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Sample records for bivalve mytilus edulis

  1. Characterization of the mantle transcriptome in bivalves: Pecten maximus, Mytilus edulis and Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarra, Tejaswi; Gharbi, Karim; Blaxter, Mark; Peck, Lloyd S; Clark, Melody S

    2016-06-01

    The calcareous shells secreted by bivalve molluscs display diverse and species specific structural compositions, which indicates possible divergent biomineralization processes. Thus, studying multiple mollusc species will provide a more comprehensive understanding of shell formation. Here, the transcriptomes of the mantle tissues responsible for shell deposition were characterized in three commercially relevant bivalve species. Using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics tools, de novo transcriptome assemblies of mantle tissues were generated for the mussel Mytilus edulis, the oyster Crassostrea gigas and the scallop Pecten maximus. These transcriptomes were annotated, and contigs with similarity to proteins known to have shell formation roles in other species were identified. Comparison of the shell formation specific proteins in the three bivalves indicates the possibility of species specific shell proteins.

  2. Accumulation, elimination and chemical speciation of mercury in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Macoma balthica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.;

    1985-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) transferred in net bags from clean to chronically mercury polluted water readily accumulated mercury during an exposure period of three months. Growth of the transplanted mussels had a “diluting” effect on the mercury concentration, but the absolute weight of mercury upta...

  3. Coexistence of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) and blue mussels Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 on a sheltered intertidal bivalve bed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, M.W.; Davids, J.K.; Dolmer, Per;

    2016-01-01

    The invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793 was introduced in Denmark for aquaculture in the 1970s. Presently, feral populations are found in many parts of the country, with the largest populations established on existing beds of blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758...... and M. edulis were collected from the bivalve bed, shell lengths were converted into biomass, which were interpolated to create biomass contours and combined with modelled topography of the bivalve bed to study niche separation. The bivalve bed slowly extended northwards over a period of 11 years, where...

  4. Field clearance of an intertidal bivalve bed: relative significance of the co-occurring blue mussel Mytilus edulis and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vismann, Bent; Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Davids, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    At an approximately 12 000 m2 sheltered intertidal bivalve bed in the western part of the Limfjord, Denmark, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas co-occurs with the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. The relative significance of the impact of the 2 species on phytoplankton density during a tidal cycle...... was estimated by combining field measurements of clearance rates and modelling of the bivalve bed (topography, biomass distribution, temporal and spatial water coverage and depth). The average density of C. gigas and M. edulis was 35 ± 36 and 1001 ± 685 ind. m−2, respectively. The water volume cleared during...

  5. Complete sequences of the highly rearranged molluscan mitochondrial genomes of the scaphopod graptacme eborea and the bivalve mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Medina, Monica; Rosenberg, Lewis A.

    2004-01-31

    We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the scaphopod mollusk Graptacme eborea (Conrad, 1846) (14,492 nts) and completed the sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the bivalve mollusk Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 (16,740 nts). (The name Graptacme eborea is a revision of the species formerly known as Dentalium eboreum.) G. eborea mtDNA contains the 37 genes that are typically found and has the genes divided about evenly between the two strands, but M. edulis contains an extra trnM and is missing atp8, and has all genes on the same strand. Each has a highly rearranged gene order relative to each other and to all other studied mtDNAs. G. eborea mtDNA has almost no strand skew, but the coding strand of M. edulis mtDNA is very rich in G and T. This is reflected in differential codon usage patterns and even in amino acid compositions. G. eborea mtDNA has fewer non-coding nucleotides than any other mtDNA studied to date, with the largest non-coding region being only 24 nt long. Phylogenetic analysis using 2,420 aligned amino acid positions of concatenated proteins weakly supports an association of the scaphopod with gastropods to the exclusion of Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, and Polyplacophora, but is generally unable to convincingly resolve the relationships among major groups of the Lophotrochozoa, in contrast to the good resolution seen for several other major metazoan groups.

  6. Identification of reproduction-specific genes associated with maturation and estrogen exposure in a marine bivalve Mytilus edulis.

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    Corina M Ciocan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While it is established that vertebrate-like steroids, particularly estrogens (estradiol, estrone and androgens (testosterone, are present in various tissues of molluscs, it is still unclear what role these play in reproductive endocrinology in such organisms. This is despite the significant commercial shellfishery interest in several bivalve species and their decline. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using suppression subtraction hybridisation of mussel gonad samples at two stages (early and mature of gametogenesis and (in parallel following controlled laboratory estrogen exposure, we isolate several differentially regulated genes including testis-specific kinases, vitelline lysin and envelope sequences. CONCLUSIONS: The differentially expressed mRNAs isolated provide evidence that mussels may be impacted by exogenous estrogen exposure.

  7. Gill Development and Its Functional and Evolutionary Implications in the Blue Mussel Mytilus edulis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cannuel, Rozenn; Beninger, Peter G.; Mccombie, Helen; Boudry, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Study of gill development in bivalve larvae and postlarvae provides information on the evolution of this organ and feeding mechanisms of early stages. Scanning electron microscopy was used to document the development of the filibranch homorhabdic gill in hatchery-reared larval, postlarval, and juvenile Mytilus edulis. Four key stages were identified during gill development: (1) transfer of the particle collection function from velum to gill at metamorphosis, with subsequent elongation of the ...

  8. Numerical modelling of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) bacterial contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, Tomasz; Doré, William J.; Lyons, Kieran; Nolan, Glenn D.

    2014-05-01

    Bivalve shellfish such as oysters and mussels can concentrate human pathogens when grown in areas impacted by municipal wastewater. Under EU regulation this risk to consumers is controlled by determining the sanitary quality of bivalve shellfish production areas based on the concentration of Escherichia coli present in shellfish flesh. The authors present a modelling approach to simulate an uptake of E. coli from seawater and subsequent depuration by Mytilus edulis. The model that dynamically predicts E. coli concentration in the mussel tissue is embedded within a 3-D numerical modelling system comprising hydrodynamic, biogeochemical, shellfish ecophysiological and the newly proposed microbial modules. The microbial module has two state variables, namely, the concentrations of E. coli in water and in the mussel tissue. Novel formulations to calculate the filtration rates by mussels and the resulting uptake of bacteria are proposed; these rates are updated at every computational time step. Concentrations of E. coli in seawater are also updated accordingly taking into account the amounts ingested by mussels. The model has been applied to Bantry Bay in the south-west of Ireland. The results indicate that the model is capable of reproducing the official classification of shellfish waters in the bay based on monthly sampling at several stations. The predicted filtration rates and ratios of E. coli in water and mussels also compare well with the literature. The model thus forms a tool that may be used to assist in the classification of shellfish waters at much greater spatial and temporal detail than that offered by a field monitoring programme. Moreover, it can also aid in designing an efficient monitoring programme. The model can also be utilised to determine the contribution of individual point sources of pollution on the microbial loading in mussels and, when incorporated into an operational framework, it can provide a short-term forecasting of microbial

  9. Accumulation of bis(tributyltin) oxide by the marine mussel Mytilus edulis. [Hytilus edulis; Isochrysis galbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, R.B. Jr.; French, W.; Guard, H.E.

    1986-09-01

    Marine mussels, primarily Mytilus edulis, accumulated bis(tributyltin) oxide (TBT) when it was either dissolved in water (0.5 ..mu..g L/sup -1/) or associated (absorbed or adsorbed) with phytoplankton Isochrysis galbana. Uptake occurred rapidly under both protocols but was more rapid and caused higher TBT burdens when accumulation occurred by ingestion of phytoplankton. TBT accumulated differentially in tissues. Highest burdens in viscera or gills were approx.4.5 ..mu..g of TBT (g of tissue)/sup -1/ following water exposure lasting 47 days and approx.5 ..mu..g of TBT (g of gill)/sup -1/ or (g of viscera tissue)/sup -1/ following 30 days of exposure to contaminated Isochrysis. This corresponds to a bioconcentration factor of approx.5000 from water but <2 from food (on a ..mu..g g/sup -1/ basis). Mantle or muscle tissue had TBT burdens one-half to one-third the level of viscera or gill tissue. Steady state between water and tissue was not observed. When TBT exposed mussels were returned to the field, t/sub 1/2/ for depuration was approx.14 days. Depuration rate constants estimated from uptake and release phases did not agree. This observation suggests differences in laboratory and field depuration processes by bivalve molluscs. Therefore, bioconcentration factor (BCF) measurements made in the laboratory may not accurately predict those obtained from environmental exposures. Neither humic acids nor kaolin significantly reduced accumulation of TBT.

  10. Comparative analysis of hemocyte properties from Mytilus edulis desolationis and Aulacomya ater in the Kerguelen Islands.

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    Caza, France; Betoulle, Stéphane; Auffret, Michel; Brousseau, Pauline; Fournier, Michel; St-Pierre, Yves

    2015-09-01

    The capability of bivalve molluscs to respond to environmental stresses largely depends upon their cellular immunity. Accordingly, shift in habitat conditions following thermal stress or exposure to pollutants may harm sensitive species differently, thereby modulating the biodiversity of a given ecosystem by favoring stress-tolerant species. Here, we have compared the sensitivity of hemocytes from Mytilus edulis desolationis (M. edulis desolationis) and Aulacomya ater (A. ater) to acute thermal stress and exposure to cadmium. The two subantarctic species are commonly found in the same habitat in the isolated Kerguelen archipelago. Our results showed that the phagocytic activity and viability of hemocytes from both species were equally sensitive to increasing concentrations of cadmium. However, although in vitro exposure to cadmium induced apoptosis in hemocytes of M. edulis desolationis and A. ater, flow cytometric analyses showed that the apoptotic profile of both species differed greatly when using Annexin V and YO-PRO-1 as apoptotic markers. We also found that the total hemocyte counts decreased strongly in A. ater but not in M. edulis desolationis following an acute thermal stress. Taken together, these results showed that stress responses differed significantly in hemocytes from both species. This suggests that the co-existence of both species may be at risk following exposure to pollutants and/or changes in temperature. PMID:26382607

  11. Common European harmful algal blooms affect the viability and innate immune responses of Mytilus edulis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, M; Vandegehuchte, M B; Vanden Bussche, J; Nevejan, N; Vanhaecke, L; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2015-11-01

    Like marine diseases, harmful algal blooms (HABs) are globally increasing in frequency, severity and geographical scale. As a result, bivalves will have to face the combined threat of toxic algae and marine pathogens more frequently in the (near) future. These stressors combined may further affect the recruitment of ecologically and economically important bivalve species as HABs can affect the growth, viability and development of their larvae. To date, little is known on the specific effects of HABs on the innate immune system of bivalve larvae. This study therefore investigates whether two common harmful algae can influence the larval viability, development and immunological resilience of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Embryos of this model organism were exposed (48 h) to five densities of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries or Prorocentrum lima cells. In addition, the effect of six concentrations of their respective toxins: domoic acid (DA) and okadaic acid (OA) were assessed. OA was found to significantly reduce larval protein phosphatase activity (p < 0.001) and larval viability (p < 0.01) at concentrations as low as 37.8 μg l(-1). P. multiseries (1400 cells ml(-1)), P. lima (150 cells ml(-1)) and DA (dosed five times higher than typical environmental conditions i.e. 623.2 μg l(-1)) increased the phenoloxidase (PO) innate immune activity of the mussel larvae. These results suggest that the innate immune response of even the earliest life stages of bivalves is susceptible to the presence of HABs. PMID:26348409

  12. Common European harmful algal blooms affect the viability and innate immune responses of Mytilus edulis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, M; Vandegehuchte, M B; Vanden Bussche, J; Nevejan, N; Vanhaecke, L; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2015-11-01

    Like marine diseases, harmful algal blooms (HABs) are globally increasing in frequency, severity and geographical scale. As a result, bivalves will have to face the combined threat of toxic algae and marine pathogens more frequently in the (near) future. These stressors combined may further affect the recruitment of ecologically and economically important bivalve species as HABs can affect the growth, viability and development of their larvae. To date, little is known on the specific effects of HABs on the innate immune system of bivalve larvae. This study therefore investigates whether two common harmful algae can influence the larval viability, development and immunological resilience of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Embryos of this model organism were exposed (48 h) to five densities of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries or Prorocentrum lima cells. In addition, the effect of six concentrations of their respective toxins: domoic acid (DA) and okadaic acid (OA) were assessed. OA was found to significantly reduce larval protein phosphatase activity (p larval viability (p < 0.01) at concentrations as low as 37.8 μg l(-1). P. multiseries (1400 cells ml(-1)), P. lima (150 cells ml(-1)) and DA (dosed five times higher than typical environmental conditions i.e. 623.2 μg l(-1)) increased the phenoloxidase (PO) innate immune activity of the mussel larvae. These results suggest that the innate immune response of even the earliest life stages of bivalves is susceptible to the presence of HABs.

  13. Genotoxic and immunotoxic potential effects of selected psychotropic drugs and antibiotics on blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) hemocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential toxicity of pharmaceuticals towards aquatic invertebrates is still poorly understood and sometimes controversial. This study aims to document the in vitro genotoxicity and immunotoxicity of psychotropic drugs and antibiotics on Mytilus edulis. Mussel hemocytes were exposed to fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and erythromycin, at concentrations ranging from μg/L to mg/L. Paroxetine at 1.5 μg/L led to DNA damage while the same concentration of venlafaxine caused immunomodulation. Fluoxetine exposure resulted in genotoxicity, immunotoxicity and cytotoxicity. In the case of antibiotics, trimethoprim was genotoxic at 200 μg/L and immunotoxic at 20 mg/L whereas erythromycin elicited same detrimental effects at higher concentrations. DNA metabolism seems to be a highly sensitive target for psychotropic drugs and antibiotics. Furthermore, these compounds affect the immune system of bivalves, with varying intensity. This attests the relevance of these endpoints to assess the toxic mode of action of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. - Highlights: • Psychotropic drugs and antibiotics affect the immune system of Mytilus edulis. • Genotoxic and immunotoxic endpoints were relevant to assess pharmaceuticals toxicity. • DNA metabolism is a highly sensitive target for pharmaceuticals. • Fluoxetine and paroxetine were the most toxic compounds on mussel hemocytes. - Psychotropic drugs and antibiotics have the potential to cause immune toxicity and genotoxicity on Mytilus edulis hemocytes

  14. Complete male mitochondrial genomes of European Mytilus edulis mussels.

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    Śmietanka, Beata; Wenne, Roman; Burzyński, Artur

    2016-05-01

    Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) results in the existence of two gender-specific, divergent mtDNA lineages within a single species. Under DUI, the female genome (F) is transmitted from mothers to the whole offspring, and the male genome (M) is transmitted exclusively from fathers to sons. This system was first described in a marine mussels Mytilus edulis inhabiting European coastal waters, over a decade ago. Despite that, the complete sequence of the M genome from the European M. edulis mussels remained unknown. Here we announce it for the first time. The announcement is based on the two haplotypes isolated from heteroplasmic males of European M. edulis sampled at two moderately distant locations: southern North Sea and western Baltic. The two M genomes are quite similar both in length (16,631 and 16,632 bp) and in sequence (98.3%). Furthermore, both newly sequenced genomes are closely related to the genomes described from Baltic M. trossulus. PMID:25208162

  15. Massively parallel RNA sequencing identifies a complex immune gene repertoire in the lophotrochozoan Mytilus edulis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva E R Philipp

    Full Text Available The marine mussel Mytilus edulis and its closely related sister species are distributed world-wide and play an important role in coastal ecology and economy. The diversification in different species and their hybrids, broad ecological distribution, as well as the filter feeding mode of life has made this genus an attractive model to investigate physiological and molecular adaptations and responses to various biotic and abiotic environmental factors. In the present study we investigated the immune system of Mytilus, which may contribute to the ecological plasticity of this species. We generated a large Mytilus transcriptome database from different tissues of immune challenged and stress treated individuals from the Baltic Sea using 454 pyrosequencing. Phylogenetic comparison of orthologous groups of 23 species demonstrated the basal position of lophotrochozoans within protostomes. The investigation of immune related transcripts revealed a complex repertoire of innate recognition receptors and downstream pathway members including transcripts for 27 toll-like receptors and 524 C1q domain containing transcripts. NOD-like receptors on the other hand were absent. We also found evidence for sophisticated TNF, autophagy and apoptosis systems as well as for cytokines. Gill tissue and hemocytes showed highest expression of putative immune related contigs and are promising tissues for further functional studies. Our results partly contrast with findings of a less complex immune repertoire in ecdysozoan and other lophotrochozoan protostomes. We show that bivalves are interesting candidates to investigate the evolution of the immune system from basal metazoans to deuterostomes and protostomes and provide a basis for future molecular work directed to immune system functioning in Mytilus.

  16. Correlation of transcriptomic responses and metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis L. reveals early indicators of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poynton, Helen C., E-mail: helen.poynton@umb.edu; Robinson, William E.; Blalock, Bonnie J.; Hannigan, Robyn E.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Gene expression and metal tissue concentrations were compared in Mytilus edulis. • Expression levels of several transcripts correlated with metal concentrations. • Transcripts involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) were induced. • Integration of transcriptomics and tissue levels provides insight to toxicity. - Abstract: Marine biomonitoring programs in the U.S. and Europe have historically relied on monitoring tissue concentrations of bivalves to monitor contaminant levels and ecosystem health. By integrating ‘omic methods with these tissue residue approaches we can uncover mechanistic insight to link tissue concentrations to potential toxic effects. In an effort to identify novel biomarkers and better understand the molecular toxicology of metal bioaccumulation in bivalves, we exposed the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L., to sub-lethal concentrations (0.54 μM) of cadmium, lead, and a Cd + Pb mixture. Metal concentrations were measured in gill tissues at 1, 2, and 4 weeks, and increased linearly over the 4 week duration. In addition, there was evidence that Pb interfered with Cd uptake in the mixture treatment. Using a 3025 sequence microarray for M. edulis, we performed transcriptomic analysis, identifying 57 differentially expressed sequences. Hierarchical clustering of these sequences successfully distinguished the different treatment groups demonstrating that the expression profiles were reproducible among the treatments. Enrichment analysis of gene ontology terms identified several biological processes that were perturbed by the treatments, including nucleoside phosphate biosynthetic processes, mRNA metabolic processes, and response to stress. To identify transcripts whose expression level correlated with metal bioaccumulation, we performed Pearson correlation analysis. Several transcripts correlated with gill metal concentrations including mt10, mt20, and contig 48, an unknown transcript containing a wsc domain. In addition

  17. Genetic hitchhiking in a subdivided population of Mytilus edulis

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    David Patrice

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few models of genetic hitchhiking in subdivided populations have been developed and the rarity of empirical examples is even more striking. We here provide evidences of genetic hitchhiking in a subdivided population of the marine mussel Mytilus edulis. In the Bay of Biscay (France, a patch of M. edulis populations happens to be separated from its North Sea conspecifics by a wide region occupied only by the sister species M. galloprovincialis. Although genetic differentiation between the two M. edulis regions is largely non-significant at ten marker loci (average FST~0.007, a strong genetic differentiation is observed at a single locus (FST = 0.25. We validated the outlier status of this locus, and analysed DNA sequence polymorphism in order to identify the nature of the selection responsible for the unusual differentiation. Results We first showed that introgression of M. galloprovincialis alleles was very weak in both populations and did not significantly affect their differentiation. Secondly, we observed the genetic signature of a selective sweep within both M. edulis populations in the form of a star-shaped clade of alleles. This clade was nearly fixed in the North Sea and was segregating at a moderate frequency in the Bay of Biscay, explaining their genetic differentiation. Incomplete fixation reveals that selection was not direct on the locus but that the studied sequence recombined with a positively selected allele at a linked locus while it was on its way to fixation. Finally, using a deterministic model we showed that the wave of advance of a favourable allele at a linked locus, when crossing a strong enough barrier to gene flow, generates a step in neutral allele frequencies comparable to the step observed between the two M. edulis populations at the outlier locus. In our case, the position of the barrier is now materialised by a large patch of heterospecific M. galloprovincialis populations. Conclusion High FST

  18. Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzer, Susan C; Zhu, Wenzhong; Tanner, K Elizabeth; Phoenix, Vernon R; Kamenos, Nicholas A; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-02-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO2 (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2°C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (KIC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO2 and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO2 on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature.

  19. Assimilation of trace elements ingested by the mussel Mytilus edulis: effects of algal food abundance

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    Wang, W.-X.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    Pulse-chase feeding and multi-labeled radiotracer techniques were employed to measure the assimilation of 6 trace elements (110mAg, 241Am, 109Cd, 57Co, 75Se and 65Zn) from ingested diatoms in the mussel Mytilus edulis feeding at different rates (0.1, 0.49 and 1.5 mg dry wt h-1). Uniformly radiolabeled diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana were fed to mussels for 0.5 h, and the behavior of the radiotracers in individual mussels was followed for 96 h in a depuration seawater system. Assimilation efficiency (AE) of each element declined with increasing ingestion rate and increased with gut passage time. The importance of extracellular digestion relative to intracellular digestion increased with ingestion activity, which, when coupled with a decline in AE, suggested that extracellular digestion is less efficient in metal absorption. Zn assimilation was most affected by ingestion rate, suggesting that AE may play a role in the physiological regulation of this metal in M. edulis. In an experiment to simulate the effects of an acidic gut, lowered pH (5.5) enhanced the release of elements from intact diatom cells, especially at low particle concentration. These results indicate that both feeding components of the mussel (i.e. gut passage time, digestive partitioning) and metal chemistry (i.e. metal release at lowered pH within the bivalve gut) are responsible for the difference in the assimilation of trace metals at different food quantities observed in mussels.

  20. Ocean acidification and host-pathogen interactions: blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, encountering Vibrio tubiashii.

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    Asplund, Maria E; Baden, Susanne P; Russ, Sarah; Ellis, Robert P; Gong, Ningping; Hernroth, Bodil E

    2014-04-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) can shift the ecological balance between interacting organisms. In this study, we have used a model system to illustrate the interaction between a calcifying host organism, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and a common bivalve bacterial pathogen, Vibrio tubiashii, with organisms being exposed to a level of acidification projected to occur by the end of the 21st century. OA exposures of the mussels were carried out in relative long-term (4 months) and short-term (4 days) experiments. We found no effect of OA on the culturability of V. tubiashii, in broth or in seawater. OA inhibited mussel shell growth and impaired crystalline shell structures but did not appear to affect mussel immune parameters (i.e haemocyte counts and phagocytotic capacity). Despite no evident impact on host immunity or growth and virulence of the pathogen, V. tubiashii was clearly more successful in infecting mussels exposed to long-term OA compared to those maintained under ambient conditions. Moreover, OA exposed V. tubiashii increased their viability when exposed to haemocytes of OA-treated mussel. Our findings suggest that even though host organisms may have the capacity to cope with periods of OA, these conditions may alter the outcome of host-pathogen interactions, favouring the success of the latter.

  1. Future oceanic warming and acidification alter immune response and disease status in a commercial shellfish species, Mytilus edulis L.

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    Clara L Mackenzie

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments.

  2. Effects of chemical contaminants on growth, age-structure, and reproduction of Mytilus edulis complex from Puget sound, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagley, Anna N; Kardong, Kyle E; Snider, Robert G; Casillas, Edmundo

    2014-07-01

    Bivalves are used as sentinel species to detect chemical contaminants in the marine environment, but biological effects on indigenous populations that result from chemical exposure are largely unknown. We assessed age-weight, length-weight relationships, age structure, and reproductive status (i.e. fecundity, egg size) of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis complex from six sites in central Puget Sound, Washington, and one site in the relatively pristine area of northern Puget Sound. Results of this study suggest that mussels from urban areas of Puget Sound exhibit a lower growth rate, altered population age-structure, and potential reproductive impairment as a result of exposure to chemical contaminants. These findings support the use of mussels as sentinel species to assess the biological effects of contaminants on invertebrate populations.

  3. Comparison of trace metal bioavailabilities in European coastal waters using mussels from Mytilus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Przytarska, J.E.; Sokolowski, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.; Jansen, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mussels from Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors of the trace metals Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Cu at 17 sampling sites to assess the relative bioavailability of metals in coastal waters around the European continent. Because accumulated metal concentrations in a given area can differ temporall

  4. Responses of Mytilus edulis L. to varying food concentrations: testing EMMY, an exophysiological model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, H.; Smaal, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a complex ecophysiological model is presented, which aims to simulate individual growth and reproduction of Mytilus edulis L. The model includes feedback mechanisms in the acquisition and metabolism of natural food sources and partitioning of carbon and nitrogen to the internal state v

  5. Optimization of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) seed culture using recirculation aquaculture systems

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    Blanco Garcia, A.; Kamermans, P.

    2015-01-01

    By introducing recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) in the nursery phase of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) (17–18 mm), we aimed at a similar growth and survival and a similar water quality compared to the commonly used flow-through systems (FTS). To calculate water flow and size of the biofilte

  6. Body distribution and seasonal changes in the glycogen content of the common sea mussel Mytilus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Albertus de; Zandee, D.I.

    1972-01-01

    1. Glycogen content was measured in the sea musselMytilus edulis, and found to be present in amounts ranging from 10 to 35 per cent dry weight of the soft parts. 2. The annual glycogen cycle was followed for five different fractions: the digestive gland, muscles (including those of the foot), gills

  7. Intersex in Littorina littorea and DNA damage in Mytilus edulis as indicators of harbour polllution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette

    2009-01-01

    Intersex in snails (Littorina littorea) and DNA damage in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were analysed to assess how these bio-indicators reflected the level of chemical contamination at two sites in a highly contaminated harbour in Denmark. The comet assay using mussel gill cells was an indicator...

  8. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olenycz, M.; Sokolowski, A.; Niewinska, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Namiesnik, J.; Hummel, H.; Jansen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthra

  9. Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. R. Heip

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on early life stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis larvae is significantly affected by a decrease of pH to a level expected for the end of the century. Even though there was no significant effect of a 0.25–0.34 pH unit decrease on hatching and mortality rates during the first 2 days of development nor during the following 13-day period prior to settlement, final shells were, respectively, 4.5±1.3 and 6.0±2.3% smaller at pHNBS~7.8 than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1. Moreover, a decrease of 12.0±5.4% of shell thickness was observed. More severe impacts were found with a decrease of ~0.5 pHNBS unit during the first 2 days of development which could be attributed to a decrease of calcification due toslight undersaturation of seawater with respect to aragonite. Indeed, important effects on both hatching and D-veliger shell growth were found. Hatching rates were 24±4% lower while D-veliger shells were 12.7±0.9% smaller at pHNBS~7.6 than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1. Although these results show that blue mussel larvae are still able to develop a shell in seawater undersaturated with respect to aragonite, decreases of hatching rates and shell growth suggest a negative impact of ocean acidification on the future survival of bivalve populations potentially leading to significant ecological and economical losses.

  10. Resource subsidies from multi-trophic aquaculture affect isotopic niche width in wild blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldrick, C. K.; Jelinski, D. E.

    2016-05-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are boreo-temperate, filter-feeding bivalves common to intertidal areas. As filter-feeders they have been employed in open-water, multi-tropic aquaculture systems to reduce organic benthic loading though the exploitation of suspended particulate organic materials. We compared δ13C and δ15N signatures and the isotopic niches of mussels growing in, and adjacent to, an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) farm in British Columbia, Canada, and using this information evaluated the contribution of aquaculture-derived effluent to their diet. Farm-sampled mussels had the least intraspecific isotopic variation compared to mussels sampled at the reference site. The interaction between time (i.e. sampling dates) and site did not significantly affect the isotopic composition of mussels; however significant variation was detected in δ15N values as a function of sampling date and particulate organic matter. A two-source isotopic mixing model indicated that marine particulate organic matter and IMTA farm effluent were approximately equal in importance (~ 46 % and ~ 54 %, respectively) to the diet of IMTA-retrieved mussels. Uptake of IMTA farm waste by M. edulis supports their use as economic extractives while also mitigating farmed sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) nutrient loading to the aquatic environment.

  11. Inter- and intra-specimen variability masks reliable temperature control on shell Mg/Ca ratios in laboratory and field cultured Mytilus edulis and Pecten maximus (bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Kennedy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mg/Ca ratios of biogenic calcites are commonly seen as a valuable palaeo-proxy for reconstructing past ocean temperatures. The temperature dependence of Mg/Ca ratios in bivalve calcite has been the subject of contradictory observations. The palaeoceanographic use of a geochemical proxy, like Mg/Ca ratios, is dependent on initial, rigorous calibration and validation of relationships between the proxy and the ambient environmental variable to be reconstructed. Shell Mg/Ca ratio data are reported for the calcite of two bivalve species, Mytilus edulis (common mussel and Pecten maximus (king scallop, for the first time grown in laboratory culturing experiments at controlled and constant aquarium seawater temperatures over a range from ~10 to ~20°C. Furthermore, Mg/Ca ratio data of laboratory-grown and field-grown M. edulis specimens were compared. Only a weak, albeit significant, shell Mg/Ca ratio–temperature relationship was observed in the two bivalve species: M. edulis (r2=0.37, pr2=0.50, pP. maximus (r2=0.21, p<0.001, laboratory cultured specimens only. In the two species, shell Mg/Ca ratios also were not found to be controlled by shell growth rate and salinity. Furthermore, measurement of Mg/Ca ratios in the shells of multiple specimens illustrated that a large degree of variability in the measured shell Mg/Ca ratios was significant at the species, inter- and intra-individual shell levels. The study data suggest the use of bivalve calcite Mg/Ca ratios as a reliable, precise and accurate temperature proxy still remains limited, at least in the species studied to date. Such limitations are most likely due to the presence of significant physiological effects on Mg incorporation in bivalve calcite, with such variability differing both within single shells and between shells of the same species that were precipitated under the same ambient conditions.

  12. Mitogenomics of southern hemisphere blue mussels (Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia): Insights into the evolutionary characteristics of the Mytilus edulis complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Quintero-Galvis, Julian F.; Mesas, Andres; D’Elía, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Marine blue mussels (Mytilus spp.) are widespread species that exhibit an antitropical distribution with five species occurring in the Northern Hemisphere (M. trossulus, M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, M. californianus and M. coruscus) and three in the Southern Hemisphere (M. galloprovincialis, M. chilensis and M. platensis). Species limits in this group remain controversial, in particular for those forms that live in South America. Here we investigated structural characteristics of marine mussels mitogenomes, based on published F mtDNA sequences of Northern Hemisphere species and two newly sequenced South American genomes, one from the Atlantic M. platensis and another from the Pacific M. chilensis. These mitogenomes exhibited similar architecture to those of other genomes of Mytilus, including the presence of the Atp8 gene, which is missing in most of the other bivalves. Our evolutionary analysis of mitochondrial genes indicates that purifying selection is the predominant force shaping the evolution of the coding genes. Results of our phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Pteriomorphia and fully resolved the phylogenetic relationships among its five orders. Finally, the low genetic divergence of specimens assigned to M. chilensis and M. platensis suggests that these South American marine mussels represent conspecific variants rather than distinct species. PMID:27241855

  13. Effects of coexistence between the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and eelgrass Zostera marina on sediment biogeochemistry and plant performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, H.F.; Norling, P.; Kristensen, Per Sand;

    2012-01-01

    The habitat-modifying suspension-feeding mussel, Mytilus edulis, may have facilitating or inhibiting effects on seagrass meadows depending on the environmental conditions. We investigated the effects of M. edulis on sediment biogeochemistry in Zostera marina meadows under eutrophic conditions in...

  14. The ocean is not deep enough: pressure tolerances during early ontogeny of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Nélia C; Thatje, Sven; Tyler, Paul A

    2009-02-22

    Early ontogenetic adaptations reflect the evolutionary history of a species. To understand the evolution of the deep-sea fauna and its adaptation to high pressure, it is important to know the effects of pressure on their shallow-water relatives. In this study we analyse the temperature and pressure tolerances of early life-history stages of the shallow-water species Mytilus edulis. This species expresses a close phylogenetic relationship with hydrothermal-vent mussels of the subfamily Bathymodiolinae. Tolerances to pressure and temperature are defined in terms of fertilization success and embryo developmental rates in laboratory-based experiments. In M. edulis, successful fertilization under pressure is possible up to 500 atm (50.66 MPa), at 10, 15 and 20 degrees C. A slower embryonic development is observed with decreasing temperature and with increasing pressure; principally, pressure narrows the physiological tolerance window in different ontogenetic stages of M. edulis, and slows down metabolism. This study provides important clues on possible evolutionary pathways of hydrothermal vent and cold-seep bivalve species and their shallow-water relatives. Evolution and speciation patterns of species derive mostly from their ability to adapt to variable environmental conditions, within environmental constraints, which promote morphological and genetic variability, often differently for each life-history stage. The present results support the view that a direct colonization of deep-water hydrothermal vent environments by a cold eurythermal shallow-water ancestor is indeed a possible scenario for the Mytilinae, challenging previous hypothesis of a wood/bone to seep/vent colonization pathway.

  15. The interactions between bed structure of Mytilus edulis L. and the predator Asterias rubens L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    1998-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of asteroids is usually analyzed with optimal foraging models, which assume that asteroids maximize the ratio of energy uptake relative to energy used in the feeding process. The behaviour of Asterias rubens feeding at subtidal beds of Mytilus edulis was studied in order to ...... that the feeding behaviour of Asterias is restricted by the complex structure of interconnected mussels in beds, which has to be integrated in optimal foraging models. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. Effects of nanopolystyrene on the feeding behavior of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, A; Besseling, E; Foekema, E M; Kamermans, P; Koelmans, A A

    2012-11-01

    As the industrial production of nanoplastic and the degradation of microplastic into smaller particles at sea increase, the potential amount of nanoplastics in the marine environment rises. It has been reported that mussels uptake 100-nm polystyrene (PS) beads; to date, however, the effects of this uptake on the organism are unknown. In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of 30-nm PS on the feeding behavior of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) by exposing the organism to different nano PS and different algae (Pavlova lutheri) concentrations. The state of nano PS aggregation in the exposure medium was assessed using dynamic light scattering. In all treatments that contained nano PS, M. edulis produced pseudofeces. The total weight of the feces and pseudofeces increased with increasing nano PS and increasing algae concentration. Furthermore, M. edulis reduced its filtering activity when nano PS was present but still caused a decrease in the apparent nano PS concentration in the water. The presence of nano PS around the foot of M. edulis after the bioassay confirmed that the organism removed nano PS from the water. Chronic effect studies are therefore needed to investigate the effects of nanoplastics in M. edulis and possible consequences for its predators, including humans. PMID:22893562

  17. Toll signal transduction pathway in bivalves: complete cds of intermediate elements and related gene transcription levels in hemocytes of immune stimulated Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubiana, Mylène; Rosani, Umberto; Giambelluca, Sonia; Cammarata, Matteo; Gerdol, Marco; Pallavicini, Alberto; Venier, Paola; Roch, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Based on protein domain structure and organization deduced from mRNA contigs, 15 transcripts of the Toll signaling pathway have been identified in the bivalve, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Identical searches performed on publicly available Mytilus edulis ESTs revealed 11 transcripts, whereas searches performed in genomic and new transcriptome sequences of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, identified 21 Toll-related transcripts. The remarkable molecular diversity of TRAF and IKK coding sequences of C. gigas, suggests that the sequence data inferred from Mytilus cDNAs may not be exhaustive. Most of the Toll pathway genes were constitutively and ubiquitously expressed in M. galloprovincialis, although at different levels, and clearly induced after in vivo injection with bacteria. Such over-transcription was more rapid and intense with Gram-negative than with Gram-positive bacteria. Injection of a fungus modulated the transcription of few Toll pathway genes, with the induction levels of TLR/MyD88 complex being always less intense. Purified LPS and β-glucans had marginal effect whereas peptidoglycans were ineffective. At the moment, we found no evidence of an IMD transcript in bivalves. In conclusion, mussels possess a complete Toll pathway which can be triggered either by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria.

  18. Mytilus edulis haemocytes variability: technique, individual, and environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel

    cells, haemocytes, could become complementary sub-lethal indicators of toxicology. These two parameters are respectively referred to as total haemocyte count (THC) and differential cell count (DCC). This study examines these commonly used methods, quantifies their limitations, and develops alternative...... techniques. The circulating immune cells are investigated to assess their fluctuations. Finally, impacts of environmental challenges on the circulating haemocytes are examined. Despite its importance in the field of Mytilus edulis immunology, THC evaluation is present in only 20% of publications...... in this field, and DCC in 10%. Ultimately, only 9% of papers consider both THC and DCC before further analyses. The remaining studies disregard THC and DDC, or regard these parameters as being constant and homogenous in M. edulis populations. This study initially quantifies the systematic error induced...

  19. Field data and growth model for mussels Mytilus edulis in Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgard, Hans Ulrik; Lundgreen, Kim; Larsen, Poul S.

    2012-01-01

    Growth rates of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, in suspended net-bags were measured in field experiments conducted in Limfjorden and Great Belt, Denmark, for extended periods of time (22 69 days) with up to 8 intermediate data samplings during the period. The resulting time series of growth...... bioenergetic growth model for mussels (μ = aWb, a = 0.871 x C - 0.986, b = -0.34), and observed power-law relations of growth data were in good agreement with the model, which takes into account the prevailing average chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration (C, μ g chl a l-1) at field sites. Thus, the b...

  20. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Als

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland, where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis potentially records these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We investigate its potential as a palaeo-meltwater proxy. First, we confirmed that M. edulis shell calcite oxygen isotope (δ18Oc values are in equilibrium with ambient water and generally reflect meltwater conditions. Subsequently we investigated if this species recorded the full range of δ18Ow values occurring during the years 2007 to 2010. Results show that δ18Ow values were not recorded at very low salinities (Mytilus edulis δ18Oc values are suitable in reconstructing past meltwater amounts in most cases, but care has to be taken that shells are collected not too close to a glacier, but rather in the mid-region or mouth of the fjord. The focus of future research will expand on the geographical and temporal range of the shell measurements by sampling mussels in other fjords in Greenland along a south–north gradient, and by sampling shells from raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from prehistoric settlements in Greenland.

  1. Somatic growth of mussels Mytilus edulis in field studies compared to predictions using BEG, DEB, and SFG models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Filgueira, Ramón; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of somatic growth of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, based on the data from 2 field-growth studies of mussels in suspended net-bags in Danish waters was made by 3 models: the bioenergetic growth (BEG), the dynamic energy budget (DEB), and the scope for growth (SFG). Here, the standard BEG...

  2. Accumulation, transformation and breakdown of DSP toxins from the toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Hansen, Per Juel; Krock, Bernd;

    2016-01-01

    and depuration kinetics in mussels. We mass-cultured Dinophysis acuta containing OA, DTX-1b and PTX-2 and fed it to the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis under controlled laboratory conditions for a week to study toxin accumulation and transformation. Contents of OA and DTX-1b in mussels increased linearly...

  3. Reducing the impact of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) dredging on the ecosystem in shallow water soft bottom areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rikke; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Poulsen, Louise K.;

    2015-01-01

    Dredging blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and thus removing structural elements, inducing resuspension of sediment as well as reducing filtration capacity, will inevitably affect the ecosystem. The study demonstrates that the impacts of fishing can be reduced through gear developments. A new light d...

  4. Evidence of Anti-Proliferative Activities in Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Elise Carbonneau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish waste components contain significant levels of high quality protein and are therefore a potential source for biofunctional high-value peptides. The feasibility of applying a pilot scale enzymatic hydrolysis process to whole Mytilus edulis and, by fractionation, recover hydrolysates presenting a biological activity of interest, was evaluated. Fractions were tested on four immortalized cancerous cell lines: A549, BT549, HCT15 and PC3. The 50 kDa fraction, enriched in peptides, presented anti-proliferative activity with all cell lines and results suggest a bioactive molecule synergy within the fraction. At a protein concentration of 44 µg/mL, the 50 kDa fraction induced a mortality of 90% for PC3, 89% for A549, 85% for HCT15 and of 81% for BT549 cell lines. At the low protein concentration of only 11 µg/mL the 50 kDa fraction still entails a cell mortality of 76% for A549 and 87% for PC3 cell lines. The 50 kDa fraction contains 56% of proteins, 3% of lipids and 6% of minerals on a dry weight basis and the lowest levels detected of taurine and methionine and highest levels of threonine, proline and glycine amino acids. The enzymatic hydrolysis process suggests that Mytilus edulis by-products should be viewed as high-valued products with strong potential as anti-proliferative agent and promising active ingredients in functional foods.

  5. Trophic level transfer of microplastic: Mytilus edulis (L.) to Carcinus maenas (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the trophic transfer of microplastic from mussels to crabs. Mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to 0.5 μm fluorescent polystyrene microspheres, then fed to crabs (Carcinus maenas). Tissue samples were then taken at intervals up to 21 days. The number of microspheres in the haemolymph of the crabs was highest at 24 h (15 033 ml−1 ± SE 3146), and was almost gone after 21 days (267 ml−1 ± SE 120). The maximum amount of microspheres in the haemolymph was 0.04% of the amount to which the mussels were exposed. Microspheres were also found in the stomach, hepatopancreas, ovary and gills of the crabs, in decreasing numbers over the trial period. This study is the first to show ‘natural’ trophic transfer of microplastic, and its translocation to haemolymph and tissues of a crab. This has implications for the health of marine organisms, the wider food web and humans. -- Highlights: ► Microplastic transferred in marine food chain. ► Microplastic transferred to haemolymph when ingested in food. ► Microplastic remains in organism for at least 21 days. -- This communication demonstrates trophic level transfer of microplastic particles from Mytilus edulis to Carcinus maenas

  6. Immune modulation in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis exposed to North Sea produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannam, M.L., E-mail: marie.hannam@plymouth.ac.u [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Bamber, S.D.; Sundt, R.C. [IRIS - Biomiljo, Mekjarvik 12, 4070 Randaberg (Norway); Galloway, T.S. [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Hatherly Laboratories, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4PS (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    The discharge of oil well produced water (PW) provides a constant source of contaminants to the marine environment including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, metals and production chemicals. High concentrations of PW cause adverse effects to exposed biota, including reduced survival, growth and reproduction. Here we explore the effects of PW on immune function in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to sublethal PW concentrations (0.125-0.5%) and cellular parameters were measured. Cell viability, phagocytosis and cytotoxicity were inhibited after exposure to 0.25% and 0.5% PW, whilst the 0.125% PW treatment produced significant increases in these biomarker responses. This biphasic response was only observed after 7 days exposure; longer exposure periods led to a reduction in immune parameters. Results indicate that PW concentrations close to the discharge point cause modulation to cellular immunity. The implications for longer-term disease resistance are discussed. - Exposure to produced water alters immune function in the sentinel species Mytilus edulis.

  7. Tissue-specific assimilation, depuration and toxicity of nickel in Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tissue-specific accumulation and time-dependent depuration of radioactive 63Ni by the byssus, gut, foot, gills, kidney, adductor muscle and faeces of Mytilus edulis has been investigated using a pulse-chase technique. The rate and extent of depuration of 63Ni varied between tissues and, after 168 h, the concentration factors and assimilation efficiencies ranged from 1 to 35 L kg−1 and 5%–13%, respectively. Mussels were also exposed to a range of environmentally-realistic concentrations of dissolved Ni, prior to the analysis of biological endpoints. The clearance rate was concentration-dependent and at the highest concentration decreased by 30%. Neutral red retention (NRR) assays indicated a cytotoxic response and DNA strand breaks were observed in the haemocytes. The association of DNA damage with that of physiological and cytotoxic effects suggests that Ni exerts a significant impact on Mytilus edulis at cellular and genetic levels. - Highlights: ► Tissue-specific accumulation and depuration of nickel by marine mussels was evaluated. ► Concentration factors for nickel in mussel tissues were lower than recommended values. ► Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were detected in mussel haemocytes in the presence of dissolved nickel. ► Nickel exerts a significant effect on mussels at cellular and genetic levels. - Nickel is accumulated preferentially in the byssus and gut of marine mussels and it exerts a cytotoxic and genotoxic response in their haemocytes.

  8. Adaptation to anaerobic metabolism in two mussel species, Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, from the tidal zone at Arcachon Bay, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vooys, C. G. N.

    Aspects of anaerobic metabolism were investigated in two sympatric mussel species, viz. Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, living in the tidal zone in Arcachon Bay, France. Specific activities of pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate kinase (PEP-CK) were remarkably similar in the two sympatric species and generally corresponded more closely to those observed in M. galloprovincialis in the Mediterranean than with M. edulis in the Dutch Wadden Sea. However, the values for the radio PK: PEP-CK for the two species in Arcachon Bay agreed with those of intertidal M. edulis from the Dutch Wadden Sea. Succinate accumulation during the first 24 h of anaerobicsis was about the same as in M. galloprovincialis in the Mediterranean, but decreased during the second 24 h, particularly in M. edulis, obviously due to propionate formation. Decrease in ATP concentrations in the tissues during anaerobiosis corresponded to that of intertidal M. edulis from the Dutch Wadden Sea. With the exception of specific activities of PK and PEP-CK, all properties investigated in both species were as expected in intertidal mussels.

  9. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, M. E.; Mortensen, J.; Rysgaard, S.; Als, T. D.; Wanamaker, A. D., Jr.

    2012-09-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and kitchen middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We investigate its potential as a palaeo-meltwater proxy. First, we confirmed that M. edulis shell calcite oxygen isotope (δ18Oc) values are in equilibrium with ambient water and generally reflect meltwater conditions. Subsequently we investigated if this species recorded the full range of δ18Ow values occurring during the years 2007 to 2010. Results show that δ18Ow values were not recorded at very low salinities (future research will expand on the geographical and temporal range of the shell measurements by sampling mussels in other fjords in Greenland along a south-north gradient, and by sampling shells from raised shorelines and kitchen middens from prehistoric settlements in Greenland.

  10. Shells of Mytilus edulis as Bioarchives of the Rare Earth Element and Yttrium Distribution in Seawater and the Potential Impact of pH and Temperature Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnurangam, A.; Bau, M.; Brenner, M.; Koschinsky, A.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of bivalve shells as proxy archives for changes in environmental conditions is increasingly recognized. However, data for trace metal concentrations, specifically rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) in bivalve shells, are quite scarce. The chemistry of these elements in terms of solution speciation and complexation (mostly by carbonate) makes them particularly useful in acting as geochemical proxies of oceanic change due to the impact of temperature and pH on the activity of CO32- in seawater. We approach this issue via an in situ culture experiment using Mytilus edulis from a site in the North Sea. The M.edulis used in our study were cultured offshore with no contact to the ocean floor. We compare the REY distribution in the shells and ambient seawater with the aim of investigating which REY species is incorporated into the shell. The shells show consistent shale-normalized ("SN") REY patterns and display distinct REY features of the North Sea. The REY concentrations obtained from the shells were used to calculate apparent bulk REY partition coefficients between shells and ambient seawater (appDREYshell/seawater) and acquired results were then used in the investigation of the potential effects of pH and temperature on REY partitioning. Further comparison of appDREYshell/seawater patterns to the REY speciation in seawater suggests that the free REY3+ may be the most likely REY species that are actually incorporated from seawater into the M. edulis shell. We then modeled the REYSN patterns of a hypothetical mussel shell at pH 8.2 and 7.6 and at temperatures of 25°C and 5°C assuming that only REY3+ are incorporated into the carbonate's crystal lattice. Our findings provide the basis to further understand how we can use shells of mussels like M. edulis as bioarchives that host geochemical proxies for paleoceanic environmental reconstructions. It appears that M. edulis shells are bioarchives of some REY features of seawater and results suggest that

  11. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Als

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland, where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis potentially records these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and kitchen middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We investigate its potential as a palaeo-meltwater proxy. First, we confirmed that M. edulis shell calcite oxygen isotope (δ18Oc values are in equilibrium with ambient water and generally reflect meltwater conditions. Subsequently we investigated if this species recorded the full range of δ18Ow values occurring during the years 2007 to 2010. Results show that δ18Ow values were not recorded at very low salinities (M. edulis δ18Oc values are suitable in reconstructing past meltwater amounts in most cases, but care has to be taken that shells are collected not too close to a glacier, but rather in the mid region or mouth of the fjord. The focus of future research will expand on the geographical and temporal range of the shell measurements by sampling mussels in other fjords in Greenland along a south-north gradient, and by sampling shells from raised shorelines and kitchen middens from prehistoric settlements in Greenland.

  12. Arsenic Speciation in Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) Along a Highly Contaminated Arsenic Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whaley-Martin, K.J.; Koch, I.; Moriarty, M.; Reimer, K.J. (Royal)

    2012-11-01

    Arsenic is naturally present in marine ecosystems, and these can become contaminated from mining activities, which may be of toxicological concern to organisms that bioaccumulate the metalloid into their tissues. The toxic properties of arsenic are dependent on the chemical form in which it is found (e.g., toxic inorganic arsenicals vs nontoxic arsenobetaine), and two analytical techniques, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), were used in the present study to examine the arsenic species distribution in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) obtained from an area where there is a strong arsenic concentration gradient as a consequence of mining impacted sediments. A strong positive correlation was observed between the concentration of inorganic arsenic species (arsenic compounds with no As-C bonds) and total arsenic concentrations present in M. edulis tissues (R{sup 2} = 0.983), which could result in significant toxicological consequences to the mussels and higher trophic consumers. However, concentrations of organoarsenicals, dominated by arsenobetaine, remained relatively constant regardless of the increasing As concentration in M. edulis tissue (R{sup 2} = 0.307). XANES bulk analysis and XAS two-dimensional mapping of wet M. edulis tissue revealed the presence of predominantly arsenic-sulfur compounds. The XAS mapping revealed that the As(III)-S and/or As(III) compounds were concentrated in the digestive gland. However, arsenobetaine was found in small and similar concentrations in the digestive gland as well as the surrounding tissue suggesting arsenobetaine may being used in all of the mussel's cells in a physiological function such as an intracellular osmolyte.

  13. Allometric equations for maximum filtration rate in blue mussels Mytilus edulis and importance of condition index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Pleissner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between body dry weight (W) and shell length (L) of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, can be expressed by the condition index (CI = W/L3) which varies from population to population and during the year. Here, we examine the influence of CI on the relationships between maximum filtration....... For all data, it was found that FW = 6.773W0.678 and FL = 0.00135L2.088 which are very similar to equations for mussels with ‘medium condition’ (CI = 4–6 mg cm-3): FW = 6.567W0.681 and FL = 0.00150L2.051, with b- and d-values within a few percent of the theoretically expected of 2/3 and 2, respectively...

  14. The production of relaid blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Danish fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Per Sand; Lassen, H.

    1997-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) smaller than the commercial size caught in Limfjorden, as in other areas, are typically discarded. However, during the period 1990 to 1993 these small mussels were returned, after sorting to mussel beds for later harvest; a process defined as ''relay''. This paper...... presents data from two commercial culture beds and from two smaller experimental beds established to study growth and mortality of these small mussel discards. The data were analysed by a yield- per-recruit model to calculate yields from such relays. This model was also used to predict the optimal time...... of harvest. The parameters utilized in the model were: (1) initial mortality due to harvesting, unshipping and sorting; (2) growth and mortality between relay and harvest; and, (3) the drained wet weight of a mussel of a given shell length. The initial mortality was estimated from observations of mussels...

  15. Area-intensive bottom culture of blue mussels Mytilus edulis in a micro-tidal estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Christensen, Helle Torp; Hansen, Benni Winding;

    2012-01-01

    Dredge fishery for blue mussels Mytilus edulis (L.) impacts the benthic ecosystem, and substitution by area-intensive bottom culture production may reduce adverse effects on the ecosystem. Two different field studies in 2007 and 2009 tested the productivity of bottom culture of blue mussels......, and whether a shift from dredging of full-grown blue mussels to production of blue mussels in bottom culture could reduce the area of impacted sea bottom. In the first study, the macrostructure of a commercial bottom culture was analysed by side scan mapping, and the growth of blue mussels was recorded...... on a transect from the edge to the central part of the bottom culture. In the second study, we analysed the effect of seeding density (1.5 and 3.5 kg m−2) on mussel production. The measured production was used to model the affected area when producing blue mussels in bottom culture. The macrostructure...

  16. Metabolism of pectenotoxins in brown crabs Cancer pagurus fed with blue mussels Mytilus edulis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhaoxin

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the metabolism of pectenotoxins in brown crabs (Cancer pagurus). The crabs were fed with blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) for 21 d then depurated for 42 d. We extracted the toxins from the digestive glands of contaminated crabs, uncontaminated crabs (control group), and the meat of blue mussels using methanol. Extracts of the crab digestive glands were fractionated by liquid-liquid partitioning and solid phase extraction. The fractions were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with ion-trap mass spectrometry (LC-MSn). We detected a new PTX-like compound, designated as metabolite-1. The MS2 mass spectrum of the metabolite-1 [M+Na]+ ion at m/z 897.5 revealed fragment ions at m/z 853.5 and 555.5, typical of those exhibited by other pectenotoxins.

  17. The influence of climatic and physiological performance on population dynamics of Mytilus edulis in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Blicher, Martin; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2014-01-01

    . Results show an overall decline in blue mussel abundance along the coast from south to north Greenland. Physiological adaptation and plasticity of blue mussels was found across latitudes spanning from the temperate to the High Arctic region. Combined our results indicate that low ocean temperature per se....... The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) has recently expanded its northern distribution in Greenland and is considered to be a sensitive indicator of climate changes. Blue mussels could be a species that would respond to a warmer climate by increased abundance and growth rates in the Arctic. However, adequate...... data on current distribution and physiological performance of blue mussels in the Arctic is lacking, and knowledge of how “climate” in a broad sense specifically influence population dynamics of this species is unknown. Here, we present data on abundance, age and mortality of blue mussels in West...

  18. Mass spectrometry data from a quantitative analysis of protein expression in gills of immuno-challenged blue mussels (Mytilus edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Mi, J; Hernroth, B; Bergquist, J; Lind, S Bergström

    2016-09-01

    Here, we provide the dataset associated with our research article on the potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, "Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)" [1]. Blue mussels were stimulated with lipopolysaccharides and samples were collected at different time points post injection. Protein extracts were prepared from the gills, digested using trypsin and a full in-depth proteome investigation was performed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Protein identification and quantification was performed using the MaxQuant 1.5.1.2 software, "MaxQuant enables high peptide identification rates, individualized p.p.b.-range mass accuracies and proteome-wide protein quantification" [2].

  19. Mass spectrometry data from a quantitative analysis of protein expression in gills of immuno-challenged blue mussels (Mytilus edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Mi, J; Hernroth, B; Bergquist, J; Lind, S Bergström

    2016-09-01

    Here, we provide the dataset associated with our research article on the potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, "Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)" [1]. Blue mussels were stimulated with lipopolysaccharides and samples were collected at different time points post injection. Protein extracts were prepared from the gills, digested using trypsin and a full in-depth proteome investigation was performed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Protein identification and quantification was performed using the MaxQuant 1.5.1.2 software, "MaxQuant enables high peptide identification rates, individualized p.p.b.-range mass accuracies and proteome-wide protein quantification" [2]. PMID:27358907

  20. Temperature effect on survival, growth, and triacylglycerol content during the early ontogeny of Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus

    OpenAIRE

    Rayssac, Nathalie; Pernet, Fabrice; Lacasse, Olivia; Tremblay, Rejean

    2010-01-01

    Temperature is a major factor contributing to the biogeography of intertidal poikilotherms. The population dynamics of intertidal invertebrates like mussels are strongly dependent on larval supply and larval mortality. Unlike adults, which are resistant to fluctuating environmental conditions, larvae are highly sensitive to the physicochemical conditions of the pelagic zone. The effects of rearing temperature on larval and post-larval performance of 2 coexisting mussels species, Mytilus eduli...

