-based titration assay of BK-IS1 was performed with various concentrations of Mg{sup 2+}. Two residues (Thr45 and Leu46) with chemical shift changes were observed but no, or very minor, chemical shift difference was observed for Asp99, indicating a possible site for binding divalent ions or other modulation partners.

  18. Viabilitas dan Kemampuan Bakteri Kitinolitik Bacillus sp. BK17 dalam Formulasi Tablet untuk Mengurangi Layu Fusarium pada Benih Cabai Merah (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sitohang, Arance Yoane Itoi Imaulina

    2015-01-01

    Chitinolytic bacteria Bacillus sp. BK17 has been known to inhibit the growth of Fusarium oxysporum on chili seeds. Bacterial cell viability is an important factor in using the cell for biological control. This study was aimed to evaluate viability of chitinolytic bacteria Bacillus sp. BK17 and its potential in tablet formulation as a biological control againstF. oxysporum. Viability of Bacillus sp. BK17 cell was reduced in 40 days of storage. Bacillus sp. BK17 in tablet formulation was able t...

  19. Erbium-doped ion-exchanged waveguide lasers in BK-7 glass

    OpenAIRE

    Feuchter, T.; Mwarania, E.K.; Wang, J.; Reekie, L.; J. S. Wilkinson

    1992-01-01

    Ion exchange in glass is a simple, flexible, technique to realize optical fiber compatible planar waveguide devices. Recently, neodymium-doped waveguide lasers operating at 1060 and 1300 nm have been demonstrated in this technology. Lasers operating at 1540 nm are desirable for telecommunication applications and we report here, for the first time, ion-exchanged waveguide lasers in erbium-doped glass emitting at this wavelength. Lasers in BK-7 glass doped with 0.5 wt% Er2O3 and pumped at 980 n...

  20. Low-loss waveguides fabricated in BK7 glass by high repetition rate femtosecond fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time femtosecond-laser writing has inscribed low-loss optical waveguides in Schott BK7 glass, a commercially important type of borosilicate widely used in optical applications. The use of a variable repetition rate laser enabled the identification of a narrow processing window at 1 MHz repetition rate with optimal waveguides exhibiting propagation losses of 0.3 dB/cm and efficient mode matching to standard optical fibers at a 1550 nm wavelength. The waveguides were characterized by complementary phase contrast and optical transmission microscopy, identifying a micrometer-sized guiding region within a larger complex structure of both positive and negative refractive index variations

  1. Interstitial Cystitis – Elucidation of Psychophysiologic and Autonomic Characteristics (the ICEPAC Study: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelimsky T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Chelimsky,1 Gisela Chelimsky,1 N Patrick McCabe,2 Megan Louttit,3 Adonis Hijaz,3 Sangeeta Mahajan,3 Tatiana Sanses,3 CA Tony Buffington,4 Bradford Fenton,5 Thomas Janicki,3 Sarah Ialacci,2 Elias Veizi,3 Di Zhang,2 Firouz Daneshgari,2,3 Robert Elston,2 Jeffrey Janata2,31The Medical College of Wisconsin, Departments of Neurology and Gastroenterology, Milwaukee, WI, 2Case Western Reserve University, Department of Neurology, Cleveland, OH, 3University Hospitals Case Medical Center, School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, 4The Ohio State University, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Columbus, OH, 5Summa Health System, Department of Gynecology, Akron, OH, USABackground and purpose: Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS is relatively common and associated with severe pain, yet effective treatment remains elusive. Research typically emphasized the bladder's role, but given the high presence of systemic comorbidities, the authors hypothesized a pathophysiologic nervous system role. This paper reports the methodology and approach to study the nervous system in women with IC/BPS. The study compares neurologic, urologic, gynecologic, autonomic, gastrointestinal, and psychological features of women with IC/BPS, their female relatives, women with myofascial pelvic pain (MPP, and healthy controls to elucidate the role of central and peripheral processing.Methods and results: In total, 228 women (76 IC/BPS, 76 MPP, 38 family members, and 38 healthy controls will be recruited. Subjects undergo detailed screening, structured neurologic examination of limbs and pelvis, tender point examination, autonomic testing, electrogastrography, and assessment of comorbid functional dysautonomias. Interpreters are blinded to subject classification. Psychological and stress response characteristics are examined with assessments of stress, trauma history, general psychological function, and stress response quantification. As of December 2012, data

  2. [Incidence of bacterial cystitis in diabetic dogs and cats at the time of diagnosis. Retrospective study for the period 1990-1996].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, M

    1998-02-01

    Bacterial cystitis is a problem often found among patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. Insulin management can be impaired by this condition. Diagnosis and therapy of a urinary tract infection are very important in regarding the possibility of bacteria ascending to the kidneys because in a great amount of diabetic patients the kidneys are already damaged by diabetic glomerular nephropathy. Compared to other patients of our clinic the frequency of cystitis among diabetic dogs (n = 158, cystitis diagnosed in 12.7%) and cats (n = 71, cystitis diagnosed in 9.9%) was already considerably higher when diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in these animals. In this retrospective study female animals were far more affected than males. The diagnosis of cystitis among cats and dogs was most frequent when patients had already been suffering from polydipsia and polyuria for more than four weeks. A division among the dogs depending on the etiology of diabetes mellitus led to the following result: especially patients suffering from Cushing's disease and bitches with progesterone-STH-induced diabetes mellitus--particularly when endometritis or pyometra was found--were running the highest risk of developing urinary infections. The bacterium most frequently isolated in the urine samples was E. coli. PMID:9531671

  3. Preliminary study on rotary ultrasonic machining of Bk-7 optical glass rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an experimental observation on rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) of BK7 optical glass rod. BK7 is a common technical optical glass for high quality optical components due to its high linear optical transmission in the visible range and is chemically stable. RUM is a hybrid machining process that combines the material removal mechanisms of diamond grinding and ultrasonic machining (USM) and it is non-thermal, non-chemical, creates no change in the microstructure, chemical or physical properties of the work piece. In the RUM, a controlled static load is applied to the rotating core drill with metal bonded diamond abrasive and is ultrasonically vibrated in the axial direction. A water-soluble coolant was used to cool the tool and sample during machining processes. By using DOE (Design of Experiment) approach, the effect of spindle speed and feed rate to the ultrasonic machinability had been developed. The main effects and two-factor interactions of process parameters (spindle speed) and feed rate) on output variables (MRR, surface roughness, opaqueness, chipping thickness and chipping size) are studied. (author)

  4. BK Lyncis: The Oldest Old Nova?... And a Bellwether for Cataclysmic-Variable Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, Joseph; Kemp, Jonathan; de Miguel, Enrique; Krajci, Thomas; Foote, Jerry; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Campbell, Tut; Roberts, George; Cejudo, David; Dvorak, Shawn; Vanmunster, Tonny; Koff, Robert; Skillman, David; Harvey, David; Martin, Brian; Rock, John; Boyd, David; Oksanen, Arto; Morelle, Etienne; Ulowetz, Joseph; Kroes, Anthony; Sabo, Richard; Jensen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the results of a 20-year campaign to study the light curves of BK Lyncis, a nova-like star strangely located below the 2-3 hour orbital period gap in the family of cataclysmic variables. Two apparent "superhumps" dominate the nightly light curves - with periods 4.6% longer, and 3.0% shorter, than P_orb. The first appears to be associated with the star's brighter states (V~14), while the second appears to be present throughout and becomes very dominant in the low state (V~15.7). Starting in the year 2005, the star's light curve became indistinguishable from that of a dwarf nova - in particular, that of the ER UMa subclass. Reviewing all the star's oddities, we speculate: (a) BK Lyn is the remnant of the probable nova on 30 December 101, and (b) it has been fading ever since, but has taken ~2000 years for the accretion rate to drop sufficiently to permit dwarf-nova eruptions. If such behavior is common, it can explain other puzzles of CV evolution. One: why the ER UMa class even exists (because all...

  5. Risk Factors for the Development of BK Virus Nephropathy in Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, D; Mann, D M; Malik, A; Hoover, D R; Fyfe, B; Mann, R A

    2015-10-01

    The BK polyoma virus has, in recent years, become a significant cause of renal allograft dysfunction and failure. Among 260 adult kidney transplant recipients, those with biopsy-proven BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) were compared with those without BKVN with regard to gender, age, race, rejection episodes, time on dialysis, number of organs transplanted, HLA match, live donor versus deceased donor, cold ischemia time, delayed graft function, cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus of donor and recipient, induction therapy, and maintenance immunosuppression. Episodes of rejection (35.7% of patients with BKVN vs 8.5% of patients without BKVN; P = .01), transplantation of >1 organ (35.7% of patients with BKVN vs 9.0% of patients without BKVN; P = .01), positive CMV serology in both donor and recipient (71.4% of patients with BKVN vs 41.1% of patients without BKVN; P = .03), and a greater cumulative dose of daclizumab use at the time of induction (2.24 ± 0.05 mg/kg in patients with BKVN vs 2.03 ± 0.14 mg/kg in patients without BKVN; P = .04) were statistically significant risk factors for the development of BKVN. Those who developed BKVN received a higher mean cumulative dose of rabbit antithymoglobulin for induction therapy, but that difference failed to achieve statistical significance (P = .07). PMID:26518952

  6. On the Operator ⨁Bk Related to Bessel Heat Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchak Satsanit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the equation (∂/∂tu(x,t=c2⊕Bku(x,t with the initial condition u(x,0=f(x for x∈Rn+. The operator ⊕Bk is the operator iterated k-times and is defined by ⊕Bk=((∑i=1pBxi4-(∑j=p+1p+qBxi4k, where p+q=n is the dimension of the Rn+, Bxi=∂2/∂xi2+(2vi/xi(∂/∂xi, 2vi=2αi+1, αi>-1/2, i=1,2,3,…,n, and k is a nonnegative integer, u(x,t is an unknown function for (x,t=(x1,x2,…,xn,t∈Rn+×(0,∞, f(x is a given generalized function, and c is a positive constant. We obtain the solution of such equation, which is related to the spectrum and the kernel, which is so called Bessel heat kernel. Moreover, such Bessel heat kernel has interesting properties and also related to the kernel of an extension of the heat equation.

  7. A new precise mass for the progenitor of the Type IIP SN 2008bk

    CERN Document Server

    Maund, J R; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Eldridge, J J

    2013-01-01

    The progenitor of the Type IIP SN 2008bk was discovered in pre-explosion g'r'i'IYJHKs images, acquired with European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope FORS, HAWK-I and ISAAC instruments and the Gemini GMOS-S instrument. The wealth of pre-explosion observations makes the progenitor of this SN one of the best studied, since the detection of the progenitor of SN1987A. Previous analyses of the properties of the progenitor were hampered by the limited quality of the photometric calibration of the pre-explosion images and the crowded nature of the field containing the SN. We present new late-time observations of the site of SN2008bk acquired with identical instrument and filter configurations as the pre-explosion observations, and confirm that the previously identified red supergiant star was the progenitor of this SN and has now disappeared. Image subtraction techniques were used to conduct precise photometry of the now missing progenitor, independently of blending from any nearby stars. The nature of the ...

  8. The role of N-terminal and C-terminal Arg residues from BK on interaction with kinin B2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippelli-Silva, Rafael; Martin, Renan P; Rodrigues, Eliete S; Nakaie, Clovis R; Oliveira, Laerte; Pesquero, João B; Shimuta, Suma I

    2016-04-01

    Bradykinin (BK) is a nonapeptide important for several physiological processes such as vasodilatation, increase in vascular permeability and release of inflammatory mediators. BK performs its actions by coupling to and activating the B2 receptor, a family A G-protein coupled receptor. Using a strategy which allows systematical monitoring of BK R1 and R9 residues and B2 receptor acidic residues Glu5.35(226) and Asp6.58(298), our study aims at clarifying the BK interaction profile with the B2 receptor [receptor residue numbers are normalized according to Ballesteros and Weinstein, Methods Neurosci. 25 (1995), pp. 366-428) followed by receptor sequence numbering in brackets]. N- and C-terminal analogs of BK (-A1, -G1, -K1, -E1 and BK-A9) were tested against wild type B2, Glu5.35(226)Ala and Asp6.58(298)Ala B2 mutant receptors for their affinity and capability to elicit responses by mechanical recordings of isolated mice stomach fundus, measuring intracellular calcium mobilization, and competitive fluorimetric binding assays. BK showed 2- and 15-fold decreased potency for Glu5.35(226) and Asp6.58(298) B2 mutant receptors, respectively. In B2-Glu5.35(226)Ala BK analogs showed milder reduction in evaluated parameters. On the other hand, in the B2-Asp6.58(298)Ala mutant, no N-terminal analog was able to elicit any response. However, the BK-A9 analog presented higher affinity parameters than BK in the latter mutant. These findings provide enough support for defining a novel interaction role of BK-R9 and Asp6.58(298) receptor residues. PMID:26584354

  9. A single-center epidemiological study of BK virus infection and analysis of risk factors in patients with renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-gang LI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of BK virus (BKV infection in living renal transplantation patients, and analyze the risk factors of BKV infection and BKV nephropathy (BKVN. Methods The BKV DNA load in urine and blood samples of 43 renal transplant recipients, who had received renal transplantation in 309 Hospital from Feb. 2012 to Feb. 2013, was determined at preoperative period and 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 months after transplantation. Meanwhile, the biopsy of grafted kidney was performed in those patients with continuously elevated serum creatinine and those with higher BKV DNA load. Patients were divided into 3 groups as follows according to the test results: BK viruria group, BK viremia group and pathologically diagnosed BKVN group. Data of each group were then recorded, including gender, age, postoperative diabetes (PTDM, acute rejection (AR, delayed recovery of graft function (DGF, postoperative pulmonary infection, preoperative immune induction therapy, postoperative immunosuppressive regimen, and other information. The risk factors for postoperative BKV infection and BKVN were analyzed. Results After an average of 15-month follow-up, it was found that the incidence of BKV viruria was 46.5%, that of BKV viremia was 14.0%, and that of BKVN was 2.3%. Sixth month after transplantation was found to be the peak time of viruria and viremia. FK506 was significantly associated with viremia in living donor renal transplantation. The immunosuppressive regimen was the immune related independent risk factor for BK viremia developing BKVN after living renal transplantation. Conclusion The incidence of BK viremia and BKVN is lower in living donor renal transplantation than in cadaver renal transplantation, but that of viruria is similar in both groups. Immunosuppressive scheme based on FK506 is an immune related independent risk factor leading to BK viremia proceeding to BKVN in living donor kidney

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen: an important treatment modality in severe hemorrhagic cystitis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Sargın

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC is a generally self-limited complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. It may occur in the early or late posttransplant period and can promote sometimes severe morbidity. We analyzed our data regarding HC in allogeneic HSCT patients in order to establish the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy in severe HC and to document the main problems during its use. Material and Methods: Between March 1993 and August 2006, 161 patients received allogeneic HSCT. Mesna, hyperhydration and forced diuresis were used as early HC prophylaxis of cyclophosphamide-induced HC. However, HC was diagnosed in 49 of the 161 recipients and 17 of them were considered as severe HC. We analyzed their data retrospectively.Results: Forced diuresis with hyperhydration (up to 8 L/day and transfusion support to maintain a platelet count above 30x109/L were sufficient in 10 of the 17 patients with severe HC. Alternative therapies used included intravesical irrigation with formalin and prostaglandin (PGF2 alpha and HBO, and HBO appeared to be the most useful among them. Conclusion: We conclude that HBO offers a noninvasive therapeutic alternative in the management of intractable HC in the HSCT setting.

  11. Chemotherapy-induced hemorrhagic cystitis: pathogenesis, pharmacological approaches and new insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos V.A. Lima

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (HC remains a common and life-threatening clinical complication, mainly due to the increasing usage of alkylating agents during conditioning regimen for hematopoietic cell transplantation. Currently, mesna and hyperhydration are the two more employed preventive measures. However, these prophylactic approaches have been proven not to be completely effective, since cystoscopic and histopathologic bladder damage are evidenced. Therefore, understanding the pathogenesis of HC must be the cornerstone for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this review is to examine the current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of HC, describing the importance of transcription factors (nuclear factor kappaB, cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, -4, -6, and -8, enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, among other mediators, for the bladder injury. We also discuss the currently available animal models and future perspectives on the management of HC. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(2.000: 95-112

  12. A Pilot Study on Intravesical Administration of Curcumin for Cystitis Glandularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystitis glandularis (CG is a proliferative disorder in the urinary bladder. The outcome of current treatments in some patients is not satisfactory. Curcumin, a herbal medicine that has been used for centuries, has shown great potential in treating various diseases. Our pilot study aimed to explore the feasibility of an intravesical treatment for CG using curcumin. 14 patients diagnosed with CG that remained symptomatic after primary treatments were enrolled, underwent a 3-month curcumin intravesical treatment (50 mg/50 mL, 1 hour, once per week for first 4 weeks and once per month for next 2 months and were followed up for 3 months. Efficacy of the treatment was evaluated using core lower urinary tract symptom score (CLSS questionnaire. 10 patients demonstrated persistent improvement in symptoms up to the end of the 6-month study. Their CLSS decreased significantly after the 3-month treatment (6.0±0.8; P<0.01 from the baseline (10.5±1.6 and maintained decreasing till the end of the study (6.2±0.7; P<0.01. 4 patients were classified as nonresponders. Our study suggests the feasibility of further randomized controlled trials on curcumin intravesical treatment in CG patients who remain symptomatic after primary treatments.

  13. Clinical Investigation on the Correlation between Lower Urinary Tract Infection and Cystitis Glandularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志强; 叶章群; 曾伟

    2004-01-01

    Summary: In order to study the association between lower urinary tract infection and cystitis glandularis (CG), 120 cases of CG were diagnosed by cystoscopic biopsy in the suspicious foci of the bladder. Among them, 72 cases were subjected to bacterial counting culture of urine and microscopic examination of urinary sediment, and 60 cases to fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) assay to detect HPV, CMV and HSV DNA in urine samples. In the 72 cases of CG, the positive rate of bacterial counting culture of urine was 15.3 % (11/72), and gray zone rate was 18.1 % (13/72). 31.9 % (23/72) patients were positive in bacterioscopy of urinary sediment.There was statistically significant difference as compared with the control group (P<0.01). Only 4 of 60 urine samples were positive by FQ-PCR in detection of the three viruses mentioned above with the positive rate being 6.67 %. Compared with the control group, there was no significant difference (P>0.05). It was concluded that the genesis of CG was closely correlated with the chronic lower urinary tract infection, especially caused by Esch coli.

  14. Gene expression profile of bladder tissue of patients with ulcerative interstitial cystitis

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    Binder Jochen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial cystitis (IC, a chronic bladder disease with an increasing incidence, is diagnosed using subjective symptoms in combination with cystoscopic and histological evidence. By cystoscopic examination, IC can be classified into an ulcerative and a non-ulcerative subtype. To better understand this debilitating disease on a molecular level, a comparative gene expression profile of bladder biopsies from patients with ulcerative IC and control patients has been performed. Results Gene expression profiles from bladder biopsies of five patients with ulcerative IC and six control patients were generated using Affymetrix GeneChip expression arrays (Affymetrix – GeneChip® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0. More than 31,000 of > 54,000 tested probe sets were present (detection p-value Conclusion GeneChip expression arrays present a global picture of ulcerative IC and provide us with a series of marker genes characteristic for this subtype of the disease. Evaluation of biopsies from other bladder patients with similar symptoms (e.g. patients with non-ulcerative IC will further indicate whether the data presented here will be valuable for the diagnosis of IC.

  15. From bladder to systemic syndrome: concept and treatment evolution of interstitial cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinis S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sara Dinis,1,2 Joana Tavares de Oliveira,3,4 Rui Pinto,1,5 Francisco Cruz,1,5 CA Tony Buffington,6 Paulo Dinis1,5 1Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital de São João, Porto, 3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ULHT, Lisbon, 4Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology (IPATIMUP, University of Porto, 5Department of Urology, Hospital de São João, Porto, Portugal; 6Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, OH, USA Abstract: Interstitial cystitis, presently known as bladder pain syndrome, has been recognized for over a century but is still far from being understood. Its etiology is unknown and the syndrome probably harbors different diseases. Autoimmune dysfunction, urothelial leakage, infection, central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction, genetic disease, childhood trauma/abuse, and subsequent stress response system dysregulation might be implicated. Management is slowly evolving from a solo act by the end-organ specialist to a team approach based on new typing and phenotyping of the disease. However, oral and invasive treatments are still largely aimed at the bladder and are based on currently proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms. Future research will better define the disease, permitting individualization of treatment. Keywords: bladder pain syndrome, concept, treatment

  16. Fosfomycin: A First-Line Oral Therapy for Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George G. Zhanel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fosfomycin is a new agent to Canada approved for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC in adult women infected with susceptible isolates of E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis. We reviewed the literature regarding the use of oral fosfomycin for the treatment of AUC. All English-language references from 1975 to October 2015 were reviewed. In Canada, fosfomycin tromethamine is manufactured as Monurol® and is available as a 3-gram single dose sachet. Fosfomycin has a unique chemical structure, inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis at an earlier site compared to β-lactams with no cross-resistance with other agents. Fosfomycin displays broad-spectrum activity against ESBL-producing, AmpC-producing, carbapenem-non-susceptible, and multidrug-resistant (MDR E. coli. Resistance to fosfomycin in E. coli is rare (100 µg/mL for 48 hours after a single 3-gram oral dose. No dosage adjustments are required in elderly patients, in pregnant patients, or in either renal or hepatic impairment. Fosfomycin demonstrates a favorable safety profile, and clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy in AUC that is comparable to ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Fosfomycin’s in vitro activity against common uropathogens, including MDR isolates, its favorable safety profile including pregnancy patients, drug interactions, and clinical trials data demonstrating efficacy in AUC, has resulted in Canadian, US, and European guidelines/authorities recommending fosfomycin as a first line agent for the treatment of AUC.

  17. Use and effectiveness of psychological self-care strategies for interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D C; Brennan, T

    1995-01-01

    We explore two questions. First, What psychological self-care strategies do women use to manage interstitial cystitis (IC), and how effective are they? Second, How do self-reported cognitive-behavioral and stress reduction activities compare with the coping options hypothesized by Draucker (1991) to be available to women diagnosed with IC? One hundred thirty-eight women with IC rated the use and effectiveness of 53 psychological self-care strategies as well as levels of uncertainty related to the illness. Findings indicated that the women used a wide variety of psychological self-care strategies, including information seeking, self-validation, rejection of pathologizing psychological explanations, and downward comparison to provide perspective. Even after diagnosis, most of the women experienced considerable uncertainty regarding changing symptoms and ability to predict and plan. Use and effectiveness of most psychological strategies appeared to be more strongly related to being involved in a support group, than to current status of the illness. PMID:8576017

  18. PENGEMBANGAN INSTRUMEN ASESMEN KEBUTUHAN PERKEMBANGAN UNTUK PENYUSUNAN KURIKULUM DAN EVALUASI PROGRAM BK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gendon Barus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian pengembangan ini bertujuan menghasilkan instrumen asesmen kebutuhan peserta didik, disebut Invantori Kebutuhan Perkembangan Murid (IKPM. Penelitian mengikuti model Plomp (1999 dengan lima fase. Reliabilitas instrumen diestimasi dengan teknik Alpha Cronbach, validitas isi diperiksa oleh pakar dan telaah praktisi melalui FGD. Validitas empirik dan kecocokan model pengukuran dibuktikan dengan analisis faktor konfirmatori (CFA dengan program Lisrel 8.30. Telaah praktisi melibatkan 60 orang guru kelas V dan VI SD dalam dua tahap FGD, sedangkan uji coba empirik dan implementasi melibatkan murid kelas V dan VI. Hasil penelitian pengembang-an ini adalah: 1 IKPM dapat digunakan untuk menghimpun data kebutuhan perkembangan sebagai dasar penyusunan kurikulum bimbingan dan melaksanakan evaluasi program, bimbingan dan alat ukur evaluasi program bimbingan klasikal di sekolah dasar dan 2 teridentifikasi butir-butir kebutuhan per-kembangan murid yang intens dan sangat intens untuk dipenuhi melalui layanan bimbingan klasikal. Kata kunci: instrumen asesmen kebutuhan, kurikulum bimbingan, instrument evaluasi program BK ______________________________________________________________ DEVELOPMENT OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT FOR CURRICULUM ARRANGEMENT AND EVALUATION OF BK PROGRAM Abstract The goal of this research is to produce a developmental needs assessment instrument, called Student’s Developmental Needs Inventory, which can be use to reveal the needs of students in elementary school. The research method follows the model of Research and Development (R & D by Plomp (1999 with five phases. The instrument which is developed in this study guidance and counseling (Bimbingan Konseling, BK in elementary school. Instrument reliability is estimated using by Alpha Cronbach technique, it content validity is checked by experts judgment and practitioner’s assessment with FGD technique. Furthermore, empirical validity and the goodness of fit

  19. Behavioral and psychosocial risk factors associated with first and recurrent cystitis in Indian women: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The risk factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs from developed countries are not applicable to women from developing world. Objective: To analyze the behavioral practices and psychosocial aspects pertinent to women in our region and assess their association with acute first time or recurrent UTI. Materials and Methods: Sexually active premenopausal women with their first (145 and recurrent (77 cystitis with Escherichia coli as cases and women with no prior history of UTI as healthy controls (257 were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in India, between June 2011 and February 2013. Questionnaire-based data was collected from each participant through a structured face-to-face interview. Results: Using univariate and multivariate regression models, independent risk factors for the first episode of cystitis when compared with healthy controls were (presented in odds ratios [ORs] with its 95% confidence interval [CI]: Anal sex (OR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.59-8.52, time interval between last sexual intercourse and current episode of UTI was 250 ml of tea consumption per day (OR = 4.73, 95% CI = 2.67-8.38, presence of vaginal infection (OR = 3.23, 95% CI = 1.85-5.62 and wiping back to front (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.45-4.38. Along with the latter three, history of UTI in a first-degree female relative (OR = 10.88, 95% CI = 2.41-49.07, constipation (OR = 4.85, 95% CI = 1.97-11.92 and stress incontinence (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.18-5.06 were additional independent risk factors for recurrent cystitis in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusion: Most of the risk factors for initial infection are potentially modifiable but sufficient to also pose risk for recurrence. Many of the findings reflect the cultural and ethnic practices in our country.

  20. An open evaluation of a 3-day course of pivmecillinam (ten 200 mg tablets) in women with acute uncomplicated cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, J F; Rimmer, D M

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-four women, with acute uncomplicated cystitis, received a 3-day course of pivmecillinam comprising an initial 400 mg (two tablets) dose, followed by 200 mg every 8 hours; a total of ten tablets. A satisfactory clinical response was achieved in 91% of patients. Bacteriological success was observed in 94% of sixty-eight patients with a proven infection. Side-effects were reported in sixteen patients (8.4%). Two patients ceased therapy prematurely. Pivmecillinam did not select out resistant Gram-negative organisms. A trend towards reinfection with Gram-positive cocci was observed. The possible significance of reinfection with different organisms is discussed. PMID:6245977

  1. Ileal conduit without cystectomy may be an appropriate option in the treatment of intractable bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Thomas; Fode, Mikkel; Nordling, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the outcomes of urinary diversion for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) at a large university hospital over a period of more than 10 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Chart reviews were performed for BPS/IC patients who had undergone...... group and the non-cystectomy group with regard to the proportion of patients who were symptom free. CONCLUSION: Ileal conduit without cystectomy may be an appropriate option when performing urinary diversion in BPS/IC patients....

  2. Electron microscopic features of a brain tumor induced in hamster by BK virus, a human papova virus.

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    Tsuboi,Masahiro

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to locate the target cells for malignant transformation by BK virus (a human papova virus in hamster brain, electron microscopic observation of tumor originally induced in hamster brain by BK virus was performed. With light microscopy, the BK virus-induced tumor (Vn 17 bore a close resemblance to human malignant ependymoma. Under the electron microscope, numerous microvilli and few cilia were visible on the surface of the tumor cells. These tumor cells were joined to each other by desmosomes. Gap junctions were not observed. Multilayered cuboidal cells were observed around the lumen and blood vessels in the tumor. With regard to fine structure, three types of Vn 17 cells were recognized; ependymal like cells, tanycytes with prominent cell processes, and undifferentiated cells with few cytoplasmic organelles. There was no basal lamina between the ependymal cells and the connective tissue stroma. The Vn 17 cells showed some similarity to the ultrastructural features of the epemdymal cells of newborn rabbits, suggesting that the target cells for Vn 17 may be cells related to ependyma. Malignant transformation of the cells would be initiated in the early stages after BK virus inoculation into the brain of newborn hamsters.

  3. Late post transplant HIV infection with BK viremia and allograft tuberculosis in a renal transplant recipient with Kaposi sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, V.; Kandasamy, V.; Reddy, Y. N.; Kurien, A.; Mathew, M.; Abraham, G

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we discuss a case of a 51-year-old African renal transplant who presented with metastatic Kaposi sarcoma 1 year after transplant. The Kaposi sarcoma was treated with a switch of immunosuppressants and chemotherapy. Six years after transplant, he presented with chronic allograft nephropathy, allograft tuberculosis, BK viremia, and was diagnosed to have contracted HIV infection.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of an Invasive Multidrug-Resistant Strain, Pseudomonas aeruginosa BK1, Isolated from a Keratitis Patient

    KAUST Repository

    Jeganathan, Lakshmi Priya

    2014-03-27

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are difficult to treat due to the presence of a multitude of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa BK1, an invasive and multidrug-resistant strain, isolated from a bacterial keratitis patient in southern India.

  5. Mathematical modeling of surface roughness in magnetic abrasive finishing of BK7 optical glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashmforoush, Farzad; Rahimi, Abdolreza; Kazemi, Mehdi

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) is one of the advanced machining processes efficiently used to finish hard-to-machine materials. Simulation and modeling of the process is of particular importance to understand the mechanics of material removal and consequently achieve a high-quality surface with a minimum of surface defects. Hence, in this paper, we performed a numerical-experimental study to mathematically model the surface roughness during the MAF of BK7 optical glass. For this purpose, the initial roughness profile was estimated using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and a Gaussian filter. We obtained the final surface profile based on the material removal mechanisms and the corresponding chipping depth values evaluated by finite element analysis. We then validated experimentally the simulation results in terms of the arithmetic average surface roughness (R(a ). The comparison between the obtained results demonstrates that the theoretical and experimental findings are in good agreement when predicting the parameters' effect on surface roughness behavior. PMID:26479596

  6. Oxytocin hyperpolarizes cultured duodenum myenteric intrinsic primary afferent neurons by opening BK(Ca) channels through IP₃ pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Tongtong; Sun, Hui; Li, Jingxin; Yu, Xiao; Zhu, Dexiao; Xue, Bing; Liu, Kejing; Zhang, Min; Kunze, Wolfgang; Liu, Chuanyong

    2012-05-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is clinically important in gut motility and constitutively reduces duodenum contractility. Intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs), whose physiological classification is as AH cells, are the 1st neurons of the peristaltic reflex pathway. We set out to investigate if this inhibitory effect is mediated by IPANs and to identify the ion channel(s) and intracellular signal transduction pathway that are involved in this effect. Myenteric neurons were isolated from the longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus (LMMP) preparation of rat duodenum and cultured for 16-24 h before electrophysiological recording in whole cell mode and AH cells identified by their electrophysiological characteristics. The cytoplasmic Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺](i) ) of isolated neurons was measured using calcium imaging. The concentration of IP(3) in the LMMP and the OT secreted from the LMMP were measured using ELISA. The oxytocin receptor (OTR) and large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels, as well as the expression of OT and the IPAN marker calbindin 28 K, on the myenteric plexus neurons were localized using double-immunostaining techniques. We found that administration of OT (10⁻⁷ to 10⁻⁵ M) dose dependently hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential and increased the total outward current. The OTR antagonist atosiban or the BK(Ca) channel blocker iberiotoxin (IbTX) blocked the effects of OT suggesting that the increased outward current resulted from BK(Ca) channel opening. OTR and the BK(Ca) α subunit were co-expressed on a subset of myenteric neurons at the LMMP. NS1619 (10⁻⁵ M, a BK(Ca) channel activator) increased the outward current similar to the effect of OT. OT administration also increased [Ca²⁺](i) and the OT-evoked outward current was significantly attenuated by thapsigargin (10⁻⁶ M) or CdCl₂. The effect of OT on the BK(Ca) current was also blocked by pre-treatment with the IP₃ receptor antagonist 2-APB (10⁻⁴ M

  7. Revisiting the Role of Potassium Sensitivity Testing and Cystoscopic Hydrodistention for the Diagnosis of Interstitial Cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan-Hong; Jhang, Jia-Fong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To revisit the diagnostic roles of cystoscopic hydrodistention and the potassium sensitivity test (PST) for the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis (IC). Methods We prospectively enrolled 214 patients clinically diagnosed with IC, 125 non-IC patients who underwent video urodynamic studies and PST, and another 144 non-IC patients who underwent cystoscopic hydrodistention before transurethral surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for the PST and glomerulations after cystoscopic hydrodistention. Results After cystoscopic hydrodistention, glomerulations developed in 211/214 (98.6%) IC patients and 61/144 (42.4%) of the non-IC patients including patients with stones (45/67, 67%), hematuria (2/5, 40%), and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (6/17, 35%). When positive glomerulation was defined as grade 2 or more, the sensitivity was 61.7%. The PST was positive in 183/214 (85.5%) IC patients and 7/17 (41%) with hypersensitive bladder, 7/32 (22%) with detrusor overactivity, 5/27 (18%) with SUI, 2/21 (10%) with lower urinary tract symptoms, and 2/25 (8%) with bladder outlet obstruction. The PST had a sensitivity of 85.5% and a specificity of 81.6% for diagnosis of IC. IC patients with a positive PST had a significantly smaller urgency sensation capacity, smaller voided volume, and greater bladder pain score. Conclusions Both the PST and glomerulations after hydrodistention are sensitive indicators of IC, but the specificity of glomerulations in the diagnosis of IC is lower than that of the PST. A positive PST is associated with a more hypersensitive bladder and bladder pain, but not the grade of glomerulations in IC patients. Neither test provided 100% diagnostic accuracy for IC, we might select patients into different subgroups based on different PST and hydrodistention results, not for making a diagnosis of IC but for guidance of different treatments. PMID:26999787

  8. Multimodal therapy for painful bladder syndrome / interstitial cystitis: pilot study combining behavioral, pharmacologic, and endoscopic therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Hanley

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We evaluated the effectiveness of combining behavioral therapy, pharmacologic therapy and endoscopic hydrodistension for treating painful bladder syndrome / interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with PBS/IC were prospectively enrolled in a pilot multimodal behavioral, pharmacologic and endoscopic treatment protocol. Behavioral modification included diet recommendations, fluid restriction to 64 oz. /day, progressive timed voiding and Kegel exercises. Oral pharmacologic therapy consisted of daily doses of macrodantin 100 mg, hydroxyzine 10-20 mg and urised 4 tablets. Patients underwent endoscopic bladder hydrodistention under anesthesia at least 2 weeks after protocol enrollment. Behavioral and pharmacological treatments were continued after the hydrodistention. O'Leary-Sant questionnaire scores were recorded before starting the protocol, after pharmacologic/behavioral therapy, 2 months post-hydrodistension, and at scheduled follow-up. Results: Eighteen patients (72% completed the pilot multimodal treatment protocol and were followed for a mean of 10.2 months. All patients were female with a median age of 36.3 years and had mean bladder capacity under anesthesia of 836 milliliters. Mean O'Leary-Sant symptom index scores for baseline symptoms, after behavioral/pharmacologic treatment, post-hydrodistension and during follow up were 12.5, 8.6, 7.0, and 6.7 (p < 0.05. Mean O'Leary-Sant problem index scores for baseline, after behavioral/pharmacologic treatment, post-hydrodistention and during follow up were 12.7, 8.9, 6.7, and 7.7 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Our pilot multimodal protocol of behavioral modification, pharmacologic therapy and endoscopic hydrodistention demonstrated a significant progressive improvement in PBS/IC quality of life scores, compared to a pre-treatment baseline. These results should be validated in a larger, placebo controlled trial.

  9. TRIAMCINОLON IN THE TREATMENT OF THE SIMPLE BACTERIAL CYSTITIS (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. V. Shikunova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the bacterial cystitis treatment continues to be relevant among the urologists all over the world due to its prevalence rate and the complexity in its treatment. The goal of research: to study experimentally the influence of synthetic glucocorticoidtriamcinоlon on the inflammatory mucosa of the urinary bladder.Material. The experimental study was conducted on the outbred white reproductive rats-females. The main group of the animals (40 rats was exposed to simulation of the inflammatory mucosa of the urinary bladder. Triamcinоlon instillations (0.3 ml were performed on 20 rats. In the other group of rats the triamcinоlon instillation was added with intramuscular injection of antibiotics. There were two compari-son groups of rats with the simulated inflammatory mucosa of the urinary bladder. The first (20 rats re-ceived only intramuscular antibiotics injections and the second (20 rats received no treatment. The con-trol group of animals (10 rats received instillations of intact 0.9% NaCl.Methods. The bladder wall ultrastructure was analyzed by the method of transmission electronic microscopy.Rresults. According to the research data, decongestion of the swelling enchasing mass was observed after 5 days of triamcinоlon instillations both with antibiotics and without it in comparison with the inflammatory process without any treatment and with the antibiotics injections only. After 10 days this result in the main group was the same as in the control group. Infiltrating cells density in the main group after 7 days was obviously lower than in the comparison groups. The triamcinоlon injections induce neovasculogenesis and fibrogenesis, improve hemorheology in the vascular plexus of the urinary bladder mucosa. The results come up to a high level of statistical significance.Summary. The experimental data prove the safety of intravesical triamcialon instillation and its therapeutic effectiveness. 

