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Sample records for bjerkandera adusta r59

  1. Decolorization of humic acids and alkaline lignin derivative by an anamorphic Bjerkandera adusta E59 strain isolated from soil

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    Kornillowicz-Kowalska, T.; Ginalska, G.; Belcarz, A.; Iglik, H. [University of Life Sciences, Lublin (Poland). Dept. of Microbiology

    2008-07-01

    An anamorphic Bjerkandera adusta R59 strain, isolated from soil, was found to decolorize post-industrial lignin alkaline fraction, humic acids isolated from two kinds of soil and from brown coal. The drop of methoxyphenolic compound levels in liquid B. adusta cultures containing lignin or humic acids was correlated with decolorization of studied biopolymers, which suggests their partial biodegradation. It was shown that this process was Coupled with the induction of secondary metabolism (idiophase), and highest peroxidase activity in culture medium and appearance of aerial mycelium. Decolorization of lignin and humic acids from lessive soil and brown coal depended on glucose presence (cometabolism). Decolorization of humic acid from chernozem was related partially to adsorption by fungal mycelium.

  2. Decolorization of textile dyes in an air-lift bioreactor inoculated with Bjerkandera adusta OBR105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodaneath, Hong; Lee, Jung-In; Yang, Seung-Ok; Jung, Hyekyeng; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-09-19

    A new decolorizing white-rot fungus, OBR105, was isolated from Mount Odae in South Korea and identified by the morphological characterization of its fruit body and spores and partial 18s rDNA sequences. The ligninolytic enzyme activity of OBR105 was studied to characterize their decolorizing mechanism using a spectrophotometric enzyme assay. For the evaluation of the decolorization capacity of OBR105, the isolate was incubated in an erlenmeyer flask and in an airlifte bioreator with potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium supplemented with each dye. In addition, the decolorization efficiency of real textile wastewater was evaluated in an airlift bioreactor inoculated with the isolate. The isolate was identified as Bjerkandera adusta and had ligninolytic enzymes such as laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP), and Mn-dependent peroxidase (MnP). Its LiP activity was higher than its MnP and laccase activities. B. adusta OBR105 successfully decolorized reactive dyes (red 120, blue 4, orange 16, and black 5) and acid dyes (red 114, blue 62, orange 7, and black 172). B. adusta OBR105 decolorized 91-99% of 200 mg L -1 of each dye (except acid orange 7) within 3 days in a PDB medium at 28°C, pH 5, and 150 rpm. This fungus decolorized only 45% of 200 mg L -1 acid orange 7 (single azo-type dye) within 3 days, and the decolorization efficiency did not increase by prolonging the cultivation time. In the air-lift bioreactor, B. adusta OBR105 displayed a high decolorization capacity, greater than 90%, for 3 acid dyes (red 114, blue 62, and black 172) and 1 reactive dye (blue 4) within 10-15 h of treatment. B. adusta OBR105 could decolorize real textile wastewater in the air-lift bioreactor. This result suggests that an air-lift reactor employing B. adusta OBR105 is a promising bioreactor for the treatment of dye wastewater.

  3. Loosenin, a novel protein with cellulose-disrupting activity from Bjerkandera adusta

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    Segovia Lorenzo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expansins and expansin-like proteins loosen cellulose microfibrils, possibly through the rupture of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Together with the use of lignocellulolytic enzymes, these proteins are potential molecular tools to treat plant biomass to improve saccharification yields. Results Here we describe a new type of expansin-related fungal protein that we have called loosenin. Its corresponding gene, loos1, from the basidiomycete Bjerkandera adusta, was cloned and heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. LOOS1 is distantly related to plant expansins through the shared presence of a DPBB domain, however domain II found in plant expansins is absent. LOOS1 binds tightly to cellulose and chitin, and we demonstrate that cotton fibers become susceptible to the action of a commercial cellulase following treatment with LOOS1. Natural fibers of Agave tequilana also become susceptible to hydrolysis by cellulases after loosenin treatment. Conclusions LOOS1 is a new type of protein with disrupting activity on cellulose. LOOS1 binds polysaccharides, and given its enhancing properties on the action of hydrolytic enzymes, LOOS1 represents a potential additive in the production of fermentable sugars from lignocellulose.

  4. Use of agave bagasse for production of an organic fertilizer by pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta and vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida.

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    Moran-Salazar, Rene G; Marino-Marmolejo, Erika N; Rodriguez-Campos, Jacobo; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Contreras-Ramos, Silvia M

    2016-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber is used in tequila and fructans production, with agave bagasse generated as a solid waste. The main use of bagasse is to produce compost in tequila factories with a long traditional composting that lasts 6-8 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of agave bagasse by combining a pretreatment with fungi and vermicomposting. Experiments were carried out with fractionated or whole bagasse, sterilized or not, subjecting it to a pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta alone or combined with native fungi, or only with native bagasse fungi (non-sterilized), for 45 days. This was followed by a vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida and sewage sludge, for another 45 days. Physicochemical parameters, lignocellulose degradation, stability and maturity changes were measured. The results indicated that up to 90% of the residual sugars in bagasse were eliminated after 30 days in all treatments. The highest degradation rate in pretreatment was observed in non-sterilized, fractionated bagasse with native fungi plus B. adusta (BNFns) (71% hemicellulose, 43% cellulose and 71% lignin) at 45 days. The highest total degradation rates after vermicomposting were in fractionated bagasse pre-treated with native fungi (94% hemicellulose, 86% cellulose and 91% lignin). However, the treatment BNFns showed better maturity and stability parameters compared to that reported for traditional composts. Thus, it seems that a process involving vermicomposting and pretreatment with B. adusta could reduce the degradation time of bagasse to 3 months, compared to the traditional composting process, which requires from 6 to 8 months.

  5. Recalcitrant Compounds Removal in Raw Leachate and Synthetic Effluents Using the White-Rot Fungus Bjerkandera adusta

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    Alessandra Bardi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recalcitrant compounds limit the efficiency of conventional biological processes for wastewater treatment, representing one of the major issues in the field. This study focused on the treatment of three effluents with White-Rot-Fungus (WRF Bjerkandera adusta MUT 2295 in batch tests, with biomass cultivated in attached form on polyurethane foam cubes (PUFs to test its efficiency in the removal of the target effluents’ recalcitrant fraction. Treatment efficiency of B. adusta was evaluated on landfill leachate (Canada and two solutions containing synthetic recalcitrant compounds, which were prepared with tannic and humic acid. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and color removal, the production of manganese peroxidases, and the consumption of a co-substrate (glucose were monitored during the experiment. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and fungal dry weight were measured at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. After co-substrate addition, effluent COD was 2300 ± 85, 2545 ± 84, and 2580 ± 95 (mg/L in raw leachate and tannic and humic acids, respectively. COD removal of 48%, 61%, and 48% was obtained in raw leachate and in the synthetic effluents containing tannic and humic acids, respectively. Color removal of 49%, 25%, and 42% was detected in raw leachate and in tannic and humic acid solutions, respectively. COD and color removals were associated with the increase of fungal dry weight, which was observed in all the trials. These results encourage the use of the selected fungal strain to remove tannic acid, while further investigations are required to optimize leachate and humic acid bioremediation.

  6. Enhanced biodegradation of antibiotic combinations via the sequential treatment of the sludge resulting from pharmaceutical wastewater treatment using white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta.

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    Aydin, Sevcan

    2016-07-01

    While anaerobic treatment is capable of treating pharmaceutical wastewater and removing antibiotics in liquid phases, solid phases may still contain significant amounts of antibiotics following this treatment. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the use of white-rot fungi to remove erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline combinations from biosolids. The degradation potential of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta was evaluated via the sequential treatment of anaerobic sludge. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses were used to identify competition between the autochthonous microbial communities and white-rot fungi. Solid-phase treatment using white-rot fungi substantially reduced antibiotic concentrations and toxicity in sludge. According to PCR-DGGE results, there is an association between species of fungus and antibiotic type as a result of the different transformation pathways of fungal strains. Fungal post-treatment of sludge represents a promising method of removing antibiotic combinations, therefore holding a significant promise as an environmentally friendly means of degrading the antibiotics present in sludge.

  7. Versatile peroxidase of Bjerkandera fumosa: substrate and inhibitor specificity.

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    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Makarov, Oleg; Chernyshova, Marina; Turkovskaya, Olga; Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Anna

    2013-01-10

    The inhibitor and substrate specificities of versatile peroxidase from Bjerkandera fumosa (VPBF) were studied. Two different effects were found: NaN(3), Tween-80, anthracene, and fluorene decreased the activity of VPBF, but p-aminobenzoic acid increased it. A mixed mechanism of effector influence on the activity of this enzyme was shown. The catalytic properties of VPBF in the oxidation of mono- and polycyclic aromatic compounds were studied also. 2,7-Diaminofluorene, ABTS, veratryl alcohol, and syringaldazine can be oxidized by VPBF in two ways: either directly by the enzyme or by diffusible chelated Mn(3+) as an oxidizing agent. During VPBF oxidation of 2,7-diaminofluorene, both with and without Mn(2+), biphasic kinetics with apparent saturation in both micromolar and millimolar ranges were obtained. In the case of ABTS, inhibition of VPBF activity by an excess of substrate was observed. Direct oxidation of p-aminobenzoic acid by versatile peroxidase was found for the first time. The oxidation of three- and four-ring PAHs by VPBF was investigated, and the oxidation of anthracene, phenanthrene, fluorene, pyrene, chrysene, and fluoranthene was shown. The products of PAH oxidation (9,10-anthraquinone, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, and 9-fluorenone) catalyzed by VPBF were identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesis
    In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations,

  9. Degradation of lipophilic wood extractive constituents in Pinus sylvestris by the white-rot fungi Bjerkandera sp. and Trametes versicolor

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    Dorado, J.; Beek, van T.A.; Claassen, F.W.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2001-01-01

    The white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera spp. are among the most frequent decomposers of angiosperm wood in forest ecosystems and in wood products in service. Wood extractives have a major impact on wood properties and wood utilization. This work evaluated the ability of two white-rot

  10. Degradación de toxafeno en medio líquido por Bjerkandera sp BOL13 utilizando diferentes sustratos

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    Martha Lacayo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ESTE TRABAJO INVESTIGA LA DEGRADACIÓN DEL PLAGUICIDA toxafeno utilizando hongos producidos por la descomposición de la madera (white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp BOL13. La especie Bjerkandera sp BOL13 degradó el toxafeno al utilizar tres diferentes sustratos (virutas de madera, cáscara de trigo y melaza de caña en medio líquido por un período de 38 días. Aproximadamente el 85% del toxafeno fue degradado cuando se utilizó la cáscara de trigo como sustrato principal. La producción de lignina peroxidasa (LiP fue solamente estimulada cuando la cáscara de trigo estuvo presente en el medio líquido. Aunque la enzima xilanasa se encontró en todos los sustratos, la cáscara de trigo soportó la más alta producción de xilanasa. Una cantidad insignificante de ß-glucosidasa y celulasa fueron encontradas en las muestras del medio líquido. Según la literatura, éste es el primer trabajo de investigación referente a la degradación de toxafeno con hongos Bjerkandera sp producidos por la descomposición de la madera

  11. Phosphatidic acid accumulation and catecholamine release in adrenal chromaffin cells: stimulation by high potassium and by nicotine, and effect of a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R 59 022.

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    Owen, P J; Jones, J A; Boarder, M R

    1991-09-01

    Using primary cultures of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells labelled with 32Pi, we show that stimulation with bradykinin, nicotine, or a depolarising concentration of potassium stimulates the accumulation of [32P]phosphatidic acid. The effects of nicotine and potassium are smaller than the effect of bradykinin, and are dependent entirely on extracellular calcium. The diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R 59 022 attenuates the formation of phosphatidic acid by nicotine and depolarising concentrations of potassium. This inhibitor also blocks the nicotine and potassium stimulation of noradrenaline release from chromaffin cells. Using 45Ca2+ influx studies, we show that the nicotine-evoked calcium influx is also attenuated by R 59 022. These observations contrast with those in another report in which we showed that bradykinin stimulation of either [32P]phosphatidic acid accumulation or noradrenaline release is not affected by R 59 022. It is likely that the calcium influx produced by nicotine and depolarising potassium is blocked by R 59 022 by a mechanism that is independent of its ability to block diacylglycerol kinase. The nicotine- and potassium-stimulated [32P]phosphatidic acid accumulation is a consequence of this calcium influx and presumably reflects calcium activation of either phospholipase C or phospholipase D.

  12. Decoloración de aguas residuales textiles utilizando el hongo ligninolítico anamorfo R1 de Bjerkandera sp.

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    Juliana Osorio Echavarría

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la decoloración de aguas residuales sintéticas y reales de la industria textil empleando el hongo de la pudrición blanca de la madera anamorfo R1 de Bjerkandera sp. Se analizó el efecto de la presencia de las sales NaCl y Na2CO3, de la concentración del agua residual y de la esterilización, sobre el grado de decoloración. También se evaluó el efecto de la decoloración sobre la toxicidad frente a la bacteria bioluminiscente Vibrio fischeri. Los resultados demostraron que la presencia de sales incrementan la actividad de la enzima ligninoperoxidasa de 5 a 20 U/L, sin detrimento de la actividad de manganeso peroxidasa (70 U/L. Además, se observó que las sales incrementan el grado de adsorción del colorante a la biomasa del hongo, mejorando la decoloración por efecto de ambos mecanismos, degradación y adsorción. El porcentaje de decoloración alcanzado con aguas sintéticas suplementadas con sales fue del 75%. El tratamiento de decoloración de efluentes textil es en condiciones estériles, alcanzó un 65% en 8 días y se obtuvo una reducción de su toxicidad del 58% respecto a las aguas reales sin tratar. Con efluentes textiles no estériles, se alcanzó una decoloración del 40%. La presencia de microorganismos contaminantes competidores del sustrato y el incremento del pH por el metabolismo de los hongos, fueron probablemente las principales causas de la baja decoloración.

  13. Twenty-one novel mutations in the GLB1 gene identified in a large group of GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B patients: possible common origin for the prevalent p.R59H mutation among gypsies.

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    Santamaria, Raül; Chabás, Amparo; Coll, Maria Josep; Miranda, Clara Sa; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Grinberg, Daniel

    2006-10-01

    GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease are rare lysosomal storage disorders caused by beta-galactosidase deficiency due to mutations in the GLB1 gene. Three major clinical forms of GM1-gangliosidosis have been established on the basis of age of onset and severity of symptoms: infantile, late infantile/juvenile, and adult. We performed mutation analysis on 30 GM1-gangliosidosis and five Morquio B patients, mainly of Spanish origin, and all the causative mutations were identified. Thirty different mutations were found, 21 of which were novel. With the exception of two adults and one juvenile patient, all the GM1-gangliosidosis patients were affected by the infantile form. Clinical findings are presented for all patients. We report the association of the novel mutations p.T420K and p.L264S with the adult form and the juvenile form, respectively. In addition, the novel mutation p.Y83C was associated with Morquio B disease. Among the 30 GM1-gangliosidosis patients, 6 were of Gypsy origin (Roma). Moreover, those six Gypsy patients shared not only the same mutation (p.R59H) but also a common haplotype. This observation indicates a possible founder effect in this group and suggests that screening of the p.R59H mutation may be appropriate in GM1-gangliosidosis patients of Gypsy origin. This is the first exhaustive mutational analysis performed in a large group of Iberian GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B patients.

  14. Modification of wheat straw lignin by solid state fermentation with white-rot fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinis, M.J.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Nunes, F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Cone, J.W.; Marques, G.S.M.; Barros, A.R.N.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of crude enzyme extracts, obtained from solid state cultivation of four white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor, Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma applanatum and Phlebia rufa), was exploited to modify wheat straw cell wall. At different fermentation times, manganese-dependent peroxidase

  15. The potential of white-rot fungi to degrade phorbol esters of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, de C.R.M.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Nunes, F.M.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.; Cone, J.W.; Marques, G.S.M.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of solid-state cultivation, with three white-rot fungi (Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma resinaceum and Phlebia rufa), to decrease phorbol esters concentration of Jatropha curcas L. was evaluated in this study. Incubation was conducted in 250¿mL Erlenmeyer flasks without agitation at 28°C

  16. Effect of enzyme extracts isolated from white-rot fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw

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    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Pinto, P.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.M.; Cone, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    A series of in vitro experiments were completed to evaluate the potential of enzyme extracts, obtained from the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor (TV1, TV2), Bjerkandera adusta (BA) and Fomes fomentarius (FF), to increase degradation of cell wall components of wheat straw. The studies were

  17. Basidiomycete DyPs: Genomic diversity, structural-functional aspects, reaction mechanism and environmental significance

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    Dolores Linde; Francisco J. Ruiz-Dueñas; Elena Fernández-Fueyo; Victor Guallar; Kenneth E. Hammel; Rebecca Pogni; Angel T. Martínez

    2015-01-01

    The first enzyme with dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) activity was described in 1999 from an arthroconidial culture of the fungus Bjerkandera adusta. However, the first DyP sequence had been deposited three years before, as a peroxidase gene from a culture of an unidentified fungus of the family Polyporaceae (probably Irpex lacteus...