  1. Towards the determination of Mytilus edulis food preferences using the dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picoche, Coralie; Le Gendre, Romain; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan; Françoise, Sylvaine; Maheux, Frank; Simon, Benjamin; Gangnery, Aline

    2014-01-01

    The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is a commercially important species, with production based on both fisheries and aquaculture. Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) models have been extensively applied to study its energetics but such applications require a deep understanding of its nutrition, from filtration to assimilation. Being filter feeders, mussels show multiple responses to temporal fluctuations in their food and environment, raising questions that can be investigated by modeling. To provide a better insight into mussel-environment interactions, an experiment was conducted in one of the main French growing zones (Utah Beach, Normandy). Mussel growth was monitored monthly for 18 months, with a large number of environmental descriptors measured in parallel. Food proxies such as chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and phytoplankton were also sampled, in addition to non-nutritious particles. High-frequency physical data recording (e.g., water temperature, immersion duration) completed the habitat description. Measures revealed an increase in dry flesh mass during the first year, followed by a high mass loss, which could not be completely explained by the DEB model using raw external signals. We propose two methods that reconstruct food from shell length and dry flesh mass variations. The former depends on the inversion of the growth equation while the latter is based on iterative simulations. Assemblages of food proxies are then related to reconstructed food input, with a special focus on plankton species. A characteristic contribution is attributed to these sources to estimate nutritional values for mussels. M. edulis shows no preference between most plankton life history traits. Selection is based on the size of the ingested particles, which is modified by the volume and social behavior of plankton species. This finding reveals the importance of diet diversity and both passive and active selections, and confirms the need to adjust DEB models to different

  2. Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernroth, B; Baden, S; Tassidis, H; Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Bergström Lind, S; Bergquist, J

    2016-08-01

    Here, we aimed to investigate potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, as gills are directly facing seawater and the changing pH (predicted to be reduced from ∼8.1 to ∼7.7 by 2100). The AMP activity of gill and haemocyte extracts was compared at pH 6.0, 7.7 and 8.1, with a radial diffusion assay against Escherichia coli. The activity of the gill extracts was not affected by pH, while it was significantly reduced with increasing pH in the haemocyte extracts. Gill extracts were also tested against different species of Vibrio (V. parahaemolyticus, V. tubiashii, V. splendidus, V. alginolyticus) at pH 7.7 and 8.1. The metabolic activity of the bacteria decreased by ∼65-90%, depending on species of bacteria, but was, as in the radial diffusion assay, not affected by pH. The results indicated that AMPs from gills are efficient in a broad pH-range. However, when mussels were pre-exposed for pH 7.7 for four month the gill extracts presented significantly lower inhibit of bacterial growth. A full in-depth proteome investigation of gill extracts, using LC-Orbitrap MS/MS technique, showed that among previously described AMPs from haemocytes of Mytilus, myticin A was found up-regulated in response to lipopolysaccharide, 3 h post injection. Sporadic occurrence of other immune related peptides/proteins also pointed to a rapid response (0.5-3 h p.i.). Altogether, our results indicate that the gills of blue mussels constitute an important first line defence adapted to act at the pH of seawater. The antimicrobial activity of the gills is however modulated when mussels are under the pressure of ocean acidification, which may give future advantages for invading pathogens.

  3. Investigations of the capacity of synthesizing 3β-sterols in mollusca—XIII. Biosynthesis and composition of sterols in some bivalves (Anisomyaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    1. The incorporation of sodium acetate-1- or -2-¹⁴C into some lipid classes of the anisomyarian bivalves Mytilus edulis, Atrina fragilis and Ostrea edulis was investigated. 2. It was demonstrated that the acetate was utilized for the biosynthesis of both saponifiable and non-saponifiable lipids. 3.

  4. Ion microprobe assessment of the heterogeneity of Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios in Pecten maximus and Mytilus edulis (bivalvia shell calcite precipitated at constant temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Freitas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale heterogeneity of biogenic carbonate elemental composition can be a significant source of error in the accurate use of element/Ca ratios as geochemical proxies. In this study ion microprobe (SIMS profiles showed significant small-scale variability of Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios in new shell calcite of the marine bivalves Pecten maximus and Mytilus edulis that was precipitated during a constant-temperature culturing experiment. Elevated Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios were found to be associated with the deposition of elaborate shell features, i.e. a shell surface stria in P. maximus and surface shell disturbance marks in both species, the latter a common occurrence in bivalve shells. In both species the observed small-scale elemental heterogeneity most likely was not controlled by variable transport of ions to the extra-pallial fluid, but by factors such as the influence of shell organic content and/or crystal size and orientation, the latter reflecting conditions at the shell crystal-solution interface. In the mid and innermost regions of the P. maximus shell the lack of significant small-scale variation of Mg/Ca ratios, which is consistent with growth at constant temperature, suggest a potential application as a palaeotemperature proxy. Cross-growth band element/Ca ratio profiles in the interior of bivalve shells may provide more promising palaeo-environmental tools than sampling from the outer region of bivalve shells.

  5. The impact of the adult blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) population on settling of conspecific larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Stenalt, Ea

    2010-01-01

    The choice of a mussel bed as a settling locality by conspecific mussel larvae is a trade-off between reduced fitness due to an increased risk of larval predation and post-settling food competition with the filtering adults and the benefit from a reduced post-settling mortality. This reduced post......-settling mortality may be due to a reduced benthic predation in habitats with high complexity. In a field experiment, the larval settling of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, was recorded on an artificial substrate 0.25, 1 and 2 m above the bottom during six periods in spring 1999. The experiment was conducted at four...... stations with dense mussel beds located at two of these stations. Two of the four stations, one with mussel beds and one without, were located in a wind-exposed area and the two other stations in a sheltered area. It was demonstrated that the larval settling was reduced up to 1 m above the mussel beds...

  6. Contaminant effects on growth, age-structure, and reproduction, of Mytilus edulis from Puget Sound, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casillas, E.; Kardong, K.; Kagley, A.; Snider, R.G.; Stein, J.E. [NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States). Environmental Conservation Division

    1994-12-31

    Age-length relationships, age structure, and reproductive status (fecundity, egg size) of Mytilus edulis from six sites in central Puget Sound and one site in the relatively pristine area of northern Puget Sound were measured. Mussels from urban-associated sites (areas with elevated sediment concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, and toxic and essential metals) exhibited high tissue burdens of these contaminants. Age length relationships, fitted to the von Bertalanffy equation, showed that the growth of mussels from urban-associated areas was similar, but was lower than in mussels from minimally-contaminated environments. Comparison of mussel population age-structure showed that at urban sites, mussels of comparable size were consistently older than mussels from minimally contaminated areas and the mean age of urban populations was higher than that of rural populations. In mussels from urban sites, gonad mass was lower while number of oocytes/g gonad was similar compared to mussels from minimally-contaminated areas of Puget Sound. Thus, in mussels from urban sites fecundity was reduced compared to mussels of comparable age from reference sites. The findings support the hypothesis that mussels from the urban areas exhibit impaired growth, altered population age-structure, and reproductive impairment as a result of accumulation of chemical contaminants.

  7. Effects of estrogen exposure in mussels, Mytilus edulis, at different stages of gametogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocan, Corina M; Cubero-Leon, Elena; Puinean, Alin M; Hill, Elizabeth M; Minier, Christophe; Osada, Makoto; Fenlon, Kate; Rotchell, Jeanette M

    2010-09-01

    Mytilus edulis were exposed to 17beta-estradiol (E2) and the synthetic estrogens ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and estradiol benzoate (EB) for 10 days. Two exposures were performed to determine their effect on vitellogenin (VTG) and estrogen receptor 2 (ER2) mRNA expression at different stages of the reproductive cycle. Significant natural variation was not observed in VTG mRNA expression, though ER2 mRNA expression displayed significantly lower values during January, February and July compared with other times of the year. A significant increase in VTG and ER2 mRNA expression was observed in mussels exposed to estrogens at the early stage of gametogenesis. In contrast, mature mussels displayed no statistically significant change in the VTG or ER2 mRNA expression. The data presented suggests that the reproductive physiology of molluscs, in terms of VTG and ER2 mRNA expression, may be susceptible to damage by environmental estrogens at certain points in their gametogenesis process. PMID:20615598

  8. A mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue certified reference material for the marine biotoxins azaspiracids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Pearse; Giddings, Sabrina D; Reeves, Kelley L; Hess, Philipp; Quilliam, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are lipophilic biotoxins produced by marine algae that can contaminate shellfish and cause human illness. The European Union (EU) regulates the level of AZAs in shellfish destined for the commercial market, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) being used as the official reference method for regulatory analysis. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential tools for the development, validation, and quality control of LC-MS methods. This paper describes the work that went into the planning, preparation, characterization, and certification of CRM-AZA-Mus, a tissue matrix CRM, which was prepared as a wet homogenate from mussels (Mytilus edulis) naturally contaminated with AZAs. The homogeneity and stability of CRM-AZA-Mus were evaluated, and the CRM was found to be fit for purpose. Extraction and LC-MS/MS methods were developed to accurately certify the concentrations of AZA1 (1.16 mg/kg), AZA2 (0.27 mg/kg), and AZA3 (0.21 mg/kg) in the CRM. Quantitation methods based on standard addition and matrix-matched calibration were used to compensate for the matrix effects in LC-MS/MS. Other toxins present in this CRM at lower levels were also measured with information values reported for okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-2, yessotoxin, and several spirolides.

  9. Feeding activity of mussels Mytilus edulis related to near-bed currents and phytoplankton biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2000-01-01

    The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices...... of filtration activity. During days 1 and 2 the near-bed current velocities were low (1.2-2.1 cm s(-1)), and the near-bed phytoplankton biomass was at the same time lower than near the water surface. Between 44 and 69% of the mussels had closed shells and accumulated only small amounts of Chl-a in the body....... During day 3 and day 4 the near-bed current velocities increased to 6.5 and 3.9 cm s(-1). respectively, and the Chl-a was homogeneously distributed in the water column. Now only 17 and 25% of the mussels had closed valves and they accumulated a larger amount of Chl-a. The actual population filtration...

  10. Effects of estrogen exposure in mussels, Mytilus edulis, at different stages of gametogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciocan, Corina M.; Cubero-Leon, Elena; Puinean, Alin M.; Hill, Elizabeth M. [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom); Minier, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, Universite du Havre, 25 Rue Philippe Lebon, BP540, 766058 Le Havre (France); Osada, Makoto [Laboratory of Aquacultural Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Tsutsumidori-amamiyamachi, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Fenlon, Kate [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom); Rotchell, Jeanette M., E-mail: j.rotchell@sussex.ac.u [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    Mytilus edulis were exposed to 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and the synthetic estrogens ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and estradiol benzoate (EB) for 10 days. Two exposures were performed to determine their effect on vitellogenin (VTG) and estrogen receptor 2 (ER2) mRNA expression at different stages of the reproductive cycle. Significant natural variation was not observed in VTG mRNA expression, though ER2 mRNA expression displayed significantly lower values during January, February and July compared with other times of the year. A significant increase in VTG and ER2 mRNA expression was observed in mussels exposed to estrogens at the early stage of gametogenesis. In contrast, mature mussels displayed no statistically significant change in the VTG or ER2 mRNA expression. The data presented suggests that the reproductive physiology of molluscs, in terms of VTG and ER2 mRNA expression, may be susceptible to damage by environmental estrogens at certain points in their gametogenesis process. - This study concerns vitellogenin and estrogen receptor mRNA expression in a mollusc and is relevant to those studying endocrine disruption in invertebrate species.

  11. A mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue certified reference material for the marine biotoxins azaspiracids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Pearse; Giddings, Sabrina D; Reeves, Kelley L; Hess, Philipp; Quilliam, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are lipophilic biotoxins produced by marine algae that can contaminate shellfish and cause human illness. The European Union (EU) regulates the level of AZAs in shellfish destined for the commercial market, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) being used as the official reference method for regulatory analysis. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential tools for the development, validation, and quality control of LC-MS methods. This paper describes the work that went into the planning, preparation, characterization, and certification of CRM-AZA-Mus, a tissue matrix CRM, which was prepared as a wet homogenate from mussels (Mytilus edulis) naturally contaminated with AZAs. The homogeneity and stability of CRM-AZA-Mus were evaluated, and the CRM was found to be fit for purpose. Extraction and LC-MS/MS methods were developed to accurately certify the concentrations of AZA1 (1.16 mg/kg), AZA2 (0.27 mg/kg), and AZA3 (0.21 mg/kg) in the CRM. Quantitation methods based on standard addition and matrix-matched calibration were used to compensate for the matrix effects in LC-MS/MS. Other toxins present in this CRM at lower levels were also measured with information values reported for okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-2, yessotoxin, and several spirolides. PMID:25335820

  12. Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë L Hutchison

    Full Text Available Sedimentation in the sea occurs through natural processes, such as wave and tidal action, which can be exacerbated during storms and floods. Changes in terrestrial land use, marine aggregate extraction, dredging, drilling and mining are known to result in substantial sediment deposition. Research suggests that deposition will also occur due to the modern development of marine renewable energy. The response to individual burial under three depths of sediment, three sediment fractions and five burial durations was investigated in two mussel species, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis in specialist mesocosms. Both mussel species showed substantial mortality, which increased with duration of burial and burial by finer sediment fractions. M. modiolus was better able to survive short periods of burial than M. edulis, but at longer durations mortality was more pronounced. No mortality was observed in M. modiolus in burial durations of eight days or less but by 16 days of burial, over 50% cumulative mortality occurred. Under variable temperature regimes, M. edulis mortality increased from 20% at 8°C to over 60% at 14.5 and 20°C. Only M. edulis was able to emerge from burial, facilitated by increased byssus production, laid mostly on vertical surfaces but also on sediment particles. Emergence was higher from coarse sediment and shallow burials. Byssus production in M. edulis was not related to the condition index of the mussels. Results suggest that even marginal burial would result in mortality and be more pronounced in warm summer periods. Our results suggest that in the event of burial, adult M. modiolus would not be able to emerge from burial unless local hydrodynamics assist, whereas a small proportion of M. edulis may regain contact with the sediment water interface. The physiological stress resulting in mortality, contribution of local hydrodynamics to survival and other ecological pressures such as mussels existing in aggregations, are

  13. Growth of mussels Mytilus edulis at algal (Rhodomonas salina) concentrations below and above saturation level for reduced filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Pleissner, Daniel; Larsen, Poul Scheel;

    2013-01-01

    Average filtration and growth rates of groups of juvenile Mytilus edulis (n =2545 of 22-35 mm shell length) were measured at different concentrations of an algal cell monoculture in 9 laboratory experiments of duration 14-30 days, 4 experiments below and 5 above the limit of incipient saturation...... concentration (Csat ≈ 6000-7000 Rhodomonas salina cells ml-1). From a nearly constant filtration rate (F ≈ 30 ml min-1 for a 30 mm shell length) at measured algal concentrations below Csat the steady-state filtration rate decreased approximately as 1/C for increasing algal concentrations (C) above Csat...... to about 1.5 % day-1. Below Csat on the other hand, measured μ values increased linearly with increasing algal concentration which was in good agreement with an earlier advanced bioenergetic growth model. The overall functional response of M. edulis resembles a Type I in terms of gross ingestion...

  14. Metabolic cold adaptation and aerobic performance of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) along a temperature gradient into the High Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Rysgaard, Søren; Blicher, Martin;

    2015-01-01

    and plasticity of blue mussels across latitudes spanning from 56 to 77ºN. This indicates that low ocean temperature per se does not constrain metabolic activity of Mytilus in the Arctic; rather, we speculate that maturation of reproductive tissues, larval supply and annual energy budgets are the most relevant......The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) has recently expanded its northern distribution in the Arctic and is therefore considered to be a sensitive indicator of climate changes in this region. In this study, we compared aerobic performance of blue mussels from High Arctic, Subarctic and temperate...... populations at different temperatures. Standard metabolic rates (SMR) and active metabolic rates (AMR) were measured for each population, and absolute (AMR − SMR) and factorial (AMR/SMR) scopes were calculated. Blue mussels from the temperate population had the lowest Q10 (= 1.8) and the largest thermal...

  15. Impact of ocean acidification on antimicrobial activity in gills of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernroth, B; Baden, S; Tassidis, H; Hörnaeus, K; Guillemant, J; Bergström Lind, S; Bergquist, J

    2016-08-01

    Here, we aimed to investigate potential effects of ocean acidification on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity in the gills of Mytilus edulis, as gills are directly facing seawater and the changing pH (predicted to be reduced from ∼8.1 to ∼7.7 by 2100). The AMP activity of gill and haemocyte extracts was compared at pH 6.0, 7.7 and 8.1, with a radial diffusion assay against Escherichia coli. The activity of the gill extracts was not affected by pH, while it was significantly reduced with increasing pH in the haemocyte extracts. Gill extracts were also tested against different species of Vibrio (V. parahaemolyticus, V. tubiashii, V. splendidus, V. alginolyticus) at pH 7.7 and 8.1. The metabolic activity of the bacteria decreased by ∼65-90%, depending on species of bacteria, but was, as in the radial diffusion assay, not affected by pH. The results indicated that AMPs from gills are efficient in a broad pH-range. However, when mussels were pre-exposed for pH 7.7 for four month the gill extracts presented significantly lower inhibit of bacterial growth. A full in-depth proteome investigation of gill extracts, using LC-Orbitrap MS/MS technique, showed that among previously described AMPs from haemocytes of Mytilus, myticin A was found up-regulated in response to lipopolysaccharide, 3 h post injection. Sporadic occurrence of other immune related peptides/proteins also pointed to a rapid response (0.5-3 h p.i.). Altogether, our results indicate that the gills of blue mussels constitute an important first line defence adapted to act at the pH of seawater. The antimicrobial activity of the gills is however modulated when mussels are under the pressure of ocean acidification, which may give future advantages for invading pathogens. PMID:27288994

  16. Concentration and depuration of some radionuclides present in a chronically exposed population of mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, R.J.; Stevens, H.E.; Hamilton, E.I.

    1983-03-01

    Factors are described which affect the concentration (p Ci g/sup -1/ dry wt) and loss of /sup 241/ Am, /sup 239 +240/Pu, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 95/Zr and /sup 95/Nb in an exposed population of mussels Mytilus edulis L. from Ravenglass on the Esk estuary, Cumbria, UK which receives radioeffluents from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) plant at Sellafield, some 10 km to the north. Tidal position and mussel body size have a negligible influence on the concentration of /sup 241/Am, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 106/Ru in the total soft tissue, but variation in soft tissue weight throughout the year has a considerable influence on the apparent concentration and depuration times of these radionuclides. Apart from the clearance (tsub(1/2) biol, 1 to 3 h) of sediment-associated activity from the digestive tract, the depuration rate profiles follow a single component clearance curve with a biological half-life in excess of 200 d for /sup 241/ Am, /sup 239 +240/Pu, /sup 238/Pu and /sup 144/Ce, and of 40 d for /sup 137/Cs. The clearance of /sup 106/Ru is more complex and consists of a 3 component depuration profile with biological half-lives of 6 h, 12 d and 260 d. The depuration profiles presented in this work are for chronically ingested isotopes under natural conditions; acute exposure will most likely result in different profiles, especially those derived from laboratory spiking experiments. Isotope ratio data support the hypothesis that the main route of entry into the mussel for the majority of the radionuclides studied is from the water.

  17. Growth-Prediction Model for Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) on Future Optimally Thinned Farm-Ropes in Great Belt (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Riisgård, Hans

    2016-01-01

    A recently developed BioEnergetic Growth (BEG) model for blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), valid for juvenile mussels, has been further developed to an ‘extended model’ and an alternative ‘ad hoc BEG model’ valid for post-metamorphic mussels, where the latter accounts for changing ambient chl a conc...

  18. Microgeographic allozyme differentiation in the hybrid zone of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. and M. edulis L. on the continental European coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, A. S.; Sanjuan, A.

    1997-03-01

    The European Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. and M. edulis L. coexist and hybridize in different proportions in extended areas of the British and Atlantic French coasts. M. galloprovincialis typical allozymes seem to predominate in wave exposed areas, at high levels of attachment and in larger mussels in the British hybrid zone. Mussel samples from exposed and sheltered areas, 200 m apart, and from high and low levels of attachment were collected from a location of the French hybrid zone in 1988 92. Pure M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis populations were also taken as controls. Diagnostic enzyme loci for both Mytilus (EST-D *, LAP-1*, MPI*, ODH*) and AP-1 *, LAP-2* and PGM * loci were studied. The frequencies of the M. galloprovincialis typical alleles were significantly greater in exposed populations than in sheltered samples (e.g. 0.729 to 0.803 vs 0.192 to 0.581 for EST-D *90), and at high level of attachment than at low level for the sheltered area (e.g. 0.581 vs 0.192 for EST-D *90). Putative M. galloprovincialis was more abundant on the exposed coast (0.591 and 0.702) than on the sheltered shore, where it predominated at the high shore but not at the low shore location (0.371 vs 0.045). Significantly positive correlations between shell length and typical M. galloprovincialis compound allele frequencies were found only for populations from exposed areas. Relationships between the Mytilus genetic differentiation and ecological factors are discussed.

  19. Seasonal variation in biomarkers in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)-Implications for environmental monitoring in the Barents Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahrgang, J., E-mail: jasmine.m.nahrgang@uit.no [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Brooks, S.J. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Evenset, A. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Camus, L. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University Centre In Svalbard (UNIS), NO-9171 Longyearbyen (Norway); Jonsson, M.; Smith, T.J. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Lukina, J. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University of Tromso, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, Department of Arctic and Marine Biosciences, NO-9037 Tromso (Norway); Frantzen, M. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Giarratano, E. [Centro Nacional Patagonico (CENPAT-CONICET), AR-9120 Puerto Madryn (Argentina); Renaud, P.E. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University Centre In Svalbard (UNIS), NO-9171 Longyearbyen (Norway)

    2013-02-15

    In the Barents Sea, the limited data on biological relevant indicators and their responses to various anthropogenic stressors have hindered the development of a consistent scientific basis for selecting indicator species and developing practical procedures for environmental monitoring. Accordingly, the main aim of the present study was to develop a common set of baseline values for contaminants and biomarkers in three species, and to identify their strengths and limitations in monitoring of the Barents Sea. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were sampled from a north Norwegian fjord in March, June, September and December 2010. Digestive glands from the bivalve species and liver from Atlantic cod were analysed for biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPX], glutathione-S-transferase activities [GST], lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric reactive substances [TBARS] and total oxyradical scavenging capacity [TOSC]), biotransformation (ethoxyresorufine-O-deethylase activity [EROD]) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability [LMS]). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals in the bivalves and PAH metabolites in fish bile were quantified. Finally, energy reserves (total lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) and electron transport system (ETS) activity in the digestive gland of the bivalves and liver of Atlantic cod provided background information for reproductive cycle and general physiological status of the organisms. Blue mussel and Icelandic scallop showed very similar trends in biological cycle, biomarker expression and seasonality. Biomarker baselines in Atlantic cod showed weaker seasonal variability. However, important biological events may have been undetected due to the large time intervals between sampling occasions. Physiological biomarkers such as energy reserves and ETS activity were recommended as complementary parameters to the

  20. Seasonal variation in biomarkers in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): implications for environmental monitoring in the Barents Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrgang, J; Brooks, S J; Evenset, A; Camus, L; Jonsson, M; Smith, T J; Lukina, J; Frantzen, M; Giarratano, E; Renaud, P E

    2013-02-01

    In the Barents Sea, the limited data on biological relevant indicators and their responses to various anthropogenic stressors have hindered the development of a consistent scientific basis for selecting indicator species and developing practical procedures for environmental monitoring. Accordingly, the main aim of the present study was to develop a common set of baseline values for contaminants and biomarkers in three species, and to identify their strengths and limitations in monitoring of the Barents Sea. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were sampled from a north Norwegian fjord in March, June, September and December 2010. Digestive glands from the bivalve species and liver from Atlantic cod were analysed for biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPX], glutathione-S-transferase activities [GST], lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric reactive substances [TBARS] and total oxyradical scavenging capacity [TOSC]), biotransformation (ethoxyresorufine-O-deethylase activity [EROD]) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability [LMS]). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals in the bivalves and PAH metabolites in fish bile were quantified. Finally, energy reserves (total lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) and electron transport system (ETS) activity in the digestive gland of the bivalves and liver of Atlantic cod provided background information for reproductive cycle and general physiological status of the organisms. Blue mussel and Icelandic scallop showed very similar trends in biological cycle, biomarker expression and seasonality. Biomarker baselines in Atlantic cod showed weaker seasonal variability. However, important biological events may have been undetected due to the large time intervals between sampling occasions. Physiological biomarkers such as energy reserves and ETS activity were recommended as complementary parameters to the

  1. Proteomic Profiling of Cytosolic Glutathione Transferases from Three Bivalve Species: Corbicula fluminea, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Anodonta cygnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspension-feeding bivalves are considered efficient toxin vectors with a relative insensitivity to toxicants compared to other aquatic organisms. This fact highlights the potential role of detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione transferases (GSTs, in this bivalve resistance. Nevertheless, the GST system has not been extensively described in these organisms. In the present study, cytosolic GSTs isoforms (cGST were surveyed in three bivalves with different habitats and life strategies: Corbicula fluminea, Anodonta cygnea and Mytilus galloprovincialis. GSTs were purified by glutathione-agarose affinity chromatography, and the collection of expressed cGST classes of each bivalve were identified using a proteomic approach. All the purified extracts were also characterized kinetically. Results reveal variations in cGST subunits collection (diversity and properties between the three tested bivalves. Using proteomics, four pi-class and two sigma-class GST subunits were identified in M. galloprovincialis. C. fluminea also yielded four pi-class and one sigma-class GST subunits. For A. cygnea, two mu-class and one pi-class GST subunits were identified, these being the first record of GSTs from these freshwater mussels. The affinity purified extracts also show differences regarding enzymatic behavior among species. The variations found in cGST collection and kinetics might justify diverse selective advantages for each bivalve organism.

  2. Spatial variations in biomarkers of Mytilus edulis mussels at four polluted regions spanning the Northern Hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic and social developments have taken place at the expense of the health of the environment, both locally and on a global scale. In an attempt to better understand the large-scale effects of pollution and other stressors like climate change on the health status of Mytilus edulis, mussels were collected during the first two weeks of June 2005 at three sites (one pristine and two affected by pollution) located in each of the regions of the Canadian West Coast, the St. Lawrence estuary, the Atlantic East Coast and the northwestern coast of France, covering a total distance of some 11 000 km. The mussels were analyzed for morphologic integrity (condition factor), gametogenic activity (gonado-somatic and gonad maturation index, vitellogenin(Vtg)-like proteins), energy status (temperature-dependent mitochondrial electron transport activity and gonad lipid stores), defense mechanisms (glutathione S-transferase, metallothioneins, cytochrome P4503A activity and xanthine oxidoreductase-XOR), and tissue damage (lipid peroxidation-LPO and DNA strand breaks). The results showed that data from the reference sites in each region were usually not normally distributed, with discriminant factors reaching the number of regions (i.e. four), except for the biomarkers gonadal lipids, XOR and LPO in digestive gland. The integrated responses of the biomarkers revealed that biomarkers of stress were significantly more pronounced in mussels from the Seine estuary, suggesting that the impacts of pollution are more generalized in this area. Mussels from the Seine estuary and the Atlantic East Coast (Halifax Harbor) responded more strongly for Vtg-like proteins, but was not related to gonad maturation and gonado-somatic indexes, suggesting the presence of environmental estrogens. Moreover, these mussels displayed reduced DNA repair activity and increased LPO. Factorial analyses revealed that energy status, cytochrome P4503A activity and Vtg-like proteins were the most important

  3. Retention of radioactive particles and associated effects in the filter-feeding marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, B.C., E-mail: Ben.Jaeschke@gmail.com [Department of Ecology Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Lind, O.C. [CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Bradshaw, C. [Department of Ecology Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Salbu, B. [CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway)

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive particles are aggregates of radioactive atoms that may contain significant activity concentrations. They have been released into the environment from nuclear weapons tests, and from accidents and effluents associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Aquatic filter-feeders can capture and potentially retain radioactive particles, which could then provide concentrated doses to nearby tissues. This study experimentally investigated the retention and effects of radioactive particles in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Spent fuel particles originating from the Dounreay nuclear establishment, and collected in the field, comprised a U and Al alloy containing fission products such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y. Particles were introduced into mussels in suspension with plankton-food or through implantation in the extrapallial cavity. Of the particles introduced with food, 37% were retained for 70 h, and were found on the siphon or gills, with the notable exception of one particle that was ingested and found in the stomach. Particles not retained seemed to have been actively rejected and expelled by the mussels. The largest and most radioactive particle (estimated dose rate 3.18 ± 0.06 Gy h{sup −1}) induced a significant increase in Comet tail-DNA %. In one case this particle caused a large white mark (suggesting necrosis) in the mantle tissue with a simultaneous increase in micronucleus frequency observed in the haemolymph collected from the muscle, implying that non-targeted effects of radiation were induced by radiation from the retained particle. White marks found in the tissue were attributed to ionising radiation and physical irritation. The results indicate that current methods used for risk assessment, based upon the absorbed dose equivalent limit and estimating the “no-effect dose” are inadequate for radioactive particle exposures. Knowledge is lacking about the ecological implications of radioactive particles released into the environment

  4. Induction of micronuclei in hemocytes of Mytilus edulis and statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrisberg, M. N.; Bilbo, Carl M.; Spliid, Henrik

    1992-01-01

    A genotoxicity test focusing on micronucleus production in the blood cells (hemocytes) of blue mussel M. edulis has been developed as a possible indicator for marine pollution. A linear dose-response relationship was found when M. edulis was exposed to low concentrations (0, 12.5, and 25 mg/liter...

  5. Detection of domoic acid in Mytilus galloprovincialis and Ostrea edulis linked to the presence of Nitzschia bizertensis in Bizerte Lagoon (SW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchouicha-Smida, Donia; Lundholm, Nina; Sahraoui, Inès; Lambert, Christophe; Mabrouk, Hassine Hadj; Hlaili, Asma Sakka

    2015-11-01

    Seasonal variation of DA in bivalves was monitored from August 2008 to March 2009 at a shellfish station in Bizerte Lagoon, one of the most important shellfish areas in Tunisia. At the same time, dynamics of potentially toxic diatoms was studied at six stations in the lagoon. Several diatom strains were isolated, maintained in culture and their identification as well as the toxicity was examined. During the study period, domoic acid (DA) was detected in Tunisia, in both mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis: 0.13-0.86 μg DA g-1 tissue) and oysters (Ostrea edulis: 0.42-1.04 μg DA g-1 tissue). The amount of DA in the two species was below the EU guideline limits for shellfish (20 μg DA g-1). Within the phytoplankton community, potentially toxic diatoms were observed in high densities (104-106 cells l-1). Among the 9 established cultured strains, seven were identified as the recently described species Nitzschia bizertensis sp. nov, which is apparently a commonly occurring species in the Bizerte Lagoon. Among tested five strains of N. bizertensis, four were confirmed to be toxin producers, containing 2-7 × 10-3 pg DA cell-1 during stationary growth phase. Our results indicate for the first time a Nitzschia species, here Nitzschia bizertensis, could be in relation to accumulation of DA in shellfish. Monitoring of DA in phytoplankton and shellfish should be considered for Bizerte Lagoon in order to gain knowledge about the ecology and toxin-production of N. bizertensis and to explore the risk of DA accumulation in the local shellfish industry caused by this species.

  6. CYP1A-immunopositive proteins in bivalves identified as cytoskeletal and major vault proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøsvik, Bjørn Einar; Jonsson, Henrik; Rodríguez-Ortega, Manuel J;

    2006-01-01

    To identify possible CYP1A-immunopositive proteins in bivalves, we used anti-fish CYP1A antibodies combined with one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and found that two of the main CYP1A-immunopositive proteins in digestive gland of Mytilus edulis, were cytoskeletal...

  7. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) growth at various salinity regime determined by a Dynamic Energy Budget model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saurel, Camille; Maar, Marie; Landes, Anja;

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) is a key euryhaline species in coastal areas that has been used in eutrophied water in mitigation cultures to improve water clarity by filtering phytoplankton in excess due to nutrient enrichment. Mussel growth rates depend mainly on key environmental conditions...... such as food supply, temperature and salinity. In the Baltic Sea - highly disturbed eutrophied environment-mussel growth efficiency is limited due to the very low levels of salinity and in area where the salinity is below 8 psu, mussels appear on a dwarf form. The aim of the present study was to incorporate...... the effects of low salinity into an eco-physiological model of blue mussels and to identify areas suitable for cost-effective mussel production for mitigation culture. A standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model was modified with respect to i) the morphological parameters (DW/WW-ratio, shape factor), ii...

  8. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Olenycz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(aanthracene, chrysene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene at 17 sampling sites to assess their relative bioavailabilities in coastal waters around Europe. Because of the temporal differences in PCBs and PAHs concentrations, data were adjusted using Seasonal Variation Coefficients (SVC before making large-scale spatial comparisons. The highest concentrations of PCBs were found near estuaries of large rivers flowing through urban areas and industrial regions. Elevated bioavailabilities of PAHs occurred in the vicinity of large harbors, urban areas, and regions affected by petroleum pollution as well as in some remote locations, which indicated long-range atmospheric deposition.

  9. On the dynamics of the stocks of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Petersen, Sten; Kristensen, Per Sand

    2001-01-01

    As biological basis for the monitoring programme for the commercially exploited stock(s) of mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea, samples of mussels have been collected regularly since 1986, both from sub-tidal and inter- tidal mussel beds. These samples are the basis...... parameters. By applying these in the Beverton & Holt model, estimates of average biomass and annual production (P) of the mussels have been obtained together with possible fisheries yields from the beds. The growth and mortality parameters and the figures for annual production and P/B are compared...... with figures from other investigations. These analyses have been the basis for annual assessments of the mussel stocks, which again are used in the current management of mussel fishery in the Danish Wadden Sea....

  10. Effects of substrate type on growth and mortality of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis ) exposed to the predator Carcinus maenas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rikke; Dolmer, Per

    2002-01-01

    Structure and complexity of the substrate are important habitat characteristics for benthic epifauna. The specific growth and mortality rates and inducible defence characters on medium- sized blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) exposed to shore crabs (Carcinus maenas L.) were examined on three...... different substrate types in combined field and laboratory experiments. The experiments showed that complexity of the substrate increased blue mussel survival significantly, through a decrease in predation pressure. However, increased intraspecific competition for food on the complex substrate resulted...... in significantly lower growth rates of the mussels. Inducible defence characters were also influenced by substrate type. Blue mussels were more affected by predators on the structurally simple substrate, where they developed thicker shells and a larger posterior adductor muscle....

  11. Spatial synchronies in the seasonal occurrence of larvae of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and mussels (Mytilus edulis/galloprovincialis) in European coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippart, Catharina J. M.; Amaral, Ana; Asmus, Ragnhild; van Bleijswijk, Judith; Bremner, Julie; Buchholz, Fred; Cabanellas-Reboredo, Miguel; Catarino, Diana; Cattrijsse, André; Charles, François; Comtet, Thierry; Cunha, Alexandra; Deudero, Salud; Duchêne, Jean-Claude; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Gentil, Franck; Gittenberger, Arjan; Guizien, Katell; Gonçalves, João M.; Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Hendriks, Iris; Hussel, Birgit; Vieira, Raquel Pinheiro; Reijnen, Bastian T.; Sampaio, Iris; Serrao, Ester; Pinto, Isabel Sousa; Thiebaut, Eric; Viard, Frédérique; Zuur, Alain F.

    2012-08-01

    Reproductive cycles of marine invertebrates with complex life histories are considered to be synchronized by water temperature and feeding conditions, which vary with season and latitude. This study analyses seasonal variation in the occurrence of oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and mussel (Mytilus edulis/galloprovincialis) larvae across European coastal waters at a synoptic scale (1000s of km) using standardised methods for sampling and molecular analyses. We tested a series of hypotheses to explain the observed seasonal patterns of occurrence of bivalve larvae at 12 European stations (located between 37°N and 60°N and 27°W and 18°E). These hypotheses included a model that stated that there was no synchronisation in seasonality of larval presence at all between the locations (null hypothesis), a model that assumed that there was one common seasonality pattern for all stations within Europe, and various models that supposed that the variation in seasonality could be grouped according to specific spatial scales (i.e., latitude, large marine ecosystems and ecoregions), taxonomic groups, or several combinations of these factors. For oysters, the best models explaining the presence/absence of larvae in European coastal waters were (1) the model that assumed one common seasonal pattern, and (2) the one that, in addition to this common pattern, assumed an enhanced probability of occurrence from south to north. The third best model for oysters, with less empirical support than the first two, stated that oysters reproduced later in the south than in the north. For mussels, the best models explaining the seasonality in occurrence of larvae were (1) the model that assumed four underlying trends related to large marine ecosystems, and (2) the one that assumed one common seasonal pattern for larvae occurrence throughout Europe. Such synchronies in larval occurrences suggest that environmental conditions relevant to bivalve larval survival are more or less similar at large

  12. Karyotypic diversification in Mytilus mussels (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) inferred from chromosomal mapping of rRNA and histone gene clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-García, Concepción; Morán, Paloma; Pasantes, Juan J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mussels of the genus Mytilus present morphologically similar karyotypes that are presumably conserved. The absence of chromosome painting probes in bivalves makes difficult verifying this hypothesis. In this context, we comparatively mapped ribosomal RNA and histone gene families on the chromosomes of Mytilus edulis, M. galloprovincialis, M. trossulus and M. californianus by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Results: Major rRNA, core and linker histone gene clusters mapped...

  13. Food competition between Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus edulis in the Oosterschelde estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehouwer, P.P.

    2006-01-01

    The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is an invasive species in the Oosterschelde estuary. It was originally brought there to replace the native flat oyster Ostrea edulis which had been greatly reduced in numbers due to diseases and parasites. Because of some hot summers the pacific oyster could sp

  14. Immunomodulation by different types of N-oxides in the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Ciacci

    Full Text Available The potential toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs for humans and the environment represents an emerging issue. Since the aquatic environment represents the ultimate sink for NP deposition, the development of suitable assays is needed to evaluate the potential impact of NPs on aquatic biota. The immune system is a sensitive target for NPs, and conservation of innate immunity represents an useful basis for studying common biological responses to NPs. Suspension-feeding invertebrates, such as bivalves, are particularly at risk to NP exposure, since they have extremely developed systems for uptake of nano and microscale particles integral to intracellular digestion and cellular immunity. Evaluation of the effects of NPs on functional parameters of bivalve immunocytes, the hemocytes, may help understanding the major toxic mechanisms and modes of actions that could be relevant for different NP types in aquatic organisms.In this work, a battery of assays was applied to the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to compare the in vitro effects of different n-oxides (n-TiO(2, n-SiO(2, n-ZnO, n-CeO(2 chosen on the basis of their commercial and environmental relevance. Physico-chemical characterization of both primary particles and NP suspensions in artificial sea water-ASW was performed. Hemocyte lysosomal and mitochondrial parameters, oxyradical and nitric oxide production, phagocytic activity, as well as NP uptake, were evaluated. The results show that different n-oxides rapidly elicited differential responses hemocytes in relation to their chemical properties, concentration, behavior in sea water, and interactions with subcellular compartments. These represent the most extensive data so far available on the effects of NPs in the cells of aquatic organisms. The results indicate that Mytilus hemocytes can be utilized as a suitable model for screening the potential effects of NPs in the cells of aquatic invertebrates, and may

  15. Detoxification and protein quality control markers in the mussel Mytilus edulis (Linnaeus) exposed to crude oil: Salinity-induced modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Liudmila; Sukhovskaya, Irina; Borvinskaya, Ekaterina; Krupnova, Marina; Kantserova, Nadezda; Bakhmet, Igor'; Nemova, Nina

    2015-12-01

    Marine and coastal ecosystems are influenced by oil from chronic contamination or sporadic oil spills. An oil spill was simulated in an aquarium-based experiment designed to reproduce interactions of crude oil with inert environmental components, particularly adhesion on shore gravel and dissolution in sea water. Total experimental oil concentrations were in the range of comparable hydrocarbon concentrations following an oil spill. Furthermore, the possible interaction of a chemical (anthropogenic) stressor, such as oil PAHs, and a "natural" stressor like desalination, was simulated. In order to assess the biological effects of crude oil contamination and desalination (each individually and in combination) on the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L., biochemical responses were estimated including: detoxification capacity by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, and protein quality control by autophagy-related proteases cathepsin B (CatB), cathepsin D (CatD), and calcium-dependent calpain-like proteases. Oil treatment stimulated defense system response in the mussels with primary effects on GST and protease-mediated reactions such as the activation of CatB, CatD, and calpains. Most of biomarkers responded to oil in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additional environmental stress, such as desalination, promoted the oil-induced activation of GST and CatD while resulting in a delay or impairement of the defense response to oil by GSH and proteases CatB and calpains. Thus, biomarker data shows that combined effects of oil compounds and desalination can be realized in both a synergistic and an antagonistic manner. The evaluated interaction between oil pollution effects and sub-optimal salinity on M. edulis indicates the potential risk of maladaptation to the biota of estuaries.

  16. Growth-Prediction Model for Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis on Future Optimally Thinned Farm-Ropes in Great Belt (Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul S. Larsen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed BioEnergetic Growth (BEG model for blue mussels (Mytilus edulis, valid for juvenile mussels, has been further developed to an ‘extended model’ and an alternative ‘ad hoc BEG model’ valid for post-metamorphic mussels, where the latter accounts for changing ambient chl a concentration. It was used to predict the growth of M. edulis on optimally thinned farm-ropes in Great Belt (Denmark, from newly settled post-metamorphic mussels of an initial shell size of 0.8 mm to marketable juvenile 30–35 mm ‘mini-mussels’. Such mussels will presumably in the near future be introduced as a new Danish, smaller-sized consumer product. Field data for actual growth (from Day 0 = 14 June 2011 showed that size of ‘mini-mussel’ was reached on Day 109 (Oct 1 and length 38 mm on Day 178 (Dec 9 while the corresponding predictions using the extended model were Day 121 (Oct 13 and Day 159 (Nov 20. Similar results were obtained by use of the ad hoc BEG model which also demonstrated the sensitivity of growth prediction to levels of chl a concentration, but less to temperature. The results suggest that it is possible (when the conditions are optimal, i.e., no intraspecific competition ensured by sufficient thinning to produce ‘mini-mussels’ in Great Belt during one season, but not the usual marketable 45-mm mussels. We suggest that the prediction model may be used as a practical instrument to evaluate to what degree the actual growth of mussels on farm ropes due to intraspecific competition may deviate from the potential (optimal growth under specified chl a and temperature conditions, and this implies that the effect of thinning to optimize the individual growth by eliminating intraspecific competition can be rationally evaluated.

  17. A new approach for the assessment of stochastic variation: analysis of behavioural response in blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajus, D. L.; Sukhotin, A. A.

    1998-06-01

    One of the most effective techniques for evaluating stress is the analysis of developmental stability, measured by stochastic variation based particularly on fluctuating asymmetry, i.e. a variance in random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry. However, the application of morphological methods is only possible when an organism lives under testing conditions during a significant part of its ontogenesis. Contrary to morphological characters, behavior can change very fast. Consequently, methods based on behavioural characters may have advantages over more traditional approaches. In this study we describe the technique of assessing stochastic variation, using not morphological, but behavioural characters. To measure stochastic variation of behavioural response, we assessed the stability of the isolation reaction of blue mussel Mytilus edulis at regular changes of salinity. With increasing temperature from +12°C to +20°C stochastic variation of the isolation reaction increased, which is a common response to change of environmental conditions. In this way, we have developed a method of assessing stochastic variation of behavioural response in molluscs. This method may find a great range of applications, because its usage does not require keeping animals in tested conditions for a long time.

  18. Natural products for mitigation of fouling by the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, in marine water intake systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G.T.; Zheng, D. [Marine Sciences Research Center, Stoney Brook, NY (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In search of natural antifouling products, sedentary organisms - free of epibiotic communities - were collected from the inter- and subtidal zones of Long Island Sound. Crude solvent extracts from these specimens were subjected to 2 - 4 bioassays to screen for: (1) microbila sensitivity, (2) response of mussel byssal thread secretion using Mytilus edulis, (3) mussel larval settlement response, and (4) bacterial attachment response. Of the 86 extracts derived from 24 organisms, six very promising extracts have been isolated from local algae and invertebrates that exhibit strong antifouling activity against the blue mussel, the major biofouler in northeastern American coastal utilities. The most promising extracts exhibiting strong inhibition of microbial growth and settlement. The process of identification of the active agent through further purification and subsequent bioassays is ongoing. A model hybrid coating, incorporating an extract from Fucuc filiformis into a silicon polymer-based matrix (EXTRUDE{sup {trademark}}), effectively prevented byssal thread attachment by juvenile blue mussels and killed specimens close to treated areas within 10 days.

  19. Differential patterns of male and female mtDNA exchange across the Atlantic Ocean in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riginos, Cynthia; Hickerson, Michael J; Henzler, Christine M; Cunningham, Clifford W

    2004-11-01

    Comparisons among loci with differing modes of inheritance can reveal unexpected aspects of population history. We employ a multilocus approach to ask whether two types of independently assorting mitochondrial DNAs (maternally and paternally inherited: F- and M-mtDNA) and a nuclear locus (ITS) yield concordant estimates of gene flow and population divergence. The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is distributed on both North American and European coastlines and these populations are separated by the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Gene flow across the Atlantic Ocean differs among loci, with F-mtDNA and ITS showing an imprint of some genetic interchange and M-mtDNA showing no evidence for gene flow. Gene flow of F-mtDNA and ITS causes trans-Atlantic population divergence times to be greatly underestimated for these loci, although a single trans-Atlantic population divergence time (1.2 MYA) can be accommodated by considering all three loci in combination in a coalescent framework. The apparent lack of gene flow for M-mtDNA is not readily explained by different dispersal capacities of male and female mussels. A genetic barrier to M-mtDNA exchange between North American and European mussel populations is likely to explain the observed pattern, perhaps associated with the double uniparental system of mitochondrial DNA inheritance.

  20. Response of Mytilus edulis to enhanced phytoplankton availibility by controlled upwelling in an oligographic fjord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strohmeier, T.; Strand, Ø.; Alunno-Bruscia, M.; Duinker, A.; Rosland, R.; Jansen, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The controlled upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water in oligotrophic coastal regions has been proposed as a means of increasing phytoplankton and, subsequently, bivalve aquaculture production. This was tested as part of a large-scale upwelling experiment in an oligotrophic environment (Lysefjord, No

  1. Interactions between Mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes and the bivalve pathogens Vibrio aestuarianus 01/032 and Vibrio splendidus LGP32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, T; Fabbri, R; Cortese, K; Smerilli, A; Ciacci, C; Grande, C; Vezzulli, L; Pruzzo, C; Canesi, L

    2013-12-01

    Marine bivalves can accumulate large numbers of bacteria, in particular Vibrio species, whose persistence in bivalve tissues largely depends on their sensitivity to the bactericidal activity of circulating hemocytes and hemolymph soluble factors. The interactions between vibrios and hemolymph have been investigated, in particular in bivalve species susceptible to infection by certain Vibrio spp. and strains. In this work, the effects of two bivalve pathogens, Vibrio splendidus LGP32 (V.s.) and Vibrio aestuarianus 01/032 (V.a.), isolated from oyster mortality outbreaks, on the hemocytes of Mytilus galloprovincialis were investigated. In vitro, V.s., but not V.a., induced a dramatic decrease in lysosomal membrane stability-LMS in the hemocytes; both vibrios induced a moderate lysozyme release, with V.s. > V.a.. The V.s.-induced decrease in LMS was mediated by activation of PI-3Kinase, as shown by use of different kinase inhibitors. TEM analysis showed rapid internalization of both vibrios; however, V.s. lead to cellular and lysosomal damage and was able to survive within the hemocytes, whereas significant killing of V.a. was observed. In vivo, in mussels challenged with either vibrio and sampled at 6, 24 and 96 h post-injection, transient decreases in hemocyte LMS and progressive increases in serum lysozyme activity were observed, with V.s. > V.a.. Moreover, whereas V.a. was efficiently cleared from hemolymph, V.s. showed significant growth, that was maximal at 24 h p.i. when lowest LMS values were recorded in the hemocytes. Both vibrios also induced significant decreases in LMS in the digestive gland, again with V.s. > V.a.. The results indicate distinct interactions between mussel hemocytes and the two vibrio strains tested. The effects of V.s. may be due to the capacity of this strain to interfere with the signaling pathways involved in hemocyte function, thus escaping the bactericidal activity of the host cell, as observed for certain mammalian pathogens

  2. Adaptation of the bivalve embryotoxicity assay for the high throughput screening of emerging contaminants in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Rita; Montagna, Michele; Balbi, Teresa; Raffo, Enrico; Palumbo, Franca; Canesi, Laura

    2014-08-01

    Emerging contaminants (such as Endocrine disrupting chemicals-EDCs, brominated and perfluorinated compounds-BFRs and PFCs, pharmaceuticals) are chemicals currently not included in regulatory monitoring programs, and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood. Assessment of ecosystem health with respect to these chemicals is of particular concern also in the marine environment: in this respect, data on the effects on early life stages are important to establish the sensitivity of marine species. In this work, the acute (48 h) bivalve embryo toxicity test was applied for screening the developmental effects of different emerging contaminants in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The assay was adapted to 96-microwell plates, and standardized in order to obtain to normal D-shaped larvae with acceptability of test results based on negative control and positive control (copper) comparable with those reported in literature for Mytilus spp. The effects of different model compounds representative of EDCs (Nonylphenol-NP and Bisphenol A-BPA), BFRs (Tetrabromobisphenol A-TBBPA), PFCs (perfluorooctanoid acid-PFOA and perfluorooctane sulphonate-PFOAS) and pharmaceuticals (Ibuprofen-IBU, Diclofenac-DCF, Bezafibrate-BEZA) in a wide concentration range (0.01-0.1-1-10-100-1000 μg/L) were evaluated. The assay proved as a sensitive tool for high throughput screening of emerging contaminants in a marine species, leading to production of significant amounts of data that may be useful for regulatory purposes. PMID:25081847

  3. Adaptation of the bivalve embryotoxicity assay for the high throughput screening of emerging contaminants in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Rita; Montagna, Michele; Balbi, Teresa; Raffo, Enrico; Palumbo, Franca; Canesi, Laura

    2014-08-01

    Emerging contaminants (such as Endocrine disrupting chemicals-EDCs, brominated and perfluorinated compounds-BFRs and PFCs, pharmaceuticals) are chemicals currently not included in regulatory monitoring programs, and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood. Assessment of ecosystem health with respect to these chemicals is of particular concern also in the marine environment: in this respect, data on the effects on early life stages are important to establish the sensitivity of marine species. In this work, the acute (48 h) bivalve embryo toxicity test was applied for screening the developmental effects of different emerging contaminants in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The assay was adapted to 96-microwell plates, and standardized in order to obtain to normal D-shaped larvae with acceptability of test results based on negative control and positive control (copper) comparable with those reported in literature for Mytilus spp. The effects of different model compounds representative of EDCs (Nonylphenol-NP and Bisphenol A-BPA), BFRs (Tetrabromobisphenol A-TBBPA), PFCs (perfluorooctanoid acid-PFOA and perfluorooctane sulphonate-PFOAS) and pharmaceuticals (Ibuprofen-IBU, Diclofenac-DCF, Bezafibrate-BEZA) in a wide concentration range (0.01-0.1-1-10-100-1000 μg/L) were evaluated. The assay proved as a sensitive tool for high throughput screening of emerging contaminants in a marine species, leading to production of significant amounts of data that may be useful for regulatory purposes.

  4. The suitability of Mytilus edulis as proxy archive and its response to ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Past climate changes can be used as indicators of future scenarios, however past climatic changes can not be directly observed. Therefore, the reconstruction of past abiotic conditions can approximated using chemical or isotopic proxies. These proxies can be measured in natural archives (e.g. bivalve shells and coral skeletons). One aspect of current climate change is the acidification of the oceans, a phenomenon caused by the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 and a resulting shift in the m...

  5. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: Archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E.A.A.; Blicher, M.E.; Mortensen, J.;

    2012-01-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models...... these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We...... a south-north gradient, and by sampling shells from raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from prehistoric settlements in Greenland....

  6. Response of Mytilus edulis to enhanced phytoplankton availability by controlled upwelling in an oligotrophic fjord

    OpenAIRE

    Strohmeier, Tore; Strand, Oivind; ALUNNO-BRUSCIA, Marianne; Duinker, Arne; Rosland, Rune; Aure, Jan; Erga, Svein R.; Naustvoll, Lars J.; Jansen, Henrice M.; Cranford, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    The controlled upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water in oligotrophic coastal regions has been proposed as a means of increasing phytoplankton and, subsequently, bivalve aquaculture production. This was tested as part of a large-scale upwelling experiment in an oligotrophic environment (Lysefjord, Norway). The mean chlorophyll a concentration in the upwelling area was consistently higher than at the control site (mean ± SD: 3.3 ± 1.9 and 1.5 ± 0.6 mg Chl a m-3, respectively) during the 4 mo of...

  7. Redox proteomic analysis of mytilus edulis gills: effects of the pharmaceutical diclofenac on a non-target organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Siti Nur Tahirah; Coelho, Ana Varela; Sheehan, David

    2015-10-01

    Veterinary and human pharmaceuticals are an emerging category of chemical pollutants with potential to cause serious toxicity to non-target organisms. Filter-feeding aquatic organisms such as mussels are especially threatened. In this study, the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was exposed to two doses (0.2 mg/L and 1 mg/L) of the anti-inflammatory diclofenac. Effects on the gill, the principal feeding organ of mussels, were investigated. It was noted that, while no effect was evident on gill glutathione transferase or catalase activities, there was a tissue-specific increase in glutathione reductase activity and reduction in total protein thiol groups. Two dimensional electrophoresis was performed and some affected proteins identified by in-gel tryptic digestion and peptide mass fingerprinting. Of these, four unique proteins (caspase 3/7-4, heat-shock cognate protein 70, a predicted enolase-like protein, arginine kinase) were found to be oxidized whilst eight unique proteins (β-tubulin, actin, isocitrate dehydrogenase, arginine kinase, heavy metal-binding HIP, cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, proteasome subunit alpha type 2, Mg: bb02e05 (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and superoxide dismutase) were found to have altered abundance. In addition, bioinformatic analysis suggested putative identities for six hypothetical proteins which either were oxidized or decreased in abundance. These were; 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein precursor, α-enolase, calreticulin, mitochondrial H + -ATPase, palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 and initiation factor 5a. It is concluded that diclofenac causes significant oxidative stress to gills and that this affects key structural, metabolic and stress-response proteins.