  10. Gene expression profile of bladder tissue of patients with ulcerative interstitial cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamper, Marianne; Viereck, Volker; Geissbühler, Verena; Eberhard, Jakob; Binder, Jochen; Moll, Carlo; Rehrauer, Hubert; Moser, René

    2009-01-01

    Background Interstitial cystitis (IC), a chronic bladder disease with an increasing incidence, is diagnosed using subjective symptoms in combination with cystoscopic and histological evidence. By cystoscopic examination, IC can be classified into an ulcerative and a non-ulcerative subtype. To better understand this debilitating disease on a molecular level, a comparative gene expression profile of bladder biopsies from patients with ulcerative IC and control patients has been performed. Results Gene expression profiles from bladder biopsies of five patients with ulcerative IC and six control patients were generated using Affymetrix GeneChip expression arrays (Affymetrix – GeneChip® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0). More than 31,000 of > 54,000 tested probe sets were present (detection p-value < 0.05). The difference between the two groups was significant for over 3,500 signals (t-test p-value < 0.01), and approximately 2,000 of the signals (corresponding to approximately 1,000 genes) showed an IC-to-healthy expression ratio greater than two. The IC pattern had similarities to patterns from immune system, lymphatic, and autoimmune diseases. The dominant biological processes were the immune and inflammatory responses. Many of the up-regulated genes were expressed in leukocytes, suggesting that leukocyte invasion into the bladder wall is a dominant feature of ulcerative IC. Histopathological data supported these findings. Conclusion GeneChip expression arrays present a global picture of ulcerative IC and provide us with a series of marker genes characteristic for this subtype of the disease. Evaluation of biopsies from other bladder patients with similar symptoms (e.g. patients with non-ulcerative IC) will further indicate whether the data presented here will be valuable for the diagnosis of IC. PMID:19400928

  11. Fosfomycin: A First-Line Oral Therapy for Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanel, George G; Walkty, Andrew J; Karlowsky, James A

    2016-01-01

    Fosfomycin is a new agent to Canada approved for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) in adult women infected with susceptible isolates of E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis. We reviewed the literature regarding the use of oral fosfomycin for the treatment of AUC. All English-language references from 1975 to October 2015 were reviewed. In Canada, fosfomycin tromethamine is manufactured as Monurol® and is available as a 3-gram single dose sachet. Fosfomycin has a unique chemical structure, inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis at an earlier site compared to β-lactams with no cross-resistance with other agents. Fosfomycin displays broad-spectrum activity against ESBL-producing, AmpC-producing, carbapenem-non-susceptible, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli. Resistance to fosfomycin in E. coli is rare (Fosfomycin is excreted unchanged in the urine by glomerular filtration with peak urinary concentration ~4000 µg/mL and remains at concentrations >100 µg/mL for 48 hours after a single 3-gram oral dose. No dosage adjustments are required in elderly patients, in pregnant patients, or in either renal or hepatic impairment. Fosfomycin demonstrates a favorable safety profile, and clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy in AUC that is comparable to ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Fosfomycin's in vitro activity against common uropathogens, including MDR isolates, its favorable safety profile including pregnancy patients, drug interactions, and clinical trials data demonstrating efficacy in AUC, has resulted in Canadian, US, and European guidelines/authorities recommending fosfomycin as a first line agent for the treatment of AUC. PMID:27366158

  12. Co-administration of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) and TRPV1 antagonists potentiate the effect of each drug in a rat model of cystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charrua, A.; Cruz, C.D.; Jansen, D.; Rozenberg, B.; Heesakkers, J.P.; Cruz, F.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) expression in bladder afferents and study the effect of TRPV4 and TRPV1 antagonists, alone and in combination, in bladder hyperactivity and pain induced by cystitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: TRPV4 expression in bladder afferents

  13. Expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) in bladder afferent pathways in VIP-/- mice with cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe G; Studeny, Simon; May, Victor;

    2008-01-01

    The expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) with and without cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis (150 mg/kg, i.p; 48 h) was determined in VIP(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. p-CREB immunoreactivity (IR) was determined in bladder...

  14. Hydrogen Peroxide Stimulates the Ca2+-activated Big-Conductance K Channels (BK) Through cGMP Signaling Pathway in Cultured Human Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, De-Li; Yue, Peng; Yang, Bao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2008-01-01

    We used the whole cell patch-clamp technique to examine the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the Ca2+-activated BK channels in human endothelial cells. We confirmed the previous finding that a 200 pS BK channel activity was detected when the cell membrane potential was clamped at 50 mV. Application of H2O2 or adding glucose oxidase (GO) stimulated BK channels. The stimulatory effect of H2O2 and GO was absent in cells treated with ebselen, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To ...

  15. Novel research approaches for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: thinking beyond the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Chris; Bavendam, Tamara; Kirkali, Ziya; Kusek, John W

    2015-10-01

    Despite years of basic and clinical research focused on interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), including clinical trials of candidate therapies, there remains an insufficient understanding of underlying cause(s), important clinical features and a lack of effective treatments for this syndrome. Progress has been limited and is likely due to many factors, including a primary focus on the bladder and lower urinary tract as origin of symptoms without adequately considering the potential influence of other local (pelvic) or systemic factors. Traditionally, there has been a lack of sufficiently diverse expertise and application of novel, integrated methods to study this syndrome. However, some important insights have been gained. For example, epidemiological studies have revealed that IC/BPS is commonly associated with other chronic pain conditions, including fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome. These observations suggest that IC/BPS may involve systemic pathophysiology, including alterations of the central nervous system in some patients. Furthermore, there may be multiple causes and contributing factors that manifest in the symptoms of IC/BPS leading to multiple patient sub-groups or phenotypes. Innovative research is necessary to allow for a more complete description of the relationship between this syndrome and other disorders with overlapping symptoms. This report provides examples of such innovative research studies and their findings which have the potential to provide fresh insights into IC/BPS and disorders associated with chronic pain through characterization of broad physiologic systems, as well as assessment of the contribution of the bladder and lower urinary tract. They may also serve as models for future investigation of symptom-based urologic and non-urologic disorders that may remain incompletely characterized by previous, more traditional research approaches. Furthermore, it is anticipated a more holistic

  16. Probing new physics through B->K l+ l- decays in R-parity violating minimal supersymmetric standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Mir, Azeem

    2009-01-01

    We study the decay rate of process B->K l+ l- (l=e,mu) and some of its other related observables, like forward backward asymmetry (A_{FB}), polarization asymmetry (PA) and CP-asymmetry (A_{CP}) in R-parity violating (R_{p}) Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). The analysis shows that R_{p}Yukawa coupling products contribute significantly to the branching fraction of B->K l+ l- within 1 sigma and 2 sigma. Study shows that PA and A_{FB} are sensitive enough to R_{p}Yukawa coupling products and turn out to be good predictions for measurement in future experiments.The CP-asymmetry calculated in this framework agrees well with the recently reported value(i.e. 7%).

  17. Rapid detection and identification of JC virus and BK virus in human urine by using immunofluorescence microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, T. F.; Padgett, B L; Walker, D. L.; Borden, E C; McBain, J A

    1980-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence method was developed and used to detect urinary excretion of abnormal transitional cells infected with JC virus (JCV) or BK virus (BKV). This method was compared with urinary cytology, electron microscopy, viral culture, and viral serology in groups of immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients and normal controls. The indirect immunofluorescence method detected and identified JCV excretion in four persons, BKV excretion in one person, and both JCV and BKV exc...

  18. No Evidence for Infection of UK Prostate Cancer Patients with XMRV, BK Virus, Trichomonas vaginalis or Human Papilloma Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Groom, Harriet C. T.; Warren, Anne Y; David E Neal; Kate N Bishop

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of specific infections in UK prostate cancer patients was investigated. Serum from 84 patients and 62 controls was tested for neutralisation of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) Envelope. No reactivity was found in the patient samples. In addition, a further 100 prostate DNA samples were tested for XMRV, BK virus, Trichomonas vaginalis and human papilloma viruses by nucleic acid detection techniques. Despite demonstrating DNA integrity and assay sensitivity...

  19. Production and investigation of thin films of metal actinides (Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V. M.; Ryabinin, M. A.; Stupin, V. A.

    2010-03-01

    Under limited availability of transplutonium metals some special techniques and methods of their production have been developed that combine the process of metal reduction from a chemical compound and preparation of a sample for examination. In this situation the evaporation and condensation of metal onto a substrate becomes the only possible technology. Thin film samples of metallic 244Cm, 248Cm and 249Bk were produced by thermal reduction of oxides with thorium followed by deposition of the metals in the form of thin layers on tantalum substrates. For the production of 249Cf metal in the form of a thin layer the method of thermal reduction of oxide with lanthanum was used. 238Pu and 239Pu samples in the form of films were prepared by direct high temperature evaporation and condensation of the metal onto a substrate. For the production of 241Am films a gram sample of plutonium-241 metal was used containing about 18 % of americium at the time of production. Thermal decomposition of Pt5Am intermetallics in vacuum was used to produce americium metal with about 80% yield. Resistivity of the metallic 249Cf film samples was found to decrease exponentially with increasing temperature. The 249Cf metal demonstrated a tendency to form preferably a DHCP structure with the sample mass increasing. An effect of high specific activity on the crystal structure of 238Pu nuclide thin layers was studied either.

  20. Production and investigation of thin films of metal actinides (Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under limited availability of transplutonium metals some special techniques and methods of their production have been developed that combine the process of metal reduction from a chemical compound and preparation of a sample for examination. In this situation the evaporation and condensation of metal onto a substrate becomes the only possible technology. Thin film samples of metallic 244Cm, 248Cm and 249Bk were produced by thermal reduction of oxides with thorium followed by deposition of the metals in the form of thin layers on tantalum substrates. For the production of 249Cf metal in the form of a thin layer the method of thermal reduction of oxide with lanthanum was used. 238Pu and 239Pu samples in the form of films were prepared by direct high temperature evaporation and condensation of the metal onto a substrate. For the production of 241Am films a gram sample of plutonium-241 metal was used containing about 18 % of americium at the time of production. Thermal decomposition of Pt5Am intermetallics in vacuum was used to produce americium metal with about 80% yield. Resistivity of the metallic 249Cf film samples was found to decrease exponentially with increasing temperature. The 249Cf metal demonstrated a tendency to form preferably a DHCP structure with the sample mass increasing. An effect of high specific activity on the crystal structure of 238Pu nuclide thin layers was studied either.

  1. The dystrophin complex controls bk channel localization and muscle activity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongkyun Kim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic defects in the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC are responsible for a variety of pathological conditions including muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and vasospasm. Conserved DAPC components from humans to Caenorhabditis elegans suggest a similar molecular function. C. elegans DAPC mutants exhibit a unique locomotory deficit resulting from prolonged muscle excitation and contraction. Here we show that the C. elegans DAPC is essential for proper localization of SLO-1, the large conductance, voltage-, and calcium-dependent potassium (BK channel, which conducts a major outward rectifying current in muscle under the normal physiological condition. Through analysis of mutants with the same phenotype as the DAPC mutants, we identified the novel islo-1 gene that encodes a protein with two predicted transmembrane domains. We demonstrate that ISLO-1 acts as a novel adapter molecule that links the DAPC to SLO-1 in muscle. We show that a defect in either the DAPC or ISLO-1 disrupts normal SLO-1 localization in muscle. Consistent with observations that SLO-1 requires a high calcium concentration for full activation, we find that SLO-1 is localized near L-type calcium channels in muscle, thereby providing a mechanism coupling calcium influx with the outward rectifying current. Our results indicate that the DAPC modulates muscle excitability by localizing the SLO-1 channel to calcium-rich regions of C. elegans muscle.

  2. P-waves imaging of the FRI and BK zones at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one of a series documenting the results of the Nagra-DOE Cooperative (NDC-I) research program in which the cooperating scientists explore the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects anticipated from the use of a rock mass as a geological repository for nuclear waste. Tomographic imaging studies using a high frequency (10 Khz.) piezoelectric source and a three component receiver were carried out in two different regions of the underground Nagra Grimsel test facility in Switzerland. Both sites were in fractured granite, one being in a strongly foliated granite (FRI site), and the other being in a relatively homogeneous granite (BK zone). The object of the work was to determine if the seismic techniques could be useful in imaging the fracture zones and provide information on the hydrologic conditions. Both amplitude and velocity tomograms were obtained from the Data. The results indicate that the fracture zones strongly influenced the seismic wave propagation, thus imaging the fracture zones that were hydrologically important. 11 refs., 24 figs

  3. Human BK Polyomavirus—The Potential for Head and Neck Malignancy and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Burger-Calderon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the human Polyomaviridae family are ubiquitous and pathogenic among immune-compromised individuals. While only Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV has conclusively been linked to human cancer, all members of the polyomavirus (PyV family encode the oncoprotein T antigen and may be potentially carcinogenic. Studies focusing on PyV pathogenesis in humans have become more abundant as the number of PyV family members and the list of associated diseases has expanded. BK polyomavirus (BKPyV in particular has emerged as a new opportunistic pathogen among HIV positive individuals, carrying harmful implications. Increasing evidence links BKPyV to HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIVSGD. HIVSGD is associated with elevated risk of lymphoma formation and its prevalence has increased among HIV/AIDS patients. Determining the relationship between BKPyV, disease and tumorigenesis among immunosuppressed individuals is necessary and will allow for expanding effective anti-viral treatment and prevention options in the future.

  4. Do polyomavirus hominis strains BK and JC play a role in oral squamous cell carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Polz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Head and neck cancers are the most common cancers worldwide. It is estimated that approximately 90% of all head and neck cancers are represented by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. There are many risk factors causing this type of cancer, including environmental factors and lifestyle choices, such as tobacco smoking or abusing alcohol. Other important risk factor include infectious factors. [b]Objective[/b]. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of BK and JC virus infections among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. [b]Materials and method[/b]. The correlation between BKV infection and OSCC, and correlation between BKV, OSCC, alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking, demographic data, pre-treatment staging, metastases of lymph node evidence, and grading, was analyzed. The study group consisted of 92 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, 75 males, and 17 females, aged between 40 – 87 (average 56.8. All the patients underwent surgery and were not subjected to chemotherapy or radiotherapy prior to treatment. The analyzed samples were collected from paraffin sections. [b]Results[/b]. BKV DNA was detected in 18.5% of patients with OSCC. In the control group, BKV DNA was detected in 3.3%. BKV DNA was statistically more frequently detected among patients with squamous carcinoma, compared to the control group (p<0.05. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The obtained results suggest that the BKV virus may play an important role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. UV protection filters by dielectric multilayer thin films on Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, M. M.; Azim, Osama A.; Abdel-Wahab, L. A.; Seddik, Mohamed M.

    2006-10-01

    The increasing use of Ultraviolet (UV) light in medicine, industrial environments, for cosmetic use, and even in consumer products necessitates that greater attention be paid to the potential hazards of this type of electromagnetic radiation. To avoid any adverse effects of exposure to this type of radiation, four suitable protection filters were produced to block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters was done by optical thin film technology using the absorbing property of UV radiation for the substrates and dielectric materials. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Titanium dioxide (Ti 2O 3), Hafnium dioxide (HfO 2), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO 2/Al 2O 3); deposition being achieved using an electron beam gun. The output results of the theoretical and experimental transmittance values for spectral band from 200 nm to 800 nm were discussed in four processes. To analyze the suitability for use in 'real world' applications, the test pieces were subjected to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance, and humidity) according to Military Standard MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A.

  6. UV protection filters by dielectric multilayer thin films on Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of Ultraviolet (UV) light in medicine, industrial environments, for cosmetic use, and even in consumer products necessitates that greater attention be paid to the potential hazards of this type of electromagnetic radiation. To avoid any adverse effects of exposure to this type of radiation, four suitable protection filters were produced to block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters was done by optical thin film technology using the absorbing property of UV radiation for the substrates and dielectric materials. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Titanium dioxide (Ti2O3), Hafnium dioxide (HfO2), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO2/Al2O3); deposition being achieved using an electron beam gun. The output results of the theoretical and experimental transmittance values for spectral band from 200 nm to 800 nm were discussed in four processes. To analyze the suitability for use in 'real world' applications, the test pieces were subjected to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance, and humidity) according to Military Standard MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A

  7. Interaction Between Human Polyomavirus BK and Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Lucia; Croci, Mattia; Boldorini, Renzo; Varella, Rafael Brandao; Elia, Francesca; Carluccio, Silvia; Villani, Sonia; Bella, Ramona; Ferrante, Pasquale; Delbue, Serena

    2016-06-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKV) has a worldwide seroprevalence of approximately 90%. After primary infection, BKV establishes a life-long latency within the urogenital tract. The severe immunological impairment occurring in renal transplant recipients leads to BKV reactivation, which may result in polyomavirus associated nephropathy (PVAN). While the transplanted kidney is transiently unperfused, Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs) mediate the cellular response to hypoxia. The α-subunit of HIF isoform 1 (HIF-1α) may interact with several viruses, but until now, there has been no information regarding the interaction between BKV and HIF-1α. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible interaction between HIF-1α and BKV and its potential effect on the pathogenesis of PVAN. Screening of 17 kidney tissue samples revealed that HIF-1α expression was 13.6-fold higher in PVAN tissues compared to control tissues. A luminometric assay in co-transfected African green monkey kidney cells (VERO) demonstrated BKV promoter activation ranging from two to sixfold (P hypoxia, compared to the cells not subjected to hypoxia. Both ex vivo and in vitro interactions between HIF-1α and BKV were observed, suggesting that HIF-1α, stabilized during transplantation, may be able to bind the BKV promoter and enhance BKV replication. Thus, hypoxia should be considered a risk factor for the development of PVAN in kidney transplant recipients. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1343-1349, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26529465

  8. Continuum Limit of $B_K$ from 2+1 Flavor Domain Wall QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Y; Blum, T; Boyle, P A; Brömmel, D; Christ, N H; Dawson, C; Izubuchi, T; Jung, C; Kelly, C; Kenway, R D; Lightman, M; Mawhinney, R D; Ohta, Shigemi; Sachrajda, C T; Scholz, E E; Soni, A; Sturm, C; Wennekers, J; Zhou, R

    2010-01-01

    We determine the neutral kaon mixing matrix element $B_K$ in the continuum limit with 2+1 flavors of domain wall fermions, using the Iwasaki gauge action at two different lattice spacings. These lattice fermions have near exact chiral symmetry and therefore avoid artificial lattice operator mixing. We introduce a significant improvement to the conventional NPR method in which the bare matrix elements are renormalized non-perturbatively in the RI-MOM scheme and are then converted into the MSbar scheme using continuum perturbation theory. In addition to RI-MOM, we introduce and implement four non-exceptional intermediate momentum schemes that suppress infrared non-perturbative uncertainties in the renormalization procedure. We compute the conversion factors relating the matrix elements in this family of RI-SMOM schemes and MSbar at one-loop order. Comparison of the results obtained using these different intermediate schemes allows for a more reliable estimate of the unknown higher-order contributions and hence ...

  9. UV protection filters by dielectric multilayer thin films on Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aziz, M.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566 (Egypt)]. E-mail: melaziz@link.net; Azim, Osama A. [Vacuum Coating Manager, Arab International Optronics Co., El-salam City, Cairo 11566 (Egypt); Abdel-Wahab, L.A. [Head of Thermal Analysis Lab, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo 11566 (Egypt); Seddik, Mohamed M. [Engineering Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566 (Egypt)

    2006-10-15

    The increasing use of Ultraviolet (UV) light in medicine, industrial environments, for cosmetic use, and even in consumer products necessitates that greater attention be paid to the potential hazards of this type of electromagnetic radiation. To avoid any adverse effects of exposure to this type of radiation, four suitable protection filters were produced to block three UV bands (UVA, UVB, and UVC). The design structure of the required dielectric multilayer filters was done by optical thin film technology using the absorbing property of UV radiation for the substrates and dielectric materials. The computer analyses of the multilayer filter formulas were prepared using Macleod Software for the production processes. The deposition technique was achieved on optical substrates (Glass BK-7 and Infrasil 301) by dielectric material combinations including Titanium dioxide (Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}), Hafnium dioxide (HfO{sub 2}), and Lima (mixture of oxides SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}); deposition being achieved using an electron beam gun. The output results of the theoretical and experimental transmittance values for spectral band from 200 nm to 800 nm were discussed in four processes. To analyze the suitability for use in 'real world' applications, the test pieces were subjected to the durability tests (adhesion, abrasion resistance, and humidity) according to Military Standard MIL-C-675C and MIL-C-48497A.

  10. Determining the Solar Inactivation Rate of BK Polyomavirus by Molecular Beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reano, Dane C; Yates, Marylynn V

    2016-07-01

    The application of molecular beacons (MB) that bind to precise sequences of mRNA provides a near-universal approach in detecting evidence of viral replication. Here, we demonstrate the detection of BK Polyomavirus (BKPyV), an emerging indicator of microbiological water quality, by a quantum dot-based MB. The MB allowed us to rapidly characterize the inactivation rate of BKPyV following exposure to a solar simulator (kobs = 0.578 ± 0.024 h(-1), R(2) = 0.92). Results were validated through a traditional cell-culture assay with immunofluorescence detection (kobs = 0.568 ± 0.011 h(-1), R(2) = 0.97), which exhibited a strong correlation to MB data (R(2) = 0.93). Obtaining solar inactivation rates for BKPyV demonstrates the first use of a MB in characterizing a microbiological inactivation profile and helps assess the appropriateness of adopting BKPyV as an indicator organism for water quality. PMID:27269231

  11. The bradykinin BK2 receptor mediates angiotensin II receptor type 2 stimulated rat duodenal mucosal alkaline secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helander Herbert F

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates bradykinin and nitric oxide as potential mediators of AT2-receptor-stimulated duodenal mucosal alkaline secretion. Duodenal mucosal alkaline secretion was measured in methohexital- and α-chloralose-anaesthetised rats by means of in situ pH-stat titration. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to identify the BK2 receptors. Results The AT2 receptor agonist CGP42112A (0.1 μg kg-1 min-1 administered intravenously increased the duodenal mucosal alkaline secretion by ~50 %. This increase was sensitive to the selective BK2 receptor blocker HOE140 (100 ng/kg iv, but not to luminal administration of the NOS blocker L-NAME (0.3 mM. Mean arterial pressure did not differ between groups during the procedures. Immunohistochemistry showed a distinct staining of the crypt epithelium and a moderate staining of basal cytoplasm in villus enterocytes. Conclusion The results suggest that the AT2-receptor-stimulated alkaline secretion is mediated via BK2 receptors located in the duodenal cryptal mucosal epithelium.

  12. Renovascular BK(Ca) channels are not activated in vivo under resting conditions and during agonist stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Linda; Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig;

    2006-01-01

    of renal vascular BK(Ca) channels by cAMP was investigated by infusing forskolin. Renal blood flow (RBF) was measured in vivo using electromagnetic flowmetry or ultrasonic Doppler. Renal preinfusion of tetraethylammonium (TEA; 3.0 mumol/min) caused a small reduction of baseline RBF, but iberiotoxin...... (IBT; 0.3 nmol/min) did not have any effect. Renal injection of ANG II (1-4 ng) or NE (10-40 ng) produced a transient decrease in RBF. These responses were not affected by preinfusion of TEA or IBT. Renal infusion of the BK(Ca) opener NS-1619 (90.0 nmol/min) did not affect basal RBF or the response to...... NE, but it attenuated the response to ANG II. Coadministration of NS-1619 with TEA or IBT abolished this effect. Forskolin caused renal vasodilation that was not inhibited by IBT. The presence of BK(Ca) channels in the preglomerular vessels was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Despite their...

  13. Expression of BKCa channels and the modulatory ß-subunits in the rat and porcine trigeminal ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Johansson, Helle; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Poulsen, Asser Nyander;

    2009-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels contribute to electrical impulses, proper signal transmission of information and regulation of neurotransmitter release. Migraine has been proposed to be a trigeminovascular disease involving the sensory trigeminal pathways and the c......Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels contribute to electrical impulses, proper signal transmission of information and regulation of neurotransmitter release. Migraine has been proposed to be a trigeminovascular disease involving the sensory trigeminal pathways...

  14. Calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channel activators in the 5β-cholanic acid-3α-ol analogue series with modifications in the lateral chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukiya, Anna N; Patil, Shivaputra A; Li, Wei; Miller, Duane D; Dopico, Alex M

    2012-10-01

    Large conductance, calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channels regulate various physiological processes and represent an attractive target for drug discovery. Numerous BK channel activators are available. However, these agents usually interact with the ubiquitously distributed channel-forming subunit and thus cannot selectively target a particular tissue. We performed a structure-activity relationship study of lithocholic acid (LCA), a cholane that activates BK channels via the accessory BK β1 subunit. The latter protein is highly abundant in smooth muscle but scarce in most other tissues. Modifications to the LCA lateral chain length and functional group yielded two novel smooth muscle BK channel activators in which the substituent at C24 has a small volume and a net negative charge. Our data provide detailed structural information that will be useful to advance a pharmacophore in search of β1 subunit-selective BK channel activators. These compounds are expected to evoke smooth muscle relaxation, which would be beneficial in the pharmacotherapy of prevalent human disorders associated with increased smooth muscle contraction, such as systemic hypertension, cerebral or coronary vasospasm, bronchial asthma, bladder hyperactivity, and erectile dysfunction. PMID:22945504

  15. A case of eosinophilic cystitis in patients with abdominal pain, dysuria, genital skin hyperemia and slight toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Cerruto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare inflammatory disease with controversial aetiology and treatment. We report the case of a 61-year-old man presented with lower quadrant abdominal pain and lower urinary tract symptoms, non responsive to antibiotics and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Physical examination was substantially negative, such as laboratory parameters, microscopic, bacteriological and serological evaluations. Cystoscopy revealed red areas involving the mucosa of the bladder and transurethral biopsies revealed infiltrating eosinophils. The patient was treated with corticosteroids and montelukast sodium with improving of the symptoms, and at 5 weeks postoperative pain score was reduced. After discontinuing corticosteroids dysuria recurred with the development of hyperemia at the genital skin; the specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect antibodies against several parasites was slightly positive for Toxocara species. Montelukast sodium was discontinued and corticosteroid therapy was started together with albendazole, with improving of patient’s symptoms and pain decreasing after one week.

  16. Effect of a stewardship intervention on adherence to uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis guidelines in an emergency department setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T Hecker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adherence to uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI guidelines and UTI diagnostic accuracy in an emergency department (ED setting before and after implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention. METHODS: The intervention included implementation of an electronic UTI order set followed by a 2 month period of audit and feedback. For women age 18-65 with a UTI diagnosis seen in the ED with no structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary system, we evaluated adherence to guidelines, antimicrobial use, and diagnostic accuracy at baseline, after implementation of the order set (period 1, and after audit and feedback (period 2. RESULTS: Adherence to UTI guidelines increased from 44% (baseline to 68% (period 1 to 82% (period 2 (P≤.015 for each successive period. Prescription of fluoroquinolones for uncomplicated cystitis decreased from 44% (baseline to 14% (period 1 to 13% (period 2 (P<.001 and P = .7 for each successive period. Unnecessary antibiotic days for the 200 patients evaluated in each period decreased from 250 days to 119 days to 52 days (P<.001 for each successive period. For 40% to 42% of cases diagnosed as UTI by clinicians, the diagnosis was deemed unlikely or rejected with no difference between the baseline and intervention periods. CONCLUSIONS: A stewardship intervention including an electronic order set and audit and feedback was associated with increased adherence to uncomplicated UTI guidelines and reductions in unnecessary antibiotic therapy and fluoroquinolone therapy for cystitis. Many diagnoses were rejected or deemed unlikely, suggesting a need for studies to improve diagnostic accuracy for UTI.

  17. Causative Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Development of Chronic Cystitis Complicated with Leukoplakia of the Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I. Neymark, PhD, ScD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the investigation of the influence of chlamydial, mycoplasmal and trichomonas infection on the development of urinary bladder leukoplakia. The article presents the results of the examination of women with chronic cystitis complicated with leukoplakia of the bladder, and associated with concomitant sexually transmitted infections, including the results of culture analysis of the cervical canal content and urinary bladder biopsy samples, as well as molecular-biological analyses confirming the presence of sexually transmitted infections, pathomorphological characteristics of tissue samples from leukoplakia foci typical for different types of infectious agents. In this study, 60 women with chronic cystitis, complicated with leukoplakia of the bladder and associated with concomitant sexually transmitted infections were examined. Using PCR diagnostics, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia albicans were found to be the most frequently occurring agents, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis. The results of culture analyses demonstrated that M. hominis and U. urealyticum were prevalent in patients with chronic urinary tract inflammatory processes, followed by Tr. vaginalis. Candida fungi show practically the same frequency of occurrence. The pathomorphological examination of the foci of leukoplakia in the urinary bladder (in 30 subjects demonstrated metaplasia of the transitional epithelium to the stratified pavement squamous epithelium with inflammatory cellular infiltration of the lamina propria in all types of infections. The intensity of the urothelial transformation and stromal inflammatory processes were determined by the type of predominant infection. Pathomorphological characteristics of the foci of leukoplakia correlate with the etiology of chronic inflammation and are relevant for etiological diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Diet and its role in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and comorbid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Justin I; Shorter, Barbara; Moldwin, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Nearly 90% of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) report sensitivities to a wide variety of dietary comestibles. Current questionnaire-based literature suggests that citrus fruits, tomatoes, vitamin C, artificial sweeteners, coffee, tea, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, and spicy foods tend to exacerbate symptoms, while calcium glycerophosphate and sodium bicarbonate tend to improve symptoms. At present we recommend employing a controlled method to determine dietary sensitivities, such as an elimination diet, in order to identify sensitivities while at the same time maintain optimal nutritional intake. We review current literature with regard to diet's effect upon IC/BPS and common comorbidities (irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, neuropathic pain, vulvodynia, and headache) with a focus upon questionnaire-based investigations. We discuss the pathologic mechanisms that may link diet and IC/BPS related-pain, concentrating upon specific comestibles such as acidic foods, foods high in potassium, caffeine, and alcohol. Up to 90% of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) report sensitivities to a wide variety of comestibles.   Pathological mechanisms suggested to be responsible for the relationship between dietary intake and symptom exacerbation include peripheral and/or central neural upregulation, bladder epithelial dysfunction, and organ 'cross-talk', amongst others.   Current questionnaire-based data suggests that citrus fruits, tomatoes, vitamin C, artificial sweeteners, coffee, tea, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, and spicy foods tend to exacerbate symptoms, while calcium glycerophosphate and sodium bicarbonate tend to improve symptoms. Specific comestible sensitivities varied between patients and may have been influenced by comorbid conditions. This suggests that a controlled method to determine dietary

  19. Continuum limit of Bk from 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determine the neutral kaon mixing matrix element BK in the continuum limit with 2+1 flavors of domain wall fermions, using the Iwasaki gauge action at two different lattice spacings. These lattice fermions have near exact chiral symmetry and therefore avoid artificial lattice operator mixing. We introduce a significant improvement to the conventional nonperturbative renormalization (NPR) method in which the bare matrix elements are renormalized nonperturbatively in the regularization invariant momentum scheme (RI-MOM) and are then converted into the MS- scheme using continuum perturbation theory. In addition to RI-MOM, we introduce and implement four nonexceptional intermediate momentum schemes that suppress infrared nonperturbative uncertainties in the renormalization procedure. We compute the conversion factors relating the matrix elements in this family of regularization invariant symmetric momentum schemes (RI-SMOM) and MS- at one-loop order. Comparison of the results obtained using these different intermediate schemes allows for a more reliable estimate of the unknown higher-order contributions and hence for a correspondingly more robust estimate of the systematic error. We also apply a recently proposed approach in which twisted boundary conditions are used to control the Symanzik expansion for off-shell vertex functions leading to a better control of the renormalization in the continuum limit. We control chiral extrapolation errors by considering both the next-to-leading order SU(2) chiral effective theory, and an analytic mass expansion. We obtain BKMS- (3 GeV) = 0.529(5)stat(15)χ(2)FV(11)NPR. This corresponds to B-KRGI- = 0.749(7)stat(21)χ(3)FV(15)NPR. Adding all sources of error in quadrature, we obtain B-KRGI- = 0.749(27)combined, with an overall combined error of 3.6%.

  20. Analysis of real-time mixture cytotoxicity data following repeated exposure using BK/TD models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, S; Tebby, C; Barcellini-Couget, S; De Sousa, G; Brochot, C; Rahmani, R; Pery, A R R

    2016-08-15

    Cosmetic products generally consist of multiple ingredients. Thus, cosmetic risk assessment has to deal with mixture toxicity on a long-term scale which means it has to be assessed in the context of repeated exposure. Given that animal testing has been banned for cosmetics risk assessment, in vitro assays allowing long-term repeated exposure and adapted for in vitro - in vivo extrapolation need to be developed. However, most in vitro tests only assess short-term effects and consider static endpoints which hinder extrapolation to realistic human exposure scenarios where concentration in target organs is varies over time. Thanks to impedance metrics, real-time cell viability monitoring for repeated exposure has become possible. We recently constructed biokinetic/toxicodynamic models (BK/TD) to analyze such data (Teng et al., 2015) for three hepatotoxic cosmetic ingredients: coumarin, isoeugenol and benzophenone-2. In the present study, we aim to apply these models to analyze the dynamics of mixture impedance data using the concepts of concentration addition and independent action. Metabolic interactions between the mixture components were investigated, characterized and implemented in the models, as they impacted the actual cellular exposure. Indeed, cellular metabolism following mixture exposure induced a quick disappearance of the compounds from the exposure system. We showed that isoeugenol substantially decreased the metabolism of benzophenone-2, reducing the disappearance of this compound and enhancing its in vitro toxicity. Apart from this metabolic interaction, no mixtures showed any interaction, and all binary mixtures were successfully modeled by at least one model based on exposure to the individual compounds. PMID:27317371

  1. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: the influence of modern diagnostic criteria on epidemiology and on Internet search activity by the public

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Niall F.; Gnanappiragasam, Sanjith; Thornhill, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic debilitating condition that is characterised by suprapubic pain and urinary symptoms such as urgency, nocturia and urinary frequency. The prevalence of the condition is increasing due to more inclusive diagnostic criteria. Herein, we review the evolving epidemiology of IC/PBS and investigate health seeking behaviour for the condition through Internet search activity. Study selection was performed in accordance with PRISMA. I...

  2. Bladder hyperactivity and increased excitability of bladder afferent neurons associated with reduced expression of Kv1.4 α-subunit in rats with cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Yukio; Takimoto, Koichi; Chancellor, Michael B.; Erickson, Kristin A.; Erickson, Vickie L.; Kirimoto, Tsukasa; Nakano, Koushi; de Groat, William C.; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    Hyperexcitability of C-fiber bladder afferent pathways has been proposed to contribute to urinary frequency and bladder pain in chronic bladder inflammation including interstitial cystitis. However, the detailed mechanisms inducing afferent hyperexcitability after bladder inflammation are not fully understood. Thus, we investigated changes in the properties of bladder afferent neurons in rats with bladder inflammation induced by intravesical application of hydrochloric acid. Eight days after ...

  3. Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis: A Prospective Cohort Study on Patient-Perceived Quality of Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oscarsson, Nicklas, E-mail: nicklas.oscarsson@vgregion.se [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Arnell, Per [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Lodding, Pär [Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Seeman-Lodding, Heléne [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: In this prospective cohort study, the effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) were evaluated concerning patient-perceived symptoms of late radiation-induced cystitis and proctitis secondary to radiation therapy for pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients, 35 men and 4 women with a mean age of 71 (range, 35-84) years were included after informed consent and institutional ethics approval. They had all been treated with radiation therapy for prostate (n=34), cervix (n=2), or rectal (n=3) cancer using external beam radiation at a dose of 25 to 75 Gy. Patients with hematuria requiring blood transfusion were excluded. The HBOT was delivered with 100% oxygen for 90 minutes at 2.0 to 2.4 atmospheres (ATA). Mean number of treatments was 36 (28-40). Symptoms were prospectively assessed using the Expanded Prostate Index Composite score before, during, and 6 to 12 months after HBOT. Results: The HBOT was successfully conducted, and symptoms were alleviated in 76% for patients with radiation cystitis, 89% for patients with radiation proctitis, and 88% of patients with combined cystitis and proctitis. Symptom reduction was demonstrated by an increased Expanded Prostate Index Composite score in the urinary domain from 50 ± 16 to 66 ± 20 after treatment (P<.001) and in the bowel domain from 48 ± 18 to 68 ± 18 after treatment (P<.001). For 31% of the patients with cystitis and 22% with proctitis, there were only trivial symptoms after HBOT. The improvement was sustained at follow-up in both domains 6 to 12 months after HBOT. No severe side effects were observed related to HBOT, and treatment compliance was high. Conclusions: HBOT can be an effective and safe treatment modality for late radiation therapy-induced soft tissue injuries in the pelvic region.

  4. Suppression of the PI3K Pathway In Vivo Reduces Cystitis-Induced Bladder Hypertrophy and Restores Bladder Capacity Examined by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Zhongwei; Xia, Chunmei; Shen, Shanwei; Corwin, Frank D.; Liu, Miao; Guan, Ruijuan; John R. Grider; Qiao, Li-Ya

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the real-time status of the urinary bladder in normal and diseased states following cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis, and also examined the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in the regulation of urinary bladder hypertrophy in vivo. Our results showed that under MRI visualization the urinary bladder wall was significantly thickened at 8 h and 48 h post CYP injection. The intravesical volume of the urinary...