  18. Southern blot screening for lignin peroxidase and aryl-alcohol oxidase genes in 30 fungal species.

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    Varela, E; Martínez, A T; Martínez, M J

    2000-10-13

    Screening to detect genes encoding lignin peroxidase (LiP) and aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO) has been carried out with 30 fungal strain using DNA probes from genes lpo of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (encoding LiP isoenzyme H8) and aao of Pleurotus eryngii. Evidence for the presence of genes closely related to lpo was found in Bjerkandera adusta, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma australe, Lentinula degener, Peniophora gigantea, P. chrysosporium, Phanerochaete flavido-alba and Trametes tersicolor, whereas the gene aao was detected in Pleurotus species and B. adusta. The presence of both genes was only detected in B. adusta. These results suggest that different enzymatic system, formed by enzymes encoded by different genes, are responsible for lignin degradation by white-rot fungi.

  19. Screening of micro-organisms for decolorization of melanins produced by bluestain fungi.

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    Rättö, M; Chatani, M; Ritschkoff, A C; Viikari, L

    2001-03-01

    A total of 17 fungi and four bacteria were screened for their ability to decolorize melanin, using isolated extracellular melanin of the bluestain fungus Aureobasidium pullulans as substrate. On agar media, decolorization was observed by four fungal strains: Bjerkandera adusta VTT-D-99746, Galactomyces geotrichum VTT-D-84228, Trametes hirsuta VTT-D-95443 and Trametes versicolor VTT-D-99747. The four fungi were more efficient on nitrogen-limited medium than on complete medium. The melanin-decolorizing activity of G. geotrichum appeared to be located on the mycelium and could be liberated into the medium enzymatically.

  20. Fatty Acid Composition of Fourteen Wood-decaying Basidiomycete Species Growing in Permafrost Conditions

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    Daniil N. Olennikov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid (FA compositions of 14 wild wood-decaying basidiomycete species (Bjerkandera adusta, Daedaleopsis septentrionalis, Dichomitus squalens, Inonotus hispidus, I.radiatus, Irpex lacteus, Fomitopsis cajanderi, F.pinicola, F. rosea, Gloeophyllum protractum, Lenzites betulina, Phellinus pini, Trametes gibbosa, T. ochracea growing in permafrost conditions in Katanga region (Russian Federation were investigated using GC-MS. Generally, C18:2 ω 6 (linoleic acid, C18:1 ω 9 (oleic acid, C16:0 (palmitic acid and C20:0 (arachinic acid were found to be the major FA in fungal species. Data about chemical components of Daedaleopsis septentrionalis , Fomitopsis cajanderi and Gloeophyllum protractum were obtained at the first time. Increased level of degree of FA unsaturation was probably a result of extreme environmental conditions.

  1. Modification of wheat straw lignin by solid state fermentation with white-rot fungi.

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    Dinis, Maria J; Bezerra, Rui M F; Nunes, Fernando; Dias, Albino A; Guedes, Cristina V; Ferreira, Luís M M; Cone, John W; Marques, Guilhermina S M; Barros, Ana R N; Rodrigues, Miguel A M

    2009-10-01

    The potential of crude enzyme extracts, obtained from solid state cultivation of four white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor, Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma applanatum and Phlebia rufa), was exploited to modify wheat straw cell wall. At different fermentation times, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), laccase, carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), avicelase, xylanase and feruloyl esterase activities were screened and the content of lignin as well as hydroxycinnamic acids in fermented straw were determined. All fungi secreted feruloyl esterase while LiP was only detected in crude extracts from B. adusta. Since no significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in remaining lignin content of fermented straw, LiP activity was not a limiting factor of enzymatic lignin removal process. The levels of esterified hydroxycinnamic acids degradation were considerably higher than previous reports with lignocellulosic biomass. The data show that P. rufa, may be considered for more specific studies as higher ferulic and p-coumaric acids degradation was observed for earlier incubation times.

  2. Trametes meyenii possesses elevated dye degradation abilities under normal nutritional conditions compared to other white rot fungi

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    2014-01-01

    Several species of white-rot fungi were investigated for their utility in prolonged decolouration of the recalcitrant sulfonated azo dye, amaranth. Trametes pubescens, T. multicolor, T. meyenii and T. versicolor decoloured amaranth azo-dye best on low-nitrogen agar-solidified media whereas Bjerkandera adusta and Phlebia radiata were most effective in low nitrogen medium supplemented with manganese. Trametes cotonea did not decolour effectively under any condition. The decolouring Trametes species were also effective in liquid culture whereas B. adusta and P. radiata were not. Trametes meyenii, T. pubescens and T. multicolor were equal to or better than commonly employed T. versicolor at decolouring amaranth. This is the first study to show the dye decolouration potential of T. meyenii, T. pubescens, and T. multicolor. Supplementing with Mn(II) increased assayable manganese peroxidase activity, but not long-term decolouration, indicating that laccase is the main decolourizing enzyme in these Trametes species. This appears to be because of inadequate Mn3+ chelation required by manganese peroxidase because adding relatively low amounts of malonate enhanced decolouration rates. The ability of Trametes meyenii to simultaneously decolour dye over prolonged periods of time while growing in relatively nutrient-rich medium appears to be unique amongst white-rot fungi, indicating its potential in wastewater bioremediation. PMID:25401075

  3. Microarray analysis of differential gene expression elicited in Trametes versicolor during interspecific mycelial interactions.

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    Eyre, Catherine; Muftah, Wafa; Hiscox, Jennifer; Hunt, Julie; Kille, Peter; Boddy, Lynne; Rogers, Hilary J

    2010-08-01

    Trametes versicolor is an important white rot fungus of both industrial and ecological interest. Saprotrophic basidiomycetes are the major decomposition agents in woodland ecosystems, and rarely form monospecific populations, therefore interspecific mycelial interactions continually occur. Interactions have different outcomes including replacement of one species by the other or deadlock. We have made subtractive cDNA libraries to enrich for genes that are expressed when T. versicolor interacts with another saprotrophic basidiomycete, Stereum gausapatum, an interaction that results in the replacement of the latter. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (1920) were used for microarray analysis, and their expression compared during interaction with three different fungi: S. gausapatum (replaced by T. versicolor), Bjerkandera adusta (deadlock) and Hypholoma fasciculare (replaced T. versicolor). Expression of significantly more probes changed in the interaction between T. versicolor and S. gausapatum or B. adusta compared to H. fasciculare, suggesting a relationship between interaction outcome and changes in gene expression. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of manganese and veratryl alcohol in the ligninolytic system of Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mester, T.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction
    Lignin is a three dimensional hydrophobic plant polymer derived from the random coupling of phenylpropanoid precursors. The chemical and physical characteristics of lignin require a nonspecific, extracellular oxidative process for

  5. Biochar effects on soil-resident ligninolytic fungi: in vitro growth response and its pH dependence

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    Taskin, Eren; Loffredo, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    Ligninolytic fungi play an essential role on soil fertility because of their decomposing activity that allows nutrients inside biomasses to be released back into the soil. Their enzymes are able to degrade lignin which is otherwise recalcitrant to microbial and chemical degradation. Biochar (BC) has been recently proposed as a soil amendment that may contribute to climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration in soil. Pyrolysis conditions, feedstock and several other factors affect BC characteristics which in turn may influence BC impact on soil microorganisms and terrestrial ecosystems. However, limited information is available in the literature about BC's impact on ligninolytic fungi. The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the impact of BC and pH change caused by BC addition on three soil-resident ligninolytic fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta. The BC sample used in this study was obtained from 100% red spruce pellets pyrolysed at a temperature of 550 °C, and it was added to PDA medium directly as solid BC at the doses of 2 g L-1 (BC-LD) and 10 g L-1 (BC-HD). pH values were determined and the experiments were conducted either adjusting the pH of the controls either without pH adjustment. The fungi were inoculated separately in Petri dishes filled with the various media and the radial mycelial growth was measured at several sampling times. Results obtained showed a fungal growth response clearly dependent on the species and the BC dose. BC-LD stimulated the growth of P. ostreatus and T. versicolor, whereas it inhibited that of B. adusta. BC-HD stimulated the growth of P. ostreatus and inhibited that of T. versicolor and B. adusta. Similar responses were obtained with or without pH adjustment for P. ostreatus and T. versicolor, whereas a pH dependency was found for B. adusta. The effects of these and other pertinent treatments on fungal enzymes of the fungi are currently under investigation.

  6. Diversity of Wood-Inhabiting Polyporoid and Corticioid Fungi in Odaesan National Park, Korea.

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    Jang, Yeongseon; Jang, Seokyoon; Lee, Jaejung; Lee, Hanbyul; Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Changmu; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2016-12-01

    Polyporoid and corticioid fungi are among the most important wood-decay fungi. Not only do they contribute to nutrient cycling by decomposing wood debris, but they are also valuable sources for natural products. Polyporoid and corticioid wood-inhabiting fungi were investigated in Odaesan National Park. Fruit bodies were collected and identified based on morphological and molecular analyses using 28S and internal transcribed spacer regions of DNA sequences. As a result, a total of 149 species, 69 genera, 22 families, and 11 orders were recognized. Half (74 species) of the species were polypores, and the other half (75 species) were corticioid fungi. Most of the species belonged to Polyporales (92 species) followed by Hymenochaetales (33 species) and Russulales (11 species). At the genus level, a high number of species was observed from Steccherinum , Hyphodontia , Phanerochaete , Postia , and Trametes . Concerning distribution, almost all the species could be found below 1,000 m, and only 20% of the species were observed from above 1,000 m. Stereum subtomentosum , Trametes versicolor , T. hirsuta , T. pubescens , Bjerkandera adusta , and Ganoderma applanatum had wide distribution areas. Deciduous wood was the preferred substrate for the collected species. Sixty-three species were new to this region, and 21 species were new to Korea, of which 17 species were described and illustrated.

  7. Screening of fungal isolates and properties of Ganoderma applanatum intended for olive mill wastewater decolourization and dephenolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, A J F S; Bezerra, R M F; Dias, A A

    2007-09-01

    To investigate different autochthonous isolates of wood-rotting fungi for the removal of both colour and phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewaters (OMW). The isolates Bjerkandera adusta Ba-100, Fomes fomentarius Ff-106, Ganoderma applanatum Ga-20, Irpex lacteus Il-3, Trametes versicolor Tv-101 and Tv-103 were preliminarily screened for their OMW-decolourizing potential on potato dextrose agar supplemented with different OMW concentrations. A further screening of batch cultures under different agitation speeds, to test the effect of shear stress, resulted in the selection of isolate G. applanatum Ga-20. Batch cultures grown in OMW-based medium exhibited strong laccase induction and significant decrease in the values of phenols, colour and chemical oxygen demand. Concomitant onset of laccase activity and colour removal was observed, and apart from laccase, neither lignin peroxidase nor manganese-dependent peroxidase activities were detected. Moreover, the depletion of aromatic compounds with high and low apparent molecular mass was observed by chromatographic analysis. Isolate G. applanatum Ga-20 exhibited interesting properties for its use in bioremediation of OMW, namely high removal of recalcitrant phenolic compounds and strong colour abatement. For the first time, the white-rot fungus G. applanatum proves to be effective for the decolourization and dephenolization of OMW.

  8. Microsomal transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Juan; Valderrama, Brenda; Albores, Arnulfo; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2003-12-01

    The enzymatic mechanism for the transformation of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) by different white-rot fungi strains was studied. With the exception of Ganoderma applanatum 8168, all strains from a collection of 17 different fungi cultures were able to deplete parathion. Three strains showing the highest activities were selected for further studies: Bjerkandera adusta 8258, Pleurotus ostreatus 7989 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium 3641. These strains depleted 50 to 96% of terbufos, azinphos-methyl, phosmet and tribufos after four-days exposure to the pesticides. In order to identify the cellular localization of the transformation activity, the extracellular and microsomal fractions of Pleuronts ostreatus 7989 were evaluated in vitro. While the activities of ligninolytic enzymes (lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase) were detected in the extracellular fraction, no enzymatic modification of any of the five pesticides tested could be found, suggesting the intracellular origin of the transformation activity. In accordance with this observation the microsomal fraction was found able to transform three OPPs with the following rates: 10 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for phosmet, 5.7 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for terbufos, and 2.2 micromol mg prot(-1) h(-1) for azinphos-methyl. The products from these reactions and from the transformation of trichlorfon and malathion, were identified by mass-spectrometry. These results, supported by specific inhibition experiments and the stringent requirement for NADPH during the in vitro assays suggest the involvement of a cytochrome P450.

  9. The multihued palette of dye-decolorizing peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Eltis, Lindsay D

    2015-05-15

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs; EC 1.11.1.19) are heme enzymes that comprise a family of the dimeric α+β barrel structural superfamily of proteins. The first DyP, identified relatively recently in the fungus Bjerkandera adusta, was characterized for its ability to catalyze the decolorization of anthraquinone-based industrial dyes. These enzymes are now known to be present in all three domains of life, but do not appear to occur in plants or animals. They are involved in a range of physiological processes, although in many cases their roles remain unknown. This has not prevented the development of their biocatalytic potential, which includes the transformation of lignin. This review highlights the functional diversity of DyPs in the light of phylogenetic, structural and biochemical data. The phylogenetic analysis reveals the existence of at least five classes of DyPs. Their potential physiological roles are discussed based in part on synteny analyses. Finally, the considerable biotechnological potential of DyPs is summarized. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. On the reaction of some bacteria and fungi on coal tar creosote. Zur Verhalten einiger Bakterien und Pilze gegenueber Steinkohlenteeroel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, O.; Dittberner, D.; Faix, O. (Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Ordinariat fuer Holzbiologie)

    1991-01-01

    To contribute to the waste management of wood preservatives, the biodegradability of coal tar creosote by bacteria and fungi has been investigated. Microorganisms comprised 24 bacterial strains and 31 fungi from different systematic and ecological groups as well as isolates from contaminated soils. Based on countings of viable cells, the experiments with various nutrient media, methods of cultivation, preservative concentrations, and organic solvents yielded some bacteria which could grow in the presence of creosote: {ital Aeromonas hydrophila}, {ital Flavobacterium} sp., {ital Pseudomonas arvilla}, {ital P. fluorescens}, and {ital P. putida}. The white-rot fungi {ital Bjerkandera adusta}, {ital Heterobasidion annosum}, {ital Hirschioporus abietinus}, {ital Lentinula edodes}, {ital Peniophora gigantea}, {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Schizophyllum commune}, and {ital Trametes versicolor}, the brown-rot fungus {ital Lentinus lepideus}, the staining fungi {ital Ceratocystis piceae} and {ital Stereum sanguinolentum}, and the moulds {ital Paecilomyces variotii} and {ital Trichoderma viride} also grew with creosote. To prepare samples for IR-measurements, continuous extraction of creosote from the nutrient liquid by percolation with methylene chloride was suitable. However, the IR-spectra of creosote did not show any measurable changes after incubation with 16 bacterial strains and 6 fungi. 42 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Biodegradation of naphthalenesulphonate polymers: the potential of a combined application of fungi and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullotto, Antonella; Lubello, Claudio; Mannucci, Alberto; Gori, Riccardo; Munz, Giulio; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The potential of several fungi and their synergy with bacterial biomasses were evaluated as a solution for the removal of 2-naphthalensulphonic acid polymers (2-NSAPs) from petrochemical wastewater, characterized by a chemical oxygen demand (COD) greater than 9000 mg/L. The ability of fungi to grow on 2-NSAP mixtures was preliminarily investigated using a solid medium, and then the action of the selected strains, both in suspended and immobilized form, was evaluated in terms of degradation, depolymerization, sorption and an increase in biodegradability of 2-NSAP. Among the 25 fungi evaluated two, in particular, Bjerkandera adusta and Pleurotus ostreatus, have been found to significantly depolymerize 2-NSAP yielding to the corresponding monomer (2-naphthalenesulphonic acid, 2-NSA), which has been further degraded by a bacterial consortia selected in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The fungal treatment alone was able to reduce the COD value up to 44%, while activated sludge removed only 9% of the initial COD. In addition, the combined treatment (fungi and bacteria) allowed an increase in the COD removal up to 62%.