  8. Modeling and predicting the growth of the mussel, Mytilus edulis: implications for planning of aquaculture and eutrophication mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Per; Lindegarth, Susanne; Lindegarth, Mats

    2015-12-01

    The increased pressure on the marine ecosystems highlights the need for policies and integrated approaches for sustainable management of coastal areas. Spatial planning based on geographic information of human activities, ecological structures and functions, and their associated goods and services is a fundamental component in this context. Here, we evaluate the potential of predictive modeling to provide spatial data on one ecosystem function, mussel growth for use in such processes. We developed a methodology based on statistical modeling, spatial prediction, and mapping for the relative growth of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. We evaluated the performance of different modeling techniques and classification schemes using empirical measurements of growth from 144 sampling sites and data on biological, chemical, and physical predictors. Following comparisons of the different techniques and schemes, we developed random forest models to predict growth along the Swedish west coast. Implemented into GIS the best model produced in this study predicts that low, intermediate, and high growth rates can be expected in 53%, 32%, and 15% of modeled area, respectively. The results of this study also suggest that the nature and quality of predictor data hold the key to improving the predictive power of models. On a more general note, this study exemplifies a feasible approach based on measuring, modeling, and mapping for obtaining scientifically based spatial information on ecosystem functions and services affected by a complex set of factors. Such information is fundamental for maritime spatial planning and ecosystem-based management and its importance is likely to increase in the future. Because of its close link to nutrient assimilation and production yield, site-specific information of soft tissue growth such as the map of predicted growth rate developed in this study can be used as a tool for optimizing actions aimed at mitigating eutrophication and aquaculture

  9. Modeling and predicting the growth of the mussel, Mytilus edulis: implications for planning of aquaculture and eutrophication mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Per; Lindegarth, Susanne; Lindegarth, Mats

    2015-12-01

    The increased pressure on the marine ecosystems highlights the need for policies and integrated approaches for sustainable management of coastal areas. Spatial planning based on geographic information of human activities, ecological structures and functions, and their associated goods and services is a fundamental component in this context. Here, we evaluate the potential of predictive modeling to provide spatial data on one ecosystem function, mussel growth for use in such processes. We developed a methodology based on statistical modeling, spatial prediction, and mapping for the relative growth of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. We evaluated the performance of different modeling techniques and classification schemes using empirical measurements of growth from 144 sampling sites and data on biological, chemical, and physical predictors. Following comparisons of the different techniques and schemes, we developed random forest models to predict growth along the Swedish west coast. Implemented into GIS the best model produced in this study predicts that low, intermediate, and high growth rates can be expected in 53%, 32%, and 15% of modeled area, respectively. The results of this study also suggest that the nature and quality of predictor data hold the key to improving the predictive power of models. On a more general note, this study exemplifies a feasible approach based on measuring, modeling, and mapping for obtaining scientifically based spatial information on ecosystem functions and services affected by a complex set of factors. Such information is fundamental for maritime spatial planning and ecosystem-based management and its importance is likely to increase in the future. Because of its close link to nutrient assimilation and production yield, site-specific information of soft tissue growth such as the map of predicted growth rate developed in this study can be used as a tool for optimizing actions aimed at mitigating eutrophication and aquaculture

  10. Evidence for immunomodulation and apoptotic processes induced by cationic polystyrene nanoparticles in the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, L; Ciacci, C; Bergami, E; Monopoli, M P; Dawson, K A; Papa, S; Canonico, B; Corsi, I

    2015-10-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles can reach the marine environment from different sources as weathering of plastic debris and nanowaste. Nevertheless, few data are available on their fate and impact on marine biota. Polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) can be considered as a model for studying the effects of nanoplastics in marine organisms: recent data on amino-modified PS NPs (PS-NH2) toxicity in sea urchin embryos underlined that marine invertebrates can be biological targets of nanoplastics. Cationic PS NPs have been shown to be toxic to mammalian cells, where they can induce apoptotic processes; however, no information is available on their effects and mechanisms of action in the cells of marine organisms. In this work, the effects of 50 nm PS-NH2 were investigated in the hemocytes of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Hemocytes were exposed to different concentrations (1, 5, 50 μg/ml) of PS-NH2 suspension in ASW. Clear signs of cytoxicity were evident only at the highest concentrations (50 μg/ml). On the other hand, a dose dependent decrease in phagocytic activity and increase in lysozyme activity were observed. PS-NH2 NPs also stimulated increase in extracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) and NO (nitric oxide) production, with maximal effects at lower concentrations. Moreover, at the highest concentration tested, PS-NH2 NPs induced apoptotic process, as evaluated by Flow cytometry (Annexin V binding and mitochondrial parameters). The results demonstrate that in marine invertebrates the immune function can represent a significant target for PS-NPs. Moreover, in Mytilus hemocytes, PS-NH2 NPs can act through mechanisms similar to those observed in mammalian cells. Further research is necessary on specific mechanisms of toxicity and cellular uptake of nanoplastics in order to assess their impact on marine biota. PMID:26115607

  11. Effect of acidic electrolyzed water-induced bacterial inhibition and injury in live clam (Venerupis philippinarum) and mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M; Al-Holy, Murad A; Shiroodi, Setareh Ghorban; Ovissipour, Mahmoudreza; Govindan, Byju N; Al-Alami, Nivin; Sablani, Shyam S; Rasco, Barbara

    2016-08-16

    The effect of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) on inactivating Escherichia coli O104:H4, Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Campylobacter jejuni in laboratory contaminated live clam (Venerupis philippinarum) and mussel (Mytilus edulis) was investigated. The initial levels of bacterial contamination were: in clam 4.9 to 5.7log10CFU/g, and in mussel 5.1 to 5.5log10CFU/g. Two types of AEW were used for treatment time intervals of 1 and 2h: strong (SAEW) with an available chlorine concentration (ACC) of 20mg/L, pH=3.1, and an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of 1150mV, and weak (WAEW) at ACC of 10mg/L, pH=3.55 and ORP of 950mV. SAEW and WAEW exhibited significant inhibitory activity against inoculated bacteria in both shellfish species with significant differences compared to saline solutions treatments (1-2% NaCl) and untreated controls (0h). SAEW showed the largest inhibitory activity, the extent of reduction (log10CFU/g) ranged from 1.4-1.7 for E. coli O104:H4; 1.0-1.6 for L. monocytogenes; 1.3-1.6 for A. hydrophila; 1.0-1.5 for V. parahaemolyticus; and 1.5-2.2 for C. jejuni in both types of shellfish. In comparison, significantly (Pmonocytogenes; 0.6-1.3 for A. hydrophila; 0.7-1.3 for V. parahaemolyticus; and 0.8-1.9 for C. jejuni in both types of shellfish. Among all bacterial strains examined in this study, AEW induced less bacterial injury (~0.1-1.0log10CFU/g) and more inactivation effect. This study revealed that AEW (10-20mg/L ACC) could be used to reduce bacterial contamination in live clam and mussel, which may help control possible unhygienic practices during production and processing of shellfish without apparent changes in the quality of the shellfish. PMID:27208583

  12. Disturbance of eelgrass Zostera marina by commercial mussel Mytilus edulis harvesting in Maine: dragging impacts and habitat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckles, H.A.; Short, F.T.; Barker, S.; Kopp, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of commercial harvest of blue mussels Mytilus edulis on eelgrass Zostera marina L. in Maquoit Bay, Maine, USA, at a hierarchy of scales. We used aerial photography, underwater video, and eelgrass population- and shoot-based measurements to quantify dragging impacts within 4 sites that had been disturbed at different times over an approximate 7 yr interval, and to project eelgrass meadow recovery rates. Dragging had disturbed 10% of the eelgrass cover in Maquoit Bay, with dragged sites ranging from 3.4 to 31.8 ha in size. Dragging removed above- and below-ground plant material from the majority of the bottom in the disturbed sites. One year following dragging, eelgrass shoot density, shoot height and total biomass of disturbed sites averaged respectively 2 to 3%, 46 to 61% and < 1% that of the reference sites. Substantial differences in eelgrass biomass persisted between disturbed and reference sites up to 7 yr after dragging. Dragging did not affect physical characteristics of the sediment. The pattern and rate of eelgrass bed recovery depended strongly on initial dragging intensity; areas of relatively light dragging with many remnant eelgrass patches (i.e. patches that were missed by the mussel dredge) showed considerable revegetation in 1 yr. However, by developing recovery trajectories from measurements at sites disturbed in different years, we projected that it would require a mean of 10.6 yr for recovery of eelgrass shoot density within the areas of intense dragging characterizing most of the disturbed sites. A spatial simulation model based on measured rates of lateral patch-expansion (mean 12.5 cm yr(-1)) and new-patch recruitment (mean 0.19 patches m(-2) yr(-1)) yielded a mean bed recovery time of 9 to 11 yr following dragging, depending on initial degree of plant removal. Model simulations suggested that with favorable environmental conditions, eelgrass beds might recover from dragging disturbance in 6 yr; conversely, recovery under

  13. Biomonitoring of mercury pollution in a wetland near Ravenna, Italy by translocated bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattani, O.; Fabbri, D.; Salvati, M.; Trombini, C.; Vassura, I.

    1999-08-01

    An active biomonitoring experiment using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) was performed in Pialassa Baiona, a mercury-polluted coastal wetland near Ravenna, Italy. Three stations (A, B, and C) were selected along the south to north axis. Following a 52-d field exposure, organisms transplanted in the southernmost polluted area (station A) showed mean mercury concentration values of 660 ng/g (dry weight), 4.4 times the initial background level, and were still accumulating mercury. Mussels in both the central area (station B) and the northern area (station C) seemed to reach a steady state with mean mercury concentration values of 323 and 412 ng/g, respectively. This field experiment is the first study carried out in the Ravenna wetlands to evaluate mercury bioavailability in this environment. Finally, the efficiency of the population of Mytilus galloprovincialis selected for the field experiment as mercury bioaccumulators was tested in a laboratory experiment that revealed that up to 135 {micro}g/g (dry weight) could be reached after 77 d of exposure to mercury-polluted water.

  14. Survey of total and inorganic arsenic content in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from Norwegian fiords: Revelation of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kåre

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the findings of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic in samples of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). A total of 175 pooled samples of blue mussels from various locations along the Norwegian coastline were analyzed for their content of total arsenic and inorganic...... arsenic. Total arsenic was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) following microwave-assisted acidic digestion of the samples. Inorganic arsenic was determined using an anion-exchange HPLC-ICPMS method following microwave-assisted alkaline solubilization of the samples....... For the majority of the samples (78%) the concentration of total arsenic was below 3 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and inorganic arsenic constituted...

  15. Major and minor arsenic compounds accounting for the total urinary excretion of arsenic following intake of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis): A controlled human study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, M.; Ydersbond, T.A.; Ulven, S.M.;

    2012-01-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) accumulate and biotransform arsenic (As) to a larger variety of arsenicals than most seafood. Eight volunteers ingested a test meal consisting of 150g blue mussel (680μg As), followed by 72h with an identical, low As controlled diet and full urine sampling. We provide...... a complete speciation, with individual patterns, of urinary As excretion. Total As (tAs) urinary excretion was 328±47μg, whereof arsenobetaine (AB) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) accounted for 66% and 21%, respectively. Fifteen minor urinary arsenicals were quantified with inductively coupled plasma mass...... spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled to reverse-phase, anion and cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Thio-arsenicals and non-thio minor arsenicals (including inorganic As (iAs) and methylarsonate (MA)) contributed 10% and 7% of the total sum of species excretion, respectively, but there were...

  16. Effect of seawater desalination and oil pollution on the lipid composition of blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from the White Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokina, N N; Bakhmet, I N; Shklyarevich, G A; Nemova, N N

    2014-12-01

    A study on the effect oil pollution under normal and reduced salinity had on blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from the White Sea in an aquarium-based experiment and in the natural habitat revealed a change in gill total lipids as a compensatory response. The cholesterol concentration and the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio in gills were found to reflect the impact of the environmental factors (oil pollution and desalination), and evidence adaptive changes in the cell membrane structure. An elevated content of storage lipids (chiefly triacylglycerols) in the mussels in the aquarium experiment indicates, first of all, the uptake and accumulation of oil products in gill cells under both normal and reduced seawater salinity, while high triacylglycerols level in gill littoral mussels from 'control' biotope in the Gulf of Kandalaksha is primarily associated with the mussel׳s pre-spawning period.

  17. Heavy metal concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress in native mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) from Beagle Channel coast (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Claudia A; Giarratano, Erica; Amin, Oscar A; Comoglio, Laura I

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of oxidative stress biomarkers of pollution in native mussels Mytilus edulis chilensis from the Beagle Channel. Spatial and seasonal variations of catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and lipid peroxidation in gills and digestive gland were analyzed in relation to environmental parameters, heavy metals in sediment and in tissue. Four sites with anthropogenic impact and a control site were selected and monitored during the four seasons of 2007. We found significant differences among sites in concentrations of dissolved nutrients and heavy metals in sediments, with the highest values recorded at sites with anthropogenic pressure. Different patterns were observed between concentrations of metals in tissues and in sediments suggesting differences in bioavailability. There were also significant differences in biomarker responses among sites, despite the strong seasonal variability. Our results showed relatively moderate levels of pollution in the study area as a result of urban influences. PMID:21704346

  18. Growth of farmed blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Norwegian coastal area; comparison of food proxies by DEB modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handå, Aleksander; Alver, Morten; Edvardsen, Christian Vik; Halstensen, Stein; Olsen, Anders Johny; Øie, Gunvor; Reitan, Kjell Inge; Olsen, Yngvar; Reinertsen, Helge

    2011-11-01

    Seston variables and growth of the blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis L.) were measured during the growth season from March to October in three suspended longline farms in Central Norway; one in the inner part of Åfjorden (63° 56' N, 10° 11' E) and two in Inner and Outer Koet, respectively (63° 49' N, 9° 42' and 47' E). Four seston variables were used as alternative input values in a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model to compare their suitability as food proxies for predicting mussel growth: 1; total particulate matter (TPM), 2; particulate organic matter (POM), 3; organic content (OC) and 4; chlorophyll a (chl a). Mean TPM and POM measured 6.1 and 1.9 mg L - 1 in Åfjorden, 10.3 and 4.2 mg L - 1 in Inner Koet, and 10.5 and 4.6 mg L - 1 in Outer Koet, respectively, resulting in a mean OC of 32, 41 and 44% in Åfjorden and Inner and Outer Koet, respectively. Mean chl a measured 1.6 μg L - 1 in Åfjorden, 3.1 μg L - 1 in Inner Koet, and 1.6 μg L - 1 in Outer Koet. Average length growth was 0.20% day - 1 in medium sized mussels (24-36 mm) in Åfjorden and 0.08% day - 1 in large mussels (40-55 mm) in Inner and Outer Koet. Mean standardized soft tissue dry weight ranged between 250 and 390 mg in Åfjorden, 600 and 1175 in Inner Koet, and 600 and 960 mg in Outer Koet, and showed a seasonal pattern independent of growth in length with scattered spawnings. The model showed the best match for a single criterion for growth in both length and soft tissue dry weight for different food proxies depending on location. TPM gave the best match in Åfjorden, while chl a and POM gave the best match in Inner and Outer Koet, respectively. For Åfjorden, growth in length decreased markedly at the end of the sampling period, and this decrease was not reproduced by the model for any of the food proxies. For Inner and Outer Koet, agreement between measured and modeled length was quite good for the optimal choices of food proxy, with clear variations between the proxies for both farms. The

  19. Bioenergetic model predictions of actual growth and allometric transitions during ontogeny of juvenile blue mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Lundgreen, Kim; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    on shell length from cage-growth of mussels in the brackish Baltic Sea support the present correlations. It is argued that the allometric transitions that take place around W ≈ 10 mg and L ≈ 10 mm during the ontogeny of M. edulis is most likely universal and not restricted to first year growth of juvenile...

  20. Light indirectly mediates bivalve habitat modification and impacts on seagrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castorani, Max Christopher Nicholas; Glud, Ronnie N.; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald;

    2015-01-01

    and subsequent impacts on seagrasses by shifting net effects between alleviation of nutrient stress and intensification of sulfide stress. To test this hypothesis, manipulations of light availability and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) abundance were made in eelgrass (Zostera marina) mesocosms and biogeochemical......, but eelgrass can resist harm from shortterm stress, even during light limitation. These findings suggest that while small-scale bivalve impacts on seagrasses may be variable in oligotrophic estuaries, they have the potential to be negative in eutrophic systems, which are increasing globally. ©...

  1. Annual variation in the levels of transcripts of sex-specific genes in the mantle of the common mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Anantharaman

    Full Text Available Mytilus species are used as sentinels for the assessment of environmental health but sex or stage in the reproduction cycle is rarely considered even though both parameters are likely to influence responses to pollution. We have validated the use of a qPCR assay for sex identification and related the levels of transcripts to the reproductive cycle. A temporal study of mantle of Mytilus edulis found transcripts of male-specific vitelline coat lysin (VCL and female-specific vitelline envelope receptor for lysin (VERL could identify sex over a complete year. The levels of VCL/VERL were proportional to the numbers of sperm/ova and are indicative of the stage of the reproductive cycle. Maximal levels of VCL and VERL were found in February 2009 declining to minima between July - August before increasing and re-attaining a peak in February 2010. Water temperature may influence these transitions since they coincide with minimal water temperature in February and maximal temperature in August. An identical pattern of variation was found for a cryptic female-specific transcript (H5 but a very different pattern was observed for oestrogen receptor 2 (ER2. ER2 varied in a sex-specific way with male > female for most of the cycle, with a female maxima in July and a male maxima in December. Using artificially spawned animals, the transcripts for VCL, VERL and H5 were shown to be present in gametes and thus their disappearance from mantle is indicative of spawning. VCL and VERL are present at equivalent levels in February and July-August but during gametogenesis (August to January and spawning (March to June VCL is present at lower relative amounts than VERL. This may indicate sex-specific control mechanisms for these processes and highlight a potential pressure point leading to reduced reproductive output if environmental factors cause asynchrony to gamete maturation or release.

  2. Two CYP3A-like genes in the marine mussel Mytilus edulis: mRNA expression modulation following short-term exposure to endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero-Leon, Elena; Puinean, A Mirel; Labadie, Pierre; Ciocan, Corina; Itoh, Naoki; Kishida, Mitsuyo; Osada, Makoto; Minier, Christophe; Hill, Elizabeth M; Rotchell, Jeanette M

    2012-03-01

    Members of the vertebrate CYP3A subfamily are involved in the metabolism of steroids and a wide range of xenobiotics. In this study two CYP3A-like mRNAs have been isolated from the mussel (Mytilus edulis), and their seasonal expression profile and modulation by estrogens examined. Sexual dimorphism of CYP3A-like mRNA expression was not observed in mussel gonads of individuals collected throughout a year. Nevertheless, natural variation in gonadal CYP3A-like mRNA expression was observed, with highest levels of CYP3A isoform1 and lowest levels of CYP3A isoform2 mRNA during the maturation and spawning season. Exposure to a 10% sewage treatment works extract did not result in any significant changes in mRNA expression of CYP3A-like. In contrast, exposure to E2 (200 ng/L) and TBT (100 ng/L) significantly down-regulated the expression of CYP3A-like isoform1 but not CYP3A-like isoform2 suggesting differential regulation. PMID:22189070

  3. Effects of Heating on Proportions of Azaspiracids 1-10 in Mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Identification of Carboxylated Precursors for Azaspiracids 5, 10, 13, and 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Jane; McCarron, Pearse; Hess, Philipp; Miles, Christopher O

    2015-12-30

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins that induce human illness following the consumption of contaminated shellfish. European Union regulation stipulates that only raw shellfish are tested, yet shellfish are often cooked prior to consumption. Analysis of raw and heat-treated mussels (Mytilus edulis) naturally contaminated with AZAs revealed significant differences (up to 4.6-fold) in AZA1-3 (1-3) and 6 (6) values due to heat-induced chemical conversions. Consistent with previous studies, high levels of 3 and 6 were detected in some samples that were otherwise below the limit of quantitation before heating. Relative to 1, in heat-treated mussels the average (n = 40) levels of 3 (range, 11-502%) and 6 (range, 3-170%) were 62 and 31%, respectively. AZA4 (4) (range, <1-27%), AZA5 (5) (range, 1-21%), and AZA8 (8) (range, 1-27%) were each ∼5%, whereas AZA7 (7), AZA9 (9), and AZA10 (10) (range, <1-8%) were each under 1.5%. Levels of 5, 10, AZA13 (13), and AZA15 (15) increased after heating, leading to the identification of novel carboxylated AZA precursors in raw shellfish extracts, which were shown by deuterium labeling to be precursors for 5, 10, 13, and 15.

  4. Effects of Heating on Proportions of Azaspiracids 1-10 in Mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Identification of Carboxylated Precursors for Azaspiracids 5, 10, 13, and 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Jane; McCarron, Pearse; Hess, Philipp; Miles, Christopher O

    2015-12-30

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins that induce human illness following the consumption of contaminated shellfish. European Union regulation stipulates that only raw shellfish are tested, yet shellfish are often cooked prior to consumption. Analysis of raw and heat-treated mussels (Mytilus edulis) naturally contaminated with AZAs revealed significant differences (up to 4.6-fold) in AZA1-3 (1-3) and 6 (6) values due to heat-induced chemical conversions. Consistent with previous studies, high levels of 3 and 6 were detected in some samples that were otherwise below the limit of quantitation before heating. Relative to 1, in heat-treated mussels the average (n = 40) levels of 3 (range, 11-502%) and 6 (range, 3-170%) were 62 and 31%, respectively. AZA4 (4) (range, <1-27%), AZA5 (5) (range, 1-21%), and AZA8 (8) (range, 1-27%) were each ∼5%, whereas AZA7 (7), AZA9 (9), and AZA10 (10) (range, <1-8%) were each under 1.5%. Levels of 5, 10, AZA13 (13), and AZA15 (15) increased after heating, leading to the identification of novel carboxylated AZA precursors in raw shellfish extracts, which were shown by deuterium labeling to be precursors for 5, 10, 13, and 15. PMID:26631586

  5. Interactive effects of n-TiO2 and 2,3,7,8-TCDD on the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Laura; Frenzilli, Giada; Balbi, Teresa; Bernardeschi, Margherita; Ciacci, Caterina; Corsolini, Simonetta; Della Torre, Camilla; Fabbri, Rita; Faleri, Claudia; Focardi, Silvano; Guidi, Patrizia; Kočan, Anton; Marcomini, Antonio; Mariottini, Michela; Nigro, Marco; Pozo-Gallardo, Karla; Rocco, Lucia; Scarcelli, Vittoria; Smerilli, Arianna; Corsi, Ilaria

    2014-08-01

    Despite the growing concern over the potential biological impact of nanoparticles (NPs) in the aquatic environment, little is known about their interactions with other pollutants. The bivalve Mytilus sp, largely utilized as a sentinel for marine contamination, has been shown to represent a significant target for different types of NP, including n-TiO2, one of the most widespread in use. In this work, the possible interactive effects of n-TiO2 and 2,3,7,8-TCDD, chosen as models of NP and organic contaminant, respectively, were investigated in Mytilus galloprovincialis. In vitro experiments with n-TiO2 and TCDD, alone and in combination, were carried out in different conditions (concentrations and times of exposure), depending on the target (hemocytes, gill cells and biopsies) and the endpoint measured. Mussels were also exposed in vivo to n-TiO2 (100 μg L(-1)) or to TCDD (0.25 μg L(-1)), alone and in combination, for 96 h. A wide range of biomarkers, from molecular to tissue level, were measured: lysosomal membrane stability and phagocytosis in hemocytes, ATP-binding cassette efflux transporters in gills (gene transcription and efflux activity), several biomarkers of genotoxicity in gill and digestive cells (DNA damage, random amplified polymorphic DNA-RAPD changes), lysosomal biomarkers and transcription of selected genes in the digestive gland. The results demonstrate that n-TiO2 and TCDD can exert synergistic or antagonistic effects, depending on experimental condition, cell/tissue and type of measured response. Some of these interactions may result from a significant increase in TCDD accumulation in whole mussel organisms in the presence of n-TiO2, indicating a Trojan horse effect. The results represent the most extensive data obtained so far on the sub-lethal effects of NPs and organic contaminants in aquatic organisms. Moreover, these data extend the knowledge on the molecular and cellular targets of NPs in bivalves.

  6. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, Martin E.; Mortensen, J.;

    2012-01-01

    these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and kitchen middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We investigate...... are collected not too close to a glacier, but rather in the mid region or mouth of the fjord. The focus of future research will expand on the geographical and temporal range of the shell measurements by sampling mussels in other fjords in Greenland along a south-north gradient, and by sampling shells from...... raised shorelines and kitchen middens from prehistoric settlements in Greenland....

  7. Potential for production of ‘mini-mussels’ in Great Belt (Denmark) evaluated on basis of actual and modeled growth of young mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Lundgreen, Kim; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a first step towards evaluation of the potential for line-mussel production in the Great Belt region between the Kattegat and Baltic Sea, Denmark. We present experimental results for actual growth rates of juvenile/adult mussels Mytilus edulis in suspended net bags in terms......) as a function of dry weight of soft parts (W, g) by a previously developed simple bioenergetic growth model μ = aW −0.34. Results were generally in good agreement with the model which assumes the prevailing average chlorophyll a concentration at field sites to essentially account for the nutrition. Our studies...

  8. Short- and long-term responses and recovery of mussels Mytilus edulis exposed to heavy fuel oil no. 6 and styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Pamela; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Orbea, Amaia; Vingen, Sjur; Hjelle, Anne; Baussant, Thierry; Cajaraville, Miren P

    2014-07-01

    Biomarkers have the potential to be used to assess the impact of anthropogenic discharges in marine waters. We have used a suite of biomarkers spanning from enzymatic to histopathological alterations and general stress responses to assess the short- and long-term impact on mussels Mytilus edulis of heavy fuel oil no. 6 and styrene. Mussels were exposed for 5 months, with a refilling of the exposure system, to a water soluble fraction of heavy fuel and, then, kept for a month in clean water for recovery. In a second experiment, mussels were exposed to styrene for 19 days and maintained in clean water for up to 4 months. Chemical body tissue levels reflected the weathering processes of these compounds. Acyl-CoA oxidase activity was induced in oil-exposed mussels after refilling, whereas styrene inhibited it after 19 days of exposure and after 2 weeks in clean water. Gamete development and alkali-labile phosphate levels suggest that neither oil nor styrene behaved as endocrine disruptors. Neutral red retention time was lower in treated groups than in controls. Lysosomal membrane stability was significantly reduced in exposed groups and recovered after withdrawal of oil but not after removal of styrene. Neither oil nor styrene exposure affected the condition index except for the reduction seen in mussels exposed to oil for 1 month. Biomarker response index discriminated exposed mussels, which showed higher values, and returned to control levels after recovery. Results obtained from these pilot experiments can help to identify relevant monitoring tools to assess the impact of oil and chemicals in marine spill scenarios.

  9. Accumulation of copper, chromium, and arsenic in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from laboratory and field exposures to wood treated with chromated copper arsenate type C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler-Ivanbrook, L.; Breslin, V.T. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1999-02-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to examine the uptake of Cu, Cr, and As leached from southern yellow pine (SYP) treated with chromated copper arsenate type C (CCA-C), as well as effects on mortality and growth, in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Mussels were exposed to CCA-C-treated wood at a preservative retention of 40 kg/m{sup 3} and control (nontreated) SYP in laboratory flow-through sea table and field exposure experiments for 9 months in 1994 and 3 months in 1995. Mussels were sampled at regular intervals to evaluate possible short- and long-term exposure effects., Individual mussels were measured to determine the length, dry weight, and condition index. Mussel tissues were than analyzed for Cu, Cr, and As. Results showed few significant differences in condition index, dry weight, and length between CCA-C-exposed and control mussels. In addition, no statistically significant differences in mortality were found between the mussels exposed to CCA-C-treated and nontreated SYP in the laboratory flow-through sea table and field exposure experiments. Significant differences in Cu, As, and Cr contents in mussel tissues between treatments were few, and generally cannot be attributed to exposure to CCA-C-treated SYP. The lack of Cu, Cr, and As uptake from CCA-C-treated SYP was attributed to the low, although continuous, rate of release of these elements from CCA-C-treated wood and to the experimental design, which allowed continuous flushing, prohibiting the accumulation of these elements in the water surrounding the mussels.

  10. Neoplastic diseases of marine bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballal, María J; Barber, Bruce J; Iglesias, David; Villalba, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Two types of prevalent neoplastic diseases have been described in marine bivalves of commercial interest: disseminated neoplasia (DN) and gonadal neoplasia. The first involves the excessive proliferation of abnormal cells with unknown origin (probably of hemic source in some cases/species), disseminating through the circulatory system and infiltrating the connective tissue of various organs; the second consists of an abnormal proliferation of undifferentiated germinal cells of the gonad. These two types of bivalve neoplasia fit the criteria of malignant tumors: pleomorphic and undifferentiated cells, rapid and invasive growth, abundance of mitotic figures, metastasis and progressive development often resulting in the death of the affected individual. Different causes have been suggested regarding etiology: genetic alterations, virus, retrotranspons, and contaminants, although it could depend on the mollusk species; evidence of horizontal transmission of clonal cancer cells as the cause of DN spreading in clam Mya arenaria populations has been recently reported. In some species and populations, the neoplastic disorders affect only a few individuals, but in others reach high prevalence. Among the diagnostic methods, DN has been detected by histology and cytologic examination of hemolymph, and with developed specific antibodies. Recently, flow cytometry has also been applied, allowing detecting DNA quantity alteration. Several studies reported many genes and pathways critically involved in neoplastic transformation in Mya arenaria, Mytilus spp. and Ostrea edulis. These genetic studies will allow the development of diagnosis by PCR which can be used in biomonitoring studies. PMID:26146225

  11. Location of Saccharides on the Gamete of Mytilus edulis Linnaeus%紫贻贝配子细胞表面糖基的定位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧慧; 李太武; 苏秀榕

    2011-01-01

    细胞表面糖蛋白中糖的特性对于细胞的相互识别起重要作用,配子细胞表面糖配基的差异恰恰体现不同物种间受精作用的特异性,本研究分别选用可以特异性结合半乳糖、葡萄糖、甘露糖、岩藻糖的FITC标记凝集素,对紫贻贝配子细胞中对应的糖进行研究。结果显示,4种糖在卵细胞边缘的标记特征不明显,仅半乳糖和葡萄糖在一些卵细胞边缘有区域性分布,但在细胞质区,这4种糖均有少量分布;半乳糖和岩藻糖在贻贝的精巢的精细胞和成熟精子区为较均匀的弱阳性标记,甘露糖仅在输精小管边缘有分布,葡萄糖的含量相对较多,但也只是在输精小管边缘以及成熟精子区有一定的标记。上述结果表明,紫贻贝配子细胞表面不同糖基的分布和含量存在一定的差异,造成配子间起到识别作用的糖蛋白组成和结构不同,决定了紫贻贝配子识别的特异性。%The saccharides of glycoprotein on cell are important for cellular recognition.The differences of sugar ligands on gamete decide specificity of fertilization between interspecies.We selected 4 FITC labeled lectin(bound to mannose,galactose,glucose,fucose) to investgate the saccharides on gamete of Mytilus edulis.Galactose and glucose were labeled regionally on the border of egg,but mannose,galactose,glucose and fucose distributed slightly in cytoplasm.There were weak marks of galactose and fucose in sperm cell and mature sperm.Mannose and glucose distributed the border of spermi duct,but glucose marked apparently in mature sperm.The results showed that the distribution and cotent of diverse saccharides were different,and the construction and structure of glycoprotein were also different.These characters decided the specificity of gamete recognition in M.edulis.

  12. Metabolic Effects in the Bivalve Perna perna and Mytilus galloprovincialis: Impact on the Environment due to Contamination by Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Brahim Errahmani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the study of the effects of acute exposure to various concentrations of copper from 0.03 to 0.59 μmol·L−1 on the metabolic activities (nitrogen and phosphorus, protein levels, catalase (CAT enzyme activities, and the biological response malondialdehyde (MDA in the mollusks Perna perna and Mytilus galloprovincialis. The concentrations above 0.88 μmol·L−1 have proven to be lethal to P. perna. The results show slight disturbances of metabolism as a result of pollutant and a significant correlation between metal contamination and ammonia nitrogen levels, resulting in an increase in the latter after 48 h of M. galloprovincialis exposure to 0.59 μmol·L−1 of copper concentrations. CAT was rapidly induced even by low concentrations of copper; MDA was increased only with low concentrations of copper in P. perna.

  13. Comparative feeding on chlorophyll - rich versus remaining organic matter in bivalve shellfish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawkins, A.; Pascoe, P.L.; Parry, H.; Brinsley, M.; Cacciatore, F.; Black, K.; Fang, J.; Smaal, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Filter feeding was compared in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, Chinese pleated oyster Crassostrea plicatula, Chinese scallop Chlamys farreri,Manila clam Tapes phillipinarum, razor clam Sinonvacula constricta, and blood

  14. Ocean acidification increases cadmium accumulation in marine bivalves: a potential threat to seafood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Zhao, Xinguo; Han, Yu; Che, Zhumei; Chai, Xueliang; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-01-01

    To date, the effects of ocean acidification on toxic metals accumulation and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown in marine bivalve species. In the present study, the effects of the realistic future ocean pCO2 levels on the cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills, mantle and adductor muscles of three bivalve species, Mytilus edulis, Tegillarca granosa, and Meretrix meretrix, were investigated. The results obtained suggested that all species tested accumulated significantly higher Cd (p ocean acidification-induced increase in Cd accumulation may have occurred due to (i) the ocean acidification increased the concentration of Cd and the Cd(2+)/Ca(2+) in the seawater, which in turn increased the Cd influx through Ca channel; (ii) the acidified seawater may have brought about epithelia damage, resulting in easier Cd penetration; and (iii) ocean acidification hampered Cd exclusion.

  15. Mussel shells of Mytilus edulis as bioarchives of the rare earth elements and yttrium distribution in seawater and the potential impact of pH and temperature on the partitioning behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ponnurangam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mussel shells are potential bioarchives of proxies for changes of the physico-chemical conditions in the bivalve's habitat. One such proxy is the distribution of the Rare Earths and Yttrium (REY in seawater, as REY speciation in seawater is sensitive to pH and temperature variations, due to the impact of these parameters on the activity of CO32− in seawater. We present a new protocol for sample preparation and determination of REY concentrations in bivalve shells, that includes sample treatment with NaOCl followed by REY separation and preconcentration. The data obtained was further used to calculate REY partition coefficients between shells of M. edulis and ambient seawater, and acquired results were then used in the investigation of the potential effects of pH and temperature on REY partitioning. Shells of M. edulis mussels from the North Sea show consistent shale-normalized ("SN" REY patterns that increase from the light REY to the middle REY and decrease from the middle REY to the heavy REY. Despite being different to the general seawater REYSN pattern, the shells still display distinct REY features of seawater such as a negative CeSN anomaly and small positive YSN and GdSN anomalies. Apparent partition coefficients for the REY between the shell and seawater (appDREYshell/seawater are low and decrease strongly from the light REY (4.04 for La to the heavy REY (0.34 for Lu. However, assuming that only the free REY3+ are incorporated into the shell, appDREY3+shell/seawater values are higher and rather similar for all REY (102.46 for La; 113.44 for Lu, but show a slight maximum at Tb (199.18. Although the impact of vital effects i.e. REY speciation in a mussel's extrapallial fluid from which the carbonate minerals precipitate, cannot be quantified yet, it appears that M. edulis shells are bioarchives of some REY features of seawater. We modelled the REYSN patterns of a hypothetical mussel shell at pH 8.2 and 7.6 and at temperatures of 25

  16. The multi-xenobiotic resistance (MXR) efflux activity in hemocytes of Mytilus edulis is mediated by an ATP binding cassette transporter of class C (ABCC) principally inducible in eosinophilic granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioult, Damien; Pasquier, Jennifer; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Poret, Agnès; Abbas, Imane; Marin, Matthieu; Minier, Christophe; Le Foll, Frank

    2014-08-01

    In marine and estuarine species, immunotoxic and/or immunomodulatory mechanisms are the crossroad of interactions between xenobiotics, microorganisms and physicochemical variations of the environment. In mussels, immunity relies exclusively on innate responses carried out by cells collectively called hemocytes and found in the open hemolymphatic circulatory system of these organisms. However, hemocytes do not form a homogenous population of immune cells since distinct subtypes of mussel blood cells can be distinguished by cytochemistry, flow cytometry or cell motility analysis. Previous studies have also shown that these cells are able to efflux xenobiotics by means of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter activities conferring a multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) phenotype. ABC transporters corresponding to vertebrate class B/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and to class C/multidrug resistance related protein (MRP) are characterized in Mytilidae. Herein, we have investigated the relative contributions of ABCB- and ABCC-mediated efflux within the different hemocyte subpopulations of Mytilus edulis mussels, collected from areas differentially impacted by chemical contaminants in Normandy (France). RT-PCR analyses provide evidence for the presence of ABCB and ABCC transporters transcripts in hemocytes. Immunodetection of ABCB/P-gp with the monoclonal antibody UIC2 in living hemocytes revealed that expression was restricted to granular structures of spread cells. Efflux transporter activities, with calcein-AM as fluorescent probe, were measured by combining flow cytometry to accurate Coulter cell size measurements in order to get a cell-volume normalized fluorescence concentration. In these conditions, basal fluorescence levels were higher in hemocytes originating from Yport (control site) than in cells collected from the harbor of Le Havre, where mussels are more exposed to with persistent pollutants. By using specific ABCB/P-gp (verapamil, PSC833, zosuquidar) and ABCC/MRP (MK

  17. The multi-xenobiotic resistance (MXR) efflux activity in hemocytes of Mytilus edulis is mediated by an ATP binding cassette transporter of class C (ABCC) principally inducible in eosinophilic granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioult, Damien; Pasquier, Jennifer; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Poret, Agnès; Abbas, Imane; Marin, Matthieu; Minier, Christophe; Le Foll, Frank

    2014-08-01

    In marine and estuarine species, immunotoxic and/or immunomodulatory mechanisms are the crossroad of interactions between xenobiotics, microorganisms and physicochemical variations of the environment. In mussels, immunity relies exclusively on innate responses carried out by cells collectively called hemocytes and found in the open hemolymphatic circulatory system of these organisms. However, hemocytes do not form a homogenous population of immune cells since distinct subtypes of mussel blood cells can be distinguished by cytochemistry, flow cytometry or cell motility analysis. Previous studies have also shown that these cells are able to efflux xenobiotics by means of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter activities conferring a multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) phenotype. ABC transporters corresponding to vertebrate class B/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and to class C/multidrug resistance related protein (MRP) are characterized in Mytilidae. Herein, we have investigated the relative contributions of ABCB- and ABCC-mediated efflux within the different hemocyte subpopulations of Mytilus edulis mussels, collected from areas differentially impacted by chemical contaminants in Normandy (France). RT-PCR analyses provide evidence for the presence of ABCB and ABCC transporters transcripts in hemocytes. Immunodetection of ABCB/P-gp with the monoclonal antibody UIC2 in living hemocytes revealed that expression was restricted to granular structures of spread cells. Efflux transporter activities, with calcein-AM as fluorescent probe, were measured by combining flow cytometry to accurate Coulter cell size measurements in order to get a cell-volume normalized fluorescence concentration. In these conditions, basal fluorescence levels were higher in hemocytes originating from Yport (control site) than in cells collected from the harbor of Le Havre, where mussels are more exposed to with persistent pollutants. By using specific ABCB/P-gp (verapamil, PSC833, zosuquidar) and ABCC/MRP (MK

  18. Assimilation efficiencies and turnover rates of trace elements in marine bivalves: A comparison of oysters, clams and mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfelder, J.R.; Wang, W.-X.; Luoma, S. N.; Fisher, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    Assimilation efficiencies (AEs) and physiological turnover-rate constants (k) of six trace elements (Ag, Am, Cd, Co, Se, Zn) in four marine bivalves (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin,Macoma balthica Linnaeus, Mercenaria mercenaria Linnaeus, and Mytilus edulis Linnaeus) were measured in radiotracer-depuration experiments. Egestion rates of unassimilated elements were highest during the first 24 h of depuration and declined thereafter. Significant egestion of unassimilated Co, however, continued for up to 5 d in Macoma balthica,Mercenaria mercenaria and Mytilus edulis. With the exception of the extremely low values for110 mAg, 109Cd, and 65Zn in C. virginica, physiological turnover-rate constants (k) showed no general pattern of variation among elements, bivalve species or food types, and were relatively invariant. Values from  ≤0.001 to 0.1 d−1 were observed, but excluding those for Co, most values were  ≤0.04 d−1. In all four species, the AEs of Ag, Am, and Co were generally lower than those of Cd, Se, and Zn. The AEs of Ag, Cd, Se, and Zn in these bivalves are directly related to the proportion of each element in the cytoplasmic fraction of ingested phytoplankton, indicating that >80% of elements in a prey alga's cytoplasm was assimilated. C. virginica, Macoma balthica, and Mercenaria mercenaria assimilated ∼36% of the Ag and Cd associated with the non-cytoplasmic (membrane/organelle) fraction of ingested cells in addition to the cytoplasmic fraction. The ratio of AE:k, which is proportional to the consumer–prey trace-element bioaccumulation factor (concentration in consumer:concentration in prey) was generally greater for Cd, Se, and Zn than for Ag, Am, and Co. This ratio was lowest in Mytilus edulis, suggesting that this bivalve, the most widely employed organism in global biomonitoring, is relatively inefficient at accumulating important elements such as Ag, Cd, and Zn from ingested phytoplankton.

  19. Toxic dinoflagellates and Vibrio spp. act independently in bivalve larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, M; Van Acker, E; Nevejan, N; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2016-10-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) and marine pathogens - like Vibrio spp. - are increasingly common due to climate change. These stressors affect the growth, viability and development of bivalve larvae. Little is known, however, about the potential for interactions between these two concurrent stressors. While some mixed exposures have been performed with adult bivalves, no such work has been done with larvae which are generally more sensitive. This study examines whether dinoflagellates and bacteria may interactively affect the viability and immunological resilience of blue mussel Mytilus edulis larvae. Embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (100, 500, 2500 & 12,500 cells ml(-1)) of a dinoflagellate (Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii, Karenia mikimotoi, Protoceratium reticulatum, Prorocentrum cordatum, P. lima or P. micans), a known pathogen (Vibrio coralliilyticus/neptunius-like isolate or Vibrio splendidus; 10(5) CFU ml(-1)), or both. After five days of exposure, significant (p < 0.05) adverse effects on larval viability and larval development were found for all dinoflagellates (except P. cordatum) and V. splendidus. Yet, despite the individual effect of each stressor, no significant interactions were found between the pathogens and harmful algae. The larval viability and the phenoloxidase innate immune system responded independently to each stressor. This independence may be related to a differential timing of the effects of HABs and pathogens. PMID:27554394

  20. Toxic dinoflagellates and Vibrio spp. act independently in bivalve larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, M; Van Acker, E; Nevejan, N; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2016-10-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) and marine pathogens - like Vibrio spp. - are increasingly common due to climate change. These stressors affect the growth, viability and development of bivalve larvae. Little is known, however, about the potential for interactions between these two concurrent stressors. While some mixed exposures have been performed with adult bivalves, no such work has been done with larvae which are generally more sensitive. This study examines whether dinoflagellates and bacteria may interactively affect the viability and immunological resilience of blue mussel Mytilus edulis larvae. Embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (100, 500, 2500 & 12,500 cells ml(-1)) of a dinoflagellate (Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii, Karenia mikimotoi, Protoceratium reticulatum, Prorocentrum cordatum, P. lima or P. micans), a known pathogen (Vibrio coralliilyticus/neptunius-like isolate or Vibrio splendidus; 10(5) CFU ml(-1)), or both. After five days of exposure, significant (p larval viability and larval development were found for all dinoflagellates (except P. cordatum) and V. splendidus. Yet, despite the individual effect of each stressor, no significant interactions were found between the pathogens and harmful algae. The larval viability and the phenoloxidase innate immune system responded independently to each stressor. This independence may be related to a differential timing of the effects of HABs and pathogens.

  1. Mixed function oxygenases and xenobiotic detoxication/toxication systems in bivalve molluscs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M. N.; Livingstone, D. R.; Donkin, P.; Bayne, B. L.; Widdows, J.; Lowe, D. M.

    1980-03-01

    Components of a xenobiotic detoxication/toxication system involving mixed function oxygenases are present in Mytilus edulis. Our paper critically reviews the recent literature on this topic which reported the apparent absence of such a system in bivalve molluscs and attempts to reconcile this viewpoint with our own findings on NADPH neotetrazolium reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldrin epoxidation and other reports of the presence of mixed function oxygenases. New experimental data are presented which indicate that some elements of the detoxication/toxication system in M. edulis can be induced by aromatic hydrocarbons derived from crude oil. This includes a brief review of the results of long-term experiments in which mussels were exposed to low concentrations of the water accommodated fraction of North Sea crude oil (7.7-68 µg 1-1) in which general stress responses such as reduced physiological scope for growth, cytotoxic damage to lysosomal integrity and cellular damage are considered as characteristics of the general stress syndrome induced by the toxic action of the xenobiotics. In addition, induction in the blood cells of microsomal NADPH neotetrazolium reductase (associated with mixed function oxygenases) and the NADPH generating enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase are considered to be specific biological responses to the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. The consequences of this detoxication/toxication system for Mytilus edulis are discussed in terms of the formation of toxic electrophilic intermediate metabolites which are highly reactive and can combine with DNA, RNA and proteins with subsequent damage to these cellular constituents. Implications for neoplasms associated with the blood cells are also discussed. Finally, in view of the increased use of mussel species in pollutant monitoring programmes, the induction phenomenon which is associated with microsomal enzymes in the blood cells is considered as a possible tool for the

  2. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Bivalves Molluscs of Apulian Region: a 3-years control activity of a EU Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miedico O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve molluscs represent an important matrix to be studied for several reasons. Their nutritional properties make them valuable to the consumers, so that their consumption and commercial value has risen worldwide. Simultaneously, their significant water-filtering capability and their persistence in the same place make them good bio-indicators of marine ecosystems. The presence of the heavy metal contaminants, as Cd, Pb and Hg, was investigated in bivalve molluscs such as mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis, clams (Venus gallina and oysters (Ostrea edulis. In the present study, a survey was carried out on 334 samples addressed to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale – Puglia e Basilicata, Foggia (ITALY between 2009-2011, and collected by official authorities along the coasts of Apulia Region. The conformity of heavy metal content in bivalve molluscs was verified, in according to EC Reg. 1881/2006. The compliance was found for the total amount of samples. The obtained data on heavy metals concentration in bivalve molluscs were compared with data found in monitoring studies on the incidence of heavy metals in 1981 in North-Western Mediterranean Sea, in 2003 in Tyrrhenian Sea and in 2010 in Pacific Ocean (Chile, reported in literature. The information obtained from this work offer an essential database, not only for the authorities involved in food control, but also for the official institutions responsible of a constant control of the marine ecosystem pollution.

  3. Trace Element Uptake in Marine Bivalve Shells Constraints from Field- and Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klünder, M.; Hippler, D.; Witbaard, R.; Frei, D.; Immenhauser, A.

    2006-12-01

    environmental proxies should be realised. To this end, we have initiated a long-term field and laboratory study. Bivalves of the species Mytilus edulis and Arctica islandica are cultured in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Physico-chemical water parameters, such as temperature, salinity and water chemistry are monitored. Shells and ambient seawater have been collected periodically in order to constrain seasonal effects on shell growth and trace element uptake. Both shells and seawater are analysed using bulk chemical methods as well as in situ analysis of the shells by LA-ICP-MS. In this contribution, we will present the first important results of this on-going study.

  4. Predicting growth and mortality of bivalve larvae using gene expression and supervised machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassim, Sleiman; Chapman, Robert W; Tanguy, Arnaud; Moraga, Dario; Tremblay, Rejean

    2015-12-01

    It is commonly known that the nature of the diet has diverse consequences on larval performance and longevity, however it is still unclear which genes have critical impacts on bivalve development and which pathways are of particular importance in their vulnerability or resistance. First we show that a diet deficient in essential fatty acid (EFA) produces higher larval mortality rates, a reduced shell growth, and lower postlarval performance, all of which are positively correlated with a decline in arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids levels, two EFAs known as eicosanoid precursors. Eicosanoids affect the cell inflammatory reactions and are synthesized from long-chain EFAs. Second, we show for the first time that a deficiency in eicosanoid precursors is associated with a network of 29 genes. Their differential regulation can lead to slower growth and higher mortality of Mytilus edulis larvae. Some of these genes are specific to bivalves and others are implicated at the same time in lipid metabolism and defense. Several genes are expressed only during pre-metamorphosis where they are essential for muscle or neurone development and biomineralization, but only in stress-induced larvae. Finally, we discuss how our networks of differentially expressed genes might dynamically alter the development of marine bivalves, especially under dietary influence.

  5. Variación temporal de la población de la almeja Darina solenoides y del mejillón Mytilus Edulis Platensis, y su relación con la alimentación del ostrero austral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Javier Gallardo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El presente trabajo de investigación se ha planteado en el marco de una beca para alumnos avanzados de la UNPA, Unidad Académica Río Gallegos. Tiene como objetivo analizar las variaciones temporales de la población del mejillón Mytilus edulis platensis y de la almeja Darina solenoides y se inserta en un Proyecto de Investigación (29A/227 dirigido por Dra. Z. Lizarralde que tiene como objeto estudiar la ecología trófica del Ostrero Austral (Haematopus leucopodus en el estuario del río Gallegos (Santa Cruz. Durante el 2010 se efectuaron muestreos mensuales (abril a diciembre en un banco de mejillones y otro de almejas, con el objeto de analizar la variación temporal de la densidad y biomasa, y la estructura de tallas poblacional. Se analizó la granulometría y porcentaje de materia orgánica de los sedimentos. El sedimento del banco de mejillones se encuentra constituido en su mayoría por la fracción correspondiente a los gránulos; en el banco de almejas por arenas muy finas (43% y finas (39%. En ambos casos la materia orgánica no supera el 3 %. La densidad de mejillones alcanzó un valor máximo de 2255 individuos/m2 en abril y un mínimo de 497 en noviembre. La biomasa máxima se encontró en abril (110 g/m 2. La densidad de Darina solenoides alcanzó un valor máximo de 565 en junio y un mínimo de 282 individuos/m2 en el mes de octubre. La biomasa máxima ocurrió en diciembre (132 g/m2. No se detectó el período de reclutamiento de nuevos individuos en los bancos de las especies estudiadas.

  6. Histological responses of marine mussel Mytilus edulis to long-term exposure to sublethal-level of lindane and atrazine%紫贻贝长期暴露于亚致死剂量的林丹和阿特拉津下的组织学反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahla S. EI-SHENAWY; Richard GREENWOOD; Ismail M. ABDEL-NABI

    2007-01-01

    Histological changes in tissues of the sentinel bivalve species Mytilus edulis were examined following a long-term exposure to sub-lethal levels of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane(γ-HCH) and 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine(atrazine) to investigate the potential of such changes as fast and sensitive biomarkers of exposure to pesticides. M.edulis readily bioaccumulates environmental pesticides, and in this project the relationship between accumulation of selected pesticides and histopathological effects was studied. Mussels and water samples were analysed for γ-HCH and atrazine by GC/MSD. The mussels were taken to the laboratory and kept for a 21 day period in order to let their metabolism adjust to a continuous closed flow system with quality water control. After that period, 30 organisms were exposed either to sublethal concentrations of γ-HCH(0.9 mg/L) or atrazine(3.583 mg/L) for 56 days. During the experiment, important parameters such as temperature(18℃) and salinity(34‰) were controlled. Mussels were sampled to determine histological damage, and the concentration of pesticide levels at 28 and 56 days. Exposed organisms accumulated around 304.8-372.0 and 83.3-137.4 μg/g dry weight of γ-HCH and atrazine, respectively. Most histological alterations were highly localized in the epithelium of the gills and mantle tissues; epithelia were found to be detached from the remaining tissue parts. Histopathological results showed the activation of resistance mechanisms that allow mussels to survive under sublethal stresses. The histopathological effects ranged from infiltration responses up to mediated cellular responses, characterized by the presence of hemolymph cells. Histological and ultrastructural changes in various tissues were positively correlated with the bioaccumulation of the pesticides, suggesting that they may serve as biomarkers for pesticide exposure.%为开发快速、敏感的生物标记物以监测海洋贝类生物中是否存在

  7. Marine bivalve geochemistry and shell ultrastructure from modern low pH environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, S.; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R.; Griesshaber, E.; Schmahl, W. W.; Buhl, D.; Hall-Spencer, J. M.; Baggini, C.; Fehr, K. T.; Immenhauser, A.

    2011-10-01

    Bivalve shells can provide excellent archives of past environmental change but have not been used to interpret ocean acidification events. We investigated carbon, oxygen and trace element records from different shell layers in the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (from the Mediterranean) and M. edulis (from the Wadden Sea) combined with detailed investigations of the shell ultrastructure. Mussels from the harbour of Ischia (Mediterranean, Italy) were transplanted and grown in water with mean pHT 7.3 and mean pHT 8.1 near CO2 vents on the east coast of the island of Ischia. The shells of transplanted mussels were compared with M. edulis collected at pH ~8.2 from Sylt (German Wadden Sea). Most prominently, the shells recorded the shock of transplantation, both in their shell ultrastructure, textural and geochemical record. Shell calcite, precipitated subsequently under acidified seawater responded to the pH gradient by an in part disturbed ultrastructure. Geochemical data from all test sites show a strong metabolic effect that exceeds the influence of the low-pH environment. These field experiments showed that care is needed when interpreting potential ocean acidification signals because various parameters affect shell chemistry and ultrastructure. Besides metabolic processes, seawater pH, factors such as salinity, water temperature, food availability and population density all affect the biogenic carbonate shell archive.

  8. Marine bivalve geochemistry and shell ultrastructure from modern low pH environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hahn

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve shells can provide excellent archives of past environmental change but have not been used to interpret ocean acidification events. We investigated carbon, oxygen and trace element records from different shell layers in the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (from the Mediterranean and M. edulis (from the Wadden Sea combined with detailed investigations of the shell ultrastructure. Mussels from the harbour of Ischia (Mediterranean, Italy were transplanted and grown in water with mean pHT 7.3 and mean pHT 8.1 near CO2 vents on the east coast of the island of Ischia. The shells of transplanted mussels were compared with M. edulis collected at pH ~8.2 from Sylt (German Wadden Sea. Most prominently, the shells recorded the shock of transplantation, both in their shell ultrastructure, textural and geochemical record. Shell calcite, precipitated subsequently under acidified seawater responded to the pH gradient by an in part disturbed ultrastructure. Geochemical data from all test sites show a strong metabolic effect that exceeds the influence of the low-pH environment. These field experiments showed that care is needed when interpreting potential ocean acidification signals because various parameters affect shell chemistry and ultrastructure. Besides metabolic processes, seawater pH, factors such as salinity, water temperature, food availability and population density all affect the biogenic carbonate shell archive.