  5. Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis: A Prospective Cohort Study on Patient-Perceived Quality of Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In this prospective cohort study, the effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) were evaluated concerning patient-perceived symptoms of late radiation-induced cystitis and proctitis secondary to radiation therapy for pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients, 35 men and 4 women with a mean age of 71 (range, 35-84) years were included after informed consent and institutional ethics approval. They had all been treated with radiation therapy for prostate (n=34), cervix (n=2), or rectal (n=3) cancer using external beam radiation at a dose of 25 to 75 Gy. Patients with hematuria requiring blood transfusion were excluded. The HBOT was delivered with 100% oxygen for 90 minutes at 2.0 to 2.4 atmospheres (ATA). Mean number of treatments was 36 (28-40). Symptoms were prospectively assessed using the Expanded Prostate Index Composite score before, during, and 6 to 12 months after HBOT. Results: The HBOT was successfully conducted, and symptoms were alleviated in 76% for patients with radiation cystitis, 89% for patients with radiation proctitis, and 88% of patients with combined cystitis and proctitis. Symptom reduction was demonstrated by an increased Expanded Prostate Index Composite score in the urinary domain from 50 ± 16 to 66 ± 20 after treatment (P<.001) and in the bowel domain from 48 ± 18 to 68 ± 18 after treatment (P<.001). For 31% of the patients with cystitis and 22% with proctitis, there were only trivial symptoms after HBOT. The improvement was sustained at follow-up in both domains 6 to 12 months after HBOT. No severe side effects were observed related to HBOT, and treatment compliance was high. Conclusions: HBOT can be an effective and safe treatment modality for late radiation therapy-induced soft tissue injuries in the pelvic region

  6. Benefits of Preventive Administration of Chlorella sp. on Visceral Pain and Cystitis Induced by a Single Administration of Cyclophosphamide in Female Wistar Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Lucas, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Baert, Blandine; Violle, Nicolas; Saniez-Degrave, Marie-Hélène; Bisson, Jean-François

    2016-05-01

    Chlorella sp. is a green microalgae containing nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and chlorophyll. In some communities, Chlorella sp. is a traditional medicinal plant used for the management of inflammation-related diseases. In a rat model, ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. (RCs) benefits were investigated on visceral pain and associated inflammatory parameters related to cystitis both induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP). RCs was orally administered every day from day 1-16 (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). Six hours after an intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg body weight of CYP, body temperature, general behavior, food intake, and body weight were recorded. Twenty-four hours after CYP injection, rats were tested in two behavioral tests, an open field and the aversive light stimulus avoidance conditioning test, to evaluate the influence of pain on general activity and learning ability of rats. After euthanasia, bladders were weighed, their thickness was scored, and the urinary hemoglobin was measured. RCs orally administered at the two dosages significantly reduced visceral pain and associated inflammatory parameters related to cystitis both induced by CYP injection, and improved rat behavior. To conclude, RCs demonstrated beneficial effects against visceral pain and cystitis. PMID:27152976

  7. Energy up-conversion and trapping: Dynamics of 5f states of Bk4+ in CeF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy transfer mechanisms of excited 5f states of Bk4+ (0.05 atom %) in CeF4 containing circa 0.95 atom % Cf4+ have been investigated at 4 K. The observed anti-Stokes fluorescence arises from both up-conversion and two-photon excitation. Nonexponential decays of Stokes fluorescence are ascribed to both excitation-excitation annihilation and site-dependent trapping processes and, therefore, are not describable by the Inokuti-Hirayama or exciton annihilation models. Based on the Forster-Dexter energy transfer theory, a new model is developed to fit the observed fluorescence decay data. 16 refs., 3 figs

  8. Isospin Symmetry Breaking in B->K^* \\gamma Decay due to an Extra Generation of Vector Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmady, M R; Ahmady, Mohammad R.; Chishtie, Farrukh

    2005-01-01

    The extra contributions due to an extra generation of vector-like quarks to the isospin symmetry breaking observable associated with the radiative B->K^* \\gamma decay is obtained. It is shown that this additional contribution is sensitive to the nonunitarity parameter U^{sb}, which is a measure of the the strength of the non-zero tree-level flavor changing neutral current in this model. The significance of this result is that, once accurate experimental resultson the isospin asymmetry becomes available, one can constrain the U^{sb} independent of the mass of the extra quarks and so a much more stringent acceptablemodel parameter space could be obtained.

  9. Non-perturbative Renormalization of Four-Fermion Operators Relevant to $B_K$ with Staggered Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Hwancheol; Kim, Jongjeong; Lee, Weonjong; Pak, Jeonghwan; Park, Sungwoo

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results of matching factors of the four-fermion operators relevant to $B_K$, which are obtained using the non-perturbative renormalization (NPR) method in the RI-MOM scheme with HYP-smeared improved staggered fermions. We use the MILC asqtad coarse ($a \\cong 0.12\\,$fm) ensembles with $20^3 \\times 64$ geometry and $am_{\\ell}/am_s = 0.01/0.05$. We compare NPR results with those of one-loop perturbative matching.

  10. Pseudoscalar decay constants, light-quark masses, and B_K from mixed-action lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Laiho, Jack

    2011-01-01

    We present updated results for the leptonic decay constants f_pi and f_K, the light u, d, and s-quark masses, and the neutral kaon mixing parameter B_K from mixed-action lattice simulations with staggered sea quarks and domain-wall valence quarks. We use the publicly-available 2+1 flavor MILC asqtad-improved staggered gauge configurations with multiple light sea-quark masses and three lattice spacings, and compute the kaon mixing matrix element with several partially-quenched valence-quark masses. We then extrapolate to the physical light-quark masses and the continuum using partially-quenched chiral perturbation theory formulated for mixed-action lattice simulations. For B_K we match the lattice four-fermion operator to the continuum using the nonperturbative method of Rome-Southampton. Our new results benefit from two significant improvements over our published work: (1) we have added a third lattice spacing of a~0.06 fm to better control the continuum extrapolation, and (2) we have implemented a new lattic...

  11. A Spectropolarimetric Comparison of the Type II-Plateau Supernovae SN 2008bk and SN 2004dj

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, Douglas C; Hillier, D John; Pignata, Giuliano

    2011-01-01

    The Type II-Plateau supernova (SN II-P) SN 2004dj was the first SN II-P for which spectropolarimetry data were obtained with fine temporal sampling before, during, and after the fall off of the photometric plateau -- the point that marks the transition from the photospheric to the nebular phase in SNe II-P. Unpolarized during the plateau, SN 2004dj showed a dramatic spike in polarization during the descent off of the plateau, and then exhibited a smooth polarization decline over the next two hundred days. This behavior was interpreted by Leonard et al. (2006) as evidence for a strongly non-spherical explosion mechanism that had imprinted asphericity only in the innermost ejecta. In this brief report, we compare nine similarly well-sampled epochs of spectropolarimetry of the Type II-P SN 2008bk to those of SN 2004dj. In contrast to SN 2004dj, SN 2008bk became polarized well before the end of the plateau and also retained a nearly constant level of polarization through the early nebular phase. Curiously, althou...

  12. The Quinovic Acid Glycosides Purified Fraction from Uncaria tomentosa Protects against Hemorrhagic Cystitis Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Fabrícia; Pietrobon Martins, Jerônimo; Kaiser, Samuel; Madeira Silva, Rodrigo Braccini; Rockenbach, Liliana; Albano Edelweiss, Maria Isabel; Ortega, George González; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno; Campos, Maria Martha; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa is widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases, such as urinary tract disease. Hemorrhagic cystitis (HE) is an inflammatory condition of the bladder associated with the use of anticancer drugs such as cyclophosphamide (CYP). Sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (Mesna) has been used to prevent the occurrence of HE, although this compound is not effective in established lesions. It has been demonstrated that the purinergic system is involved in several pathophysiological events. Among purinergic receptors, P2X7 deserves attention because it is involved in HE induced by CYP and, therefore, can be considered a therapeutic target. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of the quinovic acid glycosides purified fraction (QAPF) from U. tomentosa in the mouse model of CYP-induced HE. Pretreatment with QAPF not only had a protective effect on HE-induced urothelial damage (edema, hemorrhage and bladder wet weight) but was also able to control visceral pain, decrease IL-1β levels and down-regulates P2X7 receptors, most likely by inhibit the neutrophils migration to the bladder. This research clearly demonstrates the promising anti-inflammatory properties of QAPF, supporting its use as complementary therapy. QAPF represents a promising therapeutic option for this pathological condition. PMID:26154141

  13. Omega-3 fatty acids are able to modulate the painful symptoms associated to cyclophosphamide-induced-hemorrhagic cystitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Raquel D S; Costa, Kesiane M; Nicoletti, Natália F; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Campos, Maria M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the long-term dietary fish oil supplementation or the acute administration of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the mouse hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) induced by the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide (CYP). HC was induced in mice by a single CYP injection (300mg/kg ip). Animals received four different diets containing 10% and 20% of corn or fish oil, during 21days. Separated groups received DHA by ip (1μmol/kg) or intrathecal (i.t.; 10μg/site) routes, 1h or 15min before CYP. The behavioral tests (spontaneous nociception and mechanical allodynia) were carried out from 1h to 6h following CYP injection. Bladder inflammatory changes, blood cell counts and serum cytokines were evaluated after euthanasia (at 6h). Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed for assessing spinal astrocyte and microglia activation or GPR40/FFAR1 expression. Either fish oil supplementation or DHA treatment (ip and i.t.) markedly prevented visceral pain, without affecting CYP-evoked bladder inflammatory changes. Moreover, systemic DHA significantly prevented the neutrophilia/lymphopenia caused by CYP, whereas this fatty acid did not significantly affect serum cytokines. DHA also modulated the spinal astrocyte activation and the GPR40/FFAR1 expression. The supplementation with fish oil enriched in omega-3 fatty acids or parenteral DHA might be interesting nutritional approaches for cancer patients under chemotherapy schemes with CYP. PMID:26482705

  14. The Quinovic Acid Glycosides Purified Fraction from Uncaria tomentosa Protects against Hemorrhagic Cystitis Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Fabrícia; Pietrobon Martins, Jerônimo; Kaiser, Samuel; Madeira Silva, Rodrigo Braccini; Rockenbach, Liliana; Albano Edelweiss, Maria Isabel; Ortega, George González; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno; Campos, Maria Martha; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa is widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases, such as urinary tract disease. Hemorrhagic cystitis (HE) is an inflammatory condition of the bladder associated with the use of anticancer drugs such as cyclophosphamide (CYP). Sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (Mesna) has been used to prevent the occurrence of HE, although this compound is not effective in established lesions. It has been demonstrated that the purinergic system is involved in several pathophysiological events. Among purinergic receptors, P2X7 deserves attention because it is involved in HE induced by CYP and, therefore, can be considered a therapeutic target. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of the quinovic acid glycosides purified fraction (QAPF) from U. tomentosa in the mouse model of CYP-induced HE. Pretreatment with QAPF not only had a protective effect on HE-induced urothelial damage (edema, hemorrhage and bladder wet weight) but was also able to control visceral pain, decrease IL-1β levels and down-regulates P2X7 receptors, most likely by inhibit the neutrophils migration to the bladder. This research clearly demonstrates the promising anti-inflammatory properties of QAPF, supporting its use as complementary therapy. QAPF represents a promising therapeutic option for this pathological condition. PMID:26154141

  15. The Quinovic Acid Glycosides Purified Fraction from Uncaria tomentosa Protects against Hemorrhagic Cystitis Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Dietrich

    Full Text Available Uncaria tomentosa is widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases, such as urinary tract disease. Hemorrhagic cystitis (HE is an inflammatory condition of the bladder associated with the use of anticancer drugs such as cyclophosphamide (CYP. Sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (Mesna has been used to prevent the occurrence of HE, although this compound is not effective in established lesions. It has been demonstrated that the purinergic system is involved in several pathophysiological events. Among purinergic receptors, P2X7 deserves attention because it is involved in HE induced by CYP and, therefore, can be considered a therapeutic target. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of the quinovic acid glycosides purified fraction (QAPF from U. tomentosa in the mouse model of CYP-induced HE. Pretreatment with QAPF not only had a protective effect on HE-induced urothelial damage (edema, hemorrhage and bladder wet weight but was also able to control visceral pain, decrease IL-1β levels and down-regulates P2X7 receptors, most likely by inhibit the neutrophils migration to the bladder. This research clearly demonstrates the promising anti-inflammatory properties of QAPF, supporting its use as complementary therapy. QAPF represents a promising therapeutic option for this pathological condition.

  16. Properties of BK-type Ca++-dependent K+ channel currents in medial prefrontal cortex (PFC pyramidal neurons in rats of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Paweł Szulczyk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (PFC is involved in cognitive functions, which undergo profound changes during adolescence. This alteration of the PFC function derives from neuron activity, which, in turn, may depend on age-dependent properties and the expression of neuronal ion channels. BK-type channels are involved in controlling both the Ca++ ion concentration in the cell interior and cell excitability. The purpose of this study was to test the properties of BK currents in the medial PFC pyramidal neurons of young (18–22-day-old, adolescent (38–42-day-old and adult (58–62-day-old rats. Whole-cell currents evoked by depolarizing voltage steps were recorded from dispersed medial PFC pyramidal neurons. A selective BK channel blocker – paxilline (10 µM – irreversibly decreased the non-inactivating K+ current in neurons that were isolated from the young and adult rats. This current was not significantly affected by paxilline in the neurons obtained from adolescent rats. The properties of single-channel K+ currents were recorded from the soma of dispersed medial PFC pyramidal neurons in the cell-attached configuration. Of the K+ channel currents that were recorded, ~90% were BK and leak channel currents. The BK-type channel currents were dependent on the Ca++ concentration and the voltage and were inhibited by paxilline. The biophysical properties of the BK channel currents did not differ among the pyramidal neurons isolated from young, adolescent and adult rats. Among all of the recorded K+ channel currents, 38.9%, 12.7% and 21.1% were BK-type channel currents in the neurons isolated from the young, adolescent and adult rats, respectively. Furthermore, application of paxilline effectively prolonged the half-width of the action potential in pyramidal neurons in slices isolated from young and adult rats but not in neurons isolated from adolescent rats. We conclude that the availability of BK channel currents decreases in medial PFC

  17. Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, not ryanodine receptors, activate Ca2+-dependent BK potassium channels in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wimmers, Sönke; Halsband, Claire; Seyler, Sebastian; Milenkovic, Vladimir; Strauß, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    Purpose In different tissues the activation of large conductance Ca2+-activated (BK) potassium channels has been shown to be coupled to voltage-gated Ca2+ channels as well as ryanodine receptors. As activation of BK channels leads to hyperpolarization of the cell, these channels provide a negative feedback mechanism for Ca2+-induced functions. Many cellular functions of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are coupled to changes in [Ca2+]i. The aim of this study was to identify which Ca2+-ent...

  18. Synthesis of a Biotin Derivative of Iberiotoxin: Binding Interactions with Streptavidin and the BK Ca2+-activated K+ Channel Expressed in a Human Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Bingham, Jon-Paul; Bian, Shumin; Tan, Zhi-Yong; Takacs, Zoltan; Moczydlowski, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Iberiotoxin (IbTx) is a scorpion venom peptide that inhibits BK Ca2+-activated K+ channels with high affinity and specificity. Automated solid phase synthesis was used to prepare a biotin-labeled derivative (IbTx-LC-biotin) of IbTx by substitution of Asp19 of the native 37-residue peptide with N-ε-(d-biotin-6-amidocaproate)-l-lysine. Both IbTx-LC-biotin and its complex with streptavidin (StrAv) block single BK channels from rat skeletal muscle with nanomolar affinity, indicating that the biot...

  19. 肾移植术后BK病毒相关性肾病的研究现状%Study on BK virus-associated nephropathy after renal transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖荆; 田野

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BK viral infection after renal transplantation influences the prognosis of BK virus-associated nephropathy in renal transplant recipients. The disease has been widely studied in foreign countries.OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to sum up the diagnosis and treatment of BK virus-associated nephropathy after renal transplantation.RETRIVAL STRATEGY: Using the terms "renal transplantation; BK virus" in the English language, manuscripts responsible for BK virus-associated nephropathy after renal transplantation that were published from January 2000 to January 2007 were retrieved from the PubMed database. A total of 206 manuscripts were obtained and primarily screened. Inclusion criteria: studies addressing BK virus-associated nephropathy after renal transplantation. Exclusion criteria: repetitive studies.LITERATURE EVALUATION: The included manuscripts were primarily from PubMed database. Manuscripts were primarily original and review studies.DATA SYNTHESIS: BK virus can be found in the urine of 3%-40% of adult renal transplant recipients. BK virus reactivation rate is very high, but the histological manifestations of BK virus associated nephropathy are found only in a small number of renal transplant recipients. The prognosis of BK virus associated nephropathy is very poor. BK virus associated nephropathy develops into renal failure, leading to transplant loss, in 30%-50% patients. BK virus-caused renal transplant disease must be diagnosed according to histological manifestations. Viral infection should be primarily confirmed, but serological measurements have no predominant effects. Electron microscopy should be involved in the assessment of renal graft biopsy, especially when renal failure factors are unknown, as through the use of electron microscope, viral particles in the nucleus, cytoplasm and outside of the cells could be detectable. Viral antigen in the urine sample of patients with BK viruria can be detected by nucleic acid hybridization method

  20. Energy levels of 249Bk populated in the α decay of 99253Es and β- decay of 96249Cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level structure of 249Bk has been investigated by measuring the γ-ray spectra of an extremely pure 253Es sample obtained by milking this nuclide from 253Cf source material produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Additional information on the 249Bk levels was obtained from the β--decay study of 249Cm, produced by neutron irradiation of 248Cm. Using the results of the present study together with the data from previous 248Cm(α,t) and 248Cm(3He,d) reactions, the following single-particle states have been identified in 249Bk: 7/2+[633], 0.0 keV; 3/2-[521], 8.78 keV; 1/2+[400], 377.55 keV; 5/2+[642], 389.17 keV; 1/2-[530], 569.20 keV; 1/2-[521], 643.0 keV; 5/2-[523], 672.9 keV; and 9/2+[624], 1075.1 keV. Four vibrational bands were identified at 767.9, 932.2, 1150.7, and 1223.0 keV with tentative assignments of {7/2+ [633] x1-}9/2-, {7/2+ [633] x 0-}7/2-, {7/2+ [633] x 1-}5/2-, and {7/2+ [633] x 0+}7/2+, respectively. A band at 899.9 keV was observed in γ-γ coincidence measurements and given a tentative spin assignment of 3/2. It is possibly associated with a 2- phonon coupled to the ground state, with configuration {7/2+ [633] x 2-}3/2-. Three levels at 624.3, 703.5, and 769.1 keV were assigned spins of 5/2, 7/2, and 9/2, respectively. These could be the members of the 3/2+ [651] band, expected in this energy region

  1. [VIRAL INFECTIONS: HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS AND GENITAL HERPES TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 AS A CAUSE OF CHRONIC RECURRENT CYSTITIS WITH SEVERE DYSURIA IN WOMEN WITH URETHRAL HYPERMOBILITY AND HYPOSPADIAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevjanko, T I; Ryzhkov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Female hypospadias presenting as a misplaced urethral opening is a common cause of chronic recurrent cystitis. Cystitis occurs when urogenital infection and anaerobic bacteria enter the urethra and bladder from the vagina. The authors argue that chronic infections of the lower urinary tract in women with hypospadias should be treated surgically by meatal transposition. They present a study confirming the role of the antiviral drug Panavir in prevention of inflammatory complications in the postoperative period in patients with a history of viral infection (human papillomavirus and herpes). PMID:26665761

  2. Is there a role for hyperbaric oxygen as primary treatment for grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis? a prospective pilot-feasibility study and review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellis, Athanasios [Surgical Department, University of Athens, Aretaieion Hospital (Greece); Deliveliotis, Charalambos [Urologic Department, University of Athens, Sismanoglio General Hospital (Greece); Kalentzos, Vasileios; Vavasis, Pavlos; Skolarikos, Andreas [Diving and Hyperbaric Oxygen Department, Naval and Veterans Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To examine the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen as the primary treatment for Grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and Methods: Hyperbaric oxygen was prospectively applied as a primary treatment option in 11 patients with Grade IV radiation cystitis. Primary endpoint was the incidence of complete and partial response to treatment. Secondary endpoints included the duration of response, the correlation of treatment success-rate to the interval between the onset of haematuria and initiation of therapy, blood transfusion need and total radiation dose, the number of sessions to success, the avoidance of surgery and the overall survival. Results: All patients completed therapy without complications for a mean follow-up of 17.82 months (range 3 to 34). Mean number of sessions needed was 32.8 (range 27 to 44). Complete and partial response rate was 81.8% and 18.2%, respectively. However, in three patients the first treatment session was not either sufficient or durable giving a 72.7% rate of durable effect. Interestingly, all 9 patients with complete response received therapy within 6 months of the haematuria onset compared to the two patients with partial response who received therapy at 8 and 10 months from the haematuria onset, respectively (p = 0.018). The need for blood transfusion (p = 0.491) and the total radiation dose (p = 0.259) were not correlated to success-rate. One patient needed cystectomy, while all patients were alive at the end of follow-up. Conclusions: Early primary use of hyperbaric oxygen to treat radiation-induced grade IV cystitis is an effective and safe treatment option. (author)

  3. Is there a role for hyberbaric oxygen as primary treatment for grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis? a prospective pilot-feasibility study and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Dellis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To examine the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen as the primary treatment for Grade IV radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and Methods Hyperbaric oxygen was prospectively applied as a primary treatment option in 11 patients with Grade IV radiation cystitis. Primary endpoint was the incidence of complete and partial response to treatment. Secondary endpoints included the duration of response, the correlation of treatment success-rate to the interval between the onset of haematuria and initiation of therapy, blood transfusion need and total radiation dose, the number of sessions to success, the avoidance of surgery and the overall survival. Results All patients completed therapy without complications for a mean follow-up of 17.82 months (range 3 to 34. Mean number of sessions needed was 32.8 (range 27 to 44. Complete and partial response rate was 81.8% and 18.2%, respectively. However, in three patients the first treatment session was not either sufficient or durable giving a 72.7% rate of durable effect. Interestingly, all 9 patients with complete response received therapy within 6 months of the haematuria onset compared to the two patients with partial response who received therapy at 8 and 10 months from the haematuria onset, respectively (p = 0.018. The need for blood transfusion (p = 0.491 and the total radiation dose (p = 0.259 were not correlated to success-rate. One patient needed cystectomy, while all patients were alive at the end of follow-up. Conclusions Early primary use of hyperbaric oxygen to treat radiation-induced grade IV cystitis is an effective and safe treatment option.

  4. Gender-based reciprocal expression of transforming growth factor-β1 and the inducible nitric oxide synthase in a rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis

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    Loughran Patricia A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pluripotent cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 is the central regulator of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS that is responsible for nitric oxide (NO production in inflammatory settings. Previous studies have implicated a role for NO, presumably derived from iNOS, in cyclophosphamide (CYP-induced cystitis in the bladder. TGF-β1 is produced in latent form and requires dissociation from the latency-associated peptide (LAP to act as primary anti-inflammatory and pro-healing modulator following tissue injury in the upper urinary tract. Since the role of TGF-β1 in lower urinary tract inflammation is currently unknown, and since gender-based differences exist in the setting of interstitial cystitis (IC, the present study examined the relationship between TGF-β1 and iNOS/NO in the pathogenesis of CYP-induced cystitis in both male and female rats. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats, 4 months of age, of either gender were given 150 mg/kg CYP intraperitoneally. Urinary and bladder tissue TGF-β1 and NO reaction products (NO2-/NO3- were quantified as a function of time following CYP. Expression of active and latent TGF-β1 as well as iNOS in harvested bladder tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Female rats had significantly higher levels of NO2-/NO3- in urine even at baseline as compared to male rats (p 2-/NO3- and TGF-β1. Male rats responded to CYP with significantly lower levels of NO2-/NO3- and significantly higher levels of TGF-β1 in urine (p 2-/NO3- after CYP were inversely correlated to latent and active TGF-β1 (Pearson coefficient of -0.72 and -0.69 in females and -0.89 and -0.76 in males, respectively; p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that there exists an inverse relationship between the expression of TGF-β1 and iNOS/NO2-/NO3- in CYP-inflamed bladder. The gender of the animal appears to magnify the differences in urine levels of TGF-β1 and NO2-/NO3- in this inflammatory

  5. Ureteral Embolization to Prevent Thrombotic Obstruction of Nephrostomy Catheters in the Context of Refractory Hemorrhagic Radiation Cystitis with Severe Vesicoureteral Reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarlagadda, Vidhush; Pettibon, Keith; Ertel, Nathan; Nix, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of refractory hemorrhagic radiation cystitis in a patient who failed conservative management and was unable to undergo operative urinary diversion secondary to multiple comorbidities. His management was complicated by recurrent obstruction of his nephrostomy catheters due to marked ureteral thrombus formation from blood refluxing into the ureters from the urinary bladder. We were successful in treating his condition by occluding his distal ureters with a combination of embolization coils and glue to prevent the reflux of blood in order to allow his nephrostomy catheters to function properly. PMID:27019759

  6. No detection of BK virus, JC virus, KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomaviruses in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurological complications after hematopoetic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, J; Giraud, G; Priftakis, P; Wide, K; Gustafsson, B; Ramqvist, T; Dalianis, T

    2011-10-01

    Neurological complications, often due to viral reactivation, after allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are associated with increased mortality. Here, cerebrospinal fluid from 20 HSCT patients with neurological symptoms were analyzed and found to be negative by PCR for BK virus, JC virus, KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA. PMID:21965766

  7. The BMS Equation and c\\bar{c} Production; A Comparison of the BMS and BK Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesini, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    We introduce two processes where the BMS equation appears in a context quite different from the original context of non-global jet observables. We note the strong similarities of the BMS equation to the BK and FKPP equations and argue that these, essentially identical equations, can be viewed either in terms of the probability, or amplitude, of something not happening or in terms of the nonlinear terms setting unitarity limits. Mostly analytic solutions are given for (i) the probability that no $c\\bar{c}$ pairs be produced in a jet decay and (ii) the probability that no-$c\\bar{c}$ pairs be produced in a high energy dipole nucleus scattering. Both these processes obey BMS equations, albeit with very different kernels.

  8. No evidence for infection of UK prostate cancer patients with XMRV, BK virus, Trichomonas vaginalis or human papilloma viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet C T Groom

    Full Text Available The prevalence of specific infections in UK prostate cancer patients was investigated. Serum from 84 patients and 62 controls was tested for neutralisation of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV Envelope. No reactivity was found in the patient samples. In addition, a further 100 prostate DNA samples were tested for XMRV, BK virus, Trichomonas vaginalis and human papilloma viruses by nucleic acid detection techniques. Despite demonstrating DNA integrity and assay sensitivity, we failed to detect the presence of any of these agents in DNA samples, bar one sample that was weakly positive for HPV16. Therefore we conclude that these infections are absent in this typical cohort of men with prostate cancer.

  9. New insights on the association between the prostate cancer and the small DNA tumour virus, BK polyomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognon, Mauro; Provenzano, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the scientific literature in the field of the prostate carcinoma (PCa) pointed out on the genetic heterogeneity and mutations occurring in this tumour, while little attention was given to the causes of PCa onset, in particular infectious agents. In this brief commentary, we wish to point out recent advancements done on the role of the human polyomavirus BK (BKPyV) in the development of PCa by harnessing both humoral and cellular immune responses. Altogether, these new insights suggest that BKPyV is involved in the transforming activity during the multistep process of PCa development. Although these findings do not provide evidence for a causal relationship between BKPyV and PCa development, additional investigations with novel techniques will help to make it a concrete event. PMID:26699530

  10. A fast BK-type KCa current acts as a postsynaptic modulator of temporal selectivity for communication signals

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    Tsunehiko Kohashi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Temporal patterns of spiking often convey behaviorally relevant information. Various synaptic mechanisms and intrinsic membrane properties can influence neuronal selectivity to temporal patterns of input. However, little is known about how synaptic mechanisms and intrinsic properties together determine the temporal selectivity of neuronal output. We tackled this question by recording from midbrain electrosensory neurons in mormyrid fish, in which the processing of temporal intervals between communication signals can be studied in a reduced in vitro preparation. Mormyrids communicate by varying interpulse intervals (IPIs between electric pulses. Within the midbrain posterior exterolateral nucleus (ELp, the temporal patterns of afferent spike trains are filtered to establish single-neuron IPI tuning. We performed whole-cell recording from ELp neurons in a whole-brain preparation and examined the relationship between intrinsic excitability and IPI tuning. We found that spike frequency adaptation of ELp neurons was highly variable. Postsynaptic potentials (PSPs of strongly adapting (phasic neurons were more sharply tuned to IPIs than weakly adapting (tonic neurons. Further, the synaptic filtering of IPIs by tonic neurons was more faithfully converted into variation in spiking output, particularly at short IPIs. Pharmacological manipulation under current- and voltage-clamp revealed that tonic firing is mediated by a fast, large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa current (BK that speeds up action potential repolarization. These results suggest that BK currents can shape the temporal filtering of sensory inputs by modifying both synaptic responses and PSP-to-spike conversion. Slow SK-type KCa currents have previously been implicated in temporal processing. Thus, both fast and slow KCa currents can fine-tune temporal selectivity.

  11. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of intravesical therapy for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Jayanta M; Arance, Ignacio; Angulo, Javier C; Riedl, Claus R

    2016-08-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a chronic disease characterised by persistent irritating micturition symptoms and pain. The objective was to compare the clinical efficacy of currently available products for intravesical therapy of BPS/IC and to assess their pharmacoeconomic impact. A Pubmed/Medline database search was performed for articles on intravesical therapy for BPS/IC. A total of 345 publications were identified, from which 326 were excluded. Statistical evaluation was performed with effect size (ES) assessment of symptom reduction and response rates. The final set of 19 articles on intravesical BPS/IC therapy included 5 prospective controlled trials (CTs), the remaining were classified as uncontrolled clinical studies. The total number of patients included was 801, 228 of whom had been evaluated in a CT. For CTs, the largest ES for symptom reduction as well as response rate was observed for high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HMW-HA), with similar findings in two uncontrolled studies with HMW-HA. The number needed to treat to achieve a response to intravesical therapy was 2.67 for intravesical pentosan polysulphate and 1.31 for HMW-HA which were superior to all other instillates. HMW-HA was significantly superior in cost effectiveness and cost efficacy to all other instillation regimes. The present meta-analysis combined medical and pharmacoeconomic aspects and demonstrated an advantage of HMW-HA over other instillation agents; however, direct comparisons between the different products have not been performed to date in properly designed controlled studies. PMID:26590137

  12. Ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis and bladder apoptosis involve oxidative stress mediated by mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keh-Min; Chuang, Shu-Mien; Long, Cheng-Yu; Lee, Yi-Lun; Wang, Chao-Chuan; Lu, Mei-Chin; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Lu, Jian-He; Jang, Mei-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Ho, Wan-Ting; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2015-08-15

    Ketamine abusers develop severe lower urinary tract symptoms. The major aims of the present study were to elucidate ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis and bladder apoptosis in association with oxidative stress mediated by mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into three different groups, which received normal saline or ketamine for a period of 14 or 28 days, respectively. Double-labeled immunofluorescence experiments were performed to investigate tight junction proteins for urothelial barrier functions. A TUNEL assay was performed to evaluate the distribution of apoptotic cells. Western blot analysis was carried out to examine the expressions of urothelial tight junction proteins, ER stress markers, and apoptosis-associated proteins. Antioxidant enzymes, including SOD and catalase, were investigated by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence experiments. Ketamine-treated rats were found to display bladder hyperactivity. This bladder dysfunction was accompanied by disruptions of epithelial cadherin- and tight junction-associated proteins as well as increases in the expressions of apoptosis-associated proteins, which displayed features of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals and ER stress markers. Meanwhile, expressions of mitochondria respiratory subunit enzymes were significantly increased in ketamine-treated bladders. Conversely, mRNA expressions of the antioxidant enzymes Mn-SOD (SOD2), Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1), and catalase were decreased after 28 days of ketamine treatment. These results demonstrate that ketamine enhanced the generation of oxidative stress mediated by mitochondria- and ER-dependent pathways and consequently contributed to bladder apoptosis and urothelial lining defects. Such oxidative stress-enhanced bladder cell apoptosis and urothelial barrier defects are potential factors that may play a crucial role in bladder overactivity and ulceration. PMID:26109091

  13. Urinary glycosaminoglycans excretion and the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide in an experimental model of non-bacterial cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Soler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We reproduced a non-bacterial experimental model to assess bladder inflammation and urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAG excretion and examined the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female rats were instilled with either protamine sulfate (PS groups or sterile saline (control groups. At different days after the procedure, 24 h urine and bladder samples were obtained. Urinary levels of hyaluronic acid (HA and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (S-GAG were determined. Also to evaluate the effect of DMSO animals were instilled with either 50% DMSO or saline 6 hours after PS instillation. To evaluate the effect of DMSO in healthy bladders, rats were instilled with 50% DMSO and controls with saline. RESULTS: In the PS groups, bladder inflammation was observed, with polymorphonuclear cells during the first days and lymphomononuclear in the last days. HA and S-GAG had 2 peaks of urinary excretion, at the 1st and 7th day after PS injection. DMSO significantly reduced bladder inflammation. In contrast, in healthy bladders, DMSO produced mild inflammation and an increase in urinary HA levels after 1 and 7 days and an increase of S-GAG level in 7 days. Animals instilled with PS and treated with DMSO had significantly reduced levels of urinary HA only at the 1st day. Urinary S-GAG/Cr levels were similar in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Increased urinary levels of GAG were associated with bladder inflammation in a PS-induced cystitis model. DMSO significantly reduced the inflammatory process after urothelial injury. Conversely, this drug provoked mild inflammation in normal mucosa. DMSO treatment was shown to influence urinary HA excretion.

  14. Hemorrhagic irradiation cystitis associated with bladder transitional cell carcinoma and effects of aluminium-ammonium sulfate irrigation for massive bladder hemorrage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although pelvic irradiation is carried out widely on patients with uterine cancer, a few reports have dealt with the occurence of secondary bladder tumors due to pelvic irradiation. Herein, we report a case of radiation induced bladder transitional cell carcinoma. A 72-year-old woman suffered hemorrhagic irradiation cystitis for 2 years in duration following 8000 rads radiotherapy received 4 years before. Primary uterine cervical cancer was well controlled and residual tumor or recurrence of tumor was excluded by clinical examination. Cystoscopic and cytologic examination was initiated in 1981 when first episode of hematuria occurred and was repeated there-after to check for neoplasm in the bladder until June 1983, when a bladder tumor was identified. Cystoscopy revealed a small papillary tumor in trigone, and hyperemic edema and bleeding in almost the whole bladder mucosa. The pathology of the tumor was transitional cell carcinoma. Hemorrhagic cystitis was treated successfully with bladder irrigation of 3 litres of 1% aluminium-ammonium sulfate solution after 3 courses of irrigation. (author)

  15. Loss of Cav1.3 channels reveals the critical role of L-type and BK channel coupling in pacemaking mouse adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantoni, Andrea; Vandael, David H F; Mahapatra, Satyajit; Carabelli, Valentina; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J; Striessnig, Joerg; Carbone, Emilio

    2010-01-13

    We studied wild-type (WT) and Cav1.3(-/-) mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs) with the aim to determine the isoform of L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) and BK channels that underlie the pacemaker current controlling spontaneous firing. Most WT-MCCs (80%) were spontaneously active (1.5 Hz) and highly sensitive to nifedipine and BayK-8644 (1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, methyl ester). Nifedipine blocked the firing, whereas BayK-8644 increased threefold the firing rate. The two dihydropyridines and the BK channel blocker paxilline altered the shape of action potentials (APs), suggesting close coupling of LTCCs to BK channels. WT-MCCs expressed equal fractions of functionally active Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 channels. Cav1.3 channel deficiency decreased the number of normally firing MCCs (30%; 2.0 Hz), suggesting a critical role of these channels on firing, which derived from their slow inactivation rate, sizeable activation at subthreshold potentials, and close coupling to fast inactivating BK channels as determined by using EGTA and BAPTA Ca(2+) buffering. By means of the action potential clamp, in TTX-treated WT-MCCs, we found that the interpulse pacemaker current was always net inward and dominated by LTCCs. Fast inactivating and non-inactivating BK currents sustained mainly the afterhyperpolarization of the short APs (2-3 ms) and only partially the pacemaker current during the long interspike (300-500 ms). Deletion of Cav1.3 channels reduced drastically the inward Ca(2+) current and the corresponding Ca(2+)-activated BK current during spikes. Our data highlight the role of Cav1.3, and to a minor degree of Cav1.2, as subthreshold pacemaker channels in MCCs and open new interesting features about their role in the control of firing and catecholamine secretion at rest and during sustained stimulations matching acute stress. PMID:20071512

  16. Marketingová situační analýza BK Lions Jindřichův Hradec

    OpenAIRE

    Hron, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to carry out an analysis of each part of marketing mix and the environment in which the BK Lions Jindřichův Hradec basketball club is situated. Suitable and applicable recommendations are suggested to make the marketing mix more effective based on analysis of marketing situation. The first part is focused on describing the marketing mix and marketing situational analysis at a theoretical level. The practical part describes particular marketing tools which ar...