  12. Effect of cellulose as co-substrate on old landfill leachate treatment using white-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, A; Yuan, Q; Siracusa, G; Chicca, I; Islam, M; Spennati, F; Tigini, V; Di Gregorio, S; Levin, D B; Petroni, G; Munz, G

    2017-10-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment technologies are ineffective for remediation of old LandFill Leachate (LFL), and innovative approaches to achieve satisfactory removal of this recalcitrant fraction are needed. This study focused on old LFL treatment with a selected fungal strain, Bjerkandera adusta MUT 2295, through batch and continuous tests, using packed-bed bioreactors under non-sterile conditions. To optimize the process performance, diverse types of co-substrates were used, including milled cellulose from beverage cups waste material. Extracellular enzyme production was assayed, in batch tests, as a function of a) cellulose concentration, b) leachate initial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Soluble COD (sCOD), and c) co-substrate type. Bioreactors were dosed with an initial start-up of glucose (Rg) or cellulose (Rc). An additional glucose dosage was provided in both reactors, leading to significant performance increases. The highest COD and sCOD removals were i) 63% and 53% in Rg and ii) 54% and 51% in Rc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ligninolytic basidiomycetes as promising organisms for the mycoremediation of PAH-contaminated Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdnyakova, N. N.; Balandina, S. A.; Dubrovskaya, E. V.; Golubev, C. N.; Turkovskaya, O. V.

    2018-01-01

    Primary screening of ligninolytic fungi belonging to wood- and soil-inhabiting basidiomycetes revealed their ability to degrade three-ringed PAHs with formation of quinone metabolites at the first stage. The degradative activity was both species and strain specific, and some differences in the “chances” for the formed quinones were found. They were the main end metabolites in the degradation of PAHs by Stropharia rugosoannulata and Agaricus bisporus. During PAH degradation by strains of Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Bjerkandera adusta similar metabolites were detected during the cultivation, but they were utilized further. The results supported the hypothesis that the degree of PAH degradation may depend on the composition of the extracellular ligninolytic complex of the fungi: in the presence of a single ligninolytic enzyme, laccase, the accumulation of quinone metabolites takes place; their further utilization is possible with the participation of ligninolytic peroxidases. The data obtained showed the necessity not only to identify the metabolites formed, but also to study the activity of the basic ligninolytic enzymes. It is important for the correct selection of fungal strains for mycoremediation.

  14. Survey of ectomycorrhizal, litter-degrading, and wood-degrading Basidiomycetes for dye decolorization and ligninolytic enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casieri, Leonardo; Anastasi, Antonella; Prigione, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

    2010-11-01

    Basidiomycetes are essential in forest ecology, being deeply involved in wood and litter decomposition, humification, and mineralization of soil organic matter. The fungal oxidoreductases involved in these processes are today the focus of much attention with a view to their applications. The ecological role and potential biotechnological applications of 300 isolates of Basidiomycetes were assessed, taking into account the degradation of model dyes in different culture conditions and the production of oxidoreductase enzymes. The tested isolates belong to different ecophysiological groups (wood-degrading, litter-degrading, ectomycorrhizal, and coprophilous fungi) and represent a broad systematic and functional biodiversity among Basidiomycetes occurring in deciduous and evergreen forests of northwest Italy (Piedmont Region). The high number of species tested and the use of different culture conditions allowed the investigation of the degradation activity of several novel species, neglected to date. Oxidative enzyme activities varied widely among all ecophysiological groups and laccases were the most commonly detected enzymes. A large number of isolates (86%), belonging to all ecophysiological groups, were found to be active against at least one model dye; the wood-degrading fungi represented the most efficient group. Noteworthily, also some isolates of litter-degrading and ectomycorrhizal fungi achieved good decolorization yield. The 25 best isolates were then tested against nine industrial dyes commonly employed in textile industries. Three isolates of Bjerkandera adusta efficiently decolorized the dyes on all media and can be considered important candidates for application in textile wastewater treatment.

  15. Screening for Antimicrobial Activity of Wood Rotting Higher Basidiomycetes Mushrooms from Uruguay against Phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barneche, Stephanie; Jorcin, Gabriela; Cecchetto, Gianna; Cerdeiras, María Pía; Vázquez, Alvaro; Alborés, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the antimicrobial activity of extracts of wood rotting higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms isolated from Eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay was studied using bacterial and fungal phytopathogens as targets. Fifty-one extracts from mycelia and growth broth were prepared from higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms, from which eight extracts (from Ganoderma resinaceum, Laetiporus sulphureus, Dictyopanus pusillus, and Bjerkandera adusta) showed antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria, Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, and Rhizopus stolonifer as assayed in the qualitative test. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for those fungal extracts was determined and the results showed that L. sulphureus deserved further study, with low MIC values against X. vesicatoria. The antimicrobial activity of L. sulphureus culture broth extracts grown under different culture conditions was evaluated against X. vesicatoria. From the results of these assays, larger-scale cultures for the production of the compound(s) with antimicrobial activity should be performed using malt extract broth, at pH 5, at 20°C and static culture conditions.

  16. Antifungal activity of macrofungi extracts on phytopathogenic fungal strains of genera Fusarium sp. and Alternaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spremo Nemanja R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, intensive application of synthetic fungicides in the agricultural crop protection practice caused growing concern for the existence of toxic chemical residues in food as well as in the whole environment. Instead of using synthetic fungicides, it is suggested that crop protection be carried out by using preparations based on compounds of natural origin (secondary metabolites of plants or microorganisms, including macrofungi from Basidiomycota as biological control agents. The potential of macrofungal species as biocontrol agents was analyzed in this investigation of eight autochthonous species from different locations in Serbia. Both the terricolous species: Coprinus comatus, Coprinellus truncorum, Amanita strobiliformis, Hydnum repandum and the lignicolous species: Flammulina velutipes, Stereum subtomentosum, Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta were examined, with an aim to detect some novel sources of antifungal agents. This study surveyed antifungal activity of selected macrofungal extracts (MeOH, EtOH and CHCl3 against phytopathogenic Fusarium and Alternaria strains isolated from garlic, soybean and rice: F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. graminearum and A. padwickii. Microdilution method in 96 well microplates was applied for the estimation of antifungal effects of macrofungi extracts in the range from 24.75 to 198.00 mg/ml and determination of minimal inhibitory (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC. EtOH extract of mychorhizal species H. repandum showed antifungal activity against all analyzed phytopathogenic strains, with the strongest effect on Fusarium strains (MIC 24.75 mg/ml; MFC 24.75 mg/ml. Among others, MeOH extracts of S. subtomentosum and C. micaceus showed similar effects while only B. adusta showed slight effect on Fusarium strains (MIC 24.75-99.00 mg/ml; MFC 24.75-99.00 mg/ml and none effect on A. padwickii. The obtained results indicate the possibility of using

  17. Risk element immobilization/stabilization potential of fungal-transformed dry olive residue and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi application in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Stejskalová, Tereza; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Száková, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2017-10-01

    The use of biotransformed dry olive residue (DOR) as organic soil amendment has recently been proposed due to its high contents of stabilized organic matter and nutrients. The potential of biotransformed DOR to immobilize risk elements in contaminated soils might qualify DOR as a potential risk element stabilization agent for in situ soil reclamation practices. In this experiment, the mobility of risk elements in response to Penicillium chrysogenum-10-transformed DOR, Funalia floccosa-transformed DOR, Bjerkandera adusta-transformed DOR, and Chondrostereum purpureum-transformed DOR as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Funneliformis mosseae, inoculation was investigated. We evaluated the effect of these treatments on risk element uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants in a pot experiment with Cd, Pb, and Zn contaminated soil. The results showed a significant impact of the combined treatment (biotransformed DOR and AMF inoculation) on wheat plant growth and element mobility. The mobile proportions of elements in the treated soils were related to soil pH; with increasing pH levels, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, P, Pb, and Zn mobility decreased significantly (r values between -0.36 and -0.46), while Ca and Mg mobility increased (r = 0.63, and r = 0.51, respectively). The application of biotransformed DOR decreased risk element levels (Cd, Zn), and nutrient concentrations (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn) in the aboveground biomass, where the elements were retained in the roots. Thus, biotransformed DOR in combination with AMF resulted in a higher capacity of wheat plants to grow under detrimental conditions, being able to accumulate high amounts of risk elements in the roots. However, risk element reduction was insufficient for safe crop production in the extremely contaminated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Basidiomycete DyPs: Genomic diversity, structural-functional aspects, reaction mechanism and environmental significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Dolores; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Guallar, Victor; Hammel, Kenneth E; Pogni, Rebecca; Martínez, Angel T

    2015-05-15

    The first enzyme with dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) activity was described in 1999 from an arthroconidial culture of the fungus Bjerkandera adusta. However, the first DyP sequence had been deposited three years before, as a peroxidase gene from a culture of an unidentified fungus of the family Polyporaceae (probably Irpex lacteus). Since the first description, fewer than ten basidiomycete DyPs have been purified and characterized, but a large number of sequences are available from genomes. DyPs share a general fold and heme location with chlorite dismutases and other DyP-type related proteins (such as Escherichia coli EfeB), forming the CDE superfamily. Taking into account the lack of an evolutionary relationship with the catalase-peroxidase superfamily, the observed heme pocket similarities must be considered as a convergent type of evolution to provide similar reactivity to the enzyme cofactor. Studies on the Auricularia auricula-judae DyP showed that high-turnover oxidation of anthraquinone type and other DyP substrates occurs via long-range electron transfer from an exposed tryptophan (Trp377, conserved in most basidiomycete DyPs), whose catalytic radical was identified in the H2O2-activated enzyme. The existence of accessory oxidation sites in DyP is suggested by the residual activity observed after site-directed mutagenesis of the above tryptophan. DyP degradation of substituted anthraquinone dyes (such as Reactive Blue 5) most probably proceeds via typical one-electron peroxidase oxidations and product breakdown without a DyP-catalyzed hydrolase reaction. Although various DyPs are able to break down phenolic lignin model dimers, and basidiomycete DyPs also present marginal activity on nonphenolic dimers, a significant contribution to lignin degradation is unlikely because of the low activity on high redox-potential substrates. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biodegradation aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haritash, A.K., E-mail: akharitash@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India); Kaushik, C.P. [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India)

    2009-09-30

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} (aerobic) or CH{sub 4} (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions

  20. Biodegradation aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritash, A.K.; Kaushik, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H 2 O, CO 2 (aerobic) or CH 4 (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the rate can

  1. Lignin Biodegradation in Pulp-and-Paper Mill Wastewater by Selected White Rot Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Costa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation has been carried out to explore the lignin-degrading ability of white rot fungi, as B. adusta and P. crysosporium, grown in different media containing (i glucose and mineral salts; (ii a dairy residue; (iii a dairy residue and mineral salts. Both fungi were then used as inoculum to treat synthetic and industrial pulp-and-paper mill wastewater. On synthetic wastewater, up to 97% and 74% of lignin degradation by B. adusta and P. crysosporium, respectively, have been reached. On industrial wastewater, both fungal strains were able to accomplish 100% delignification in 8–10 days, independent from pH control, with a significant reduction of total organic carbon (TOC of the solution. Results have confirmed the great biotechnological potential of both B. adusta and P. crysosporium for complete lignin removal in industrial wastewater, and can open the way to next industrial applications on large scale.

  2. Interactive Effects of Climate Change and Decomposer Communities on the Stabilization of Wood-Derived Carbon Pools: Catalyst for a New Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resh, Sigrid C. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2014-11-17

    Globally, forest soils store ~two-thirds as much carbon (C) as the atmosphere. Although wood makes up the majority of forest biomass, the importance of wood contributions to soil C pools is unknown. Even with recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of soil processes, integrative studies tracing C input pathways and biological fluxes within and from soils are lacking. Therefore, our research objectives were to assess the impact of different fungal decay pathways (i.e., white-rot versus brown-rot)—in interaction with wood quality, soil temperature, wood location (i.e., soil surface and buried in mineral soil), and soil texture—on the transformation of woody material into soil CO2 efflux, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil C pools. The use of 13C-depleted woody biomass harvested from the Rhinelander, WI free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (Aspen-FACE) experiment affords the unique opportunity to distinguish the wood-derived C from other soil C fluxes and pools. We established 168 treatment plots across six field sites (three sand and three loam textured soil). Treatment plots consisted of full-factorial design with the following treatments: 1. Wood chips from elevated CO2, elevated CO2 + O3, or ambient atmosphere AspenFACE treatments; 2. Inoculated with white rot (Bjerkandera adusta) or brown rot (Gloeophyllum sepiarium) pure fungal cultures, or the original suite of endemic microbial community on the logs; and 3. Buried (15cm in soil as a proxy for coarse roots) or surface applied wood chips. We also created a warming treatment using open-topped, passive warming chambers on a subset of the above treatments. Control plots with no added wood (“no chip control”) were incorporated into the research design. Soils were sampled for initial δ13C values, CN concentrations, and bulk density. A subset of plots were instrumented with lysimeters for sampling soil water and temperature data

  3. Lignin peroxidase mediated biotransformations useful in the biocatalytic production of vanillin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, ten R.

    2000-01-01

    This research concentrates on lignin peroxidase (LiP) mediated biotrans-formations that are useful in producing vanillin.

    In order to obtain this extracellular enzyme, the white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 was cultivated on nitrogen rich

  4. Description of a new species and record of Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera,Tephritidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-bing; Chen, Xiao-lin; Deng, Yu-liang; Wang, Shao-jun

    2013-01-01

    One new species, Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) anala Chen et Zhou, sp.nov, and one newly recorded species, B. (Z.) armillata (Hering, 1938), from China are described and illustrated. The male of B. (Z.) armillata (Hering) was discovered for the first time and as a result the species is moved from subgenus Bactrocera to subgenus Zeugodacus. In addition, the morphological differences and comparing illustrations of B. (Z.) adusta (Wang et Zhao) and B. (Z.) biguttata (Bezzi), are provided.

  5. A review of the genus Pempheris (Perciformes, Pempheridae) of the Red Sea, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeda, Keita; Yoshino, Tetsuo; Imai, Hideyuki; Tachihara, Katsunori

    2014-04-30

    Four species of the fish genus Pempheris are recognized for the Red Sea: P. adusta Bleeker, 1877; P. mangula Cuvier, 1829; P. nesogallica Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1831; and a new species P. tominagai. All are wide-ranging in the western Indian Ocean, and P. mangula has migrated via the Suez Canal to the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Morphological and genetic analysis of 15 species in this genus show that P. adusta, a widely distributed species, that can't be divided into different species, because of the continuity of morphologies and distribution, and lack of variance in genetics between Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and Pacific Ocean populations. This confirms that the two subspecies described by Randall et al. (2013) are both synonyms of P. adusta. Pempheris adusta is distinguished from other species by a blackish spot on pectoral fin base, pored lateral-line scales 56-64, scale rows above lateral line 4 1/2-6 1/2, distinct blackish band on outer edge of anal fin, and blackish band on posterior edge of caudal fin. Pempheris mangula was named by Cuvier (1829) in a footnote making reference to a drawing and short description in Russell (1803) of a Pempheris from southeast India, giving only the native name ''Mangula-Kutti'', and listing no specimen. The wide distribution of this species, from the Indian Ocean to the Red Sea is also demonstrated by morphological and genetic analysis. Thus, the specimen collected from southern India is herein designated as the neotype. This species is distinguished from other species by its huge eye, deep body, blackish tip of the dorsal fin, pored lateral-line scales 49-60, and scale rows above lateral line 4 1/2-5 1/2. The extant syntype of Kossmann & Räuber's P. rhomboidea is designated as the lectotype of the species; however, P. rhomboidea is a synonym of P. mangula. In addition, Kossmann & Räuber's Pempheris erythraea and P. russellii Day, 1888 are also synonyms of P. mangula. Of two existing syntypes of P. nesogallica from

  6. Lignin peroxidase mediated biotransformations useful in the biocatalytic production of vanillin

    OpenAIRE

    Have, ten, R.

    2000-01-01

    This research concentrates on lignin peroxidase (LiP) mediated biotrans-formations that are useful in producing vanillin.

    In order to obtain this extracellular enzyme, the white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 was cultivated on nitrogen rich medium. This procedure resulted in a successful LiP production of 600 U/L. Peptone in the culture medium was shown to interfere with the standard LiP assay in which the formation of veratraldehyde (V...