  9. Lead and other heavy metals (cadmium and mercury accumulation in bivalve mollusks (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ruditapes spp. and Crassostrea gigas sampled in Sardinia in 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Piras

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sardinian shellfish farming, like the national, is mainly focused on mussels and carpet-shell clams, still less on cupped oyster farming. After Olbia’s Gulf, various lagoon areas along the coastal perimeter have been interested to shellfish farming. They are transitional waters, whose state of pollution must be evaluated both as ecosystem’s health and as directly/indirectly human risk. This also applies to heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury, arising both from anthropogenic that geological-natural activity. The aim of the present study is to investigate the variability of the concentrations of these metals in different mollusks to make a comparative assessment, detect trends (over the five-years or cyclicrecurring and identify hot spots. In 2008- 2012, 984 samples have been analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique. Of them, 599 in pre-marketing (for classification of production areas or their monitoring and the remaining during marketing. The difference between the average levels of the three metals in the different mollusks species was statistically significant, with Pb>Cd>Hg, and there was evidence of a gradual downward trend, albeit moderate, in the contamination levels, with a significant seasonality in concentrations levels, of lead in particular. Also comparisons between the bio-monitored coastal areas were statistically different. Since the samples were representative of the entire production of bivalve mollusks in Sardinia and the contamination allowable limits have never been exceeded in the products marketed, it can be concluded that these products are safe, pointing out that maintenance of monitoring/surveillance plans provides useful information species-dependent, site-specific and temporal trends.

  10. The exhalant jet of mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgard, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, Bo Hoffmann; Lundgreen, Kim;

    2011-01-01

    , with the corresponding scaling laws also presented. The exhalant jet velocity was determined by 3 methods: (1) measured clearance rate divided by exhalant aperture area, (2) manual particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) using video-microscope recordings, and (3) particle image velocimetry (PIV). The latter provides...... detailed 2-component velocity distributions near the exhalant siphon in 5 planes parallel to the axis of the jet and the major axis of the oval aperture, and hence estimates of momentum and kinetic energy flows in addition to mean velocity. Data obtained on particles inside the exhalant jet of filtered...... water was verified by the use of titanium dioxide seeding particles which were de-agglomerated by ultrasound to a size range of 0.7 to 2 mu m prior to addition, to avoid retention by the gill filter of the mussels. We found that exhalant jet velocity was essentially constant at similar to 8 cm s(-1...

  11. Ocean acidification increases cadmium accumulation in marine bivalves: a potential threat to seafood safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Zhao, Xinguo; Han, Yu; Che, Zhumei; Chai, Xueliang; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-01-01

    To date, the effects of ocean acidification on toxic metals accumulation and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown in marine bivalve species. In the present study, the effects of the realistic future ocean pCO2 levels on the cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills, mantle and adductor muscles of three bivalve species, Mytilus edulis, Tegillarca granosa, and Meretrix meretrix, were investigated. The results obtained suggested that all species tested accumulated significantly higher Cd (p health risk of Cd (based on the estimated target hazard quotients, THQ) via consumption of M. meretrix at pH 7.8 and 7.4 significantly increased 1.21 and 1.32 times respectively, suggesting a potential threat to seafood safety. The ocean acidification-induced increase in Cd accumulation may have occurred due to (i) the ocean acidification increased the concentration of Cd and the Cd2+/Ca2+ in the seawater, which in turn increased the Cd influx through Ca channel; (ii) the acidified seawater may have brought about epithelia damage, resulting in easier Cd penetration; and (iii) ocean acidification hampered Cd exclusion.

  12. Genetic diversity and connectivity within Mytilus spp. in the subarctic and Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Sofie Smedegaard; Thyrring, Jakob; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer;

    2016-01-01

    in the European Arctic. Mytilus edulis was the most abundant species found with a clear genetic split between populations in Greenland and the Eastern Atlantic. Surprisingly, analyses revealed the presence of M. trossulus in high Arctic NW Greenland (77°N) and M. galloprovincialis or their hybrids in SW Greenland......Climate changes in the Arctic are predicted to alter distributions of marine species. However, such changes are difficult to quantify because information on present species distribution and the genetic variation within species is lacking or poorly examined. Blue mussels, Mytilus spp. are ecosystem...... engineers in the coastal zone globally. In order to improve knowledge of distribution and genetic structure of the Mytilus edulis complex in the Arctic, we analyzed 81 SNPs in 534 Mytilus spp. individuals sampled at 13 sites to provide baseline data for distribution and genetic variation of Mytilus mussels...

  13. 阿特拉津和林丹对紫贻贝生长与繁殖净能的影响%Effect of atrazine and lindane on the scope for growth of marine mussels Mytilus edulis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahla S. EL-SHENAWY; Richard GREENWOOD; Ismail M. ABDEL-NABI; Zohour I. NABIL

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to determine physiological responses of the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis L. , to sub-lethal concentrations of lindane (1/2 LC50 for 60 days; 0.935 mg/L) and atrazine (1/2 LC50 for 60 days; 3. 585 mg/L), both of which have priority status as environmental pollutants. Both pesticides after 56 days of exposure showed bioaccumulation factors which were consistent with their partitioning properties, with lindane accumulating to a higher concentration (372 μg/g dry weight) than atrazine (137 μg/g dry weight). Oxygen consumption in mussels exposed to lindane (0.935 mg/L) for 56 days fell to 10% of control levels, whereas with exposure to atrazine (3.585 mg/L) at the same exposure time the oxygen consumption was elevated to 29 % compared with controls. Ammonia ex cretion increased with exposure to lindane and atrazine. However, both pesticides reduced feeding rate and absorption ef ficiencies. Lindane reduced feeding rate, oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, food absorption efficiency, and scope for growth. Atrazine produced a profile of effects on activity which was different from that observed with lindane: it depressed feeding rate and food absorption efficiency, but in contrast to lindane it increased oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion. Overall, it induced a marked reduction in the scope of growth (SFG). Toxicological symptoms ob served in atrazine treated mussels contrasted with those of animals exposed to lindane. The physiological responses of mus sels, when complemented with chemical analysis of mussel tissues provides a powerful monitoring tool. The results of this present study indicate that two months of exposure to 1/2 LC50 of lindane or atrazine was sufficient not only to allow the accumulation of lindane or atrazine within the animal' s tissues but also for physiological changes to be made in response to these accumulations [Acta Zoologica Sinica 52 (4) : 712 - 723, 2006].%本研究评

  14. Study of polonium and lead in shellfish (Mytilus Edulis) from NORM discharge area of Aberdeen Bay and Ythan Estuary of Scotland and radiological impact to the local people and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    made it is essential that the release rates of the nuclides from the discharges are known. If polonium becomes available in the marine environment from these discharges they will contribute to the impact on the environment. In order to evaluate the possible radiological impact to the local people and the environment, a comprehensive study was set up in order to determine the full extent of TENORM and NORM outputs and the impact that these radionuclides were having on the environment. The main aim of this study concerned the quantification of the levels of 210Po and 210Pb in shellfish species and other environmental samples taken from around Aberdeen, and use them as bio-indicators for the analysis of Polonium-210 and Lead-210 with particular emphasis on the seasonal variation in Mytilus edulis at one site of Ythan estuary. There was a supplementary programme undertaken to some dose assessment work relevant to human consumption of shellfish. Additionally, the study of the distribution of 210Pb and 210Pb between the filtered, particulate phases, sediment and mussels can provide interesting in formation about their behaviour in this aquatic system. Experimental Radiochemical separation and α Spectrometer with Dual surface barrier detector was used to count the polonium a particles. A Perspex disc holder for polonium deposition was specially designed to be held in a stirrer and to fit inside a 150-200 ml breaker. The holder provides positive protection to one face of the silver disc. Silver disc with a thickness of 0.2 mm and 25 mm in diameter was used for 210Po spontaneous deposition. Results: The measured 210Po and 210Pb concentrations and 210Po/210Pb activity ratio in filtrate water, sediment, particulate matter and mussel samples are reported. Some results are presented in Figure 1 and Table 1. Correlations between 210Po and 210Pb concentrations in mussel and related environmental samples, mussel wet weight and size are presented. The Condition Index (relationship

  15. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-xing; Bao, Lin-fei; Fan, Mei-hua; Li, Xiao-min; Wu, Chang-wen; Xia, Shu-wei

    2015-01-01

    Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs) pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment. PMID:26218932

  16. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    Full Text Available Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment.

  17. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Liao, Zhi; Wang, Xin-Xing; Bao, Lin-Fei; Fan, Mei-Hua; Li, Xiao-Min; Wu, Chang-Wen; Xia, Shu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs) pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment.

  18. Irradiated bivalve mollusks: Use of EPR spectroscopy for identification and dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Angelo; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Fuochi, Piergiorgio; Macciantelli, Dante; Mangiacotti, Michele; Marchesani, Giuliana; Plescia, Elena

    2011-12-01

    High energy radiation treatment of foodstuff for microbial control and shelf-life extension is being used in many countries. However, for consumer protection and information, the European Union has adopted the Directives 1999/2/EC and 1999/3/EC to harmonize the rules concerning the treatment and trade of irradiated foods in EU countries. Among the validated methods to detect irradiated foods the EU directives also include Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR/ESR) spectroscopy.We describe herein the use of EPR for identification of four species of bivalve mollusks, i.e. brown Venus shells (Callista chione), clams (Tapes semidecussatus), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and oysters (Ostrea edulis) irradiated with 60Co γ-rays. EPR could definitely identify irradiated seashells due to the presence of long-lived free radicals, primarily CO2-, CO33-, SO2- and SO3- radical anions. The presence of other organic free radicals, believed to originate from conchiolin, a scleroprotein present in the shells, was also ascertained. The use of one of these radicals as a marker for irradiation of brown Venus shells and clams can be envisaged. We also propose a dosimetric protocol for the reconstruction of the administered dose in irradiated oysters.

  19. Irradiated bivalve mollusks: Use of EPR spectroscopy for identification and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, Angelo, E-mail: aalberti@isof.cnr.it [CNR-ISOF, Area della Ricerca di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna I-40129 (Italy); Chiaravalle, Eugenio [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e Basilicata, Via Manfredonia 20, Foggia I-71100 (Italy); Fuochi, Piergiorgio; Macciantelli, Dante [CNR-ISOF, Area della Ricerca di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna I-40129 (Italy); Mangiacotti, Michele, E-mail: michelemangiacotti@libero.it [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e Basilicata, Via Manfredonia 20, Foggia I-71100 (Italy); Marchesani, Giuliana [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e Basilicata, Via Manfredonia 20, Foggia I-71100 (Italy); Plescia, Elena [CNR-ISOF, Area della Ricerca di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna I-40129 (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    High energy radiation treatment of foodstuff for microbial control and shelf-life extension is being used in many countries. However, for consumer protection and information, the European Union has adopted the Directives 1999/2/EC and 1999/3/EC to harmonize the rules concerning the treatment and trade of irradiated foods in EU countries. Among the validated methods to detect irradiated foods the EU directives also include Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR/ESR) spectroscopy. We describe herein the use of EPR for identification of four species of bivalve mollusks, i.e. brown Venus shells (Callista chione), clams (Tapes semidecussatus), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and oysters (Ostrea edulis) irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays. EPR could definitely identify irradiated seashells due to the presence of long-lived free radicals, primarily CO{sub 2}{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 2}{sup -} and SO{sub 3}{sup -} radical anions. The presence of other organic free radicals, believed to originate from conchiolin, a scleroprotein present in the shells, was also ascertained. The use of one of these radicals as a marker for irradiation of brown Venus shells and clams can be envisaged. We also propose a dosimetric protocol for the reconstruction of the administered dose in irradiated oysters. - Highlights: > EPR spectroscopy is confirmed a valuable identification tool for irradiated mollusks. > A conchiolin-derived radical can be used as irradiation marker for some mollusks. > A reliable protocol is outlined for dose reconstruction of irradiated oysters.

  20. Genetic composition of Mytilus species in mussel populations from southern Chile Composición genética de especies de Mytilus en poblaciones de mejillón del sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Larraín

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mussels are one of the most cultivated and commercialized bivalves worldwide and in southern Chile its culture represent an important economic activity. The species identification within the Mytilus genera, by morphological features, is unreliable, so we used a polymorphism RFLP in the gene encoding the polyphenolic adhesive protein as a species-specific genetic marker to describe Mytilus species diversity in southern Chile, and evaluate possible applications in traceability, food quality and safety. Using Me 15-16 marker most mussels were M. chilensis, finding no other pure individuals; however, putative hybrids of M. chilensis x M. trossulus and M. chilensis x M. galloprovincialis were detected. There was no evidence of M. edulis. The presence of the M. trossulus allele, faraway from its distribution area, demands further analysis with different genetic markers to allow a better understanding of its origin. In addition, the correspondence between markers that distinguishes northern from southern hemisphere M. galloprovincialis, with those who discriminates between M. chilensis and M. galloprovincialis would contribute to the taxonomic status of Chilean blue mussels. In Chile, the genetic composition of Mytilus indicates that geographical origin of mussels and its traceability cannot be established merely from the identification of the species. The use of other markers would be required.Los mejillones son una de las especies de bivalvos más cultivadas y comercializadas, en el sur de Chile donde su cultivo representa una actividad económica importante. La identificación de la especie dentro del género Mytilus, basada en las características morfológicas no es confiable por lo que se utilizó un polimorfismo RFLP en el gen que codifica la proteína adhesiva polifenólica como marcador genético específico de la especie para describir la diversidad de especies Mytilus en el sur de Chile, y evaluar posibles aplicaciones en trazabilidad

  1. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in macroalgaes, bivalves, and fish from coastal areas in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Álvarez-Muñoz, D.; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S.; Maulvault, A.L.; Tediosi, A.; Fernández-Tejedor, M.; Heuvel, Van den F.; Kotterman, M.; Marques, A.; Barceló, D.

    2015-01-01

    The ocurrence and levels of PhACs, Endocrine Disrupting and related Compounds (EDCs) in seafood from potential contaminated areas in Europe has been studied. Macroalgae (S. accharina latissima and Laminaria digitata), bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus spp., Chamalea gallina and Crassos

  2. On the identity of broad-shelled mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilus) from the Dutch delta region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, D.S.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Rajagopal, S.; Jansen, J.M.; Bos, M.M.; Velde, van der G.; Gittenberger, E.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Raad, H.; Hummel, H.

    2011-01-01

    Late Quaternary (Eemian) deposits of the Netherlands contain shells that resemble those of living Mytilus galloprovincialis. Similar broad-shelled mytilids also occur in estuaries of the southwestern Netherlands together with slender individuals typical of M. edulis. We sampled living mussels along

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals in cultured and harvested bivalves from the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milun, Vesna; Lušić, Jelena; Despalatović, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals were determined in tissues of bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Venus verrucosa, Arca noae and Callista chione), collected from 11 harvesting and 2 cultured locations along the eastern Adriatic coast, in May and November 2012. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry weight) of organochlorines ranged from 1.53 to 21.1 for PCBs and 0.68 to 5.21 for p,p'-DDTs. HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin-like compounds were found in lower levels or were not detected. Metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dry weight) ranged from 0.23 to 4.03 for Cd, 0.87-3.43 for Cr, 3.69-202.3 for Cu, 0.06-0.26 for HgT, 0.62-9.42 for Ni, 0.95-4.64 for Pb, and 55.76-4010.3 for Zn. Established organochlorine and trace metal levels were lower than the maximum allowable levels in seafood set by the European Commission. PMID:27010163

  4. Validation of the flow-through chamber (FTC and steady-state (SS methods for clearance rate measurements in bivalves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul S. Larsen

    2011-09-01

    To obtain precise and reliable laboratory clearance rate (filtration rate measurements with the ‘flow-through chamber method’ (FTC the design must ensure that only inflow water reaches the bivalve's inhalant aperture and that exit flow is fully mixed. As earlier recommended these prerequisites can be checked by a plot of clearance rate (CR versus increasing through-flow (Fl to reach a plateau, which is the true CR, but we also recommend to plot percent particles cleared versus reciprocal through-flow where the plateau becomes the straight line CR/Fl, and we emphasize that the percent of particles cleared is in itself neither a criterion for valid CR measurement, nor an indicator of appropriate ‘chamber geometry’ as hitherto adapted in many studies. For the ‘steady-state method’ (SS, the design must ensure that inflow water becomes fully mixed with the bivalve's excurrent flow to establish a uniform chamber concentration prevailing at its incurrent flow and at the chamber outlet. These prerequisites can be checked by a plot of CR versus increasing Fl, which should give the true CR at all through-flows. Theoretically, the experimental uncertainty of CR for a given accuracy of concentration measurements depends on the percent reduction in particle concentration (100×P from inlet to outlet of the ideal ‘chamber geomety’. For FTC, it decreases with increasing values of P while for SS it first decreases but then increases again, suggesting the use of an intermediate value of P. In practice, the optimal value of P may depend on the given ‘chamber geometry’. The fundamental differences between the FTC and the SS methods and practical guidelines for their use are pointed out, and new data on CR for the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, illustrate a design and use of the SS method which may be employed in e.g. long-term growth experiments at constant algal concentrations.

  5. Growth potential of blue mussels (M. edulis) exposed to different salinities evaluated by a Dynamic Energy Budget model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Saurel, Camille; Landes, Anja;

    2015-01-01

    For bluemussels,Mytilus edulis, onemajor constrain in the Baltic Sea is the low salinities that reduce the efficiency of mussel production. However, the effects of living in low and variable salinity regimes are rarely considered in models describing mussel growth. The aim of the present study...

  6. Cruzamientos interpoblacionales en Mytilus chilensis, un bivalvo de importancia comercial y sus efectos sobre el crecimiento en longitud de la valva durante la etapa larval Inter-population breeding in Mytilus chilensis, an economically important bivalve, and its effects on the shell length during the larval stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Toro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dos poblaciones naturales de Mytilus chilensis aisladas geográficamente fueron utilizadas para realizar los cruzamientos experimentales en el presente trabajo. En todos los cruzamientos, utilizando un diseño factorial con réplicas, ocurrió fertilización de las ovas, no detectándose diferencias significativas entre los cruzamientos intra e interpoblacionales en cuanto al porcentaje de ovas que desarrollaron larvas al día 4 (P > 0,05. Sin embargo, el porcentaje de larvas anormales al día 4 fue significativamente mayor en los cruzamientos interpoblacionales (P Two geographically separated natural populations of Mytilus chilensis were utilized to carry out the experimental crosses on the present study. In every crossing, using the factorial design with replication, fertilization of eggs occurred without detection of significant differences among inter and intra-population crosses in relation to percentage of eggs developed into larvae at day 4 (P > 0.05. However, the percentage of abnormal larvae at day 4, was significantly higher among inter-population crosses (P < 0.05. The larvae from each cross were placed into a 200 l fiber-glass tank containing 1 µm filtered and U.V. treated fresh sea water, at a density of 100 larvae per ml. A high cell concentration of the micro algae Isochrysis galbana was used as food. Samples for analyzing larval growth were taken from the larval cultures at 4, 10 and 20 days after fertilization. Larval samples were videotyped from a plankton decantation chamber in an inverted microscope fitted with a Pulnex video camera. Selected images were captured for subsequent processing and measurement of each larva using a Scion Image 3.0b PC Software. Significantly differences (P < 0.05 were found in the size of the larvae among the experimental crosses. The sibs from inter-population crosses showed significantly (P < 0.05 higher sizes than those produced by the intra-population crosses. These higher values in the shell

  7. Variations in retention efficiency of bivalves to different concentrations and organic content of suspended particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继红; 方建光; 梁兴明

    2010-01-01

    Retention efficiencies (RE) of scallop (Chlamys farreri),oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and mussel (Mytilus edulis) in a flow-through system were measured to understand the short-term response to various particle and organic matter concentrations.By comparing the RE of C.farreri with that of C.gigas and M.edulis,we gained further knowledge on the feeding physiological characteristics of C.farreri and ascertained the possible cause of high summer mortalities of this species.The experimental feeding conditions in...

  8. Differences in sperm ultrastructure between Mytilus chilensis and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Bivalvia, Mytilidae: could be used as a taxonomic trait?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A Oyarzún

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sperm ultrastructure has been used to solve several systematic and phylogenetic problems in marine invertebrates. The sperm ultrastructure of the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis and Mytilus galloprovincialis corresponds to the ect-aquasperm type. Sperm from both taxa measured 55-60 μm between head (acrosome + nucleus, midpiece (only 5 mitochondria and the flagellum which in its end piece has a smaller diameter tail. The differences between both taxa are clearly shown, in the structure of the acrosome and nucleus. Therefore, according to our results and those reported in the literature, we indicate that Chilean native mussel sperm is different from other species of the Mytilus complex (M. trossulus, M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis. These differences in sperm ultrastructure found in M. chilensis, are another trait that can be used to validate the taxonomic status of the species. Differences in sperm morphology are related with reproductive isolation, and probably will be useful to understand future data on speciation. Finally, we discussed the finding that Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm from Chile have an acrosome notoriously smaller than those reported for specimens from Europe and Africa, though they have a great similarity with specimens from Japan, as reported in the literature.

  9. In-situ bioassays using caged bivalves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.H.; Salazar, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    It is important to make the distinction between chemical measurements to assess bioaccumulation potential versus biological measurements to assess potential bioeffects because bioaccumulation is not a bioeffect. Caging provides a unique opportunity to make synoptic measurements of each and facilitates making these measurements over space and time. Measuring bioaccumulation in resident and transplanted bivalves has probably been the most frequently used form of an in-situ bioassay because bivalves concentrate chemicals in their tissues. They are also easy to collect, cage, and measure. The authors have refined bivalve bioassay methods by minimizing the size range of test animals, making repetitive measurements of the same individuals, and standardizing test protocols for a variety of applications. They are now attempting to standardize criteria for accepting and interpreting data in the same way that laboratory bioassays have been standardized. Growth measurements can serve two purposes in this assessment strategy: (1) An integrated biological response endpoint that is easily quantifiable and with significance to the population, and (2) A means of calibrating bioaccumulation by assessing the relative health and physiological state of tissues that have accumulated the chemicals. In general, the authors have found the highest bioconcentration factors associated with the highest growth rates, the highest concentrations ({micro}g/g) of chemicals in juvenile mussels, and the highest chemical content ({micro}g/animal) in adult mussels. Without accounting for possible dilution of chemical concentrations by tissue growth or magnification through degrowth, contaminant concentrations can be misleading. Examples are provided for the Sudbury River in Massachusetts (Elliptio complanata), San Diego Bay (Mytilus galloprovincialis), and the Harbor Island Superfund Site in Puget Sound (Mytilus trossulus).

  10. Determination of Two Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisons Residues in Mytilus edulis Linnaeus by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry%高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定贻贝中腹泻性贝类毒素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海琪; 何欣; 郑重莺

    2012-01-01

    Establish the detection method of okadaic acid(OA) and dinophysistoxins(DTX-1) in Mytilus edulis using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS/MS).Shellfish sample was extracted by 80% methyl.Shellfish extract solution was clean-up by Sep-pak silica column.A triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer was used as a detector for HPLC to determine OA.As for the MS/MS,the multi-reactions monitoring(MRM) scan type and the negative ion electrospray ionization(-ESI) mode were applied.The precursor ion→product ion(m/z 803.5→m/z 255.1,m/z 803.5→m/z 563.1) was selected as OA quantitate detection ion pair.The precursor ion→product ion(m/z 817.4→m/z 255.1,m/z 817.4→m/z 113.1) was selected as DTX-1 quantitate detection ion pair.The mobile phase of HPLC was the methyl cyanide: 1% methanoic acid-water(vol/vol: 70:30) and the chromatographic column was Zorbax XDB-C18(2.1mm×150mm×5μm).The standard OA and DTX-1,the shellfish being added with OA and DTX-1,the shellfish sample were determine by the HPLC-MS/MS.The standard curve for OA showed good linearity over the concentration range of 5~640 ng/ml,the equation of linear regression was Y =207X-241(Q1/Q3:m/z 803.5→255.1),r was 0.9998,The recovery of sample being added with OA was 79.5%~88.6% and the RSD was 8.43%~10.4%.The standard curve for DTX-1 showed good linearity over the concentration range of 0 ~ 200 ng/ml,the equation of linear regression was Y =141X +3.59×103(Q1 /Q3: m / z817.4→255.1),r was 0.9997,The recovery of sample being added with DTX-1 was83.8%~91.2% and the RSD was 4.22%~6.54%.This HPLC-MS/MS is highly sensitive,fast,and very accurate.So it can be used for detecting the remain of OA and its natural derivative DTX-1 in shellfish.Among the 45 samples from the origin and market,4 samples were detected DSP,the ratio was 8.9%.%采用液相色谱-串联质谱法检测了贻贝中大田软

  11. Genes of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Estévez-Calvar

    Full Text Available Bivalves play vital roles in marine, brackish, freshwater and terrestrial habitats. In recent years, these ecosystems have become affected through anthropogenic activities. The ecological success of marine bivalves is based on the ability to modify their physiological functions in response to environmental changes. One of the most important mechanisms involved in adaptive responses to environmental and biological stresses is apoptosis, which has been scarcely studied in mollusks, although the final consequence of this process, DNA fragmentation, has been frequently used for pollution monitoring. Environmental stressors induce apoptosis in molluscan cells via an intrinsic pathway. Many of the proteins involved in vertebrate apoptosis have been recognized in model invertebrates; however, this process might not be universally conserved. Mytilus galloprovincialis is presented here as a new model to study the linkage between molecular mechanisms that mediate apoptosis and marine bivalve ecological adaptations. Therefore, it is strictly necessary to identify the key elements involved in bivalve apoptosis. In the present study, six mitochondrial apoptotic-related genes were characterized, and their gene expression profiles following UV irradiation were evaluated. This is the first step for the development of potential biomarkers to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress. The results confirmed that apoptosis and, more specifically, the expression of the genes involved in this process can be used to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress.

  12. Recombinant mitochondrial genome with standard transmission route from Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmietanka, Beata; Filipowicz, Monika; Burzyński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Several bivalve species, including marine mussels Mytilus are atypical in having two gender-specific and highly divergent mtDNA genomes. This peculiar genetic system allows not only the recombination to occur but also facilitates its detection. Previous reports associated the existence of mosaic recombinant haplotypes with the switch of their transmission route. Here we report nearly complete sequence of a mitochondrial genome isolated from a homoplasmic female individual of Mediterranean Mytilus galloprovincialis. The genome has clear phylogenetic affinity with and organization identical to the M. galloprovincialis female haplotypes, in the coding part. However, the genome is very large, approximately 20,600 bp long, exclusively due to a long and complex control region. It contains an array of repeats, some of which are degenerated. A large part of the control region is derived from the paternal genome. This finding shows that not all haplotypes with recombinant control regions must be paternally inherited in Mytilus.

  13. 双壳类线粒体基因组结构分析%Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomic Structures in Bivalves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟学平; 申欣; 赵娜娜; 田美; 郑立波; 程汉良; 阎斌伦; 董志国

    2013-01-01

    chain ,and mitochondrial genes from Unionoida in the 2 chains. A few species (12 species from Unionoida ,2 species from Veneroida ,1 species from Mytiloida ,and 1 species from Myoida , species from oyster Crassostrea) mitochondrial genomes contain 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) ,and the remainings are comprised of 12 PCGs ,w hich are lack of AT P8 gene. The gene arrangements of PCGs and rRNAs are identical within same genus or family ,including 4 species from Meretrix ,4 species from Crassostrea ,11 species from Unionidae and Margaritiferidae , two species (Mytilus edulis and M. galloprovincialis) from mussel Mytilus. The gene arrangements of 10 mitochondrial genomes from Ostreidae can be divided into 7 types. There were no shared gene blocks in mitochondrial genomes from Pectinidae except similar gene structures were detected in bay scallop Argopecten irradians irradians f arreri(NC_012977)and A. irradians(NC_009687). The mussels Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus from Mytilidae have very similar genomic structures ,and the genomic structure of Musculista senhousia is very special with a duplicated cox2 genes. The gene arrangement of Hiatella arctica from Myoida is very different from other species. The proportions of non-coding regions in mitogenomes are ranged from 7.6%to 40.3% ,the major non-coding region ranging from 374nt to 4341nt in size in bivalves. The minimum divergence is found to be 0.2-1.0/0-1.0 in Meretrix ,0.4-2.0/0-3.2 in Mytilus and 1.9-13.9/0-6.4 in oyster Crassostrea based on nucleotides of PCGs genes/amino acids of proteins.

  14. The health status of mussels, Mytilus spp., in Ireland and Wales with the molecular identification of a previously undescribed haplosporidian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, S A; Morgan, E; Carlsson, J; Mackenzie, C; Wooton, E C; Rowley, A F; Malham, S; Culloty, S C

    2014-05-01

    Both wild and cultured mussels (Mytilus edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis and hybrids), are found along most of the Irish coastline. M. edulis is widespread along all Irish coasts and is the only mussel species present on both the east coast of Ireland and the Welsh coast in the Irish Sea. M. galloprovincialis and hybrids are found along the Irish coastline except for the east coast. Samples of Mytilus spp. were collected from twenty-four sites, encompassing all coasts of Ireland and the Welsh coast, at different times of the year and over several years (2008-2011). In total, 841 mussels were examined histologically to assess their health status and the presence of any parasites or commensals. Mussels from 14 of the 24 sites were screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine which mytilid species were present. A range of parasites were observed, generally at low levels. The most diverse community of parasites was observed at a sheltered site with poor water quality. Of significance, a previously undescribed haplosporidian was detected in a single mussel sample in the Menai Strait, Wales, by PCR and was confirmed by direct sequencing and is most closely related to Minchina chitonis and a haplosporidian of the Florida marsh clam Cyrenoida floridana. While M. edulis were infected by a variety of micro- and macro-parasites, only trematodes were observed in M. galloprovincialis and hybrids. Habitat description and the environmental factors influencing the study sites, including water quality and exposure, were recorded.

  15. Ocean Acidification Has Multiple Modes of Action on Bivalve Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbusser, George G; Hales, Burke; Langdon, Chris J; Haley, Brian A; Schrader, Paul; Brunner, Elizabeth L; Gray, Matthew W; Miller, Cale A; Gimenez, Iria; Hutchinson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is altering the chemistry of the world's oceans at rates unparalleled in the past roughly 1 million years. Understanding the impacts of this rapid change in baseline carbonate chemistry on marine organisms needs a precise, mechanistic understanding of physiological responses to carbonate chemistry. Recent experimental work has shown shell development and growth in some bivalve larvae, have direct sensitivities to calcium carbonate saturation state that is not modulated through organismal acid-base chemistry. To understand different modes of action of OA on bivalve larvae, we experimentally tested how pH, PCO2, and saturation state independently affect shell growth and development, respiration rate, and initiation of feeding in Mytilus californianus embryos and larvae. We found, as documented in other bivalve larvae, that shell development and growth were affected by aragonite saturation state, and not by pH or PCO2. Respiration rate was elevated under very low pH (~7.4) with no change between pH of ~ 8.3 to ~7.8. Initiation of feeding appeared to be most sensitive to PCO2, and possibly minor response to pH under elevated PCO2. Although different components of physiology responded to different carbonate system variables, the inability to normally develop a shell due to lower saturation state precludes pH or PCO2 effects later in the life history. However, saturation state effects during early shell development will carry-over to later stages, where pH or PCO2 effects can compound OA effects on bivalve larvae. Our findings suggest OA may be a multi-stressor unto itself. Shell development and growth of the native mussel, M. californianus, was indistinguishable from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from the southern U.S. Pacific coast, an area not subjected to seasonal upwelling. The concordance in responses suggests a fundamental OA bottleneck during development of the first shell material affected only by

  16. Ocean Acidification Has Multiple Modes of Action on Bivalve Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George G Waldbusser

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is altering the chemistry of the world's oceans at rates unparalleled in the past roughly 1 million years. Understanding the impacts of this rapid change in baseline carbonate chemistry on marine organisms needs a precise, mechanistic understanding of physiological responses to carbonate chemistry. Recent experimental work has shown shell development and growth in some bivalve larvae, have direct sensitivities to calcium carbonate saturation state that is not modulated through organismal acid-base chemistry. To understand different modes of action of OA on bivalve larvae, we experimentally tested how pH, PCO2, and saturation state independently affect shell growth and development, respiration rate, and initiation of feeding in Mytilus californianus embryos and larvae. We found, as documented in other bivalve larvae, that shell development and growth were affected by aragonite saturation state, and not by pH or PCO2. Respiration rate was elevated under very low pH (~7.4 with no change between pH of ~ 8.3 to ~7.8. Initiation of feeding appeared to be most sensitive to PCO2, and possibly minor response to pH under elevated PCO2. Although different components of physiology responded to different carbonate system variables, the inability to normally develop a shell due to lower saturation state precludes pH or PCO2 effects later in the life history. However, saturation state effects during early shell development will carry-over to later stages, where pH or PCO2 effects can compound OA effects on bivalve larvae. Our findings suggest OA may be a multi-stressor unto itself. Shell development and growth of the native mussel, M. californianus, was indistinguishable from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from the southern U.S. Pacific coast, an area not subjected to seasonal upwelling. The concordance in responses suggests a fundamental OA bottleneck during development of the first shell material

  17. Disentangling the Biological and Environmental Control of M. edulis Shell Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Agnes; Hiebenthal, Claas; Fietzke, Jan; Eisenhauer, Anton; Wahl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Blue mussel individuals (Mytilus edulis) were cultured at four different salinities (17, 20, 29, and 34). During the course of the experiment, temperature was gradually increased from 6°C to 14°C. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios of the shell calcite portions produced during the 9 weeks of experimental treatment as well parts that were precipitated before the treatment phase were measured by laser ablation–multicollector–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. Mg/Ca ratios show a positive correla...

  18. Suspended culture of Ostrea edulis in the Calich lagoon (North western Sardinia, Italy): preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Pais, Antonio; Chessa, Lorenzo Antonio; Serra, Simonetto; Ruiu, Alberto; Meloni, G

    2007-01-01

    Suspended culture is a widespread farming method used for many bivalve species such as mussels, oysters and scallops. In the Mediterranean, this technique is mainly practised in lagoons or in sheltered coastal areas using floating lines from which molluscs are suspended in several ways. In this study, the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis Linné, 1758) was grown in suspended lantern nets in the Calich lagoon (Sardinia, Mediterranean Sea) from March 2004 to March 2005. Two distinc...

  19. Adaptive morphologies and guild structure in a high-diversity bivalve fauna from an early Campanian rocky shore, Ivö Klack (Sweden)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Mehlin; Surlyk, Finn; Jagt, John W. M.

    2012-01-01

    The bivalve fauna from a late early Campanian rocky shore at Ivö Klack (southern Sweden), comprises just over sixty species, a very high diversity in comparison to other Late Cretaceous and modern rocky shore bivalve assemblages. This high diversity is here considered to represent a reliable census...... of the fauna; only in part can it be explained by the cumulative effect of generations of bivalves inhabiting this coastal environment. The high density and diversity and the wide range of shell morphologies allow interpretation of different modes of life in this variable environment with many...... from adjacent environments. It includes some of the most northerly known, very small rudistid bivalves, in addition to the oldest known occurrences of Mytilus and Barbatia in association with rocky shores. Bivalves constituted the most important invertebrate group inhabiting the late early Campanian...

  20. Assessment and Molecular Characterization of Human Intestinal Parasites in Bivalves from Orchard Beach, NY, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freda F. Tei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bivalves have been shown to be carriers of the human intestinal parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of protozoan parasites in mollusks of New York City using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assay. Four species of mollusks, Mya arenaria, Geukensia demissa, Crassostrea virginica, and Mytilis edulis, were collected from Orchard Beach, NY in the fall of 2014, totaling 159 specimens. Each individual mollusk was dissected to harvest the digestive gland, the mantle, the gills, the foot and the siphon. The tissues were assayed for the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii DNA by using primers that target parasite-specific genes. C. parvum was found at a prevalence of 50%, 11.3%, and 1%, respectively, in Mya arenaria, G. demissa, and Mytilis edulis. C. parvum DNA was detected in all the tissues of these bivalve species, except the gills. Furthermore, G. lamblia was detected in Mya arenaria, G. demissa, Crassostrea virginica and Mytilis edulis at a prevalence of 37.5%, 4.5%, 60%, and 20.6%, respectively, while T. gondii DNA was not detected.

  1. Assessment and Molecular Characterization of Human Intestinal Parasites in Bivalves from Orchard Beach, NY, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei, Freda F; Kowalyk, Steven; Reid, Jhenelle A; Presta, Matthew A; Yesudas, Rekha; Mayer, D C Ghislaine

    2016-04-01

    Bivalves have been shown to be carriers of the human intestinal parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of protozoan parasites in mollusks of New York City using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Four species of mollusks, Mya arenaria, Geukensia demissa, Crassostrea virginica, and Mytilis edulis, were collected from Orchard Beach, NY in the fall of 2014, totaling 159 specimens. Each individual mollusk was dissected to harvest the digestive gland, the mantle, the gills, the foot and the siphon. The tissues were assayed for the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii DNA by using primers that target parasite-specific genes. C. parvum was found at a prevalence of 50%, 11.3%, and 1%, respectively, in Mya arenaria, G. demissa, and Mytilis edulis. C. parvum DNA was detected in all the tissues of these bivalve species, except the gills. Furthermore, G. lamblia was detected in Mya arenaria, G. demissa, Crassostrea virginica and Mytilis edulis at a prevalence of 37.5%, 4.5%, 60%, and 20.6%, respectively, while T. gondii DNA was not detected. PMID:27043590

  2. Insights into shell deposition in the Antarctic bivalve Laternula elliptica: gene discovery in the mantle transcriptome using 454 pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Power Deborah M

    2010-06-01

    ,084 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms(SNPs/INDELS, providing a resource for population and also gene function studies. Conclusions This is the first 454 data from an Antarctic marine invertebrate. Sequencing of mantle tissue from this non-model species has considerably increased resources for the investigation of the processes of shell deposition and repair in molluscs in a changing environment. A number of promising candidate genes were identified for functional analyses, which will be the subject of further investigation in this species and also used in model-hopping experiments in more tractable and economically important model aquaculture species, such as Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus edulis.

  3. Micropropagation of Alibertia edulis Rich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Augusta Boato da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a micropropagation protocol for Alibertia edulis, a medicinal Brazilian Cerrado plant. A. edulis seeds were sterilized and germinated in water-agar. Fifteen millimeter long explants from the seedlings cultivated for 50 days were used for the multiplication in three consecutive subcultures. The cytokinin benzyladenine (BA alone or combined with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA was added to ¼ MS medium. The treatments containing combinations of the BA + IBA induced more shoot proliferation than the BA alone, with the optimum concentration of 0.5 mg.L-1 for both growth regulators. A. edulis shoots elongated easily and the presence of growth regulators did have a positive effect on the shoot elongation. Consecutive subcultures also had a positive effect on both sprouting and shoot elongation. Activated charcoal was essential for rooting, and all rooted plants were able to acclimatize.Foi desenvolvido um protocolo de micropropagação para A. edulis, uma espécie arbórea frutífera e medicinal presente no Cerrado brasileiro. Sementes de A. edulis foram esterilizadas e germinadas em ágar-água. Explantes de 15 mm foram retirados das plântulas e cultivados por 50 dias em meio de multiplicação e três subculturas. A citocinina benzilalanina (BA, sozinha ou em combinação com ácido indol butírico (IBA foram adicionados em no meio ¼ MS. Os tratamentos contendo combinações de BA-IBA induziram uma maior proliferação de brotos que aqueles somente com BA, e a concentração ótima desses reguladores de crescimento foi de 0.5 mg.L-1 para cada. Os brotos de A. edulis facilmente se alongaram e a presença de reguladores de crescimento no meio de cultura teve efeito positivo sobre o alongamento. Da mesma forma, as consecutivas subculturas tiveram um efeito positivo tanto sobre a brotação quanto no alongamento. Carvão ativado foi essencial para o enraizamento dos ramos, e todas as plantas foram aclimatadas com sucesso.

  4. Histopathological and apoptotic changes on marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamark, 1819) following exposure to environmental pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavaşoğlu, Altuğ; Özkan, Dilara; Güner, Adem; Katalay, Selma; Oltulu, Fatih; Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü Karabay

    2016-08-15

    Marine bivalve mussels, especially Mytilus species are an earlywarning system used for determining of damage caused by the various aquatic pollutions. In the present study, Mytilus galloprovincialis L. (black mussel) have been utilised as a biomonitoring organism to reveal environmental pollution in the Aliaga, Foca and Urla where located along the Izmir Coast of Turkey. Mussels were collected at these areas and gill and hepatopancreas (digestive gland) tissues were excised. mRNA expressions of initiator (caspase-2 and -8) and executioner (caspase -3/7-1, -3/7-2, -3/7-3 and -3/7-4) caspases of mussels tissues in areas exposed to pollution agent have been observed. TUNEL immunoreactivity in paralel to histopathological changes in both Aliaga and Foca areas were compared with Urla. This study is the first report to reveal the pollution with apoptotic expression on mussels in the coast of Turkey.

  5. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MUSSELS (MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS FARMED AND COMMERCIALIZED IN CAMPANIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Costanzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mytilus galloprovincialis is one of the most commonly consumed bivalve molluscs. Several samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from different sea farms or bought in retail shops and from irregular peddlers. Total Mesophilic and Psicrophilic Aerobic Bacteria, Enterobatteriacee, E. coli, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp. and L. monocytogenes were researched following ISO methods and EU Regulations. In mussels taken from the farms the limits were higher than those established by EU Regulation 2073/2005 only in one sample for E.coli and one for Salmonella spp. The mussels bought in retail shops showed good results and no sample exceed the law limits. Only one sample collected from irregular peddlers showed high levels of E.coli.

  6. Seasonal changes in functional parameters of the hemolymph of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ciacci

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available n bivalves, many functional parameters show seasonal changes in relation to both abiotic (such as temperature and salinity and biotic factors (such as gonad maturation, food availability. Available data indicate that also immune parameters can show seasonal fluctuations in the marine mussel Mytilus spp.. In this work we report data on hemocyte lysosomal membrane stability (LMS and phagocytic activity, as well as on soluble lysozyme activity, in the hemolymph of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis collected over a 24 month period in the Adriatic Sea (2006-2007. The results indicate that all the parameters measured show seasonal fluctuations over the year, with lysozyme activity showing the largest changes. Lowest LMS values were observed in early winter and early autumn, whereas maximal values of phagocytic activity were observed in winter and increasing serum lysozyme activities were recorded in autumn. The observed seasonal fluctuations are discussed in relation to both abiotic (temperature and biotic (changes in endogenous modulators factors.

  7. Can bivalve veligers escape feeding currents of adult bivalves?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, K.; Veldhuizen, R.; Stamhuis, E.J.; Wolff, W.

    2008-01-01

    While the stock of introduced Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) increased in the Oosterschelde estuary (SW Netherlands), so did the filtration pressure of all bivalve species together. In the same period, stocks of native bivalves declined slightly. The expansion of Pacific oysters in Dutch estuar

  8. Recirculation nursery systems for bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Blanco Garcia, A.; Joaquim, Sandra; Matias, Domitilia; Magnesen, Thorolf; Nicolas, J.; Petten, Bruno; Robert, Rene

    2016-01-01

    n order to increase production of bivalves in hatcheries and nurseries, the development of new technology and its integration into commercial bivalve hatcheries is important. Recirculation aquaculture systems (RASs) have several advantages: high densities of the species can be cultured resulting in

  9. First evidence of immunomodulation in bivalves under seawater acidification and increased temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Matozzo

    Full Text Available Water acidification, temperature increases and changes in seawater salinity are predicted to occur in the near future. In such a global climate change (GCC scenario, there is growing concern for the health status of both wild and farmed organisms. Bivalve molluscs, an important component of coastal marine ecosystems, are at risk. At the immunological level, the ability of an organism to maintain its immunosurveillance unaltered under adverse environmental conditions may enhance its survival capability. To our knowledge, only a few studies have investigated the effects of changing environmental parameters (as predicted in a GCC scenario on the immune responses of bivalves. In the present study, the effects of both decreased pH values and increased temperature on the important immune parameters of two bivalve species were evaluated for the first time. The clam Chamelea gallina and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, widespread along the coast of the Northwestern Adriatic Sea, were chosen as model organisms. Bivalves were exposed for 7 days to three pH values (8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 at two temperatures (22 and 28°C. Three independent experiments were carried out at salinities of 28, 34 and 40 PSU. The total haemocyte count, Neutral Red uptake, haemolymph lysozyme activity and total protein levels were measured. The results obtained demonstrated that tested experimental conditions affected significantly most of the immune parameters measured in bivalves, even if the variation pattern of haemocyte responses was not always linear. Between the two species, C. gallina appeared more vulnerable to changing pH and temperature than M. galloprovincialis. Overall, this study demonstrated that climate changes can strongly affect haemocyte functionality in bivalves. However, further studies are needed to clarify better the mechanisms of action of changing environmental parameters, both individually and in combination, on bivalve haemocytes.

  10. Studies on filtration rate in four species of suspension feeding bivalves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林元烧; 罗文新; 曹文清; 郭东晖; 郑爱榕; 黄长江

    2002-01-01

    The filtration rates of four kinds of bivalves that were cultivated dominantly around Xiamen sea area were measured by using a laboratory flowing system. The experimental results were shown below: (1) Filtration rates were measured in the range of 54~74.8 ml/ (g@min) among the four bivalves, sequencing descently Saccostrea cucullata > Sinonovacula constricta > Mytilus viridis > Ruditapes philippinarum. (2) The relationship between filtration rates on individual size showed a negative exponential function (FR = aWb, FR' = aWb-1), with b - 1 = - 0.435 6 and - 0.392. (3) Filtration rates on Skeletonema costatum were much higher than on Alexandrium tamarensis and Scrippsilla trochoidea inS. Cucullata and R. Philippinarum. (4) FR'on algal densities was also shown a negative function(FR' = aDb-1), with b-1 =-0.143 and-0.215 2 in S.cucullata and R.philippinarum, respectively.

  11. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis confirms Ostreidae classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morga Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of its typical architecture, inheritance and small size, mitochondrial (mt DNA is widely used for phylogenetic studies. Gene order is generally conserved in most taxa although some groups show considerable variation. This is particularly true in the phylum Mollusca, especially in the Bivalvia. During the last few years, there have been significant increases in the number of complete mitochondrial sequences available. For bivalves, 35 complete mitochondrial genomes are now available in GenBank, a number that has more than doubled in the last three years, representing 6 families and 23 genera. In the current study, we determined the complete mtDNA sequence of O. edulis, the European flat oyster. We present an analysis of features of its gene content and genome organization in comparison with other Ostrea, Saccostrea and Crassostrea species. Results The Ostrea edulis mt genome is 16 320 bp in length and codes for 37 genes (12 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs and 23 tRNAs on the same strand. As in other Ostreidae, O. edulis mt genome contains a split of the rrnL gene and a duplication of trnM. The tRNA gene set of O. edulis, Ostrea denselamellosa and Crassostrea virginica are identical in having 23 tRNA genes, in contrast to Asian oysters, which have 25 tRNA genes (except for C. ariakensis with 24. O. edulis and O. denselamellosa share the same gene order, but differ from other Ostreidae and are closer to Crassostrea than to Saccostrea. Phylogenetic analyses reinforce the taxonomic classification of the 3 families Ostreidae, Mytilidae and Pectinidae. Within the Ostreidae family the results also reveal a closer relationship between Ostrea and Saccostrea than between Ostrea and Crassostrea. Conclusions Ostrea edulis mitogenomic analyses show a high level of conservation within the genus Ostrea, whereas they show a high level of variation within the Ostreidae family. These features provide useful information for further

  12. Estrategias reproductivas de moluscos bivalvos y equinoideos

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, J.; Morriconi, E.; Orler, P.

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical aspects of reproductive strategies and life histories are analyzed. The gonadal structures and the main features of gametogenesis of bivalves and echinoids are described. Research on the reproductive characteristics and gametogenic cycles of the bivalve molluscs in the Argentinian littoral and the echinoid Loxechinus albus is reviewed. Special references to Mytilus edulis, Aulacomya ater, Brachidontes purpuratus, Aequipecten tehuelchus, Zygochlamys patagonica, Ostrea puelchana...

  13. Aggregation and attachment responses of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis—impact of substrate composition, time scale and source of mussel seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Hansen, Benni Winding;

    2015-01-01

    Survival after transplantation of mussel seeds is crucial for the production output of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in bottom cultures. Hence, an understanding of the interactions between bed formation, habitat structure and performance of mussel seed of different origins can contribute...... a suspended long line culture. The mussels were applied to experimental units of complex and smooth substrate on the sea bed. Data on aggregation (day 0, day 1 and day 2), attachment strength (day 2 and 30), loss (day 2 and 30) and growth (day 0–30) of musselswere collected during the experiment. The results...

  14. P-glycoprotein and its inducible expression in three bivalve species after exposure to Prorocentrum lima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Liu, Su-Li; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong

    2015-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp or ABCB1) belongs to the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters responsible for multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) in aquatic organisms. To provide more information of P-gp in shellfish, in this study, complete cDNA of P-gp in three bivalve species including Ruditapes philippinarum, Scapharca subcrenata and Tegillarca granosa were cloned and its expressions in gill, digestive gland, adductor muscle and mantle of the three bivalves were detected after exposure to Prorocentrum lima, a toxogenic dinoflagellate. The complete sequences of R. philippinarum, S. subcrenata and T. granosa P-gp showed high homology with MDR/P-gp/ABCB proteins from other species, having a typical sequence organization as full transporters from the ABCB family. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the amino acid sequences of P-gp from S. subcrenata and T. granosa had a closest relationship, forming an independent branch, then grouping into the other branch with Mytilus californianus, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas. However, P-gp sequences from R. philippinarum were more similar to the homologs from the more distantly related Aplysia californica than to homologs from S. subcrenata and T. granosa, suggesting that bivalves P-gp might have different paralogs. P-glycoprotein expressed in all detected tissues but there were large differences between them. After exposure to P. lima, the expression of P-gp changed in the four tissues in varying degrees within the same species and between different species, but the changes in mRNA and protein level were not always synchronous.

  15. Sperm proteome of Mytilus galloprovincialis: Insights into the evolution of fertilization proteins in marine mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Mu, Huawei; Lau, Stanley C K; Zhang, Zhifeng; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Cataloging the sperm proteome of an animal can improve our understanding of its sperm-egg interaction and speciation, but such data are available for only a few free-spawning invertebrates. This study aimed to identify the sperm proteome of Mytilus galloprovincialis, a free-spawning marine mussel. We integrated public transcriptome datasets by de novo assembly, and applied SDS-PAGE coupled LC-MS/MS analysis to profile the sperm proteome, resulting in the identification of 550 proteins. Comparing the homologous sperm protein coding genes between M. galloprovincialis and its closely related species M. edulis revealed that fertilization proteins have the highest mean nonsynonymous substitution rate (Ka/Ks = 0.62) among 11 functional groups, consistent with previous reports of positive selection of several fertilization proteins in Mytilus. Moreover, 78 sperm proteins in different functional groups have Ka/Ks values > 0.5, indicating the presence of many candidate sperm proteins for further analysis of rapid interspecific divergence. The MS data are available in ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD001665.

  16. Sequence analysis of novel CYP4 transcripts from Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravlić, Sanda; Žučko, Jurica; Tanković, Mirta Smodlaka; Fafanđel, Maja; Bihari, Nevenka

    2015-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are essential components of cellular detoxification system. We identified and characterized seven new cytochrome P450 gene transcript clusters in the populations of bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis from three different locations. The phylogenetic analysis identified all transcripts as clusters within the CYP4 branch. Identified clusters, each comprising a number of transcript variants, were designated CYP4Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, Y6 and Y7. Transcript clusters CYP4Y2 and Y7, and CYP4Y5 and Y6 showed site specificity, while the transcript clusters CYP4Y1, Y3 and Y4 were present at all investigated locations. The comparison of transcripts deduced amino acid sequences with CYP4s from vertebrate and invertebrate species showed high conservation of the residues and domains essential to the putative function of the enzyme, as terminal ω-hydroxylation and prostaglandin hydroxylation. Our results suggest the great expansion of the CYP4Y cDNAs indicative of CYP4 proteins in the mussel M. galloprovincialis presumably as a response to different environmental conditions.

  17. Effects of nanopolystyrene on the feeding behavior of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegner, A.; Besseling, E.; Foekema, E.M.; Kamermans, P.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    As the industrial production of nanoplastic and the degradation of microplastic into smaller particles at sea increase, the potential amount of nanoplastics in the marine environment rises. It has been reported that mussels uptake 100-nm polystyrene (PS) beads; to date, however, the effects of this

  18. Effects of PCB 126 and cadmium on the anaerobic metabolism of the mussel Mytilus edulis L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertman, R.H.M.; Zurburg, W.; Schipper, C.A.; Sandee, B.; Smaal, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of mussels to PCB 126 and/or cadmium resulted in elevated anaerobic metabolic activity during 48 hr of aerial exposure. In mussels exposed to PCB 126 or cadmium this was achieved by an increased opine production. The largest increase was observed in PCB exposed mussels. In mussels that were

  19. Histochemical and structural analysis of mucous glycoprotein secreted by the gill of Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hae-Young.

    1988-01-01

    Studies were carried out to characterized various mucous cells in the gill filament, to ascertain structural characteristics of the secreted mucous glycoproteins, and to determine the ability of the gill epithelium to incorporate ({sup 14}C)glucosamine as a precursor in the biosynthesis and secretion of mucous glycoproteins. Using histochemical staining techniques, mucous cells containing neutral and acidic mucins were found in the lateral region, whereas mucous cells containing primarily neutral or sulfated mucins were found in the postlateral region. Serotonin, but not dopamine, stimulated the mucous secretion. In tissues pretreated with ({sup 14}C)glucosamine, the secreted glycoproteins contain incorporated radiolabel. Analysis by column chromatography using Bio-Gel P-2 and P-6 shows that the secretion contains two glycoprotein populations. Glycoprotein II has a molecular weight of 2.3 {times} 10{sup 4} daltons. Upon alkaline reductive borohydride cleavage of the O-glycosidic linkages of glycoprotein I, about 70% of the radiolabel was removed from the protein. Gas chromatographic analysis of the carbohydrate composition shows that the glycoproteins contains N-acetylglucosamine (GluNAc), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and galactose, fucose and mannose. Amino acid analysis shows that the glycoproteins are rich in serine, threonine and proline.