  17. Gentamicin Blocks the ACh-Induced BK Current in Guinea Pig Type II Vestibular Hair Cells by Competing with Ca2+ at the l-Type Calcium Channel

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    Hong Yu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Type II vestibular hair cells (VHCs II contain big-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channels (BK and L-type calcium channels. Our previous studies in guinea pig VHCs II indicated that acetylcholine (ACh evoked the BK current by triggering the influx of Ca2+ ions through l-type Ca2+ channels, which was mediated by M2 muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChRs. Aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as gentamicin (GM, are known to have vestibulotoxicity, including damaging effects on the efferent nerve endings on VHCs II. This study used the whole-cell patch clamp technique to determine whether GM affects the vestibular efferent system at postsynaptic M2-mAChRs or the membrane ion channels. We found that GM could block the ACh-induced BK current and that inhibition was reversible, voltage-independent, and dose-dependent with an IC50 value of 36.3 ± 7.8 µM. Increasing the ACh concentration had little influence on GM blocking effect, but increasing the extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o could antagonize it. Moreover, 50 µM GM potently blocked Ca2+ currents activated by (--Bay-K8644, but did not block BK currents induced by NS1619. These observations indicate that GM most likely blocks the M2 mAChR-mediated response by competing with Ca2+ at the l-type calcium channel. These results provide insights into the vestibulotoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics on mammalian VHCs II.

  18. Evaluation of the Genetic Variation of Non Coding Control Region of BK Virus Using Nested-PCR Sequencing Method in Renal Graft Patients

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    A Emami

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Polyomaviruses (BK is a comprehensive infection with more than of 80% prevalence in the world. One of the most important reasons of BK virus nephropathy is in the renal transplant recipients and rejection of transplanted tissue between them. Non Coding region of this virus play a regulatory role in replication and amplification of the virus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic patterns of this area in renal graft at Namazi Transplantation Center, Shiraz, Iran. Methods: In the present experimental study, 380 renal allograft serums were collected. DNAs of 129 eligible samples were extracted and evaluated using a virus genome. The presence of the virus was determined by qualitative and sequencing. Of these, 129 samples were tested for the presence of virus according to the condition study, using quantitative, qualitative genomic amplification and sequencing. Results: The study showed symptoms of nephropathy, 76 (58.9% of them were males and 46 (35.7% were females with the mean age 38.0±.089 years of age. In general, 46 patients (35.7% percent were positive for BK Polyomaviruses. After comparing the genomic sequence with applications of molecular they were categorized in three groups and then recorded in gene bank. Conclusion: About 35% of renal transplant recipients with high creatinine levels were positive for the presence of BK virus. Non-coding region of respondents in the sample survey revealed that among patients with the most common genotypes were rearranged the entire transplant patients were observed at this tranplant center. Examination of these sequences indicated that this rearrangments had a specific pattern, different from the standard strain of archaea type.

  19. Clinical polyomavirus BK variants with agnogene deletion are non-functional but rescued by trans-complementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level replication of polyomavirus BK (BKV) in kidney transplant recipients is associated with the emergence of BKV variants with rearranged (rr) non-coding control region (NCCR) increasing viral early gene expression and cytopathology. Cloning and sequencing revealed the presence of a BKV quasispecies which included non-functional variants when assayed in a recombinant virus assay. Here we report that the rr-NCCR of BKV variants RH-3 and RH-12, both bearing a NCCR deletion including the 5' end of the agnoprotein coding sequence, mediated early and late viral reporter gene expression in kidney cells. However, in a recombinant virus they failed to produce infectious progeny despite large T-antigen and VP1 expression and the formation of nuclear virus-like particles. Infectious progeny was generated when the agnogene was reconstructed in cis or agnoprotein provided in trans from a co-existing BKV rr-NCCR variant. We conclude that complementation can rescue non-functional BKV variants in vitro and possibly in vivo.

  20. Prevalence of JC and BK polyomavirus excretion in the urine of HIV-infected patients from Serbia

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    Karalić Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BK virus (BKV and JC virus (JCV persist as latent infection in the kidneys. Reactivation of both viruses may be linked to immunodeficiency. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of BKV and JCV viruria and to evaluate the relationship between immunodeficiency and viruria in a cohort of HIV-infected patients. Urine samples from 93 HIV-infected patients were collected and tested for the presence of BKV and JCV DNA by PCR. The overall prevalence of polyomavirus DNA in urine was 74.2%. BKV DNA was detected in 30.1% urine samples and JCV DNA in 23.7% samples. Both BKV and JCV DNA were detected in 20.4% samples. There was no association between BKV/JCV urinary shedding and the degree of immunosuppression measured by CD4+ cell count. However, taking into account the severity of disease resulting from reactivation of BKV and JCV, patients with HIV/polyomavirus co-infection should be kept under frequent and regular supervision. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175073

  1. Distinct BK polyomavirus non-coding control region (NCCR) variants in oral fluids of HIV- associated Salivary Gland Disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger-Calderon, Raquel; Ramsey, Kathy J; Dolittle-Hall, Janet M; Seaman, William T; Jeffers-Francis, Liesl K; Tesfu, Daniel; Nickeleit, Volker; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    HIV-associated Salivary Gland Disease (HIVSGD) is among the most common salivary gland-associated complications in HIV positive individuals and was associated with the small DNA tumorvirus BK polyomavirus (BKPyV). The BKPyV non-coding control region (NCCR) is the main determinant of viral replication and rearranges readily. This study analyzed the BKPyV NCCR architecture and viral loads of 35 immunosuppressed individuals. Throatwash samples from subjects diagnosed with HIVSGD and urine samples from transplant patients were BKPyV positive and yielded BKPyV NCCR sequences. 94.7% of the BKPyV HIVSGD NCCRs carried a rearranged OPQPQQS block arrangement, suggesting a distinct architecture among this sample set. BKPyV from HIV positive individuals without HIVSGD harbored NCCR block sequences that were distinct from OPQPQQS. Cloned HIVSGD BKPyV isolates displayed active promoters and efficient replication capability in human salivary gland cells. The unique HIVSGD NCCR architecture may represent a potentially significant oral-tropic BKPyV substrain. PMID:27085139

  2. Intravesical Botulinum Toxin A Injections for Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junpeng; Wang, Qiang; Wu, Qinghui; Chen, Yang; Wu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The role of intravesical botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injections in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate high-level evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of BTX-A injections for BPS/IC. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled studies assessing BTX-A injections for BPS/IC. RESULTS Seven RCTs and 1 retrospective study were identified based on the selection criteria. Pooled analyses showed that although BTX-A was associated with a slightly larger volume of post-void residual urine (PVR) (weighted mean difference [WMD] 10.94 mL; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 3.32 to 18.56; p=0.005), patients in this group might benefit from greater reduction in pelvic pain (WMD -1.73; 95% CI -3.16 to -0.29; p=0.02), Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index (ICPI) scores (WMD -1.25; 95% CI -2.20 to -0.30; p=0.01), and Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index (ICSI) scores (WMD -1.16; 95% CI -2.22 to -0.11; p=0.03), and significant improvement in daytime frequency of urination (WMD -2.36; 95% CI -4.23 to -0.49; p=0.01) and maximum cystometric capacity (MCC) (WMD 50.49 mL; 95% CI 25.27 to 75.71; p<0.00001). Nocturia, maximal urinary flow rate, dysuria, and urinary tract infection did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS Intravesical BTX-A injections might offer significant improvement in bladder pain symptoms, daytime urination frequency, and MCC for patients with refractory BPS/IC, with a slightly larger PVR. Further well-designed, large-scale RCTs are required to confirm the findings of this analysis. PMID:27624897

  3. Impact of mTORC1 inhibition on keratinocyte proliferation during skin tumor promotion in wild-type and BK5.AktWT mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Okkyung; Kiguchi, Kaoru; Jiang, Guiyu; DiGiovanni, John

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of rapamycin on mTORC1 signaling during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced keratinocyte proliferation and skin tumor promotion in both wild-type (FVB/N) and BK5.Akt(WT) mice. TPA activated mTORC1 signaling in a time-dependent manner in cultured primary mouse keratinocytes and a mouse keratinocyte cell line. Early activation (15-30 min) of mTORC1 signaling induced by TPA was mediated in part by PKC activation, whereas later activation (2-4 h) was mediated by activation of EGFR and Akt. BK5.Akt(WT) transgenic mice, where Akt1 is overexpressed in basal epidermis, are highly sensitive to TPA-induced epidermal proliferation and two-stage skin carcinogenesis. Targeting mTORC1 with rapamycin effectively inhibited TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia and hyperproliferation as well as tumor promotion in a dose-dependent manner in both wild-type and BK5.Akt(WT) mice. A significant expansion (∼threefold) of the label retaining cell (LRC) population per hair follicle was observed in BK5.Akt(WT) mice compared to FVB/N mice. There was also a significant increase in K15 expressing cells in the hair follicle of transgenic mice that coincided with expression of phospho-Akt, phospho-S6K, and phospho-PRAS40, suggesting an important role of mTORC1 signaling in bulge-region keratinocyte stem cell (KSC) homeostasis. After 2 weeks of TPA treatment, LRCs had moved upward into the interfollicular epidermis from the bulge region of both wild-type and BK5.Akt(WT) mice. TPA-mediated LRC proliferation and migration was significantly inhibited by rapamycin. Collectively, the current data indicate that signaling through mTORC1 contributes significantly to the process of skin tumor promotion through effects on proliferation of the target cells for tumor development. PMID:24114993

  4. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: the influence of modern diagnostic criteria on epidemiology and on Internet search activity by the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Niall F; Gnanappiragasam, Sanjith; Thornhill, John A

    2015-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic debilitating condition that is characterised by suprapubic pain and urinary symptoms such as urgency, nocturia and urinary frequency. The prevalence of the condition is increasing due to more inclusive diagnostic criteria. Herein, we review the evolving epidemiology of IC/PBS and investigate health seeking behaviour for the condition through Internet search activity. Study selection was performed in accordance with PRISMA. In addition, global search trends for the terms 'Interstitial Cystitis' and 'Painful Bladder Syndrome' from 2005 to 2015 were also evaluated using the 'Google Trends' search application. The mean search activity per month was recorded and mean activity at annual intervals calculated. Regional search activity by country and city was also measured. Prevalence rates for IC/PBS vary according to diagnostic criteria and range from 2% to 17.3% among the general population. Increased prevalence is associated with female gender and females with one first-degree relative affected. There has been an increase in global mean search activity for IC/PBS on an annual basis since 2005. The greatest increase in search activity was in USA, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland and India respectively. The top five cities for search activity for IC/PBS were in the USA. As diagnostic criteria for IC/PBS continues to become more inclusive it is likely that the prevalence will continue to increase. This is particularly true for the USA and Canada as these regions have demonstrated the greatest increase in Internet search activity for IC/ PBS. PMID:26816850

  5. Glycoaminoglycan (GAG) deficiency in protective barrier as an underlying, primary cause of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease interstitial cystitis and possibly Reiter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, A L

    1999-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and interstitial cystitis share many common features, the most important of which is a defect in the glycoaminoglycan (GAG) defensive barrier. This defect allows penetration of toxins causing localized inflammatory response, followed by fibrosis and distant pathological changes, together with a myriad of biochemical and immunological changes. The latter has caused confusion as to etiology of the aforementioned disorders. This hypothesis is somewhat supported by the fact that agents such as glucosamine and pentosan polysulphate (Elmiron) that replace the GAG layer, improve the conditions. The potential for extrapolation of this hypothesis to atherosclerosis and arthropathies exists. There is a great danger in modern medical research that if one misses the wood for the trees, one becomes hopelessly lost in the minutiae of research. At present, it is embarrassing that ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's (CR) and interstitial cystitis (IC) are the cause of a great deal of morbidity and occasionally mortality, yet after intensive research, the etiology and effective treatment eludes us. The research in the past has focused extensively on inflammatory response in the mucosal lining, and biochemical, infective and immunological changes in the serum. This has led to a vast array of research pathways that seem at the present time to be totally lost and, might I say, aimless in direction, as a cause for these conditions, that remain amongst the most imperically treated in modern medicine. Another possible syndrome in this class would be Reiter's, which has many features in common with the above. The basic tenet of a GAG deficiency hypothesis is that, as shown in Figure 1A, an intact GAG layer provides, firstly, a mechanical and electrostatic defence against penetration of infective agents, toxins, antigenic protein moieties, etc. and, secondly, the prevention of extravasation of body fluid components. A degraded GAG layer is the start of the

  6. Translocation of NF-κB and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 are enhanced by ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis in rat bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Yung-Shun; Lee, Yi-Lun; Long, Cheng-Yu; Wong, Jhen-Hong; Jang, Mei-Yu; Lu, Jian-He; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Yen-Shun; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Chuang, Shu-Mien

    2015-08-01

    The number of ketamine abusers has increased significantly recently. Ketamine abusers exhibit urinary frequency, urgency, and at times urinary incontinence. Our aim was to investigate the role of transcription factor NF-κB and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in ketamine-induced cystitis. Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into three groups, which received saline or treatment with ketamine or ketamine combined with a Cox-2 inhibitor (parecoxib). In addition, the toxic effect of ketamine and its metabolites were examined by primary urothelial cell culture. The ketamine-treated group displayed bladder hyperactivity and decreased bladder capacity. Treatment with ketamine + COX-2 inhibitor prevented these bladder dysfunctions. These bladder dysfunctions were accompanied by increases in the expression of NF-κB and COX-2 at the protein and mRNA levels. Ketamine treatment also enhanced bladder interstitial fibrosis, whereas ketamine + Cox-2 inhibitor decreased the intensity of fibrosis. Treatment of primary urothelial cells in vitro with ketamine or urine obtained from ketamine-treated rats stimulated the expression of NF-κB p65 and COX-2. Ketamine also initiated NF-κB translocation from cell cytoplasm to nucleus. Treatment with NF-κB inhibitor suppressed Cox-2 mRNA expression. Promoter-deletion analysis revealed that NF-κB was a necessary transcription factor for COX-2 gene (Ptgs2) activation. These results demonstrate that the regulation of COX-2 via the NF-κB pathway is involved in the inflammatory signaling of ketamine-induced cystitis in rat urinary bladder. PMID:26073037

  7. Cistitis intersticial o vejiga dolorosa: Un desafío para el clínico Interstitial cystitis: A challenge for the clinician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Young

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La cistitis intersticial se define como un síndrome clínico caracterizado por un incremento de la frecuencia urinaria, urgencia miccional y/o dolor abdominal o perineal en ausencia de infección urinaria o enfermedad conocida del aparato urinario. Se divide de acuerdo a los hallazgos citoscópicos en ulcerativa o no. La base del diagnóstico es clínica apoyada en scores de probabilidad y pruebas invasivas. Con la comprensión de la fisiopatología se ha desarrollado un abanico de posibilidades terapéuticas. Comunicamos el caso de una paciente sintomática por cuatro años con diagnóstico de cistitis intersticial con úlcera de Hunner por cistoscopia y excelente respuesta a la amitriptilina. Es una enfermedad que produce considerable alteración de la calidad de vida, por lo que es importante que los médicos estén familiarizados con este cuadro.Interstitial cystitis is characterized by over 6 months of chronic pain, pressure and discomfort felt in the lower pelvis or bladder. It is often relieved with voiding, along with daytime frequency and nocturia in the absence of an urinary tract infection. The disorder can be divided clinically into two groups -ulcerative and non-ulcerative- based on cystoscopic findings and response to treatment. Management follows an approach of applying the least invasive therapy that affords sufficient relief of symptoms. We report a case of a patient with interstitial cystitis. The diagnosis was performed by symptoms and lesion in the cystoscopy and excellent response to amitriptyline.

  8. Does Staphylococcus Saprophyticus Cause Acute Cystitis only in Young Females, or is there more to the Story? A One-Year Comprehensive Study Done in Budapest, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeghate, Jennifer; Juhász, Emese; Pongrácz, Júlia; Rimanóczy, Éva; Kristóf, Katalin

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a well-known urinary pathogen in acute cystitis in young females. We completed a retrospective overview of the distribution of urinary tract infections (UTIs) occurring in 2014, at Semmelweis University hospitals and at Heim Pál Children's Hospital. Six age-groups (ages 0-100) were examined, with the frequency of S. saprophyticus in females being: 0.1% (0-4), 0.7%, (5-15), 7.4% (16-24), 1.2% (25-39), 0.4% (40-59) and 0.1% (60-100), and S. saprophyticus being the 3(rd) most common pathogen in females aged 16-24. In males, S. saprophyticus was only isolated from those aged 5-15. Seasonal distribution of UTIs caused by S. saprophyticus showed that most infections occurred during the months of January, June, August and November. Antibiotic-resistance rates of amoxicillin, clindamycin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole- trimethoprim varied as follows: 0.9%, 32.7%, 19.6%, 34.6%, 0.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Thirty randomly selected samples were analysed by pulsed-field gelelectrophoresis, and 28 different genotypes were identified. S. saprophyticus is involved in the pathogenesis of acute cystitis not only in young females, but also in other age-groups, and in young males as well. We did not find any significant seasonal occurrence in S. saprophyticus-caused UTIs. The infective strains were genetically diverse. Antibiotic-resistance does not pose any issue as of yet. PMID:27020869

  9. Interstitial Cystitis (IC) Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intimacy & IC Support for Men Children & IC La Cistitis Intersticial IC in Other Languages Associated Conditions Allergies and ... Intimacy & IC Support for Men Children & IC La Cistitis Intersticial IC in Other Languages Associated Conditions Allergies and ...

  10. Plagiarism in the article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This retracts article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini, Amadou Kassogue, Mohammed Fadl Tazi, Anas Zaougui, Jalal Edine Elammari, Abdelhak Khallouk, Mohammed Jamal El Fassi, My Hassan Farih. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).[This retracts the article DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505.]. PMID:26328003

  11. 腺性膀胱炎侵犯输尿管口的微创治疗%Mini-invasive treatment of cystitis glandularis with affected ureteric meatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    羊继平; 唐来坤; 汪祖林; 宋立; 田峰; 俞仲伟; 叶青; 吴凤金

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the minimal invasive management of cystitis glandularis with invasion of the ureteric meatus.Methods The clinical data of 18 cases were reviewed.Among the 18 cystitis glandularis patients,12 cases were invasion of bilateral ureteric meatus and 6 of unilateral ureteric meatus.Operation or drug treatment was performed on the diseases that can cause cystitis glandularis such as bladder stone,bladder neck stegnosis,external urethral meatus stegnosis and benign prostate hyperplasia.Sensitive antibiotic was administrated in all cases.After placing ureter catheter,transurethral plasma electro-resection was carried out in five patients whose ureteric meatus could be identified.In addition,of thirteen patients with ureteral orifice unable to be identified,there were ten cases with normal renal function,mitomycin was injected under affected membrana mucosa,and then the patient with ureteral orifice identified underwent transurethral plasma electro-resection after placing ureter catheter.On the other hand,the patient whose ureteral orifice still could not be recognized undertaken transurethral electro-resection at first,during which the ureter catheter was put once ureteral orifice had been detected,otherwise,the ureter catheter should be placed through cystoscope if nephritic colic emerged and hydronephrosis aggravated after operation.In those patients with kidney dysfunction,the ureter catheter was put by ureter discission or ureter replantation at first,the transurethral electro-resection could not be executed until the renal function recovered.Following all these procedure above,bladder instillation of drugs regularly,anti-infection and symptomatic treatment were administrated.Results One patient combined with bladder adenocarcinoma received cystectomy,of the other patients,six cases recurred and underwent electrotomy again resulting in no relapse.All nephrohydrops vanished or relieved obviously,nevertheless,urinary tract infection,haematuria and

  12. Impact of mTORC1 Inhibition on Keratinocyte Proliferation During Skin Tumor Promotion in Wild-Type and BK5.AktWT Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rho, Okkyung; Kiguchi, Kaoru; Jiang, Guiyu; DiGiovanni, John

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of rapamycin on mTORC1 signaling during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced keratinocyte proliferation and skin tumor promotion in both wild-type (FVB/N) and BK5.AktWT mice. TPA activated mTORC1 signaling in a time-dependent manner in cultured primary mouse keratinocytes and a mouse keratinocyte cell line. Early activation (15–30 min) of mTORC1 signaling induced by TPA was mediated in part by PKC activation, whereas later activation (2–4 h)...

  13. Immunogenicity and protection from malaria infection in BK-SE36 vaccinated volunteers in Uganda is not influenced by HLA-DRB1 alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougan, Takahiro; Ito, Kazuya; Palacpac, Nirianne Marie Q; Egwang, Thomas G; Horii, Toshihiro

    2016-10-01

    SE36 antigen, derived from serine repeat antigen 5 (SERA5) of Plasmodium falciparum, is a promising blood stage malaria vaccine candidate. Designated as BK-SE36, the SE36 antigen was formulated with aluminum hydroxyl gel (AHG) and produced under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) constraints. In a Phase Ib clinical trial and follow-up study in Uganda, the risk for malaria symptoms was reduced by 72% compared with the control group. Although promising, the number of responders to the vaccine in 6-20years-olds was approximately 30% with the majority in the younger cohort. This is in contrast to the phase Ia clinical trial where response to the vaccine was 100% in Japanese malaria naive adults. A consideration that can be of importance is the involvement of host genetic factors that may influence the ability to mount an effective immune response to vaccination as well as susceptibility to malaria infection. We, therefore, analyzed allelic polymorphism of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles using sequence-based typing (SBT). In this study, DRB1 alleles did not influence antibody response to BK-SE36 and the vaccinees susceptibility to clinical malaria. PMID:27343834

  14. A Case of Acquired Rifampin Resistance in Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-Induced Cystitis: Necessity for Treatment Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce N Wolfe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of presumed bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG cystitis in an elderly female patient following direct intravesical BCG instillation treatment for papillary transitional cell carcinoma is reported. The organism cultured from urine samples was eventually identified as a rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium bovis BCG isolate. Because the patient had received rifampin monotherapy during the course of treatment for presumed BCG disease, the clinical picture favoured acquired rifampin resistance. Sequencing of the target gene for rifampin (rpoB confirmed a known mutation responsible for conferring high levels of resistance to both rifampin and rifabutin (Ser531Tyr. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of M bovis BCG disease in a non-HIV patient where the organism had acquired drug resistance to rifampin, and the second reported case of M bovis BCG that had acquired drug resistance. The present case demonstrates the necessity to re-evaluate appropriate guidelines for the effective treatment of BCG disease.

  15. Urinary Metabolomics Identifies a Molecular Correlate of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome in a Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP Research Network Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveri S. Parker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS is a poorly understood syndrome affecting up to 6.5% of adult women in the U.S. The lack of broadly accepted objective laboratory markers for this condition hampers efforts to diagnose and treat this condition. To identify biochemical markers for IC/BPS, we applied mass spectrometry-based global metabolite profiling to urine specimens from a cohort of female IC/BPS subjects from the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP Research Network. These analyses identified multiple metabolites capable of discriminating IC/BPS and control subjects. Of these candidate markers, etiocholan-3α-ol-17-one sulfate (Etio-S, a sulfoconjugated 5-β reduced isomer of testosterone, distinguished female IC/BPS and control subjects with a sensitivity and specificity >90%. Among IC/BPS subjects, urinary Etio-S levels are correlated with elevated symptom scores (symptoms, pelvic pain, and number of painful body sites and could resolve high- from low-symptom IC/BPS subgroups. Etio-S-associated biochemical changes persisted through 3–6 months of longitudinal follow up. These results raise the possibility that an underlying biochemical abnormality contributes to symptoms in patients with severe IC/BPS.

  16. MCP-1-Induced Histamine Release from Mast Cells Is Associated with Development of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome in Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Lv

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS is characterized by overexpression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in bladder tissues and induction of mast cell (MC degranulation. This study was undertaken to explore the mechanism of action of MCP-1 in the development of IC/BPS. Methods. A rat model of IC/BPS was developed by perfusing bladders of nine SPF- grade female Sprague-Dawley rats with protamine sulfate and lipopolysaccharide (PS+LPS. MCP-1 and histamine levels in bladder tissue and urine were detected by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. MC degranulation was measured by immunofluorescence techniques and chemokine (C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2 was assayed by flow cytometry. Results. Increased MCP-1 expression in bladder tissue and elevated MCP-1 and histamine levels were observed in the urine of LS+LPS-treated rats. This was accompanied by the expression of CCR2 on MC surfaces, suggesting MCP-1 may induce MC degranulation through CCR2. Exposure to LPS stimulated MCP-1 expression in bladder epithelial cells, and exposure to MCP-1 induced histamine release from MCs. Conclusions. MCP-1 upregulation in IC/BPS is one of possible contributing factors inducing histamine release from MCs. CCR2 is involved in the process of mast cell degranulation in bladder tissues. These changes may contribute to the development of symptoms of IC/BPS.

  17. Large N approach to Kaon decays and mixing 28 years later. ΔI = 1/2 rule, BK, and ΔMK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review and update our results for K → ππ decays and K0- anti K0 mixing obtained by us in the 1980s within an analytic approximate approach based on the dual representation of QCD as a theory of weakly interacting mesons for large N, where N is the number of colors. In our analytic approach the Standard Model dynamics behind the enhancement of ReA0 and suppression of ReA2, the so called ΔI = 1/2 rule for K → ππ decays, has a simple structure: the usual octet enhancement through the long but slow quark - gluon renormalization group evolution down to the scales O(1 GeV) is continued as a short but fast meson evolution down to zero momentum scales at which the factorization of hadronic matrix elements is at work. The inclusion of lowest-lying vector meson contributions in addition to the pseudoscalar ones and of Wilson coefficients in a momentum scheme improves significantly the matching between quark - gluon and meson evolutions. In particular, the anomalous dimension matrix governing the meson evolution exhibits the structure of the known anomalous dimension matrix in the quark - gluon evolution. While this physical picture did not yet emerge from lattice simulations, the recent results on ReA2 and ReA0 from the RBC-UKQCD collaboration give support for its correctness. In particular, the signs of the two main contractions found numerically by these authors follow uniquely from our analytic approach. Though the current - current operators dominate the ΔI = 1/2 rule, working with matching scales O(1 GeV) we find that the presence of QCD-penguin operator Q6 is required to obtain satisfactory result for ReA0. At NLO in 1/N we obtain R = ReA0/ReA2 = 16.0 ± 1.5 which amounts to an order of magnitude enhancement over the strict large N limit value √(2). We also update our results for the parameter BK, finding BK = 0.73 ± 0.02. The smallness of 1/N corrections to the large N value BK = 3/4 results within our approach from an approximate cancelation between

  18. Toxin-antitoxin loci as stress-response-elements: ChpAK/MazF and ChpBK cleave translated RNAs and are counteracted by tmRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.K.; Pedersen, K.; Hansen, Flemming G.;

    2003-01-01

    Prokaryotic chromosomes encode toxin-antitoxin loci, often in multiple copies. In most cases, the function of these genes is not known. The chpA (mazEF) locus of Escherichia coli has been described as a cell killing module that induces bacterial apoptosis during nutritional stress. However, we...... found recently that ChpAK (MazF) does not confer cell killing but rather, induces a bacteriostatic condition from which the cells could be resuscitated. Results presented here yield a mechanistic explanation for the detrimental effect on cell growth exerted by ChpAK and the homologous ChpBK protein of E....... coli. We show that both proteins inhibit translation by inducing cleavage of translated mRNAs. Consistently, the inhibitory effect of the proteins was counteracted by tmRNA. Amino acid starvation induced strong transcription of chpA that depended on Lon protease but not on ppGpp. Simultaneously, Chp...

  19. Transformation of primary human embryonic kidney cells to anchorage independence by a combination of BK virus DNA and the Harvey-ras oncogene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells were transformed by a focus assay with BK virus (BKV) DNA molecularly cloned at its unique EcoRI site. Both viral DNA sequences and viral tumor antigens were present and expressed in all the foci that the authors examined. However, cells isolated from foci were incapable of growth in soft agar. They then examined the transformation of HEK cells after their transfection with a combination of BKV DNA and either the normal or the activated form of the human Ha-ras oncogene (EJ c-Ha-ras-1). Only the cells transfected with a combination of BKV DNA and the activated form of Ha-ras DNAs were present in the transformed colonies. BKV tumor antigens and the Ha-ras p21 protein were also expressed

  20. Observation of a resonance-like structure in the pi^+- psi' mass distribution in exclusive B-->K pi^+- psi' decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Aso, T; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bahinipati, S; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Ban, Y; Banerjee, S; Barberio, E; Bay, A; Bedny, I; Belous, K S; Bhardwaj, V; Bitenc, U; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Chang, M C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, A; Chen, K F; Chen, W T; Cheon, B G; Chiang, C C; Chistov, R; Cho, I S; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Cole, S; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Das, A; Dash, M; Dragic, J; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Fratina, S; Fujii, H; Fujikawa, M; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Go, A; Gokhroo, G; Goldenzweig, P; Golob, B; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Guler, H; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Hasegawa, Y; Hastings, N C; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hazumi, M; Heffernan, D; Higuchi, T; Hinz, L; Hoedlmoser, H; Hokuue, T; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hoshina, K; Hou, S; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, H; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Jacoby, C; Joshi, N J; Kaga, M; Kah, D H; Kaji, H; Kajiwara, S; Kakuno, H; Kang, J H; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Kibayashi, A; Kichimi, H; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Kim, S K; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Korpar, S; Kozakai, Y; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Kumar, R; Kurihara, E; Kusaka, A; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y J; Lange, J S; Leder, G; Lee, J; Lee, J S; Lee, M J; Lee, S E; Lesiak, T; Li, J; Limosani, A; Lin, S W; Liu, Y; Liventsev, D; MacNaughton, J; Majumder, G; Mandl, F; Marlow, D; Matsumura, T; Matyja, A; McOnie, S; Medvedeva, T; Mikami, Y; Mitaroff, W A; Miyabayashi, K; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Moloney, G R; Mori, T; Müller, J; Murakami, A; Nagamine, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, I; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nakayama, H; Nakazawa, H; Natkaniec, Z; Neichi, K; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Nishio, Y; Nishizawa, I; Nitoh, O; Noguchi, S; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, A; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ono, S; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palka, H; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, K S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Pernicka, M; Pestotnik, R; Peters, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Rorie, J; Rózanska, M; Sahoo, H; Sakai, Y; Sakamoto, H; Sakaue, H; Sarangi, T R; Satoyama, N; Sayeed, K; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Schonmeier, P; Schümann, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Seidl, R; Sekiya, A; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shang, L; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibuya, H; Shinomiya, S; Shiu, J G; Shwartz, B; Singh, J B; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Somov, A; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stypula, J; Sugiyama, A; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tamura, N; Tanaka, M; Taniguchi, N; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tse, Y F; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, K; Uchida, Y; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Yu; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vervink, K; Villa, S; Vinokurova, A; Wang, C C; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Wedd, R; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Wiechczynski, J; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, M; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A; Zwahlen, N

    2007-01-01

    A distinct peak is observed in the pi^+/- psi' invariant mass distribution near 4.43 GeV in B->K pi^+/- psi' decays. A fit using a Breit Wigner resonance shape yields a peak mass and width of 4433+-4(stat)+-1(syst) MeV and Gamma = 44^+17_-13(stat) ^+30_-11 MeV. The product branching fraction is determined to be Bf(B-->KZ(4430))xBf(Z(4430)-->pi^+psi') = (4.1+-1.0(stat)+-1.3(syst))x10^{-5), where Z(4430) is used to designate the observed structure. The statistical significance of the observed peak is greater than 7sigma. These results are obtained from a 605 fb-1 data sample that contains 657 million BBbar pairs collected near the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric energy e+e- collider.

  1. Eleven new heaviest isotopes of elements Z=105 to Z=117 identified among the products of 249Bk+48Ca reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heaviest isotopes of elements Z=117 to Z=105, 294117, 293117, 290115, 289115, 286113, 285113, 282Rg, 281Rg, 278Mt, 274Bh, and 270Db, were identified by means of the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator among the products of the 249Bk + 48Ca reaction. The details of the observed six decay chains, indicating the production and decay of isotopes 293117 and 294117, are presented and discussed. The decay energies and resulting half-lives of these new nuclei show a strong rise of stability with increasing neutron number, validating the concept of the island of enhanced stability for superheavy nuclei [Oganessian et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 142502 (2010)].

  2. Impact of preemptive reduction of immunosuppression with serial monitoring for BK virus replication in renal transplant recipients undergoing short-term evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paolis, P; Gervasio, E; Tedesco, M; Favarò, A; Iappelli, M; Abbate, I; Capobianchi, M; Di Giulio, S

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this preliminary, prospective, longitudinal study was to evaluate the effects on graft function and viral loads of modulation of immunosuppressive therapy based upon serial noninvasive monitoring of urine and serum viral loads with real-time polymerase chain reaction among unselected renal transplant recipients. Thirty-nine renal transplant recipients with follow-up times of 7.8 +/- 4.3 months were monitored monthly with urine and serum samples to measure BK viral load. Interventions such as gradual reductions of mycophenolate mofetil and/or tacrolimus were performed when repeated urine and serum viral loads were >10(5) and >10(3) copies/mL, respectively. Among 271 samples, the patients were divided into 6 groups: negative urine (group = 1; n = 10) and negative serum (group 2; n = 25) versus BK viral loads that were intermittent (urine: group 3; n = 24 and serum: group 4; n = 11) versus persistent (urine: group 5; n = 5 and serum: group 6; n = 3). In groups 3-4 we observed the higher viral loads in the urine than in the serum (10(3): 21; 10(4): 1; 10(5): 1; 10(6): 1 vs 10(2): 8; 10(3): 2; 10(4): 1). The timing of resolution of viremia was more rapid than viruria. In groups 5-6 we observed the greatest viral load and greater number in urine. The overall incidences of viruria and viremia were 74.3% and 35.9%, respectively. The overall rates of clearance of viruria were 26/29 recipients (89%) and viremia, 11/14 recipients (78%). Only 10 patients (25.6%) needed extensive reduction of immunosuppression. No modifications of serum creatinine levels and no rejection episodes were observed. In conclusion this preliminary analysis suggested that serial, noninvasive monitoring of viral load allows gradual premptive reduction of immunosuppression with consequent strong reduction in viral load. PMID:19460518

  3. Decrease of urinary nerve growth factor but not brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome treated with hyaluronic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hong Jiang

    Full Text Available To investigate urinary nerve growth factor (NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS patients after hyaluronic acid (HA therapy.Thirty-three patients with IC/BPS were prospectively studied; a group of 45 age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. All IC/BPS patients received nine intravesical HA instillations during the 6-month treatment regimen. Urine samples were collected for measuring urinary NGF and BDNF levels at baseline and 2 weeks after the last HA treatment. The clinical parameters including visual analog scale (VAS of pain, daily frequency nocturia episodes, functional bladder capacity (FBC and global response assessment (GRA were recorded. Urinary NGF and BDNF levels were compared between IC/BPS patients and controls at baseline and after HA treatment.Urinary NGF, NGF/Cr, BDNF, and BDNF/Cr levels were significantly higher in IC/BPS patients compared to controls. Both NGF and NGF/Cr levels significantly decreased after HA treatment. Urinary NGF and NGF/Cr levels significantly decreased in the responders with a VAS pain reduction by 2 (both p < 0.05 and the GRA improved by 2 (both p < 0.05, but not in non-responders. Urinary BDNF and BDNF/Cr did not decrease in responders or non-responders after HA therapy.Urinary NGF, but not BDNF, levels decreased significantly after HA therapy; both of these factors remained higher than in controls even after HA treatment. HA had a beneficial effect on IC/BPS, but it was limited. The reduction of urinary NGF levels was significant in responders, with a reduction of pain and improved GRA.

  4. Phloroglucinol Protects the Urinary Bladder Via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in a Rat Model of Cyclophosphamide-induced Interstitial Cystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Qiang He; Wei-Tao Zhang; Chang-Hua Shi; Fang-Ming Wang; Xiao-Jun Tian; Lu-Lin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Background:Phloroglucinol plays an important role in oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.The effects of phloroglucinol have been proven in various disease models.The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and possible mechanisms of phloroglucinol in the treatment of interstitial cystitis (IC).Methods:Thirty-two female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used in this study.IC was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CYP).Rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups (n =8 per group):A control group,which was injected with saline (75 mg/kg; i.p.) instead of CYP on days 1,4,and 7; a chronic IC group,which was injected with CYP (75 mg/kg; i.p.) on days 1,4,and 7; a high-dose (30 mg/kg) phloroglucinol-treated group; and a low-dose (15 mg/kg) phloroglucinol-treated group.On day 8,the rats in each group underwent cystometrography (CMG),and the bladders were examined for evidence of oxidative stress and inflammation.Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by least square difference multiple comparison post-hoc test.Results:Histological evaluation showed that bladder inflammation in CYP-treated rats was suppressed by phloroglucinol.CMG revealed that the CYP treatment induced overactive bladder in rats that was reversed by phloroglucinol.Up-regulated tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 expression in the CYP-treated rats were also suppressed in the phloroglucinol treated rats.CYP treatment significantly increased myeloperoxidase activity as well as the decreased activities of catalase of the bladder,which was reversed by treatment with phloroglucinol.Conclusions:The application of phloroglucinol suppressed oxidative stress,inflammation,and overactivity in the bladder.This may provide a new treatment strategy for IC.