  7. An updated checklist and key to the open-panicled species of Poa L. (Poaceae) in Peru including three new species, Poa ramoniana, Poa tayacajaensis, and Poa urubambensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Steven P.; Soreng, Robert J.; Peterson, Paul M.; Sylvester, Mitsy D.P.V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We provide an updated checklist and key to the 30 Poa species with open panicles from Peru which includes previously circumscribed Dissanthelium and Aphanelytrum species, new taxon records, and three undescribed species. Poa compressa, Poa grisebachii, and Poa leioclada are recorded from Peru for the first time. A number of species are placed in synonymy: Poa carazensis, Poa ferreyrae and Poa tovarii are synonymized under the name Poa fibrifera; Poa adusta (tentatively) and Poa pilgeri are synonymized under Poa candamoana; Poa superata is synonymized under Poa grisebachii; and Poa paramoensis is synonymized under Poa huancavelicae. Included within this treatment are three new species, Poa ramoniana, Poa tayacajaensis and Poa urubambensis, which are described and illustrated. Poa ramoniana, found growing near lakes in high elevation Puna grasslands of Junín, is similar to a small form of Poa glaberrima, but differs in having rhizomes and growing to only 5 cm tall. Poa tayacajaensis, found from shrublands on Andean slopes of Huancavelica and Huánuco, bears similarities to Poa aequatoriensis but differs in having shorter lemmas which are pubescent between the veins, densely scabrous sheaths with smooth, glabrous throats, and shorter ligules. Poa urubambensis, a common element of the undisturbed Polylepis forest understory of the Cordillera Urubamba, Cusco, is distinct from all other members of open-panicled Poa’s by having glabrous lemmas with a smooth and glabrous callus, and notably small anthers. The type material for the name Poa adusta is discussed and a lectotype is selected. PMID:27489489

  8. Endoparásitos de micromamíferos del noroeste de Perú. 1: helmintos de marsupiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Tantaleán

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, informamos los resultados del análisis parasitológico realizado a 40 individuos marsupiales de las especies Caluromys lanatus, Didelphis marsupialis, Marmosops noctivagus, Metachirus nudicaudatus, Marmosa (Micoureus regina, Monodelphis adusta, Philander andersoni y Philander opossum procedentes del departamento de Loreto, Perú. Se determinaron en total 11 especies de helmintos parásitos: Nematoda: Aspidodera sp., Cruzia tentaculata, Physaloptera mirandai, Physaloptera sp., Pterygodermatites sp., Trichuris sp., Turgida turgida, y Viannaia sp.; Trematoda: Podospathalium pedatum; Acanthocephala: Giganthorhynchus ortizi; y Pentastomida: ninfa. Los parásitos Trichuris sp., Pterygodematities sp., Turgida turgida, Viannaia sp. y Podospathalium pedatum son nuevos registros para el Perú. De igual manera, se registran por primera vez las siguientes asociaciones parásitos-huéspedes: Pterygodermatites sp.-Marmosa regina, Viannaia sp.- Marmosops noctivagus, Trichuris sp.-Marmosops cf. noctivagus, Podospathalium pedatum-Monodelphis adusta, Giganthorhynchus ortizi-Marmosops cf. noctivagus, y ninfas de pentastómidos-Marmosa regina y Metachirus nudicaudatus.

  9. ENSAIO ACELERADO DE LABORATÓRIO DE CHAPAS OSB DE SERINGUEIRA SUBMETIDAS AO ATAQUE DE FUNGOS APODRECEDORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the natural durability of oriented strandboards (OSB manufactured with strands of Hevea brasiliensis Müll.Arg. bonded with 5% and 8% of urea-formaldehyde (UF and phenol-formadehyde (FF resins, exposed to xilophagous fungi under laboratory conditions. In accelerated laboratory test decay, samples of OSB were exposed to the following fungi: the brown-rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers. ex Fries Murr., Coniophora puteana (Schumach. : Fr.P. Karst., Meruliporia incrassata (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Murrill as well as the white-rot fungi Fomes annosus (Fr. : Fr. Cooke, Trametes versicolor (L. : Fr. Pilát, Ganoderma applanatum (Pers. Pat., Bjerkandera fumosa (Pers. : Fr. P. Karst. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burds. Among the brown-rot fungi, the Gloeophyllum trabeum was the most aggressive, showing the highest loss of mass. Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum confirmed the preference for broadleave species. All oriented strandboards at lower UF resin contents were more degraded by Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, Ganoderma applanatum, Merulia incrassata, Coniophora puteana and Gloeophyllum trabeum, with high rate of loss of mass. Coniophora puteana showed small loss of mass when FF resin was applied. Bjerkandera fumosa showed low loss of mass only at higher resin content. Oriented strandboards exposed to Coniophora puteana showed insignificant OSB degradation.

  10. ACCELERATED LABORATORY TEST OF RUBBERWOOD ORIENTED STRANDBOARD EXPOSED TO WOOD DECAY FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the natural durability of oriented strandboards (OSB manufactured with strands of Hevea brasiliensis Müll.Arg. bonded with 5% and 8% of urea-formaldehyde (UF and phenol-formadehyde (FF resins, exposed to xilophagous fungi under laboratory conditions. In accelerated laboratory test decay, samples of OSB were exposed to the following fungi: the brown-rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers. ex Fries Murr., Coniophora puteana (Schumach. : Fr.P. Karst., Meruliporia incrassata (Berk. & M.A. Curtis Murrill as well as the white-rot fungi Fomes annosus (Fr. : Fr. Cooke, Trametes versicolor (L. : Fr. Pilát, Ganoderma applanatum (Pers. Pat., Bjerkandera fumosa (Pers. : Fr. P. Karst. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burds. Among the brown-rot fungi, the Gloeophyllum trabeum was the most aggressive, showing the highest loss of mass. Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum confirmed the preference for broadleave species. All oriented strandboards at lower UF resin contents were more degraded by Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, Ganoderma applanatum, Merulia incrassata, Coniophora puteana and Gloeophyllum trabeum, with high rate of loss of mass. Coniophora puteana showed small loss of mass when FF resin was applied. Bjerkandera fumosa showed low loss of mass only at higher resin content. Oriented strandboards exposed to Coniophora puteana showed insignificant OSB degradation.

  11. Influence of Culturing Conditions on Bioprospecting and the Antimicrobial Potential of Endophytic Fungi from Schinus terebinthifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonial, Fabiana; Maia, Beatriz H L N S; Gomes-Figueiredo, Josiane A; Sobottka, Andrea M; Bertol, Charise D; Nepel, Angelita; Savi, Daiani C; Vicente, Vânia A; Gomes, Renata R; Glienke, Chirlei

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we analyzed the antimicrobial activity of extracts harvested from 17 endophytic fungi isolated from the medicinal plant Schinus terebinthifolius. Morphological and molecular analyses indicated that these fungal species belonged to the genera Alternaria, Bjerkandera, Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, Penicillium, and Xylaria. Of the endophytes analyzed, 64.7 % produced antimicrobial compounds under at least one of the fermentation conditions tested. Nine isolates produced compounds that inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus, four produced compounds that inhibited Candida albicans, and two that inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The fermentation conditions of the following endophytes were optimized: Alternaria sp. Sect. Alternata-LGMF626, Xylaria sp.-LGMF673, and Bjerkandera sp.-LGMF713. Specifically, the carbon and nitrogen sources, initial pH, temperature, and length of incubation were varied. In general, production of antimicrobial compounds was greatest when galactose was used as a carbon source, and acidification of the growth medium enhanced the production of compounds that inhibited C. albicans. Upon large-scale fermentation, Alternaria sp. Sect. Alternata-LGMF626 produced an extract containing two fractions that were active against methicillin-resistant S. aureus. One of the extracts exhibited high activity (minimum inhibitory concentration of 18.52 µg/mL), and the other exhibited moderate activity (minimum inhibitory concentration of 55.55 µg/mL). The compounds E-2-hexyl-cinnamaldehyde and two compounds of the pyrrolopyrazine alkaloids class were identified in the active fractions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  12. PECULIARITIES OF HEAVY METALS ACCUMULATION BY THE FRUIT BODIES OF MACROMYCETES IN THE CONDITIONS OF COMBINED RADIATION AND CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Nikolaevna Anishchenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of combined radiation and chemical contamination of forest habitats (Bryansk oblast revealed cumulative activity of basidiomycetes in relation to heavy metals, the calculated accumulation factors. Used route, the research methods of the soils, determine the gross concentration of the elements x-ray fluorescence method. The intensity of accumulation of heavy metals in fruit bodies of mushrooms were evaluated using the coefficients of accumulation (or bioaccumulation factors. Analysis of concentrations of gross pollutants showed that the maximum Pb observed in the fruit bodies of Pers. Fr., Boletus edulis Rostk. and Calocybe gambosa (Fr. Singer, the concentration of As Calocybe gambosa, Boletus edulis, Russula adusta and Xerocomus subtomentosus (L. Quél. The maximum Zn content observed in the fruit bodies of the Russula alutacea (Fr. Fr., Xerocomus subtomentosus, Tricholoma equestre (L. P. Kumm., Russula adusta and Boletus edulis, Cu and Ni – Xerocomus subtomentosus, Leccinum scabrum, Boletus erythropus, Boletus edulis, Calocybe gambosa and Xerocomus subtomentosus, Fe and Mne – Boletus erythropus, Xerocomus subtomentosus and Leccinum scabrum. The total heavy metal content maximum in the fruit bodies of Xerocomus subtomentosus, Boletus erythropus и Leccinum scabrum. On the basis of rates of accumulation of fungi are divided into three groups according to intensity of accumulation of metals: the first group consists of mushrooms, the most intensively accumulate heavy metals – Russula mairei, Leccinum scabrum and Boletus erythropus; the second fungi which are characterized by the average intensity of the accumulation of TM – Xerocomus subtomentosus, Boletus edulis and Russula alutacea; the third group includes mushrooms, which are characterized by a low degree of accumulation of individual elements of the TM – Boletus erythropus, Russula adusta and Calocybe gambosa. Mushrooms – storage Co, Cu, Zn and Sr – is Xerocomus

  13. The dietary habits of the upside-down catfish, Synodontis membranaceus (Osteichthyes: Mochokidae in Jebba lake, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi David Owolabi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary habits of the up side-down Mochokid catfish, Synodontis membranaceus were investigated for 24 months (April 2002-March 2004, in Jebba lake, Nigeria using frequency of occurrence, numerical, gravimetric and index of relative importance (RI methods. The fish is euryphagus and feeds more at night. RI values indicate that 10 of the 16 food items were major diet components. The main five food categories are detritus (10.64 %, Aspatharia (9.08 %, plant parts (8.85 %, seeds (8.61 % and Spirogyra (8.43 %, while the 5 less prominent food categories were gastropods (7.05 %, insect appendages (6.88 %, copepods (6.31 %, adult Povilla adusta (5.89 % and coleoptera larvae (5.36 %. The remaining six food items, dragon flies, P. adusta larvae, chironomid larvae, Daphnia, water mites and fish scales had RI values considerably under 5 %. The prominence of detritus in the diet indicated that the fish is a bottom or benthic feeder. The wide variability in food supply enables S. membranaceus to maintain its overwhelming prominence in Jebba lake, and its euryphagus habit makes it suited for pond culture. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 931-936. Epub 2008 June 30.Los hábitos alimenticios del pez Synodontis membranaceus fueron investigados durante 24 meses (abril 2002-marzo 2004 en el lago Jebba, Nigeria; utilizando frecuencia de aparición, métodos numéricos, métodos gravimétricos y el Índice de Importancia Relativa (IR. El incremento de estómagos llenos durante la noche, en comparación con el día, indica una intensidad alta de alimentación durante la noche. El pez tiene una dieta eurífaga. De los 16 tipos de comida ingeridos, 10 constituyen la dieta principal, según los valores del IR. Las cinco principales categorías fueron detritos (10.64 %, Aspatharia (9.08 %, plantas (8.85 %, semillas (8.61 % y Spirogyra (8.43 %, mientras que las cinco categorías menores corresponden a gastrópodos (7.05 %, apéndices de insectos (6.88 %, copépodos (6.31 %, adultos

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02731-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 28481_1( EU128481 |pid:none) Tanichthys albonubes beta-actin mR... 59 1e-07 ATRTC( A38571 ;A02999)actin beta...98305 |pid:none) Danio rerio clone RK113A4D08 actin... 57 4e-07 EU128482_1( EU128482 |pid:none) Tanichthys albonube

  15. Biodegradation of tetrabromobisphenol A by oxidases in basidiomycetous fungi and estrogenic activity of the biotransformation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhnáková, Bronislava; Ludwig, Roland; Pěknicová, Jana; Homolka, Ladislav; Lisá, Ludmila; Šulc, Miroslav; Petříčková, Alena; Elzeinová, Fatima; Pelantová, Helena; Monti, Daniela; Křen, Vladimír; Haltrich, Dietmar; Martínková, Ludmila

    2011-10-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) degradation was investigated using white rot fungi and their oxidative enzymes. Strains of the Trametes, Pleurotus, Bjerkandera and Dichomitus genera eliminated almost 1 mM TBBPA within 4 days. Laccase, whose role in TBBPA degradation was demonstrated in fungal cultures, was applied to TBBPA degradation alone and in combination with cellobiose dehydrogenase from Sclerotium rolfsii. Purified laccase from Trametes versicolor degraded approximately 2 mM TBBPA within 5 h, while the addition of cellobiose dehydrogenase increased the degradation rate to almost 2.5 mM within 3 h. Laccase was used to prepare TBBPA metabolites 2,6-dibromo-4-(2-hydroxypropane-2-yl) phenol (1), 2,6-dibromo-4-(2-methoxypropane-2-yl) phenol (2) and 1-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphen-1-yl)-2,2',6,6'-tetrabromo-4,4'-isopropylidene diphenol (3). As compounds 1 and 3 were identical to the TBBPA metabolites prepared by using rat and human liver fractions (Zalko et al., 2006), laccase can provide a simple means of preparing these metabolites for toxicity studies. Products 1 and 2 exhibited estrogenic effects, unlike TBBPA, but lower cell toxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Catálogo de Apoidea da Região Neotropical (Hymenoptera, Colletidae: II. diphaglossinae Catalogue of the Apoidea of the Neotropical region (Hymenoptera, Colletidae: II. diphaglossinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúncia Urban

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The tribes Caupolicanini, Diphaglossini and Dissoglottini, and its genera are presented. Taxonomical comments, geographical occurrences, flowers visited, type localities and depositary museums are mentioned. Genus status is given for Alayoapis Michener, 1966. The following type-specimens are designated as lectotypes: Bicornelia aterrima Friese, 1925; Bicornelia sericata Friese, 1925; Caupolicana curvipes Friese, 1898; Caupolicana fuhicollis Spinola 1851; Caupolicana interrupta Perez, 1911; Caupolicana mystica Schrottky, 1902; Caupolicana mystica baeriana Vachal, 1904; Caupolicana niveofasciata Friese, 1898; Caupolicana rufipes Friese, 1904; Caupolicana weyrauchi Moure, 1953; Megacilissa albofimbriata Cameron, 1903; Megacilissa magrettii Friese, 1899; Megacilissa olivacea Friese, 1898; Megacilissa (Ptiloglossa tarsata Friese, 1900; Megacilissa tomentosa Friese, 1898; Ptiloglossa chalybaea Friese, 1906; Ptiloglossa cyaniventris Friese, 1925; Ptiloglossa ducalis buchwaldi Friese, 1908; Ptiloglossa eburnea Friese, 1904; Ptiloglossa goffergei Moure, 1953; Ptiloglossa obscura Friese, 1908; Ptiloglossa ochracea Friese, 1906; Ptiloglossa willinki Moure, 1953; Ptiloglossa (Megacilissa zikani Friese, 1925 and Ptiloglossidia fallax Moure, 1953. The following ones are recognized as new synonyms: Caupolicana albicollis Smith, 1906, syn. n. Caupolicana mystica Schrottky, 1902; Caupolicana interrupta Perez, 1911, syn. n. Caupolicana adusta Friese, 1899; Caupolicana mystica baeriana Vachal, 1904, syn. n. Caupolicana lugubris Smith, 1879; Megacilissa albofimbriata Cameron, 1903, syn.n. Caupolicana niveofasciata Friese, 1898 and Megacilissa superba Smith, 1853, syn.n. Caupolicana fuhicollis Spinola, 1851. The following ones are recognized as new combinations: Alayoapis nigrescens (Cresson, 1869; Alayoapis notabilis (Smith, 1861; Alayoapis subaurata (Cresson, 1869; Foersterapis foersteri (Moure & Seabra, 1962 and Ptiloglossa tenuimarginata (Smith, 1879; and, as

  17. Risk element sorption/desorption characteristics of dry olive residue: a technique for the potential immobilization of risk elements in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovorka, Miloš; Száková, Jiřina; García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Acebal, Mercedes Blanc; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    Olive oil production is one of the most relevant agroindustrial activities in the Mediterranean region and generates a huge amount of both solid and semi-solid wastes, the uncontrolled disposal of which might lead to serious environmental problems. Due to its organic matter and mineral nutrient content, the waste material can be applied to agricultural soil as a fertilizer. However, due to its high organic matter content, dry olive residue (DOR), commonly called "alperujo," has the potential to immobilize risk elements in contaminated soils. The main objective of this study was to assess the possible effect of DOR on sorption of risk elements such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the soil. A set of batch sorption experiments were carried out to assess the ability of DOR to adsorb Cd, Pb, and Zn where the effect of the preceding biotransformation of DOR by four species of fungi: Penicillium chrysogenum, Coriolopsis floccosa, Bjerkhandera adusta, and Chondrostereum purpureum was compared. The Freundlich and Langmuir sorption isotherms were calculated to assess the sorption characteristics of both transformed and non-transformed DOR. The results showed good potential sorption capacity of DOR, especially for Pb and to a lesser extent for Cd and Zn. Better sorption characteristics were reported for the biotransformed DOR samples, which are expected to show higher humification of the organic matter. However, the desorption experiments showed weakness and instability of the DOR-bound elements, especially in the case of Zn. Thus, future research should aim to verify the DOR sorption pattern in contaminated soil as well as the potential stabilization of the DOR element bounds where the increase of the pH levels of the DOR samples needs to be taken into account.