  20. Metabolomic analysis of sex specific metabolites in gonads of the mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero-Leon, Elena; Minier, Christophe; Rotchell, Jeanette M; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2012-06-01

    Marine mussels have been used as sentinel organisms to monitor exposure to a variety of chemical contaminants, including endocrine disrupting chemicals, in the aquatic environment. Although they are an important species for use in ecotoxicology investigations, information on their reproductive physiology and biochemistry is fragmentary. Mass spectrometry-based profiling techniques are increasingly being used to study how the metabolome of an organism changes as a result of tissue differentiation, disease or in response to environmental stressors. In this study, ultraperformance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOFMS) was used to investigate sex specific differences in the mussel metabolome in order to further investigate the reproductive physiology of this species. Using this method, a comparison of female and male mantle tissues containing mature gonad, revealed significant differences in glycerophosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) metabolites. A number of other unidentified metabolites, including those putatively identified as conjugated sterols, were also differentially expressed between male and female mantle/gonadal tissue. PMID:22475636

  1. Prey selection of a captive Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus hammering Mussels Mytilus edulis from the ventral side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, BJ; Alting, D

    1996-01-01

    We studied prey choice of a captive Oystercatcher:hat hammered Mussels from the ventral side. The results replicate previous findings that ventral hammerers select Mussels of intermediate size, select against thick-shelled Mussels, abandon an increasing proportion of Mussels with increasing size and

  2. Histochemical and structural analysis of mucous glycoprotein secreted by the gill of Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out to characterized various mucous cells in the gill filament, to ascertain structural characteristics of the secreted mucous glycoproteins, and to determine the ability of the gill epithelium to incorporate [14C]glucosamine as a precursor in the biosynthesis and secretion of mucous glycoproteins. Using histochemical staining techniques, mucous cells containing neutral and acidic mucins were found in the lateral region, whereas mucous cells containing primarily neutral or sulfated mucins were found in the postlateral region. Serotonin, but not dopamine, stimulated the mucous secretion. In tissues pretreated with [14C]glucosamine, the secreted glycoproteins contain incorporated radiolabel. Analysis by column chromatography using Bio-Gel P-2 and P-6 shows that the secretion contains two glycoprotein populations. Glycoprotein II has a molecular weight of 2.3 x 104 daltons. Upon alkaline reductive borohydride cleavage of the O-glycosidic linkages of glycoprotein I, about 70% of the radiolabel was removed from the protein. Gas chromatographic analysis of the carbohydrate composition shows that the glycoproteins contains N-acetylglucosamine (GluNAc), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), and galactose, fucose and mannose. Amino acid analysis shows that the glycoproteins are rich in serine, threonine and proline

  3. Seasonal variation in mineralization rates (C-N-P-Si) of mussel Mytilus edulis biodeposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Smaal, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    To determine seasonal variability in mineralization dynamics of mussel biodeposits, we applied a multiple-element approach measuring mineralization rates of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and silicate (Si) during three periods (March, August and November). The results of this study showed

  4. Area-intensive bottom culture production of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp

    it is therefore necessary to focus on area-intensive production methods for mussel exploitation. For that purpose bottom culture production of blue mussels is relevant. Despite a long tradition for bottom culturing in Europe the method is still de-pendent on natural conditions, such as recruitment, food...... insights in biological mechanisms can be used as a tool to develop and optimize bottom culture production methods. The study was addressed through the following questions: 1) How can the seed mussel source in bottom culturing be supported? 2) How can survival of mussels in bottom culturing be improved......? And 3) How does bottom culture practice support an area-intensive exploitation of blue mussels? To answer the questions four experimental studies were conducted. Results from a laboratory- and a manipulated field experiment showed that blue mussels collected on sus-pended long line cultures in the water...

  5. Ionising radiation-induced DNA damage response in marine mussels, Mytilus edulis

    OpenAIRE

    Alamri, Ohoud

    2012-01-01

    The effects of ionising radiation (IR) present in aquatic environments have been observed principally in vertebrate species but the potential biological impacts for aquatic invertebrate species are less clear. It is important to determine the influence of IR as a pollutant causing DNA damage in invertebrates at the molecular level since this may serve as an early warning of future population level repercussions. In this study, the biological effects of the IR as an environemnt...

  6. The utilization of glycogen and accumulation of some intermediates during anaerobiosis in Mytilus edulis L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, A.; Zandee, D.I.

    1972-01-01

    1. 1. Glycogen degradation in the mussel under anaerobic conditions was measured at two temperatures. Glycogen decrease at 6·6°C was about 3 mg and at 20°C about 6 mg/24 hr per mussel. A Pasteur effect was observed. 2. 2. The decrease of glycogen was almost entirely restricted to muscles, including

  7. A mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue certified reference material for the marine biotoxins azaspiracids

    OpenAIRE

    McCarron, Pearse; Giddings, Sabrina D.; Reeves, Kelley L.; Hess, Philipp; Michael A. Quilliam

    2015-01-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are lipophilic biotoxins produced by marine algae that can contaminate shellfish and cause human illness. The European Union (EU) regulates the level of AZAs in shellfish destined for the commercial market, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) being used as the official reference method for regulatory analysis. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential tools for the development, validation, and quality control of LC-MS methods. This paper describes...

  8. Life history traits to predict biogeographic species distributions in bivalves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalto, V.; Rinaldi, A.; Sarà, G.

    2015-10-01

    Organismal fecundity ( F) and its relationship with body size (BS) are key factors in predicting species distribution under current and future scenarios of global change. A functional trait-based dynamic energy budget (FT-DEB) is proposed as a mechanistic approach to predict the variation of F and BS as function of environmental correlates using two marine bivalves as model species ( Mytilus galloprovincialis and Brachidontes pharaonis). Validation proof of model skill (i.e., degree of correspondence between model predictions and field observations) and stationarity (i.e., ability of a model generated from data collected at one place/time to predict processes at another place/time) was provided to test model performance in predicting the bivalve distribution throughout the 22 sites in the Central Mediterranean Sea under local conditions of food density and body temperature. Model skill and stationarity were tested through the estimate of commission (i.e., proportion of species' absences predicted present) and omission (i.e., proportion of presences predicted absent) errors of predictions by comparing mechanistic predicted vs. observed F and BS values throughout the study area extrapolated by lab experiments and literature search. The resulting relationship was reliable for both species, and body size and fecundity were highly correlated in M. galloprovincialis compared to B. pharaonis; FT-DEB showed correct predictions of presence in more than 75 % of sites, and the regression between BS predicted vs. observed was highly significant in both species. Whilst recognising the importance of biotic interactions in shaping the distribution of species, our FT-DEB approach provided reliable quantitative estimates of where our species had sufficient F to support local populations or suggesting reproductive failure. Mechanistically, estimating F and BS as key traits of species life history can also be addressed within a broader, scale-dependent context that surpasses the

  9. Trace element ratios in bivalve shells as records of environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, S.; Opdyke, B.; Welch, S.; Beavis, S.

    2007-12-01

    Stable isotope and trace element data from the carbonate of both marine and freshwater bivalves are proving to be useful tools in studies of palaeoclimate and environmental change. However, much of the work already done has shown that the trace element ratios in bivalve shells exhibit a complex relationship with the ambient environment and caution must be exercised when attempting to use them as environmental proxies. This work examines the feasibility of using the trace element ratios Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca and Mn/Ca of the shells of a number of different species of bivalves as records of the temperature and salinity of their ambient aquatic environment. The species analysed were the estuarine oysters Saccostrea glomerata, Ostrea angasi, and Crassostrea gigas, an estuarine mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the freshwater mussel Velesunio ambiguus. The estuarine shells were taken from monitoring experiments conducted over a period of 12 months at two different field sites. Freshwater shells were collected wild, from locations close to water monitoring stations. Preliminary results show distinct variations in the Mg/Ca of O. angasi shells with an apparent seasonal pattern. V. ambiguus shells show clear patterns in Mn/Ca, linked to environmental variations.

  10. Galeommatid bivalves from Phuket, Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-seven species of galeommatid bivalves from six genera have been collected at intertidal reef flats near Phuket Marine Biological Center, Thailand (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean). Fourteen of the species are new to science and a new genus (Nudiscintilla gen. nov.) has been established. The spec......Twenty-seven species of galeommatid bivalves from six genera have been collected at intertidal reef flats near Phuket Marine Biological Center, Thailand (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean). Fourteen of the species are new to science and a new genus (Nudiscintilla gen. nov.) has been established....... The species are defined by full morphological descriptions, drawings of shells and soft parts, and photographs of shells, and for some of them, the live animals. The known geographical distribution and habitat of each species is also given. While one species is probably commensal with a thallasinidean...

  11. Biologically induced deposition of fine suspended particles by filter-feeding bivalves in land-based industrial marine aquaculture wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67 ± 0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43 ± 0.98 cm) was 77.84 ± 7.77 and 6.37 ± 0.67 mg ind(-1) • d(-1), respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73 ± 0.27 and 2.76 ± 0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products.

  12. Does the antibiotic amoxicillin affect haemocyte parameters in non-target aquatic invertebrates? The clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Bertin, Valeria; Battistara, Margherita; Guidolin, Angelica; Masiero, Luciano; Marisa, Ilaria; Orsetti, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide, and its levels in aquatic ecosystems are expected to be detectable. At present, information concerning the toxic effects of AMX on non-target aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, is scarce. Consequently, in this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of AMX on the haemocyte parameters of two bivalve species, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which share the same habitat in the Lagoon of Venice, in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the two species. The bivalves were exposed to 100, 200 and 400 μg AMX/L for 1, 3 and 7 days, and the effects on the total haemocyte count (THC), the diameter and volume of the haemocytes, haemocyte proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in cell-free haemolymph, the haemolymph pH, and the formation of micronuclei were evaluated. The actual concentrations of AMX in the seawater samples from the experimental tanks were also measured. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that AMX affected slightly the haemocyte parameters of bivalves. In addition, no clear differences in terms of sensitivity to AMX exposure were recorded between the two bivalve species.

  13. Does the antibiotic amoxicillin affect haemocyte parameters in non-target aquatic invertebrates? The clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Bertin, Valeria; Battistara, Margherita; Guidolin, Angelica; Masiero, Luciano; Marisa, Ilaria; Orsetti, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide, and its levels in aquatic ecosystems are expected to be detectable. At present, information concerning the toxic effects of AMX on non-target aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, is scarce. Consequently, in this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of AMX on the haemocyte parameters of two bivalve species, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which share the same habitat in the Lagoon of Venice, in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the two species. The bivalves were exposed to 100, 200 and 400 μg AMX/L for 1, 3 and 7 days, and the effects on the total haemocyte count (THC), the diameter and volume of the haemocytes, haemocyte proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in cell-free haemolymph, the haemolymph pH, and the formation of micronuclei were evaluated. The actual concentrations of AMX in the seawater samples from the experimental tanks were also measured. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that AMX affected slightly the haemocyte parameters of bivalves. In addition, no clear differences in terms of sensitivity to AMX exposure were recorded between the two bivalve species. PMID:27219711

  14. Contribution to the understanding of the cycle of the protozoan parasite Marteilia refringens

    OpenAIRE

    Arzul, Isabelle; Chollet, Bruno; S. Boyer; Bonnet, D.; Gaillard, Juliette; Baldi, Yoann; Robert, Maeva; Joly, Jean-Pierre; Garcia, Celine; Bouchoucha, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The paramyxean parasite Marteilia refringens infects several bivalve species including European flat oysters Ostrea edulis and Mediterranean mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. Sequence polymorphism allowed definition of three parasite types ‘M’, ‘O’ and ‘C’ preferably detected in oysters, mussels and cockles respectively.Transmission of the infection from infected bivalves to copepods Paracartia grani could be experimentally achieved but assays fromcopepods to bivalves failed. In order to con...

  15. Moluscos bivalvos y gasteropodos

    OpenAIRE

    Lasta, M.L.; Ciocco, N.F.; Bremec, C.; Roux, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main life history characteristics, ecology and fishing interest of bivalve and gastropod species from the Argentine Sea are described. Exploited bivalve species are: mussel Mytilus edulis platensis, cholga Aulacomya ater, tehuelche scallop Aequipecten tehuelchus, Patagonian scallop Zygochlamys patagonica. Bivalve species irregularly exploited are: yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides, purple clam Amiantis purpurata, hard shell clam Ameghinomya antiqua and wedge shell Donax hanleyanus. It is a...

  16. Genetic characterization of Mytilus coruscus and M. galloprovincialis using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J H; Lee, J M; Noh, E S; Park, J Y; An, C M

    2013-01-01

    Korean (hard-shelled) mussels (Mytilus coruscus) are an economically important endemic marine bivalve mollusk of Korea; yet, the population has rapidly declined because of overharvesting and habitat competition from the invasive Mytilus galloprovincialis species. The population structures of M. coruscus and M. galloprovincialis were analyzed by next-generation sequencing using 5 microsatellite markers specifically developed for M. coruscus. M. galloprovincialis had an average of 5.4 alleles per locus (range = 2-10), with an average allelic richness of 4.9 per locus (range = 2.0-9.3). M. coruscus had an average of 5.7 alleles per locus (range = 2-13), with an average allelic richness of 5.2 per locus (range = 2.0-11.9). Excessive homozygosity was observed at 3 loci, which was assumed to be due to the presence of null alleles at these loci. Pairwise multilocus FST estimates showed that the M. coruscus and M. galloprovincialis populations were clearly separated. Six populations of M. galloprovincialis from the western, eastern, and southern coast of Korea formed 2 separate clusters, indicating that more than 2 populations of M. galloprovincialis have been introduced to the Korean Peninsula. Hybrids between M. coruscus and M. galloprovincialis were not identified, probably because of genetic differences or different habitat preferences. Further genetic information is required to perform selective breeding, population management, and restoration of M. coruscus.

  17. Genetic traits in the bivalve Mytilus from Europe, with an emphasis on Arctic populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, H.; Colucci, P.; Bogaards, R.H.; Strelkov, P.P.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic and some ecophysiological traits of mussels collected in the European Arctic, up to their northeastern distribution limit in the Barents Sea, were studied and compared with traits of mussels from the Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic. The genetic traits of these populations we-re analysed b

  18. Inducción de mutaciones mediante radiaciones gamma de (Passiflor edulis Simvar. edulis)

    OpenAIRE

    Pabón Calderón, Lisset Andreina

    2011-01-01

    Passiflora edulis Sims var. edulis- gulupa, es una especie exótica de las frutas de la pasión, considerada como promisoria en el mercado nacional e internacional por sus características organolépticas de sabor y aroma, ocupando el segundo lugar de las pasifloras a nivel de exportación en el país. Actualmente este cultivo se está viendo afectado por la incidencia de plagas y enfermedades, causando pérdidas significativas en la producción y limitando considerablemente la exportación. En esta in...

  19. Biologically induced deposition of fine suspended particles by filter-feeding bivalves in land-based industrial marine aquaculture wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhou

    Full Text Available Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67 ± 0.99 cm and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43 ± 0.98 cm was 77.84 ± 7.77 and 6.37 ± 0.67 mg ind(-1 • d(-1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73 ± 0.27 and 2.76 ± 0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P < 0.001. Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P < 0.05. It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products.

  20. Caracterización molecular de materiales cultivados de gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Hernán Moreno-Osorio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterization of cultivated materials of gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis. Objective. To evaluate through RAM(Random Amplified Microsatellites molecular markers the genetic diversity of cultivated materials of gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis,collected in the departments of Boyacá, Cundinamarca and Huila. Materials and methods. Young and healthy leaves were collected fromcrop fields of gulupa for DNA extraction and characterization through RAM molecular markers, according to Hantula’s protocol (1996.Binary data of the type presence/absence were collected from the electrophoretic profiles. Data were analyzed with NTSYS- pc- 2.0statistical package, obtaining a similarity matrix using the Dice coefficient. Results. RAM markers were efficient in detecting polymorphismin this species. Four universal primers were used that produced 88.8% of polymorphism. In general terms, with the RAM molecularmarkers a high genetic diversity was detected in the areas where gulupa is cultivated in Colombia. In the present study no geographicalrelatedness was found with the accessions evaluated for department or locality. Conclusions. The materials of gulupa evaluated in thisstudy showed a high genetic diversity (0.291-1, probably due to the propagation method, its diverse provenances and the short time ofestablishment of the culture in Colombia.

  1. Norovirus in bivalve molluscs: a study of the efficacy of the depuration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Savini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are the most common viral agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans and are often associated with the consumption of either fresh or undercooked live bivalve molluscs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the water depuration systems in the presence of Norovirus contamination A total of 96 shellfish samples was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, as follows: 58 mussel samples (Mytilus galloprovincialis, 35 Manila clam samples (Tapes decussatus and 3 Pacific oyster samples (Crassostrea gigas. Of these, 67 were collected before and 29 following depuration. Viral RNA was detected in one of the 67 non-depurated samples examined (1.5%; 95% confidence interval: 0.36-7.92% and in one of the 29 depurated samples (3.4%; 95% confidence interval: 0.82-17.22%. There were no statistically significant differences between depurated and non-depurated samples which indicated that the purifying systems in place were not able to remove Norovirus contamination from the live bivalve molluscs.

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments and Bivalves on the Pacific Coast of Japan: Influence of Tsunami and Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozato, Mayu; Nishigaki, Atsuko; Okoshi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Surface sediments and at least one edible bivalve species (Ruditapes philippinarum, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and Crassostrea gigas) were collected from each of seven intertidal sites in Japan in 2013. The sites had experienced varying levels of tsunami and fire disturbance following the major earthquake of 2011. Eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Total sediment PAH concentration (CT), the sum of the average concentrations of the eight PAHs, was 21–1447 μg kg-1-dry. Relative to the average level of one type of PAH in sediments collected around Japan in 2002 (benzo[a]pyrene = 21 μg kg-1-dry), five of the seven sites showed concentrations significantly lower than this average in 2013. The CTs for the three bivalves (134–450 μg kg-1-dry) were within the range of the previous reports (2.2–5335 μg kg-1-dry). The data suggest that the natural disaster did not increase PAH concentrations or affect the distribution within sediment or bivalves in Tohoku district. Although PAH concentrations at the sites pose no risk to human health, the findings highlight that the observed PAH levels derive from pre- rather than post-quake processes. PMID:27232189

  3. La sapote blanche (Casimiroa edulis La Llave)

    OpenAIRE

    Froment, D.

    1985-01-01

    The white sapote (Casimiroa edulis La Llave). As compared with the study to the bean prices (see Tropicultura Vol. 1, n°3, pp. 86-98), the time serie of potato prices displays seasonal moves with larger amplitudes. These variations are due to differents factors : - specific rhythm of the crop cycle - low level of commercialization - storage difficulties during the harvest period. On the other hand it has been identified a long run move in potato prices, the frequence of which is badly known. ...

  4. Trace element kinetics in caged Mytilus galloprovincialis

    OpenAIRE

    Richir, Jonathan; Lepoint, Gilles; Donnay, Annick; Gobert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements (TEs) remain contaminants of concern because of their persistence, ability to concentrate in organisms and toxicity. The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 is a relevant bioindicator of TE coastal contamination. However, little research has studied the combined influence of environmental condition changes and physiological processes on their kinetics in that species. Caged M. galloprovincialis were thus immerged in 2 contrasted pristine Corsican (Franc...

  5. Distribution of Mytilus taxa in European coastal areas as inferred from molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijewski, T.; Śmietanka, B.; Zbawicka, M.; Gosling, E.; Hummel, H.; Wenne, R.

    2011-02-01

    The genetic constitution of mussels ( Mytilus spp.) was studied by means of three nuclear (Me 15/16, EF-bis, ITS) and one mtDNA (ND2-COIII) marker on a large European scale. In addition to a sharp cline between Atlantic and Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis, we observed a clear genetic distinction between the Black Sea and Mediterranean populations and a higher incidence of M. trossulus than reported so far in northern European populations. The frequency of M. galloprovincialis nuclear alleles was high along the Iberian Peninsula and decreased abruptly along the French coasts with a high frequency of M. edulis alleles in the Bay of Biscay, The Netherlands, Germany, Iceland, Barents and White Seas, and with little evidence of introgression between the two taxa. M. trossulus alleles were observed in the Baltic Sea and Danish Straits as expected. In addition, occurrence of M. trossulus alleles in cold waters of Iceland, Barents Sea and White Sea is reported for the first time.

  6. Morphology, Structure of Dimorphic Sperm, and Reproduction in the Hermaphroditic Commensal Bivalve Pseudopythina tsurumaru (Galeommatoidea: Kellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Jespersen, Åse; Takahashi, Tohru;

    2004-01-01

    Galeommatoide, commensal bivalve, reproduction, dimorphic sperm, sperm ultrastructure, spermatozeugma......Galeommatoide, commensal bivalve, reproduction, dimorphic sperm, sperm ultrastructure, spermatozeugma...

  7. Alien parasitic copepods in mussels and oysters of the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsner, N.O.; Jacobsen, S.; Thieltges, D.W.; Reise, K.

    2011-01-01

    Molluscan intestinal parasites of the genus Mytilicola, specifically M. intestinalis, were initially introduced into bivalves in the North Sea in the 1930s. It was presumably introduced from the Mediterranean with ship-fouling mussels, then attained epidemic proportions in Mytilus edulis in the 1950

  8. First identification of azaspiracid and spirolides in Mesodesma donacium and Mulinia edulis from Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gonzalo; Uribe, Eduardo; Avalos, Paulo; Mariño, Carmen; Blanco, Juan

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the risk for human consumption associated to the accumulation of lipophilic toxins by two commercially important bivalves: macha (Mesodesma donacium) and clam (Mulinia edulis) in Coquimbo Bay (Chile), monitoring of these species was carried out from March to September 2008. The samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to detect okadaic acid, dinophysistoxins, pectenotoxins, azaspiracids, yessotoxins and spirolides. Low levels of Azaspiracid-1 and 13-desmethyl C spirolide were found in both species. The toxins were detected at different dates throughout the monitoring period and in some cases both toxins were detected in the same sample. In all cases, the concentration of the toxins was below the limit of quantification of the technique used and therefore these detections are only indicative of a potential risk. This is the first report of the occurrence of these groups of toxins in Chile and suggests that it is necessary to monitor routinely these substances to warrant public health and shellfish exportations. PMID:19631679

  9. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Family of Cysteine-Rich Peptides (MgCRP-I) from Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdol, Marco; Puillandre, Nicolas; De Moro, Gianluca; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Lucafò, Marianna; Benincasa, Monica; Zlatev, Ventislav; Manfrin, Chiara; Torboli, Valentina; Giulianini, Piero Giulio; Sava, Gianni; Venier, Paola; Pallavicini, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    We report the identification of a novel gene family (named MgCRP-I) encoding short secreted cysteine-rich peptides in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. These peptides display a highly conserved pre-pro region and a hypervariable mature peptide comprising six invariant cysteine residues arranged in three intramolecular disulfide bridges. Although their cysteine pattern is similar to cysteines-rich neurotoxic peptides of distantly related protostomes such as cone snails and arachnids, the different organization of the disulfide bridges observed in synthetic peptides and phylogenetic analyses revealed MgCRP-I as a novel protein family. Genome- and transcriptome-wide searches for orthologous sequences in other bivalve species indicated the unique presence of this gene family in Mytilus spp. Like many antimicrobial peptides and neurotoxins, MgCRP-I peptides are produced as pre-propeptides, usually have a net positive charge and likely derive from similar evolutionary mechanisms, that is, gene duplication and positive selection within the mature peptide region; however, synthetic MgCRP-I peptides did not display significant toxicity in cultured mammalian cells, insecticidal, antimicrobial, or antifungal activities. The functional role of MgCRP-I peptides in mussel physiology still remains puzzling.

  10. La sapote blanche (Casimiroa edulis La Llave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froment, D.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The white sapote (Casimiroa edulis La Llave. As compared with the study to the bean prices (see Tropicultura Vol. 1, n°3, pp. 86-98, the time serie of potato prices displays seasonal moves with larger amplitudes. These variations are due to differents factors : - specific rhythm of the crop cycle - low level of commercialization - storage difficulties during the harvest period. On the other hand it has been identified a long run move in potato prices, the frequence of which is badly known. This move keeps mainly being under business cycle influence. It seems anyway that income demand elasticity of potatoes looks very high in such a way that wages moving up entail a rise in potato prices on the market of Bujumbura.

  11. Insights into the innate immunity of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoa Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sessile bivalves of the genus Mytilus are suspension feeders relatively tolerant to a wide range of environmental changes, used as sentinels in ecotoxicological investigations and marketed worldwide as seafood. Mortality events caused by infective agents and parasites apparently occur less in mussels than in other bivalves but the molecular basis of such evidence is unknown. The arrangement of Mytibase, interactive catalogue of 7,112 transcripts of M. galloprovincialis, offered us the opportunity to look for gene sequences relevant to the host defences, in particular the innate immunity related genes. Results We have explored and described the Mytibase sequence clusters and singletons having a putative role in recognition, intracellular signalling, and neutralization of potential pathogens in M. galloprovincialis. Automatically assisted searches of protein signatures and manually cured sequence analysis confirmed the molecular diversity of recognition/effector molecules such as the antimicrobial peptides and many carbohydrate binding proteins. Molecular motifs identifying complement C1q, C-type lectins and fibrinogen-like transcripts emerged as the most abundant in the Mytibase collection whereas, conversely, sequence motifs denoting the regulatory cytokine MIF and cytokine-related transcripts represent singular and unexpected findings. Using a cross-search strategy, 1,820 putatively immune-related sequences were selected to design oligonucleotide probes and define a species-specific Immunochip (DNA microarray. The Immunochip performance was tested with hemolymph RNAs from mussels injected with Vibrio splendidus at 3 and 48 hours post-treatment. A total of 143 and 262 differentially expressed genes exemplify the early and late hemocyte response of the Vibrio-challenged mussels, respectively, with AMP trends confirmed by qPCR and clear modulation of interrelated signalling pathways. Conclusions The Mytibase collection is rich

  12. Oxidative stress and bivalves: a proteomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B McDonagh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bivalves are of major importance in aquatic ecology, aquaculture, are widely used as sentinel species in environmental toxicology and show remarkable plasticity to molecular oxygen. Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS arising from molecular oxygen can cause oxidative stress and this is also a consequence of exposure to many common environmental pollutants. Indices of oxidative stress have therefore found favor as biomarkers of exposure and effect in environmental toxicology. However, there is a growing body of literature on the use of discovery-led proteomics methods to detect oxidative stress in bivalves. This is because proteins absorb up to 70 % of ROS leading to complication of the proteome. This article explores the background to these developments and assesses the practice and future potential of proteomics in the study of oxidative stress in bivalves.

  13. New insights into the apoptotic process in mollusks: characterization of caspase genes in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Romero

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is an essential biological process in the development and maintenance of immune system homeostasis. Caspase proteins constitute the core of the apoptotic machinery and can be categorized as either initiators or effectors of apoptosis. Although the genes encoding caspase proteins have been described in vertebrates and in almost all invertebrate phyla, there are few reports describing the initiator and executioner caspases or the modulation of their expression by different stimuli in different apoptotic pathways in bivalves. In the present work, we characterized two initiator and four executioner caspases in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Both initiators and executioners showed structural features that make them different from other caspase proteins already described. Evaluation of the genes' tissue expression patterns revealed extremely high expression levels within the gland and gills, where the apoptotic process is highly active due to the clearance of damaged cells. Hemocytes also showed high expression values, probably due to of the role of apoptosis in the defense against pathogens. To understand the mechanisms of caspase gene regulation, hemocytes were treated with UV-light, environmental pollutants and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and apoptosis was evaluated by microscopy, flow cytometry and qPCR techniques. Our results suggest that the apoptotic process could be tightly regulated in bivalve mollusks by overexpression/suppression of caspase genes; additionally, there is evidence of caspase-specific responses to pathogens and pollutants. The apoptotic process in mollusks has a similar complexity to that of vertebrates, but presents unique features that may be related to recurrent exposure to environmental changes, pollutants and pathogens imposed by their sedentary nature.

  14. Checklist of the marine bivalves from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the marine bivalve species from Peru is presented, this list has 401 species which are distributed in 65 families and 195 genera. The taxonomical classification and nomenclature is based on classical and current bibliography including Bernard (1983 and Coan & Valentich-Scott (2012. We give distribution and hábitat information about every species.

  15. Microplastics in commercial bivalves from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiana; Yang, Dongqi; Li, Lan; Jabeen, Khalida; Shi, Huahong

    2015-12-01

    We investigated microplastic pollution in 9 commercial bivalves from a fishery market in China. Multiple types of microplastics, including fibers, fragments and pellets, occurred in the tissue of all bivalves. The number of total microplastics varied from 2.1 to 10.5 items/g and from 4.3 to 57.2 items/individual for bivalves. Scapharca subcrenata contained on average 10.5 items/g and exhibited the highest levels of microplastics by weight. Fibers were the most common microplastics and consisted of more than half of the total microplastics in each of the 8 species. In Alectryonella plicatula, pellets accounted for 60% of the total microplastics. The most common size class was less than 250 μm and accounted for 33-84% of the total microplastics calculated by species. Our results suggest that microplastic pollution was widespread and exhibited a relatively high level in commercial bivalves from China. More intensive investigations on microplastics should be conducted in seafood.

  16. Bivalve grazing can shape phytoplankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Lisa; Cloern, James E.; Thompson, Janet K.; Stacey, Mark T.; Koseff, Jeffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of bivalve filter feeders to limit phytoplankton biomass in shallow waters is well-documented, but the role of bivalves in shaping phytoplankton communities is not. The coupled effect of bivalve grazing at the sediment-water interface and sinking of phytoplankton cells to that bottom filtration zone could influence the relative biomass of sinking (diatoms) and non-sinking phytoplankton. Simulations with a pseudo-2D numerical model showed that benthic filter feeding can interact with sinking to alter diatom:non-diatom ratios. Cases with the smallest proportion of diatom biomass were those with the fastest sinking speeds and strongest bivalve grazing rates. Hydrodynamics modulated the coupled sinking-grazing influence on phytoplankton communities. For example, in simulations with persistent stratification, the non-sinking forms accumulated in the surface layer away from bottom grazers while the sinking forms dropped out of the surface layer toward bottom grazers. Tidal-scale stratification also influenced vertical gradients of the two groups in opposite ways. The model was applied to Suisun Bay, a low-salinity habitat of the San Francisco Bay system that was transformed by the introduction of the exotic clam Potamocorbula amurensis. Simulation results for this Bay were similar to (but more muted than) those for generic habitats, indicating that P. amurensis grazing could have caused a disproportionate loss of diatoms after its introduction. Our model simulations suggest bivalve grazing affects both phytoplankton biomass and community composition in shallow waters. We view these results as hypotheses to be tested with experiments and more complex modeling approaches.

  17. Uptake and retention of metallic nanoparticles in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Matthew S.; Vikesland, Peter J. [Virginia Tech Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Virginia Tech Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS) (United States); Virginia Tech Center for Sustainable Nanotechnology (VT SuN) (United States); Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (CEINT) (United States); Schultz, Irvin R., E-mail: ir_schultz@pnl.gov [Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, WA (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •We measured uptake of two types of nanomaterials in a marine mussel. •Uptake from water was rapid and complete in less than 24 h. •Only particles suspended in the water appeared to be absorbed. •Most absorbed nanomaterial was concentrated in the digestive gland. -- Abstract: We measured the uptake, distribution and elimination of two types of metallic nanoparticles (MetNPs) by the aquatic mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in static seawater column exposures. Test MetNPs included polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (PEG-FeOxNP) and PEG-functionalized cadmium-selenide quantum dots (PEG-Qdot). Exposure water was sampled at various times to assess MetNP clearance, and mussels were serially euthanized to assess uptake of MetNPs into the hemolymph, digestive gland, and remaining carcass. Results indicated that >90% of both types of MetNPs were taken up by mussels within 8 h of initial exposure. Nearly the entire retained dose of FeOxNPs and PEG-Qdots was deposited in the digestive gland. Our results provide important insights on the uptake and elimination kinetics of MetNPs in filter-feeding marine bivalves, and will be useful for subsequent development of toxicokinetic models to predict the kinetics of these processes.

  18. Toxicokinetics and tissue distribution of cadmium-based Quantum Dots in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Gomes, Tânia; Pinheiro, José Paulo; Sousa, Vânia Serrão; Nunes, Luís Miguel; Teixeira, Margarida Ribau; Bebianno, Maria João

    2015-09-01

    Environmental health hazards of Quantum Dots (QDs) are of emergent concern, but limited data is available about their toxicokinetics (TK) and tissue distribution in marine bivalves. This study investigated the QDs behavior in seawater, their TK and tissue distribution in Mytilus galloprovincialis, in comparison with soluble Cd. Mussels were exposed to CdTe QDs and soluble Cd for 21 days at 10 μgCd L(-1) followed by a 50 days depuration. TK of QDs in mussels is related to the homo-aggregate uptake, surface charge, aggregation and precipitation as key factors. There were tissue- and time-dependent differences in the TK of both Cd forms, and soluble Cd is the most bioavailable form. Digestive gland is a preferential site for QDs storage and both Cd forms are not eliminated by mussels (t1/2>50 days). Results indicate that the TK model of CdTe QDs in marine mussels is distinct from their soluble counterparts.

  19. First evidence of azaspiracids (AZAs): A family of lipophilic polyether marine toxins in scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) and mussels (Mytilus chilensis) collected in two regions of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rivera, A; O'Callaghan, K; Moriarty, M; O'Driscoll, D; Hamilton, B; Lehane, M; James, K J; Furey, A

    2010-04-01

    Azaspiracids are a family of lipophilic polyether marine biotoxins that have caused a number of human intoxication incidents in Europe since 1995 following the consumption by consumers of intoxicated shellfish (Mytilus edulis). These azaspiracids have now been identified in mussels (Mytilus chilensis) and scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) from two Chilean locations. This is the first report of the occurrence of azaspiracid toxins in these species (Mytilus chilensis and Argopecten purpuratus) from Chile. The areas studied were Bahía Inglesa (III Region, 27 degrees SL) and Chiloé Archipelago, both important scallop and mussels farming areas. Separation of azaspiracid (AZA1), azaspiracid isomer (AZA6) and its analogues, 8-methylazaspiracid (AZA2) and 22-demethylazaspiracid (AZA3), was achieved using reversed-phase LC and toxins were identified using a turbo electrospray ionisation (ESI) source, to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In mussels, AZA1 was the predominant toxin in mussel hepatopancreas with AZA2, AZA3 and AZA6 present in approximate equivalent amounts in the remaining tissues, 20-30% of the AZA1 level. AZA2 predominated in the scallop samples with the toxin almost entirely present in the hepatopancreas (digestive gland). AZA1 was only observed in some of the scallop samples and was present at 12-15% of the AZA2 levels. Whilst the levels of AZAs in Chilean samples are below the EU regulatory limit of 160mug/kg, it is significant that this toxin is present in Pacific Ocean species. Consequently measures should be taken by regulatory authorities to implement regular seafood monitoring to ensure safety of harvested product. PMID:19852974

  20. Morfoanatomia de folhas e caules de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Leaf and stem morphoanatomy of Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josseara Beraldo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora edulis Sims, espécie vegetal empregada na medicina popular e amplamente cultivada no território nacional, tem suas folhas e seus caules, muitas vezes utilizados como adulterante de amostras comerciais da droga vegetal oficializada no país também conhecida como maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis. Caracteres morfoanatômicos de folhas e de caules de P. edulis, foram descritos e documentados. Dentre os caracteres auxiliares na distinção entre a droga oficial e os órgãos aéreos de P. edulis podem-se destacar o contorno da lâmina foliar, a forma da nervura mediana em secção transversal, o número e a localização de nectários extraflorais e, o indumentoPassiflora edulis Sims, vegetal species employed in the Brazilian traditional medicine and broadly cultivated across its territory, has its leaves and stems often used as an adulterant for commercial samples of the crude drug Passiflora alata Curtis, officially known in Brazil as "maracujá". Morphoanatomic data from leaves and stems in P. edulis were described and documented. Amongst these characteristics, the shape of the foliar blade, the shape of the midrib in transverse section, the number and the location of the extrafloral nectaries and the indumentum are all emphasized.

  1. Estudo fitoquímico das raízes de Passiflora edulis forma flavicarpa Degener

    OpenAIRE

    Zucolotto, Silvana M.; Palermo, Jorge A.; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo

    2006-01-01

    Passiflora edulis é um membro da família Passifloraceae e é popularmente conhecida no Brasil como maracujá. Há duas variedades de P. edulis utilizadas comercialmente, o maracujá roxo (P. edulis Sims ou P. edulis forma Sims) e o maracujá amarelo (P. edulis forma flavicarpa Degener). As espécies de Passiflora têm sido utilizadas na medicina popular principalmente como sedativas e tranquilizantes. Neste trabalho foi escolhida a variedade flavicarpa como objeto de estudo. A partir da fração diclo...

  2. Changes in benthos associated with mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) farms on the west-coast of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Thomas A; Nickell, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture, as a means of food production, is growing rapidly in response to an increasing demand for protein and the over-exploitation of wild fisheries. This expansion includes mussels (family Mytilidae) where production currently stands at 1.5 million tonnes per annum. Mussel culture is frequently perceived as having little environmental impact yet mussel biodeposits and shell debris accumulate around the production site and are linked to changes in the benthos. To assess the extent and nature of changes in benthos associated with mussel farming grab and video sampling around seven mussel farms was conducted. Grab samples were analysed for macrofauna and shell-hash content whilst starfish were counted and the shell-hash cover estimated from video imaging. Shell-hash was patchily distributed and occasionally dominated sediments (maximum of 2116 g per 0.1 m(2) grab). Mean shell-hash content decreased rapidly at distances >5 m from the line and, over the distance 1-64 m, decreased by three orders of magnitude. The presence of shell-hash and the distance-from-line influenced macrofaunal assemblages but this effect differed between sites. There was no evidence that mussel farming was associated with changes in macrobenthic diversity, species count or feeding strategy. However, total macrofaunal count was estimated to be 2.5 times higher in close proximity to the lines, compared with 64 m distance, and there was evidence that this effect was conditional on the presence of shell-hash. Starfish density varied considerably between sites but, overall, they were approximately 10 times as abundant close to the mussel-lines compared with 64 m distance. There was no evidence that starfish were more abundant in the presence of shell-hash visible on the sediment surface. In terms of farm-scale benthic impacts these data suggest that mussel farming is a relatively benign way of producing food, compared with intensive fish-farming, in similar environments.

  3. Changes in benthos associated with mussel (Mytilus edulis L. farms on the west-coast of Scotland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Wilding

    Full Text Available Aquaculture, as a means of food production, is growing rapidly in response to an increasing demand for protein and the over-exploitation of wild fisheries. This expansion includes mussels (family Mytilidae where production currently stands at 1.5 million tonnes per annum. Mussel culture is frequently perceived as having little environmental impact yet mussel biodeposits and shell debris accumulate around the production site and are linked to changes in the benthos. To assess the extent and nature of changes in benthos associated with mussel farming grab and video sampling around seven mussel farms was conducted. Grab samples were analysed for macrofauna and shell-hash content whilst starfish were counted and the shell-hash cover estimated from video imaging. Shell-hash was patchily distributed and occasionally dominated sediments (maximum of 2116 g per 0.1 m(2 grab. Mean shell-hash content decreased rapidly at distances >5 m from the line and, over the distance 1-64 m, decreased by three orders of magnitude. The presence of shell-hash and the distance-from-line influenced macrofaunal assemblages but this effect differed between sites. There was no evidence that mussel farming was associated with changes in macrobenthic diversity, species count or feeding strategy. However, total macrofaunal count was estimated to be 2.5 times higher in close proximity to the lines, compared with 64 m distance, and there was evidence that this effect was conditional on the presence of shell-hash. Starfish density varied considerably between sites but, overall, they were approximately 10 times as abundant close to the mussel-lines compared with 64 m distance. There was no evidence that starfish were more abundant in the presence of shell-hash visible on the sediment surface. In terms of farm-scale benthic impacts these data suggest that mussel farming is a relatively benign way of producing food, compared with intensive fish-farming, in similar environments.

  4. The Influence of an Intertidal Mussel Bed (Mytilus edulis L.) on Nutrient Fluxes in the Kerteminde Fjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, S. B.; Schlüter, L.

    1994-01-01

    Proceedings of ECSA22/ERF Symposium, 13-18 September 1992 at University of Plymouth. Institute of Marine Studies.......Proceedings of ECSA22/ERF Symposium, 13-18 September 1992 at University of Plymouth. Institute of Marine Studies....

  5. Pelagic and benthic nutrient regeneration processes in mussel cultures (Mytilus edulis) in a eutrophic coastal area (Skive Fjord, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Thorsen, Sandra Walløe; Carlsson, Marita Sundstein;

    2015-01-01

    Long-line mussel farming has been proposed as a mitigation tool in eutrophic coastal areas as nutrients are removed from the ecosystem upon harvest of the crops and transferred back to land. Further mussels filter the water and thereby increase water transparency and promote benthic plant growth...... of this study was to explore the environmental interactions of a long-line mussel farm located in a eutrophic coastal area (Skive Fjord, Denmark) by studying the nutrient cycling in the water column and sediments and assessing their contribution to the nutrient dynamics and oxygen conditions in the fjord...

  6. Effects of tidal zonation on size and genetic traits of Mytilus edulis (L.) and Macoma balthica (L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, H.; Bijok, P.; Bogaards, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Genetic and some ecophysiological traits of mussels collected in the European Arctic, up to their northeastern distribution limit in the Barents Sea, were studied and compared with traits of mussels from the Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic. The genetic traits of these populations we-re analysed b

  7. The role of the starfish (Asterias rubens L.) predation in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) seedbed stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agüera García, A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mussel beds are an important ecological component in the Wadden Sea. Mussels’ offspring settle massively in new suitable areas, forming seedbeds that may disappear again within months. The probability of a seedbed to survive the first winter is defined as seedbed sta

  8. Assessment of blue mussel Mytilus edulis fisheries and waterbird shellfish-predator management in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karsten; Kristensen, Per Sand; Clausen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    biomass and mussel bed areas in zones closed to fishery, (ii) decrease in eiders Somateria mollissima numbers and increase or stable numbers for oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus and herring gull Larus argentatus and (iii) that energy estimations based on ecological food requirements for the mussel...

  9. Accumulation and breakdown of DSP toxins from the toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Krock, Bernd; Hansen, Per Juel;

    2016-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxins (DTX) and pectenotoxins (PTX) produced by the dinoflagellates Dinophysis spp. can accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning upon human consumption. Shellfish toxicity is a result of algal abundance and toxicity as well as accumulation and...

  10. Actividad hipoglucemiante de Bouvardia terniflora, Brickellia veronicaefolia y Parmentiera edulis

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Gutiérrez Rosa Martha; Pérez-González Cuauhtémoc; Zavala-Sánchez Miguel Angel; Pérez-Gutiérrez Salud

    1998-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad hipoglucemiante de los extractos de hexano, cloroformo y metanol de Brickellia veronicaefolia, Bouvardia terniflora y Parmentiera edulis. Material y métodos. Se probaron los extractos de las plantas (100, 200 y 300 mg/kg, vía intraperitoneal) en ratones normoglucémicos y con diabetes inducida con aloxana. Resultados. La administración de 300 mg/kg de los extractos clorofórmicos de P. edulis, B. terniflora y hexánico de B. veronicaefolia en ratones diabéticos dis...

  11. Interactions of cationic polystyrene nanoparticles with marine bivalve hemocytes in a physiological environment: Role of soluble hemolymph proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Laura; Ciacci, Caterina; Fabbri, Rita; Balbi, Teresa; Salis, Annalisa; Damonte, Gianluca; Cortese, Katia; Caratto, Valentina; Monopoli, Marco P; Dawson, Kenneth; Bergami, Elisa; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-10-01

    The bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis has proven as a suitable model invertebrate for evaluating the potential impact of nanoparticles (NPs) in the marine environment. In particular, in mussels, the immune system represents a sensitive target for different types of NPs. In environmental conditions, both NP intrinsic properties and those of the receiving medium will affect particle behavior and consequent bioavailability/uptake/toxicity. However, the evaluation of the biological effects of NPs requires additional understanding of how, once within the organism, NPs interact at the molecular level with cells in a physiological environment. In mammalian systems, different NPs associate with serum soluble components, organized into a "protein corona", which affects particle interactions with target cells. However, no information is available so far on the interactions of NPs with biological fluids of aquatic organisms. In this work, the influence of hemolymph serum (HS) on the in vitro effects of amino modified polystyrene NPs (PS-NH2) on Mytilus hemocytes was investigated. Hemocytes were incubated with PS-NH2 suspensions in HS (1, 5 and 50µg/mL) and the results were compared with those obtained in ASW medium. Cell functional parameters (lysosomal membrane stability, oxyradical production, phagocytosis) were evaluated, and morphological changes were investigated by TEM. The activation state of the signalling components involved in Mytilus immune response (p38 MAPK and PKC) was determined. The results show that in the presence of HS, PS-NH2 increased cellular damage and ROS production with respect to ASW medium. The effects were apparently mediated by disregulation of p38 MAPK signalling. The formation of a PS-NH2-protein corona in HS was investigated by centrifugation, and 1D- gel electrophoresis and nano-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The results identified the Putative C1q domain containing protein (MgC1q6) as the only component of the PS-NH2 hard protein corona in Mytilus

  12. Actividad hipoglucemiante de Bouvardia terniflora, Brickellia veronicaefolia y Parmentiera edulis Hypoglicemic activity of Bouvardia terniflora, Brickellia veronicaefolia and Parmentiera edulis

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Martha Pérez-Gutiérrez; Cuauhtémoc Pérez-González; Miguel Angel Zavala-Sánchez; Salud Pérez-Gutiérrez

    1998-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad hipoglucemiante de los extractos de hexano, cloroformo y metanol de Brickellia veronicaefolia, Bouvardia terniflora y Parmentiera edulis. Material y métodos. Se probaron los extractos de las plantas (100, 200 y 300 mg/kg, vía intraperitoneal) en ratones normoglucémicos y con diabetes inducida con aloxana. Resultados. La administración de 300 mg/kg de los extractos clorofórmicos de P. edulis, B. terniflora y hexánico de B. veronicaefolia en ratones diabéticos dis...

  13. Morfoanatomia de folhas e caules de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Leaf and stem morphoanatomy of Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Josseara Beraldo; Edna Tomiko Myiake Kato

    2010-01-01

    Passiflora edulis Sims, espécie vegetal empregada na medicina popular e amplamente cultivada no território nacional, tem suas folhas e seus caules, muitas vezes utilizados como adulterante de amostras comerciais da droga vegetal oficializada no país também conhecida como maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis. Caracteres morfoanatômicos de folhas e de caules de P. edulis, foram descritos e documentados. Dentre os caracteres auxiliares na distinção entre a droga oficial e os órgãos aéreos de P. edu...

  14. The packaging problem: bivalve prey selection and prey entry techniques of the octopus Enteroctopus dofleini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roland C; Mather, Jennifer A

    2007-08-01

    Many predators face a complex step of prey preparation before consumption. Octopuses faced with bivalve prey use several techniques to penetrate the shells to gain access to the meat inside. When given prey of mussels Mytilus trossulus, Manila clams Venerupis philippinarum, and littleneck clams Protothaca staminea, Enteroctopus dofleini solved the problem differently. They pulled apart V. philippinarum and M. trossulus, which had the thinnest shells and the least pulling resistance. P. staminea were eaten after the shells had been chipped or had been penetrated by drilling, presumably to inject a toxin. Likely because of these differences, octopuses consumed more V. philippinarum and M. trossulus than P. staminea when the mollusks were given to them either 1 species at a time or all together. However, when the shells were separated and the penetration problem removed, the octopuses predominantly chose P. staminea and nearly ignored M. trossulus. When V. philippinarum were wired shut, octopuses switched techniques. These results emphasize that octopuses can learn on the basis of nonvisual information and monitor their body position to carry out feeding actions. PMID:17696656

  15. Middle and Upper Jurassic bivalves from the Iberian Range (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Delvene Ibarrola, Graciela

    2002-01-01

    Previous work on Jurassic bivalves from the Iberian Range is reviewed, whereby emphasis is placed on Callovian-Kimmeridgian species. The taxonomy, distribution pattern and ecology of the bivalve fauna occurring in Middle and Upper Jurassic rocks of the Aragonian Branch of the Iberian Range have been analysed. For this purpose 14 sections and 5 additional outcrops, selected according to the abundance of bivalves, were measured in detail and sampled. The rocks studied belong to the Chelva, Yáto...

  16. Allometry of a neotropical palm, Euterpe edulis Mart. Alometria de uma palmeira Neotropical, Euterpe edulis Mart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana F. Alves

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The stem allometry (stem diameter vs. tree height of a Neotropical palm (Euterpe edulis found in rain and seasonal forest of Southeastern Brazil was examined. Observed height-diameter relationships along the stem (diameter at ground level, (dgl, and diameter at breast height (dbh were compared to three theoretical stability mechanical models: elastic similarity, stress similarity and geometric similarity. Slopes of log-transformed height-diameter relationships did not lie near those predicted by any stability mechanical models. Significant differences in stem allometry were found when comparing dgl to dbh, suggesting greater increase in dbh with height. The relationship between stability safety factor (SSF and palm height showed that both dgl and dbh were found to be above McMahon's theoretical buckling limit for dicotyledonous trees, but some individuals approached this limit in relation to dbh. Despite displaying a similar decreasing pattern of SSF with height, differences found in SSF along the stem - greater SSF for dgl when compared to dbh - indicate that the risk of mechanism failure in palms depends upon the size and varies along the stem. Distinct allometric relationships along the stem obtained for Euterpe edulis may be reflecting possible differences in stem design and growth strategies.Neste trabalho foram analisadas as relações entre o diâmetro e a altura de uma palmeira Neotropical (Euterpe edulis comum na Floresta Atlântica do SE do Brasil. As relações observadas entre a altura e o diâmetro ao longo do estipe (diâmetro ao nível do solo (DAS, e diâmetro ao nível do peito (DAP foram comparadas a três modelos teóricos de estabilidade mecânica: similaridade elástica, similaridade de estresse e similaridade geométrica. As inclinações das regressões altura-diâmetro não se ajustaram a nenhum dos modelos de estabilidade mecânica. Diferenças significativas na alometria do estipe foram encontradas comparando-se as rela

  17. Ontogeny of the tuber crop Plectranthus edulis (Lamiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taye, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Plectranthus edulis (Lamiaceae) is one of the economically important tuber crops of the genus Plectranthus. It is grown in mid and high altitude areas in parts of Ethiopia. The structure of this plant and its development in time has not been described in detail. Two similar experiments were carried

  18. Initial development of passion fruit trees (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, P. edulis f. edulis and P. alata grafted onto Passiflora cincinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Zucareli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the initial growth and leaf mineral levels in passion fruit trees (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg., P. edulis f. edulis Sims. and P. alata Dryander grafted onto Passiflora cincinnata. To obtain seedlings, seeds were sown in plastic bags (500 mL and hypocotyl grafting was performed when seedlings reached the stage of two fully expanded leaves. Fifteen days after grafting, plants were transplanted to 10L pots filled with previously limed and fertilized soil. Each pot contained two plants and corresponded to one plot. For each commercial species studied as rootstock, experimental design was completely randomized, in 3x5 (plant type x time of harvest factorial arrangement, with four replicates of two plants per plot and five destructive harvests. Plant types were ungrafted P. cincinnata, ungrafted commercial passion fruit tree and commercial passion fruit tree grafted onto P. cincinnata. The first harvest was performed at 15 days after transplanting and the remaining ones at 14-day intervals (60, 74, 88, 102 and 116 DAS. At each harvest, the number of leaves per plant was counted, and leaf area, stem length, and stem, root, leaf and total dry matter were estimated. At the last harvest, the mineral composition (macro and micronutrients of plants was analyzed. In general, it was observed that grafting onto P. cincinnata did not interfere negatively with the initial development and mineral levels of commercial passion fruit trees, and this interference varied according to the used canopy.

  19. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor α and Hif-prolyl Hydroxylase Characterization and Gene Expression in Short-Time Air-Exposed Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetto, Alessia; Maisano, Maria; Cappello, Tiziana; Oliva, Sabrina; Parrino, Vincenzo; Natalotto, Antonino; De Marco, Giuseppe; Barberi, Chiara; Romeo, Orazio; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic organisms experience environmental hypoxia as a result of eutrophication and naturally occurring tidal cycles. Mytilus galloprovincialis, being an anoxic/hypoxic-tolerant bivalve, provides an excellent model to investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating oxygen sensing. Across the animal kingdom, inadequacy in oxygen supply is signalled predominantly by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) and Hif-prolyl hydroxylases (PHD). In this study, hif-α 5'-end and partial phd mRNA sequences from M. galloprovincialis were obtained. Phylogenetic and molecular characterization of both HIF-α and PHD putative proteins showed shared key features with the respective orthologues from animals strongly suggesting their crucial involvement in the highly conserved oxygen sensing pathway. Both transcripts displayed a tissue-specific distribution with prominent expression in gills. Quantitative gene expression analysis of hif-α and phd mRNAs from gills of M. galloprovincialis demonstrated that both these key sensors are transcriptionally modulated by oxygen availability during the short-time air exposure and subsequent re-oxygenation treatments proving that they are critical players of oxygen-sensing mechanisms in mussels. Remarkably, hif-α gene expression showed a prompt and transient response suggesting the precocious implication of this transcription factor in the early phase of the adaptive response to hypoxia in Mytilus. HIF-α and PHD proteins were modulated in a time-dependent manner with trends comparable to mRNA expression patterns, thus suggesting a central role of their transcriptional regulation in the hypoxia tolerance strategies in marine bivalves. These results provide molecular information about the effects of oxygen deficiency and identify hypoxia-responsive biomarker genes in mussels applicable in ecotoxicological studies of natural marine areas.

  20. Artificially evolved functional shell morphology of burrowing bivalves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germann, D. P.; Schatz, W.; Hotz, Peter Eggenberger

    2014-01-01

    The morphological evolution of bivalves is documented by a rich fossil record. It is believed that the shell shape and surface sculpture play an important role for the burrowing performance of endobenthic species. While detailed morphometric studies of bivalve shells have been done, there are alm...

  1. Validation of the flow-through chamber (FTC) and steady-state (SS) methods for clearance rate measurements in bivalves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    of particles cleared is in itself neither a criterion for valid CR measurement, nor an indicator of appropriate ‘chamber geometry’ as hitherto adapted in many studies. For the ‘steady-state method’ (SS), the design must ensure that inflow water becomes fully mixed with the bivalve’s excurrent flow to establish...... measurements depends on the percent reduction in particle concentration (1006P) from inlet to outlet of the ideal ‘chamber geomety’. For FTC, it decreases with increasing values of P while for SS it first decreases but then increases again, suggesting the use of an intermediate value of P. In practice......, the optimal value of P may depend on the given ‘chamber geometry’. The fundamental differences between the FTC and the SS methods and practical guidelines for their use are pointed out, and new data on CR for the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, illustrate a design and use of the SS method which may be employed...