  5. [Turning points in world history: urological comments on pathography of famous people: did Napoleon Bonaparte have a cystitis during the battle of Waterloo and was the battle lost because of that?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzinger, M; Stastny, M; Haferkamp, A

    2011-03-01

    Apparently unimportant diseases of some prominent figures can have a considerable effect on the course of time at turning points in world history. It is quite conceivable that the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815 had been lost by France because Napoleon was not in full possession of his powers, because he was suffering from acute cystitis. Adverse weather conditions with continuous rain and coldness in advance of the battle, extremely primitive hygienic conditions and more than simple quarters for the night led to the development of cystitis. Based on the records of his biographers, his personal physician and the letters to his brother, we know that Napoleon was not able to give the command to attack in the early morning as intended, but in the early noon, only because of his bad general condition. This delay of several hours led, as we all know, to the intervention of Prussia and the devastating defeat of France. Thus it appears that a relatively unimportant urological disease influenced the course of world history crucially. PMID:21340596

  6. Application of a real-time PCR assay to detect BK potassium channel expression in samples from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss acclimated to freshwater#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CA Loncoman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss are two fish species that spawn in fresh water (FW and, during development, acclimate to seawater (SW by secreting excess NaCl to the environment. The salmon industry measures Na+/K+ ATPase (NKA activity as a molecular marker to determine the timing of smolt transfer from FW to SW. However, the lack of other accurate molecular markers of smoltification remains a major issue for the fish farming industry. The molecular mechanism of NaCl secretion in gills from SW-acclimated fish has a thermodynamic requirement to recycle K+ out of the cell via potassium channels therefore we hypothesised that potassium channel expression in gills may be a suitable candidate to monitor the smoltification process. In support of this hypothesis, we observed increased expression of BK potassium channel mRNA in gills from S. salar under conditions of high salinity (1.2% compared to animals in FW. In this work, we designed a real-time PCR analysis in order to quantify mRNA levels of BK potassium channels in S. salar organ samples. We found differences in mRNA expression among gills, kidney and intestine. We also found a unique real-time PCR product in S. salar gills through melting curve analysis, agarose gel electrophoresis and cDNA sequencing. This PCR product showed a 98% of identity with the BK channel portion recorded by the NCBI Database and was differentially expressed in gills, kidney and intestine. This real-time PCR assay may become an important tool to study BK potassium channels expressed in the gills of S. salar and its changes during smoltification as putative new candidate to monitor this process.

  7. Hydrophobic interaction between contiguous residues in the S6 transmembrane segment acts as a stimuli integration node in the BK channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquel-Ursulaez, Willy; Contreras, Gustavo F.; Sepúlveda, Romina V.; Aguayo, Daniel; González-Nilo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ channel (BK) open probability is enhanced by depolarization, increasing Ca2+ concentration, or both. These stimuli activate modular voltage and Ca2+ sensors that are allosterically coupled to channel gating. Here, we report a point mutation of a phenylalanine (F380A) in the S6 transmembrane helix that, in the absence of internal Ca2+, profoundly hinders channel opening while showing only minor effects on the voltage sensor active–resting equilibrium. Interpretation of these results using an allosteric model suggests that the F380A mutation greatly increases the free energy difference between open and closed states and uncouples Ca2+ binding from voltage sensor activation and voltage sensor activation from channel opening. However, the presence of a bulky and more hydrophobic amino acid in the F380 position (F380W) increases the intrinsic open–closed equilibrium, weakening the coupling between both sensors with the pore domain. Based on these functional experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, we propose that F380 interacts with another S6 hydrophobic residue (L377) in contiguous subunits. This pair forms a hydrophobic ring important in determining the open–closed equilibrium and, like an integration node, participates in the communication between sensors and between the sensors and pore. Moreover, because of its effects on open probabilities, the F380A mutant can be used for detailed voltage sensor experiments in the presence of permeant cations. PMID:25548136

  8. Identification of B-K near edge x-ray absorption fine structure peaks of boron nitride thin films prepared by sputtering deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four π* resonance peaks were observed in the B-K near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra of boron nitride thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering. In the past, these peaks have been explained as the K-absorption of boron atoms, which are present in environment containing nitrogen vacancies, the number of which is 1-3 corresponding to the three peaks at higher photon energy. However, the authors found that there was a strong correlation between the intensities of these three peaks and that of O-K absorption after wide range scanning and simultaneous measurement of nitrogen and oxygen K-absorptions of the BN films. Therefore, the authors conclude that these three peaks at the higher energy side correspond to boron atoms bound to one-to-three oxygen atoms instead of three nitrogen atoms surrounding the boron atom in the h-BN structure. The result of the first-principles calculation with a simple cluster model supported the validity of this explanation.

  9. 出血性放射性膀胱炎经膀胱灌注透明质酸钠的疗效分析%Analysis on the curative effect of bladder perfusion sodium hyaluronate in hemorrhagic radiation cystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 王大亚; 张弦; 陈力; 洪诗哲; 李镭钰

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the curative effect of treatment with bladder perfusion sodium hyaluro-nate in hemorrhagic radiation cystitis.Methods: Compared with 20 patients with routine conservative hemostatic treatment (Conservative treatment group), bladder perfusion hyaluronic acid sodium was used for the treatment of hemorrhagic radiation cystitis in 32 cases (Hyaluronic acid sodium treatment group). Red blood cells decreased to +/HP was effective in the routine urine test, after one year’s treatment.Results: In sodium hyaluronate infu-sion group, 28 cases were effective, and its rate was 87.5%, 17 cases with urinary irritation symptoms improved signiifcantly. 8 cases of conservative treatment group were effective. and its rate was 40%.Conclusion: Bladder perfusion hyaluronic acid sodium for the treatment of hemorrhagic radiation cystitis curative effect is distinct, the operation is simple, non-toxic side effects, strong repeatability, particularly suitable for patients with urinary ir-ritation symptoms. For patients with severe hemorrhagic cystitis, Transurethral intravesical electrocauterization is ifrstly performed to stop bleeding, then start treatment with sodium hyaluronate infusion.%目的:探讨膀胱灌注透明质酸钠治疗出血性放射性膀胱炎的疗效。方法:经膀胱灌注透明质酸钠治疗出血性放射性膀胱炎32例(透明质酸钠治疗组),对比同时期20例常规保守止血治疗患者(保守治疗组)。治疗1年后,以尿常规检测红细胞下降到+/HP为有效。结果:透明质酸钠治疗组28例有效,有效率为87.5%,17例伴尿路刺激症状患者症状明显改善;保守治疗组8例有效,有效率为40%。结论:膀胱灌注透明质酸钠治疗出血性放射性膀胱炎疗效显著,操作简单,无不良反应,重复性强,尤其适用于伴有尿路刺激症状的患者。对于重度出血性膀胱炎患者,建议先行经尿道膀胱内电灼止血后,再行透明质酸钠灌注治疗。

  10. Interstitial Cystitis / Painful Bladder Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects, it should be discontinued prior to planned surgery. Other Oral Medications Aspirin and ibuprofen may be a first ... frequency, and urgency may remain or return after surgery, and they may have ... trial of oral pentosan polysulfate and oral hydroxyzine in patients with ...

  11. Interstitial Cystitis / Painful Bladder Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know exactly how the drug works, but one theory is that it may repair defects that might ... techniques. Methods vary, but basically patients decide to void—empty their bladder—at designated times and use ...

  12. Cystitis Caused by Aeromonas caviae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Benwan, Khalifa; Abbott, Sharon; Janda, J. Michael; Huys, Geert; Albert, M. John

    2007-01-01

    Aeromonas sp. organisms rarely cause urinary tract infection. We report for the first time a case of urinary tract infection caused by A. caviae in an adult patient with a history of increased frequency of urination, dysuria, hematuria, and weight loss.

  13. 经尿道钬激光联合吉西他滨灌注治疗腺性膀胱炎的疗效观察%Clinical effect of transurethral holmium laser combined with intravesical instillation of gem-citabine on treatment of cystitis glandularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宏刚; 韩明; 龚仁杰; 姚兵; 邱劲; 胡波勇; 王瑜; 刘庆; 余晓晖

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of transurethral holmium laser combined with intravesical instillation of gemcitabine in treatment of cystitis glandularis .Methods Based on biopsy and cystoscopy ,52 cases of patients were diagnosed as cystitis glandularis .With the agreement of families ,all patients were treated with this type of surgery .Results The all patients were fol-lowed up for 6 to 36 months.Among them,33 cases were cured and 8 cases improved.There were 4 cases with recurrence during 6 to 12 months ,but not becoming cancerous .Conclusion Transurethral holmium laser resection combined with postoperative intravesical gem-citabine therapy can effectively reduce the recurrence of glandular cystitis with fewer side -effects and more safety .%目的:探讨经尿道钬激光联合吉西他滨灌注治疗腺性膀胱炎( cystitis glandularis ,CG)的疗效。方法52例CG患者经活组织检查、膀胱镜检等方法确诊后,均行经尿道钬激光切除,术后采取吉西他滨膀胱灌注化疗进行治疗。结果52例患者获得6~36个月随访,33例治愈,8例好转,4例6~12个月复发,均未发生癌变。结论经尿道钬激光切除联合术后吉西他滨膀胱内灌注治疗CG术后复发率低,并发症少,安全性高。

  14. Cloning, expression in Pichia pastoris, and characterization of a thermostable GH5 mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase from Aspergillus niger BK01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigoillot Jean-Claude

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mannans are key components of lignocellulose present in the hemicellulosic fraction of plant primary cell walls. Mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidases (1,4-β-D-mannanases catalyze the random hydrolysis of β-1,4-mannosidic linkages in the main chain of β-mannans. Biodegradation of β-mannans by the action of thermostable mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase offers significant technical advantages in biotechnological industrial applications, i.e. delignification of kraft pulps or the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass rich in mannan for the production of second generation biofuels, as well as for applications in oil and gas well stimulation, extraction of vegetable oils and coffee beans, and the production of value-added products such as prebiotic manno-oligosaccharides (MOS. Results A gene encoding mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase or 1,4-β-D-mannan mannanohydrolase (E.C. 3.2.1.78, commonly termed β-mannanase, from Aspergillus niger BK01, which belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5, was cloned and successfully expressed heterologously (up to 243 μg of active recombinant protein per mL in Pichia pastoris. The enzyme was secreted by P. pastoris and could be collected from the culture supernatant. The purified enzyme appeared glycosylated as a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of approximately 53 kDa. The recombinant β-mannanase is highly thermostable with a half-life time of approximately 56 h at 70°C and pH 4.0. The optimal temperature (10-min assay and pH value for activity are 80°C and pH 4.5, respectively. The enzyme is not only active towards structurally different mannans but also exhibits low activity towards birchwood xylan. Apparent Km values of the enzyme for konjac glucomannan (low viscosity, locust bean gum galactomannan, carob galactomannan (low viscosity, and 1,4-β-D-mannan (from carob are 0.6 mg mL-1, 2.0 mg mL-1, 2.2 mg mL-1 and 1.5 mg mL-1, respectively, while the kcat values for these

  15. Pornografinio turinio produkcijos gaminimas, platinimas ir viešas demonstravimas. Atsakomybė už tai LR BK ir kitų valstybių įstatymuose

    OpenAIRE

    Supranavičiūtė, Joana

    2011-01-01

    Lietuvos Respublikos Baudžiamojo kodekso 309 straipsnis “Disponavimas pornografinio turinio dalykais“ nustato baudžiamąją atsakomybę už pornografijos gaminimą, platinimą, reklamavimą ir viešą demonstravimą. Straipsnis skiria pornografiją į pilnamečių asmenų ir vaikų pornografiją. Nors ši veika yra kriminalizuota, praktikoje LR BK 309 straipsnis taikomas retai dėl keblumų, kylančių internetinėje erdvėje – fiziniai ir juridiniai asmenys gali lengvai išvengti baudžiamosios atsakomybės. Atsižv...

  16. 电喷雾串联质谱法定性分析新型毒品亚甲基双氧甲基卡西酮%Qualitative Analysis of New-type Drug bk-MDMA by ESI-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志刚; 严忠雍; 张小军; 杨宝峰

    2015-01-01

    建立一种准确定性奶茶等样品中亚甲基双氧甲基卡西酮(bk-MDMA)的电喷雾串联质谱检测方法.样品通过甲醇提取,提取液高速离心后用滤膜过滤,上机液用蠕动泵进样进行电喷雾串联质谱定性分析.通过母离子扫描和子离子扫描研究了bk-MDMA的质谱裂解途径,通过分析比较选择合适的定性离子.通过对锥孔电压、碰撞电压等质谱条件的优化和基质干扰分析,建立了合适的串联质谱检测条件.电喷雾串联质谱方法与GC-MS方法相比更加快速简便,通过串联质谱的二级质谱定性准确度更高.利用本方法对5个物证实际样品进行了分析,结果显示均含有bk-MDMA.本方法快速、准确、灵敏度高,可广泛用于司法物证鉴定等领域bk-MDMA的定性分析.

  17. Characterization of highly frequent epitope-specific CD45RA+/CCR7+/- T lymphocyte responses against p53-binding domains of the human polyomavirus BK large tumor antigen in HLA-A*0201+ BKV-seropositive donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajac Paul

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human polyomavirus BK (BKV has been implicated in oncogenic transformation. Its ability to replicate is determined by the binding of its large tumor antigen (LTag to products of tumor-suppressor genes regulating cell cycle, as specifically p53. We investigated CD8+ T immune responses to BKV LTag portions involved in p53 binding in HLA-A*0201+ BKV LTag experienced individuals. Peptides selected from either p53-binding region (LTag351–450 and LTag533–626 by current algorithms and capacity to bind HLA-A*0201 molecule were used to stimulate CD8+ T responses, as assessed by IFN-γ gene expression ex vivo and detected by cytotoxicity assays following in vitro culture. We observed epitope-specific immune responses in all HLA-A*0201+ BKV LTag experienced individuals tested. At least one epitope, LTag579–587; LLLIWFRPV, was naturally processed in non professional antigen presenting cells and induced cytotoxic responses with CTL precursor frequencies in the order of 1/20'000. Antigen specific CD8+ T cells were only detectable in the CD45RA+ subset, in both CCR7+ and CCR7- subpopulations. These data indicate that widespread cellular immune responses against epitopes within BKV LTag-p53 binding regions exist and question their roles in immunosurveillance against tumors possibly associated with BKV infection.

  18. Pelvic Organ Prolapse-Associated Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Rizwan; Losco, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and urinary tract infection (UTI) are important problems, estimated to affect around 14 and 40 % of women, respectively, at some point in their lives. Positive urine culture in the presence of symptoms is the cornerstone of diagnosis of UTI and should be performed along with ultrasound assessment of postvoid residual (PVR) in all women presenting with POP and UTI. PVR over 30 mL is an independent risk factor for UTI, although no specific association with POP and UTI has been demonstrated. The use of prophylactic antibiotics remains controversial. The major risk factors for postoperative UTI are postoperative catheterisation, prolonged catheterisation, previous recurrent UTI and an increased urethro-anal distance-suggesting that global pelvic floor dysfunction may play a role. PMID:25170365

  19. Pelvic Organ Prolapse-Associated Cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    R. Hamid; Losco, G.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis concerns the construction of 2,3-dihydro-4r7-pyran-4-one and 3(2//)-furanone ring systems by mercury(II)-catalysed reactions, or by more conventional cyclisations, and the potential of such reactions for the synthesis of natural products. Chapter one provides a literature survey of reactions permitting the construction of 2,3-dihydro-4/7-pyran-4-one and 3(2//)-furanone ring systems background literature to relevant natural products is also provided, such as polyether antibiotics, ...

  20. Immunochemical characterization of the O antigens of two Proteus strains, O8-related antigen of Proteus mirabilis 12 B-r and O2-related antigen of Proteus genomospecies 5/6 12 B-k, infecting a hospitalized patient in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecka, Dominika; Shashkov, Alexander S; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-05-01

    A hospitalized 73-year-old woman was infected with a Proteus mirabilis strain, 12 B-r, isolated from the place of injection of a blood catheter. Another strain, 12 B-k, recognized as Proteus genomospecies 5 or 6, was isolated from the patient's faeces, which was an example of a nosocomial infection rather than an auto-infection. Serological investigation using ELISA and Western blotting showed that strain 12 B-k from faeces belonged to the Proteus O2 serogroup. Strain 12 B-r from the wound displayed cross-reactions with several Proteus O serogroups due to common epitopes on the core or O-specific parts of the lipopolysaccharide. Studies of the isolated 12 B-r O-specific polysaccharide by NMR spectroscopy revealed its close structural similarity to that of Proteus O8. The only difference in 12 B-r was the presence of an additional GlcNAc-linked phosphoethanolamine residue, which creates a putative epitope responsible for the cross-reactivity with Pt. mirabilis O16. The new O-antigen form could appear as a result of adaptation of the bacterium to a changing environment. On the basis of the data obtained, we suggest division of the O8 serogroup into two subgroups: O8a for strains of various Proteus species that have been previously classified into the O8 serogroup, and O8a,b for Pt. mirabilis 12 B-r, where 'a' is a common epitope and 'b' is a phosphoethanolamine-associated epitope. These findings further confirm serological and structural heterogeneity of O antigens of Proteus strains isolated lately from patients in Poland. PMID:26959528

  1. 嗜酸细胞性膀胱炎1例并国内文献179例临床特征分析%Diagnosis and management of eosinophilic cystitis:1 case report and a literature review of 179 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武建军; 董隽; 曾强; 英明中

    2015-01-01

    (86.67%)。结论嗜酸细胞性膀胱炎可发于各年龄段,男性多于女性。常见症状包括血尿,尿频、尿急、尿痛,和耻骨上疼痛,排尿困难等。经尿道切除膀胱病变,结合皮质激素、抗过敏等综合治疗,多数患者预后良好。%Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of eosinophilic cystitis , explore the clinical diagnosis and treatment principles .Methods We reported 1 case of eosinophilic cystitis , and retrospective analysis the literature from January 1986 to December 2014 which related to eosinophilic cystitis .Results The eosinophilic cystitis patients were con-firmed by cystoscopy, biopsy.119 patients were male, 61 patients were female, the age were 0.8~78 (38.5 ±18.5) years, symptom included gross or microscopic hematuria (68.89%) and frequent urination, urgency, dysuria (46.67%).Other symptoms included suprapubic pain (30.56%), dysuria (30.00%), low back pain (7.18%), and urinary retention (2.78%).The vast majority of patients with no abnormal signs (86.11%), some patients showed suprapubic tenderness (10.56%), abdomen bag block (3.33%) and kidney area pain (3.33%).The abnormal positive rate of imaging examina-tion was 93.50%(115/123) of CT, 91.39%(138/151) of ultrasound, and 77.65%(66/85) of IVU.The lesions showed multiple and diffuse lesions in 76 cases (44.71%), bladder triangle area lesions in 23 cases (13.53%), left, right, and bi-lateral orificium ureteris in 24 cases (14.12%), right wall in 22 cases (12.94%), posterior wall in 19 cases (11.18%), bladder basal area in 13 cases (7.56%), left wall and bladder top area in 9 cases (5.29%), anterior wall and bladder neck in 6 cases (3.53%), and concurrent hydronephrosis in 37 cases (20.55%), significantly reduced bladder capacity ,bladder filling difficult or impossible to filling in 19 cases (10 M.55%), urinary retention in 10 patients (5.56%), bladder stones in 2 cases (1.11%), tumor surface sand-like calcification and bladder neck

  2. VIRAL INFECTIONS IN BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTS: IS JC VIRUS INVOLVED?

    OpenAIRE

    Mischitelli, Monica; Fioriti, Daniela; Anzivino, Elena; Bellizzi, Anna; Barucca, Valentina; BOLDORINI, RENZO; Miglio, Umberto; Sica, Simona; Sorà, Federica; De Matteis, Silvia; Chiarini, Fernanda; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Haemorrhagic cystitis is characterized by haematuria due to inflammation of the bladder. In bone marrow transplants, this disease is linked to the infection by human polyomavirus BK, whereas the role of the human polyomavirus JC is unclear. The transcriptional control regions of both viruses contain important cellular transcription factor binding sites that undergo rearrangement process generating suitable variants that could be more active for viral replication and for th...

  3. Computer modeling of self-assembly of the crystal structure of zeolite Na384[Al384Si384O1536] (H2O)422 (LTN, cF4080) from suprapolyhedral cluster precursors AB2 (A-K48, B-K24)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combinatorial and topological analyses and a simulation of the self-assembly of zeolite crystal structure Na384Al384Si384O1536 · 422H2O (LTN, sp. gr. Fd3 bar) have been performed using computer methods (TOPOS program package). A cubic cell with the parameters a = 36.95 Å and V = 50 449 Å3 contains 768 framework-forming AlO4- and SiO4 tetrahedra (T tetrahedra). The method of complete expansion of a 3D factor graph in nonintersecting cluster substructures in the tetrahedral T framework was used to reveal nanocluster precursors: A composed of 48 T tetrahedra (A-K48) and B composed of 24 T tetrahedra (B-K24). The nanocluster precursors A and B correspond to the polyhedral T clusters (tiles) 48T-grc and 24T-toc; they are involved in the matrix self-assembly of the crystal structure within the supracluster AB2. The centers of clusters A and B occupy the positions of Mg and Cu atoms in the Laves net AB2 = MgCu2; i.e., the zeolite structure is a suprapolyhedral analog of an intermetallic compound. The self-assembly code of a 3D structure from complementary bound nanocluster precursors is completely reconstuctured in the following form: supracluster → primary chain → microlayer → microframework → ...framework. The localization of the Na+ template cations in the 6T- and 8T rings of nanocluster precursors A and B and Na+ spacer cations in the 28T-ltn tile with the formation of tetrahedral configuration and in the center of 6-ring, which arises as a result of bonding two B nanoclusters, is established.

  4. Application of PDECGF/TP and VEGF in the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis%血小板衍化内皮细胞生长因子/胸腺嘧啶磷酸酶和血管内皮生长因子在间质性膀胱炎诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐进春; 刘凯隆; 黎玮; 杨勇; 王亮; 乔娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To find out the relationship among the expression of vascular growth factors in patients with interstitial cystitis (IC) and their performance under the cystoscopy as well as the clinical symptoms by detecting the expression of platelet-derived endothelial growth factor/thymine phosphatase (PDECGF/TP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Methods Twelve cases of IC served as the experimental group and 12 cases of type Ⅲ as the control group. The patients in experimental group had bladder mucosa biopsy. The number of mast cells was observed by HE staining. The expression of PDECGF/TP and VEGF and immunohistological score (IHS) were detected by using immunohistochemistry. Results Bladder mucosa hemorrhage points and sheets were observed under water expansion. The number of mast cells existing in the submucosa of the bladder tissue was significantly greater than in control group (P < 0. 05 ). The percentage of PDECGF/TP and VEGF positive cells and IHS in experimental group were significantly higher than in control group (P < 0. 05). Conclusion The expression of PDECGF/TP and VEGF was up-regulated in patients with IC. IC can be screened out or diagnosed by detecting PDECGF/TP and VEGF.%目的 检测血小板衍化内皮细胞生长因子/胸腺嘧啶磷酸酶(PDECGF/TP)和血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)的表达,探讨血管生长因子在间质性膀胱炎(IC)患者膀胱中的表达活性与膀胱镜下的表现及临床症状的关系.方法 选择符合NIH/NIDDK诊断标准的IC患者12例为实验组和12例Ⅲ型前列腺炎患者为对照组.实验组行麻醉下水扩张,膀胱组织活检,常规苏木素-伊红(HE)染色观察肥大细胞数量.应用免疫组织化学检测PDECGF/TP和VEGF表达,进行免疫组织化学阳性细胞计数及免疫组织化学评分(IHS).结果 实验组12名患者在麻醉下水扩张时发现膀胱黏膜点片状出血.常规HE染色病理切片观察可见IC组膀胱组织标本中肥大细胞

  5. Nitric Oxide in the Painful Bladder/Interstitial Cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renström Koskela L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Interstitielle Zystitis (IC ist eine Entzündungserkrankung der Harnblase unbekannter Ätiologie. Stickoxid (NO ist ein brauchbares Gas zur Feststellung einer Entzündung in Hohlorganen wie der Harnblase. Bei Patienten mit IC ist der Spiegel endogen gebildeter NO in der Blase im Vergleich zu Patienten ohne Blasenentzündung signifikant erhöht. Es ist noch immer nicht bekannt, ob hohe NO-Werte ein Teil der Pathophysiologie der Krankheit sind und ob diese eine schädigende oder eine schützende Rolle spielen. Die Messung von NO in der Harnblase ist ein nützliches Mittel zur Feststellung einer Entzündung. Damit läßt sich zwischen einer Interstitiellen Zystitis und schmerzhaften Blasensymptomen anderer Ätiologie unterscheiden. Sie kann zudem für die objektive Evaluierung unterschiedlicher Behandlungen eingesetzt werden.

  6. Bilateral Hydronephrosis and Cystitis Resulting from Chronic Ketamine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Huy Tran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine associated urinary dysfunction has become increasingly more common worldwide. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS is an established modality for diagnosing hydronephrosis in the emergency department. We describe a case of a young male ketamine abuser with severe urinary urgency and frequency in which POCUS performed by the emergency physician demonstrated bilateral hydronephrosis and a focally thickened irregular shaped bladder. Emergency physicians should consider using POCUS evaluate for hydronephrosis and bladder changes in ketamine abusers with lower urinary tract symptoms. The mainstay of treatment is discontinuing ketamine abuse. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:382-384.

  7. Observation on Umbilical Cord-mesenchymal Stem Cell for the Treatment of 5 Cases with Hemorrhagic Cystitis after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation%脐带间充质干细胞治疗造血干细胞移植后出血性膀胱炎5例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾锐; 吕欣; 杨晓凤; 陆岩; 吕乃武; 刘福庆; 张轶斌; 王红梅; 周金旭; 刘心平

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the value of umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells(UC-MSCs) for the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis(HC) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). [ Methods] Twenty two boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy(DMD) received allo-HSCT after the pretreatment of BuCy+ Flu scheme. During the pretreatment of BuCy+Flu scheme, the conventional therapy such as Mesna, hydration and alkalization of urine for the prevention of HC was given. HC(Ⅲ-Ⅳ degree) occurred in 5 cases at -2-+ 50 days of transplantation in which 2 cases were early onset and 3 cases were late onset. All of the 5 cases were persistent in which 3 cases were complicated by acute graft versus host disease(aGVHD) with Ⅱ-Ⅳ degree and one case was complicated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Based on the conventional therapy of HC, UC-MSCs was intravenously injected once a week for the total of 12 times (mean 2. 4 times per patient). The mean number of the cells injected every time was 1. 44 ± 0. 83×106/kg(0. 61- 3. 83×106/kg). [Results] All of the 5 patients were cured. The effective rate reached 100 % . The urinary irritation symptoms disappeared within 8 - 33 days (mean 16. 8 days) after treatment. Gross hematuria disappeared within 7 - 47 days (mean 20. 8 days). Microscopic hematuria disappeared in 15 - 57 days (mean 25. 8 days). All patients were followed up for 60 -120 days (mean 109 days). No adverse reaction occurred. None of the patients recurred, [Conclusion] UC-MSCs for the treatment of severe HC after HSCT has good effect without adverse reaction.%[目的]探讨脐带间充质干细胞在异基因造血干细胞移植术后出血性膀胱炎治疗中的应用价值.[方法]22例进行性肌营养不良症(Duchenne muscular dystrophy,DMD)男性儿童应用BuCy+Flu方案预处理后行异基因造血干细胞移植术,预处理期间给予美斯钠、水化、碱化等治疗常规预防出血性膀胱炎.其中5例患者在移植-2~+50

  8. Hemorrhagic cystitis following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: risk factors and prophylaxis measures%异基因造血干细胞移植后并发出血性膀胱炎的高危因素和防治措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施继敏; 朱晓黎; 韩晓雁; 来晓瑜; 叶秀锦; 张洁; 蔡真; 林茂芳; 黄河; 景晶; 罗依; 谭亚敏; 何静松; 郑伟燕; 谢万灼; 李黎; 郑高锋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of the optimal alkalized hydration solution for hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) following unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (URD-HSCT), and the risk factors and prophylaxis measures about HC.Methods The clinical data of 151 HC patients who underwent URD-HSCT were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were given busulfan/cyclophosphamide (BuCy)-based conditioning regimen.During Cy therapy, all patients were given the optimal alkalized hydration solution to prevent HC.MESNA was given intravenously after administration of Cy at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 h, and its total dose was administration of Cy to 24 h under the ECG monitoring. Each 500 ml liquid contained 50 g/L sodium bicarbonate 20 ml. Urinary pH value was monitored every one hour (keeping urine pH>7. 5). Results None of early onset HC occurred. Twenty-six of 151 (17. 2 %) patients developed late onset HC, and the median onset time was 40 (8~89) days after transplantation. During the therapy, no symptoms of the circulatory system, no congestive heart failure and no acid-base electrolyte imbalance occurred. All HC patients after re-hydration, diuretic, and (or) continuous bladder irrigation and other indwelling catheter after treatment, were cured. The statistical analysis showed that the following factors were significantly associated with HC: male (OR = 3. 093, 95 % CI, 1. 145~8.353, P<0. 05), acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) (OR= 18. 044, 95 % CI, 3. 952~~82. 392, P<0. 01), and ≥30-yearold (OR = 6. 077, 95 0% CI, 1. 585~23. 299, P<0. 01). Conclusion The optimal alkalized hydration solution is safe and effective to prevent early onset HC following URD-HSCT in combination with BuCy regimen. Male, aGVHD and ≥30-year-old were the risk factors for HC.%目的 评估改良的水化碱化方案对预防和治疗非亲缘异基因造血干细胞移植(URD-HSCT)后出血性膀胱炎(HC)的效果及安全性,探讨URD-HSCT

  9. 药物联合治疗膀胱疼痛综合征/间质性膀胱炎的疗效及影响因素%Efficacy and prognositic factors of combined medical therapy for painful bladder syndrome/ interstitial cystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 张鹏; 王飚; 张小东; 杨勇

    2009-01-01

    史者、妇科手术或尿道手术史者疗效不佳.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and prognostic factors of combined medical thera-py with amitriptyline, cimetidine and intravesical resiniferatoxin post-hydrodistention for patients with painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC). Methods Twenty-nine patients with PBS/ IC according to NIDDK criteria were enrolled. There were 6 males and 23 females with average age of 52±14 years and average duration of symptoms of 3.7±1.9 years before diagnosis. The patients were divided into 2 groups. Non-concomitant disease group included 10 cases without concomitant disease and 7 cases with unrelated diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Concomitant disease group included 5 cases with history of bladder neck incision, 3 cases with history of transurethral re-section of the prostate, 2 cases with history of gynecologic disease and 2 cases with history of gyneco-logic operation. Patients of concomitant disease group still had the painful bladder syndrome after 3 months when the primary disease had been cured. All patients were treated with amitriptyline (25 mg twice a day), cimetidine (800 mg per day) and intravesical resiniferatoxin (1-2 times) post-hydrodis-tention. The primary assessment index was O'Leary-Sant score. The secondary assessment index was pelvic pain score, mean voiding times per day and mean volume of each micturating. The data of pa-tients before treatment and after follow-up≥9 months were collected to evaluate the efficacy and prog-nostic factors of the combined treatment. Results The mean follow-up for all patients was 9.2±6.0 months. Patients were followed up at month 1 and month 6 after discharge. Then, patients would be followed up at each 6 months interval. The overall remission rate was 65.5% (19/29). Complete re-mission rate was 41.4% (12/29). Partial remission was 24. 1% (7/29). Non-remission rate was 34.5% (10/29). For all patients, the pre-treatment mean voiding

  10. Adaptação à cultura brasileira dos questionários The O'Leary-Sant e PUF, usados para cistite intersticial Adaptación a la cultura brasileña de los cuestionarios The O'Leary-Sant y Puf, usados para cistitis intersticial Adaptation of the O'Leary-Sant and the PUF for the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis for the Brazilian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Lima Victal

    2013-04-01

    rápido completado. Sin embargo, este estudio es previo al proceso de validación, será imprescindible el uso del instrumento en nuevas investigaciones para evaluar sus propiedades psicométricas.The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the instruments known as The O'Leary-Sant and PUF to the Brazilian culture used in the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis. We followed the methodological steps recommended by the international literature for cultural adaptation. The steps of translation, synthesis of translations and back translation were performed satisfactorily and evaluation the versions of the synthesis by the panel of experts has resulted in some changes, ensuring the equivalence between the original and translated versions. The PUF was pretested among 40 subjects and The O'Leary-Sant in a sample of 50 individuals due to the need for adjustments due to the low education population. The translation and adaptation process was successful and the instruments, after some modifications, proved easy to understand and complete quickly. However, this is a study prior to the validation process and will be promoting the use of the instrument in new research to assess its measurement properties.

  11. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a Danish population: a study using the 2008 criteria of the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, B.; Hesse, U.; Hansen, Alastair Bierre; Horn, T.; Mortensen, Svend Otto; Nordling, J.

    2010-01-01

    and 2008. The median (range) age at diagnosis was 53 (16-88) years; 64% were followed for at least 2 years. The outcome was expressed in terms of treatment intensity and was correlated with clinical data (pain, nocturnal frequency, bladder capacity, mucosal glomerulations, detrusor mastocytosis......, detrusor intrafascicular fibrosis, IFF). RESULTS All patients had pain and 75% had nocturia at least twice. The bladder capacity estimated under general anaesthesia was <500 mL in 42%; 53% presented with detrusor mastocytosis (>= 28 mast cells/mm2) and 50% with IFF. The detrusor mast cell count (P <0.......001), IFF (P = 0.004) and nocturnal frequency (P = 0.043) had statistically significant prognostic value for treatment intensity, whereas bladder capacity and glomerulations were not significant. CONCLUSION Nocturia, detrusor mastocytosis and IFF are associated with multiple treatments and presumed failure...

  12. Patient-centred standardization in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome-a PLEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijlink, Jane M

    2015-10-01

    Standardization has an impact on all links in the healthcare chain and directly affects patients with regard to diagnosis, treatment, eligibility for reimbursement, social benefits and care. Furthermore, patients are also affected if research goes down inappropriate pathways due to inaccurate terminology and definitions. Complex healthcare coding and electronic medical record systems and global reliance on the internet and search machines mean that new terminology or changes now need in some way to be designed to last or to be updated in a way that will cause least disruption, while still allowing for evolution, since changes have far more ramifications today than they ever did in the past. Official recognition of a condition is vital, so coding must be correct and uniform across all authorities. Potential problems must be anticipated at an early stage in the process. In order to achieve global consensus, stakeholders from all parts of the world need to communicate and collaborate with all viewpoints taken into consideration. Patients and their advocacy groups should be involved in standardization processes to ensure that all aspects of a condition are covered, that no patients or symptoms are excluded and that there is no adverse impact on the patient in practical terms following implementation. The trend today is for patients to be more involved in healthcare and decision-making. We must ensure that standardisation and guidelines do not get left behind in this process of development either now or in the future. However, it is necessary to find some way of training patient representatives to enable them to participate fully in standardization and guidelines and also to encourage them to do so. PMID:26816849

  13. What I Need to Know about Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... campuses in Maryland and Arizona Research Resources Protocols, repositories, mouse models, plasmids, and more Technology Advancement & Transfer ... through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, ...

  14. Treatment of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people, exercise or recreational activities (eg, riding a bicycle), sexual activity, or certain body positions (eg, prolonged ... pain for days or weeks after bladder installations. ELECTRICAL STIMULATION FOR PAINFUL BLADDER — If other treatments for ...

  15. Evaluation of effects of chitosan in preventing hemorrhagic cystitis in rats induced by cyclophosphamide

    OpenAIRE

    Okamura, Takehiko; Masui, Tsuneo; St.John, Margaret K.; Cohen, Samuel M.; Taylor, Rodney J.

    1995-01-01

    100mg/kgのcyclophosphamideを腹腔内投与することにより,出血性膀胱炎を誘発し,chitosan (0.3ml)を膀胱内注入し,検討した結果,cyclophosphamide投与1時間後の投与群において死亡率の減少と,肉眼的膀胱出血,壊死および炎症の発生率の低下が認められた。膀胱炎発生後のchitosan膀胱内注入は,特に繰り返し施行した場合,cyclophosphamideによる変化を悪化させる傾向がみられた。cyclophosphamide投与1時間後の投与群では,chitosanは出血性膀胱炎の発生を抑制する可能性が示唆された。さらに,cyclophosphamideによる腎の変化も認められた...

  16. What I Need to Know about Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you don't have time to find a bathroom. Frequency. The feeling that you need to go much more often than anyone else. ... often get in the habit of using the bathroom as soon as they feel pain or urgency. They then feel the need to go before the bladder is really full. ...

  17. $\\Delta I=1/2$ Rule and $\\hat B_K$ : 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J

    2014-01-01

    I summarize the status of the $\\Delta I=1/2$ rule in $K\\to\\pi\\pi$ decays within an {\\it analytic} approach based on the dual representation of QCD as a theory of weakly interacting mesons for large $N$, where $N$ is the number of colours. This approximate approach, developed in the 1980s by William Bardeen, Jean-Marc G\\'erard and myself identified already 28 years ago the dominant dynamics behind the $\\Delta I=1/2$ rule. However, the recent inclusion of lowest-lying vector meson contributions in addition to the pseudoscalar ones to hadronic matrix elements of current-current operators and the calculation of the corresponding Wilson coefficients in a momentum scheme at the NLO improved significantly the matching between quark-gluon short distance contributions and meson long distance contributions over our results in 1986. We obtain satisfactory description of the ${\\rm Re}A_2$ amplitude and ${\\rm Re}A_0/{\\rm Re}A_2=16.0\\pm 1.5$ to be compared with its experimental value of $22.3$. While this difference could ...