  18. Calcinea of the Red Sea: providing a DNA barcode inventory with description of four new species

    KAUST Repository

    Voigt, Oliver

    2017-03-29

    The Red Sea is a biodiversity hotspot with a considerable percentage of endemic species for many marine animals. Little is known about the diversity and distribution of calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea) in this marginal sea. Here we analysed calcareous sponges of the subclass Calcinea that were collected between 2009 and 2013 at 20 localities in the Red Sea, ranging from the Gulf of Aqaba in the north to the Farasan Islands in the south, to document the species of this region. For this, we applied an integrative approach: We defined OTUs based on the analyses of a recently suggested standard DNA marker, the LSU C-region. The analysis was complemented with a second marker, the internal transcribed spacer, for selected specimens. Ten OTUs were identified. Specimens of each OTU were morphologically examined with spicule preparations and histological sections. Accordingly, our ten OTUs represent ten species, which cover taxonomically a broad range of the subclass. By combining molecular and morphological data, we describe four new species from the Red Sea: Soleneiscus hamatus sp. nov., Ernstia arabica sp. nov., Clathrina rotundata sp. nov., and Clathrina rowi sp. nov.. One additional small specimen was closely related to “Clathrina” adusta, but due to the small size it could not be properly analysed morphologically. By providing the DNA sequences for the morphologically documented specimens in the Sponge Barcoding Database (www.spongebarcoding.org) we facilitate future DNA-assisted species identification of Red Sea Calcinea, even for small or incomplete samples, which would be insufficient for morphological identification. Application of DNA barcode methods in the subclass will help to further investigate the distribution of Calcinea in the Red Sea and adjacent regions.

  19. Unexpected diversity of basidiomycetous endophytes in sapwood and leaves of Hevea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rachael; Gazis, Romina; Skaltsas, Demetra; Chaverri, Priscila; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Research on fungal endophytes has expanded dramatically in recent years, but little is known about the diversity and ecological roles of endophytic basidiomycetes. Here we report the analysis of 310 basidiomycetous endophytes isolated from wild and planted populations of the rubber tree genus, Hevea. Species accumulation curves were nonasymptotic, as in the majority of endophyte surveys, indicating that more sampling is needed to recover the true diversity of the community. One hundred eighteen OTUs were delimited, representing nine orders of Basidiomycota (Agaricales, Atheliales, Auriculariales, Cantharellales, Hymenochaetales, Polyporales, Russulales, Septobasidiales, Tremellales). The diversity of basidiomycetous endophytes found inhabiting wild populations of Hevea was comparable to that present in plantations. However, when samples were segregated by tissue type, sapwood of wild populations was found to contain a higher number of species than sapwood of planted trees. Seventy-five percent of isolates were members of the Polyporales, the majority in the phlebioid clade. Most of the species belong to clades known to cause a white-rot type of wood decay. Two species in the insect-associated genus Septobasidium were isolated. The most frequently isolated genera included Bjerkandera, Ceriporia, Phanerochaete, Phlebia, Rigidoporus, Tinctoporellus, Trametes (Polyporales), Peniophora, Stereum (Russulales) and Coprinellus (Agaricales), all of which have been reported as endophytes from a variety of hosts, across wide geographic locations. Literature records on the geographic distribution and host association of these genera revealed that their distribution and substrate affinity could be extended if the endophytic niche was investigated as part of fungal biodiversity surveys. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  20. Self-confidence, self-esteem, and assumption of sex role in young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W; McCoy, N

    2000-06-01

    This study investigated the use of the English translation of a paper-and-pencil self-confidence scale developed in French by Garant, Charest, Alain, and Thomassin in 1995. The translated self-confidence scale measured self-confidence, or the belief that one will succeed at whatever one undertakes, as distinct from self-esteem or the feeling that one is a worthwhile person. Unlike a number of previous studies. there was no sex difference in self-confidence favoring men: however, scores on the masculinity portion of Bem's Sex role Inventory (1974) were highly correlated with self-confidence for both men (r=.59) and women (r=.69).

  1. Changes in Perceptions of the Internet’s Influence on Marketing in South Africa since the Late-1990s

    OpenAIRE

    K.L. Sharp; A.L. Bevan-Dye

    2014-01-01

    The present paper reports on a study that compared senior marketers’ perceptions of the Internet’s influence on marketing in South Africa in 1997 with their perceptions nearly two decades later in 2011. In South Africa, the predicted value of the Internet economy is expected to rise from R59 billion at the end of 2013 to R100 billion in 2016, thereby accounting for 2.5% of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). A cross-industry survey of the marketing practitioners at the Johannesburg St...

  2. Frequencies distribution of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase mutant alleles associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum population from Hadhramout Governorate, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaga, Omar A A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-12-22

    Malaria in Yemen is mainly caused by Plasmodium falciparum and 25% of the population is at high risk. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) had been used as monotherapy against P. falciparum. Emergence of chloroquine resistance led to the shift in anti-malarial treatment policy in Yemen to artemisinin-based combination therapy, that is artesunate (AS) plus SP as first-line therapy for uncomplicated malaria and artemether-lumefantrine as second-line treatment. This study aimed to screen mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) genes associated with SP resistance among P. falciparum population in Hadhramout governorate, Yemen. Genomic DNA was extracted from dried blood spots of 137 P. falciparum isolates collected from a community-based study. DNA was amplified using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequently sequenced for Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes. Sequences were analysed for mutations in Pfdhfr gene codons 51, 59, 108, and 164 and in Pfdhps gene codons 436, 437, and 540. A total of 128 and 114 P. falciparum isolates were successfully sequenced for Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes, respectively. Each Pfdhfr mutant allele (I51 and N108) in P. falciparum population had a frequency of 84%. Pfdhfr R59 mutant allele was detected in one isolate. Mutation at codon 437 (G437) in the Pfdhps gene was detected in 44.7% of falciparum malaria isolates. Frequencies of Pfdhfr double mutant genotype (I51C59N108I164) and Pfdhfr/Pfdhps triple mutant genotype (I51C59N108I164-S436G437K540) were 82.8 and 39.3%, respectively. One isolate harboured Pfdhfr triple mutant genotype (I51, R59, N108, I164) and Pfdhfr/Pfdhps quadruple mutant genotype (I51R59N108I164-S436G437K540). High frequencies of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps mutant alleles and genotypes in P. falciparum population in Hadhramout, Yemen, highlight the risk of developing resistance for SP, the partner drug of AS, which subsequently will expose the parasite to AS monotherapy increasing then the

  3. Mental Toughness in Competitive Tennis: Relationships with Resilience and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Gregory Cowden

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationships between mental toughness (MT, resilience, and stress among competitive South African tennis players. A total of 351 tennis players participating at various competitive standards completed the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale for Adults, and a modified version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes. The results indicated that total MT was positively associated with total resilience (r = .59, but negatively associated with total stress (r = -.44. The resilience subscales of perception of self, perception of future, social competence, and social resources, but not family cohesion, significantly predicted total MT (R2 = .35. Both total resilience and total MT significantly predicted total stress (R2 = .21. Based on the findings, interrelations between MT and resilience are explored, implications outlined, and additional research is suggested to ascertain the contextual relevance and outcomes associated with each construct in sport.

  4. Safety-evaluation report related to the renewal of the operating license for the research reactor at the Iowa State University (Docket No. 50-116)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Iowa State University (ISU) for a renewal of the Class 104 Operating License R-59 to continue to operate its Argonaut-type research reactor has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is owned and operated by the Iowa State University, and is located on the ISU campus in Ames, Story County, Iowa. The staff concludes that the reactor facility can continue to be operated by ISU without endangering the health and safety of the public. The principal matters reviewed are: design, testing, and performance of the reactor components and systems; the expected consequences of credible accidents; the licensee's management organization; the method used for the control of radiological effluents; the licensee's technical specifications; financial data and information; the physical protection program; procedures for training reactor operators; and emergency plans. 11 references, 15 figures, 13 tables

  5. Risk factors for reintervention after surgery for perforated gastroduodenal ulcer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, R B; Lohse, N; Duch, P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perforated gastroduodenal ulcer carries a high mortality rate. Need for reintervention after surgical repair is associated with worse outcome, but knowledge on risk factors for reintervention is limited. The aim was to identify prognostic risk factors for reintervention after perforated...... gastroduodenal ulcer in a nationwide cohort. METHODS: All patients treated surgically for perforated gastroduodenal ulcer in Denmark between 2003 and 2014 were included using data from the Danish Clinical Register of Emergency Surgery. Potential risk factors for reintervention were assessed, and their crude...... and adjusted associations calculated by the competing risks subdistribution hazards approach. RESULTS: A total of 4086 patients underwent surgery for perforated gastroduodenal ulcer during the study interval. Median age was 71·1 (i.q.r. 59·6-81·0) years and the overall 90-day mortality rate was 30·8 per cent...

  6. Psychometric Testing of Behavior Assessment for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Ling; Kuo, Ching-Pyng; Li, Chia-Ying; Liao, Wen-Chun

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Behavior Assessment for Children (BAC) in a community of school-aged children in Taiwan. A school-based sample comprising third grade and fourth grade students was recruited from Taichung City in Taiwan. The parents (n = 248) and teachers (n = 15) of these students completed structured questionnaires, including the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the proposed BAC. Content validity, concurrent validity, construct validity, internal consistency, and inter-rater reliability of the BAC were assessed. The BAC comprised three subscales (attention, emotion, and self-control) that included 17 items. The content validity index (CVI) score was 0.98. The result of the confirmatory factor analysis (goodness of fit = .90, root mean square of residual = .03, root mean square error of approximation = .06, and comparative fit index = .94) supported the construct validity of the three BAC subscales. The concurrent validity of the BAC subscales significantly correlated with the compatible CBCL subscales (r = .59-.78, p behavioral problems in school-aged children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Spark plasma sintered Sm(2)Co(17)-FeCo nanocomposite permanent magnets synthesized by high energy ball milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, G; Gopalan, R; Chandrasekaran, V; Markandeyulu, G; Suresh, K G; Murty, B S

    2008-08-20

    Nanocomposite Sm(2)Co(17)-5 wt% FeCo magnets were synthesized by high energy ball milling followed by consolidation into bulk shape by the spark plasma sintering technique. The evolution of magnetic properties was systematically investigated in milled powders as well as in spark plasma sintered samples. A high energy product of 10.2 MGOe and the other magnetic properties of M(s) = 107 emu g(-1), M(r) = 59 emu g(-1), M(r)/M(s) = 0.55 and H(c) = 6.4 kOe were achieved in a 5 h milled and spark plasma sintered Sm(2)Co(17)-5 wt% FeCo nanocomposite magnet. The spark plasma sintering was carried out at 700 °C for 5 min with a pressure of 70 MPa. The nanocomposite showed a higher Curie temperature of 955 °C for the Sm(2)Co(17) phase in comparison to its bulk Curie temperature for the Sm(2)Co(17) phase (920 °C). This higher Curie temperature can improve the performance of the magnet at higher temperatures.

  8. Perceptions of the organization's climate: influenced by the organization's structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, K A

    1991-02-01

    Currently, little is known about organizational climates in schools of nursing, and what structural factors are associated with climate variations. The purpose of this study is to describe the organizational structure and climate, and the interrelationship between these factors, in two schools of nursing. Results indicated that the sample organizations exhibited characteristics of both the bureaucratic and professional models of organizational structure, although one school was more closely aligned to the professional model. Organizational climates differed in the two schools, and the school that structurally resembled the professional model had a more facilitative climate. Organizational structure was significantly (p less than .01) related to the climate dimensions of autonomy (r = -.35), work pressure (r = .49), and control (r = .59). The schools differed significantly (p less than .01) on the climate dimensions of administrative support (t = 3.31, df = 54), autonomy (t = 3.30, df = 56), work pressure (t = -4.36, df = 60), and control (t = -6.74, df = 55). Administrative support and autonomy were higher in the school structurally resembling the professional model, and work pressure and control were higher in the school structurally resembling the bureaucratic model.

  9. Comparison of athlete-coach perceptions of internal and external load markers for elite junior tennis training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alistair P; Duffield, Rob; Kellett, Aaron; Reid, Machar

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the discrepancy between coach and athlete perceptions of internal load and notational analysis of external load in elite junior tennis. Fourteen elite junior tennis players and 6 international coaches were recruited. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded for individual drills and whole sessions, along with a rating of mental exertion, coach rating of intended session exertion, and athlete heart rate (HR). Furthermore, total stroke count and unforced-error count were notated using video coding after each session, alongside coach and athlete estimations of shots and errors made. Finally, regression analyses explained the variance in the criterion variables of athlete and coach RPE. Repeated-measures analyses of variance and interclass correlation coefficients revealed that coaches significantly (P athlete session RPE, with only moderate correlation (r = .59) demonstrated between coach and athlete. However, athlete drill RPE (P = .14; r = .71) and mental exertion (P = .44; r = .68) were comparable and substantially correlated. No significant differences in estimated stroke count were evident between athlete and coach (P = .21), athlete notational analysis (P = .06), or coach notational analysis (P = .49). Coaches estimated significantly greater unforced errors than either athletes or notational analysis (P athlete session RPE. Coaches misinterpreted session RPE but not drill RPE, while inaccurately monitoring error counts. Improved understanding of external- and internal-load monitoring may help coach-athlete relationships in individual sports like tennis avoid maladaptive training.

  10. Diffusion tensor imaging of the optic tracts in multiple sclerosis: association with retinal thinning and visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenbrock, Hormuzdiyar H; Smith, Seth A; Ozturk, Arzu; Farrell, Sheena K; Calabresi, Peter A; Reich, Daniel S

    2011-04-01

    Visual disability is common in multiple sclerosis, but its relationship to abnormalities of the optic tracts remains unknown. Because they are only rarely affected by lesions, the optic tracts may represent a good model for assessing the imaging properties of normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis. Whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging was performed on 34 individuals with multiple sclerosis and 26 healthy volunteers. The optic tracts were reconstructed by tractography, and tract-specific diffusion indices were quantified. In the multiple-sclerosis group, peripapillary retinal nerve-fiber-layer thickness and total macular volume were measured by optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity at 100%, 2.5%, and 1.25% contrast was examined. After adjusting for age and sex, optic-tract mean and perpendicular diffusivity were higher (P=.002) in multiple sclerosis. Lower optic-tract fractional anisotropy was correlated with retinal nerve-fiber-layer thinning (r=.51, P=.003) and total-macular-volume reduction (r=.59, P=.002). However, optic-tract diffusion indices were not specifically correlated with visual acuity or with their counterparts in the optic radiation. Optic-tract diffusion abnormalities are associated with retinal damage, suggesting that both may be related to optic-nerve injury, but do not appear to contribute strongly to visual disability in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  11. [Impact of Bowel Function, Anxiety and Depression on Quality of Life in Patients with Sphincter-preserving Resection for Rectal Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwoun, Hyun Jun; Shin, Yun Hee

    2015-10-01

    This study was a descriptive survey research to identify the impact of bowel function, anxiety and depression on quality of life in patients with rectal cancer who had a sphincter-preserving resection. Participants were 100 patients who had rectal cancer surgery at W hospital in Korea. Bowel function, anxiety & depression, and quality of life were measured using the BFI (Bowel Function Instrument), HADS (Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale) and the FACT-C (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal). The mean scores were 39.81±5.16 for bowel function, 6.15±3.25 for anxiety, 7.24±3.13 for depression, and 72.50±13.27 for quality of life. There were significant negative correlations between quality of life and anxiety (r=-.59, pAnxiety (β=-.38, p=.002), bowel function (β=-.25, p=.028) and occupation (β=.16, p=.048) were identified as factors affecting quality of life. The explanation power of this regression model was 44% and it was statistically significant (F=16.53, pcancer, effective nursing interventions should be developed. As psychological problem such as anxiety and depression can relate to quality of life for these patients, nurses should work on improving the situation by providing continuous emotional nursing.