  2. Uncovering the Complex Transcriptome Response of Mytilus chilensis against Saxitoxin: Implications of Harmful Algal Blooms on Mussel Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detree, Camille; Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Roberts, Steven; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX), a principal phycotoxin contributing to paralytic shellfish poisoning, is largely produced by marine microalgae of the genus Alexandrium. This toxin affects a wide range of species, inducing massive deaths in fish and other marine species. However, marine bivalves can resist and accumulate paralytic shellfish poisons. Despite numerous studies on the impact of STX in marine bivalves, knowledge regarding STX recognition at molecular level by benthic species remains scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel genes that interact with STX in the Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis. For this, RNA-seq and RT-qPCR approaches were used to evaluate the transcriptomic response of M. chilensis to a purified STX as well as in vivo Alexandrium catenella exposure. Approximately 800 million reads were assembled, generating 138,883 contigs that were blasted against the UniProt Mollusca database. Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) involved in mussel immunity, such as Toll-like receptors, tumor necrosis factor receptors, and scavenger-like receptors were found to be strongly upregulated at 8 and 16 h post-STX injection. These results suggest an involvement of PRRs in the response to STX, as well as identifying potential, novel STX-interacting receptors in this Chilean mussel. This study is the first transcriptomic overview of the STX-response in the edible species M. chilensis. However, the most significant contribution of this work is the identification of immune receptors and pathways potentially involved in the recognition and defense against STX’s toxicity and its impact of harmful algae blooms on wild and cultivated mussel populations. PMID:27764234

  3. Nutritional strategies of the hydrothermal ecosystem bivalves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pennec, Marcel; Donval, Anne; Herry, Angèle

    Studies of deep-sea hydrothermal bivalves have revealed that the species, which are strictly dependent upon the interstitial fluid emissions, derive their food indirectly via symbiotic relationships with chemosynthetic bacteria present in their gill tissues. As the gill plays the main trophic role, structural and ultrastructural modifications occur in the digestive tract. Scanning and transmission electron microscope studies reveal that the digestive system of species belonging to the genera Calyptogena, Bathymodiolus and Bathypecten have anatomical differences. In Calyptogena, the reduction of several parts of the digestive tract and the stomach content which is either empty or full, according to the various species examined indicate that the digestive system is hardly if at all functional. In Bathymodiolus, the labial palps are well developed, the stomach is always full with particles and the two cellular types, digestive and secretory, are present in the digestive gland. All these characteristics indicate that the digestive system is functional. In Bathypecten, the digestive tract is well developed and it seems that it plays the main trophic role. We conclude that the nutritional strategies of the hydrothermal vents bivalves are quite varied. They range from a normal trophic process, through a mixotrophic diet, to one based purely on chemoautotrophic bacteria. The strategy of each species is adapted to and influences its distribution.

  4. Phylogeny and diversification patterns among vesicomyid bivalves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Decker

    Full Text Available Vesicomyid bivalves are among the most abundant and diverse symbiotic taxa in chemosynthetic-based ecosystems: more than 100 different vesicomyid species have been described so far. In the present study, we investigated the phylogenetic positioning of recently described vesicomyid species from the Gulf of Guinea and their western Atlantic and Pacific counterparts using mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The maximum-likelihood (ML tree provided limited support for the recent taxonomic revision of vesicomyids based on morphological criteria; nevertheless, most of the newly sequenced specimens did not cluster with their morphological conspecifics. Moreover, the observed lack of geographic clustering suggests the occurrence of independent radiations followed by worldwide dispersal. Ancestral character state reconstruction showed a significant correlation between the characters "depth" and "habitat" and the reconstructed ML phylogeny suggesting possible recurrent events of 'stepwise speciation' from shallow to deep waters in different ocean basins. This is consistent with genus or species bathymetric segregation observed from recent taxonomic studies. Altogether, our results highlight the need for ongoing re-evaluation of the morphological characters used to identify vesicomyid bivalves.

  5. The complete plastid genome sequence of Bomarea edulis (Alstroemeriaceae: Liliales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Sung; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Yoon, Chang Young; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    Bomarea, a member of the family Alstroemeriaceae, is distributed from Chile to Mexico and includes approximately 120 species. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have clarified the monophyly of the family within the order Liliales and the sister relationship with the family Colchicaceae. At this time, five plastid genomes of Liliales have been analyzed at the familial level. To examine plastid genome variation at the generic level, we sequenced the plastid genome of Bomarea edulis, which is the most widely distributed species in the genus, and compared it with Alstroemeria aurea. The plastid genome sequence of B. edulis was 154,925 bp in length with a similar structure as A. aurea, excluding the IR-LSC junction. Ycf68 and infA were pseudogenes caused by frameshift mutations, and the ycf15 gene was deleted, similar to A. aurea. PMID:25319309

  6. Immune responses during the larval stages of Mytilus galloprovincialis: metamorphosis alters immunocompetence, body shape and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro, Pablo; Moreira, Rebeca; Chamorro, Rubén; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the development of the immune system during the larval stages of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The ability of trochophore and veliger larvae to phagocytose foreign particles (Escherichia coli and zymosan) was measured. Phagocytosis was detected as early as 24 h post-fertilization (hpf) using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. However, although there was a high basal production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and NRS), the phagocytosis of zymosan did not trigger an associated increase in radical production. In addition, a panel of immune-related mussel genes (Myticin B, Myticin C, Mytilin B, Mytimycin precursor 1, Macrophage migration inhibition factor, lysozyme, C1q, membrane attack complex protein and fibrinogen-related protein) was selected for expression profile analysis throughout the different developmental stages (trochophore, veliger, metamorphosis, post-settlement and spat). The expression of these genes increased during the transition from trochophore to spat, and the level of expression was higher in oocytes than in trochophores, suggesting that gene expression during the first larval stages might be maternal in origin. Metamorphosis was identified as a crucial stage when larvae increased the expression of immune-related genes and responded to environmental signals. Whole-mount in situ hybridization studies showed the mantle edge as an important area in the development of immunocompetence in bivalve larvae. Larvae responded to both live and heat-inactivated bacteria by modulating expression of immune-related genes. Altogether, our results support that during the early stages of M. galloprovincialis development, immune mechanisms emerge to aid larvae in managing infections.

  7. Saxitoxin Modulates Immunological Parameters and Gene Transcription in Mytilus chilensis Hemocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allisson Astuya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin (STX is a neurotoxin produced by dinoflagellates in diverse species, such as Alexandrium spp., and it causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP in humans after the ingestion of contaminated shellfish. Recent studies have suggested that the immune functions of bivalves could be affected by harmful algae and/or by their toxins. Herein, hemocytes are the main effector cells of the immune cellular response. In this study, we evaluated the response of hemocytes from the mussel Mytilus chilensis to STX exposure in a primary culture. Cell cultures were characterized according to size and complexity, while reactive oxygen species (ROS production was evaluated using a dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA assay. Finally, phagocytic activity was measured using both flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy assays. Additionally, gene transcription of candidate genes was evaluated by qPCR assays. The results evidenced that exposures to different concentrations of STX (1–100 nM for 24 h did not affect cell viability, as determined by an MTT assay. However, when hemocytes were exposed for 4 or 16 h to STX (1–100 nM, there was a modulation of phagocytic activity and ROS production. Moreover, hemocytes exposed to 100 nM of STX for 4 or 16 h showed a significant increase in transcript levels of genes encoding for antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, mitochondrial enzymes (COI, COIII, CYTB, ATP6, ND1 and ion channels (K+, Ca2+. Meanwhile, C-type lectin and toll-like receptor genes revealed a bi-phase transcriptional response after 16 and 24–48 h of exposure to STX. These results suggest that STX can negatively affect the immunocompetence of M. chilensis hemocytes, which were capable of responding to STX exposure in vitro by increasing the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes.

  8. Total antioxidant capacity in the black mussel ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Black Sea coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncheva, S.; Trakhtenberg, S.; Katrich, E.; Zemser, M.; Goshev, I.; Toledo, F.; Arancibia-Avila, P.; Doncheva, V.; Gorinstein, S.

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the total antioxidant radical scavenging capacity (TARSC) in tissue extracts for understanding biochemical adaptations involving the antioxidant defense system of a bivalve mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, sampled in polluted (Pol) and non-polluted (Npol) sites from Black Sea coasts. Antioxidant-rich polyphenol fractions were extracted from whole dry mussel tissue with methanol and water in different proportions. The extracts were screened for polyphenol content and their potential as antioxidants using various in vitro models, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH rad ), β-carotene-linoleate (β-carotene) and nitric oxide (NO rad ). The total polyphenol extract of the whole mussel tissue from polluted site (TPMEPol) showed the highest antioxidant capacity among all of the extracts with the tested methods and was comparable with the antioxidant capacity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The antioxidant capacities of this extract determined by DPPH rad , β-carotene and NO rad methods and polyphenol content showed the highest correlation coefficients ( R2) such as 0.9985, 0.9915 and 0.9895, respectively. The free polyphenol extracts (FPMEPol and FPMENPol) had lower antioxidant capacity than the two others of total polyphenols (TPMEPol and TPMENPol) with three scavenging methods. Responses were linear in all tested methods and the antioxidant capacity values of soluble antioxidants showed the following relative order: Trolox>BHA>TPMEPol>TPMENPol>FPMEPol>FPMENPol. Nutritional antioxidants, such as polyphenols, were probably the main antioxidant contribution to mussel antioxidants. The mussel extracts from the polluted site exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than from the non-polluted one. The results presented in this report indicate that the antioxidant capacity of the whole tissue of the mussel extract could possibly be a useful biomarker for aquatic environments.

  9. Bioaccumulation and retention of lead in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis following uptake from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisson, Florence; Cotret, Olivier; Fowler, Scott W. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, BP 800, MC-98012 Monaco (France)

    1998-10-15

    Bioaccumulation of lead in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from {sup 210}Pb-labeled bulk seawater (dissolved and particulate pathways combined) was examined over 21 days. The lead bioaccumulation factor (BAF) at equilibrium was estimated to be 211{+-}10 ml g{sup -1}. This value was two orders of magnitude lower than BAFs reported in the literature for other trace metals in this bivalve indicating that lead is not efficiently accumulated by mussels from bulk seawater. The resultant lead distribution in mussels was 49{+-}10% in soft tissues and 46{+-}16% in the shell suggesting similar uptake rates (Bq day{sup -1}) in both compartments throughout the exposure. Total elimination for lead in mussels was adequately described by a short-term compartment with a biological half-life for loss of 1.4{+-}0.3 days and a long-term compartment which released lead only very slowly (T{sub b1/2}=2.5{+-}0.7 months). No difference was noted for lead elimination rates in shell and in soft parts. When experimentally exposed to lead under conditions representative of natural environmental lead levels in water, including both that in the dissolved phase and in the food, the shell compartment was shown to contain the major fraction of the total lead accumulated by mussels. Therefore mussels may be considered as good bioindicators of lead contamination accumulated from the dissolved rather than from the particulate source. Furthermore, the relatively slow uptake and the long depuration half-life of lead will limit the ability of mussels to accurately record short-term variations in lead concentrations in the surrounding waters, a fact that should be taken into consideration in order to define the appropriate sampling frequency for mussels used in biomonitoring programs involving lead

  10. Actividad hipoglucemiante de Bouvardia terniflora, Brickellia veronicaefolia y Parmentiera edulis Hypoglicemic activity of Bouvardia terniflora, Brickellia veronicaefolia and Parmentiera edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Martha Pérez-Gutiérrez

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad hipoglucemiante de los extractos de hexano, cloroformo y metanol de Brickellia veronicaefolia, Bouvardia terniflora y Parmentiera edulis. Material y métodos. Se probaron los extractos de las plantas (100, 200 y 300 mg/kg, vía intraperitoneal en ratones normoglucémicos y con diabetes inducida con aloxana. Resultados. La administración de 300 mg/kg de los extractos clorofórmicos de P. edulis, B. terniflora y hexánico de B. veronicaefolia en ratones diabéticos disminuye el nivel de glucosa sanguínea en 43.75, 58.56 y 72.13%, respectivamente. Estos extractos (300 mg/kg, administrados en ratones normoglucémicos, reducen la glucosa sanguínea en 29.61, 33.42 y 39.84%, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Con este estudio se confirma la actividad hipoglucemiante de estas plantas usadas en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento de la diabetes.Objective. To evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of Bouvardia terniflora, Brickelia veronicaefolia and Parmentiera edulis. Material and methods. Normal and alloxan-induced diabetic mice were administered these plant extracts (intraperitoneal 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Results. The administration of 300 mg/kg of chloroform extracts from P. edulis and B. terniflora and hexane from B. veronicaefolia to diabetic mice decreased the blood glucose levels in 43.75, 58.56 and 72.13%, respectively. These extracts administered to normal mice reduced blood glucose levels in 29.61, 33.42 and 39.84%, respectively. Conclusions. The hypoglycemic effect of these plant extracts used in traditional medicine for diabetes treatment is confirmed.

  11. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT BACTERIA FROM HALIOTIS TUBERCULATA AND MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic resistance (AR of Gram negative bacteria from Haliotis tuberculata (Ht and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mg was assessed. Essential differences between R profiles of Pseudomonas spp and of other strains was not observed. Strains AR from Ht and Mg was similar.

  12. Biodeposition of suspended particles in fresh seawater for industrial aquaculture by filter-feeding bivalves%贝类对海水养殖新源水悬浮物的生物沉积作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延青; 张少军; 周毅; 刘鹰; 徐洋

    2011-01-01

    It is so slow to remove these materials though gravity sedimentation; and other methods will consume large energy as general mechanical filter or foam separation. In this study, In order to remove the suspended particles in fresh seawater for industrial seawater aquaculture. We chose two kinds of filter-feeding bivalves, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis for biodeposition of suspended particles. The biological deposition rate(BDR) by spot experiments in different times was calculated, and the efficiency of removing the suspended particles in reservoir with fresh seawater by these two kinds of bivalves was assessed. The results showed that when the temperature of reservoir was at 17-25℃, bio-deposition rates of the two kinds of filter-feeding bivalves were 1.08-1.32 g/(ind-d) (Crassostrea gigas) and 0.65~0.85 g/(ind-d) (Mytilus galloprovincialis), respectively. Compared with no bivalves in reservoir, the bio-deposition rates with cultivation of a large number of bivalves in the reservoir was higher than no bivalves. The study shows that filter-feeding bivalve could remove suspended particles in fresh seawater and reduce the treatment load of fresh seawater.%为了去除工厂化海水养殖新源水中含有的大量悬浮颗粒物,针对蓄水池中悬浮物重力沉降速率较慢,利用一般的机械过滤或泡沫分离又消耗大量能源的缺点,该试验选择适应能力强的滤食性双壳贝类太平洋牡蛎(Crassostrea gigas)和紫贻贝(Mytilus galloprovincialis),在不同时期进行现场试验,测定其对蓄水池新源水中悬浮物的生物沉积速率并评估通过一定规模放养贝类对整个蓄水池中悬浮物的沉积效果.结果表明,在适宜的温度条件下( 17~25℃),太平洋牡蛎对蓄水池水中悬浮物生物沉积速率为1.08~1.32 g/(ind-d),紫贻贝为0.65~0.85 g/(ind-d).通过在蓄水池中大量吊笼养贝类,蓄水池中贝类养殖区的悬浮物沉降

  13. Dynamics of sheet nacre formation in bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Marthe; Meibom, Anders; Gèze, Marc; Bourrat, Xavier; Angellier, Martine; Lopez, Evelyne

    2009-03-01

    Formation of nacre (mother-of-pearl) is a biomineralization process of fundamental scientific as well as industrial importance. However, the dynamics of the formation process is still not understood. Here, we use scanning electron microscopy and high spatial resolution ion microprobe depth-profiling to image the full three-dimensional distribution of organic materials around individual tablets in the top-most layer of forming nacre in bivalves. Nacre formation proceeds by lateral, symmetric growth of individual tablets mediated by a growth-ring rich in organics, in which aragonite crystallizes from amorphous precursors. The pivotal role in nacre formation played by the growth-ring structure documented in this study adds further complexity to a highly dynamical biomineralization process.

  14. Histopathological survey of the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae and the clam Gari solida (Psammobiidae from southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Cremonte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 175 specimens of mussels, Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae, and 56 specimens of clams, Gari solida (Psammobiidae, were collected in natural beds and culture sites of southern Chile. Juvenile mussel specimens (3 cm of maximum length were free of parasites and diseases, whilst the commercial sized populations was parasitized by intracellular inclusions of bacteria-like organisms in the digestive gland epithelium and in the gills, by ciliates in the gills, turbellarians similar to Paravortex (Rhabocoela in the intestine lumen and copepods attached to the gills. In addition, the disseminated neoplasia disease was also present although in low prevalences. In the clam, G. solida, prokariotic inclusions were found in the digestive gland epithelium and bacteria-like organisms in the gills, often encapsulated by haemocytes; oocysts containing up to 8 sporozoites similar to Nematopsis (Apicomplexa in the connective tissue, causing haemocytic infiltration when the intensity of infection was high; ciliates belonging to two different species (one of them similar to Trichodina inhabiting the gills; and a turbellarian similar to Paravortex in the lumen of digestive system without apparent host reaction. The populations of the bivalve species here studied were devoid of serious pathogens.

  15. A protein binding site in the M mitochondrial genome of Mytilus galloprovincialis may be responsible for its paternal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakou, Eleni; Kravariti, Lara; Vasilopoulos, Themistoklis; Zouros, Eleftherios; Rodakis, George C

    2015-05-10

    Sea mussels (genus Mytilus) have two mitochondrial genomes in obligatory co-existence, one that is transmitted through the egg and the other through the sperm. The phenomenon, known as Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), is presently known to occur in more than 40 molluscan bivalve species. Females and the somatic tissues of males contain mainly the maternal (F) genome. In contrast, the sperm contains only the paternal (M) genome. Through electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) experiments we have identified a sequence element in the control region (CR) of the M genome that acts as a binding site for the formation of a complex with a protein factor that occurs in the male gonad. An adenine tract upstream to the element is also essential for the formation of the complex. The reaction is highly specific. It does not occur with protein extracts from the female gonad or from a male or female somatic tissue. Further experiments showed that the interaction takes place in mitochondria surrounding the nucleus of the cells of male gonads, suggesting a distinct role of perinuclear mitochondria. We propose that at a certain point during spermatogenesis mitochondria are subject to degradation and that perinuclear mitochondria with the M mtDNA-protein complex are protected from this degradation with the result that mature spermatozoa contain only the paternal mitochondrial genome.

  16. Bivalve reefs from the Upper Triassic of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz T. Fürsich

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Upper Triassic Nayband Formation of east-central Iran, bivalves repeatedly form small patch reefson a mid to outer mixed carbonate-siliciclastic ramp in close stratigraphic neighbourhood to coral and coralspongereefs. In contrast to other Triassic-Jurassic bivalve-dominated patch reefs, the bivalve reefs of theNayband Formation are characterized by a comparatively high diversity of framebuilding taxa. These includetaxa from three different families, i.e., the ostreids Umbostrea emamii, U. iranica and U.? aff. parasiticum, the prospondylids Newaagia stocklini and Persia monstrosa, and the plicatulids Eoplicatula parvadehensis and Pseudoplacunopsis asymmetrica. The bivalve reef constructors may have had a competitive advantage over coral and calcareous sponges in environments characterized by a higher degree of turbidity and/or higher nutrient contents.

  17. Overwiew on selective breeding and genetic improvement in bivalve shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    Boudry, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Dr. Boudry focussed his talk on oysters, which are the most important bivalve species produced world wide (more than 4 million tons). One of the main characteristic of bivalve aquaculture is that most of the juveniles ("seed or "spat") are collected from natural recruitment (e.g. 100% of the European mussel production). Hatchery propagation is used in the case of introduced species (e.g. Crassostrea gigas in USA) or limited natural recruitment. The most significant genetic improvement ...

  18. Lower Jurassic beds with bivalves in south Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Debeljak; Stanko Buser

    1995-01-01

    The Lower Jurassic beds of south Slovenia outcrop on a surface of several hundred km^ with their thickness in places exceeding 300 meters. They were deposited on the Dinaric Carbonate Platform. In them rich accumulations of characteristic bivalves occur that in Pliensbachian and Toarcian inhabited the wide interconnected shallow water regions of the western and southern margins of Tethysand the eastern Pacific. The most interesting are three large bivalve species:Lithiotis problematica, Cochl...

  19. Characteristics of bivalve diversity in typical habitats of China seas

    OpenAIRE

    Fengshan Xu; Junlong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    With vast sea areas, long coastline and complex environmental conditions, the China seas contain various habitats for bivalves. The diversity characteristics of some typical habitats can reflect the molluscan fauna of China seas. Based on our years of work and records from malacologists home and abroad, the bi-valve diversity, habitats and ecological habits in different environments are described, and the distribution characters in different sea areas are analysed. Due to the effects of coast...

  20. Geography of end-Cretaceous marine bivalve extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, David M.; Jablonski, David

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, based on 3514 occurrences of 340 genera of marine bivalves (Mollusca), suggests that extinction intensities were uniformly global; no latitudinal gradients or other geographic patterns are detected. Elevated extinction intensities in some tropical areas are entirely a result of the distribution of one extinct group of highly specialized bivalves, the rudists. When rudists are omitted, intensities at those localities are statistically indistinguishable from those of both the rudist-free tropics and extratropical localities.

  1. Isotopic fingerprints of bacterial chemosymbiosis in the bivalve Loripes lacteus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, A.; Stannek, L.; Blumenberg, M.; Taviani, M.; Sigovini, M.; Wrede, C.; Thiel, V.; Hoppert, M.

    2012-04-01

    Metazoans with chemosynthetic bacterial endosymbionts are widespread in marine habitats and respective endosymbioses are known from seven recent animal phyla. However, little is known about endosymbioses in fossil settings and, hence, ecological significance in earth history. In the presented project, we investigate the ancient and recent bivalve fauna living at marine sedimentary oxic/anoxic interfaces. Two bivalve species collected from the same benthic environment - a Mediterranean lagoon - were studied in detail. The diet of Loripes lacteus is based on thiotrophic gill symbionts whereas Venerupis aureus is a filter feeding bivalve without symbionts. The presence of three key enzymes from sulfur oxidation (APS-reductase), carbon fixation (RubisCO) and assimilation of nitrogen (glutamine synthetase [GS]) were detected by immunofluorescence in symbionts of Loripes and/or by activity tests in living specimens. In search of biosignatures associated with thiotrophic chemosymbionts that might be suitable for detection of chemosymbiotic diets in recent and fossil bivalve shells, we analyzed the isotopic composition of shell lipids (δ13C) and the bulk organic matrix of the shell (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S). We could show that the combined δ15N and δ13C values from shell extracts are stable in subfossil (Pleistocene) bivalve specimens, as long as the isotopic data is "calibrated" with respective signatures from a filter feeding bivalve sampled from the same site or lithostratigraphic bed.

  2. Marine bivalve shell geochemistry and ultrastructure from modern low pH environments: environmental effect versus experimental bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, S.; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R.; Griesshaber, E.; Schmahl, W. W.; Buhl, D.; Hall-Spencer, J. M.; Baggini, C.; Fehr, K. T.; Immenhauser, A.

    2012-05-01

    Bivalve shells can provide excellent archives of past environmental change but have not been used to interpret ocean acidification events. We investigated carbon, oxygen and trace element records from different shell layers in the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis combined with detailed investigations of the shell ultrastructure. Mussels from the harbour of Ischia (Mediterranean, Italy) were transplanted and grown in water with mean pHT 7.3 and mean pHT 8.1 near CO2 vents on the east coast of the island. Most prominently, the shells recorded the shock of transplantation, both in their shell ultrastructure, textural and geochemical record. Shell calcite, precipitated subsequently under acidified seawater responded to the pH gradient by an in part disturbed ultrastructure. Geochemical data from all test sites show a strong metabolic effect that exceeds the influence of the low-pH environment. These field experiments showed that care is needed when interpreting potential ocean acidification signals because various parameters affect shell chemistry and ultrastructure. Besides metabolic processes, seawater pH, factors such as salinity, water temperature, food availability and population density all affect the biogenic carbonate shell archive.

  3. Marine bivalve shell geochemistry and ultrastructure from modern low pH environments: environmental effect versus experimental bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hahn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve shells can provide excellent archives of past environmental change but have not been used to interpret ocean acidification events. We investigated carbon, oxygen and trace element records from different shell layers in the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis combined with detailed investigations of the shell ultrastructure. Mussels from the harbour of Ischia (Mediterranean, Italy were transplanted and grown in water with mean pHT 7.3 and mean pHT 8.1 near CO2 vents on the east coast of the island. Most prominently, the shells recorded the shock of transplantation, both in their shell ultrastructure, textural and geochemical record. Shell calcite, precipitated subsequently under acidified seawater responded to the pH gradient by an in part disturbed ultrastructure. Geochemical data from all test sites show a strong metabolic effect that exceeds the influence of the low-pH environment. These field experiments showed that care is needed when interpreting potential ocean acidification signals because various parameters affect shell chemistry and ultrastructure. Besides metabolic processes, seawater pH, factors such as salinity, water temperature, food availability and population density all affect the biogenic carbonate shell archive.

  4. Dynamics of the abundance of some bivalve species in Russian waters of the Sea of Japan and its prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaev, D. D.

    2009-04-01

    The abundance dynamics of several species of bivalve mollusks spats were studied on scallop collectors situated in Minonosok bay of Pos’eta Gulf for 27 years and for 4 years in Kit bay of the Sea of Japan (Russia). A significant positive relation was found between the species having similar thermopathy: the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis and Swift’s scallop Swiftopecten swifti, as well as between the wrinkled rock borer Hiatella arctica and Swift’s scallop Swiftopecten swifti. A significant reverse relation was found between the bay mussel Mytilus trossulus and the Northern Pacific seastar Asterias amurensis. Some of the studied mollusks of Minonosok bay and the remote Kit bay display a significant reversed interrelation in their abundance dynamics caused by the precipitation regime. The one-way dispersion analysis a revealed significant influence of the water temperature in June and the precipitation abundance in the summer on Swift’s scallop’s dynamic abundance. The two-way dispersion analysis showed a significant influence of the ice period duration and the solar activity expressed in Wolf’s numbers on the Japanese scallop abundance dynamics. The uneven years in the period from 1977 to 1984 were usually productive for M. yessoensis and S. swifti spat. After 1985, the even years became more productive (there was asynchronicity in the abundance dynamics compared with 1977-1984). Such asynchronicity appeared with the advent of the new 22-year solar cycle, which caused a change in the magnet polarity in 1986.

  5. EFECTOS DE LA VARIACIÓN ALTITUDINAL SOBRE LA POLINIZACIÓN EN CULTIVOS DE GULUPA (Passiflora edulis F. edulis Effects of Altitudinal Variation on Pollination in Purple Passion Fruit Crops (Passiflora edulis F. edulis

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    JULIÁN MEDINA-GUTIÉRREZ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es reconocer y diferenciar las especies visitantes y los verdaderos polinizadores de dos cultivos de gulupa (Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims. ubicados a diferente altitud (2225 msnm y 1657 msnm en el municipio de Buenavista - Boyacá cordillera Oriental de Colombia. En los dos cultivos se encontraron diferencias en composición, en número de visitantes y en polinizadores. En el cultivo ubicado a 2225 msnm, se registraron siete especies, mientras que en el cultivo ubicado a 1657 msnm, se encontraron 18 especies de visitantes. Se realizaron observaciones del recurso colectado por los visitantes y la estructura floral con la que el visitante entra en contacto. Además, se realizaron cuatro tratamientos experimentales de biología floral: polinización pasiva, polinización natural, polinización manual y eficiencia de polinizadores mediante "visitas únicas", concluyendo que las especies polinizadoras son: en C1 Apis mellifera, y en C2 Xylocopa frontalis, Xylocopa lachnea y Epicharis sp.The purpose of this paper is to study in two crops of purple passionfruit Passiflora edulis f. edulis harvested at different altitudes (2225 m.a.s.l. and 1657 m.a.s.l. in the municipality of Buenavista - Boyacá, located in the eastern Mountain range of Colombia, in order to familiarize with visitors and pollinators. This study reveals that in both crops there were differences found in composition, the number of visitors and pollinators. In the crop at 2225 m.a.s.l., 7 species were registered, while 18 species were recorded at the 1657 m.a.s.l. crop. In order to achieve this, collected material by the visitors and the floral structures with which they approach, were observed; at the same time four experiments took place: passive pollination, natural pollination, manual pollination and pollinator's efficiency. These experiments established that pollinator species are: in C1 Apis mellifera, and in C2 and Xylocopa frontalis, Xylocopa

  6. Marine diatoms sustain growth of bivalves in a Mediterranean lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernet, Fabrice; Malet, Nathalie; Pastoureaud, Annie; Vaquer, André; Quéré, Claudie; Dubroca, Laurent

    2012-02-01

    Carbon stable isotopes and fatty acids were measured in the suspended particulate organic matter (POM) of the Thau lagoon to study its qualitative temporal changes in relation to environmental factors and to identify the food sources of bivalves over a one-yr-cycle in relation to their growth. Reciprocally, the impact of shellfish farming on POM was also studied. Oysters and mussels were sampled and measured for biometry, stable isotopes and fatty acid composition. Water samples were collected at two sites, both inside and outside of the shellfish farming area, to determine concentrations in POM, chlorophyll a (Chl a) and stable isotopes. Carbon isotopes and fatty acids in bivalves reflected seasonal changes in food sources, which varied consistently with the environment. Seasonal changes in δ13C and fatty acids in the bivalves suggested that dietary phytoplankton contribution varied according to season. Terrestrial organic matter and bacteria can contribute to the diet of bivalves during non-bloom periods. Mussels seemed to rely more on diatoms and less on terrestrial organic matter and bacteria than oysters did, particularly when phytoplankton biomass was low during the summer. Although one- and two-yr-old oysters showed similar δ13C, their fatty acid dynamics differed slightly. Periods of high growth rate in bivalves were mainly fuelled by diatoms, thus highlighting the importance of seasonal blooms of microphytoplankton during the critical period of bivalve growth and gamete production. Although there was no significant effect of shellfish farms on Chl a and POM δ13C, consistent differences indicate that stable isotopes could be used successfully to investigate the effects of bivalve aquaculture.

  7. COMPARISON OF RNA EXTRACTION METHODS FOR Passiflora edulis SIMS LEAVES

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    ANNY CAROLYNE DA LUZ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Functional genomic analyses require intact RNA; however, Passiflora edulis leaves are rich in secondary metabolites that interfere with RNA extraction primarily by promoting oxidative processes and by precipitating with nucleic acids. This study aimed to analyse three RNA extraction methods, Concert™ Plant RNA Reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA, TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen and TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen/ice -commercial products specifically designed to extract RNA, and to determine which method is the most effective for extracting RNA from the leaves of passion fruit plants. In contrast to the RNA extracted using the other 2 methods, the RNA extracted using TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen did not have acceptable A260/A280 and A260/A230 ratios and did not have ideal concentrations. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed a strong DNA band for all of the Concert™ method extractions but not for the TRIzol® and TRIzol®/ice methods. The TRIzol® method resulted in smears during electrophoresis. Due to its low levels of DNA contamination, ideal A260/A280 and A260/A230 ratios and superior sample integrity, RNA from the TRIzol®/ice method was used for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and the resulting amplicons were highly similar. We conclude that TRIzol®/ice is the preferred method for RNA extraction for P. edulis leaves.

  8. Actividad hipoglucemiante de Bouvardia terniflora, Brickellia veronicaefolia y Parmentiera edulis

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    Pérez-Gutiérrez Rosa Martha

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad hipoglucemiante de los extractos de hexano, cloroformo y metanol de Brickellia veronicaefolia, Bouvardia terniflora y Parmentiera edulis. Material y métodos. Se probaron los extractos de las plantas (100, 200 y 300 mg/kg, vía intraperitoneal en ratones normoglucémicos y con diabetes inducida con aloxana. Resultados. La administración de 300 mg/kg de los extractos clorofórmicos de P. edulis, B. terniflora y hexánico de B. veronicaefolia en ratones diabéticos disminuye el nivel de glucosa sanguínea en 43.75, 58.56 y 72.13%, respectivamente. Estos extractos (300 mg/kg, administrados en ratones normoglucémicos, reducen la glucosa sanguínea en 29.61, 33.42 y 39.84%, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Con este estudio se confirma la actividad hipoglucemiante de estas plantas usadas en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento de la diabetes.

  9. Mycorrhization between Cistus ladanifer L. and Boletus edulis Bull is enhanced by the mycorrhiza helper bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Olaya; Olaizola, Jaime; Santos-del-Blanco, Luis; Oria-de-Rueda, Juan Andrés; Martín-Pinto, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Boletus edulis Bull. is one of the most economically and gastronomically valuable fungi worldwide. Sporocarp production normally occurs when symbiotically associated with a number of tree species in stands over 40 years old, but it has also been reported in 3-year-old Cistus ladanifer L. shrubs. Efforts toward the domestication of B. edulis have thus focused on successfully generating C. ladanifer seedlings associated with B. edulis under controlled conditions. Microorganisms have an important role mediating mycorrhizal symbiosis, such as some bacteria species which enhance mycorrhiza formation (mycorrhiza helper bacteria). Thus, in this study, we explored the effect that mycorrhiza helper bacteria have on the efficiency and intensity of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between C. ladanifer and B. edulis. The aim of this work was to optimize an in vitro protocol for the mycorrhizal synthesis of B. edulis with C. ladanifer by testing the effects of fungal culture time and coinoculation with the helper bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula. The results confirmed successful mycorrhizal synthesis between C. ladanifer and B. edulis. Coinoculation of B. edulis with P. fluorescens doubled within-plant mycorrhization levels although it did not result in an increased number of seedlings colonized with B. edulis mycorrhizae. B. edulis mycelium culture time also increased mycorrhization levels but not the presence of mycorrhizae. These findings bring us closer to controlled B. edulis sporocarp production in plantations.

  10. Utilization of Passion fruit hulls (Passiflora edulis Sims f. edulis Deg as component of complete feed for growing Kacang goats

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    Kiston Simanihuruk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Processing of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. edulis Deg to produce passion fruit juice produce passion fruit hulls that is potential for feedstuff. Twenty male kacang goats (average initial body weight 17±1.24 kg were used in an experiment to study the effect of utilization of passion fruit hulls as feed component in the complete pellet ration on their growth. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design consisting of 4 diets and 5 replications. Animal were randomly allocated into 4 diets (0, 15, 30, 45% level of passion fruit hulls. Each diet contained 14% crude protein and 2550 Kcal kg-1 metabolism energy. The ration was offered at 3.8% of body weight based on dry matter. The result of the experiment showed that all variables observed were not affected by level of passion fruit hulls (P>0.05. Average daily gain and feed efficiency tended to decrease with the increase level of passion fruit hulls. The highest dry matter, organic matter and N intake (768,78 g h-1 d-1; 687,37 g h-1 d-1 and 17,22 g h-1 d-1 respectively were found from R1 treatment (15% level of passion fruit hulls. It was concluded that passion fruit hulls can be used till 45% level in the diet of Kacang goat.

  11. Δ^<5,7>-Sterol Constituents of Some Bivalves

    OpenAIRE

    Teshima, Shin-ichi; Kanazawa, Akio; SHIMAMOTO, Ryuji; テシマ, シンイチ; カナザワ, アキオ; シマモト, リュウジ; 手島, 新一; 金沢, 昭夫; 嶋元, 隆司

    1985-01-01

    The composition of Δ^-sterols and other sterols of six bivalves collected in Okinawa, Japan, was investigated. Sterols were identified by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on 1.5% OV—17 and GLC-mass spectrometry. The bivalves examined contained seven Δ^-sterols and a few Δ^-sterols besides Δ^-sterols commonly occurring in marine molluscs. Saxostrea mordax and Tridacna crocea contained cholesta-5,7-dienol as the major sterols (about 50% of total Δ^-sterols), whereas Protostrea hyotis...

  12. Δ^<5,7>-Sterol Constituents of Some Bivalves

    OpenAIRE

    Teshima, Shin-ichi; Kanazawa, Akio; SHIMAMOTO, Ryuji; テシマ, シンイチ; カナザワ, アキオ; シマモト, リュウジ; 手島, 新一; 金沢, 昭夫; 嶋元, 隆司

    1985-01-01

    The composition of Δ^-sterols and other sterols of six bivalves collected in Okinawa, Japan,was investigated. Sterols were identified by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on 1.5% OV—17 and GLC-mass spectrometry. The bivalves examined contained seven Δ^-sterols and afew Δ^-sterols besides Δ^-sterols commonly occurring in marine molluscs. Saxostrea mordax andTridacna crocea contained cholesta-5,7-dienol as the major sterols (about 50% of totalΔ^-sterols), whereas Protostrea hyotis and Pinctada ma...

  13. Modeling the carbon isotope composition of bivalve shells (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanek, C.

    2010-12-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of bivalve shells is a valuable archive of paleobiological and paleoenvironmental information. Previous work has shown that the carbon isotope composition of the shell is related to the carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the ambient water in which a bivalve lives, as well as metabolic carbon derived from bivalve respiration. The contribution of metabolic carbon varies among organisms, but it is generally thought to be relatively low (e.g., organism and high (>90%) in the shells from terrestrial organisms. Because metabolic carbon contains significantly more C-12 than DIC, negative excursions from the expected environmental (DIC) signal are interpreted to reflect an increased contribution of metabolic carbon in the shell. This observation contrasts sharply with modeled carbon isotope compositions for shell layers deposited from the inner extrapallial fluid (EPF). Previous studies have shown that growth lines within the inner shell layer of bivalves are produced during periods of anaerobiosis when acidic metabolic byproducts (e.g., succinic acid) are neutralized (or buffered) by shell dissolution. This requires the pH of EPF to decrease below ambient levels (~7.5) until a state of undersaturation is achieved that promotes shell dissolution. This condition may occur when aquatic bivalves are subjected to external stressors originating from ecological (predation) or environmental (exposure to atm; low dissolved oxygen; contaminant release) pressures; normal physiological processes will restore the pH of EPF when the pressure is removed. As a consequence of this process, a temporal window should also exist in EPF at relatively low pH where shell carbonate is deposited at a reduced saturation state and precipitation rate. For example, EPF chemistry should remain slightly supersaturated with respect to aragonite given a drop of one pH unit (6.5), but under closed conditions, equilibrium carbon isotope

  14. Comparative central effects of the aqueous leaf extract of two populations of Passiflora edulis

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    Adriana S.F.S.J. Ayres

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPassiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, has been used in Brazilian traditional folk medicine to the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. P. edulis is commonly known for its economic interests in Brazil. This species exhibits significant variability in the fruit rind color, then two subpopulations has been described (P. edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Deg. (PEF; P. edulis fo. edulis (PEE. This study compared phytochemical profile and biological actions of aqueous leaf extract of PEE and PEF. HPLC analysis showed marked distinct chromatograms to the P. edulisvarieties. However, in both extracts the major compounds observed were flavonoids C-glycosides. Behavioral studies showed that PEE (300 mg/kg, p.o. and PEF (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. reduced anxiety in the elevated plus maze test. PEE (300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o. and PEF (1000 mg/kg, p.o. also induced antidepressant-like actions in the forced swimming test. PEE 1000 mg/kg significantly reduced distance moved, thus suggesting sedation. No alterations in sleeping time were observed with PEE and PEF extracts. In conclusion, despite the similarities between the biological actions observed for both P. edulis varieties, quite different phytochemical profile was herein reported. These data suggest that the anxiolytic and antidepressant actions are not due to a specific phytochemical component.

  15. Prevalence and intensity of pathologies induced by the toxic dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama, in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basti, Leila; Endo, Makoto; Segawa, Susumu; Shumway, Sandra E; Tanaka, Yuji; Nagai, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    The harmful dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama, has been causing mass mortalities of bivalve molluscs in Japan, at relatively low cell densities. Although several studies have been conducted to determine the toxicity mechanisms, the specific cause of death is still unclear. In a previous study, in our laboratory, it was shown that H. circularisquama (10(3) cells ml(-1)) caused extensive cytotoxicity in the gills of short-neck clams, Ruditapes philippinarum. In the present study, Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, were exposed to H. circularisquama at four cell densities (5, 50, 500, 10(3) cells ml(-1)), three temperatures (15, 20, and 25°C), and three exposure durations (3, 24, and 48 h), and the pathologies in nine organs (gills, labial palps, mantle, hepatopancreas, stomach, intestines, exhalant siphon, adductor muscles, and foot) were assessed. Foot, adductor muscles, and exhalent siphons of mussels were not affected; however, 16 inflammatory (hemocytic infiltration and aggregation, diapedesis, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, edema, melanization, and firbrosis) and degenerative (thrombus, thrombosed edema, cilia matting and exfoliation, epithelial desquamation, atrophy, and necrosis) pathologies were identified in the gills, labial palps, mantle, hepatopancreas, stomach, and intestines. The total prevalence and total intensity of pathology in each individual mussel, and the prevalence and intensity of pathology in each organ increased significantly with increased cell density, exposure duration, and temperature. The prevalence of pathology was the highest in gills, followed by the prevalence in labial palps, mantle, stomach, and intestines. Pathology was least prevalent in the hepatopancreas. The intensity of pathology was the highest in the gills, followed by the labial palps and mantle, the stomach and intestines, and the hepatopancreas. This detailed quantitative histopathological study demonstrates that exposure to H. circularisquama

  16. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve-Fernandez, Pedro [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Houlbreque, Fanny, E-mail: F.Houlbreque@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Boisson, Florence [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Mulsow, Sandor [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Castilla 567, Valdivia (Chile); Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Oberhaensli, Francois; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000 Monaco (Monaco)

    2010-09-15

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from {sup 109}Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with {sup 109}Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of {sup 109}Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 {+-} 0.175 ng g{sup -1} (mean {+-} asymptotic standard error, p < 0.001) after 78 {+-} 9 days. The depuration rate for {sup 109}Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total {sup 109}Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  17. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: Seawater and food exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from 109Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with 109Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of 109Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838 ± 0.175 ng g-1 (mean ± asymptotic standard error, p 109Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total 109Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels.

  18. Lower Carboniferous marine bivalves from the Cantabrian Mountains (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amler, M.R.W.; Winkler Prins, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    The Lower Carboniferous bivalves of the Vegamián and Genicera formations are described, followed by a brief discussion on palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographical aspects. The black shales of the Vegamián Fm. (Tournaisian) yield a peculiar association of euchondriid taxa (Euchondria wagneri sp. no

  19. Molecular approaches to bivalve population studies: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragomir-Cosmin David

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review concerning the importance of molecular approaches in bivalve’s population study. The class Bivalvia counts more than 20,000 species with a wide distribution both in freshwater and marine environment. Given their importance especially in aquaculture as a source of food, they have also a strong economic impact upon human society. This review encompasses best practices in bivalve studies from field sampling to laboratory analyses, addressing questions about molecular methods and tools commonly used by specialized researchers. Molecular tools specifically deals with phylogeography, population genetics, biology, ecology and taxonomy. In all these fields, molecular markers play an important role by completing some unanswered questions such as the role of the bivalves in the ecosystems in relation to anthropogenic and global change issues. Numerous genetic markers were developed for specific problems, thereferore we identify as a major issue the absence of uniform and universally recognized methods. The various sections of the paper emphasize from peer reviewed literature literature which are considered the most useful markers, costs and benefits of different methodology, major gaps of knowledge.in bivalve population studies. By reviewing virtually all genetic markers employed during nearly half a century of bivalve molecular research, in our opinion two are the best option “tools: the mitochondrial COI (cytochrome oxidase subunit I and nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2.

  20. Additions to the Marine bivalve mollusks of Peru

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    Carlos Paredes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The following species of marine bivalve mollusks were recorded for the first time from the Peruvian sea: Glycymeris (Axinactus delessertii (Reeve, 1843; Botula cylista Berry, 1959; Parahyotissa (Pliohyotissa quercinus (Sowerby II, 1871; Pitar (Pitar helenae Olsson, 1961; Eurhomalea lenticularis (Sowerby I, 1835; and Cardiomya planetica (Dall, 1908. Description, habitat and the geographical distribution are cited for each species.

  1. Anoxic survival potential of bivalves: (arte)facts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zwaan, A.; Babarro, J.M.F.; Monari, M.; Cattani, O.

    2002-01-01

    The anoxic survival time of the bivalves Chamelea gallina, Cerastoderma edule and Scapharca inaequivalvis from two different ecosystems and differing anoxia tolerances was studied in static (closed) and flow-through systems. The antibiotics chloramphenicol, penicillin and polymyxin were added, and m

  2. Molecular and acute temperature stress response characterizations of caspase-8 gene in two mussels, Mytilus coruscus and Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duo; Wang, Hong-Wei; Yao, Cui-Luan

    2014-01-01

    The caspase family represents aspartate-specific cysteine proteases that play key roles in initiation of apoptosis in various cells response to environmental stress. In this study, two caspase-8 cDNA sequences were cloned from two Mytilus mussels, Mytilus coruscus (Mccaspase-8) and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mgcaspase-8), respectively. The full-length cDNA of Mccaspase-8 was 1884bp, including a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 140bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 238bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1506bp encoding a polypeptide of 501 amino acids. The 1775bp full-length Mg caspase-8 cDNA sequence contained an ORF of 1488bp encoding a polypeptide of 495 amino acid residues, a 5'-UTR of 51bp and a 3'-UTR of 236bp. Both the Mccaspase-8 and Mgcaspase-8 amino acid sequences contained two highly conservative death effector domains (DEDs) at N-terminal, the caspase family domains P20 and P10 and the caspase family cysteine active site 'KPKLFFIQACQG'. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Mccaspase-8 and Mgcaspase-8 were clustered with the caspase-8 from other organisms, with the close relationship with caspase-8 from mollusk. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the predominant transcripts of Mccaspase-8 were in mantle and gonad tissue of M. coruscus and the high expression levels of Mgcaspase-8 were in digestive gland and gill tissue of M. galloprovincialis, respectively. The impacts of temperature stress on Mccaspase-8 and Mgcaspase-8 expressions were tested in gill tissue and hemocytes of both species. Our results showed that both Mccaspase-8 and Mgcaspase-8 transcripts and caspase-8 activity in gill tissue and hemocytes could be induced significantly after cold and heat stress (pgalloprovincialis.

  3. Determination of the variability of both hydrophilic and lipophilic toxins in endemic wild bivalves and carnivorous gastropods from the southern part of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Ruben; Marín, Michelle; Cabrera, Fabiola; Figueroa, Diego; Contreras, Cristóbal; Barriga, Andrés; Lagos, Néstor; García, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse and determine the composition of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and lipophilic toxins in the Region of Aysén, Chile, in wild endemic mussels (Mytilus chilensis, Venus antiqua, Aulacomya ater, Choromytilus chorus, Tagelus dombeii and Gari solida) and in two endemic carnivorous molluscs species (Concholepas concholepas and Argobuccinum ranelliforme). PSP-toxin contents were determined by using HPLC with fluorescence detection, while lipophilic toxins were determined by using LC-MS/MS. Mean concentrations for the total of PSP toxins were in the range 55-2505 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g. The two most contaminated samples for PSP toxicity were bivalve Gari solida and carnivorous Argobuccinum ranelliforme with 2505 ± 101 and 1850 ± 137 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g, respectively (p shellfish together with YTX at levels ranging from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 18 ± 0.9 μg of YTX-equivalent/kg shellfish and AZA at levels ranging from 3.6 ± 0.2 to 31 ± 2.1 μg of AZA-equivalent/kg shellfish. Furthermore, different bivalves and gastropods differ in their capacity of retention of lipophilic toxins, as shown by the determination of their respective lipophilic toxins levels. In all the evaluated species, the presence of lipophilic toxins associated with biotransformation in molluscs and carnivorous gastropods was not identified, in contrast to the identification of PSP toxins, where the profiles identified in the different species are directly related to biotransformation processes. Thus, this study provides evidence that the concentration of toxins in the food intake of the evaluated species (Bivalvia and Gastropoda class) determines the degree of bioaccumulation and biotransformation they will thereafter exhibit. PMID:23822152

  4. Comparative study of immune responses in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus and the shallow-water mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis challenged with Vibrio bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Eva; Figueras, António; Novoa, Beatriz; Santos, Ricardo Serrão; Moreira, Rebeca; Bettencourt, Raul

    2014-10-01

    The deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus and the continental European coast Mytilus galloprovincialis are two bivalves species living in highly distinct marine habitats. Mussels are filter-feeding animals that may accumulate rapidly bacteria from the environment. Contact with microorganism is thus inevitable during feeding processes where gill tissues assume a strategic importance at the interface between the external milieu and the internal body cavities promoting interactions with potential pathogens during normal filtration and a constant challenge to their immune system. In the present study B. azoricus and M. galloprovincialis were exposed to Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus suspensions and to a mixture of these Vibrio suspensions, in order to ascertain the expression level of immune genes in gill samples, from both mussel species. The immune gene expressions were analyzed by means of quantitative-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). The gene expression results revealed that these bivalve species exhibit significant expression differences between 12 h and 24 h post-challenge times, and between the Vibrio strains used. V. splendidus induced the strongest gene expression level in the two bivalve species whereas the NF-κB and Aggrecan were the most significantly differentially expressed between the two mussel species. When comparing exposure times, both B. azoricus and M. galloprovincialis showed similar percentage of up-regulated genes at 12 h while a marked increased of gene expression was observed at 24 h for the majority of the immune genes in M. galloprovincialis. This contrasts with B. azoricus where the majority of the immune genes were down-regulated at 24 h. The 24 h post-challenge gene expression results clearly bring new evidence supporting time-dependent transcriptional activities resembling acute phase-like responses and different immune responses build-up in these two mussel species when challenged

  5. 化学物质诱导变态后紫贻贝稚贝的生长及存活%Growth and survival of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis post-larvae metamorphosed using different chemical compounds as inducers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金龙; 李一峰; 沈和定; SATUITO Glenn Cyril; KITAMUTRA Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    在以往实验的基础上,跟踪调查了筛选出的化学诱导物质对紫贻贝(Mytilus edulis)幼虫变态后的生长和成活率的影响,并比较了其与相同条件下自然诱导物、微生物膜诱导后的稚贝的生长和成活率.实验结果表明,肾上腺素、苯肾上腺素、可乐宁、KCI和NH_4Cl 5种化学物质均成功地诱导了该种幼虫的变态,其变态后稚贝同微生物诱导变态后的稚贝以相同的速度生长,且在培育过程中无死亡稚贝出现.因此,这些化学物质可作为该种养殖以及海洋防污染研究中幼虫变态的有效人工诱导物.%The growth and survival of Mytilus galloprovincialis post-larvae metamorphosed using different chemical compounds were investigated in this study to identify potential inducers in aquaculture and anti-fouling and biofouling researches. All tested chemical compounds including epinephrine, phenylephrine, clonidine, KCl and NH_4 Cl induced larvae to metamorphose, and post-larvae metamorphosed using these compounds survived as juveniles and grew at the same rate as those from microbial biofilms. These chemical compounds, therefore, can be used as effective inducers of larval metamorphosis in aquaculture and antifoul-ing and biofouling studies using juveniles.

  6. In Vitro Analysis of Early Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of Okadaic Acid in Different Cell Types of the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prego-Faraldo, María Verónica; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Laffon, Blanca; Eirín-López, José M; Méndez, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is the predominant biotoxin responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) syndrome in humans. While its harmful effects have been extensively studied in mammalian cell lines, the impact on marine organisms routinely exposed to OA is still not fully known. Few investigations available on bivalve molluscs suggest less genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of OA at high concentrations during long exposure times. In contrast, no apparent information is available on how sublethal concentrations of OA affect these organisms over short exposure times. In order to fill this gap, this study addressed for the first time in vitro analysis of early genotoxic and cytotoxic effects attributed to OA in two cell types of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Accordingly, hemocytes and gill cells were exposed to low OA concentrations (10, 50, 100, 200, or 500 nM) for short periods of time (1 or 2 h). The resulting DNA damage, as apoptosis and necrosis, was subsequently quantified using the comet assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Data demonstrated that (1) mussel hemocytes seem to display a resistance mechanism against early genotoxic and cytotoxic OA-induced effects, (2) mussel gill cells display higher sensitivity to early OA-mediated genotoxicity than hemocytes, and (3) mussel gill cells constitute more suitable systems to evaluate the genotoxic effect of low OA concentrations in short exposure studies. Taken together, this investigation provides evidence supporting the more reliable suitability of mussel gill cells compared to hemocytes to evaluate the genotoxic effect of low short-duration exposure to OA.

  7. Seagrass beds as ocean acidification refuges for mussels? High resolution measurements of pCO2 and O2 in a Zostera marina and Mytilus edulis mosaic habitat

    OpenAIRE

    V. Saderne; P. Fietzek; S. Aßmann; A. Körtzinger; C. Hiebenthal

    2015-01-01

    It has been speculated that macrophytes beds might act as a refuge for calcifiers from ocean acidification. In the shallow nearshores of the western Kiel Bay (Baltic Sea), mussel and seagrass beds are interlacing, forming a mosaic habitat. Naturally, the diverse physiological activities of seagrasses and mussels are affected by seawater carbonate chemistry and they locally modify it in return. Calcification by shellfishes is sensitive to s...

  8. Effects of Maillard Reaction on the Flavor of Hydrolysate from Mytilus edulis%Maillard反应对紫贻贝酶解液风味的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶; 王雨生; 陈海华; 赵阳; 吕振磊

    2015-01-01

    以紫贻贝酶解液为原料,采用氨基酸分析、GC-MS分析法、电子鼻技术并结合感官评价等方法研究Maillard反应对紫贻贝酶解液风味变化的影响.氨基酸分析表明:酶解液中的游离氨基酸除丙氨酸、脯氨酸、胱氨酸和蛋氨酸外,其余的大部分氨基酸参与了Maillard反应.GC-MS结果表明:未发生Maillard反应的样品EHS中挥发性成分主要为羧酸类和醛类,部分Maillard反应的样品NARS和充分Maillard反应的样品ARS中的挥发性化合物主要为羧酸类、酯类、酮类、醛类、吡嗪类、醇类、含硫类等化合物,说明Maillard反应是产生海鲜风味物质的主要途径.后两者的挥发性化合物组成差异显著,样品ARS舍有的能产生海鲜味的挥发性成分种类明显比样品NARS的多,其含量也比样品NARS的丰富.电子鼻响应值分析表明:与样品EHS和样品NARS不同,样品ARS中产生了较多的芳香成分、氮氧化合物、烷类化合物、醇类化合物等.Maillard反应过程有利于海鲜风味成分的形成.

  9. Effects of various pollutant mixtures on immune responses of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) collected at a salinity gradient in the Danish belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höher, N.; Köhler, A.; Strand, Jakob;

    mixtures of pollutants (metals, PAHs and POPs), according to parallel chemical analysis of mussel tissues. The immune responses analysed included cellular components (total and differential haemocyte count, phagocytic activity and apoptosis) as well as cell-free factors (cytotoxic activity). Individuals...... had an impact on the condition index of all individuals. However, haemocyte-mediated immunity was not affected. In conclusion, cellular immune responses were mainly influenced by pollutants, regardless to environmental salinities, whereas cell-free factors were impacted by both, salinity and pollution....... Hence, cellular immune functions may be suitable as biomarkers in monitoring programmes for the Baltic Sea and other geographic regions with salinity variances of the studied range....

  10. Structure Elucidation, Relative LC-MS Response and In Vitro Toxicity of Azaspiracids 7-10 Isolated from Mussels (Mytilus edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Jane; Twiner, Michael J; McCarron, Pearse; Crain, Sheila; Giddings, Sabrina D; Foley, Barry; Rise, Frode; Hess, Philipp; Wilkins, Alistair L; Miles, Christopher O

    2015-05-27

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins produced by dinoflagellates that can accumulate in shellfish, which if consumed can lead to poisoning events. AZA7-10, 7-10, were isolated from shellfish and their structures, previously proposed on the basis of only LC-MS/MS data, were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. Purified AZA4-6, 4-6, and 7-10 were accurately quantitated by qNMR and used to assay cytotoxicity with Jurkat T lymphocyte cells for the first time. LC-MS(MS) molar response studies performed using isocratic and gradient elution in both selected ion monitoring and selected reaction monitoring modes showed that responses for the analogues ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 relative to AZA1, 1. All AZA analogues tested were cytotoxic to Jurkat T lymphocyte cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner; however, there were distinct differences in their EC50 values, with the potencies for each analogue being: AZA6 > AZA8 > AZA1 > AZA4 ≈ AZA9 > AZA5 ≈ AZA10. This data contributes to the understanding of the structure-activity relationships of AZAs.