  18. BK and JC virus infections in healthy patients compared to kidney transplant recipients in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukoum, Hanen; Nahdi, Imen; Sahtout, Wissal; Skiri, Habib; Segondy, Michel; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2016-08-01

    The human polyomaviruses BKPyV and JCPyV are members of Polyomaviridae family and after primary infections they persist as latent infection especially in the kidneys. BKVPy reactivation is mainly related to a renal nephropathy and JCV reactivation can induce the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the presence of BKPyV and JCPyV in urine and plasma samples from immunocompromised and immunocompetent groups. The viral detection and quantification was done by a real time PCR from 100 healthy individuals and from 72 kidney transplanted patients (KTx) enrolled in a prospective study. Polyomavirus DNA urinary shedding was identified in 19% of healthy person, BKPyV in 6%; JCPyV more frequent in 13%. No individuals in this group developed polyomavirus viremia. BKPyV and JCPyV viruria was seen in 36% and 28% of KTx respectively, and 11% had a concomitant BKPyV and JCPyV viruria. Only BKPy viremia was detected in 5.5% of the KTx. In healthy persons, JCPyV shedding was associated with older individuals. However, in KTx, BKPyV was associated with younger age and male gender. No significant association was found between the patient's origin and BKPyV or JCPyV infection. In conclusion and consisting with previous reports, BKPyV and JCPyV prevalence and urinary loads were significantly higher in immunosuppressed compared to non-immunosuppressed individuals. In Addition and by contrast to KTx, JCPyV was more frequent than BKPyV in healthy individuals. Furthermore, the shedding of both polyomaviruses was differently associated with the age and the sex according to each population. PMID:27317859

  19. PENERAPAN PAJAK PENGHASILAN PADA PERUSAHAAN JOINT VENTURE (STUDI KASUS: PT. BK, PERSERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Safira Dewi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this writing is to determine how the implementation of policies in terms of taxation, in particular the application of income tax on the joint venture, both based on the application of tax laws and regulations, as well as based on the agreement with the contractual agreements in the Joint Venture. The method of research used in writing this thesis is descriptive method. Descriptive method used by the writer after collecting data and information gained, so it can be explained, and then to draw conclusions in a systematic, factual, and accurate information on the facts of the problem studied. The result of writing this thesis is an understanding of the application of income tax on its Joint Venture. Given this research, the reader is expected to increase knowledge about the implementation of corporate tax in the Joint Venture. In addition, the company is expected to implement the tax policy on its Joint Venture with better in the future.

  20. Habituation of reflexive and motivated behavior in mice with deficient BK channel function

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Ruth; Pilz, Peter K. D.; Susanne Schmid

    2013-01-01

    Habituation is considered the most basic form of learning. It describes the decrease of a behavioural response to a repeated non-threatening sensory stimulus and therefore provides an important sensory filtering mechanism. While some neuronal pathways mediating habituation are well described, underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In general, there is an agreement that short-term and long-term habituation are based on different mechanisms. Historically, a disti...

  1. The Neutral kaon mixing parameter B(K) from unquenched mixed-action lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Aubin, Jack Laiho, Ruth S. Van de Water

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the neutral kaon mixing parameter B{sub K} in unquenched lattice QCD using asqtad-improved staggered sea quarks and domain-wall valence quarks. We use the '2+1' flavor gauge configurations generated by the MILC Collaboration, and simulate with multiple valence and sea quark masses at two lattice spacings of a {approx} 0.12 fm and a {approx} 0.09 fm. We match the lattice determination of B{sub K} to the continuum value using the nonperturbative method of Rome-Southampton, and extrapolate B{sub K} to the continuum and physical quark masses using mixed action chiral perturbation theory. The 'mixed-action' method enables us to control all sources of systematic uncertainty and therefore to precisely determine B{sub K}; we find a value of B{sub K}{sup {ovr MS},NDR} (2 GeV) = 0.527(6)(21), where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic.

  2. Molecular characterization of BK virus in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalic, Danijela; Lazarevic, Ivana; Banko, Ana; Cupic, Maja; Jevtovic, Djordje; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2016-04-01

    Immunosuppression seems to be the most important cause of BKPyV reactivation. Recently, a spectrum of diseases associated with BKPyV infection has been reported in HIV-infected patients. BKPyV isolates can be classified into four subtypes based on nucleotide polymorphisms within VP1 coding region. Mutations within the BC loop of the VP1 may be associated with an increase in the viral pathogenicity. The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and distribution of BKPyV subtypes, sequence variation and mutations within VP1 among HIV-infected patients and healthy donors. Urine samples from 114 HIV-infected patients and 120 healthy donors were collected. PCR followed by sequence analysis was carried out using primers specific for VP1 and NCRR of the virus genome. The predominant BKPyV subtype was I, followed by IV. In isolates from HIV-infected patients, the majority of non-synonymous alterations were located within the BC loop. BKV sequences from healthy donors showed non-synonymous alterations outside of the receptor loops in the β-sheets. The higher frequency of mutations in the BC loop of VP1 protein was detected among HIV-infected patients. The most frequent mutation was E82D. All HIV-infected patients who harbored mutations had CD4(+) cell counts less than 200 cell/mm(3). It seems that immunosuppression is a very important factor for BKPyV reactivation that can increase viral replication rate and leads to higher frequency of mutations in the BC loop of the VP1. These mutations may change receptor specificity, and further studies are needed to determine the effect of these mutations on the biological properties of the BKPyV. PMID:26498471

  3. Impairment of brain mitochondrial charybdotoxin- and ATP-insensitive BK channel activities in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noursadeghi, E; Jafari, A; Saghiri, R; Sauve, R; Eliassi, A

    2014-12-01

    Existing evidence indicates an impairment of mitochondrial functions and alterations in potassium channel activities in diabetes. Because mitochondrial potassium channels have been involved in several mitochondrial functions including cytoprotection, apoptosis and calcium homeostasis, a study was carried out to consider whether the gating behavior of the mitochondrial ATP- and ChTx-insensitive Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel (mitoBKCa) is altered in a streptozotocin (STZ) model of diabetes. Using ion channel incorporation of brain mitochondrial inner membrane into the bilayer lipid membrane, we provide in this work evidence for modifications of the mitoBKCa ion permeation properties with channels from vesicles preparations coming from diabetic rats characterized by a significant decrease in conductance. More importantly, the open probability of channels from diabetic rats was reduced 1.5-2.5 fold compared to control, the most significant decrease being observed at depolarizing potentials. Because BKCa β4 subunit has been documented to left shift the BKCa channel voltage dependence curve in high Ca(2+) conditions, a Western blot analysis was undertaken where the expression of mitoBKCa α and β4 subunits was estimated using of anti-α and β4 subunit antibodies. Our results indicated a significant decrease in mitoBKCa β4 subunit expression coupled to a decrease in the expression of α subunit, an observation compatible with the observed decrease in Ca(2+) sensitivity. Our results thus demonstrate a modification in the mitoBKCa channel gating properties in membrane preparations coming from STZ model of diabetic rats, an effect potentially linked to a change in mitoBKCa β4 and α subunits expression and/or to an increase in reactive oxygen species production in high glucose conditions. PMID:25344764

  4. Functional insights into modulation of BKCa channel activity to alter myometrial contractility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RamónALorca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The large-conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BKCa is an important regulator of membrane excitability in a wide variety of cells and tissues. In myometrial smooth muscle, activation of BKCa plays essential roles in buffering contractility to maintain uterine quiescence during pregnancy and in the transition to a more contractile state at the onset of labor. Multiple mechanisms of modulation have been described to alter BKCa channel activity, expression, and cellular localization. In the myometrium, BKCa is regulated by alternative splicing, protein targeting to the plasma membrane, compartmentation in membrane microdomains, and posttranslational modifications. In addition, interaction with auxiliary proteins (i.e., β1- and β2-subunits, association with G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathways, such as those activated by adrenergic and oxytocin receptors, and hormonal regulation provide further mechanisms of variable modulation of BKCa channel function in myometrial smooth muscle. Here, we provide an overview of these mechanisms of BKCa channel modulation and provide a context for them in relation to myometrial function.

  5. Laser diode pumped waveguide lasers in neodymium-doped BK-7 glass

    OpenAIRE

    Mwarania, E.K.; Chow, Y.T.; Reekie, L.; Wang, J.; Wilkinson, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Ion-exchange in neodymium doped glasses has been used to fabricate waveguides which were optically pumped to realise lasers. The application of these layers as light sources in glass substrates will enhance the functionality of integrated optic systems in glass, allowing integration of active and passive devices. To obtain practical light sources, the neodymium-doped waveguides must be laser diode pumped to provide compact laser systems. Since the power available from a single stripe laser di...

  6. A case of almost painless herpes zoster presenting with symptoms of cystitis, penile numbness, and acute vestibular failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sardar, Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Herpes zoster (shingles) is an acute, painful, vesicular, and cutaneous eruption caused by varicella zoster virus, the same virus which causes chicken pox. It is due to the reactivation of the virus which remains dormant in sensory ganglions following chicken pox. It is usually confined to a single dermatome but may involve 2-3 dermatomes. Typically, it is a unilateral lesion which can affect both cranial and peripheral nerves. It is usually a self-limiting disease; however, it may cause significant morbidity especially in the elderly. It is more common in older people and individuals with immunocompromised conditions. Antiviral drugs can shorten the duration and the severity of the illness and need to be started as soon as possible after the appearance of the rash. Gabapentin and tricyclic antidepressant are effective in postherpetic neuralgia. Vaccine can reduce the risk of infection and its associated pain. Typically, it occurs once in a lifetime, but some individuals may have more than one episode. PMID:24251046

  7. A Case of Almost Painless Herpes Zoster Presenting with Symptoms of Cystitis, Penile Numbness, and Acute Vestibular Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Al-Sardar

    2013-01-01

    Herpes zoster (shingles) is an acute, painful, vesicular, and cutaneous eruption caused by varicella zoster virus, the same virus which causes chicken pox. It is due to the reactivation of the virus which remains dormant in sensory ganglions following chicken pox. It is usually confined to a single dermatome but may involve 2-3 dermatomes. Typically, it is a unilateral lesion which can affect both cranial and peripheral nerves. It is usually a self-limiting disease; however, it may cause sign...

  8. A Case of Almost Painless Herpes Zoster Presenting with Symptoms of Cystitis, Penile Numbness, and Acute Vestibular Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Al-Sardar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster (shingles is an acute, painful, vesicular, and cutaneous eruption caused by varicella zoster virus, the same virus which causes chicken pox. It is due to the reactivation of the virus which remains dormant in sensory ganglions following chicken pox. It is usually confined to a single dermatome but may involve 2-3 dermatomes. Typically, it is a unilateral lesion which can affect both cranial and peripheral nerves. It is usually a self-limiting disease; however, it may cause significant morbidity especially in the elderly. It is more common in older people and individuals with immunocompromised conditions. Antiviral drugs can shorten the duration and the severity of the illness and need to be started as soon as possible after the appearance of the rash. Gabapentin and tricyclic antidepressant are effective in postherpetic neuralgia. Vaccine can reduce the risk of infection and its associated pain. Typically, it occurs once in a lifetime, but some individuals may have more than one episode.

  9. Urinary glycosaminoglycans excretion and the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide in an experimental model of non-bacterial cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Soler; Homero Bruschini; Jose C. Truzzi; Joao R. Martins; Niels O. Camara; Maria T. Alves; Katia R. Leite; Nader, Helena B.; Miguel Srougi; Valdemar Ortiz

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: We reproduced a non-bacterial experimental model to assess bladder inflammation and urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAG) excretion and examined the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female rats were instilled with either protamine sulfate (PS groups) or sterile saline (control groups). At different days after the procedure, 24 h urine and bladder samples were obtained. Urinary levels of hyaluronic acid (HA) and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (S-GAG) were determined...

  10. Polysaccharide Capsule and Sialic Acid-Mediated Regulation Promote Biofilm-Like Intracellular Bacterial Communities during Cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Gregory G.; Goller, Carlos C.; Justice, Sheryl; Hultgren, Scott J.; Seed, Patrick C.

    2010-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the leading cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). A murine UTI model has revealed an infection cascade whereby UPEC undergoes cycles of invasion of the bladder epithelium, intracellular proliferation in polysaccharide-containing biofilm-like masses called intracellular bacterial communities (IBC), and then dispersal into the bladder lumen to initiate further rounds of epithelial colonization and invasion. We predicted that the UPEC K1 polysaccharid...

  11. Pivmecillinam versus sulfamethizole for short-term treatment of uncomplicated acute cystitis in general practice: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lars; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente; Grinsted, Per

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether short-term treatment with pivmecillinam was more effective than sulfamethizole in patients with acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI).......To investigate whether short-term treatment with pivmecillinam was more effective than sulfamethizole in patients with acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI)....

  12. 75 FR 48617 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... helicopters of this same type design. Differences Between the AD and the MCAI AD We refer to flight hours as... (72 FR 13679, March 23, 2007). That AD required actions intended to address an unsafe condition on the... and replace the tail rotor control lever. The average labor rate is $85 per work-hour. Required...

  13. NR1I2 polymorphisms are related to tacrolimus dose-adjusted exposure and BK viremia in adult kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Isbel, Nicole M; Lee, Katie J; Bergmann, Troels K; Johnson, David W; McWhinney, Brett C; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Campbell, Scott B; Leary, Diana R; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Rockett, Rebecca J; Staatz, Christine E

    2012-01-01

    exposure, and clinical outcomes in adult kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: Exposures to tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid, and total and free prednisolone were estimated at month 1 posttransplant using validated multiple regression-derived limited sampling strategies. RESULTS: In the 158 subjects studied...

  14. Search for the Rare Decays B-->Kl+l- and B-->K(892)*l+l-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from a search for the flavor-changing neutral current decays B → K(ell)+(ell)- and B → K*(ell)+(ell)-, where (ell)+(ell)- is either an e+e- or μ+μ- pair. The data sample comprises 22:7 x 106 Υ (4S) → B(bar B) decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B Factory. We obtain the 90% C.L. upper limits Β(B → K(ell)+(ell)-) -6 and Β(B → K*(ell)+(ell)-) -6, close to Standard Model predictions for these branching fractions. We have also obtained limits on the lepton-family-violating decays B → Ke± μ± and B → K*e± μ±

  15. Optimization of laser energy deposition for single-shot high aspect-ratio microstructuring of thick BK7 glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzillo, Valerio; Jukna, Vytautas; Couairon, Arnaud; Grigutis, Robertas; Di Trapani, Paolo; Jedrkiewicz, Ottavia

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the generation of high aspect ratio microstructures across 0.7 mm thick glass by means of single shot Bessel beam laser direct writing. We study the effect on the photoinscription of the cone angle, as well as of the energy and duration of the ultrashort laser pulse. The aim of the study is to optimize the parameters for the writing of a regular microstructure due to index modification along the whole sample thickness. By using a spectrally resolved single pulse transmission diagnostics at the output surface of the glass, we correlate the single shot material modification with observations of the absorption in different portions of the retrieved spectra, and with the absence or presence of spectral modulation. Numerical simulations of the evolution of the Bessel pulse intensity and of the energy deposition inside the sample help us interpret the experimental results that suggest to use picosecond pulses for an efficient and more regular energy deposition. Picosecond pulses take advantage of nonlinear plasma absorption and avoid temporal dynamics effects which can compromise the stationarity of the Bessel beam propagation.

  16. Mutation in the myelin proteolipid protein gene alters BK and SK channel function in the caudal medulla

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Catherine A.; Macklin, Wendy B.; Avishai, Nanthawan; Balan, Kannan; Wilson, Christopher G.; Miller, Martha J.

    2009-01-01

    Proteolipid protein (Plp) gene mutation in rodents causes severe CNS dysmyelination, early death, and lethal hypoxic ventilatory depression (Miller et al. 2004). To determine if Plp mutation alters neuronal function critical for control of breathing, the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) of four rodent strains were studied: myelin deficient rats (MD), myelin synthesis deficient (Plpmsd), and Plpnull mice, as well as shiverer (Mbpshi) mice, a myelin basic protein mutant. Current-voltage relation...

  17. Fundamental aspects of actinide-zirconium pyrochlore oxides: Systematic comparison of the Pu, Am, Cm, Bk and Cf systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire, R. G.; Raison, P. E.

    2000-07-01

    Zirconium- and hafnium-based oxide materials have gained attraction for various nuclear applications. These materials have features in common with one of the early, well-publicized inorganic ceramics for immobilizing nuclear waste. Our interests have addressed the fundamental structural and chemical properties of these oxide systems. We pursued both the crystal chemical constraints of the oxide matrices, as well as the importance of the chemistry of the f-elements. By incorporating five actinide elements in our studies, we were able to compare systematically the materials science of these materials with the fundamental chemistry and electronic configurations of these actinides employed. It is expected that this basic information will be useful technologically in the realm of tailor-made materials for different applications.

  18. Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome and Associated Medical Conditions With an Emphasis on Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickel, J.C.; Tripp, D.A.; Pontari, M.;

    2010-01-01

    associated conditions increased (ie localized, regional, systemic), pain, stress, depression and sleep disturbance increased while social support, sexual functioning and quality of life deteriorated. Anxiety and catastrophizing remained increased in all groups. Symptom duration was associated with this...... clinical phenotypes based on identification of overlapping syndrome patterns. A suggestion that remains to be proven with longitudinal studies is that there may be progression over time from an organ centric to a regional and finally to a systemic pain syndrome with progression of symptom severity, and...

  19. Clinical effectiveness of early treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for severe late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zama, Daniele; Masetti, Riccardo; Vendemini, Francesca; Di Donato, Ferruccio; Morelli, Alessandra; Prete, Arcangelo; Pession, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    HC is a possible cause of morbidity and extended hospitalization after HSCT. Recent studies have reported the efficiency of HOT in adult patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT, but data in children are scarce. We report our single center experience with HOT in late-onset HC after HSCT. Treatment with HOT consisted of daily sessions of breathing 100% O(2) for a total of 75 min in the hyperbaric chamber with a minimum of eight sessions. HOT had been associated with a concomitant treatment with oral oxybutynin, hyperhydration and/or irrigation of the bladder through the catheter. Cidofovir had been administered based on the demonstration of viral infection. Between 2004 and 2011, 10 patients developed severe HC after a median of 26 days after HSCT. HOT was started after a median of six days since the clinical diagnosis of HC. After a median of 10 sessions of HOT, seven of 10 patients were in complete remission. HOT is a well-tolerated procedure also in the pediatric setting. The early start of HOT might be effective in the treatment of HC offering advantages in terms of duration of symptoms and hospitalization. PMID:23230825

  20. Intravesical glycosaminoglycan replenishment with chondroitin sulphate in chronic forms of cystitis - A multi-national, multi-centre, prospective observational clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordling, J.; Ophoven, A. van

    2008-01-01

    significantly (p < 0.0001). Both daytime and nighttime micturition frequencies as well as the score levels of urgency and pain declined significantly during the course of treatment. The functional bladder capacity as indicated by the volume of first morning voiding increased from 157.9 ml +/- 7.5 to 186.7 ml...... +/- 6.9 (mean +/- SE; p < 0.0001). The level of urgency decreased from 6.8 +/- 0.1 to 3.4 +/- 0.2 (mean SE; numerical rating scale (11-point box scale); p < 0.0001) and nocturia decreased from 4.0 +/- 0.2 to 2.1 +/- 0.1 times (mean +/- SE; p < 0.0001). Chondroitin sulphate instillation was effective and...

  1. Nitric oxide modulates bladder afferent nerve activity in the in vitro urinary bladder-pelvic nerve preparation from rats with cyclophosphamide induced cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongbei; de Groat, William C

    2013-01-15

    Effects of a nitric oxide (NO) donor (SNAP), NO substrate (l-arginine), and NO synthase inhibitor (l-NAME) on bladder afferent nerve (BAN) activity were studied in an in vitro bladder-pelvic nerve preparation from untreated or cyclophosphamide (CYP) treated rats. Distension of the bladder induced phasic bladder contractions (PBC) that were accompanied by multiunit afferent firing. Intravesical administration of SNAP (2mM) which did not change the amplitude of PBC significantly decreased peak afferent firing from 79 ± 15 spikes/s to 44 ± 8 spikes/s in CYP pretreated but not untreated preparations. In CYP treated preparations SNAP also decreased by 33-55% BAN firing induced by isotonic distension of the bladder at 10-40 cmH(2)O pressures. Electrical stimulation on the surface of the bladder elicited action potentials (AP) in BAN. SNAP significantly increased the voltage threshold by 75% (pbladder hyperactivity induced by pathological conditions. PMID:23063886

  2. Efeito do cloridrato de oxibutinina na hiperatividade vesical conseqüente a cistite hemorrágica Effects of oxybutynin in bladder hyperactivity caused by hemorrhagic cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuma EK; MS Takeshita; Haylton Jorge Suaid; Antonio Carlos Pereira Martins; Silvio Tucci Jr; Adaulto José Cologna; MA Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A oxibutinina atua como agente anticolinérgico que tem ação anti-muscarínica e, principalmente, ação antiespasmódica na musculatura lisa vesical. Assim, ela causa aumento da capacidade vesical e diminui a frequência miccional e bloqueia o estímulo inicial da micção. OBJETIVO: Verificar se a oxibutinina atua sobre a hiperatividade vesical causada pela cistite hemorrágica, dependente do óxido nítrico. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados dois grupos de animais. O controle com 5 ratas e o experi...

  3. Nitric oxide modulates bladder afferent nerve activity in the in vitro urinary bladder–pelvic nerve preparation from rats with cyclophosphamide induced cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yongbei; de Groat, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of a nitric oxide (NO) donor (SNAP), NO substrate (l-arginine), and NO synthase inhibitor (l-NAME) on bladder afferent nerve (BAN) activity were studied in an in vitro bladder–pelvic nerve preparation from untreated or cyclophosphamide (CYP) treated rats. Distension of the bladder induced phasic bladder contractions (PBC) that were accompanied by multiunit afferent firing. Intravesical administration of SNAP (2 mM) which did not change the amplitude of PBC significantly decreased peak...

  4. Cistitis intersticial o vejiga dolorosa: Un desafío para el clínico Interstitial cystitis: A challenge for the clinician

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Young; Bárbara C. Finn; Martín González; Laura P. Comercio; Mariano Quezel; Julio E. Bruetman

    2010-01-01

    La cistitis intersticial se define como un síndrome clínico caracterizado por un incremento de la frecuencia urinaria, urgencia miccional y/o dolor abdominal o perineal en ausencia de infección urinaria o enfermedad conocida del aparato urinario. Se divide de acuerdo a los hallazgos citoscópicos en ulcerativa o no. La base del diagnóstico es clínica apoyada en scores de probabilidad y pruebas invasivas. Con la comprensión de la fisiopatología se ha desarrollado un abanico de posibilidades ter...

  5. Efficient and Cost-Effective Alternative Treatment for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Interstitial Cystitis in Women: A Two-Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. UTIs are primarily caused by Escherichia coli, which increases the likelihood of a recurrent infection. We encountered two cases of recurrent UTIs (rUTIs with a positive E. coli culture, not improving with antibiotics due to the development of antibiotic resistance. An alternative therapeutic regimen based on parsley and garlic, L-arginine, probiotics, and cranberry tablets has been given. This regimen showed a significant health improvement and symptoms relief without recurrence for more than 12 months. In conclusion, the case supports the concept of using alternative medicine in treating rUTI and as a prophylaxis or in patients who had developed antibiotic resistance.

  6. Efficient and cost-effective alternative treatment for recurrent urinary tract infections and interstitial cystitis in women: a two-case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Anthony; Hariri, Essa; Shelh, Samar; Irani, Ralph; Mroueh, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. UTIs are primarily caused by Escherichia coli, which increases the likelihood of a recurrent infection. We encountered two cases of recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) with a positive E. coli culture, not improving with antibiotics due to the development of antibiotic resistance. An alternative therapeutic regimen based on parsley and garlic, L-arginine, probiotics, and cranberry tablets has been given. This regimen showed a significant health improvement and symptoms relief without recurrence for more than 12 months. In conclusion, the case supports the concept of using alternative medicine in treating rUTI and as a prophylaxis or in patients who had developed antibiotic resistance. PMID:25587284

  7. Efficient and Cost-Effective Alternative Treatment for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Interstitial Cystitis in Women: A Two-Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Mansour; Essa Hariri; Samar Shelh; Ralph Irani; Mohamad Mroueh

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. UTIs are primarily caused by Escherichia coli, which increases the likelihood of a recurrent infection. We encountered two cases of recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) with a positive E. coli culture, not improving with antibiotics due to the development of antibiotic resistance. An alternative therapeutic regimen based on parsley and garlic, L-arginine, probiotics, and cranberry tablets has been given. This re...

  8. Caveolin- and clathrin-independent entry of BKPyV into primary human proximal tubule epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Linbo; Marciano, Anthony T; Rivet, Courtney R; Imperiale, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is a human pathogen that causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis in transplant patients. Gangliosides and caveolin proteins have previously been reported to be required for BKPyV infection in animal cell models. Recent studies from our lab and others, however, have indicated that the identity of the cells used for infection studies can greatly influence the behavior of the virus. We therefore wished to re-examine BKPyV entry in a physiologically relevant primary cell culture model, human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. Using siRNA knockdowns, we interfered with expression of UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG), and the endocytic vesicle coat proteins caveolin 1, caveolin 2, and clathrin heavy chain. The results demonstrate that while BKPyV does require gangliosides for efficient infection, it can enter its natural host cells via a caveolin- and clathrin-independent pathway. The results emphasize the importance of studying viruses in a relevant cell culture model. PMID:26901486

  9. Epidemiology of urinary infections in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, B; Gentil, M A; Cabello, V; Fijo, J; Cordero, E; Cisneros, J M

    2006-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) remains a significant cause of infectious complications in renal transplant recipients. We evaluated prospectively all the UTIs in 161 kidney recipients transplanted between July 2003 and July 2005. All patients received prophylaxis with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. We excluded asymptomatic bacteriuria. Forty-one patients (25%) suffered at least one UTI episode. Ninety-two episodes of infection were confirmed with an incidence rate of 97 UTI episodes per 100 patient-years. The most common clinical features were uncomplicated acute bacterial cystitis, 71 episodes (77%), and acute pyelonephritis, 21 episodes (23%). Microbiological isolation was confirmed in 58 episodes (63%). Bacterial infections were the most frequent etiologies: gram-negative bacilli in 52 (90%), gram-positive cocci in 4 (7%), fungal in 2 (3%), and one viral BK virus (2%) infection. The causative microorganisms were E. coli as the principal isolated agent in 41 cases (71%), including 10 (24%) that were extended-spectrum betalactamases (ESBLEC). All episodes showed a favorable course. The survival rate of the graft at the end of the study period was 90.7%, and the survival rate of the transplant recipients was 97.5%. The incidence of UTI in transplant patients who received antibiotic prophylaxis was high. E. coli (ESBLEC) was the main agent isolated. Uncomplicated UTI, the most frequent post transplantation infection, showed a good prognosis. PMID:17097953

  10. Analýza a zhodnocení marketingové strategie BK Lions Jindřichův Hradec

    OpenAIRE

    Šustková, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse and evaluate the marketing strategy of a professional basketball club which currently acts in the highest competition in the Czech Republic Mattoni NBL and purpose its possible improvement. The thesis is based on theoretical knowledge of administration and financing of sports organizations and on marketing with the focus on sports. The practical part is based on marketing situational analysis and mainly on my own research. These will be the basis for the a...

  11. Activation of BK and SK channels by efferent synapses on outer hair cells in high-frequency regions of the rodent cochlea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohmann, Kevin N; Wersinger, Eric; Braude, Jeremy P; Pyott, Sonja J; Fuchs, Paul Albert

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons of the brainstem olivary complex project to and inhibit outer hair cells (OHCs), refining acoustic sensitivity of the mammalian cochlea. In all vertebrate hair cells studied to date, cholinergic inhibition results from the combined action of ionotropic acetylcholine receptors and

  12. High diversity of human polyomaviruses in environmental and clinical samples in Argentina: Detection of JC, BK, Merkel-cell, Malawi, and human 6 and 7 polyomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carolina; Barrios, Melina Elizabeth; Cammarata, Robertina Viviana; Cisterna, Daniel Marcelo; Estrada, Tatiana; Martini Novas, Sergio; Cahn, Pedro; Blanco Fernández, María Dolores; Mbayed, Viviana Andrea

    2016-01-15

    New human polyomaviruses have been recently described. The aim of this work was to detect and characterize human polyomaviruses circulating in Argentina by recovering viruses from environmental and sewage samples and evaluating their potential role as viral indicators of human waste contamination. Analysis was performed in a wider context including viruses from clinical samples from an immunocompromised population. River water and sewage samples were analyzed as a strategy to study the molecular epidemiology of viruses excreted by millions of people. Samples belonged to the Matanza-Riachuelo River (2005-2006: n=25 and 2012: n=20) and sewage from Buenos Aires city and suburbs (2011 and 2013: n=24). Viral detection was performed by PCR and the amplified viral genomes were characterized by phylogenetic analysis. Polyomaviruses were detected in 95.8% of sewage samples, identifying BKPyV (87.5%), JCPyV (83.3%), MCPyV (8.3%) and HPyV6 (8.3%). Besides, one sample collected in 2009 resulted positive for HPyV7. In 2005-2006, polyomaviruses were detected in 84.0% of river water samples, with the highest detection for MCPyV (52.0%), followed by BKPyV (44.0%), JCPyV (20.0%) and MWPyV (4.0%). In 2012, polyomaviruses were detected in 85.0% of river samples, finding JCPyV (85.0%), BKPyV (75.0%), MCPyV (25.0%) and HPyV6 (25.0%). Also, polyomaviruses, including JCPyV, BKPyV and MCPyV, were detected in 63.2% of urine samples from patients infected with HIV (n=19). Characterization indicated the coexistence of different genotypes and variants for each virus, particularly in sewage. MCPyV sequences (the only sequences from Argentina) formed a monophyletic group with the single sequence available for South America (French Guiana). The high level of detection and viral diversity found by environmental surveillance, which involved the characterization of viruses not previously described in South America, reinforces the usefulness of this approach to monitor viral contamination and describe the viral epidemiology in the general population. PMID:26519580

  13. Use of integrated geologic and geophysical information for characterizing the structure of fracture systems at the US/BK Site, Grimsel Laboratory, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fracture systems form the primary fluid flow paths in a number of rock types, including some of those being considered for high level nuclear waste repositories. In some cases, flow along fractures must be modeled explicitly as part of a site characterization effort. Fractures commonly are concentrated in fracture zones, and even where fractures are seemingly ubiquitous, the hydrology of a site can be dominated by a few discrete fracture zones. We have implemented a site characterization methodology that combines information gained from geophysical and geologic investigations. The general philosophy is to identify and locate the major fracture zones, and then to characterize their systematics. Characterizing the systematics means establishing the essential and recurring patterns in which fractures are organized within the zones. We make a concerted effort to use information on the systematics of the fracture systems to link the site-specific geologic, borehole and geophysical information. This report illustrates how geologic and geophysical information on geologic heterogeneities can be integrated to guide the development of hydrologic models. The report focuses on fractures, a particularly common type of geologic heterogeneity. However, many aspects of the methodology we present can be applied to other geologic heterogeneities as well. 57 refs., 40 figs., 1 tab

  14. Use of integrated geologic and geophysical information for characterizing the structure of fracture systems at the US/BK Site, Grimsel Laboratory, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, S.J.; Peterson, J.E. Jr. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Fracture systems form the primary fluid flow paths in a number of rock types, including some of those being considered for high level nuclear waste repositories. In some cases, flow along fractures must be modeled explicitly as part of a site characterization effort. Fractures commonly are concentrated in fracture zones, and even where fractures are seemingly ubiquitous, the hydrology of a site can be dominated by a few discrete fracture zones. We have implemented a site characterization methodology that combines information gained from geophysical and geologic investigations. The general philosophy is to identify and locate the major fracture zones, and then to characterize their systematics. Characterizing the systematics means establishing the essential and recurring patterns in which fractures are organized within the zones. We make a concerted effort to use information on the systematics of the fracture systems to link the site-specific geologic, borehole and geophysical information. This report illustrates how geologic and geophysical information on geologic heterogeneities can be integrated to guide the development of hydrologic models. The report focuses on fractures, a particularly common type of geologic heterogeneity. However, many aspects of the methodology we present can be applied to other geologic heterogeneities as well. 57 refs., 40 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Cloning, expression in Pichia pastoris, and characterization of a thermostable GH5 mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase from Aspergillus niger BK01

    OpenAIRE

    Sigoillot Jean-Claude; Kim-Anh To; Haltrich Dietmar; Berrin Jean-Guy; Thi-Thu Dang; Bien-Cuong Do; Yamabhai Montarop

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Mannans are key components of lignocellulose present in the hemicellulosic fraction of plant primary cell walls. Mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidases (1,4-β-D-mannanases) catalyze the random hydrolysis of β-1,4-mannosidic linkages in the main chain of β-mannans. Biodegradation of β-mannans by the action of thermostable mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase offers significant technical advantages in biotechnological industrial applications, i.e. delignification of kraft pulps or the pret...

  16. BKCa and KV channels limit conducted vasomotor responses in rat mesenteric terminal arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig; Inoue, Ryuji; Ito, Yuski; Sørensen, Preben Graae; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Jensen, Lars Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular Ca(2+) signals underlying conducted vasoconstriction to local application of a brief depolarizing KCl stimulus was investigated in rat mesenteric terminal arterioles (<40 µm). Using a computer model of an arteriole segment comprised of coupled endothelial cells (EC) and vascular...... understanding of how differential expression patterns of voltage-activated K(+) channels may influence conducted vasoconstriction in small arteriolar networks. This finding is potentially relevant to understanding the compromised microcirculatory blood flow in systemic vascular diseases such as diabetes...

  17. Effect of repressing of briquettes at high hydrostatic pressures on fine structure of carbide fraction in compacts and sintered BK10 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect was studied of the repressing at high hydrostatic pressures of preforms of hard alloy powder mixture with different degree of fineness on changes in fine structure of the carbide phase of compacts and the VK10 sintered alloy. X-ray diffraction method was used. Sufficient widening of diffraction lines of the WC phase in compacts and in a sintered alloy with the increase in hydrostatic pressure testifies to the fact of the production of more inperfect carbide substructure mainly due to fragmentation subgrains. The effect of processing pressure manifests itself to a greater extent in compacts of the coarse-ground mixture; in the sintered alloy the repressing pressure effect ''is being smoothed'' to some extent. The density of dislocation in the compacts and the sintered alloy were evaluated quantatively depending on the hydrostatic pressure values during processing of preforms

  18. Large N Approach to Kaon Decays and Mixing 28 Years Later: Delta I = 1/2 Rule, \\hat B_K and Delta M_K

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J; Bardeen, William A

    2014-01-01

    We review and update our results for K-> pipi decays and K^0-\\bar K^0 mixing obtained by us in the 1980s within an approach based on the dual representation of QCD as a theory of weakly interacting mesons for large N colours. In our analytic approach the dynamics behind the enhancement of ReA_0 and suppression of ReA_2, the so-called Delta I = 1/2 rule for K-> pi pi decays, has a simple structure: the usual octet enhancement through quark-gluon renormalization group evolution down to the scales O(1 GeV) is continued as a meson evolution down to zero momentum scales at which the factorization of hadronic matrix elements is at work. The inclusion of lowest-lying vector meson contributions in addition to the pseudoscalar ones and of Wilson coefficients in a momentum scheme improves significantly the matching between quark-gluon and meson evolutions. In particular, the anomalous dimension matrix governing the meson evolution exhibits the structure of the known anomalous dimension matrix in the quark-gluon evoluti...

  19. Mechanisms of Sustained High Firing Rates in Two Classes of Vestibular Nucleus Neurons: Differential Contributions of Resurgent Na, Kv3, and BK Currents

    OpenAIRE

    Gittis, Aryn H.; Moghadam, Setareh H.; du Lac, Sascha

    2010-01-01

    To fire at high rates, neurons express ionic currents that work together to minimize refractory periods by ensuring that sodium channels are available for activation shortly after each action potential. Vestibular nucleus neurons operate around high baseline firing rates and encode information with bidirectional modulation of firing rates up to several hundred Hz. To determine the mechanisms that enable these neurons to sustain firing at high rates, ionic currents were measured during firing ...

  20. 38 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Numerical Index of Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... scapula. 5302 Group II Function: Depression of arm. 5303 Group III Function: Elevation and abduction of.... 7511 Ureter, stricture. 7512 Cystitis, chronic. 7515 Bladder, calculus. 7516 Bladder, fistula....

  1. Thickness and marking quality of different occlusal contact registration strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda de Souza Mauá Serapião TOLEDO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Evaluate the thickness and the marking quality of different occlusal contact registration strips (OCRS and a possible correlation between them. Material and Methods The following OCRS were selected: Accufilm II, BK20, BK21, BK22, BK23, BK28, and BK31. The thickness was measured in three points of the OCRS with an electronic measuring device (TESA, and the mean was calculated. To produce the marks on the strips, composite resin specimens were adapted to a universal testing machine (Versat 2000 with 40 kgf load cell at a speed of 1.0 mm/min. The mark images were photographed with a stereoscopic microscope (Stemi SV11 and processed and analyzed by the 550-Leica Qwin® analyzer. Results Values (μm found in the 1st and 2nd thickness measurements were: Accufilm II - 16.4 and 14.2; BK20 - 10.0 and 8.1; BK21 - 9.5 and 8.0; BK22 - 9.7 and 8.7; BK23 - 9.8 and 7.9; BK28 - 12.8 and 10.0; and BK31 - 8.4 and 8.0, respectively. The mean (mm2 values found in the mark areas were: Accufilm II - 0.078; BK20 - 0.035; BK21 - 0.045; BK22 - 0.012; BK23 - 0.022; BK28 - 0.024; and BK31 - 0.024. The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis (p<0.05 and Pearson’s correlation tests. Conclusions Only in the 2nd measurement, the OCRS thickness observed was similar to the value indicated by the manufacturers; the Accufilm II and the BK28 strips showed the better marks; and no correlation was found between the thickness and the marking area.