  12. The cultural adaptation and validation of the "Burn Specific Health Scale-Revised" (BSHS-R): version for Brazilian burn victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Eneas; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Rossi, Lidia Aparecida; Ciol, Marcia Aparecida

    2008-11-01

    The Burns Specific Health Scale-Revised (BSHS-R) is of easy application, can be self-administered, and it is considered a good scale to evaluate various important life aspects of burn victims. To translate and culturally adapt the BSHS-R into the Brazilian-Portuguese language and to evaluate the internal consistency and convergent validity of the translated BSHS-R. The cultural adaptation of the BSHS-R included translation and back-translation, discussions with professionals and patients to ensure conceptual equivalence, semantic evaluation, and pre-test of the instrument. The Final Brazilian-Portuguese Version (FBPV) of the BSHS-R was tested on a group of 115 burn patients for internal consistency and validity of construct (using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)). All values of Cronbach's alpha were greater than .8, demonstrating that the internal consistency of the FBPV was very high. Self-esteem was highly correlated with affect and body image (r=.59, pvalidity and reliability criteria required from an instrument of health status assessment for burn patients.

  13. The spider family Micropholcommatidae (Arachnida: Araneae: Araneoidea: a relimitation and revision at the generic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rix

    2010-02-01

    .; the 20 previously described species of Textricella are thus transferred into Eterosonycha or other newly described genera. The Textricellini includes 10 genera from Australasia and Chile: Eterosonycha has four species, including the type E. alpina Butler (=Textricella parva Hickman syn. n., E. complexa (Forster, E. aquilina sp. n. and E. ocellata sp. n.; Epigastrina gen. n. has three species, including the type E. fulva (Hickman, E. loongana sp. n. and E. typhlops sp. n.; Guiniella gen. n. is monotypic, with G. tropica (Forster; Raveniella gen. n. has three species, including the type R. luteola (Hickman, R. hickmani (Forster and R. peckorum sp. n.; Rayforstia gen. n. has 12 species, including the type R. vulgaris (Forster, the two new species R. lordhowensis sp. n. and R. raveni sp. n., and the nine additional species R. antipoda (Forster, R. insula (Forster, R. mcfarlanei (Forster, R. plebeia (Forster, R. propinqua (Forster, R. salmoni (Forster, R. scuta (Forster, R. signata (Forster and R. wisei (Forster; Normplatnicka gen. n. has three species, including the type N. lamingtonensis (Forster, N. chilensis sp. n. and N. barrettae sp. n.; Eperiella gen. n. has two species, including the type E. alsophila sp. n., and E. hastings sp. n.; Algidiella gen. n. is monotypic, with A. aucklandica (Forster; Taliniella gen. n. has two species, including the type T. nigra (Forster, and T. vinki sp. n.; and Tinytrella gen. n. is monotypic, with T. pusilla (Forster. The micropholcommatine tribe Patelliellini trib. n. includes only one monotypic genus, Patelliella gen. n., represented by the enigmatic species Patelliella adusta sp. n. from Lord Howe Island. The subfamily Taphiassinae subfam. n. includes two genera of distinctive, heavily punctate Micropholcommatidae from Australasia: Taphiassa Simon has six species, including the type T. impressa Simon, T. punctata (Forster, T. castanea sp. n., T. globosa sp. n., T. magna sp. n. and T. robertsi sp. n.; the genus Parapua Forster

  14. Temporal Stability of the Dutch Version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P H; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-01-01

    The Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) is one of the most widely used memory batteries. We examined the test-retest reliability, practice effects, and standardized regression-based (SRB) change norms for the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) after both short and long retest intervals. The WMS-IV-NL was administered twice after either a short (M = 8.48 weeks, SD = 3.40 weeks, range = 3-16) or a long (M = 17.87 months, SD = 3.48, range = 12-24) retest interval in a sample of 234 healthy participants (M = 59.55 years, range = 16-90; 118 completed the Adult Battery; and 116 completed the Older Adult Battery). The test-retest reliability estimates varied across indexes. They were adequate to good after a short retest interval (ranging from .74 to .86), with the exception of the Visual Working Memory Index (r = .59), yet generally lower after a long retest interval (ranging from .56 to .77). Practice effects were only observed after a short retest interval (overall group mean gains up to 11 points), whereas no significant change in performance was found after a long retest interval. Furthermore, practice effect-adjusted SRB change norms were calculated for all WMS-IV-NL index scores. Overall, this study shows that the test-retest reliability of the WMS-IV-NL varied across indexes. Practice effects were observed after a short retest interval, but no evidence was found for practice effects after a long retest interval from one to two years. Finally, the SRB change norms were provided for the WMS-IV-NL.

  15. Damage Cost of Drying of Aflaj in the Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slim Zekri1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Life style changes, population and economic growth, and lack of institutional innovations are causing noticeable damage to the rural communities living in and around Aflaj. The Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources (MRMWR reported more than 1,000 dried-up Aflaj out of 4,112 in 1996. This paper presents an estimation of the damage caused to the rural communities due to Aflaj dry-up. The production function method and the cost based method are used to estimate the direct losses incurred by farmers and the local communities. These are related to (1 losses in marketed agricultural products, (2 increase in domestic water expenditures per household and (3 capital losses related to changes in house and land values. The study considered 33 dried-up Aflaj among the 1029 monitored by the MRMWR. Our results show that on average each family in the dried-up Falaj has lost an income equivalent of O.R 320 per month. This highlights the importance of Aflaj as an income generator in the remote rural areas. Live Aflaj provide fresh vegetables and healthy food as well as drinking water to the rural population without the need for governmental intervention. The contribution of the supporting wells, whenever provided by the MRMWR, is estimated at O.R 1,478 per family per year. On average the annual financial loss per family due to dry-up is estimated at O.R 3,301 per year. The total damage cost of dried-up Aflaj, at the Sultanate level, is estimated at more than O.R 59 million per year.

  16. CCK response in bulimia nervosa and following remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon-Engel, Sandra L; Filin, Evgeniy E; Wolfe, Barbara E

    2013-10-02

    The core defining features of bulimia nervosa (BN) are repeated binge eating episodes and inappropriate compensatory (e.g., purging) behavior. Previous studies suggest an abnormal post-prandial response in the satiety-signaling peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) in persons with BN. It is unknown whether this altered response persists following remission or if it may be a potential target for the development of clinical treatment strategies. To examine the nature of this altered response, this study assessed whether CCK normalizes following remission from BN (RBN). This study prospectively evaluated the plasma CCK response and corresponding eating behavior-related ratings (e.g., satiety, fullness, hunger, urge to binge and vomit) in individuals with BN-purging subtype (n=10), RBN-purging subtype (n=14), and healthy controls (CON, n=13) at baseline, +15, +30, and +60 min following the ingestion of a standardized liquid test meal. Subject groups did not significantly differ in CCK response to the test meal. A significant relationship between CCK response and satiety ratings was observed in the RBN group (r=.59, p<.05 two-tailed). A new and unanticipated finding in the BN group was a significant relationship between CCK response and ratings of "urge to vomit" (r=.86, p<.01, two-tailed). Unlike previous investigations, CCK response did not differ in BN and CON groups. Thus the role of symptom severity remains an area of further investigation. Additionally, findings suggest that in this sample, CCK functioning following remission from BN-purging subtype is not different from controls. It remains unknown whether or not CCK functioning may be a protective or liability factor in the stabilization and recovery process. Replication studies utilizing a larger sample size are needed to further elucidate the role of CCK in recovery from BN and its potential target of related novel treatment strategies. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pain-induced depression in the elderly: Validation of psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the “Geriatric Emotional Assessment of Pain” - GEAP-b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bezerra Lopes Almeida

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: In order to introduce an instrument within our midst that allows a comprehensive clinical evaluation of pain-induced depression in the elderly, we proposed the translation, cross-cultural adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese, and study of the psychometric properties of the “Geriatric Psychosocial Assessment of Pain-induced Depression” (GEAP scale. This instrument was especially developed for the screening of depression associated with chronic pain in the elderly. Method: We performed translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the GEAP scale, whose psychometric properties were analyzed in a sample of 48 elderly individuals. Sociodemographic data and information related to chronic pain were ascertained, as well as those related to depression. The GEAP-b scale was applied at three different times on the same day by two different interviewers (I1 and I2, and after 15 days by one of those interviewers (I3. Results: The GEAP-b proved to be an easy-to-apply instrument with a high internal consistency value, according to the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.835. The reproducibility of the instrument was optimal, achieving intraclass correlations of 98.5 and 92% for interobserver and intraobserver, respectively. There was “considerable” agreement (between 0.419 and 1.0 for each GEAP-b item, except for item 19, according to the kappa statistic. As for the validity of the GEAP-b criterion, positive and statistically significant correlations were obtained for pain, according to GPM-p (r=49.5%, p<0.001, and depression, according to GDS (r=59%, p<0.001, both values being considered regular (between 40-60%. Conclusion: The GEAP-b scale has proven to be reliable and valid in the screening of pain-related depression in the elderly.

  18. HCV Core Residues Critical for Infectivity Are Also Involved in Core-NS5A Complex Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Katarzyna; Baugh, James; Chatterji, Udayan; Lim, Precious J.; Bobardt, Michael D.; Gallay, Philippe A.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease. The molecular machinery of HCV assembly and particle release remains obscure. A better understanding of the assembly events might reveal new potential antiviral strategies. It was suggested that the nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A), an attractive recent drug target, participates in the production of infectious particles as a result of its interaction with the HCV core protein. However, prior to the present study, the NS5A-binding site in the viral core remained unknown. We found that the D1 domain of core contains the NS5A-binding site with the strongest interacting capacity in the basic P38-K74 cluster. We also demonstrated that the N-terminal basic residues of core at positions 50, 51, 59 and 62 were required for NS5A binding. Analysis of all substitution combinations of R50A, K51A, R59A, and R62A, in the context of the HCVcc system, showed that single, double, triple, and quadruple mutants were fully competent for viral RNA replication, but deficient in secretion of viral particles. Furthermore, we found that the extracellular and intracellular infectivity of all the mutants was abolished, suggesting a defect in the formation of infectious particles. Importantly, we showed that the interaction between the single and quadruple core mutants and NS5A was impaired in cells expressing full-length HCV genome. Interestingly, mutations of the four basic residues of core did not alter the association of core or NS5A with lipid droplets. This study showed for the first time that basic residues in the D1 domain of core that are critical for the formation of infectious extracellular and intracellular particles also play a role in core-NS5A interactions. PMID:24533158

  19. Contribution of regional 3D meniscus and cartilage morphometry by MRI to joint space width in fixed flexion knee radiography—A between-knee comparison in subjects with unilateral joint space narrowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloecker, K., E-mail: katja.bloecker@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy and Musculoskeletal Research, Paracelsus Medical University, Strubergasse 21, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Department of Traumatology and Sports Medicine, Paracelsus Medical University, Müllner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Wirth, W., E-mail: wolfgang.wirth@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy and Musculoskeletal Research, Paracelsus Medical University, Strubergasse 21, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ulrichshöglerstrasse 23, 83404 Ainring (Germany); Hunter, D.J., E-mail: david.hunter@sydney.edu.au [Royal North Shore Hospital and Kolling Institute, University of Sydney, Pacific Highway, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia); Duryea, J., E-mail: jduryea@bwh.harvard.edu [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA (United States); Guermazi, A., E-mail: Ali.Guermazi@bmc.org [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 820 Harrison Avenue, FGH Building 3rd Floor, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Imaging Core Lab (BICL), 601 Albany Street, Boston, MA (United States); Kwoh, C.K., E-mail: kwoh@pitt.edu [Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Pittsburgh and VA, Pittsburgh Healthcare System, 3500 Terrace Street, Biomedical Science Tower South 702, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Resch, H., E-mail: Herbert.resch@salk.at [Department of Traumatology and Sports Medicine, Paracelsus Medical University, Müllner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Eckstein, F. [Institute of Anatomy and Musculoskeletal Research, Paracelsus Medical University, Strubergasse 21, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ulrichshöglerstrasse 23, 83404 Ainring (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Background: Radiographic joint space width (JSW) is considered the reference standard for demonstrating structural therapeutic benefits in knee osteoarthritis. Our objective was to determine the proportion by which 3D (regional) meniscus and cartilage measures explain between-knee differences of JSW in the fixed flexion radiographs. Methods: Segmentation of the medial meniscus and tibial and femoral cartilage was performed in double echo steady state (DESS) images. Quantitative measures of meniscus size and position, femorotibial cartilage thickness, and radiographic JSW (minimum, and fixed locations) were compared between both knees of 60 participants of the Osteoarthritis Initiative, with strictly unilateral medial joint space narrowing (JSN). Statistical analyses (between-knee, within-person comparison) were performed using regression analysis. Results: A strong relationship with side-differences in minimum and a central fixed location JSW was observed for percent tibial plateau coverage by the meniscus (r = .59 and .47; p < .01) and central femoral cartilage thickness (r = .69 and .75; p < .01); other meniscus and cartilage measures displayed lower coefficients. The correlation of central femoral cartilage thickness with JSW (but not that of meniscus measures) was greater (r = .78 and .85; p < .01) when excluding knees with non-optimal alignment between the tibia and X-ray beam. Conclusion: 3D measures of meniscus and cartilage provide significant, independent information in explaining side-differences in radiographic JSW in fixed flexion radiographs. Tibial coverage by the meniscus and central femoral cartilage explained two thirds of the variability in minimum and fixed location JSW. JSW provides a better representation of (central) femorotibial cartilage thickness, when optimal positioning of the fixed flexion radiographs is achieved.

  20. Comparative efficacies of artemisinin combination therapies in Plasmodium falciparum malaria and polymorphism of pfATPase6, pfcrt, pfdhfr, and pfdhps genes in tea gardens of Jalpaiguri District, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Pabitra; Guha, Subhasish K; Das, Sonali; Mullick, Shrabanee; Ganguly, Swagata; Biswas, Asit; Bera, Dilip K; Chattopadhyay, Gaurangadeb; Das, Madhusudan; Kundu, Pratip K; Ray, Krishnangshu; Maji, Ardhendu K

    2012-05-01

    In India, chloroquine has been replaced by a combination of artesunate and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP) for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Other available combinations, artemether-lumefantrine (AM-LF) and artesunate-mefloquine (AS-MQ), not included in the national program, are widely used by private practitioners. Little is known about the therapeutic efficacy of these artemisinin combinations and the prevalence of molecular markers associated with antimalarial drug resistance. A total of 157 patients with P. falciparum monoinfection were recruited and randomized into three study groups (AS-SP, AM-LF, and AS-MQ). All patients were followed up for 42 days to study the clinical and parasitological responses according to the WHO protocol (2009). We assessed the polymorphism of the pfATPase6, pfcrt, pfdhfr, and pfdhps genes by the DNA-sequencing method. The PCR-corrected therapeutic efficacies of AS-SP, AM-LF, and AS-MQ were 90.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.793 to 0.969), 95.9% (95% CI, 0.860 to 0.995), and 100% (95% CI, 0.927 to 1.00), respectively. No specific mutational pattern was observed in the pfATPase6 gene. All isolates had a K76T mutation in the pfcrt gene. In the pfdhfr-pfdhps genotype, quadruple mutation was frequent, and quintuple mutation was documented in 6.3% of P. falciparum isolates. The significant failure rate of AS-SP (9.5%), although within the limit (10%) for drug policy change, was due to SP failure because of prevailing mutations in pfdhfr, I(51)R(59)N(108), with pfdhps, G(437) and/or E(540). The efficacy of this ACT needs periodic monitoring. Artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-mefloquine are effective alternatives to the artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination.