  11. Seagrass beds as ocean acidification refuges for mussels? High resolution measurements of pCO2 and O2 in a Zostera marina and Mytilus edulis mosaic habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Saderne

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been speculated that macrophytes beds might act as a refuge for calcifiers from ocean acidification. In the shallow nearshores of the western Kiel Bay (Baltic Sea, mussel and seagrass beds are interlacing, forming a mosaic habitat. Naturally, the diverse physiological activities of seagrasses and mussels are affected by seawater carbonate chemistry and they locally modify it in return. Calcification by shellfishes is sensitive to seawater acidity; therefore the photosynthetic activity of seagrasses in confined shallow waters creates favorable chemical conditions to calcification at daytime but turn the habitat less favorable or even corrosive to shells at night. In contrast, mussel respiration releases CO2, turning the environment more favorable for photosynthesis by adjacent seagrasses. At the end of summer, these dynamics are altered by the invasion of high pCO2/low O2 coming from the deep water of the Bay. However, it is in summer that mussel spats settle on the leaves of seagrasses until migrating to the permanent habitat where they will grow adult. These early life phases (larvae/spats are considered as most sensitive with regard to seawater acidity. So far, the dynamics of CO2 have never been continuously measured during this key period of the year, mostly due to the technological limitations. In this project we used a combination of state-of-the-art technologies and discrete sampling to obtain high-resolution time-series of pCO2 and O2 at the interface between a seagrass and a mussel patch in Kiel Bay in August and September 2013. From these, we derive the entire carbonate chemistry using statistical models. We found the monthly average pCO2 more than 50 % (approx. 640 μatm for August and September above atmospheric equilibrium right above the mussel patch together with large diel variations of pCO2 within 24 h: 887 ± 331 μatm in August and 742 ± 281 μatm in September (mean ± SD. We observed important daily corrosiveness for calcium carbonates (Ωarag and Ωcalc < 1 centered on sunrise. On the positive side, the investigated habitat never suffered from hypoxia during the study period. We emphasize the need for more experiments on the impact of these acidic conditions on (juvenile mussels with a focus on the distinct day-night variations observed.

  12. DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase activity and lysosomal stability in native and transplanted mussels (Mytilus edulis) in areas close to coastal chemical dumping sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Strand, Jakob;

    2007-01-01

    potentially affected by anthropogenic pollution originating from chemical dumping sites. The results indicate responses to pollution in all the biomarkers applied at the suspected areas, but the results were not consistent. Seasonal fluctuations in exposure situations at the study sites make interpretation...

  13. Identification of glycerophospholipid molecular species of mussel (Mytilus edulis) lipids by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fa-Wen; Zhou, Da-Yong; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Zhong-Yuan; Hu, Xiao-Pei; Liu, Yan-Fei; Song, Liang; Zhou, Xin; Qin, Lei; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2016-12-15

    This study was carried out to identify the glycerophosphocholine (GPCho), glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPEtn) and glycerophosphoserine (GPSer) compositions in lipids extracted from mussels using Folch, Bligh-Dyer and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) methods by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The molecular species of GPCho, GPEtn and GPSer were characterized according to the MS and MS/MS information. A semi-quantitative method using internal standard was established to compare the difference in glycerophospholipids (GP) between samples recovered with different methods. At least 212, 230 and 206 GP species were identified, respectively, from lipids recovered by Folch, Bligh-Dyer and MTBE methods. Most of the abundant GP species in mussels contained EPA and DHA. Some GP species with low content were not present in lipids recovered by the Folch and MTBE methods when compared with that recovered by the Bligh-Dyer method. However, for most GP species in lipids recovered by different methods, no quantitative differences existed. PMID:27451190

  14. Seagrass beds as ocean acidification refuges for mussels? High resolution measurements of pCO2 and O2 in a Zostera marina and Mytilus edulis mosaic habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saderne, V.; Fietzek, P.; Aßmann, S.; Körtzinger, A.; Hiebenthal, C.

    2015-07-01

    It has been speculated that macrophytes beds might act as a refuge for calcifiers from ocean acidification. In the shallow nearshores of the western Kiel Bay (Baltic Sea), mussel and seagrass beds are interlacing, forming a mosaic habitat. Naturally, the diverse physiological activities of seagrasses and mussels are affected by seawater carbonate chemistry and they locally modify it in return. Calcification by shellfishes is sensitive to seawater acidity; therefore the photosynthetic activity of seagrasses in confined shallow waters creates favorable chemical conditions to calcification at daytime but turn the habitat less favorable or even corrosive to shells at night. In contrast, mussel respiration releases CO2, turning the environment more favorable for photosynthesis by adjacent seagrasses. At the end of summer, these dynamics are altered by the invasion of high pCO2/low O2 coming from the deep water of the Bay. However, it is in summer that mussel spats settle on the leaves of seagrasses until migrating to the permanent habitat where they will grow adult. These early life phases (larvae/spats) are considered as most sensitive with regard to seawater acidity. So far, the dynamics of CO2 have never been continuously measured during this key period of the year, mostly due to the technological limitations. In this project we used a combination of state-of-the-art technologies and discrete sampling to obtain high-resolution time-series of pCO2 and O2 at the interface between a seagrass and a mussel patch in Kiel Bay in August and September 2013. From these, we derive the entire carbonate chemistry using statistical models. We found the monthly average pCO2 more than 50 % (approx. 640 μatm for August and September) above atmospheric equilibrium right above the mussel patch together with large diel variations of pCO2 within 24 h: 887 ± 331 μatm in August and 742 ± 281 μatm in September (mean ± SD). We observed important daily corrosiveness for calcium carbonates (Ωarag and Ωcalc < 1) centered on sunrise. On the positive side, the investigated habitat never suffered from hypoxia during the study period. We emphasize the need for more experiments on the impact of these acidic conditions on (juvenile) mussels with a focus on the distinct day-night variations observed.

  15. Relation between the concentration of Dinophysis acuminata and diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxins in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) during a toxic episode in the Limfjord (Denmark), 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Andersen, Per

    2008-01-01

    equivalents in the raw blue mussels was 706 mu g/kg. Single cell toxicity measurements showed a mean content of 31 pg OA cell(-1) (min 19; max 72 pg OA cell(-1)). The impact of the concentration procedure was investigated using a range of volumes filtered from 0,21-101 filter(-1). Toxins were lost during...... the filtration process as a response to amount of water concentrated on each filter. The relationship between the volume filtered per filter and the content of OA observed in the cells fitted well the equation y = 32.0.e(-0.12-x), where y = OA cell(-1) (pg OA cell(-1)) and x = volume of water filtered per filter...

  16. Dredging of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Danish sound: stock sizes and fishery-effects on mussel population dynamic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Kristensen, Per Sand; Hoffmann, Erik

    1999-01-01

    in the mussel stock. In summer 1994, there was a long period of oxygen depletion in parts of Limfjorden. This caused mortality of 33% of the mussels in the affected areas. In fishery zones without oxygen depletion a 46% increase in the mussel stocks was estimated. The massive loss of blue mussels caused...

  17. Structure Elucidation, Relative LC–MS Response and In Vitro Toxicity of Azaspiracids 7–10 Isolated from Mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcoyne, Jane; Twiner, Michael J.; McCarron, Pearse; Crain, Sheila; Giddings, Sabrina D.; Foley, Barry; Rise, Frode; Hess, Philipp; Willdns, Alistair L.; Miles, Christopher O.

    2015-01-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins produced by dinoflagellates that can accumulate in shellfish, which if consumed can lead to poisoning events. AZA7–10, 7–10, were isolated from shellfish and their structures, previously proposed on the basis of only LC–MS/MS data, were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. Purified AZA4–6, 4–6, and 7–10 were accurately quantitated by qNMR and used to assay cytotoxicity with Jurkat T lymphocyte cells for the first time. LC–MS(MS) molar response studies perfor...

  18. Application of monoclonal antibody against granulocytes of scallop Chlamys farreri on granulocytes occurrence at different developmental stages and antigenic cross-reactivity of granulocytes in five other bivalve species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jing; Tang, Xiaoqian; Ni, Yongqing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb) 6H7 raised specifically against granulocytes of scallop (Chlamys farreri) was employed to observe granulocyte occurrence successively in blastulae, gastrulae, trochophore larvae, D-shape larvae, umbo-veliger larvae and creeping larvae of C. farreri by immunohistochemistry assay contrasted with H&E stain using semi-thin sections. Moreover, the reactivity of the MAb with granulocytes of C. farreri, Bay scallop Argopecten irradians, Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, Blue mussel Mytilus edulis, Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, was detected by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with differential interference contrast and fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometric immunofluorescence assay (FCIFA). The results showed that positive signals were first observed at D-shape larval stage, about 28 h post fertilization, after that, umbo-veliger larvae exhibited the positive cells with a diameter of 3-5 μm distributed in velum, digestive gland and esophagus. Then in creeping larvae, the number of positive cells increased with average diameter of 5-7 μm, and widely distributed in foot, digestive gland, gills and adductor muscles. No positive signal was found in blastulae, gastrulae and trochophore larvae. The results of IFA and FCIFA showed MAb 6H7 reacted to granulocytes of C. farreri, A. irradians, P. yessoensis and C. gigas, and the positive percentage reactivity were 53 ± 2.5%, 15 ± 2.5%, 12 ± 2.1% and 19 ± 2.1%, respectively, however, no cross-reaction was detected in hemocytes of R. philippinarum and M. edulis.

  19. Plinia edulis - leaf architecture and scanning electron micrographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Donato

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many species of Myrtaceae, including Plinia edulis (Vell. Sobral (cambucá, have pharmacological properties and are used as hypoglycemiants and therapeutic agents against stomach problems and throat infections. Samples were collected from Tijuca Forest in Rio de Janeiro, and the morpho-anatomical data were compared with other specimens obtained from Trindade, Paraty, found in the literature. Variations in leaf anatomy were observed, and the possible causes for these effects are discussed. The plant material collected from Tijuca Forest was analyzed using scanning electron and optical microscopy. Histochemical tests were applied to identify starch, lipids, phenolic compounds and lignin. The epidermal cells exhibit straight or slightly sinuous anticlinal walls covered by a smooth cuticle with granules of wax. Simple trichomes are restricted to the midrib region, and paracytic stomata are only observed on the abaxial leaf surface. The mesophyll is dorsiventral, with conspicuous intercellular spaces in the spongy parenchyma. Intercalated columns of crystalliferous cells and subepidermal secretory cavities are observed in the single layer of palisade parenchyma. The samples obtained from Trindade, Paraty, show larger leaves, anomocytic stomata and trichomes scattered throughout the leaf surface. This plasticity might reflect leaf adaptations to environmental factors or different stages of leaf development.

  20. The Bivalve Yangtzedonta is not the Brachiopod Xianfengella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wen

    2005-01-01

    The alleged "holotype" of the bivalve Yangtzedontaprimitiva Yu, 1985 figured by Qian (2001) is a broken and distorted specimen of the brachiopod Xianfengella prima He and Yang, 1982 and not the holotype of Y. primitiva. Qian contends that the oldest recognized monoplacophoran, Maikhanella pristinis (Jiang, 1980), is neither a monoplacophoran nor the oldest molluscan fossil in the Meishucunian Stage of China. Furthermore, he considers that the oldest bivalve Xianfengoconcha elliptica Zhang, 1980 is an inarticulate brachiopod, not a mollusc. Watsonella yunnanensis (He and Yang, 1982), is associated with Yangtzedonta primitiva Yu but indicates no evolutionary relationship between the Classes Rostroconchia and Bivalvia in the Lower Cambrian Zhongyicun Member of the Yuhucun Formation. Qian's confusion in using non-molluscan fossils to discuss the early evolution of shelled molluscs also confuses the basic concepts of the respective groups.

  1. HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakasabapathi Devaki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional medicinal plant P.edulis was tested for its hypoglycemic effect in Wistar albino rats. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in overnight fasted normal as well as in alloxan induced diabetic rats (150 mg/kg, of alloxan, i.p. with the administration of 100,200,300,400 mg/kg of b.wt of P.edulis. The blood sample withdrawn at 0, 60, 120, 180 min of glucose administration from the retro orbital sinus by capillary puncture indicated the hypoglycemic nature of the P.edulis leaf extract and identified the most effective dose as 200mg/kg b.wt.

  2. Bivalves build their shells from amorphous calcium carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, D. E.; Wirth, R.; Soldati, A. L.; Wehrmeister, U.

    2012-04-01

    One of the most common shell structures in the bivalve class is the prism and nacre structure. It is widely distributed amongst both freshwater and marine species and gives cultured pearls their sought-after lustre. In freshwater bivalves, both shell structures (prism and nacre) consist of aragonite. Formation of the shell form an amorphous precursor phase is a wide-spread strategy in biomineralization and presents a number of advantages for the organisms in the handling of the CaCO3 material. While there is already evidence that larval shells of some mollusk species use amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) as a transient precursor phase for aragonite, the use of this strategy by adult animals was only speculated upon. We present results from in-situ geochemistry, Raman spectroscopy and focused-ion beam assisted TEM on three species from two different bivalve families that show that remnants of ACC can be found in shells from adult species. We show that the amorphous phase is not randomly distributed, but is systematically found in a narrow zone at the interface between periostracum and prism layer. This zone is the area where spherulitic CaCO3- structures protrude from the inner periostracum to form the initial prisms. These observations are in accordance with our earlier results on equivalent structures in freshwater cultured pearls (Jacob et al., 2008) and show that the original building material for the prisms is amorphous calcium carbonate, secreted in vesicles at the inner periostracum layer. Quantitative temperature calibrations for paleoclimate applications using bivalve shells are based on the Mg-Ca exchange between inorganic aragonite (or calcite) and water. These calibrations, thus, do not take into account the biomineral crystallization path via an amorphous calcium carbonate precursor and are therefore likely to introduce a bias (a so-called vital effect) which currently is not accounted for. Jacob et al. (2008) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72, 5401-5415

  3. Magnetosome-containing bacteria living as symbionts of bivalves

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, Suzanne C.; Laurich, Jason R; Batstone, Rebecca T; McCuaig, Bonita; Elliott, Alexander, 1983-; Poduska, Kristin M

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria containing magnetosomes (protein-bound nanoparticles of magnetite or greigite) are common to many sedimentary habitats, but have never been found before to live within another organism. Here, we show that octahedral inclusions in the extracellular symbionts of the marine bivalve Thyasira cf. gouldi contain iron, can exhibit magnetic contrast and are most likely magnetosomes. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, T. cf. gouldi symbionts group with symbiotic and free-living sulfur-oxidi...

  4. THE AVAILABILITY OF Mytilus galloprovincialis FOR MONITORING ENTERIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nüket SĐVRĐ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the usage of Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 as monitoring organism on enteric bacteria concentrations in heavily polluted marine environments and its use possibilities as water quality improving tool were investigated. The ability of the Mediterranean Mussel to accumulate and purge fecal coliform bacteria investigated in laboratory experiments. First, increase on bacteria concentration was observed on 1,5th hour and sharp decrease rate lasted until 10th hours after that period slow but steady declining bacteria concentration rate was observed and beginning bacteria concentration rate was reached within next 30- 50 hours. Time dependent bacteria concentration reduction has found statistically significant at p<0.001 (r-sq = 0.81. The investigation has also revealed that mussel farming could be established in the over polluted area which is the case only in the different discharge points in the sea.

  5. Identification and antioxidant activity of several flavonoids of Inga edulis leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jesus N.S.; Silva, Evaldo M.; Larondelle, Yvan [Universite Catholique de Louvain et Institut des Sciences de la Vie, Croix du Sud, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium). Unite de Biochimie de la Nutrition; Silva, Milton N. da; Arruda, Mara S.P. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Faculdade de Quimica; Rogez, Herve [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia de Alimentos]. E-mail: frutas@ufpa.br

    2007-07-01

    A methanol-water extract of Inga edulis leaves was fractionated to identify the polyphenolic compounds. The identified compounds were gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, myricetin-3-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-glucopyranoside and quercetin-3-rhamnopyranoside. The antioxidant activity of the extract and of pure polyphenols was measured by the ORAC assay and compared with the Total Phenolic (TP) content. The dry crude extract presented very high values for ORAC (11.16 mmol TE per g) and TP (496.5 mg GAE per g). The identified compounds were responsible for 9.53 % and 12.10 % of the ORAC value and TP content of the Inga edulis leaf extract, respectively. (author)

  6. Relating Productivity Events to Holocene Bivalve Shell Growth Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, J. W.; Krause, R. A.; Kowalewski, M.; Romanek, C. S.; Kaufman, D. S.; Simoes, M. G.

    2007-12-01

    The growth rate of a bivalve can be influenced by many environmental factors that can change during the life of the organism. In this contribution we present initial data from a millennium scale chronology to assess the relationship between ontogenetic growth in the bivalve Semele casali and paleoenvironmental conditions preserved in the shell using growth increment analysis, radiocarbon-calibrated amino acid racemization dating techniques, stable isotopes (C and O) and high spatial resolution (125-150 samples per cm of shell profile) trace element (Ba, Mn) analysis (LA-ICPMS). Time-averaged specimens of S. casali were dredged from two sites at 10 meters and 30 meters depth along the inner continental shelf at Ubatuba Bay in the Southeast Brazilian Bight, an area influenced by productivity pulses triggered by coastal runoff events and coastal upwelling. Seventy-five individual valves were dated using amino acid racemization (aspartic acid). Dates were calculated using an expanded version of a previously published relationship (Barbour Wood et al., 2006 Quaternary Research 323- 331) between aspartic acid ratios and AMS radiocarbon dates of twelve S. casali individuals from the same sampling locations. The resulting time series has complete coverage for the past three thousand years at centennial resolution. From this time series, a sub-sample of dated valves was selected for more detailed growth increment, stable isotope and high-resolution trace element (Ba/Ca and Mn/Ca) analyses. Oceanic productivity is expressed differentially in the trace element profiles of S. casali with elevated Ba/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios capturing nutrient input through coastal runoff events while elevated Ba/Ca and depressed Mn/Ca ratios represent input through coastal upwelling. Fluctuations in Ba/Ca and Mn/Ca are not correlated to fluctuations in relative growth throughout the ontogeny of an individual bivalve, nor are they expected to be as periods of increased productivity are transient

  7. Source and impact of lead contamination on {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in several marine bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Company, R.; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A. [CIMA, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A. [Catedra UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop, Department of Physical-Chemistry, Faculty Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Blasco, J. [Instituto Ciencias Marinas Andalucia (CSIC), Campus Rio San Pedro, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Delgado, J. [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sarmiento, A.M. [Catedra UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop, Department of Physical-Chemistry, Faculty Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Nieto, J.M. [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Shepherd, T.J.; Nowell, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bebianno, M.J., E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2011-01-17

    Coastal areas and estuaries are particularly sensitive to metal contamination from anthropogenic sources and in the last few decades the study of space-time distribution and variation of metals has been extensively researched. The Gulf of Cadiz is no exception, with several rivers draining one of the largest concentrations of sulphide deposits in the world, the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Of these rivers, the Guadiana, one of the most important in the Iberian Peninsula, together with smaller rivers like the Tinto and Odiel, delivers a very high metal load to the adjacent coastal areas. The purpose of this work was to study the source and impact of lead (Pb) drained from historical or active mining areas in the IPB on the activity of a Pb inhibited enzyme ({delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, ALAD) in several bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz. Seven marine species (Chamelea gallina, Mactra corallina, Donax trunculus, Cerastoderma edule, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Scrobicularia plana and Crassostrea angulata) were collected at 12 sites from Mazagon, near the mouth of the rivers Tinto and Odiel (Spain), to Cacela Velha (Ria Formosa lagoon system, Portugal). Lead concentrations, ALAD activity and lead isotope ratios ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) were determined in the whole soft tissues. The highest Pb concentrations were determined in S. plana (3.50 {+-} 1.09 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.) and D. trunculus (1.95 {+-} 0.10 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.), while M. galloprovincialis and C. angulata showed the lowest Pb levels (<0.38 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.). In general, ALAD activity is negatively correlated with total Pb concentration. However this relationship is species dependent (e.g. linear for C. gallina ALAD = -0.36[Pb] + 0.79; r = 0.837; or exponential for M. galloprovincialis ALAD = 2.48e{sup -8.3[Pb]}; r = 0.911). This indicates that ALAD activity has considerable potential as a biomarker of Pb and moreover, in

  8. The cloning and expression of M7 lysin in Mytilus coruscus%厚壳贻贝M7lysin分子的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧慧; 薛超波; 常抗美; 杨刚

    2011-01-01

    M7 lysin is located in the mussel sperm acrosome. As an important protein for fertilization,it can dissolve vitelline membrane and determine the specificity of sperm-egg recognition of mussel. At present, the M7 lysin sequences of Mytilus edulis Linnaeus,M. Galloprovincialis and M. Trossulus have been recognized, but it hasn' t been reported in M. Coruscus. In this study, we cloned M7 lysin of At. Coruscus with homology cloning method,and it was expressed in E. Coli Rosseta( DE3). The results showed that the amplified product was about 540 bp fragment. The further sequencing revealed that the cDNA of open reading frame was 543 bp, and it had high similarity with those of M. Edulis, M. Galloprovincialis and M. Trossulus. The protein included 180 amino acids through online translation,its molecular weight was 20 ku,and its isoelectric point was 8.48. The phylogenetic tree from the amino acid sequence of M7 lysin showed that M. Edulis and M. Galloprovincialis had closest relationship, followed by M. Trossulus, and finally M. Coruscus. The results suggested that M7 lysin could be used as molecular markers to study mussel' s evolution. The protein of 25 ku was showed in SDS-PAGE when M7 lysin was expressed in the prokaryotes, which included the amino acid sequences in vector. This band was consistent with the expected molecular weight. Disulfide bonds' positions in M7 lysin were highly conservative, which was similar to C-type lectin carbohydrates identification area(CRD). We speculated that M7 lysin dissolved the yolk membrane through combining its sugar and sugar-based protein. The conclusions helped us to reveal the mussel' s reproductive mechanism, and further provide a reference for the cross breeding of mussels.%M7 lysin位于贻贝精子顶体中,是溶解卵黄膜、促进受精作用的重要蛋白质,决定了贻贝种间精卵识别的特异性.采用同源克隆法得到厚壳贻贝M7 lysin分子,并在原核生物中对该分子进行重组表达.

  9. Short-term feeding response of the mussel Mytilus chilensis exposed to diets containing the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella Respuesta alimentaria inicial del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis expuesto a dietas conteniendo el dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE M NAVARRO

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The short-term feeding response of the bivalve Mytilus chilensis was measured using four diets containing different proportions of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. The diets containing the highest concentrations of the dinoflagellate showed the greatest effect on the feeding activity in the mussel, with clearance and ingestión rates significantly reduced during the first hours of exposure. After this period, M. chilensis demonstrated a capacity to acclimate to the toxic diets, with feeding parameters reaching values similar to those of untreated control organisms. It was not clear if the negative effect on the feeding behavior was caused by the presence of the paralytic toxin, or due to the larger size of the dinoflagellate cells in comparison with cells of Isochrysis galbana used in the control diet. However, parallel studies with diets containing the nontoxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium affine of similar size and shape to that of A. catenella, suggested the cell size was the main cause for impairment of feeding behavior. The capacity for acclimation to either toxin or cell size by M. chilensis makes it a good indicator species for the early detection of harmful PSP events, since its relative insensitivity to the toxin allows it to quickly recover normal feeding behavior and permits it to accumulate PSP in its tissues in a short timeLa respuesta inicial del bivalvo Mytilus chilensis fue medida bajo cuatro dietas que contenían diferentes proporciones del dinoflagelado tóxico Alexandrium catenella. Las dietas que contenían las concentraciones más altas de este dinoflagelado mostraron el mayor efecto durante las primeras horas de exposición. Después de este periodo inicial, M. chilensis demostró la capacidad para aclimatarse a estas dietas tóxicas, con parámetros de alimentación que alcanzaron valores similares a aquellos de los organismos controles. No fue claro si el efecto negativo sobre la conducta de alimentación fue

  10. Analysis of passion fruit rinds (Passiflora edulis: isoorientin quantification by HPTLC and evaluation of antioxidant (radical scavenging capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Zeraik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of isoorientin in passion fruit rinds (Passiflora edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Degener was determined by HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromatography with densitometric analysis. The results revealed a higher amount of isoorientin in healthy rinds of P. edulis (92.275 ± 0.610 mg L-1 than in rinds with typical symptoms of PWV (Passion fruit Woodiness Virus infection (28.931 ± 0.346 mg L-1. The HPTLC data, allied to assays of radical scavenging activity, suggest the potential of P. edulis rinds as a natural source of flavonoids or as a possible functional food.

  11. Effects of breaking seed tubers on yield components of the tuber crop Plectranthus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taye, Mulugeta; Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Plectranthus edulis is an ancient tuber crop, cultivated in Ethiopia, which produces stem tubers on stolons below the ground; however, agronomic and physiological information on this crop is scarce. Three field experiments were carried out at each of two locations (Awassa and Wondogenet, Ethiopia).

  12. Seasonal light interception, radiation use efficiency, growth and tuber production of the tuber crop Plectranthus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taye, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew (Lamiaceae) is an ancient Ethiopian crop that produces below-ground, edible tubers on stolons. It is grown from seed tuber pieces. There is thus far little quantitative information on dry matter production of this crop and parameters determining growth and yield. Th

  13. Hypoglycemic effects of lactucin-8-O-methylacrylate of Parmentiera edulis fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, R M; Perez, C; Zavala, M A; Perez, S; Hernandez, H; Lagunes, F

    2000-08-01

    Hypoglycemic activity-guided fractionation together with chemical analysis led to the isolation of one guaianolide (lactucin-8-O-methylacrylate) from the chloroform extract of the dried fruits of Parmentiera edulis. Identification was based on spectroscopic methods. The compounds lowers blood sugar levels after administration to alloxan-diabetic mice. PMID:10940575

  14. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on reproductive output and larval growth of bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, I.E.; Van Duren, L.A.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The pre-spawning condition of adult bivalves is influenced by quantity and quality of available food. For bivalves, the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 20:5(n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 22:6(n-3) are presumed to determine the nutritional value of alga

  15. Filtration in some tropical intertidal bivalves exposed to mercury and cadmium mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, C. V.; N. R. Menon; Gupta, T.R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Three species of intertidal filter feeding bivalves (Modiolus carvalhoi, Modiolus sp. and Donax spiculum) exposed to mercury and cadmium filtered significantly less volume of water under individual metal and metal mixture stress. Mercury and cadmium in mixtures interacted additively and more than additively (Synergism) in depressing the filtration rate of the bivalves.

  16. A novel filtering mutualism between a sponge host and its endosymbiotic bivalves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remi Tsubaki

    Full Text Available Sponges, porous filter-feeding organisms consisting of vast canal systems, provide unique substrates for diverse symbiotic organisms. The Spongia (Spongia sp. massive sponge is obligately inhabited by the host-specific endosymbiotic bivalve Vulsella vulsella, which benefits from this symbiosis by receiving protection from predators. However, whether the host sponge gains any benefit from this association is unclear. Considering that the bivalves exhale filtered water into the sponge body rather than the ambient environment, the sponge is hypothesized to utilize water exhaled by the bivalves to circulate water around its body more efficiently. We tested this hypothesis by observing the sponge aquiferous structure and comparing the pumping rates of sponges and bivalves. Observations of water currents and the sponge aquiferous structure revealed that the sponge had a unique canal system enabling it to inhale water exhaled from bivalves, indicating that the host sponge adapted morphologically to receive water from the bivalves. In addition, the volume of water circulating in the sponge body was dramatically increased by the water exhaled from bivalves. Therefore, this sponge-bivalve association can be regarded as a novel mutualism in which two filter-feeding symbionts promote mutual filtering rates. This symbiotic association should be called a "filtering mutualism".

  17. A novel filtering mutualism between a sponge host and its endosymbiotic bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, Remi; Kato, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Sponges, porous filter-feeding organisms consisting of vast canal systems, provide unique substrates for diverse symbiotic organisms. The Spongia (Spongia) sp. massive sponge is obligately inhabited by the host-specific endosymbiotic bivalve Vulsella vulsella, which benefits from this symbiosis by receiving protection from predators. However, whether the host sponge gains any benefit from this association is unclear. Considering that the bivalves exhale filtered water into the sponge body rather than the ambient environment, the sponge is hypothesized to utilize water exhaled by the bivalves to circulate water around its body more efficiently. We tested this hypothesis by observing the sponge aquiferous structure and comparing the pumping rates of sponges and bivalves. Observations of water currents and the sponge aquiferous structure revealed that the sponge had a unique canal system enabling it to inhale water exhaled from bivalves, indicating that the host sponge adapted morphologically to receive water from the bivalves. In addition, the volume of water circulating in the sponge body was dramatically increased by the water exhaled from bivalves. Therefore, this sponge-bivalve association can be regarded as a novel mutualism in which two filter-feeding symbionts promote mutual filtering rates. This symbiotic association should be called a "filtering mutualism".

  18. Hydraulic architecture and photoinhibition influence spatial distribution of the arborescent palm Euterpe edulis in subtropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, M Genoveva; Campanello, Paula I; Villagra, Mariana; Montti, Lía; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    Physiological characteristics of saplings can be considered one of the most basic constraints on species distribution. The shade-tolerant arborescent palm Euterpe edulis Mart. is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. At a local scale, saplings of this species growing in native forests are absent in gaps. We tested the hypothesis whether sensitivity to photoinhibition or hydraulic architecture constrains the distribution of E. edulis saplings in sun-exposed forest environments. Using shade houses and field studies, we evaluated growth, survival, hydraulic traits and the susceptibility of Photosystem II to photoinhibition in E. edulis saplings under different growth irradiances. Survival rates in exposed sites in the field were very low (a median of 7%). All saplings exhibited photoinhibition when exposed to high radiation levels, but acclimation to a high radiation environment increased the rate of recovery. Petiole hydraulic conductivity was similar across treatments regardless of whether it was expressed per petiole cross-sectional area or per leaf area. At the plant level, investment in conductive tissues relative to leaf area (Huber values) increased with increasing irradiance. Under high irradiance conditions, plants experienced leaf water potentials close to the turgor-loss point, and leaf hydraulic conductance decreased by 79% relative to its maximum value. Euterpe edulis saplings were able to adjust their photosynthetic traits to different irradiance conditions, whereas hydraulic characteristics at the leaf level did not change across irradiance treatments. Our results indicate that uncoupling between water demand and supply to leaves apparently associated with high resistances to water flow at leaf insertion points, in addition to small stems with low water storage capacity, weak stomatal control and high vulnerability of leaves to hydraulic dysfunction, are the main ecophysiological constraints that prevent the growth and

  19. Lower Oligocene bivalves of Ramanian Stage from Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R P Kachhara; R L Jodhawat; K Bigyapati Devi

    2012-04-01

    Marine Oligocene sequences in India outcrop only in western part of Kachchh. Earlier researchers have recognized the Oligocene strata under the Nari Series (Nagappa 1959; Chatterji and Mathur 1966). The Nari Series has a type area in Pakistan. It has two subdivisions – the Lower Nari (Lower Oligocene) and the Upper Nari (Upper Oligocene). It seems that there is no valid proof about the age of the Lower Nari due to lack of proper fauna (Eames 1975), and according to Pascoe (1962), the Upper Nari slightly transgress into Aquitanian (Lower Miocene), therefore, one has to be very cautious. Biswas and Raju (1971) reclassified the Oligocene strata of Kachchh and lithostratigraphically clubbed them as the Maniyara Fort Formation with type section along the Bermoti stream. This Formation has four members. The lower three members correspond to the Ramanian Stage (Lower Oligocene, Biswas 1971, 1973) while the uppermost to the Waiorian Stage (Upper Oligocene, Biswas 1965, 1971, 1973). The Ramanian Stage is characterized by large forams especially Nummulites fichteli, Nummulites fichteli intermedius, Lepidocyclina (Eulepidina) dialata and Operculina sp. Several ostracods are also known to occur. Megafauna include bivalves, gastropods, echinoids, corals, mammals and reptiles. Concerning bivalves earlier researchers have recorded a few taxa namely Trisidos semitorta (Lamarck), Cubitostrea angulata (J de C Sowerby), Pecten (Amussiopecten) labadyei d’Archiac and Haime, Periglypta puerpera (Linne’) var. aglaurae Brongniart, Ostrea fraasi Mayer Eymer and listed Pecten laevicostatus J de C Sowerby, Callista pseudoumbonella Vredenburg and Clementia papyracea (Gray) from Kachchh as against overall 42 forms from the Nari Series as a whole (Vredenburg 1928). This tempted us to make an attempt to collect bivalve fauna systematically which are occurring prolifically in the Ramanian Stage. In the present work, for this purpose, sections are worked out around Lakhpat (23° 50′N; 68

  20. Lower Oligocene bivalves of Ramanian Stage from Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachhara, R. P.; Jodhawat, R. L.; Devi, K. Bigyapati

    2012-04-01

    Marine Oligocene sequences in India outcrop only in western part of Kachchh. Earlier researchers have recognized the Oligocene strata under the Nari Series (Nagappa 1959; Chatterji and Mathur 1966). The Nari Series has a type area in Pakistan. It has two subdivisions - the Lower Nari (Lower Oligocene) and the Upper Nari (Upper Oligocene). It seems that there is no valid proof about the age of the Lower Nari due to lack of proper fauna (Eames 1975), and according to Pascoe (1962), the Upper Nari slightly transgress into Aquitanian (Lower Miocene), therefore, one has to be very cautious. Biswas and Raju (1971) reclassified the Oligocene strata of Kachchh and lithostratigraphically clubbed them as the Maniyara Fort Formation with type section along the Bermoti stream. This Formation has four members. The lower three members correspond to the Ramanian Stage (Lower Oligocene, Biswas 1971, 1973) while the uppermost to the Waiorian Stage (Upper Oligocene, Biswas 1965, 1971, 1973). The Ramanian Stage is characterized by large forams especially Nummulites fichteli, Nummulites fichteli intermedius, Lepidocyclina ( Eulepidina) dialata and Operculina sp. Several ostracods are also known to occur. Megafauna include bivalves, gastropods, echinoids, corals, mammals and reptiles. Concerning bivalves earlier researchers have recorded a few taxa namely Trisidos semitorta (Lamarck), Cubitostrea angulata (J de C Sowerby), Pecten ( Amussiopecten) labadyei d'Archiac and Haime, Periglypta puerpera (Linne') var. aglaurae Brongniart, Ostrea fraasi Mayer Eymer and listed Pecten laevicostatus J de C Sowerby, Callista pseudoumbonella Vredenburg and Clementia papyracea (Gray) from Kachchh as against overall 42 forms from the Nari Series as a whole (Vredenburg 1928). This tempted us to make an attempt to collect bivalve fauna systematically which are occurring prolifically in the Ramanian Stage. In the present work, for this purpose, sections are worked out around Lakhpat (23°50'N; 68°47'E

  1. A survey of metal pollution in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.1758) from northern coast of Turkish Aegean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine organisms generally, mussels and benthic fish are selected as suitable indicator species of coastal pollution, as they give complementary information on chemicals bioavailable in the water column and sediments, respectively. Bioaccumulation patterns of the different pollutants vary substantially among species. Habitat, season and food web play a key role on the bioaccumulation process. Filter feeder organisms accumulate most of the pollutants at more higher levels than those found in water column so that they permit to reflect the quality of coastal environments. Mediterranean mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.1758) have criteria of ideal bio-monitors as sedentary and easy to sample over Mediterranean coastal zones. The aim of this study was to investigate the present status of the distribution of heavy metal levels in economically important bivalve from Northern coast of Turkish Aegean Sea. The mussels were collected by hand on rocks along the coastal zones at 5 sampling locations during the period of November 2002-April 2003. The 5 sampling stations are shown. All samples transported daily to the laboratory. Edible soft tissues of mussels were removed from the shells on the day of sampling and were kept at frozen at -30 deg. C until the analysis. The collected mussels were divided in two groups according to their size (small size 3-4 cm. and big size 7-8 cm.).The composite samples of soft mussel tissues were wet-ashed by nitric and percloric acid. Solutions of tissues were analysed by 2380 Perkin-Elmer AAS. Intercalibration homogenate sample (IAEA -142/ TM) was used as a quality control for the analytical methodology. The concentrations of some heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn) in the soft tissues of M. galloprovincialis were determined separately from different regions of Northern Turkish Aegean Sea. The Average levels of heavy metals in mussels are given. It can be seen from the table that there are significant differences in metal concentrations according to

  2. Toxic effects of cisplatin cytostatic drug in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombini, Chiara; Garcia da Fonseca, Taina; Morais, Matilde; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Blasco, Julián; Bebianno, Maria João

    2016-08-01

    Antineoplastic drugs used in chemotherapy were detected in aquatic environment: despite the very low concentrations (ng L(-1) to ug L(-1)), due to their potent mechanism of action they could have adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms particularly under chronic exposure. Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most effective anticancer drug currently in use but information on its ecotoxicological effects is very limited. In this study, Mytilus galloprovincialis was used to investigate the toxic effects related to CDDP exposure. Mussels were exposed to cisplatin (100 ng L(-1)) for 14 days: antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, total and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase) and phase II (glutathione-S-transferase) enzymes activities, oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation), genotoxicity (DNA damage) and neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase) was evaluated. Results indicate that CDDP at tested concentration induce changes in the antioxidant capacity, oxidative stress in target organs (digestive gland and gills) as well as DNA damage in mussel hemocytes and neurotoxicity representing a risk for non-target organisms. PMID:27183200

  3. Effects of silver nanoparticles exposure in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tânia; Pereira, Catarina G; Cardoso, Cátia; Sousa, Vânia Serrão; Teixeira, Margarida Ribau; Pinheiro, José P; Bebianno, Maria João

    2014-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have emerged as one of the most commonly used NPs in a wide range of industrial and commercial applications. This has caused increasing concern about their fate in the environment as well as uptake and potential toxicity towards aquatic organisms. Accordingly, mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis were exposed to 10 μg L(-1) of Ag NPs and ionic silver (Ag+) for 15 days, and biomarkers of oxidative stress and metal accumulation were determined. Accumulation results show that both Ag NPs and Ag+ accumulated in both gills and digestive glands. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) were activated by Ag NPs and Ag+, showing different antioxidant patterns in both gills and digestive glands. Moreover, metallothionein was inducted in gills, directly related to Ag accumulation, while in the digestive glands only a small fraction of Ag seems to be associated with this protein. Lipid peroxidation was higher in gills exposed to Ag NPs, whereas in the digestive glands only Ag+ induced lipid peroxidation. Ag NPs and Ag+ cause oxidative stress with distinct modes of action and it's not clear if for Ag NPs the observed effects are attributed to free Ag+ ions associated with the nanoparticle effect.

  4. Biochemical and histological alterations of Mytilus galloprovincialis digestive gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Auriemma

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretical and histological analysis were performed on Mytilus galloprovincialis digestivegland samples, in order to detect the presence of a previously identified protein ca 30 kDa MW,synthesized during Dinophysis spp. blooms, and assess a possible correlation between the occurrenceof this protein and okadaic acid (OA exposure by ingestion. Mussels were sampled monthly from July2000 to November 2001 in the Gulf of Trieste (upper Adriatic Sea and immediately processed. Parallelsamples were maintained in sea water plastic tanks and fed with marine invertebrate feed mixed withOA and derivatives at different concentration of toxins for each experimental group (25 mg, 50 mg, 100mg. In tank reared mussels fed with OA, degeneration of digestive cells and appearance of 24.6 kDaprotein were observed, while in wild mussels, neither histological alterations nor presence of a 24.6kDa protein, were detected. A correlation between the toxins concentration and time of appearancewas highlighted, to demonstrate this protein is synthesized in response to OA and derivativesexposure. About the identity of 24.6 kDa protein, it could be an enzyme involved in detoxificationreactions, probably Glyoxalase I.

  5. Boletus edulis Nitrite Reductase Reduces Nitrite Content of Pickles and Mitigates Intoxication in Nitrite-intoxicated Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Weiwei Zhang; Guoting Tian; Shanshan Feng; Jack Ho Wong; Yongchang Zhao; Xiao Chen; Hexiang Wang; Tzi Bun Ng

    2015-01-01

    Pickles are popular in China and exhibits health-promoting effects. However, nitrite produced during fermentation adversely affects health due to formation of methemoglobin and conversion to carcinogenic nitrosamine. Fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus edulis were capable of inhibiting nitrite production during pickle fermentation. A 90-kDa nitrite reductase (NiR), demonstrating peptide sequence homology to fungal nitrite reductase, was isolated from B. edulis fruiting bodies. The optimum...

  6. Determination of radionuclides in Mytilus galloprovicialis by Alpha And Gamma-Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. FLOROU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural radionuclides 238U ,234Th, 40K and the main man-made 137Cs, have been studied in Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819 sampled in the Thermaikos gulf – North Aegean Sea, considered as a bioindicator for radiological assessment in the Mediterranean. The ratio 234U/238U has also been determined. In terms of 137Cs, the activity concentrations in seawater from the studied area have been measured as well, and the concentration factors of 137Cs in Mytilus galloprovincialis are given as a parameter of the organism response to radioactive pollution.

  7. Seasonal variability of antioxidant biomarkers in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Spanish N-NW coast.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellas, J. (Juan); Campillo-González, J.A. (Juan Antonio); González-Fernández, C.; Albentosa-Verdú, M. (Marina)

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms are highly seasonal animals in relation to their physiology which depends, among other factors, on their annual cycle of reproduction. In bivalves, reproductive cycle is regulated by two main environmental factors: temperature and food availability. Specifically, bivalves are undergoing high variable environmental conditions. Integrated pollution monitoring carried out by the IEO along the N-NW coast of Spain has evidenced that the variability of the envi...

  8. A novel C-type lysozyme from Mytilus galloprovincialis: insight into innate immunity and molecular evolution of invertebrate C-type lysozymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available A c-type lysozyme (named as MgCLYZ gene was cloned from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Blast analysis indicated that MgCLYZ was a salivary c-type lysozyme which was mainly found in insects. The nucleotide sequence of MgCLYZ was predicted to encode a polypeptide of 154 amino acid residues with the signal peptide comprising the first 24 residues. The deduced mature peptide of MgCLYZ was of a calculated molecular weight of 14.4 kD and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI of 8.08. Evolution analysis suggested that bivalve branch of the invertebrate c-type lysozymes phylogeny tree underwent positive selection during evolution. By quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis, MgCLYZ transcript was widely detected in all examined tissues and responded sensitively to bacterial challenge in hemocytes and hepatopancreas. The optimal temperature and pH of recombinant MgCLYZ (rMgCLYZ were 20°C and 4, respectively. The rMgCLYZ displayed lytic activities against Gram-positive bacteria including Micrococcus luteus and Staphyloccocus aureus, and Gram-negative bacteria including Vibrio anguillarum, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas putida, Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus aquimaris. These results suggest that MgCLYZ perhaps play an important role in innate immunity of M. galloprovincialis, and invertebrate c-type lysozymes might be under positive selection in a species-specific manner during evolution for undergoing adaptation to different environment and diverse pathogens.

  9. Neurotoxicological effects on marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caged at petrochemical contaminated areas (eastern Sicily, Italy): ¹H NMR and immunohistochemical assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Tiziana; Maisano, Maria; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Mauceri, Angela; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2015-03-01

    The neurotoxicological potential of environmental pollution, mainly related to petrochemical activities, was investigated in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, are widely used as sentinel organisms in biomonitoring studies for assessing the impact of anthropogenic contaminants. The gills, mainly involved in nutrient uptake, digestion, gas exchange and neuronal signaling, are the first organ to be affected by pollutants present in the external environment, and therefore were selected as the target organ for this study. Mussels from an aquaculture farm were caged at a highly polluted petrochemical area and a reference site along the Augusta coastline (eastern Sicily, Italy) for one month. A battery of biomarkers indicative of neuronal perturbations was applied on gills in order to investigate on the serotonergic (i.e. serotonin, 5-HT, and its receptor, 5-HT3R), cholinergic (i.e. acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase, AChE, and choline acetyltransferase, ChAT), and dopaminergic systems (i.e. tyrosine and tyrosine hydroxylase, TH). Overall, impairment in the normal ciliary motility was found in mussels caged at the polluted site. Alterations in serotoninergic and cholinergic systems were revealed, with enhancement of dopaminergic neurotransmission resulting in a cilio-inhibitory effect. However, the over-expression in 5-HT3R and ChAT at cellular level may indicate an adaptive response of mussels to recover a regular physiological activity in gills. To our knowledge, this is the first study that uses (1)H NMR and immunohistochemical assays. Their concurrent use demonstrated to be sensitive and effective for assessing environmental influences on the health status of aquatic organisms, and thus suitable to be applied in ecotoxicological studies.

  10. cDNA and Gene Structure of MytiLec-1, A Bacteriostatic R-Type Lectin from the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Imtiaj; Gerdol, Marco; Fujii, Yuki; Rajia, Sultana; Koide, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Daiki; Kawsar, Sarkar M A; Ozeki, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    MytiLec is an α-d-galactose-binding lectin with a unique primary structure isolated from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The lectin adopts a β-trefoil fold that is also found in the B-sub-unit of ricin and other ricin-type (R-type) lectins. We are introducing MytiLec(-1) and its two variants (MytiLec-2 and -3), which both possess an additional pore-forming aerolysin-like domain, as members of a novel multi-genic "mytilectin family" in bivalve mollusks. Based on the full length mRNA sequence (911 bps), it was possible to elucidate the coding sequence of MytiLec-1, which displays an extended open reading frame (ORF) at the 5' end of the sequence, confirmed both at the mRNA and at the genomic DNA sequence level. While this extension could potentially produce a polypeptide significantly longer than previously reported, this has not been confirmed yet at the protein level. MytiLec-1 was revealed to be encoded by a gene consisting of two exons and a single intron. The first exon comprised the 5'UTR and the initial ATG codon and it was possible to detect a putative promoter region immediately ahead of the transcription start site in the MytiLec-1 genomic locus. The remaining part of the MytiLec-1 coding sequence (including the three sub-domains, the 3'UTR and the poly-A signal) was included in the second exon. The bacteriostatic activity of MytiLec-1 was determined by the agglutination of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which was reversed by the co-presence of α-galactoside. Altogether, these data support the classification of MytiLec-1 as a member of the novel mytilectin family and suggest that this lectin may play an important role as a pattern recognition receptor in the innate immunity of mussels.

  11. Cellular alterations in Mytilus galloprovincialis (LMK) and Tapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve, 1850) as biomarkers of environmental stress: field studies in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Ros, L; Nesto, N

    2005-09-01

    A long-term biomonitoring study was carried out in the Lagoon of Venice (North-East Italy) with the aim of evaluating variations in biological responses to environmental stress in estuarine bivalves. Two different species, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the clam Tapes philippinarum, both widespread in the Lagoon, were studied in several sites. Two cellular biomarkers: lysosomal membrane stability in digestive cells and thickness of digestive epithelia, were evaluated in native organisms (on a seasonal basis), and in organisms which have been transferred from a reference site to several differently influenced ones. Results indicate that, to some extent, both test and organisms were able to highlight site-specific differences, but the effects of pollution were generally more easily detected by reduction in lysosomal stability than by reduction in digestive tubule epithelium. Further findings show that the inherent variability of a number of natural parameters, particularly in the reference sites, produced less effective results when biological responses in the reference organisms were compared with the polluted ones. The assessment of the two conditions was most valuable when they referred to the 25-75% range of values comprised within the seasonal medians, recorded respectively in control and polluted sites. Impaired from steady states were most effectively distinguished when the control values were medians from two reference locations. Lately, the overall results indicate that both biomarkers are more suitably deployed through the translocation approach, revealing it to be more sensitive than traditional biomonitoring, at least in the sense that it may overcome problems related to the adaptation of native organisms to sub lethal chronic pollution levels. PMID:16083961

  12. An integrated ecosystem approach for assessing the potential role of cultivated bivalve shells as part of the carbon trading system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Byron, C.J.; Comeau, L.A.;

    2015-01-01

    , is needed to provide a rigorous assessment of the role of bivalve mariculture in the CO2 cycle. On the other hand, the discussion about the inclusion of shells of cultured bivalves into the carbon trading system should be framed in the context of ecosystem goods and services. Humans culture bivalves...... and shell when constructing a specific CO2 budget for shells for evaluating the potential of including bivalve shells, and not the whole organism, in the carbon trading system. Concluding, an integrated ecosystem approach as well as an understanding of the ecosystems goods and services of bivalve......The role of bivalve mariculture in the CO2 cycle has been commonly evaluated as the balance between respiration, shell calcium carbonate sequestration and CO2 release during biogenic calcification. However, this approach neglects the ecosystem implications of cultivating bivalves at high densities...

  13. Marking methods to monitor bivalve habitat; Nimaigai no seisoku monitoring chosa ni mochiiru hoshiki gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, B.K.; Koshikawa, Y.; Sakurai, N. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-30

    Bivalves inhabiting in coastal areas, e.g., asari and shijimi clams, are important fishery resources and helping clean water. The living environments and resources of these bivalves can be followed by releasing the marked bivalves and catching them again. These surveys with marked habitats give the visible results of their living conditions, easily understandable to anyone, even he is not an expert. Traditionally, the bivalves are marked by various methods before being released, e.g., marked with paint, manicure, adhesive or the like, or scratched on part of the shell surfaces. Such a method, however, needs a lot of time and cost for marking a number of bivalves, and may damage their product values, because of the mark they carry. This company has developed a technique for marking bivalves with iron rust and metallic pieces. This technique has no adverse effects on growth and living of the bivalves, and causes no damage of their product values. It has been applied to surveys on environments in which asari clams inhabiting in natural tidelands and artificial seashores. (NEDO)

  14. KOMPOSISI KIMIA BIJI DAN SIFAT FUNGSIONAL PATI GAYAM (Inocarpus edulis Forst.) [Chemical Composition of Gayam (Inocarpus edulis Forst.) Seed and Functional Properties of Its Starch

    OpenAIRE

    Indah Epriliati 1); Purwiyatno Hariyadi; Anton Apriyantono2)

    2002-01-01

    Basic information on physical and chemical properties of Gayam (Inocarpus edulis Forst), one of the domestic commodities, is still very limited. The objectives of this research were to investigate chemical composition of gayam seed and the functional properties of gayam starch, especially the pasting behavior and the characteristic of its gel.Moisture, crude protein, lipid, ash, and carbohydrate content of gayam seed, respectively, were 50.11% (w/w), 11.66%, 8.21 %, 3.39% , and 76.74% (dw). ...

  15. Genomic characterization of the aquaculture resource Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Murgarella

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the autonomous community of Galicia (NW Spain, M. galloprovincialis is a natural resource of high economic importance to the economy of this region. More than 250,000 MTs of mussels are produced per year, representing 40% of the European production of this bivalve and 80% of the marine aquacultural production of the country. Besides its aquaculture interest, study of the biology M. galloprovincialis may also help to understand better fundamental aspects of molluscan biology. On the other hand, some fascinating features of mediterranean mussels are unique to this species such as its extraordinary resistance to diseases. In fact, in comparison with other bivalves, no records of massive mortality of this organism caused by pathogens has been reported so far. Although some of the molecular components of the innate immune system, responsible of this resistance, have been previously identified and characterized, the genetic mechanisms underlying their diversity are poorly understood. In order to understand better this organism at genome level and search for the genetic basis of its disease resistance, we sequenced its genome at high depth using Illumina technology. After assembling the resulting reads and assisted with transcriptomic data, we annotated its genome sequence. First, we analysed the content of repetitive elements, finding those that are common among molluscs as well as identifying new repeat families unique to M. galloprovincialis. Second, we predicted and annotated its gene repertoire, defining the total number of genes and their density in its genome. Finally, the resulting in silico predicted genes were functionally annotated. Altogether, this information will allow the identification of genes of interest, such as those participating in the innate immunity and will allow us to delve into the possibility of whether their variability has a genetic basis or relies on post-transcriptional events. In addition to this annotation, some

  16. Tropical forest sheep on legume forage/fuelwood fallows. [Desmodium ovalifoluim and Inga edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    A system being developed in Amazonian Ecuador is described in which the fallow period in shifting cultivation sequences is intensified by the use of the Asian perennial forage cover crop Desmodium ovalifolium under Inga edulis. Both species improve soil fertility and reduce erosion. D. ovalifolium provides forage for African tropical forest type sheep (Red Afro-Columbian x Barbados Black Belly) which are up to 3 times as productive as cattle and cause little soil compaction or erosion. I. edulis produces excellent fuelwood and charcoal in less than 6 years, has seeds enclosed in an edible sugary pulp and provides good bee forage. The system is compatible with traditional patterns of cultivation, forming a 6-year fallow in an 8-year field rotation with corn/beans and cassava. 23 references

  17. Effects of active pharmaceutical ingredients mixtures in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rey, M; Mattos, J J; Piazza, C E; Bainy, A C D; Bebianno, M J

    2014-08-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are emergent environmental contaminants widely detected in surface waters as result of incomplete waste water treatment plant (WWTP) removal processes and improper disposal. The assessment of potential effects of APIs on non-target organisms is still scarce since besides presenting multiple chemical structures, properties and modes of action, these compounds occur as complex mixtures. This study comprises a 15-day exposure of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis to mixtures (at environmentally relevant nominal concentrations) of non-steroidal inflammatory drugs ibuprofen (IBU) and diclofenac (DCF) (250 ng L(-1) each) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (FLX) (75 ng L(-1)) (MIX 1) along with the addition of classical pro-oxidant copper (Cu) (5 μg L(-1)) (MIX 2). The goals included the assessment of oxidative stress, neurotoxic and endocrine effects on this sentinel species applying both a multibiomarker and gene expression (here and later gene expression is taken as synonym to gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that it is also affected by, e.g. translation, and mRNA and protein stability) analysis approaches. The results revealed a swifter antioxidant response in digestive glands than in gills induced by MIX 1, nevertheless the presence of Cu in MIX 2 promoted a higher lipid peroxidation (LPO) induction. Neither mixture altered acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, while both triggered the formation of vitellogenin-like proteins in females confirming the xenoestrogenic effect of mixtures. All these results varied with respect to those obtained in previous single exposure essays. Moreover, RT-PCR analysis revealed a catalase (CAT) and CYP4Y1 gene expression down- and upregulation, respectively, with no significant changes in mRNA levels of genes encoding superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Finally, this study highlights variable tissue and time-specific biomarker

  18. Identification and antioxidant activity of several flavonoids of inga edulis leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Jesus N. S.; Silva, Evaldo M.; Milton N. da Silva; Arruda, Mara S. R.; Larondelle, Yvan; Rogez, Herve

    2007-01-01

    A methanol-water extract of Inga edulis leaves was fractionated to identify the polyphenolic compounds. The identified compounds were gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, myricetin-3rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-glucopyranoside and quercetin-3-rhamnopyranoside. The antioxidant activity of the extract and of pure polyphenols was measured by the ORAC assay and compared with the Total Phenolic (TP) content. The dry crude extract presented very high values for ORAC (11.16 mmol TE per g) and TP (49...