  2. Local indigenous knowledge about some medicinal plants in and around Kakamega forest in western Kenya [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/UDNyBK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickson Erick Otieno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kakamega forest is Kenya’s only rainforest and is distinguishably rich in biodiversity but threatened by agricultural encroachment and other forms of human activity. It is also one of Kenya’s Important Bird Areas and a significant source of natural products to neighboring rural communities, such as medicinal plants, food, wood and other fibers. By using structured questionnaires for direct interviews, local indigenous knowledge was tapped through involvement of a focal group of elderly key informants in three blocks of the forest. Forty key species of medicinal plants used by local people were identified and recorded. Fifty-five percent of these were shrubs, thirty-two percent trees, seven-and-a-half percent lower plants such as herbs or forbs while five percent were climbers. About seventy percent of the medicinal plants occurred inside the forest itself and thirty percent around the edge and the immediate surroundings outside the forest. Thirty-eight (95% of the plants were indigenous to Kenya and two (5% exotic. Such extensive indigenous knowledge of the medicinal uses of the plants, including their distribution trends in the forest, may be tapped for decision support in rural health service planning, policy formulation for conserving the forest, tracking and mitigation of climate change impacts.

  3. Zero-Carbon Energy Kyoto 2011 : Special Edition of Jointed Symposium of Kyoto University Global COE “Energy Science in the Age of Global Warming” and Ajou University BK21

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear plant accident at Fukushima in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami has had a major impact on the energy strategy of Japan and the world. From a global perspective, approach to energy is of greater and greater consequence. The Global Center of Excellence (COE) Program of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, with the support of university faculty members, has established an international education and research platform to foster educators, researchers, and policy makers who can develop technologies and propose policies for establishing a CO2 zero-emission society no longer dependent on fossil fuels by the year 2100. Since 2008, a program called “Energy Science in the Age of Global Warming—Toward a CO2 Zero-Emission Energy System” has been in progress at Kyoto University. A third international symposium, titled “Zero-Carbon Energy, Kyoto 2011,” was held jointly with Ajou University, Korea, in August 2011, and this book is a compila...

  4. The Electro-Spark Deposited WC-Cu Coatings Modified by Laser Treatment / Powłoki WC-Cu Naniesione Elektroiskrowo I Modyfikowane Obróbką Laserową

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work was to determine the influence of laser treatment on microstructure, X-ray diffraction, microhardness, surface geometric structure and roughness, corrosion resistance and tribological properties of coatings deposited on C45 carbon steel by the electro-spark deposition (ESD process. The studies were conducted using WC-Cu electrodes produced by the powder metallurgy route. The tests show that the laser-treated electro-spark deposited WC-Cu coatings are characterized by higher corrosion resistance, surface roughness and seizure resistance which come at the expense of lower microhardness. The laser treatment process causes the homogenization of the chemical composition, structure refinement and healing of microcracks and pores of the electro-spark deposited coatings. Laser treated ESD coatings can be applied in sliding friction pairs and as protective coatings.

  5. Strategická analýza podniku B.K. Dom, s.r.o a návrh jeho d´alšieho rozvoja

    OpenAIRE

    Leboczová, Kristína

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the assessment of the current situation and provides a proposal of an appropriate strategy for the evolution of a company dealing with sales of building materials. This thesis consists of both a theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is based on relevant literature, the findings of which are used as the basis for the practical part. The practical part deals with the internal and external environment of the company which is analyzed by PESTE analys...

  6. Propagação vegetativa por miniestacas de preciosa (Aniba canellila (H. B.K MEZ Vegetative propagation by mini-cuttings of preciosa (Aniba canelilla (H.B.K Mez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Barbosa Sampaio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o enraizamento de miniestacas de material juvenil da preciosa (Aniba canelilla (H.B.K Mez, tratadas com diferentes concentrações de ácido indol-3-butirico (AIB na forma líquida. As miniestacas foram obtidas de mudas de regeneração natural com aproximadamente um ano de idade e modeladas com 5 cm de comprimento e 0,4 - 0,6 mm de diâmetro. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com sistema de nebulização intermitente regulada em 20 segundos para aspersões com intervalos de 20 minutos. Como substrato foi utilizado areia lavada. Semanalmente foram feitas aplicações de fertilizante foliar e fungicida. O experimento foi delineado em cinco blocos inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (0, 300 ppm, 600 ppm, 1200 ppm e 2000 ppm de AIB com 25 miniestacas/tratamento, totalizando 125 miniestacas no experimento. Após 180 dias do plantio, as miniestacas foram retiradas do substrato e avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: porcentagem de enraizamento, porcentagem de sobrevivência, porcentagem de calo; porcentagem de brotos; número de raízes principais, comprimento médio das raízes; peso da matéria seca dos brotos e peso da matéria seca das raízes. Os resultados indicam que a emissão de raízes das estacas de material juvenil da preciosa independe do uso do AIB. Entretanto, o uso desta auxina na concentração de 2000 ppm estimulou o enraizamento (79,04 %; sobrevivência (89,43% e brotação (64% das miniestacas.This study aimed to the rooting of minicuttings of juvenile material of preciosa (Aniba canelilla (H.B.K Mez, through the use of concentrations of 0, 300 ppm, 600 ppm, 1200 ppm and 2000 ppm of acid indole-3-butirico (IBA in liquid form. The cuttings were obtained from seedlings of natural regeneration with approximately one years of age and shaped with 5 cm long and 0.4 - 0.6 mm in diameter. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, with intermittent mist system governed by 20 seconds to mist at intervals of 20 minutes. As substrate was used sand washed. Weekly applications were made from fertilizer and foliar fungicide. The design used was completely randomized with five treatments and twenty-five repetitions, totaling 125 minicuttings. After 180 days after planting, the minicuttings were taken from the substrate and evaluated the following parameters: percentage of rooting, percentage of survival, percentage of calluses, dry weight of the sprouts, number, size and dry weight of roots. The results indicate that the rooting of minicuttings of juvenile material of preciosa independent of the use of the IBA. However, the use of auxin in the concentration of 2000 ppm stimulated rooting (79.04%, survival (89.43% and sprouted (64% of minicuttings.

  7. The Electro-Spark Deposited WC-Cu Coatings Modified by Laser Treatment / Powłoki WC-Cu Naniesione Elektroiskrowo I Modyfikowane Obróbką Laserową

    OpenAIRE

    Radek N.; Konstanty J.; Scendo M.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to determine the influence of laser treatment on microstructure, X-ray diffraction, microhardness, surface geometric structure and roughness, corrosion resistance and tribological properties of coatings deposited on C45 carbon steel by the electro-spark deposition (ESD) process. The studies were conducted using WC-Cu electrodes produced by the powder metallurgy route. The tests show that the laser-treated electro-spark deposited WC-Cu coatings are ch...

  8. Multimodality imaging of renal inflammatory lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Chandan J; Ahmad, Zohra; Sharma, Sanjay; Gupta, Arun K.

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum of acute renal infections includes acute pyelonephritis, renal and perirenal abscesses, pyonephrosis, emphysematous pyelonephritis and emphysematous cystitis. The chronic renal infections that we routinely encounter encompass chronic pyelonephritis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, and eosinophilic cystitis. Patients with diabetes, malignancy and leukaemia are frequently immunocompromised and more prone to fungal infections viz. angioinvasive aspergillus, candida and mucor. Tuberc...

  9. Early severe inflammatory responses to uropathogenic E. coli predispose to chronic and recurrent urinary tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Hannan

    Full Text Available Chronic infections are an increasing problem due to the aging population and the increase in antibiotic resistant organisms. Therefore, understanding the host-pathogen interactions that result in chronic infection is of great importance. Here, we investigate the molecular basis of chronic bacterial cystitis. We establish that introduction of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC into the bladders of C3H mice results in two distinct disease outcomes: resolution of acute infection or development of chronic cystitis lasting months. The incidence of chronic cystitis is both host strain and infectious dose-dependent. Further, development of chronic cystitis is preceded by biomarkers of local and systemic acute inflammation at 24 hours post-infection, including severe pyuria and bladder inflammation with mucosal injury, and a distinct serum cytokine signature consisting of elevated IL-5, IL-6, G-CSF, and the IL-8 analog KC. Mice deficient in TLR4 signaling or lymphocytes lack these innate responses and are resistant, to varying degrees, to developing chronic cystitis. Treatment of C3H mice with the glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone prior to UPEC infection also suppresses the development of chronic cystitis. Finally, individuals with a history of chronic cystitis, lasting at least 14 days, are significantly more susceptible to redeveloping severe, chronic cystitis upon bacterial challenge. Thus, we have discovered that the development of chronic cystitis in C3H mice by UPEC is facilitated by severe acute inflammatory responses early in infection, which subsequently are predisposing to recurrent cystitis, an insidious problem in women. Overall, these results have significant implications for our understanding of how early host-pathogen interactions at the mucosal surface determines the fate of disease.

  10. Bivariate Kumaraswamy distribution with an application on earthquake data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özel, Gamze

    2015-03-10

    Bivariate Kumaraswamy (BK) distribution whose marginals are Kumaraswamy distributions has been recently introduced. However, its statistical properties are not studied in detail. In this study, statistical properties of the BK distribution are investigated. We suggest that the BK could provide suitable description for the earthquakes characteristics of Turkey. We support this argument using earthquakesoccurred in Turkey between 1900 and 2009. We also find that the BK distribution simulates earthquakes well.

  11. Bivariate Kumaraswamy distribution with an application on earthquake data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivariate Kumaraswamy (BK) distribution whose marginals are Kumaraswamy distributions has been recently introduced. However, its statistical properties are not studied in detail. In this study, statistical properties of the BK distribution are investigated. We suggest that the BK could provide suitable description for the earthquakes characteristics of Turkey. We support this argument using earthquakesoccurred in Turkey between 1900 and 2009. We also find that the BK distribution simulates earthquakes well

  12. Physical-chemical studies of transuranium elements. Progress report, April 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is divided into six sections: spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of Np and Pu in carbonate solutions, delocalization of 5f electrons in Bk and Cf metals under pressure, spectra of lanthanides and actinides in DMSO2, relativistic multiple scattering calculations for metal complexes containing heavy atoms, L x rays in Bk and Cf metals, and solution calorimetry of Bk oxides

  13. The bradykinin B2 receptor induces multiple cellular responses leading to the proliferation of human renal carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vasoactive peptide bradykinin (BK) acts as a potent growth factor for normal kidney cells, but there have been few studies on the role of BK in renal cell carcinomas. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that BK also acts as a mitogen in kidney carcinomas, and explored the effects of BK in human renal carcinoma A498 cells. The presence of mRNAs for BK B1 and BK B2 receptors in A498 cells was demonstrated by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. To study BK signaling pathways, we employed fluorescent measurements of intracellular Ca2+, measured changes in extracellular pH as a reflection of Na+/H+ exchange (NHE) with a Cytosensor microphysiometer, and assessed extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation by Western blotting. Exposure to 100 nM of BK resulted in the rapid elevation of intracellular Ca2+, caused a ≥30% increase in NHE activity, and a ≥300% increase in ERK phosphorylation. All BK signals were blocked by HOE140, a BK B2 receptor antagonist, but not by a B1 receptor antagonist. Inhibitor studies suggest that BK-induced ERK activation requires phospholipase C and protein kinase C activities, and is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent. The amiloride analog 5-(N-methyl-N-isobutyl)-amiloride (MIA) blocked short-term NHE activation and inhibited ERK phosphorylation, suggesting that NHE is critical for ERK activation by BK. BK induced an approximately 40% increase in the proliferation of A498 cells as assessed by bromodeoxyuridine uptake. This effect was blocked by the ERK inhibitor PD98059, and was dependent on NHE activity. We conclude that BK exerts mitogenic effects in A498 cells via the BK B2 receptor activation of growth-associated NHE and ERK

  14. Tritium-bradykinin binding site localization in guinea pig urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradykinin (BK) causes vasodilation and increases free water and sodium excretion in the kidney and stimulates smooth muscle contraction in the ureter and bladder. Several proposed sites of action for BK include the renal medullary collecting duct, renal blood vessels and the ureter and bladder smooth muscle. This study employs 3H-BK autoradiography to localize the sites of BK action. 3H-BK binding sites in the kidney are localized in the medullary interstitium where BK may produce prostaglandins which mediate its blood flow, natriuretic and diuretic effects. 3H-BK binding sites in the ureter and bladder are localized in the lamina propria below the basal epithelial layer and absent over the muscle layers suggesting an indirect action on urinary tract smooth muscle

  15. Influence of sodium balance on urinary excretion of immunoreactive kinins in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibodies against bradykinin (BK) and its metabolites, namely des-Arg9-BK and des-Phe8,Arg9-BK were raised in rabbits, and specific radioimmunoassays (RIA) for these peptides were developed. Specificity studies showed that each RIA was specific for its antigen, since the cross-reactivities of various kinin-related peptides were less than 1.5%. The lowest concentration of peptide that could be measured in these assays was approximately 60 pg/ml. The antibodies were used to measure concentrations of BK and its metabolites in urine and kidneys of rats maintained on different sodium balance for 5 wk. The results showed that normal rats excrete low quantities of BK (63.78 +/- 2.98 ng/day, 88 determinations). The urinary excretion of des-Arg9-BK averaged 77.69 +/- 5.53 ng/day, whereas the amount of des-Phe8,Arg9-BK is equal to 7.13 +/- 0.42 ng/day. Sodium loading brings about a small decrease in the concentration of BK (45.57 +/- 2.36 ng/day, 76 determinations), whereas sodium depletion significantly increased the excretion of BK (94.23 +/- 5.50, 102 determinations, P less than 0.01) accompanied by no modification of the excretion of metabolites. Regression analysis of the results showed a positive correlation between urinary volume and BK in control and sodium-loaded animals and urinary BK and sodium in the sodium-loaded group. In kidney homogenates, sodium depletion increased not only the concentration of BK (10-fold) but also that of des-Arg9-BK and des-Phe8,Arg9-BK by a factor of four and two, respectively, when compared with normal and sodium-loaded animals. These results support the hypothesis that the renal kallikrein-kinin system may be regulated by corticosteroids

  16. Bowman-Birk Protease Inhibitor from Vigna unguiculata Seeds Enhances the Action of Bradykinin-Related Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice da Cunha M. Álvares

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolysis of bradykinin (Bk by different classes of proteases in plasma and tissues leads to a decrease in its half-life. Here, Bk actions on smooth muscle and in vivo cardiovascular assays in association with a protease inhibitor, Black eyed-pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI and also under the effect of trypsin and chymotrypsin were evaluated. Two synthetic Bk-related peptides, Bk1 and Bk2, were used to investigate the importance of additional C-terminal amino acid residues on serine protease activity. BTCI forms complexes with Bk and analogues at pH 5.0, 7.4 and 9.0, presenting binding constants ranging from 103 to 104 M−1. Formation of BTCI-Bk complexes is probably driven by hydrophobic forces, coupled with slight conformational changes in BTCI. In vitro assays using guinea pig (Cavia porcellus ileum showed that Bk retains the ability to induce smooth muscle contraction in the presence of BTCI. Moreover, no alteration in the inhibitory activity of BTCI in complex with Bk and analogous was observed. When the BTCI and BTCI-Bk complexes were tested in vivo, a decrease of vascular resistance and consequent hypotension and potentiating renal and aortic vasodilatation induced by Bk and Bk2 infusions was observed. These results indicate that BTCI-Bk complexes may be a reliable strategy to act as a carrier and protective approach for Bk-related peptides against plasma serine proteases cleavage, leading to an increase in their half-life. These findings also indicate that BTCI could remain stable in some tissues to inhibit chymotrypsin or trypsin-like enzymes that cleave and inactivate bradykinin in situ.

  17. Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor from Vigna unguiculata seeds enhances the action of bradykinin-related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Morales Álvares, Alice; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni; Amaral, Nathalia Oda; Trindade, Neidiane Rosa; Pedrino, Gustavo Rodrigues; Silva, Luciano Paulino; de Freitas, Sonia Maria

    2014-01-01

    The hydrolysis of bradykinin (Bk) by different classes of proteases in plasma and tissues leads to a decrease in its half-life. Here, Bk actions on smooth muscle and in vivo cardiovascular assays in association with a protease inhibitor, Black eyed-pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) and also under the effect of trypsin and chymotrypsin were evaluated. Two synthetic Bk-related peptides, Bk1 and Bk2, were used to investigate the importance of additional C-terminal amino acid residues on serine protease activity. BTCI forms complexes with Bk and analogues at pH 5.0, 7.4 and 9.0, presenting binding constants ranging from 103 to 104 M-1. Formation of BTCI-Bk complexes is probably driven by hydrophobic forces, coupled with slight conformational changes in BTCI. In vitro assays using guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) ileum showed that Bk retains the ability to induce smooth muscle contraction in the presence of BTCI. Moreover, no alteration in the inhibitory activity of BTCI in complex with Bk and analogous was observed. When the BTCI and BTCI-Bk complexes were tested in vivo, a decrease of vascular resistance and consequent hypotension and potentiating renal and aortic vasodilatation induced by Bk and Bk2 infusions was observed. These results indicate that BTCI-Bk complexes may be a reliable strategy to act as a carrier and protective approach for Bk-related peptides against plasma serine proteases cleavage, leading to an increase in their half-life. These findings also indicate that BTCI could remain stable in some tissues to inhibit chymotrypsin or trypsin-like enzymes that cleave and inactivate bradykinin in situ. PMID:25361421

  18. 21 CFR 520.90d - Ampicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to E. coli, Staphylococcus... infections (septicemia) associated with abscesses, lacerations, and wounds, due to Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp.; bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Proteus......

  19. 75 FR 26646 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Orbifloxacin Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... infections (cystitis) in dogs caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Proteus... abscesses) in dogs caused by susceptible strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Pasteurella multocida, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas spp.,...

  20. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...

  1. Nocturia and associated morbidity in a Danish population of men and women aged 60-80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bing, M.H.; Moller, L.A.; Jennum, P.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between nocturia and medical diseases, medication, urinary incontinence (UI), recurrent cystitis, smoking, alcohol, parity, hysterectomy, pelvic organ prolapse surgery, UI surgery. and prostate surgery. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The previously validated questionna...

  2. Permeability and ultrastructure of human bladder epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, J; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Nielsen, S L;

    1983-01-01

    Leakage of tight junctions as observed with electron microscopy and demonstration of solute transport across bladder epithelium was investigated in 13 patients with different bladder diseases: urinary retention and infection, bladder tumours and interstitial cystitis. The latter group showed cons...

  3. Urinary tract infection in women - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - self-care; Cystitis - self-care; Bladder infection - self-care ... Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by bacteria that enter the urethra and travel to the bladder. This can lead ...

  4. IC Treatment: Antihistamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Profile Home Diagnosis & Treatment IC Treatments Antihistamines Antihistamines Some patients report a decrease in interstitial cystitis (IC) symptoms using other antihistamines or medicines with antihistamine properties. Though the most ...

  5. Effects of estrogens and bladder inflammation on mitogen-activated protein kinases in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia from adult female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Keast Janet R; Cheng Ying

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Interstitial cystitis is a chronic condition associated with bladder inflammation and, like a number of other chronic pain states, symptoms associated with interstitial cystitis are more common in females and fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine if estrogens could directly modulate signalling pathways within bladder sensory neurons, such as extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. The...

  6. Preventive effect of Malva on urinary toxicity after radiation therapy in prostate cancer patients: A multi-centric, double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mofid, Bahram; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Jaladat, Amir Mohammad; Atarzadeh, Fatemeh; Moeini, Reihane; Motevalian, Abbas; Mosalaie, Ahmad; Farhan, Farshid; Rakhsha, Afshin; Kashi, Amir Shahram Yousefi

    2015-01-01

    Background: For patients receiving external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant treatment or patients receiving EBRT as definitive treatment, partial irradiation of the urinary bladder is common. Many of such patients experience some degree of radiation-induced cystitis during or after EBRT. There is currently no efficient treatment for preventing radiation cystitis. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of one of the safe mucilag...

  7. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli superinfection enhances the severity of mouse bladder infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew J Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs afflict over 9 million women in America every year, often necessitating long-term prophylactic antibiotics. One risk factor for UTI is frequent sexual intercourse, which dramatically increases the risk of UTI. The mechanism behind this increased risk is unknown; however, bacteriuria increases immediately after sexual intercourse episodes, suggesting that physical manipulation introduces periurethral flora into the urinary tract. In this paper, we investigated whether superinfection (repeat introduction of bacteria resulted in increased risk of severe UTI, manifesting as persistent bacteriuria, high titer bladder bacterial burdens and chronic inflammation, an outcome referred to as chronic cystitis. Chronic cystitis represents unchecked luminal bacterial replication and is defined histologically by urothelial hyperplasia and submucosal lymphoid aggregates, a histological pattern similar to that seen in humans suffering chronic UTI. C57BL/6J mice are resistant to chronic cystitis after a single infection; however, they developed persistent bacteriuria and chronic cystitis when superinfected 24 hours apart. Elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6, keratinocyte cytokine (KC/CXCL1, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF in the serum of C57BL/6J mice prior to the second infection predicted the development of chronic cystitis. These same cytokines have been found to precede chronic cystitis in singly infected C3H/HeN mice. Furthermore, inoculating C3H/HeN mice twice within a six-hour period doubled the proportion of mice that developed chronic cystitis. Intracellular bacterial replication, regulated hemolysin (HlyA expression, and caspase 1/11 activation were essential for this increase. Microarrays conducted at four weeks post inoculation in both mouse strains revealed upregulation of IL-1 and antimicrobial peptides during chronic cystitis. These data suggest a mechanism by which caspase-1/11 activation and IL-1

  8. Mg²⁺-dependent modulation of BKCa channels by genistein in rat arteriolar smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoran; Zhao, Tingting; Zhou, Shanshan; Sun, Lina; Zhang, Liming; Yu, Guichun

    2014-12-01

    Genistein, a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor, regulates ion channel activities. However, the mechanism of action of genistein on large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels is unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether the mechanism of Mg(2+)-dependent modulation of BK(Ca) channel activity in vascular smooth muscle cells involved inhibition of phosphorylation by genistein or direct interaction between genistein and BK(Ca) channels. The whole-cell and inside-out patch-clamp techniques were used to measure BK(Ca) currents and the effects of genistein on BK(Ca) channel activities in rat mesenteric arteriolar smooth muscle cells. We found that the effects of genistein on BK(Ca) currents were Mg(2+)-dependent. Genistein (50 μM) inhibited BK(Ca) currents if the intracellular free magnesium concentration ([Mg(2+)]i) was 2 μM or 20 μM, but amplified BK(Ca) currents if [Mg(2+)]i was 200 μM or 2000 μM. The inhibitory effect of genistein on BK(Ca) currents was reversed by the protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate (0.5 mM). Daidzein (50 μM), an inactive analogue of genistein, also amplified BK(Ca) currents, and its amplification was insensitive to orthovanadate. Another PTK inhibitor, tyrphostin 23 (50 μM), reduced the open probability of BK(Ca) channels. This inhibitory effect was weaker at 200 μM [Mg(2+)]i than at 2 μM [Mg(2+) ]i, and was countered by orthovanadate. Our results suggest that genistein amplifies BK(Ca) currents at a high [Mg(2+)]i, but inhibits BK(Ca) currents at a low [Mg(2+)]i. The mechanism of this biphasic effects involves PTK-independent amplification and [Mg(2+)]i -PTK-dependent inhibition. PMID:24729485

  9. Demonstration of extrapulmonary activity of angiotensin converting enzyme in intact tissue preparations.

    OpenAIRE

    Lembeck, F.; Griesbacher, T; Eckhardt, M.

    1990-01-01

    1. The activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) has been studied on functional parameters of intact isolated preparations of extrapulmonary tissues. The conversion of angiotensin I (A I) to angiotensin II (A II) and the cleavage of bradykinin (BK) were used as indicators of ACE activity. Captopril was employed as a specific inhibitor of ACE. 2. Captopril augmented the BK-induced contractions of the rat isolated uterus, the BK- and substance P-induced contractions of the guinea-pig ileu...

  10. AcEST: BP912354 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000018_B04 386 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000018_B04. BP912354 CL820Co ... d Q76BK2 Definition sp|Q76BK2|MIF_XENLA Macrophage migration ... inhibitory factor OS=Xenopus laevis Align length 5 ... ments: (bits) Value sp|Q76BK2|MIF_XENLA Macrophage migration ... inhibitory factor OS=Xe... 41 0.002 sp|P91850|MIFH ...

  11. Kallikrein activates bradykinin B2 receptors in the absence of kininogen

    OpenAIRE

    Biyashev, Dauren; Tan, Fulong; Chen, Zhenlong; Zhang, Kai; Deddish, Peter A.; Erdös, Ervin G.; Hecquet, Claudie

    2005-01-01

    Kallikreins cleave plasma kininogens to release the bioactive peptides bradykinin (BK) or kallidin (Lys-BK). These peptides then activate widely disseminated B2 receptors with consequences that may be either noxious or beneficial. We used cultured cells to show that kallikrein can bypass kinin release to activate BK B2 receptors directly. To exclude intermediate kinin release or kininogen uptake from the culture medium, we cultured and maintained cells in medium entirely free of animal protei...

  12. A norm inequality for pairs of commuting positive semidefinite matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Audenaert, Koenraad M.R.

    2014-01-01

    For $k=1,\\ldots,K$, let $A_k$ and $B_k$ be positive semidefinite matrices such that, for each $k$, $A_k$ commutes with $B_k$. We show that, for any unitarily invariant norm, \\[ |||\\sum_{k=1}^K A_kB_k||| \\le ||| (\\sum_{k=1}^K A_k)\\;(\\sum_{k=1}^K B_k)|||. \\

  13. Elm Hall Nursing Home, Loughlinstown Road, Celbridge, Kildare.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lonergan, Roisin M

    2012-02-01

    Natalizumab therapy in multiple sclerosis has been associated with JC polyomavirus-induced progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. We hypothesized that natalizumab may also lead to reactivation of BK, a related human polyomavirus capable of causing morbidity in immunosuppressed groups. Patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis treated with natalizumab were prospectively monitored for reactivation of BK virus in blood and urine samples, and for evidence of associated renal dysfunction. In this cohort, JC and BK DNA in blood and urine; cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in blood and urine; CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte counts and ratios in peripheral blood; and renal function were monitored at regular intervals. BK subtyping and noncoding control region sequencing was performed on samples demonstrating reactivation. Prior to commencement of natalizumab therapy, 3 of 36 patients with multiple sclerosis (8.3%) had BK viruria and BK reactivation occurred in 12 of 54 patients (22.2%). BK viruria was transient in 7, continuous in 2 patients, and persistent viruria was associated with transient viremia. Concomitant JC and CMV viral loads were undetectable. CD4:CD8 ratios fluctuated, but absolute CD4 counts did not fall below normal limits. In four of seven patients with BK virus reactivation, transient reductions in CD4 counts were observed at onset of BK viruria: these resolved in three of four patients on resuppression of BK replication. No renal dysfunction was observed in the cohort. BK virus reactivation can occur during natalizumab therapy; however, the significance in the absence of renal dysfunction is unclear. We propose regular monitoring for BK reactivation or at least for evidence of renal dysfunction in patients receiving natalizumab.

  14. Polynomials for evaluation of two-center overlap integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Dimitar

    2016-05-01

    Expressions of products AkBk, where Ak and Bk are incomplete gamma functions, are given for evaluation of two-center overlap integrals (TCOIs) over unnormalized Slater-type orbitals (STOs). The polynomials of AkBk have been derived after the method proposed by Lofthus and pertain to two-center bonds of σ, π, δ, and φ axial symmetries. The functions of AkBk have been arranged in pairs of s, p, d, and f STOs with principal quantum numbers between 1 and 5. The contributions of these functions to various TCOIs have been evaluated and discussed. The formulae are applicable as input matrices for computations of TCOIs.

  15. Importance of the terminal α-amino group of bradykinin and some kynins on capillary permeability increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and reliable method is described for the quantitative evaluation of vascular permeability increase induced by vasoactive drugs with Evans blue labelled with iodine-125 or 131. By using this method the importance of α-amino group of bradykinin (Bk), kallidin (Kd) and methionyl-kallidin (Met-Kd) on the biological activity were studied after reacting the kinins with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate followed by reduction with sodium borohydride. Phosphopyridoxyl-kinins were formed leaving free the guanidino groups. Aminoacid analysis of phosphopyridoxyl-kinin showed that the efficiency of the reaction was extremely good in the blockage of α-amino groups [phosphopyridoxyl-bradikinin (PP-Bk) = 98,8%, phosphopyridoxyl-kallidin (PP-Kd) = 95,2%, phosphopyridoxyl-methionyl-kallidin (PP-Met-Kd) = 98,0%. Log dose-response curves were obtained for Bk, Kd, Met-Kd, acetyl-bradykinin (Ac-Bk), PP-Bk, PP-Kd and PP-Met-Kd and the relative potencies calculated through the Lineweaver-Burk plots. The relative potencies were: PP-Bk about 16% the activity of Bk, Ac-Bk about 31% the activity of Bk, PP-Kd about 17% the activity of Kd, PP-Met-Kd about 12% the activity of Met-Kd. The results show that the terminal α-amino group of kinins is important in the mechanisms of biological activity. (Author)

  16. Involvement of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Up-Regulation in Bradykinin Promotes Cell Motility in Human Prostate Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsin Tang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men and shows a predilection for metastasis to distant organs. Bradykinin (BK is an inflammatory mediator and has recently been shown to mediate tumor growth and metastasis. The adhesion molecule intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 plays a critical role during tumor metastasis. The aim of this study was to examine whether BK promotes prostate cancer cell migration via ICAM-1 expression. The motility of cancer cells was increased following BK treatment. Stimulation of prostate cancer cells with BK induced mRNA and protein expression of ICAM-1. Transfection of cells with ICAM-1 small interfering RNA reduced BK-increased cell migration. Pretreatment of prostate cancer cells with B2 receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, Akt, and activator protein 1 (AP-1 inhibitors or mutants abolished BK-promoted migration and ICAM-1 expression. In addition, treatment with a B2 receptor, PI3K, or Akt inhibitor also reduced BK-mediated AP-1 activation. Our results indicate that BK enhances the migration of prostate cancer cells by increasing ICAM-1 expression through a signal transduction pathway that involves the B2 receptor, PI3K, Akt, and AP-1. Thus, BK represents a promising new target for treating prostate cancer metastasis.

  17. Effect of blockers of Kv and BKCa channels on muscle tension of rabbit oddi sphincter in vivo and th e regulatory effect of paeoniflorin%Kv 和 BK Ca通道阻断剂对家兔离体 Oddi括约肌肌环张力的作用及芍药甙的调控作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒建瑞; 王芳; 冯骅; 王长淼

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is to investigate the effect of blockers of voltage-gated potassium channels ( Kv) , large-conduct-ance calcium-activated potassium channel ( BKCa) on sphincter of Oddi ( sphincter of Oddi , SO) from rabbits muscle ten-sion rings, and to explore the regulatory effect of the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine paeoniflorin on them . Methods Isolated rabbit sphincter of Oddi muscle rings specimens were prepared and placed on the smooth muscle perfusion bath temperature to observe the contraction effect of Kv channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), BKCa channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride( TEA) on isolated rabbit SO muscle rings and the effects of paeoniflorin on the contraction effects induced by 4-AP and TEA.Resul ts 4-AP and TEA both could cause contraction of SO muscle rings , with the the concen-trations increased , the contraction degrees increased .The contraction effects induced by 4-AP and TEA could be inhibited by paeoniflorin .Conclusion In vitro condition , Kv channel and BKCa channel play a major role in the maintenance of sphincter of Oddi resting membrane potential of cells .Paeoniflorin may influence the relaxant responses of SO cells possibly through the regulation of Kv and BKCa channels .%目的:探讨电压依赖性钾通道( Kv)、大电导钙激活钾通道( BKCa )阻断剂对家兔离体Oddi 括约肌( SO)肌环张力的作用及中药芍药的有效成分芍药甙对其调控作用。方法制备离体兔Oddi 括约肌肌环标本,放置于平滑肌恒温灌流浴槽中,观察Kv通道阻断剂4-aminopyridine (4-AP)、BKCa通道阻断剂tetraethylammonium chloride ( TEA)对家兔离体SO肌环的收缩作用;观察芍药甙对4-AP和TEA引起的收缩作用的影响。结果4-AP、TEA均可以引起SO肌环收缩,且随4-AP、TEA浓度增加,收缩程度也在增强。4-AP和TEA对SO肌环的收缩作用可以被芍药甙抑制。结论在离体条件下,Kv通道和BKCa通道对维持SO细胞的静息膜电位起主要作用。芍药甙可能通过对Kv通道和BKCa通道的调控,实现了对SO细胞的舒张反应。

  18. Molecular mechanisms of diabetic coronary dysfunction due to large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ru-xing; ZHENG Jie; GUO Su-xia; LI Xiao-rong; LU Tong; SHI Hai-feng; CHAI Qiang; WU Ying; SUN Wei; JI Yuan; YAO Yong; LI Ku-lin; ZHANG Chang-ying

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with coronary dysfunction,contributing to a 2- to 4-fold increase in the risk of coronary heart diseases.The mechanisms by which diabetes induces vasculopathy involve endothelial-dependent and -independent vascular dysfunction in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.The purpose of this study is to determine the role of vascular large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel activities in coronary dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Methods Using videomicroscopy,immunoblotting,fluorescent assay and patch clamp techniques,we investigated the coronary BK channel activities and BK channel-mediated coronary vasoreactivity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Results BK currents (defined as the iberiotoxin-sensitive K+ component) contribute (65±4)% of the total K+ currents in freshly isolated coronary smooth muscle cells and >50% of the contraction of the inner diameter of coronary arteries from normal rats.However,BK current density is remarkably reduced in coronary smooth muscle cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,leading to an increase in coronary artery tension.BK channel activity in response to free Ca2+ is impaired in diabetic rats.Moreover,cytoplasmic application of DHS-1 (a specific BK channel β1 subunit activator) robustly enhanced the open probability of BK channels in coronary smooth muscle cells of normal rats.In diabetic rats,the DHS-1 effect was diminished in the presence of 200 nmol/L Ca2+ and was significantly attenuated in the presence of high free calcium concentration,i.e.,1 μmol/L Ca2+.Immunoblotting experiments confirmed that there was a 2-fold decrease in BK-β1 protein expression in diabetic vessels,without altering the BK channel α-subunit expression.Although the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of coronary arterial smooth muscle cells was increased from (103±23)nmol/L (n=5) of control rats to (193±22) nmol/L (n=6,P<0.05) of STZ-induced diabetic rats,reduced BK

  19. In Vivo Effects of Bradykinin B2 Receptor Agonists with Varying Susceptibility to Peptidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Mélissa; Gera, Lajos; Charest-Morin, Xavier; Marceau, François; Bachelard, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    We reported evidence of bradykinin (BK) regeneration from C-terminal extended BK sequences that behave as peptidase-activated B2 receptor (B2R) agonists. Further to these in vitro studies, we carried out in vivo experiments to verify hemodynamic effects of BK analogs exhibiting variable susceptibility toward vascular and blood plasma peptidases. Rats were anesthetized and instrumented to record blood pressure and heart rate responses to bolus intravenous (i.v.) injection of increasing doses of BK, B-9972 (D-Arg-[Hyp3,Igl5,Oic7,Igl8]-BK), BK-Arg, BK-His-Leu or BK-Ala-Pro, in the absence or presence of specific inhibitors. In some experiments, pulsed Doppler flow probes measured hindquarter Doppler shift in response to i.v. injections of kinins. BK caused rapid, transient and dose-related hypotensive effects. These effects were potentiated ∼15-fold by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, enalaprilat, but extensively inhibited by icatibant (a B2R antagonist) and not influenced by the Arg-carboxypeptidase (CP) inhibitor (Plummer’s inhibitor). The hypotensive responses elicited by the peptidase-resistant B2R agonist, B-9972, were not affected by enalaprilat, but were inhibited by icatibant. The hypotensive responses to BK-Arg were abolished by pre-treatment with either the Arg-CP inhibitor or icatibant, pharmacologically evidencing BK regeneration. The hypotensive effects of BK-His-Leu and BK-Ala-Pro, previously reported as ACE-activated substrates, were abolished by icatibant, but not by enalaprilat. In vivo regeneration of BK from these two C-terminally extended analogs with no affinity for the B2R must follow alternative cleavage rules involving unidentified carboxypeptidase(s) when ACE is blocked. The transient hypotensive responses to BK and three tested analogs coincided with concomitant vasodilation (increased Doppler shift signal). Together, these results provide in vivo evidence that interesting hypotensive and vasodilator effects can be

  20. The bradykinin B2 receptor induces multiple cellular responses leading to the proliferation of human renal carcinoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramarenko II

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Inga I Kramarenko1, Thomas A Morinelli1,2, Marlene A Bunni1,2, John R Raymond Sr3, Maria N Garnovskaya11Department of Medicine (Nephrology Division, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; 2Medical and Research Services of the Ralph H Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA; 3Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USABackground: The vasoactive peptide bradykinin (BK acts as a potent growth factor for normal kidney cells, but there have been few studies on the role of BK in renal cell carcinomas.Purpose: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that BK also acts as a mitogen in kidney carcinomas, and explored the effects of BK in human renal carcinoma A498 cells.Methods: The presence of mRNAs for BK B1 and BK B2 receptors in A498 cells was demonstrated by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. To study BK signaling pathways, we employed fluorescent measurements of intracellular Ca2+, measured changes in extracellular pH as a reflection of Na+/H+ exchange (NHE with a Cytosensor microphysiometer, and assessed extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activation by Western blotting.Results: Exposure to 100 nM of BK resulted in the rapid elevation of intracellular Ca2+, caused a ≥30% increase in NHE activity, and a ≥300% increase in ERK phosphorylation. All BK signals were blocked by HOE140, a BK B2 receptor antagonist, but not by a B1 receptor antagonist. Inhibitor studies suggest that BK-induced ERK activation requires phospholipase C and protein kinase C activities, and is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent. The amiloride analog 5-(N-methyl-N-isobutyl-amiloride (MIA blocked short-term NHE activation and inhibited ERK phosphorylation, suggesting that NHE is critical for ERK activation by BK. BK induced an approximately 40% increase in the proliferation of A498 cells as assessed by bromodeoxyuridine uptake. This effect was blocked by the ERK inhibitor PD98059, and was dependent on NHE activity

  1. The Berry-Keating operator on L{sup 2}(R{sub >},dx) and on compact quantum graphs with general self-adjoint realizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, Sebastian; Steiner, Frank, E-mail: sebastian.endres@uni-ulm.d, E-mail: frank.steiner@uni-ulm.d [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2010-03-05

    The Berry-Keating operator H{sub BK} := -i h-bar (x d/dx + 1/2) (Berry and Keating 1999 SIAM Rev. 41 236) governing the Schroedinger dynamics is discussed in the Hilbert space L{sup 2}(R{sub >},dx) and on compact quantum graphs. It has been proved that the spectrum of H{sub BK} defined on L{sup 2}(R{sub >},dx) is purely continuous and thus this quantization of H{sub BK} cannot yield the hypothetical Hilbert-Polya operator possessing as eigenvalues the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function. A complete classification of all self-adjoint extensions of H{sub BK} acting on compact quantum graphs is given together with the corresponding secular equation in form of a determinant whose zeros determine the discrete spectrum of H{sub BK}. In addition, an exact trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics of the eigenvalue counting function are derived. Furthermore, we introduce the 'squared' Berry-Keating operator H{sub BK}{sup 2} := -x{sup 2} d{sup 2}/dx{sup 2} -2x d/dx - 1/4 which is a special case of the Black-Scholes operator used in financial theory of option pricing. Again, all self-adjoint extensions, the corresponding secular equation, the trace formula and the Weyl asymptotics are derived for H{sup 2}{sub BK} on compact quantum graphs. While the spectra of both H{sub BK} and H{sup 2}{sub BK} on any compact quantum graph are discrete, their Weyl asymptotics demonstrate that neither H{sub BK} nor H{sup 2}{sub BK} can yield as eigenvalues the nontrivial Riemann zeros. Some simple examples are worked out in detail.