  1. Dioctanoylglycerol stimulates accumulation of [methyl-14C]choline and its incorporation into acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine in a human cholinergic neuroblastoma cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, B. E.; Richardson, U. I.; Nitsch, R. M.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Dioctanoylglycerol, a synthetic diacylglycerol, stimulated [14C]choline uptake in cultured human neuroblastoma (LA-N-2) cells. As this effect has not, to our knowledge, been reported before, it was of interest to characterize it in more detail. In the presence of 500 microM dioctanoylglycerol the levels of [14C]choline attained during a 2 hour labeling period were elevated by 78 +/- 12%, while [14C]acetylcholine and long fatty acyl chain [14C]phosphatidylcholine levels increased by 26 +/- 2% and 19 +/- 5%, respectively (mean +/- S.E.M.). Total (long chain plus dioctanoyl-) [14C]phosphatidylcholine was increased by 198 +/- 33%. Kinetic analysis showed that dioctanoylglycerol reduced the apparent Km for choline uptake to 56 +/- 9% of control (n = 4). The Vmax was not significantly altered. The stimulation of [14C]choline accumulation by dioctanoylglycerol was not dependent on protein kinase C activation; the effect was not mimicked by phorbol ester or by 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol, and was not inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors H-7 or staurosporine, or by prolonged pretreatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The effect of dioctanoylglycerol was slightly (but not significantly) reduced by EGTA and strongly inhibited by the cell-permeant calcium chelator bis(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl)ester. Although these results implicate elevated intracellular calcium in the response, dioctanoylglycerol did not increase phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in LA-N-2 cells, and its effect was not inhibited by the diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R 59 022 (which blocks the conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid, a known stimulator of phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  2. Salivary immunoglobulin A in healthy adolescent females: effects of maximal exercise, physical activity, body composition, and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Hermann J; Kendall, Bradley J; Fahlman, Mariane M; Gothe, Neha P; Bourbeau, Kelsey C

    2017-09-22

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute maximal exercise (VO2max test) on salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA) responses in adolescent females. A secondary aim was to examine the relationship between resting SIgA levels and VO2max, physical activity, body composition, and diet. Fifty healthy female adolescents completed a laboratory based VO2max test, assessment of body composition via hydrodensitometry, a validated physical activity questionnaire (PAQ- A), and a 3-day food diary. Unstimulated saliva was collected before, and 5-min and 120-min post VO2max testing. Absolute SIgA (μg/ml) concentration was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Secretion rate of SIgA (μg/min) was calculated by multiplying absolute SIgA concentration by saliva flow rate (SFR, μl/min). A significant increase in absolute SIgA concentration (146.8±59.2 μg/ml) was noted immediately after VO2max testing (p0.05). No significant VO2max test effects were observed for SIgA secretion rate and SFR (p>0.05). VO2max values (41.92±6.36 ml/kg/min) were correlated with body fat percentage (r= -.59; p0.05) except for dietary fiber which correlated with resting absolute SIgA concentration (r= .29; p<0.05). Findings indicate that acute graded maximal exercise results in a transient increase in absolute SIgA concentration and that these changes are associated with individual VO2max values.

  3. A web-based team-oriented medical error communication assessment tool: development, preliminary reliability, validity, and user ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sara; Brock, Doug; Prouty, Carolyn D; Odegard, Peggy Soule; Shannon, Sarah E; Robins, Lynne; Boggs, Jim G; Clark, Fiona J; Gallagher, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-choice exams are not well suited for assessing communication skills. Standardized patient assessments are costly and patient and peer assessments are often biased. Web-based assessment using video content offers the possibility of reliable, valid, and cost-efficient means for measuring complex communication skills, including interprofessional communication. We report development of the Web-based Team-Oriented Medical Error Communication Assessment Tool, which uses videotaped cases for assessing skills in error disclosure and team communication. Steps in development included (a) defining communication behaviors, (b) creating scenarios, (c) developing scripts, (d) filming video with professional actors, and (e) writing assessment questions targeting team communication during planning and error disclosure. Using valid data from 78 participants in the intervention group, coefficient alpha estimates of internal consistency were calculated based on the Likert-scale questions and ranged from α=.79 to α=.89 for each set of 7 Likert-type discussion/planning items and from α=.70 to α=.86 for each set of 8 Likert-type disclosure items. The preliminary test-retest Pearson correlation based on the scores of the intervention group was r=.59 for discussion/planning and r=.25 for error disclosure sections, respectively. Content validity was established through reliance on empirically driven published principles of effective disclosure as well as integration of expert views across all aspects of the development process. In addition, data from 122 medicine and surgical physicians and nurses showed high ratings for video quality (4.3 of 5.0), acting (4.3), and case content (4.5). Web assessment of communication skills appears promising. Physicians and nurses across specialties respond favorably to the tool.

  4. Evolution of Determinant Factors of Repeated Sprint Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pareja-Blanco Fernando

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the relationships between repeated sprint ability (RSA and anthropometric measures as well as fitness qualities in soccer players. Twenty-one professional soccer players performed several anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement vertical jumps (CMJs, a straight-line 30 m sprint (T30, an RSA test (6 x 20 + 20 m with 20 s recovery, a progressive isoinertial loading test in a full squat, a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1 (YYIRT-1 and a 20 m shuttle run test (20mSRT. The mean (RSAmean, the fastest (RSAbest, each single sprint time, and the percentage in a sprint decrease (%Dec in the RSA test were calculated. RSAbest correlated significantly with RSAmean (r = .82 and with all single sprints (p < 0.05, showing a downward trend as the number of sprints performed increased. No significant relationship was observed between the %Dec and RSA performance. CMJs and the T30 also showed a correlation with RSA performance, whereas lower limb strength did not show any relationship with RSA performance. RSAmean showed significant (p < 0.05 relationships with body mass (r = .44, adiposity (r = .59 and the YYIRT-1 (r = -.62, increasing as the number of repeated sprints increased. The 20mSRT showed minimal relationships with RSA performance. In conclusion, maximal sprint capacity seems to be relevant for the RSA performance, mainly in the first sprints. However, high intermittent endurance capacity and low adiposity might help enhance the RSA performance when increasing the number of repeated sprints.

  5. Performance, carcass traits, meat quality and economic analysis of feedlot of young bulls fed oilseeds with and without supplementation of vitamin E

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    Otávio Rodrigues Machado Neto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate average daily gain (ADG, carcass traits, meat tenderness and profitability of keeping cattle fed different oilseeds and vitamin E in feedlot. A total of 40 Red Norte young bulls with initial average body weight of 339±15 kg were utilized. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The experiment lasted 84 days and experimental diets presented soybeans or cottonseeds as lipid sources associated or not to daily supplementation of 2,500 UI vitamin E per animal. The concentrate:roughage ratio was 60:40. Diets had the same amount of nitrogen (13% CP and ether extract (6.5%. The data were analyzed by means of statistical software SAS 9.1. Neither vitamin supplementation nor lipid source affected ADG. There was no interaction between lipid source and vitamin supplementation for the variables studied. The inclusion of cottonseed reduced the carcass yield. There was no effect of diets on hot and cold carcass weights or prime cuts. The inclusion of cottonseed reduced the backfat thickness. No effect of experimental diets on the rib-eye area was observed. There was no effect of lipid source or vitamin supplementation on meat tenderness, which was affected, however, by ageing time. Diets with soybeans presented higher cost per animal. The utilization of soybean implied reduction of the gross margin (R$ 59.17 and R$ 60.51 for diets based on soy with and without supplemental vitamin, respectively, vs. R$ 176.42 and R$ 131.79 for diets based on cottonseed. The utilization of cottonseed enables improvement of profitability of feedlot fattening, in spite of negatively affecting some carcass characteristics.

  6. Correlation analysis of the relationship between B-type natriuretic peptide and selected echocardiographic parameters in patients with permanent pacemakers

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    Janusz Sielski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the practical value of BNP measurements and echocardiographic left ventricular volume index in patients with permanent pacemakers because there are no such reports in the literature. Aim of the research: The aim of the study was to reveal multiple correlations between BNP levels and selected echocardiographic parameters of the left atrium in patients with permanent pacemakers. In the literature there are reports on the significance of BNP values and left atrial size in patients with permanent pacemakers. The results of the present study appear to be of value in the outpatient assessment of these patients. Material and methods: We analysed a group of 117 patients with permanent pacemakers (AAI/R 21 patients, DDD/R 59 patients, VVI/R 37 patients and 48 healthy volunteers serving as the control group. BNP measurements were performed on venous blood samples using Triage meters. The Simpson method and the ellipse method were used to assess the left atrium on echocardiography. Results: There was a significant correlation between BNP and maximum left atrial volume, minimum left atrial volume, and left atrial volume index in patients with AAI/R, DDD/R, and VVI/R pacemakers at 3 and 6 months after the implantation. Conclusions : In patients after implantation of permanent pacemakers there are correlations between BNP values and echocardiographic left atrial parameters, especially in patients with DDD/R pacemakers. Left atrial function improves in patients with DDD/R pacemakers. Pacemaker check-up should be extended to include BNP measurements and echocardiographic assessment of the left atrium.

  7. Prevalence of mutations associated with antimalarial drugs in Plasmodium falciparum isolates prior to the introduction of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as first-line treatment in Iran

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    Djadid Navid

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work was carried out to assess the patterns and prevalence of resistance to chloroquine (CQ and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP in Iran. Methods The prevalence of pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 N86Y, pfdhfr N51I, C59R, S108N/T and I164L and codons S436F/A, A437G, K540E, A581E, and A613S/T in pfdhps genes were genotyped by PCR/RFLP methods in 206 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Chabahar and Sarbaz districts in Sistan and Baluchistan province, Iran, during 2003–2005. Results All P. falciparum isolates carried the 108N, while 98.5% parasite isolates carried the 59R mutation. 98.5% of patients carried both 108N and 59R. The prevalence of pfdhps 437G mutation was 17% (Chabahar and 33% (Sarbaz isolates. 20.4% of samples presented the pfdhfr 108N, 59R with pfdhps 437G mutations. The frequency of allele pfcrt 76T was 98%, while 41.4% (Chabahar and 27.7% (Sarbaz isolates carried pfmdr1 86Y allele. Eight distinct haplotypes were identified in all 206 samples, while the most prevalent haplotype was T76/N86/N51R59N108/A437 among both study areas. Conclusion Finding the fixed level of CQ resistance polymorphisms (pfcrt 76T suggests that CQ must be withdrawn from the current treatment strategy in Iran, while SP may remain the treatment of choice for uncomplicated malaria.

  8. Prevalence of Dihydrofolate reductase gene mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolate from pregnant women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Ojurongbe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and the frequency of the dhfr triple mutation that is associated with antifolate drug resistance among P. falciparumisolates obtained from pregnant women in Ilorin, Nigeria. The study included 179 women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy who have been exposed to intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp with sulfadoxinepyrimethamine. Thick and thin blood films and PCR were used for malaria parasite detection. Blood group and hemoglobin concentration were also determined. Mutations in P. falciparum dhfr were analyzed by sequencing DNA obtained from blood spots on filter paper. Prevalence of P. falciparum in the population (PCR corrected was 44.1% (79/179 with 66.7% and 33.3% in the second and third trimester, respectively. Primigravide (51.3% were more infected than multigravide (48.7% but the difference was not statistically significant. Women in blood group A had the highest P. falciparum malaria infection (30.8%. The mean hemoglobin concentration was lower among those infected with malaria parasite. Also, more women with the malaria parasite (38.4% had anemia compare to those without (21.4%. The prevalence of the P. falciparum dhfr mutant alleles was 64.1%, 61.5%, 38.5%, and 12.8% for I51, R59, N108 and T108, respectively. None of the samples had the L164 mutation. The combined triple dhfr mutation (51 + 59 + 108 in the population was 17.9% (7 of 39. Also, the prevalence of the triple mutant alleles was not significantly associated to the number of doses of SP taken by the women. These findings highlight the need for a regular assessment of IPTp/SP efficacy, and evaluation of possible alternative drugs.

  9. Contribution of regional 3D meniscus and cartilage morphometry by MRI to joint space width in fixed flexion knee radiography—A between-knee comparison in subjects with unilateral joint space narrowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloecker, K.; Wirth, W.; Hunter, D.J.; Duryea, J.; Guermazi, A.; Kwoh, C.K.; Resch, H.; Eckstein, F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radiographic joint space width (JSW) is considered the reference standard for demonstrating structural therapeutic benefits in knee osteoarthritis. Our objective was to determine the proportion by which 3D (regional) meniscus and cartilage measures explain between-knee differences of JSW in the fixed flexion radiographs. Methods: Segmentation of the medial meniscus and tibial and femoral cartilage was performed in double echo steady state (DESS) images. Quantitative measures of meniscus size and position, femorotibial cartilage thickness, and radiographic JSW (minimum, and fixed locations) were compared between both knees of 60 participants of the Osteoarthritis Initiative, with strictly unilateral medial joint space narrowing (JSN). Statistical analyses (between-knee, within-person comparison) were performed using regression analysis. Results: A strong relationship with side-differences in minimum and a central fixed location JSW was observed for percent tibial plateau coverage by the meniscus (r = .59 and .47; p < .01) and central femoral cartilage thickness (r = .69 and .75; p < .01); other meniscus and cartilage measures displayed lower coefficients. The correlation of central femoral cartilage thickness with JSW (but not that of meniscus measures) was greater (r = .78 and .85; p < .01) when excluding knees with non-optimal alignment between the tibia and X-ray beam. Conclusion: 3D measures of meniscus and cartilage provide significant, independent information in explaining side-differences in radiographic JSW in fixed flexion radiographs. Tibial coverage by the meniscus and central femoral cartilage explained two thirds of the variability in minimum and fixed location JSW. JSW provides a better representation of (central) femorotibial cartilage thickness, when optimal positioning of the fixed flexion radiographs is achieved

  10. Molecular basis of claudin-17 anion selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Marcel P; Piontek, Jörg; Günzel, Dorothee; Fromm, Michael; Krug, Susanne M

    2016-01-01

    Claudin-17 is a paracellular channel-forming tight junction protein. Unlike the cation channels claudin-2 and -15, claudin-17 forms a distinct anion-selective channel. Aim of this study was to determine the molecular basis of channel formation and charge selectivity of this protein. To achieve this, residues located in the extracellular loops (ECL) 1 and 2 of claudin-17 were substituted, preferably those whose charges differed in claudin-17 and in claudin-2 or -15. The respective mutants were stably expressed in MDCK C7 cells and their ability to form charge-selective channels was analyzed by measuring ion permeabilities and transepithelial electrical resistance. The functional data were combined with homology modeling of the claudin-17 protomer using the structure of claudin-15 as template. In ECL1, K65, R31, E48, and E44 were found to be stronger involved in Cldn17 channel function than the clustered R45, R56, R59, and R61. For K65, not only charge but also stereochemical properties were crucial for formation of the anion-selective channel. In ECL2, both Y149 and H154 were found to contribute to constitution of the anion channel in a distinct manner. In conclusion, we provide insight into the molecular mechanism of the formation of charge- and size-selective paracellular ion channels. In detail, we propose a hydrophilic furrow in the claudin-17 protomer spanning from a gap between the ends of TM2 and TM3 along R31, E48, and Y67 to a gap between K65 and S68 lining the anion channel.

  11. Evaluation of solubility in simulated lung fluid of metals present in the sludge from a metallurgical industry to produce metallic zinc; Avaliacao da solubilidade em liquido pulmonar simulado dos metais presentes no rejeito gerado por uma industria metalurgica de zinco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Rosilda Maria Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the solubility parameters (rapid and slow dissolution rates, rapid and slow dissolution fractions) metal particles present in a pile of sludge accumulated under exposure to weathering from the Cia Mercantil Inga, located at the Ilha da Madeira, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro. Plant samples collected in the neighboring of the pile and bioindicators placed in the region and collected after some months indicated that the inhabitants of Ilha da Madeira have been exposed to trace elements such zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead, produced during the processing of zinc minerals (hemimorphite - Zn{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}.H{sub 2}O, and willemite - Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}). A static dissolution test in vitro was used to determine the solubility parameters using a simulated lung fluid (SLF), on a time basis ranging from 10 min to 1 year. The metal concentrations in the sludge samples and in the SLF were determined using Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE). In conclusion, this study confirms the harmful effects on the neighboring population of the airborne particles containing these metals that came from the sludge. The solubility parameters obtained for Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Mn present in the rapid dissolution fraction in SLF were 0.945; 0.473; 0.226; 0.300 and 0.497, respectively, and the corresponding times for half life of dissolution of the rapid fraction were f{sub r} = 2.082 days; f{sub r} = 0.09 days; f{sub r} = 0.37 days; f{sub r} = 0.332 days ad f{sub r} = 0.99 days; for the slow dissolution fraction times were f{sub r} = 146.95 days; f{sub r} = 63 days; f{sub r} = 86.64 days; f{sub r} = 79.66 days and f{sub r} = 59.84 days. These values indicate that these metals present a moderate absorption level in SLF, and may be classified as M type, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The use of solubility parameters allowed a better description of the kinetic behaviour of the sludge in

  12. The reading accessibility index and quality of reading grid of patients with central vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarita-Nistor, Luminita; González, Esther G; Mandelcorn, Mark S; Brent, Michael H; Markowitz, Samuel N; Steinbach, Martin J

    2018-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the reading accessibility index (ACC) and a quality of reading grid as assessment tools for reading and as outcome measures for reading rehabilitation of patients with central vision loss. Reading performances on the MNRead chart (www.precision-vision.com) were reviewed from our research database. Participants were 24 controls with normal vision [mean age: 34 (SD, 14) years] and 61 patients with bilateral central vision loss [mean age: 81 (SD, 9) years] among which a subgroup of 18 patients [mean age, 76 (SD, 13) years] had undergone perceptual learning training for reading rehabilitation. The outcome measures were maximum reading speed, reading acuity, critical print size, ACC, and the reading quality. A reading quality grid that classified reading speed as spot, slow, functional, or fluent and print size as small, regular, medium, or large was used. All reading speed values were normalised (i.e., divided by 200, the average reading speed in young adults with normal vision measured with the MNRead). The ACC was associated perfectly with the maximum reading speed in the control group (r 22  = 0.99, P reading in the patient group (smallest r value: r 59  = -0.66, P reading was functional for large print, but slow for medium print and spot for regular print. For some patients with the same ACC values, the quality of reading grid revealed important performance differences. For the subgroup (n = 18) of patients who were trained, the ACC revealed a greater effect of training than the other three parameters of reading, and although there were statistically significant improvements across all print size categories, a qualitative improvement in reading was noticed only for the medium print sizes. The ACC is a good measure of reading performance in patients with central vision loss. Examining reading quality for different print size categories can provide a more detailed picture of reading impairment and should be considered as an outcome