  2. TRPA1 in bradykinin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity of vagal C fibers in guinea pig esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaoyong; Ouyang, Ann

    2009-02-01

    Bradykinin (BK) activates sensory nerves and causes hyperalgesia. Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is expressed in sensory nerves and mediates cold, mechanical, and chemical nociception. TRPA1 can be activated by BK. TRPA1 knockout mice show impaired responses to BK and mechanical nociception. However, direct evidence from sensory nerve terminals is lacking. This study aims to determine the role of TRPA1 in BK-induced visceral mechanical hypersensitivity. Extracellular recordings of action potentials from vagal nodose and jugular neurons are performed in an ex vivo guinea pig esophageal-vagal preparation. Peak frequencies of action potentials of afferent nerves evoked by esophageal distension and chemical perfusion are recorded and compared. BK activates most nodose and all jugular C fibers. This activation is repeatable and associated with a significant increase in response to esophageal distension, which can be prevented by the B2 receptor antagonist WIN64338. TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) activates most BK-positive nodose and jugular C fibers. This is associated with a transient loss of response to mechanical distensions and desensitization to a second AITC perfusion. Desensitization with AITC and pretreatment with TRPA1 inhibitor HC-030031 both inhibit BK-induced mechanical hypersensitivity but do not affect BK-evoked activation in nodose and jugular C fibers. In contrast, esophageal vagal afferent Adelta fibers do not respond to BK or AITC and fail to show mechanical hypersensitivity after BK perfusion. This provides the first evidence directly from visceral sensory afferent nerve terminals that TRPA1 mediates BK-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. This reveals a novel mechanism of visceral peripheral sensitization. PMID:19033534

  3. Human bradykinin B(2) receptor is activated by kallikrein and other serine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecquet, C; Tan, F; Marcic, B M; Erdös, E G

    2000-10-01

    Bradykinin (BK) and kallidin (Lys-BK), liberated from kininogens by kallikreins, are ligands of the BK B(2) receptor. We investigated whether kallikreins, besides releasing peptide agonist, could also activate the receptor directly. We studied the effect of porcine and human recombinant tissue kallikrein and plasma kallikrein on [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization and [(3)H]arachidonic acid release from cultured cells stably transfected to express human BK B(2) receptor (CHO/B(2), MDCK/B(2), HEK/B(2)), and endothelial cells were used as control cells. As with BK, the actions of kallikrein were blocked by the B(2) antagonist, HOE 140. Kallikrein was inactive on cells lacking B(2) receptor. Kallikrein and BK desensitized the receptor homologously but there was no cross-desensitization. Furthermore, 50 nM human cathepsin G and 50 nM trypsin also activated the receptor; this also was blocked by HOE 140. Experiments excluded a putative kinin release by proteases. [(3)H]AA release by BK was reduced by 40% by added kininase I (carboxypeptidase M); however, receptor activation by tissue kallikrein, trypsin, or cathepsin G was not affected. Prokallikrein and inhibited kallikrein were inactive, suggesting cleavage of a peptide bond in the receptor. Kallikreins were active on mutated B(2) receptor missing the 19 N-terminal amino acids, suggesting a type of activation different from that of thrombin receptor. Paradoxically, tissue kallikreins decreased the [(3)H]BK binding to the receptor with a low K(D) (3 nM) and inhibited it 78%. Thus, kallikreins and some other proteases activate human BK B(2) receptor directly, independent of BK release. The BK B(2) receptor may belong to a new group of serine protease-activated receptors. PMID:10999954

  4. Molecular and functional expression of high conductance Ca 2+ activated K+ channels in the eel intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lionetto, Maria G; Rizzello, Antonia; Giordano, Maria E;

    2008-01-01

    ) by increasing intracellular Ca(2+) concentration with the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin (1 microM). BK(Ca) channels were also activated on both membranes by hypotonic swelling of the epithelium and their inhibition by 100 nM iberiotoxin (specific BK(Ca) inhibitor) abolished the Regulatory Volume Decrease (RVD...

  5. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies of the C-type lectin bovine conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Nielsen, E H; Storgaard, P;

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate the supramolecular organization of conglutinin (BK) with its primary and tertiary structure and to gain more knowledge of functionally important regions of the molecule. BK analyzed by SDS-PAGE under standard reducing conditions (40 mM DTT) showed a major ba...

  6. Einsteinium chemistry in the gas phase: exploring the divalent character of heavy actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first chemical studies of the monopositive einsteinium ion, Es+, in the gas phase have been carried out, and its behavior compared to those for other actinide ions, with a particular focus on Bk+. The yield of laser-ablated EsO+ indicates that the Es+-O bond energy is significantly smaller than that of Bk+-O. Fluorination of Es+ and Bk+ through F-abstraction from hexafluoropropene demonstrated clearly the stability of the divalent state of Es: whereas by this process both BkF+ and BkF2+ are produced, only the ''divalent'' EsF+ product is formed. The reaction of Es+ with several different alkenes produced only small yields of adducts (e.g., EsC4H8+). These adducts are the first organoeinsteinium complexes to be identified. Whereas Es+ was inert towards 1,5-cyclooctadiene, in contrast Bk+ dehydrogenated this substrate to give BkC8H8+, demonstrating the greater activation activity of Bk+ than Es+ towards alkenes. The chemical behaviors observed in these studies are consistent with the predicted electronic structure and energetics of Es+, and the results obtained are discussed in the context of systematic trends across the actinide series. (orig.)

  7. Drug: D08777 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R:br08301] 6 Agents against pathologic organisms and parasites 63 Biological preparations 631 Vaccines 6313 Viral vaccines...RAL VACCINES J07BK Varicella zoster vaccines J07BK01 Varicella, live attenuated D08777 Freeze-dried live att

  8. Localization of Ca2+ -activated big-conductance K+ channels in rabbit distal colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Grunnet, Morten; Abrahamse, Salomon L;

    2003-01-01

    Big-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK channels) may play an important role in the regulation of epithelial salt and water transport, but little is known about the expression level and the precise localization of BK channels in epithelia. The aim of the present study was to quantify...

  9. Localization of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and their effect on calcitonin gene-related peptide release in the rat trigemino-neuronal pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Johansson, H.; Amrutkar, D.V.; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels are membrane proteins contributing to electrical propagation through neurons. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide found in the trigeminovascular system (TGVS). Both BK(Ca) channels and CGRP are involved in migraine...

  10. EA Interlaboratory Comparison Ac1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1999-01-01

    A pistonphone B&K 4228 and a Sound Calibrator B&K 4231 has been circulated for calibration among 37 laboratories in 16 countries.The report describes in detail the calibration technique used by the pilot laboratory (AT/DTU) and an analysis of the results from the participating laboratories....

  11. Carbon monoxide stimulates Ca2+ -dependent big-conductance K channels in the cortical collecting duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijian; Yue, Peng; Lin, Dao-Hong; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2013-03-01

    We used the patch-clamp technique to examine the role of carbon monoxide (CO) in regulating Ca(2+)-activated big-conductance K (BK) channels in the principal cell of the cortical collecting duct (CCD). Application of CORM3 or CORM2, a CO donor, activated BK channels in the CCD, whereas adding inactivated CORM2/3 had no effect. Superfusion of the CCD with CO-bubbled bath solution also activated the BK channels in the cell-attached patches. The effect of CO on BK channels was not dependent on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) because the effect of CORM3 was also observed in the CCD treated with l-NAME, an agent that inhibits the NOS. Adding a membrane-permeable cGMP analog, 8-bromo-cGMP, significantly increased the BK channel in the CCD. However, inhibition of soluble guanylate cyclase failed to abolish the stimulatory effect of CORM3 on BK channels. Moreover, inhibition of cGMP-dependent protein kinase G did not block the stimulatory effect of CORM3 on the BK channels, suggesting that the stimulatory effect of CO on the BK channels was, at least partially, induced by a cGMP-independent mechanism. Western blot demonstrated that heme oxygenase type 1 (HO-1) and HO-2 were expressed in the kidney. Moreover, a high-K (HK) intake increased the expression of HO-1 but not HO-2 in the kidney. A HK intake also increased renal HO activity defined by NADPH-dependent CO generation following addition of heme in the cell lysate from renal cortex and outer medulla. The role of HO in regulating BK channel activity in the CCD was also suggested by experiments in which application of hemin increased the BK channels. The stimulatory effect of hemin on the BK channels was blocked by SnMP, a HO inhibitor. But, adding CORM3 was still able to activate the BK channels in the presence of SnMP. We conclude that CO activates the BK channels, at least partially, through a NO-cGMP-independent pathway and that HO plays a role in mediating the effect of HK intake on the BK channels in the CCD. PMID

  12. Structure-function relationship of bifunctional scorpion toxin BmBKTxl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suming Wang; Lijun Huang; Dieter Wicher; Chengwu Chi; Chenqi Xu

    2008-01-01

    As the first identified scorpion toxin active on both big conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BK) and small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK), BmBKTxl has been proposed to have two separate functional faces for two targets. To investigate this hypothesis, two double mutants,K21A-Y30A and R9A-KIlA, together with wild-type toxin were expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant toxins were tested on cockroach BK and rat SK2 channel for functional assay. Mutant K21A-Y30A had a dramatic loss of function on BK but retained its function on SK. Mutant R9A-KI1A did not lose function on BK or SK. These data support the two functional-face hypothesis and indicate that the BK face is on the C-terminal β-sheet.

  13. Human umbilical vein: involvement of cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in bradykinin B1 receptor-sensitized responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti, A E; Rey-Ares, V; Daray, F M; Rogines-Velo, M P; Sardi, S P; Paz, C; Podestá, E J; Rothlin, R P

    2001-08-01

    In isolated human umbilical vein (HUV), the contractile response to des-Arg9-bradykinin (des-Arg9-BK), selective BK B1 receptor agonist, increases as a function of the incubation time. Here, we evaluated whether cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway is involved in BK B1-sensitized response obtained in 5-h incubated HUV rings. The effect of different concentrations of indomethacin, sodium salicylate, ibuprofen, meloxicam, lysine clonixinate or NS-398 administrated 30 min before concentration-response curves (CRC) was studied. All treatments produced a significant rightward shift of the CRC to des-Arg9-BK in a concentration-dependent manner, which provides pharmacological evidence that COX pathway is involved in the BK B1 responses. Moreover, in this tissue, the NS-398 pKb (5.2) observed suggests that COX-2 pathway is the most relevant. The strong correlation between published pIC50 for COX-2 and the NSAIDs' pKbs estimated further supports the hypothesis that COX-2 metabolites are involved in BK B1 receptor-mediated responses. In other rings, indomethacin (30, 100 micromol/l) or NS-398 (10, 30 micromol/l) produced a significant rightward shift of the CRC to BK, selective BK B2 agonist, and its pKbs were similar to the values to inhibit BK B1 receptor responses, suggesting that COX-2 pathway also is involved in BK B2 receptor responses. Western blot analysis shows that COX-1 and COX-2 isoenzymes are present before and after 5-h in vitro incubation and apparently COX-2 does not suffer additional induction. PMID:11534854

  14. Virulence versus fitness determinants in Escherichia coli isolated from asymptomatic bacteriuria in healthy nonpregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugandha Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Escherichia coli isolated from asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU correlated genotypically and phenotypically with cystitis isolates may help in distinguishing urovirulence determinants from 'fitness factors', latter necessary only for survival of E. coli in urinary tract; for gaining insight into the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we compared genotypic (phylogroups and 15 putative virulence genes, and phenotypic profiles of ABU E. coli strains with our previously genotyped collection of cystitis isolates. Virulence score was calculated for each isolate as a number of virulence genes detected. Results: Significant differences were observed in the proportion of four phylogenetic groups (P = 0.009 amongst cystitis and ABU isolates. Average virulence score was higher for ABU isolates (6.6 than cystitis strains (4.2; and hlyA (P = 0.001, cytotoxic necrotising factor 1 (P = 0.00, fyuA (P = 0.00, ibeA (P = 0.00, kpsMII (P = 0.01, and malX/pathogenicity-associated island (P = 0.01 were more frequently present in ABU strains. Conclusions: The expression of adhesins, haemolysin, aerobactin, and capsule synthesis gene were similar in two groups suggesting their role as fitness factors. ABU isolates were better biofilm producers, reflecting its importance in silent persistence. Serum resistance gene which was more expressed in cystitis isolates may represent virulence determinant. Genetic makeup of E. coli does not change much rather genes helping in survival and colonisation are expressed equally in ABU and cystitis isolates as opposed to phenotypic attenuation of those that helps in invasion or inflammation in ABU isolates.

  15. Estimation of radiating conditions in the reservoirs located close uranium mining of regions of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time by the analysis of capacity of an equivalent doze of scales - radiations, the maintenance radionuclide and heavy metals in water, ground adjournment and hydrobionts the objective estimation of a radioecological condition of reservoirs in places of extraction, processing and warehousing of uranium ores Akmolinsk of area is given. It is shown, that the investigated reservoirs differ among themselves with a weak, average and high mineralization of water. These circumstances can influence essentially behaviour radionuclides at their hit in a reservoir, and consequently, and on radiating conditions arising at it. Capacity of an equivalent doze of scales - radiations in a coastal part of the majority of the investigated reservoirs corresponds to background values (2) and beta particles (4,75-4,93 part./mines x sm2) also is marked. The analysis of a radioecological situation in river system Aksu has shown, that its basic components - river water, ground adjournment, water plants and fishes test radiating loading: concentration 238U in water, ground deposits, a cane and fabrics of the perch makes accordingly 0,66±0,21 Bk/l, 210±2,8 Bk/kg, 0,64±0,19 Bk/kg and 2,50±0,11 Bk/kg. Specific activity 226Ra in water, ground adjournment, plants and fishes made accordingly 0,02±0,005 Bk/l, 32,20±0,45 Bk/kg, 0,78±0,05 Bk/kg and 2,41±0,31 Bk/kg. Complex radioecological conditions in river system 'Kutunguz' is caused by dump in the river of miner waters with mine 1. In river water concentration 238U, 226Ra, 210Po, 230Th and 210Pb makes accordingly on the average - 4,54 Bk/l, 0,11 Bk/l, 2,50 Bk/l, 0,1 Bk/l and 0,37 Bk/l. If the maintenance specified radionuclides in a ground before dump of miner waters varied in limits from 33,1 Bk/kg up to 56,5 Bk/kg in places of dump of miner waters it makes in limits from 62,0 Bk/kg up to 122 Bk/kg, and is lower on a watercourse, in area of settlement Beseloe, in 27 km from a place of dumps - from 92,0 Bk/kg up to 1750 Bk

  16. Adaptação à cultura brasileira dos questionários The O'Leary-Sant e PUF, usados para cistite intersticial Adaptación a la cultura brasileña de los cuestionarios The O'Leary-Sant y Puf, usados para cistitis intersticial Adaptation of the O'Leary-Sant and the PUF for the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis for the Brazilian culture

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella Lima Victal; Maria Helena Baena de Moraes Lopes; Carlos Arturo Levi D'Ancona

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi traduzir e adaptar à cultura brasileira os instrumentos The O'Leary-Sant e PUF, utilizados no diagnóstico de cistite intersticial. Foram realizadas as etapas metodológicas recomendadas pela literatura internacional para a adaptação cultural. As etapas de tradução, síntese das traduções e retrotradução foram realizadas satisfatoriamente, e a avaliação das versões sintéticas pelo comitê de especialistas resultou em algumas alterações, assegurando as equivalências ent...

  17. Calpeptin, not calpain, directly inhibits an ion channel of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, Maria; Vorwerk, Christian; Siemen, Detlef

    2016-05-01

    The permeability transition pore (PTP) of inner mitochondrial membranes is a large conductance pathway for ions up to 1500 Da which opening is responsible for ion equilibration and loss of membrane potential in apoptosis and thus in several neurodegenerative diseases. The PTP can be regulated by the Ca(2+)-activated mitochondrial K channel (BK). Calpains are Ca(2+)-activated cystein proteases; calpeptin is an inhibitor of calpains. We wondered whether calpain or calpeptin can modulate activity of PTP or BK. Patch clamp experiments were performed on mitoplasts of rat liver (PTP) and of an astrocytoma cell line (BK). Channel-independent open probability (P o) was determined (PTP) and, taking into account the number of open levels, NPo by single channel analysis (BK). We find that PTP in the presence of Ca(2+) (200 μM) is uninfluenced by calpain (13 nM) and shows insignificant decrease by the calpain inhibitor calpeptin (1 μM). The NPo of the BK is insensitive to calpain (54 nM), too. However, it is significantly and reversibly inhibited by the calpain inhibitor calpeptin (IC50 = 42 μM). The results agree with calpeptin-induced activation of the PTP via inhibition of the BK. Screening experiments with respirometry show calpeptin effects, fitting to inhibition of the BK by calpeptin, and strong inhibition of state 3 respiration. PMID:26108743

  18. Stimulation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels inhibits neurogenic contraction of human bladder from patients with urinary symptoms and reverses acetic acid-induced bladder hyperactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fuente, José M; Fernández, Argentina; Cuevas, Pedro; González-Corrochano, Rocío; Chen, Mao Xiang; Angulo, Javier

    2014-07-15

    We have analysed the effects of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BK) stimulation on neurogenic and myogenic contraction of human bladder from healthy subjects and patients with urinary symptoms and evaluated the efficacy of activating BK to relief bladder hyperactivity in rats. Bladder specimens were obtained from organ donors and from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Contractions elicited by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and carbachol (CCh) were evaluated in isolated bladder strips. in vivo cystometric recordings were obtained in anesthetized rats under control and acetic acid-induced hyperactive conditions. Neurogenic contractions of human bladder were potentiated by blockade of BK and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) but were unaffected by the blockade of intermediate calcium-activated potassium channels (IK). EFS-induced contractions were inhibited by BK stimulation with NS-8 or NS1619 or by SK/IK stimulation with NS309 (3µM). CCh-induced contractions were not modified by blockade or stimulation of BK, IK or SK. The anti-cholinergic agent, oxybutynin (0.3µM) inhibited either neurogenic or CCh-induced contractions. Neurogenic contractions of bladders from BPH patients were less sensitive to BK inhibition and more sensitive to BK activation than healthy bladders. The BK activator, NS-8 (5mg/kg; i.v.), reversed bladder hyperactivity induced by acetic acid in rats, while oxybutynin was ineffective. NS-8 did not significantly impact blood pressure or heart rate. BK stimulation specifically inhibits neurogenic contractions in patients with urinary symptoms and relieves bladder hyperactivity in vivo without compromising bladder contractile capacity or cardiovascular safety, supporting its potential therapeutic use for relieving bladder overactivity. PMID:24747752

  19. Neurophysiological mechanisms of bradykinin-evokedmucosal chloride secretion in guinea pig small intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the mechanism for bradykinin(BK) to stimulate intestinal secretomotor neurons andintestinal chloride secretion.METHODS: Muscle-stripped guinea pig ileal preparationswere mounted in Ussing flux chambers for therecording of short-circuit current (Isc ). Basal Isc andIsc stimulated by BK when preincubated with the BKreceptors antagonist and other chemicals were recordedusing the Ussing chamber system. Prostaglandin E2(PGE2) production in the intestine was determined byenzyme immunologic assay (EIA).RESULTS: Application of BK or B2 receptor (B2R) agonistsignificantly increased the baseline Isc compared to thecontrol. B2R antagonist, tetrodotoxin and scopolamine(blockade of muscarinic receptors) significantly suppressedthe increase in Isc evoked by BK. The BK-evokedIsc was suppressed by cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or COX-2specific inhibitor as well as nonselective COX inhibitors.Preincubation of submucosa/mucosa preparations withBK for 10 min significantly increased PGE2 production andthis was abolished by the COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors.The BK-evoked Isc was suppressed by nonselective EPreceptors and EP4 receptor antagonists, but selective EP1receptor antagonist did not have a significant effect onthe BK-evoked Isc . Inhibitors of PLC, PKC, calmodulin orCaMKⅡ failed to suppress BK-induced PGE2 production.CONCLUSION: The results suggest that BK stimulatesneurogenic chloride secretion in the guinea pig ileumby activating B2R, through COX increasing PGE2 production.The post-receptor transduction cascade includesactivation of PLC, PKC, CaMK, IP3 and MAPK.

  20. New Multi-soliton Solutions for the (2+1)-Dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang-Kui; Zhaqilao; FANG Jian-Hui; LI Zhi-Bin; PANG Ting; LIN Peng

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an explicit N-fold Darboux transformation with multi-parameters for both a (1+1)-dimensional Broer Kaup (BK) equation and a (1+1)-dimensional high-order Broer Kaup equation is constructed with the help of a gauge transformation of their spectral problems. By using the Darboux transformation and new ba-sic solutions of the spectral problems, 2N-soliton solutions of the BK equation, the high-order BK equation, and the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation are obtained.

  1. Potassium channels in prostate and colonic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ousingsawat, Jiraporn

    2007-01-01

    Large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in human prostate cancer The KCNMA1 gene encoding the alpha-subunit of BK channels is amplified and BK channel expression is enhanced in late-stage, metastatic and hormone-refractory human prostate cancer tissues, whereas benign prostate tissues show only a weak expression of BK channels. PC-3 hormone-insensitive prostate cancer cells, but not hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) and benign prostate hyperplasia cells (BPH-1), show an ...

  2. Cell volume and membrane stretch independently control K+ channel activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholtz, Sofia Hammami; Willumsen, Niels J; Olsen, Hervør L; Morera, Francisco J; Latorre, Ramón; Klaerke, Dan A

    . To test this hypothesis we have studied the regulation of KCNQ1 and BK channels after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Results from cell-attached patch clamp studies (approximately 50 microm(2) macropatches) in oocytes expressing BK channels demonstrate that the macroscopic volume-insensitive BK...... current increases with increasing negative hydrostatic pressure (suction) applied to the pipette. Thus, at a pipette pressure of -5.0 +/- 0.1 mmHg the increase amounted to 381 +/- 146% (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 6, P < 0.025). In contrast, in oocytes expressing the strongly volume-sensitive KCNQ1 channel, the...

  3. Molecular studies of BKCa channels in intracranial arteries: presence and localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Helle Wulf; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Klærke, Dan Arne; Olesen, Jes; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    2008-01-01

    of the BK(Ca) channel in rat basilar, middle cerebral, and middle meningeal arteries by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time PCR, and Western blotting. Distribution patterns were investigated using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence studies. RT...... blotting detected the BK(Ca) channel protein in rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence studies confirmed that the BK(Ca) channel mRNA and protein expression was localized to smooth muscle cells in all three intracranial arteries. The data thus suggest the...

  4. An Inequality for Euler's Constant%关于Euler常数的一个不等式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超平; 崔润卿; 祁锋

    2005-01-01

    利用Γ函数的对数微商的渐近公式,我们建立了下面双边不等式:1/2n+2P+1∑k=1(-1)k Bk/2kn2k<n∑k=1 1/k-1nn-γ<1/2n+2P∑k=1(-1)k Bk/2kn2k,这里γ=0.57721566…是Euler常数,Bk(k=1,2,…)是Bernoulli数,p≥0和n≥1是整数.

  5. Virulence potential of Escherichia coli strains causing asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Boutet-Dubois, Adeline; Laouini, Dorsaf; Combescure, Christophe; Bouziges, Nicole; Marès, Pierre; Sotto, Albert

    2011-11-01

    We compared the virulence properties of a collection of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) Escherichia coli strains to urinary tract infection (UTI) strains isolated from pregnant women in a university hospital over 1 year. The in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that ABU strains presented a virulence behavior similar to that of strains isolated from cases of cystitis. PMID:21918033

  6. Virulence Potential of Escherichia coli Strains Causing Asymptomatic Bacteriuria during Pregnancy ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Boutet-Dubois, Adeline; Laouini, Dorsaf; Combescure, Christophe; Bouziges, Nicole; Marès, Pierre; Sotto, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We compared the virulence properties of a collection of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) Escherichia coli strains to urinary tract infection (UTI) strains isolated from pregnant women in a university hospital over 1 year. The in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that ABU strains presented a virulence behavior similar to that of strains isolated from cases of cystitis.

  7. The usefulness of radioisotope investigation with 133Xe in the differential diagnosis of certain bladder diseases (preliminary communication)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using radioactive xenon the authors carried out functional investigations of the bladder in 10 patients. Changes in the activity of 133Xe introduced into the bladder were measured using a ZM-703 unit Polon. In patients with functional bladder disturbances slight penetration of xenon across the bladder wall was observed. A reverse finding was obtained in 3 patients with cystitis. (author)

  8. Perforeret akut akalkuløs kolecystitis forårsaget af hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuk, Pedja; Iqbal, Mozammil; Lykke, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a rare condition associated with a high risk of gangrene, empyema and perforation of the gallbladder. In this case report it is described how hepatitis A infection leads to a fulminant perforated acalculous chole-cystitis, which is described sporadically in the l...

  9. Should measurement of maximum urinary flow rate and residual urine volume be a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme in female incontinence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Pia; Mouritsen, L; Andersen, J Thorup;

    2002-01-01

    . Another woman had an urethral stricture with massive bladder emptying symptoms. In the remaining 172 women with symptomssuggesting bladder emptying problems, all but 3 were managed by triple voiding and timed micturition. In these 3 patients, who also had chronic cystitis, the treatment was supplemented...

  10. 21 CFR 520.314 - Cefadroxil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Staphylococcus aureus. For the treatment of genitourinary tract infections (cystitis) due to susceptible strains of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and S. aureus. (ii) Cats. For the treatment of skin and soft... strains of Pasteurella multocida, S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus spp....

  11. Hyoscyamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by decreasing the motion of the stomach and intestines and the secretion of stomach fluids, including acid. Hyoscyamine is also used in the treatment of bladder spasms, peptic ulcer disease, diverticulitis, colic, irritable bowel syndrome, cystitis, and pancreatitis. Hyoscyamine may also be used ...

  12. Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Urinary Tract Isolate Top52

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jeremiah G.; Spurbeck, Rachel R.; Sandhu, Sukhinder K.; Matson, Jyl S.

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a significant cause of nosocomial infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonias and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. K. pneumoniae strain TOP52 #1721 (Top52) was isolated from a woman presenting with acute cystitis and subsequently characterized using various murine models of infection. Here we present the genome sequence of K. pneumoniae Top52.

  13. Non-invasive localization of urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New methods to localize the source of bacteriuria were evaluated in monkeys with experimental urinary tract infection. A high level of diagnostic accuracy was obtained with the combined study of antibody-coated urinary bacteria by immunofluorescence, 131I hippuran scintiphotos in the hydropenic state and 67gallium citrate scintiphotos. Unique patterns were found, which differentiate cystitis, ureteritis, pyelonephritis and renal or perinephric abscesses

  14. Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women in a Sao Paulo Quaternary Care Hospital: Bacterial Spectrum and Susceptibility Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Hisano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI in women are very common. Regular analysis of bacterial flora is important to formulate updated guidelines. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the microbiology of UTIs and their susceptibility patterns in a quaternary care hospital. In a seven-year review, the urine culture results of 480 female patients with uncomplicated UTIs were analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups according to their diagnosis and treatment characteristics: Group 1, cystitis at outpatient basis; group 2, cystitis at the Emergency Unit; and group 3, pyelonephritis. Group 1 included older patients, with a higher incidence of concomitant diabetes mellitus and recurrent UTIs. E. coli was the most common pathogen, responsible for 75.1% of cases, mainly for pyelonephritis (87.3%. Of the oral antimicrobials tested for cystitis, amoxicillin/clavulanate and nitrofurantoin had the highest susceptibility profiles (84.4% and 87.3%, respectively. For E. coli only, their susceptibility profiles were as high as 90.8% and 97.4%, respectively. For pyelonephritis treatment, fluoroquinoles had a susceptibility profile <90%, while ceftriaxone and gentamicin had susceptibility >90%. Uncomplicated UTI treatment is becoming more challenging because the susceptibility profiles of oral antimicrobials are increasingly resistant. In our environment, cystitis can still be managed with nitrofurantoin. Uncomplicated pyelonephritis should be managed with ceftriaxone or gentamicin.

  15. Efficacy of Kanchanara Guggulu and Matra Basti of Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita in Mootraghata (benign prostatic hyperplasia)

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Joyal Kumar K.; Dudhamal, Tukaram S.; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Mahanta, Vyasadeva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a senile disorder affects male of and above 40 years characterized by retention, incomplete voiding, dribbling, hesitancy, and incontinence of urine. This condition is comparable with Mootraghata in Ayurveda. Surgical intervention has been accepted as standard management, but has acute cystitis, acute epididymitis, erectile dysfunction, retrograde ejaculation, etc. as complications. Conservative treatment with modern medicine is also associated ...

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of a CTX-M-15-Producing Escherichia coli Strain from the H30Rx Subclone of Sequence Type 131 from a Patient with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections, Closely Related to a Lethal Urosepsis Isolate from the Patient’s Sister

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Aziz, Maliha; Liu, Cindy M.; Sokurenko, Evgeni; Kisiela, Dagmara I.; Paul, Sandip; Andersen, Paal; James R Johnson; Price, Lance B.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence, including five plasmid sequences, of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) strain JJ1887. The strain was isolated in 2007 in the United States from a patient with recurrent cystitis, whose caregiver sister died from urosepsis caused by a nearly identical strain.

  17. Pivmecillinam for the treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, L E

    1999-12-01

    Pivmecillinam is a beta-lactam antimicrobial marketed almost two decades ago. It has been used widely for the treatment of acute cystitis in selected areas of the world, particularly in Scandinavia. With increasing resistance of community Escherichia coli isolates to trimethoprim and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, as previously observed for ampicillin and sulphonamides, reassessment of empiric antimicrobial regimens for acute uncomplicated urinary infection is necessary. Thus, it is timely to revisit the role of pivmecillinam for the treatment of acute cystitis. Clinical studies document the efficacy of this antimicrobial with short course therapy for acute cystitis, and clinical practice in countries where it has been used for many years confirms its efficacy and tolerability. If this agent were more widely used for empiric treatment for acute cystitis, use of antimicrobials such as the quinolones might be avoided. Further trials to define the comparative efficacy of pivmecillinam with other antimicrobials, and further studies of community resistance in E. coli isolates to this agent are needed. PMID:10692756

  18. [Clinical studies on pivmecillinam in urinary tract infections (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, M; Kiuchi, H; Suzuki, M; Morinaga, O; Tanaka, H

    1979-09-01

    Pivmecillinam (PMPC), semisynthetic penicillin for oral use, was studied clinically and following results were obtained. 1) Twenty-eight patients with acute simple cystitis treated with the drug 200 mg/day for 4 days, clinical results were excellent in 23 cases and moderate in 5 cases. Six patients with chronic simple cystitis treated with the drug 400 mg/day for 7 days, clinical results were excellent in 4 cases, moderate in 1 case and poor in 1 case. Eight patients with complicated urinary tract infections treated with the drug 400 mg/day for 7 days, clinical results were excellent in 2 cases, moderate in 2 cases and poor in 4 cases. Overall effectiveness amounted to 88.1%. 2) Pivmecillinam was clinically effective in patients infected by Gram-negative bacteria except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 3) No side effects were observed in all cases. The effectiveness of PMPC for acute simple cystitis was compared with that of talampicillin (TAPC), ampicillin (ABPC), amoxicillin (AMPC) and pivampicillin (PVPC) reported previously and PMPC was assessed as the most useful agent in these. Then, pivmecillinam should be chosen firstly as a chemotherapeutic agent for acute simple cystitis. PMID:228097

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, acting at the spinal cord level, participates in bladder hyperactivity and referred pain during chronic bladder inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, B; Allen, S; Dawbarn, D; Charrua, A; Cruz, F; Cruz, C D

    2013-03-27

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin (NT) known to participate in chronic somatic pain. A recent study has indicated that BDNF may participate in chronic cystitis at the peripheral level. However, the principal site of action for this NT is the central nervous system, most notably the spinal cord. The effects of centrally-acting BDNF on bladder function in normal animals and its central role during chronic cystitis are presently unknown. The present study was undertaken to clarify this issue. For that purpose, control non-inflamed animals were intrathecally injected with BDNF, after which bladder function was evaluated. This treatment caused short-lasting bladder hyperactivity; whereas chronic intrathecal administration of BDNF did not elicit this effect. Cutaneous sensitivity was assessed by mechanical allodynia as an internal control of BDNF action. To ascertain the role of BDNF in bladder inflammation, animals with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis received intrathecal injections of either a general Trk receptor antagonist or a BDNF scavenger. Blockade of Trk receptors or BDNF sequestration notably improved bladder function. In addition, these treatments also reduced referred pain, typically observed in rats with chronic cystitis. Reduction of referred pain was accompanied by a decrease in the spinal levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, a marker of increased sensory barrage in the lumbosacral spinal cord, and spinal BDNF expression. Results obtained here indicate that BDNF, acting at the spinal cord level, contributes to bladder hyperactivity and referred pain, important hallmarks of chronic cystitis. In addition, these data also support the development of BDNF modulators as putative therapeutic options for the treatment of chronic bladder inflammation. PMID:23313710

  20. Increased expression of interleukin (IL-6 family members and receptors in urinary bladder with cyclophosphamide (CYP-induced bladder inflammation in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MargaretAVizzard

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that JAK-STAT signaling pathways contribute to increased voiding frequency and referred pain of CYP-induced cystitis in rats. Potential upstream chemical mediator(s that may be activated by CYP-induced cystitis to stimulate JAK/STAT signaling are not known in detail. In these studies, members of the interleukin (IL-6 family of cytokines including, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, IL-6 and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF and associated receptors, IL-6 receptor (R α, LIFR and gp130 were examined in the urinary bladder in control and CYP-treated rats. Cytokine and receptor transcript and protein expression and distribution were determined in urinary bladder after cyclophosphamide (CYP-induced cystitis using quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Acute (4 hr; 150 mg/kg; i.p., intermediate (48 hr; 150 mg/kg; i.p. or chronic (75 mg/kg; i.p., once every 3 days for 10 days cystitis was induced in adult, female Wistar rats with CYP treatment. Q-PCR analyses revealed significant (p ≤ 0.01 CYP duration- and tissue- (e.g., urothelium, detrusor dependent increases in LIF, IL-6, IL-6Rα, LIFR and gp130 mRNA expression. Western blotting demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.01 increases in IL-6, LIF and gp130 protein expression in whole urinary bladder with CYP treatment. CYP-induced cystitis significantly (p ≤ 0.01 increased LIF-immunoreactivity (IR in urothelium, detrusor, and suburothelial plexus whereas increased gp130-IR was only observed in urothelium and detrusor. These studies suggest that IL-6 and LIF may be potential upstream chemical mediators that activate JAK/STAT signaling in urinary bladder pathways.