  13. High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in a tribal population in eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Swagata; Saha, Pabitra; Guha, Subhasish K; Biswas, Asit; Das, Sonali; Kundu, Pratip K; Maji, Ardhendu K

    2013-05-01

    Asymptomatic infection by Plasmodium falciparum is an important obstacle to eliminating malaria. Asymptomatic carriers do not seek treatment for infection, and therefore they become a reservoir for the parasite. For this reason, these carriers pose a real public health risk. The systematic identification and treatment of asymptomatic infections should reduce the parasite reservoir. A large reduction in this pool will lower the chance of transmission of the disease. In this study, we screened a tribal population of 1,040 individuals in the Purulia district of West Bengal by using a dual-antigen rapid diagnostic kit (RDK), microscopy, and species-specific PCR. All positive individuals were treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) (artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine) and followed for 42 days. Polymorphisms in candidate genes were screened by DNA sequencing. A significant proportion (8.4%) of the study population was infected with P. falciparum but showed no clinical manifestations. The PCR method was more sensitive in detecting infection than the RDK or microscopy. The efficacy of the ACT was 97%. In the pfcrt gene, the mutation K76T (the mutated amino acid is indicated by bold type) was found in 100% of the cases. In the pfmdr1 gene, the mutations N86Y and Y184F were noted in 55.5% and 11% of the cases, respectively. Six different haplotypes were identified in the pfdhfr-pfdhps genes. Most importantly, the quintuple mutant A(16)I(51)R(59)N(108)I(164)-S(436)G(437)E(540)A(581)A(613) was found in 10% of the isolates, which is potentially important for the development of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. A significant proportion of the study population harboring P. falciparum does not seek treatment and therefore serves as a reservoir for the parasite, maintaining the natural cycle. If the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) of India is to eliminate malaria, then this hidden parasite burden needs to be addressed properly

  14. High susceptibility prevalence for F4+and F18+Escherichia coli in Flemish pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ut V; Coddens, Annelies; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Poucke, Mario Van; Peelman, Luc; Cox, Eric

    2017-04-01

    F4 and/or F18 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4 + /F18 + ETEC) are responsible for diarrhea while F18 + verotoxigenic E. coli (F18 + VTEC) cause edema disease in pigs. Both infections can result in severe economic losses, which are mainly the result of the medication, growth retardation and mortality. The susceptibility of piglets to these pathogens is determined by the presence of F4 and F18 receptors (F4R and F18R). Understanding the composition of the susceptibility phenotypes of pigs is useful for animal health and breeding management. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the F4 ETEC susceptibility phenotypes and F18 + E. coli susceptibility among Flemish pig breeds by using the in vitro villous adhesion assay. In this study, seven F4 ETEC susceptibility phenotypes were found, namely A (F4 ab R + , ac R + , ad R + ; 59.16%), B (F4 ab R + , ac R + , ad R - ; 6.28%), C (F4 ab R + , ac R - , ad R + ; 2.62%), D (F4 ab R - , ac R - , ad R + ; 6.28%), E (F4 ab R - , ac R - , ad R - ; 24.08%), F (F4 ab R + , ac R - , ad R - ; 1.05%) and G (F4 ab R - , ac R + , ad R - ; 0.52%). F4ab and F4ac E. coli showed a stronger degree of adhesion to the intestinal villi (53.40% and 52.88% strong adhesion, respectively), compared to F4ad E. coli (43.46% strong adhesion). Furthermore, the correlation between F4ac and F4ab adhesion was higher (r=0.78) than between F4ac and F4ad adhesion (r=0.41) and between F4ab and F4ad adhesion (r=0.57). For F18 + E. coli susceptibility, seven out of 82 pigs were F18R negative (8.54%), but only two of these seven pigs (2.44%) were also negative for F4R. As such, the chance to identify a pig that is positive for a F4 ETEC variant or F18 + E. coli is 97.56%. Therefore, significant economic losses will arise due to F4 + and/or F18 + E. coli infections in the Flemish pig population due to the high susceptibility prevalence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. H-index is important for postural control for people with impaired foot sole sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqi Zhang

    Full Text Available People with Peripheral Neuropathy (PN, especially those with impaired sensory inputs through the small-afferent fiber (type II afferent fibers reflex loop (SAF, might depend more on the large-afferent fiber (type I afferent fibers reflex loop (LAF for postural control.To examine whether the function of the LAF reflex loop, reflected by the H-reflex and ankle joint proprioception, influences postural control when the SAF reflex loop is impaired, as indicated by reduced foot sole cutaneous sensation.Thirteen participants (8 women, 5 men diagnosed with PN and 12 age-matched controls (7 women, 5 men completed the testing protocol. Measures of interest included the H-index, active (AAP and passive (PAP ankle proprioception, plantar pressure sensitivity (PPS, average sway velocity (VAVG and area (A95 during 30 seconds eyes-closed standing, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD and timed up-and-go duration (TUG.Statistically significant group-dependent regression was observed between VAVG and H-index. Compared to the control group, the PN group demonstrated reduced PPS (2.0 ± 1.9 vs. 4.2 ± 1.2, P < .05 and H-index (63.6 ± 10.9 vs. 76.4 ± 16.0, P < .05, greater VAVG (3.5 ± 2.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.6 cm/s, P < .05 and A95 (10.0 ± 10.1 vs. 2.5 ± 1.5 cm2, P < .05, shorter 6MWD (442.2 ± 93.0 vs. 525.3 ± 68.2 m, P < .05, and longer TUG (9.4 ± 1.6 vs. 6.5 ± 1.3 s, P < .05. Within the PN group, but not the control group, the H-index was correlated with VAVG (r = -.56, P < .05. Moreover, within the PN group only, PAP scores were correlated with 6MWD (r = -.68, P < .05 and TUG (r = -.59, P < .05 performance. No other statistically significant group difference, correlation or group-dependent regression was observed.VAVG, 6MWD, and TUG correlated with LAF reflex loop function observed among those with impaired functioning of the SAF reflex loop. This observation suggests that the LAF reflex loop may be critical to the control of balance in those individuals suffering

  16. Variability in postural control with and without balance-based torso- weighting in people with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Charlotte M; Widener, Gail; Allen, Diane D

    2014-10-01

    People with multiple sclerosis (MS) have diminished postural control, and center of pressure (COP) displacement varies more in this population than in healthy controls. Balance-based torso-weighting (BBTW) can improve clinical balance and mobility in people with MS, and exploration using both linear and nonlinear measures of COP may help determine whether BBTW optimizes movement variability. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BBTW on people with MS and healthy controls during quiet standing. This was a quasi-experimental study comparing COP variability between groups, between eye closure conditions, and between weighting conditions in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. Twenty participants with MS and 18 healthy controls stood on a forceplate in 4 conditions: eyes open and closed and with and without BBTW. Linear measures of COP displacement included range and root mean square (RMS). Nonlinear measures included approximate entropy (ApEn) and Lyapunov exponent (LyE). Three-way repeated-measures analyses of variance compared measures across groups and conditions. The association between weighting response and baseline nonlinear variables was examined. When significant associations were found, MS subgroups were created and compared. The MS and control groups had significantly different range, RMS, and ApEn values. The eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions had significantly different range and RMS values. Change with weighting correlated with LyE (r=-.70) and ApEn (r=-.59). Two MS subgroups, with low and high baseline LyE values, responded to BBTW in opposite directions, with a significant main effect for weighting condition for the LyE variable in the medial-lateral direction. The small samples and no identification of impairments related to LyE at baseline were limitations of the study. The LyE may help differentiate subgroups who respond differently to BBTW. In both subgroups, LyE values moved toward the average of healthy

  17. Evaluation of solubility in simulated lung fluid of metals present in the sludge from a metallurgical industry to produce metallic zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Rosilda Maria Gomes de

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the solubility parameters (rapid and slow dissolution rates, rapid and slow dissolution fractions) metal particles present in a pile of sludge accumulated under exposure to weathering from the Cia Mercantil Inga, located at the Ilha da Madeira, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro. Plant samples collected in the neighboring of the pile and bioindicators placed in the region and collected after some months indicated that the inhabitants of Ilha da Madeira have been exposed to trace elements such zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead, produced during the processing of zinc minerals (hemimorphite - Zn 4 (OH) 2 Si 2 O 7 .H 2 O, and willemite - Zn 2 SiO 4 ). A static dissolution test in vitro was used to determine the solubility parameters using a simulated lung fluid (SLF), on a time basis ranging from 10 min to 1 year. The metal concentrations in the sludge samples and in the SLF were determined using Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE). In conclusion, this study confirms the harmful effects on the neighboring population of the airborne particles containing these metals that came from the sludge. The solubility parameters obtained for Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Mn present in the rapid dissolution fraction in SLF were 0.945; 0.473; 0.226; 0.300 and 0.497, respectively, and the corresponding times for half life of dissolution of the rapid fraction were f r = 2.082 days; f r = 0.09 days; f r = 0.37 days; f r = 0.332 days ad f r = 0.99 days; for the slow dissolution fraction times were f r = 146.95 days; f r = 63 days; f r = 86.64 days; f r = 79.66 days and f r = 59.84 days. These values indicate that these metals present a moderate absorption level in SLF, and may be classified as M type, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The use of solubility parameters allowed a better description of the kinetic behaviour of the sludge in the human body and, therefore, a better evaluation of the worker’s risk to

  18. Muscle activation and perceived loading during rehabilitation exercises: comparison of dumbbells and elastic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Mortensen, Ole S; Poulsen, Otto M; Bjørnlund, Inger Birthe T; Zebis, Mette K

    2010-04-01

    High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs to be examined. The aim of this study was to investigate muscle activation and perceived loading during upper-extremity resistance exercises with dumbbells compared with elastic tubing. A single-group, repeated-measures study design was used. Exercise evaluation was conducted in a laboratory setting. Sixteen female workers (aged 26-55 years) without serious musculoskeletal diseases and with a mean neck and shoulder pain intensity of 7.8 on a 100-mm visual analog scale participated in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured in 5 selected muscles during the exercises of lateral raise, wrist extension, and shoulder external rotation during graded loadings with dumbbells (2-7.5 kg) and elastic tubing (Thera-Band, red to silver resistance). The order of exercises and loadings was randomized for each individual. Electromyographic amplitude was normalized to the absolute maximum EMG amplitude obtained during maximal voluntary isometric contraction and exercise testing. Immediately after each set of exercise, the Borg CR10 scale was used to rate perceived loading during the exercise. Resistance exercise with dumbbells as well as elastic tubing showed increasing EMG amplitude and perceived loading with increasing resistance. At the individually maximal level of resistance for each exercise-defined as the 3 repetitions maximum-normalized EMG activity of the prime muscles was not significantly different between dumbbells (59%-87%) and elastic tubing (64%-86%). Perceived loading was moderately to very strongly related to normalized EMG activity (r=.59-.92). Limitations The results of this study apply only for exercises performed in a controlled manner (ie, without sudden jerks

  19. Physiological Changes Following Competition in Male and Female Physique Athletes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Eric T; Hirsch, Katie R; Campbell, Bill I; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate changes in body composition, metabolic rate, and hormones during postcompetition recovery. Data were collected from natural physique athletes (7 male/8 female) within one week before (T1) competition, within one week after (T2), and 4-6 weeks after (T3) competition. Measures included body composition (fat mass [FM] and lean mass [LM] from ultrasongraphy), resting metabolic rate (RMR; indirect calorimetry), and salivary leptin, testosterone, cortisol, ghrelin, and insulin. Total body water (TBW; bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy) was measured at T1 and T2 in a subsample (n = 8) of athletes. Significant (p T2 > T1), LM (T1 = 57.6 ± 13.9 kg, T2 = 59.4 ± 14.2, T3 = 59.3 ± 14.2; T2 and T3 > T1), and FM (T1 = 7.7 ± 4.4 kg, T2 = 8.0 ± 4.4, T3 = 10.0 ± 6.2; T3 > T1 and T2). TBW increased from T1 to T2 (Δ=1.9 ± 1.3 L, p < .01). RMR increased from baseline (1612 ± 266 kcal/day; 92.0% of predicted) to T2 (1881 ± 329, 105.3%; p < .01) and T3 (1778 ± 257, 99.6%; p < .001). Cortisol was higher (p < .05) at T2 (0.41 ± 0.31 μg/dL) than T1 (0.34 ± 0.31) and T3 (0.35 ± 0.27). Male testosterone at T3 (186.6 ± 41.3 pg/mL) was greater than T2 (148.0 ± 44.6, p = .04). RMR changes were associated (p ≤ .05) with change in body fat percent (ΔBF%; r = .59) and T3 protein intake (r= .60); male testosterone changes were inversely associated (p≤ .05) with ΔBF%, ΔFM, and Δweight (r=-0.81--0.88). TBW increased within days of competition. Precompetition RMR suppression appeared to be variable and markedly reversed by overfeeding, and reverted toward normal levels following competition. RMR and male testosterone increased while FM was preferentially gained 4-6 weeks postcompetition.

  20. Assessing Weather Curiosity in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    This research focuses upon measuring an individual's level of trait curiosity about the weather using the Weather Curiosity Scale (WCS). The measure consists of 15 self-report items that describe weather preferences and/or behaviors that people may perform more or less frequently. The author reports on two initial studies of the WCS that have used the responses of 710 undergraduate students from a large university in the southeastern United States. In the first study, factor analysis of the 15 items indicated that the measure was unidimensional - suggesting that its items singularly assessed weather curiosity. The WCS also was internally consistent as evidenced by an acceptable Cronbach's alpha, a = .81). The second study sought to identify other personality variables that may relate with the WCS scores and thus illuminate the nature of weather curiosity. Several clusters of personality variables appear to underlie the curiosity levels people exhibited, the first of which related to perceptual curiosity (r = .59). Being curious about sights, sounds, smells, and textures generally related somewhat to curiosity about weather. Two measures of trait sensitivity to environmental stimulation, the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (r = .47) and the Orientation Sensitivity Scale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (r = .43), also predicted weather curiosity levels. Finally, possessing extraverted personality traits (r = .34) and an intense style of experiencing one's emotions (r = .33) related to weather curiosity. How can this measure be used in K-12 or post-secondary settings to further climate literacy? First, the WCS can identify students with natural curiosities about weather and climate so these students may be given more challenging instruction that will leverage their natural interests. Second, high-WCS students may function as weather and climate ambassadors during inquiry-based learning activities and thus help other students who are not as oriented to the

  1. African-American adolescents’ stress responses after the 9/11/01 terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Treiber, Frank A.; Ludwig, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the impact of indirect exposure to the 9/11/01 attacks upon physical and emotional stress-related responses in a community sample of African-American (AA) adolescents. Methods Three months after the 9/11/01 terrorist attacks, 406 AA adolescents (mean age [SD] of 16.1 ± 1.3 years) from an inner-city high school in Augusta, GA were evaluated with a 12-item 5-point Likert scale measuring loss of psychosocial resources (PRS) such as control, hope, optimism, and perceived support, a 17-item 5-point Likert scale measuring post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PCL), and measures of state and trait anger, anger expression, and hostility. Given the observational nature of the study, statistical differences and correlations were evaluated for effect size before statistical testing (5% minimum variance explained). Bootstrapping was used for testing mean differences and differences between correlations. Results PCL scores indicated that approximately 10% of the sample was experiencing probable clinically significant levels of post-traumatic distress (PCL score > 50). The PCL and PRS were moderately correlated with a r = .59. Gender differences for the PCL and PRS were small, accounting for 1% of the total variance. Higher PCL scores were associated with higher state anger (r = .47), as well as measures of anger-out (r = .32) and trait anger (r = .34). Higher PRS scores were associated only with higher state anger (r = .27). Scores on the two 9/11/01-related scales were not statistically associated (i.e., less than 5% of the variance explained) with traits of anger control, anger-in, or hostility. Conclusions The majority of students were not overly stressed by indirect exposure to the events of 9/11/01, perhaps owing to the temporal, social, and/or geographical distance from the event. Those who reported greater negative impact appeared to also be experiencing higher levels of current anger and exhibited a characterologic style of higher overt anger