  19. Edible Film Making of Starch Canna Tuber (Canna Edulis Kerr) and Aplication to Packaging Galamai

    OpenAIRE

    Hafnimardiyanti Hafnimardiyanti; M.Ikhlas Armin; Martalius Martalius

    2014-01-01

    Canna (Canna edulis Kerr) was a tuber that had a high carbohydrate content so canna had excellent prospects to develop into edible film. The purpose of this study was to make edible film of canna starch, knowing storability galamai was packed with edible film and determine the level of preference panelists through organoleptic tests. In this research, manufacture of edible films with various concentrations of canna starch 2%, 3%, 4% and the use of plasticizer (glycerol) 1%, 2% and 3% with 100...

  20. Khat (Catha edulis Forsk.) Dependence Potential and Pattern of Use in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab; Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy; Rahim, Bahaa-eldin E. A.; Syam Mohan; Sara Taha; Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Maged El-Setouhy

    2015-01-01

    Background. Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat) is used for its psychoactive effects among people in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, although its utilization is illegal in some countries such as Saudi Arabia. This study examined the pattern of Khat use and assessed the applicability of the Drug Abuse Screening Test-10 (DAST-10) to measure Khat dependence. Methods. A pretested questionnaire was used to gather data from 603 respondents. Variables included demographic characteristics, pattern of use, r...

  1. Pemanfaatan Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Buah Markisa Ungu (Passiflora edulis Sims) Menjadi Pewarna Lipstik

    OpenAIRE

    Monalisa S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lipstick is a cosmetic preparation used for coloring the lips by artistic touch in improving the esthetic of the facial make-up. Lip color crayons form is better known by the name lipstick from made of oil, wax, fats and dyestuffs. Purple passion fruit plant (Passiflora edulis Sims) has attractive colors that is red purplish comes from anthocyanin, which is derived flavonoid compounds. Anthocyanins have a variety of benefits such as natural dyes so that can become alternative in c...

  2. Uji Toksisitas Akut Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Buah Markisa Ungu (Passiflora edulis Sims.) Menggunakan Mencit

    OpenAIRE

    Pratama, Edo Kusda

    2016-01-01

    Indonesian had known, gathered and used several plants as an effort in order to prevent health problems since a long ago. One of the plants is very famous in Indonesia which known have many benefits is purple passion fruit or markisa (Passiflora edulis Sims). Purple passion fruit peel has antihypertensive activity, an antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria, an also as a color for lipstick. The objective of this study was to determine the safety limit to use ...

  3. Selective extinction among Early Jurassic bivalves: A consequence of anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberhan, Martin; Baumiller, Tomasz K.

    2003-12-01

    Analyses of taxonomically standardized data sets demonstrate several statistically robust extinction patterns in Early Jurassic bivalve species from northwest Europe and the Andean basins of South America. In both regions, extinction intensities were significantly enhanced in late Pliensbachian and early Toarcian time as compared to all other time intervals. The same intervals (except for the early Toarcian of South America) also represent times of unusual extinction selectivity, with infaunal taxa suffering distinctly more than epifaunal forms. As infaunal suspension feeders are extremely rare components of Early Jurassic oxygen-controlled macrofaunas, these results are entirely compatible with sedimentological and geochemical data suggesting that widespread anoxia was a principal cause of the diversity crisis. Although many biotic traits that enhance survivorship during background times seem to be irrelevant during major mass extinctions, patterns of survivorship selectivity may provide more distinct clues to the causes of less severe mass extinctions.

  4. The respiratory capacity of marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in relation to the high temperature threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.M.; Hummel, H.; Bonga, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal tolerance limits of ectotherms may result from respiratory limitations. In response to declining oxygen availability, organisms have shown to exhibit oxyregulation by enhancing ventilation and heartbeat rates. In this study we examined how this regulatory response in mussels (Mytilus) change

  5. Distribution of Mytilus taxa in European coastal areas as inferred from molecular markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijewski, T.; Zmietanka, B.; Zbawicka, M.; Gosling, E.; Hummel, H.; Wenne, R.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic constitution of mussels (Mytilus spp.) was studied by means of three nuclear (Me 15/16, EF-bis, ITS) and one mtDNA (ND2-COIII) marker on a large European scale. In addition to a sharp cline between Atlantic and Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis, we observed a clear genetic distinction b

  6. Evolutionary implications of endosymbiont diversity within lucinid bivalves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A. M.; Thiessen, M.; Aronowsky, A.; Anderson, L.; Bao, H.; Engel, A.

    2007-12-01

    Bacterial endosymbiosis is widespread among Bivalvia. Symbiosis between lucinid bivalves and sulfur-oxidizing (thiotrophic) bacteria has received recent attention, as lucinids are one of the geologically oldest extant bivalve clades to possess endosymbionts. However, the ecological and evolutionary relationships between host and symbiont are poorly understood, and reconstructing the evolutionary history and geological significance of lucinid endosymbiosis requires additional knowledge and characterization of endosymbiont ecology and taxonomic diversity. Our goal was to characterize the bacterial diversity of a modern lucinid habitat in order to evaluate possible lucinid endosymbiont diversity. Host organisms ( Lucinisca nassula and Phacoides pectinatus) and sediment cores were collected from geochemically reducing and sulfide-rich sea grass beds. PCR amplification and sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from the sediment cores retrieved 13 major taxonomic groups, including equally dominant Chloroflexi, Delta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, and rare Bacteroides, Acidobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Firmicutes. Less than 2% of the sequences were affiliated with uncultured gammaproteobacterial symbiont groups, but were not closely related to the sequences retrieved from the lucinid gills. Moreover, our analyses uncovered multiple gene sequence populations within an individual, as well as across individuals within the same sampling site. Additional habitat-host-symbiont diversity from three other lucinid taxa and from six geographically distinct habitat sites is also expanding the previously understood diversity of thiotrophic endosymbionts, and specifically that the lucinid symbionts are probably not a monophyletic species. These data suggest that thiotrophic bacteria are recruitable for endosymbiosis and are widely distributed in reducing marine environments. But, because of the diversity of bacteria in any one habitat, symbionts may be metabolically and physiologically

  7. Magnetosome-containing bacteria living as symbionts of bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Suzanne C; Laurich, Jason R; Batstone, Rebecca T; McCuaig, Bonita; Elliott, Alexander; Poduska, Kristin M

    2014-12-01

    Bacteria containing magnetosomes (protein-bound nanoparticles of magnetite or greigite) are common to many sedimentary habitats, but have never been found before to live within another organism. Here, we show that octahedral inclusions in the extracellular symbionts of the marine bivalve Thyasira cf. gouldi contain iron, can exhibit magnetic contrast and are most likely magnetosomes. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, T. cf. gouldi symbionts group with symbiotic and free-living sulfur-oxidizing, chemolithoautotrophic gammaproteobacteria, including the symbionts of other thyasirids. T. cf. gouldi symbionts occur both among the microvilli of gill epithelial cells and in sediments surrounding the bivalves, and are therefore facultative. We propose that free-living T. cf. gouldi symbionts use magnetotaxis as a means of locating the oxic-anoxic interface, an optimal microhabitat for chemolithoautotrophy. T. cf. gouldi could acquire their symbionts from near-burrow sediments (where oxic-anoxic interfaces likely develop due to the host's bioirrigating behavior) using their superextensile feet, which could transfer symbionts to gill surfaces upon retraction into the mantle cavity. Once associated with their host, however, symbionts need not maintain structures for magnetotaxis as the host makes oxygen and reduced sulfur available via bioirrigation and sulfur-mining behaviors. Indeed, we show that within the host, symbionts lose the integrity of their magnetosome chain (and possibly their flagellum). Symbionts are eventually endocytosed and digested in host epithelial cells, and magnetosomes accumulate in host cytoplasm. Both host and symbiont behaviors appear important to symbiosis establishment in thyasirids. PMID:24914799

  8. Evaluation of physicochemical properties, proximate and nutritional composition of Gracilaria edulis collected from Palk Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, Ravi; Pandima Devi, Kasi

    2015-05-01

    Gracilaria edulis, a red alga present in southeast coast of India was evaluated for its nutritional composition. FT-IR analysis of soluble polysaccharides revealed the presence of galactans, 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranose, sulphated galactose and the gelling agent agar, with the sulphate content estimated as 51.01 μg/mg of polysaccharide. Results of physicochemical properties and nutritional profile reveal the presence of dietary fibre (8.9 ± 0.62% DW), carbohydrate (101.61 ± 1.8 mg/g DW), crude protein (6.68 ± 0.94 mg/g DW) and lipid content (8.3 ± 1.03 mg/g DW). G. edulis contains biologically important fatty acids like palmitic acid (2.06%), linolenic acid (2.56%), and oleic acid (1.98%). The other nutritional components present in high amounts are proline, chlorophyll A and B, all the essential amino acids and vitamin A, E and C. These findings suggest that G. edulis has potent nutritional value which might be used as a source of nutrients for human and animals.

  9. Cholinesterase activity in the tissues of bivalves Noah's ark shell (Arca noae) and warty venus (Venus verrucosa): characterisation and in vitro sensitivity to organophosphorous pesticide trichlorfon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić, Lorena; Ribarić, Luka; Nerlović, Vedrana

    2013-08-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE, EC 3.1.1.7) activity was investigated in gills and adductor muscle of two bivalve species: Arca noae and Venus verrucosa. The properties of ChEs were investigated using acetylcholine iodide (ASCh), butyrylcholine iodide (BSCh) and propionylcholine iodide (PrSCh) as substrates and eserine, BW254c51 and iso-OMPA as specific inhibitors. The highest level of ChE activity in crude tissue extracts was detected with PrSCh followed by ASCh, while values obtained with BSCh were apparently low, except in A. noae adductor muscle. The enzyme activity in A. noae gills and V. verrucosa gills and adductor muscle was significantly inhibited by BW254c51, but not with iso-OMPA. ChE activity in adductor muscle of A. noae was significantly reduced by both diagnostic inhibitors. The effect of organophosphorous pesticide trichlorfon on ChE activity was investigated in vitro in both species as well as in the gills of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. The highest sensitivity of ChE to trichlorfon was observed in A. noae gills and adductor muscle (IC50 1.6×10(-7)M and 1.1×10(-7)M, respectively), followed by M. galloprovincialis gills (IC50 1.0×10(-6)M) and V. verrucosa gills and adductor muscle (IC50 1.7×10(-5)M and 0.9×10(-5)M, respectively). The results of this study suggest the potential of ChE activity measurement in the tissues of A. noae as effective biomarker of OP exposure in marine environment.

  10. Híbridos interespecíficos de palmiteiro (Euterpe oleracea x Euterpe edulis Interespecific hybrids of heart of palm plants (Euterpe oleracea x Euterpe edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Leão Alves Bovi

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se o desenvolvimento vegetativo e a produção de híbridos de palmiteiro (Euterpe oleracea x E. edulis com seus genitores, em duas condições diferentes de cultivo, na região de Ubatuba, SP. Em ambas as situações, os híbridos apresentaram vigor e precocidade aliados à capacidade de regeneração, mostrando-se superiores à população parental em crescimento vegetativo e produção de palmito. Embora o material ainda não seja homogêneo, os híbridos interespecíficos revelaram grande potencialidade para serem usados no cultivo racional do palmiteiro.The vegetative growth and yield of the Euterpe oleracea x E. edulis hybrid palms were compared to the parental population under two different shading conditions. In both conditions hybrid palms were superior to the parents in growth and yield. The hybrids were vigorous, precocious and had tillering capacity. In spite of the hybrid heterogeneity, they appeared to offer a great potential for upgrading heart of palm planting material in São Paulo State, Brazil.

  11. Effect of different extraction procedures on antimicrobial activity of marine bivalves: A comparison

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, S.; Chatterji, A.; Das, P.

    Anti-bacterial activity was evaluated in different crude extracts of five commercially important edible marine bivalves, namely Meretrix casta (Chemnitz), Polymesoda (Geloina) P. erosa (Solander), Perna viridis (Linnaeus), Crassostrea gryphoides...

  12. Bioconcentration and biotransformation of [¹⁴C]methoxychlor in the brackish water bivalve Corbicula japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Minoru; Ohyama, Kazutoshi; Hayashi, Osamu; Satsuma, Koji; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2011-09-01

    To obtain basic information on the metabolic fate of xenobiotics in the brackish water, bivalve Corbicula japonica, bioconcentration and biotransformation experiments were performed using methoxychlor (MXC) as a model compound. Bivalves were exposed to [ring-U-¹⁴C]MXC (10 µg L⁻¹) for 28 days under semi-static conditions followed by a 14-day depuration phase. The ¹⁴C concentration in the bivalves rapidly increased and reached a steady state after exposure for 7 days (BCFss = 2010); however, it rapidly decreased with a half-life of 2.2 days in the depuration phase. Mono- and bis-demethylated MXC, and their corresponding sulphate conjugates, were identified as minor metabolites. No glycoside conjugates (including glucuronide and glucoside) were detected. Despite this biotransformation system, bivalves were found to excrete retained MXC mostly unchanged although its relatively hydrophobic nature.

  13. Independent phylogenetic origins of methanotrophic and chemoautotrophic bacterial endosymbioses in marine bivalves

    OpenAIRE

    Distel, D L; Cavanaugh, Colleen Marie

    1994-01-01

    The discovery of bacterium-bivalve symbioses capable of utilizing methane as a carbon and energy source indicates that the endosymbionts of hydrothermal vent and cold seep bivalves are not restricted to sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria but also include methanotrophic bacteria. The phylogenetic origin of methanotrophic endosymbionts and their relationship to known symbiotic and free-living bacteria, however, have remained unexplored. In situ localization and phylogenetic analysis of ...

  14. Influence of intertidal recreational fisheries and 'bouchot' mussel culture on bivalve recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupoint, Nicolas; Barbier, Pierrick; Tremblay, Réjean; Archambault, Philippe; McKindsey, Christopher W; Winkler, Gesche; Meziane, Tarik; Olivier, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In coastal environments, fishing and aquaculture may be important sources of disturbance to ecosystem functioning, the quantification of which must be assessed to make them more sustainable. In the Chausey Archipelago, France, recreational fishing and commercial shellfish farming are the only two evident anthropogenic activities, dominated by bivalve hand-raking and 'bouchot' mussel culture, respectively. This study evaluates the impact of both activities on bivalve recruitment dynamics by comparing primary recruitment intensity (short-term effect) and recruitment efficiency (medium-term effect) by sampling bivalves in reference (undisturbed) and disturbed (i.e. subjected to hand-raking or in 'bouchot' mussel culture areas) parcels throughout and at the end of the recruitment season, respectively. Specific hypotheses evaluated were that (H1) bivalve hand-raking negatively affects bivalve recruitment and that (H2) 'bouchot' mussel culture promotes bivalve recruitment. Patterns in bivalve community structure in reference parcels (i.e. natural pattern) differed between initial and final recruitment, underlining the great importance of early post-settlement processes, particularly secondary dispersal. Primary recruitment intensity was inhibited in hand-raking parcels whereas it was promoted in 'bouchot' mussel culture parcels, but the effect on recruitment efficiency was muted for both activities due to post-settlement processes. Nevertheless, the importance of effects that occur during the first step of recruitment should not be ignored as they may affect bivalve communities and induce immediate consequences on the trophic web through a cascade effect. Finally, it is highlighted that hand-raking damages all life stages of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule, one of the major target species, suggesting that this activity should be managed with greater caution than is currently done.

  15. An overview of chemosynthetic symbioses in bivalves from the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Duperron, S.; Gaudron, S.M.; Rodrigues, C. F.; M. R. Cunha; C. Decker; Olu, K

    2012-01-01

    Deep-sea bivalves found at hydrothermal vents, cold seeps and organic falls are sustained by chemosynthetic bacteria which ensure part or all of their carbon nutrition. These symbioses are of prime importance for the functioning of the ecosystems. Similar symbioses occur in other bivalve species living in shallow and coastal reduced habitats worldwide. In recent years, several deep-sea species have been investigated from continental margins around Europe, West Africa, East America, the Gulf o...

  16. Influence of intertidal recreational fisheries and 'bouchot' mussel culture on bivalve recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupoint, Nicolas; Barbier, Pierrick; Tremblay, Réjean; Archambault, Philippe; McKindsey, Christopher W; Winkler, Gesche; Meziane, Tarik; Olivier, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In coastal environments, fishing and aquaculture may be important sources of disturbance to ecosystem functioning, the quantification of which must be assessed to make them more sustainable. In the Chausey Archipelago, France, recreational fishing and commercial shellfish farming are the only two evident anthropogenic activities, dominated by bivalve hand-raking and 'bouchot' mussel culture, respectively. This study evaluates the impact of both activities on bivalve recruitment dynamics by comparing primary recruitment intensity (short-term effect) and recruitment efficiency (medium-term effect) by sampling bivalves in reference (undisturbed) and disturbed (i.e. subjected to hand-raking or in 'bouchot' mussel culture areas) parcels throughout and at the end of the recruitment season, respectively. Specific hypotheses evaluated were that (H1) bivalve hand-raking negatively affects bivalve recruitment and that (H2) 'bouchot' mussel culture promotes bivalve recruitment. Patterns in bivalve community structure in reference parcels (i.e. natural pattern) differed between initial and final recruitment, underlining the great importance of early post-settlement processes, particularly secondary dispersal. Primary recruitment intensity was inhibited in hand-raking parcels whereas it was promoted in 'bouchot' mussel culture parcels, but the effect on recruitment efficiency was muted for both activities due to post-settlement processes. Nevertheless, the importance of effects that occur during the first step of recruitment should not be ignored as they may affect bivalve communities and induce immediate consequences on the trophic web through a cascade effect. Finally, it is highlighted that hand-raking damages all life stages of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule, one of the major target species, suggesting that this activity should be managed with greater caution than is currently done. PMID:27039134

  17. Physiological responses of two seaweed biofilter candidates, Gracilariopsis bailiniae Zhang et Xia and Hydropuntia edulis (S Gmelin, to nutrient source and environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Joy Carton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two gracilarioid species, Gracilariopsis bailiniae and Hydropuntia edulis, were comparedbased on their growth under different temperature and salinity levels and nitrogen source and on theirphotosynthetic responses under different irradiance levels. Results show that growth of Gp. bailiniaewas significantly higher than that of H. edulis. Both species were euryhaline and had optimum growthrates at 27˚C (16.06 % d-1 ± 0.10 for Gp. bailiniae and 9.53 % d-1 ± 0.62 for H. edulis under bothammonium and nitrate enrichment. Gracilariopsis bailiniae was able to use both N-forms as a nitrogensource in all temperature and salinity levels tested. Meanwhile, the interactive effect of nitrogensource with temperature was observed for H. edulis with plants grown in nitrate enrichment showingsignificantly higher growth rates than those in ammonium. Nitrate enrichment also resulted to highergrowth rates for H. edulis in all salinity levels tested. Photosynthetic rates of Gp. bailiniae were higherthan H. edulis. We also found a two-fold difference between the maximum photosynthetic rate (Pmaxof Gp. bailiniae (12.41 ± 1.81 and that of H. edulis (6.44 ± 0.62. However, photosynthetic efficiency(α was significantly higher in H. edulis than in Gp. bailiniae while compensation and saturation pointirradiance levels were similar in both species.

  18. Seasonal variations of arsenic in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarić, Sanja; Pavičić-Hamer, Dijana; Lucu, Čedomil

    2004-10-01

    Total arsenic concentration in the edible part of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was evaluated seasonally in the coastal area of Rijeka Bay (North Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Sampling stations were located close to the City of Bakar with no industrial facilities (site 1), in the vicinity of the oil refinery and oil thermoelectric power plant (Urinj, site 2), and 4 miles away from the Plomin coal thermoelectric power plant (Brseč village, site 3). Additionally, the concentration of arsenic in the tail muscle of the lobster Nephrops norvegicus, collected in Rijeka Bay, was studied. During winter at sites 2 and 3, the total arsenic in the edible part of the mussels was 16.4 mg As/kg FW (FW=fresh weight) and 4.38 mg As/kg FW, respectively, and increased during springtime at site 2 (6.5 mg As/kg FW) compared to the rest of the year, when individual total arsenic concentration at all sites ranged from 1.7 to 3.7 mg As/kg FW. In the winter (sites 2 and 3) and springtime (site 2) there was no correlation between the length of the mussel shell and the arsenic concentration in the edible part of the mussels. In the other seasons, at sites 1, 2 and 3, there was a correlation between arsenic in the edible part of mussels and shell length in most cases (correlation coefficients r varied from 0.64 to 0.85; P <0.05 to P <0.01). Correlation between shell length (in the narrow range of shell lengths from 3.4 to 5.0 cm) and arsenic in the edible part of the mussels shows linearity with a high regression coefficient (r =0.914; P <0.001). The increase of arsenic in the mussels during winter and spring was suggested at least partially as a result of a low nutritional status, i.e. reduced weight of the mussels' edible part during winter. In addition, a linear relationship was found between body length and arsenic concentration in the tail muscle (mean 17.11±4.48 mg As/kg FW) of the Norway lobster.

  19. Toxicité des sédiments. Test sur les embryons de bivalves

    OpenAIRE

    Goraguer, Herle; Toularastel, France

    1999-01-01

    Mytilus early development biossays have been used for sediment toxicity testing in the coastal zone heavily contaminated by the river Seine. This bioassays have been realized from fecundation to "D" larval stage in presence of sediment aqueous extracts. Results exhibit a high variability wich could not be related to any geographical gradient, probably due to a large effect on variance of seasonal variations.

  20. Anoxic survival potential of bivalves: (arte)facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zwaan, Albertus; Babarro, Jose M F; Monari, Marta; Cattani, Otello

    2002-03-01

    The anoxic survival time of the bivalves Chamelea gallina, Cerastoderma edule and Scapharca inaequivalvis from two different ecosystems and differing anoxia tolerances was studied in static (closed) and flow-through systems. The antibiotics chloramphenicol, penicillin and polymyxin were added, and molybdate (specific inhibitor of the process of sulfate reduction). Survival in (near) anoxic seawater of Chamelea was studied in a static system by comparing untreated seawater with autoclaved seawater and untreated clams with clams incubated in well-aerated seawater, containing the broad-spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol, prior to the anoxic survival test. With untreated clams and natural seawater (median mortality time 2.4 days) a decrease in pH and exponential accumulation of sulfide and ammonium was observed in the anoxic medium, indicating excessive growth of (sulfate reducing) bacteria. In sterilized seawater LT50 (2.1 days) was not significantly different and again considerable amounts of ammonium and sulfide accumulated. However, pre-treatment of clams with chloramphenicol resulted in an increase of LT50 (11.0 days) by approximately fivefold. Accumulation of ammonium and sulfide was retarded, but was finally even stronger than in the medium containing untreated clams. Median mortality times were 2.5 and 2.4 days for Chamelea and 2.7 and 2.9 days for Cerastoderma for static and flow-through incubations, respectively. Addition of chloramphenicol increased strongly survival time in both systems with corresponding values of 11.0 and 16.3 days for Chamelea, and 6.4 and 6.5 days for Cerastoderma. LT50 of Scapharca in anoxic seawater was 14.4 days. Chloramphenicol and penicillin increased median survival time to 28.5 and 28.7 days, respectively, whereas polymyxin displayed no effect (LT50=13.6 days). Molybdate added to artificial sulfate free seawater blocked biotic sulfide formation, but did not improve survival time (LT50=13.7 days). Overall the results indicate

  1. Effects of soil characteristics, allelopathy and frugivory on establishment of the invasive plant Carpobrotus edulis and a co-occurring native, Malcolmia littorea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Novoa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The species Carpobrotus edulis, native to South Africa, is one of the major plant invaders of Mediterranean coastal ecosystems around the world. Invasion by C. edulis exerts a great impact on coastal habitats. The low number of native species in invaded communities points to the possible existence of mechanisms suppressing their germination. In this study we assessed whether soil factors, endozoochory, competition and allelopathic effects of the invader affect its own early establishment and that of the native species Malcolmia littorea. We used laboratory solutions representing different chemical composition and moisture of the soil, herbivore feeding assays to simulate seed scarification and rainwater solutions to account for the effect of differently aged C. edulis litter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that unlike that of the native species, germination and early growth of C. edulis was not constrained by low moisture. The establishment of C. edulis, in terms of germination and early growth, was increased by scarification of seeds following passage through the European rabbit intestines; the rabbits therefore may have potential implications for plant establishment. There was no competition between C. edulis and M. littorea. The litter of the invasive C. edulis, which remains on the soil surface for several years, releases allelopathic substances that suppress the native plant germination process and early root growth. CONCLUSIONS: The invasive species exhibits features that likely make it a better colonizer of sand dunes than the co-occurring native species. Allelopathic effects, ability to establish in drier microsites and efficient scarification by rabbits are among the mechanisms allowing C. edulis to invade. The results help to explain the failure of removal projects that have been carried out in order to restore dunes invaded by C. edulis, and the long-lasting effects of C. edulis litter need to be taken into account in future

  2. Molecular phylogenetics of genus Mytilus based on the 16S rRNA sequences%基于16S rRNA序列初步探讨贻贝属的系统发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈玉帮; 李家乐; 牟月军

    2009-01-01

    通过比较贻贝属5个物种包括中国的两种贻贝的线粒体16S rRNA基因部分序列,来初步确定它们的系统发育关系和了解中国沿海两种贻贝的遗传多样性情况.以Perna viridis为外群,采用NJ法和MP法构建分子系统树.系统发育分析表明,5种贻贝(Mytilus californianus, M. corcuscus, M. galloprovincialis, M. edulis, M. trossulus)在系统树上依次进行分叉,呈放射状.M. californianus最为原始,M. corcuscus次之.每一个贻贝物种都形成单系.其中,M. edulis和M. trossulus是非常相似的,M. corcuscus和M. californianus的亲缘关系近.同时发现,我国沿海分布的紫贻贝(M. galloprovincialis)和厚壳贻贝(M. corcuscus)的遗传多样性都较高,但厚壳贻贝的遗传多样性要低于紫贻贝,可能是由于厚壳贻贝过度被渔民开采等导致厚壳贻贝群体大小降低的缘故.这里系统发育分析为将来进行物种进化、迁移和育种方面的比较研究提供理论基础.

  3. Different carbon sources affect PCB accumulation by marine bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitano, M V; Silva Barni, M F; Costa, P G; Cledón, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B; Panarello, H O

    2016-02-01

    Pampean creeks were evaluated in the present study as potential land-based sources of PCB marine contamination. Different carbon and nitrogen sources from such creeks were analysed as boosters of PCB bioaccumulation by the filter feeder bivalve Brachidontes rodriguezii and grazer limpet Siphonaria lessoni. Carbon of different source than marine and anthropogenic nitrogen assimilated by organisms were estimated through their C and N isotopic composition. PCB concentration in surface sediments and mollusc samples ranged from 2.68 to 6.46 ng g(-1) (wet weight) and from 1074 to 4583 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, reflecting a punctual source of PCB contamination related to a landfill area. Thus, despite the low flow of creeks, they should not be underestimated as contamination vectors to the marine environment. On the other hand, mussels PCB bioaccumulation was related with the carbon source uptake which highlights the importance to consider this factor when studying PCB distribution in organisms of coastal systems.

  4. Changing restoration rules: exotic bivalves interact with residence time and depth to control phytoplankton productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Lisa V.; Thompson, Janet K.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species are a prevalent ecosystem stressor that can interact with other stressors to confound resource management and restoration. We examine how interactions between physical habitat attributes and a particular category of non-native species (invasive bivalves) influence primary production in aquatic ecosystems. Using mathematical models, we show how intuitive relationships between phytoplankton productivity and controllable physical factors (water depth, hydraulic transport time) that hold in the absence of bivalves can be complicated—and even reversed—by rapid bivalve grazing. In light-limited environments without bivalves, shallow, hydrodynamically “slow” habitats should generally have greater phytoplankton biomass and productivity than deeper, “faster” habitats. But shallower, slower environments can be less productive than deeper, faster ones if benthic grazing is strong. Moreover, shallower and slower waters exhibit a particularly broad range of possible productivity outcomes that can depend on whether bivalves are present. Since it is difficult to predict the response of non-native bivalves to habitat restoration, outcomes for new shallow, slow environments can be highly uncertain. Habitat depth and transport time should therefore not be used as indicators of phytoplankton biomass and production where bivalve colonization is possible. This study provides for ecosystem management a particular example of a broad lesson: abiotic ecosystem stressors should be managed with explicit consideration of interactions with other major (including biotic) stressors. We discuss the applicability and management implications of our models and results for a range of aquatic system types, with a case study focused on the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (California, USA). Simple mathematical models like those used here can illuminate interactions between ecosystem stressors and provide process-based guidance for resource managers as they develop strategies

  5. Morphoanatomic aspects and phytochemical screening of Plinia edulis (Vell. Sobral (Myrtaceae Aspectos morfoanatômicos e triagem fitoquímica de Plinia edulis (Vell. Sobral (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Ishikawa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Plinia edulis (Myrtaceae, popularly known as "cambucá", is a Brazilian medicinal plant employed in the treatment of stomach problems and throat affections by the "caiçaras", fishermen of coastal localities. Aiming to contribute with the species knowledge the leaves of P. edulis were analyzed macro and microscopically and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was determined using a combination of GC/MS and retention indices. The antimicrobial assay and the phytochemical screening of the aqueous ethanol extract of the leaves have been performed to correlate the secondary metabolites and the traditional use. Leaves present morphological characteristics of others Myrtaceae species and some particularities, such as the circular idioblasts in number of 2 to 4, scattered perpendicularly at the adaxial surface, with druses or prismatic crystals. In the volatile oil fifteen components have been identified, of which epi-α-cadinol (21.7%, α-cadinol (20.2% and trans-caryophyllene (14.2% were major. The phytochemical screening of the aqueous ethanol extract showed the presence of substances with pharmacological interest, such as flavonoids, tannins, saponins and terpenoids but, despite of the presence of these classes, the extract did not inhibit the growth of Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in a concentration of 1,000 mg/mL.Plinia edulis (Myrtaceae, popularmente conhecida como "cambucá", é uma planta medicinal nativa do Brasil e empregada no tratamento de problemas estomacais e afecções de garganta por populações caiçaras. Buscando contribuir para o conhecimento da espécie, as folhas de P. edulis foram caracterizadas macro e microscopicamente e a composição química do óleo volátil foi determinada usando uma combinação de CG/EM e índices de retenção. O extrato hidroetanólico das folhas foi avaliado quanto ao perfil fitoquímico e à atividade antimicrobiana procurando-se a correla

  6. Boletus edulis biologically active biopolymers induce cell cycle arrest in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Cardoso, Claudia; Ferreira Milheiro Nunes, Fernando Hermínio; Ramos Novo Amorim de Barros, Ana Isabel; Marques, Guilhermina; Pożarowski, Piotr; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2013-04-25

    The use of biologically active compounds isolated from edible mushrooms against cancer raises global interest. Anticancer properties are mainly attributed to biopolymers including mainly polysaccharides, polysaccharopeptides, polysaccharide proteins, glycoproteins and proteins. In spite of the fact that Boletus edulis is one of the widely occurring and most consumed edible mushrooms, antitumor biopolymers isolated from it have not been exactly defined and studied so far. The present study is an attempt to extend this knowledge on molecular mechanisms of their anticancer action. The mushroom biopolymers (polysaccharides and glycoproteins) were extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The antiproliferative activity in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (LS180) was screened by means of MTT and BrdU assays. At the same time fractions' cytotoxicity was examined on the human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoTr) by means of the LDH assay. Flow cytometry and Western blotting were applied to cell cycle analysis and protein expression involved in anticancer activity of the selected biopolymer fraction. In vitro studies have shown that fractions isolated from Boletus edulis were not toxic against normal colon epithelial cells and in the same concentration range elicited a very prominent antiproliferative effect in colon cancer cells. The best results were obtained in the case of the fraction designated as BE3. The tested compound inhibited cancer cell proliferation which was accompanied by cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1-phase. Growth inhibition was associated with modulation of the p16/cyclin D1/CDK4-6/pRb pathway, an aberration of which is a critical step in the development of many human cancers including colon cancer. Our results indicate that a biopolymer BE3 from Boletus edulis possesses anticancer potential and may provide a new therapeutic/preventive option in colon cancer chemoprevention.

  7. Detection of Arcobacter spp. in Mytilus galloprovincialis samples collected from Apulia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bonerba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in 20 samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis purchased at fish markets in Apulia region. The detection of Arcobacter spp. was performed, after selective enrichment, on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (mCCD agar supplemented with Cefoperazone, Amphotericin B and Teicoplanin (CAT. In 6 out of the 20 tested samples the presence of Arcobacter spp. was found and confirmed by genus-based polymerase chain reaction. All the isolates were identified as belonging to the species Arcobacter butzleri using 16S rDNA sequencing and BLAST online. The results represent the first report in Italy of A. butzleri detection in marketed Mytilus galloprovincialis. The survey underlines the epidemiological importance of A. butzleri as an emerging pathogen, and highlights that mussels should be considered as a potential cause of foodborne disease outbreak.

  8. Antidermatophytic and Toxicological Evaluations of Dichloromethane-Methanol Extract, Fractions and Compounds Isolated from Coula edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean De Dieu Tamokou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coula edulis Bail (Olacaceae, is an evergreen tree growing to a height of 25-38 m. This study aimed at evaluating the antidermatophytic and toxicological properties of the stem bark of C. edulis extract as well as fractions and compounds isolated from it. Methods: The plant extract was prepared by maceration in CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v. The fractionation of this extract was done by silica gel column chromatography. Antidermatophytic activities were assayed using agar dilution method. The acute and sub-acute toxicities of oral administrations of the extract were studied in rodents. Results: The crude extract of C. edulis displayed antidermatophytic activity against the tested microorganisms with highest activity against Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The fractionation enhanced the antidermatophytic activity in fraction F3 (MIC=0.62-1.25 mg/ml compared to the crude extract (MIC=1.25-5 mg/ml. Further fractionation and purification of the fractions F2 and F3 gave respectively 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (MIC=0.20-0.40 mg/ml and a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and n-hexadecanoid acid (MIC=0.80 mg/ml. The median lethal doses (LD50 of the crude extract were 16.8 and 19.6 g/kg body weight (BW in male and female mice, respectively. At 200 mg/kg BW, there was a decrease in body weight gain, food and water consumptions. Gross anatomical analysis revealed white vesicles on the liver of the rats treated with the extract at 200 mg/kg BW. This dose also induced significant (P<0.05 changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: These data suggest that the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v extract of C. edulis stem bark possesses antidermatophytic properties. They also show that at high doses (≥ 200 mg/kg BW, the extract has significant hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic activities

  9. Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology of Khat (Catha Edulis Forsk): A Review

    OpenAIRE

    WABE, Nasir Tajure

    2011-01-01

    Catha edulis (khat) is a plant grown commonly in the horn of Africa. The leaves of khat are chewed by the people for its stimulant action. Its young buds and tender leaves are chewed to attain a state of euphoria and stimulation. Khat is an evergreen shrub, which is cultivated as a bush or small tree. The leaves have an aromatic odor. The taste is astringent and slightly sweet. The plant is seedless and hardy, growing in a variety of climates and soils. Many different compounds are found in k...

  10. What science says about khat (Catha edulis Forsk)? Overview of chemistry, toxicology and pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir Tajure Wabe; Mohammed Adem Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Catha edulis (khat) is a plant grown commonly in the horn of Africa. The leaves of khat are chewed by the people for its stimulant action. Khat is an evergreen shrub, which is cultivated as a bush or small tree. The leaves have an aromatic odour. The taste is astringent and slightly sweet. The plant is seedless and hardy, growing in a variety of climates and soils. Khat contains more than 40 alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Many different compounds are found...

  11. Genetic diversity in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims based on RAPD

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    Carlos Bernard Moreno Cerqueira-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity by RAPD markers in 20 genotypes of ‘yellow’ passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. The 16 primers generated 92 markers, 57 (62% of which were polymorphic. The genetic distance (gdij estimated by the complement of the Dice index (gdij = 0.19 and genotype grouping based on UPGMA algorithm showed low variability among genotypes. These results show a narrower genetic basis than reported for other Passiflora populations and the need to increase this variability by germplasm introduction. Divergent genotypes were also identified for the choice of parents for crosses for genetic gains in traits previously selected within the population studied.

  12. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND LIPID COMPOSITION OF JUÇARA (EUTERPE EDULIS MART.) PULP

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Porrelli Moreira da SILVA; Leandro Francisco do CARMO; Guilherme Mei SILVA; Mayra Fernanda SILVEIRA-DINIZ; Casemiro, Renata Cristina; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2013-01-01

    Juçara palm (Euterpe edulis Martius) is native to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and is an endangered species due to intensive exploration to produce hearts of palm. In the last few years, juçara plantation has been implemented for fruit production and pulp extraction, similar to açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.). The objective of this study was to assess the physical, chemical, and lipid composition of juçara pulp, in order to establish the exact measures of its quality ai...

  13. A First Insight into the Genome of the Filter-Feeder Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Murgarella; Daniela Puiu; Beatriz Novoa; Antonio Figueras; David Posada; Carlos Canchaya

    2016-01-01

    Mussels belong to the phylum Mollusca, one of the largest and most diverse taxa in the animal kingdom. Despite their importance in aquaculture and in biology in general, genomic resources from mussels are still scarce. To broaden and increase the genomic knowledge in this family, we carried out a whole-genome sequencing study of the cosmopolitan Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis). We sequenced its genome (32X depth of coverage) on the Illumina platform using three pair-end libra...

  14. Transcriptome response to copper heavy metal stress in hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus)

    OpenAIRE

    Meiying Xu; Lihua Jiang; Kang-Ning Shen; Changwen Wu; Guangyuan He; Chung-Der Hsiao

    2016-01-01

    The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) has considerably one of the most economically important marine shellfish worldwide and considered as a good invertebrate model for ecotoxicity study for a long time. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000) to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the hard-shelled mussel which challenged with copper pollution. A total of 21,723,913 paired-end clean reads (NCBI SRA database SRX1411195) were generated from...

  15. THE PHENOTYPIC STRUCTURE OF A MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS LMK POPULATION FROM THE ROMANIAN BLACK SEA SHORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona Novac

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available : Among the specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. from the Black Sea, function of the color of the ostracum (brown, dark blue or brown with blue stripes, one can differentiate several forms. These colors are genetically determined (Stolbova, Pirkova, Ladyghina, 1996; Scherban, 2000; Shurova, 2001. The present paper analyzes the situation of these phenotypic groups, using specimens sampled at different depths in the area of Agigea dike.

  16. Mathematical modeling of the growth and development of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis on artificial substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasechkina, E. F.; Kazankova, I. I.

    2014-11-01

    A mathematical model simulating the growth and development of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. on artificial substrates has been constructed. The model is based on experimental data and contains mathematical descriptions of the filtration, respiration, excretion, spawning, and growth of an individual during its ontogenesis from the moment it attaches to a solid substrate to the attainment of a marketable size. The test computations have been compared to the available observation data for mussel farms.

  17. Immunocytotoxicity, cytogenotoxicity and genotoxicity of cadmium-based quantum dots in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Gomes, Tânia; Cardoso, Cátia; Letendre, Julie; Pinheiro, José Paulo; Sousa, Vânia Serrão; Teixeira, Margarida Ribau; Bebianno, Maria João

    2014-10-01

    There is an increased use of Quantum Dot (QDs) in biological and biomedical applications, but little is known about their marine ecotoxicology. So, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible immunocytotoxic, cytogenotoxic and genotoxic effects of cadmium telluride QDs (CdTe QDs) on the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mussels were exposed to 10 μg L(-1) of CdTe QDs or to soluble Cd [Cd(NO3)2] for 14 days and Cd accumulation, immunocytotoxicity [hemocyte density, cell viability, lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), differential cell counts (DCC)], cytogenotoxicity (micronucleus test and nuclear abnormalities assay) and genotoxicity (comet assay) were analyzed. Results show that in vivo exposure to QDs, Cd is accumulated in mussel soft tissues and hemolymph and induce immunotoxic effects mediated by a decrease in LMS, changes in DCC, as well as genotoxicity (DNA damage). However, QDs do not induce significant changes in hemocytes density, cell viability and cytogenetic parameters in opposition to Cd(2+). Soluble Cd is the most cytotoxic and cytogenotoxic form on Mytilus hemocytes due to a higher accumulation of Cd in tissues. Results indicate that immunotoxicity and genotoxicity of CdTe QDs and Cd(2+) are mediated by different modes of action and show that Mytilus hemocytes are important targets for in vivo QDs toxicity.

  18. Bio-accumulation kinetics of radioruthenium in marine bivalves. Laboratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three kinds of marine bivalves (wild Saccostrea cucullata, aquacultured Perna viridis and aquacultured Pinctada martens), collected from Daya Bay, the South China Sea, were used to investigate the bio-accumulation of radioruthenium in the glass aquarium with natural seawater (pH 8.20, 35 per mille salinity, filtered by 0.45 μm) at ambient temperature under laboratory feeding conditions. The experimental results show that the stead-state of biology concentration factor (BCF, ml/g) of radioruthenium was approached around 6 days for most species of bivalves. The values of BCF in shells are the highest in organs all the three bivalves. The orders of BCF values (ml x g-1) are as: Perna viridis (33.2) < Saccostrea cucullata (47.0) < Pinctada martensi (208.4) for shells and Saccostrea cucullata (1.5) < Pinctada martensi (2.2) ∼ Perma viridis (2.4) for soft tissues, respectively, after exposed for 14 days. The rate constants of uptake and elimination of radioruthenium on marine bivalves were also discussed by first-order kinetics model. The Pinctada martensi may be applicable to be an indictor for monitoring radioruthenium among the three bivalves. (author)

  19. The earliest post-paleozoic freshwater bivalves preserved in coprolites from the karoo basin, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Yates

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several clades of bivalve molluscs have invaded freshwaters at various times throughout Phanerozoic history. The most successful freshwater clade in the modern world is the Unionoida. Unionoids arose in the Triassic Period, sometime after the major extinction event at the End-Permian boundary and are now widely distributed across all continents except Antarctica. Until now, no freshwater bivalves of any kind were known to exist in the Early Triassic. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report on a faunule of two small freshwater bivalve species preserved in vertebrate coprolites from the Olenekian (Lower Triassic of the Burgersdorp Formation of the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Positive identification of these bivalves is not possible due to the limited material. Nevertheless they do show similarities with Unionoida although they fall below the size range of extant unionoids. Phylogenetic analysis is not possible with such limited material and consequently the assignment remains somewhat speculative. CONCLUSIONS: Bivalve molluscs re-invaded freshwaters soon after the End-Permian extinction event, during the earliest part of the recovery phase during the Olenekian Stage of the Early Triassic. If the specimens do represent unionoids then these Early Triassic examples may be an example of the Lilliput effect. Since the oldest incontrovertible freshwater unionoids are also from sub-Saharan Africa, it is possible that this subcontinent hosted the initial freshwater radiation of the Unionoida. This find also demonstrates the importance of coprolites as microenvironments of exceptional preservation that contain fossils of organisms that would otherwise have left no trace.

  20. Taxonomic Study of Edible Bivalve from Selected Division of Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Abu Hena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of edible bivalve was conducted from August 2010 to July 2011 covering eight divisions i.e., Kuching, Sarikei, Sibu, Mukah, Bintulu, Miri, Limbang and Lawas of Sarawak, Malaysia. Samples were collected from native market and fishing village during the study period. All edible bivalves inhabit either in brackish or marine environment and comprised 19 species from 10 families namely Meretrix meretrix, M. lyrata, Paphia undulata, Circe scripta, Solen regularies, Solen lamarckii, Pharella acutidens, Amusium pleuronectes, Anadara granosa, Pholas orientalis, Gluconome virens, Placuna placenta, Crassotrea lugubris, Isognomon ephippium, Polymesoda erosa, P. bengalensis, P. expansa, Anadonta woodina and Pilsbryoconcha exilis. The diversity of edible bivalves was found highest in Kuching and Bintulu compared to other divisions studied in Sarawak. The bivalve species at Sarawak could have economic potentiality in terms of protein source, livelihoods of local tribes and economic value. Study suggests that if the high conservation and management of edible bivalve diversity could establish in the coastal and wetland area of Sarawak, a remarkable and vast economic return could achieve.

  1. Organochlorine pollutants level in teleost fish and bivalve from Egyptian Mediterranean coast and Nile Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residue levels of 15 organochlorine pollutants and 3 aroclors were analyzed by capillary Gas Chromatography GC in fish Mugil cephalus and bivalve Donax sp., collected from three different locations, at EI-Mex bay, Balteem and Rosetta. The studied pollutants were DDT's isomers, HCHs isomers as well as cyclodiene compounds, Mirex, methoxychlor, toxaphene and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), Aroclors 1248, 1254 and 1260 in addition to 10 individual PCBs congeners. Lipid content percentage ranged from 2.2 to 3.6% in fish and 1.0 to 1.5 % in bivalve, as judged by extractable Organic Matter (EOM) values. Lindane dominated the alph-isomer, with highest concentration 4.6 ng/g in fish from EI-Mex. p,p'-DDE dominated other DDTs analogs with the highest concentrations in fish 15.6 ng/g) and bivalve (9.9 ng/g) from Rosetta. Toxaphene was detected in all locations with maximum levels 13.0 and 11.0 ng/g in bivalve and fish respectively, from Rosetta. Aroclor 1248 dominated other aroclors in both fish and bivalve. For individual PCBs 153 congener dominated other congeners with lower chlorinated biphenyls (mono-through penta-chloro-biphenyls) congeners occurred at lower levels except PCB 200 and PCB 206. (author)

  2. 九种现代双壳类壳体物相组成的对比研究%Comparison Study on the Shell Mineralogy of 9 Species of Modern Bivalves Living in Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范德江; 刘升发; 张爱滨; 于子山; 王文正

    2005-01-01

    利用X射线衍射分析技术,对黄东海常见的9种现代双壳类壳体进行了物相分析,结果表明这些双壳类壳体分别属于三种类型,即文石质壳、方解石质壳、文石+方解石混合质壳.其中,菲律宾蛤仔(Ruditapes philippinarum)、中国蛤蜊(Mactra chinensis)、四角蛤蜊(Mactra veneriformis)、薄片镜蛤(Dosinia laminata)、毛蚶(Scapharca subcrenuzta)属于文石质壳,长牡蛎(Crassostrea gigas)、中国不等蛤(Anomia chinensis)、海湾扇贝(Argopecten irradieus)属于方解石质壳,紫贻贝(Mytilus edulis)属于文石+方解石质的混合质壳;双壳类壳体物相组成与其生活方式有着一定的联系,营底栖埋入式生活者趋于形成文石质壳,底栖固着生活方式者趋于形成方解石质壳或混合质壳;不同大小的菲律宾蛤仔(Ruditapes philippinarum)的物相组成上几乎没有差别,表明其壳体物相组成不受生命效应的影响.

  3. Impacts of Carpobrotus edulis (L. N.E.Br. on the germination, establishment and survival of native plants: a clue for assessing its competitive strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Novoa

    Full Text Available Does Carpobrotus edulis have an impact on native plants? How do C. edulis' soil residual effects affect the maintenance of native populations? What is the extent of interspecific competition in its invasion process? In order to answer those questions, we established pure and mixed cultures of native species and C. edulis on soil collected from invaded and native areas of Mediterranean coastal dunes in the Iberian Peninsula. We examined the impact of the invader on the germination, growth and survival of seeds and adult plants of two native plant species (Malcolmia littorea (L. R.Br, and Scabiosa atropurpurea L. growing with ramets or seeds of C. edulis. Residual effects of C. edulis on soils affected the germination process and early growth of native plants in different ways, depending on plant species and density. Interspecific competition significantly reduced the germination and early growth of native plants but this result was soil, density, timing and plant species dependent. Also, at any density of adult individuals of C. edulis, established native adult plants were not competitive. Moreover, ramets of C. edulis had a lethal effect on native plants, which died in a short period of time. Even the presence of C. edulis seedlings prevents the recruitment of native species. In conclusion, C. edulis have strong negative impacts on the germination, growth and survival of the native species M. littorea and S. atropurpurea. These impacts were highly depended on the development stages of native and invasive plants. Our findings are crucial for new strategies of biodiversity conservation in coastal habitats.

  4. An integrated ecosystem approach for assessing the potential role of cultivated bivalve shells as part of the carbon trading system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filgueira, R.; Byron, C.J.; Comeau, L.A.; Jansen, H.M.; Smaal, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The role of bivalve mariculture in the CO2 cycle has been commonly evaluated as the balance between respiration, shell calcium carbonate sequestration and CO2 release during biogenic calcification. However, this approach neglects the ecosystem implications of cultivating bivalves at high densities,

  5. The influence of sediment, food and organic ligands on the uptake of copper by sediment-dwelling bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Absil, M.C.P.; Berntssen, M.; Gerringa, L.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The sediment-dwelling bivalve Macoma balthica was exposed to dissolved copper ina flow-through system in long-term experiments. Unlike another sediment-dwelling bivalve, the suspension feeder Cerastoderma edule (cockle), M. balthica accumulated copper from the sediment, while the cockles did not. Wh

  6. Preliminary estimates of growth parameters for three commercial bivalve species of Peru (Gari solida, Anlacomya ater and Semele solida)

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    The parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth equation were estimated, mainly from size-frequency data, for three commercially exploited Peruvian bivalves, Gari solida, Aulacomya ater and Semele solida, collected by divers from "Bahia de Independencia", Pisco, Peru from November 1986 to September 1987 and from January to September 1990. Some related information on the three bivalves in question are also presented.

  7. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Blepharis edulis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Blepharis edulis is traditionally used as an antiseptic, purgative, aphrodisiac and anti-inflammatory agent. The extractsof plant aerial parts were screened for total phenolic content (TPC gallic acid equivalents (GAE, total flavonoid compound(TFC quercetin equivalents (QE, antioxidant capacity and its antimicrobial activity by micro broth dilution assay. The 50%-inhibition values of BHT and 70% (v/v aqueous ethanol, 70% (v/v aqueous methanol, methanol, and water extracts of B.edulis according to the DPPH method were found to be 19.6, 71.2, 73.7, 81.4, and 218.4 g/ml, respectively. TPC ranged from38.9 to 102.7 mg GAE/g dry extracts. The antimicrobial activity showed that yeast and fungi were sensitive and resistantmicroorganisms to the extracts. The 70%-methanol extract showed more drastic antimicrobial activity than the others. Theantimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract is the same as of the methanolic extract; water extract had the weakest antimicrobialactivity.

  8. What science says about khat (Catha edulis Forsk? Overview of chemistry, toxicology and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Tajure Wabe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Catha edulis (khat is a plant grown commonly in the horn of Africa. The leaves of khat are chewed by the people for its stimulant action. Khat is an evergreen shrub, which is cultivated as a bush or small tree. The leaves have an aromatic odour. The taste is astringent and slightly sweet. The plant is seedless and hardy, growing in a variety of climates and soils. Khat contains more than 40 alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Many different compounds are found in khat including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, glycosides, tannins, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. The phenylalkylamines and the cathedulins are the major alkaloids which are structurally related to amphetamine. The major effects of khat include those on the gastro-intestinal system and on the nervous system. Constipation, urine retention and acute cardiovascular effects may be regarded as autonomic (peripheral nervous system effects; increased alertness, dependence, tolerance and psychiatric symptoms as effects on the central nervous system. The main toxic effects include increased blood pressure, tachycardia, insomnia, anorexia, constipation, general malaise, irritability, migraine and impaired sexual potency in men. The purpose of this review is to summarize the chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology of khat (Catha edulis Forsk. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 29-37

  9. Composition and antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius prepared for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Grażyna; Pogoń, Krystyna; Skrzypczak, Aleksandra; Bernaś, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    Wild edible mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius were prepared for consumption by braising with 10 % canola oil (half of the batch was blanched prior to braising). Fresh X.badius had comparable to B.edulis amounts of proximate components and higher levels of most B-group vitamins and antioxidants. Analyzed mushrooms prepared for consumption fulfilled 7-14 % RDA of vitamin B1 for healthy adults and 15-35, 18-37 and 1 % RDA of B2, B3 and B3 respectively. Prepared for consumption mushrooms were rich in antioxidants containing in 100 g dry weight 164,601 mg total polyphenols, 19-87 mg total flavonoids, 22.1-27.4 mg L-ascorbic acid, 0.531-1.031 mg β-carotene, 0.325-0.456 mg lycopene and 38.64-44.49 mg total tocopherols and presented high antioxidant activity against ABTS (4.9-36.5 mmol TE), against DPPH (7.8-21.3 mmol TE) and in FRAP assay (15.0-28.1 mmol Fe(2+)). Mushrooms prepared for consumption with blanching prior to culinary treatment showed lower antioxidant properties and vitamin content in comparison to mushrooms braised raw.

  10. Genome-wide identification and characterization of aquaporin gene family in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huayu; Li, Lichao; Lou, Yongfeng; Zhao, Hansheng; Gao, Zhimin

    2016-05-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are known to play a major role in maintaining water and hydraulic conductivity balance in the plant system. Numerous studies have showed AQPs execute multi-function throughout plant growth and development, including water transport, nitrogen, carbon, and micronutrient acquisition etc. However, little information on AQPs is known in bamboo. In this study, we present the first genome-wide identification and characterization of AQP genes in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) using bioinformatics. In total, 26 AQP genes were identified by homologous analysis, which were divided into four groups (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, and SIPs) based on the phylogenetic analysis. All the genes were located on 26 different scaffolds respectively on basis of the gene mapped to bamboo genome. Evolutionary analysis indicated that Ph. edulis was more close to Oryza sativa than Zea mays in the genetic relationship. Besides, qRT-PCR was used to analyze gene expression profiles, which revealed that AQP genes were expressed constitutively in all the detected tissues, and were all responsive to the environmental cues such as drought, water, and NaCl stresses. This data suggested that AQPs may play fundamental roles in maintaining normal growth and development of bamboo, which would contribute to better understanding for the complex regulation mechanism involved in the fast-growing process of bamboo. Furthermore, the result could provide valuable information for further research on bamboo functional genomics. PMID:26993482

  11. First report of phytochelatins in a mushroom: induction of phytochelatins by metal exposure in Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Hansen, Christian; Pedersen, Sindre A; Andersen, Rolf A; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2007-01-01

    Some species of macromycetes (mushrooms) consistently are found to contain high concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), and consumption of wild-growing mushrooms is acknowledged as a significant source for Cd and Hg in humans. Yet little is known about the speciation of Cd and Hg in mushroom tissues. Here we present the first evidence of peptides of the phytochelatin family being responsible for binding a large fraction of Cd in caps of the macromycete Boletus edulis exposed to excess metals. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu and Hg, as well as cytosolic Cd-binding capacity (CCBC), glutathione (GSH) and free proline (Pro) were quantified in fruiting bodies of B. edulis differentially exposed to a wide range of metals. Metal distribution among cytosolic compounds were investigated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), followed by metal determinations with atomic absorption chromatography (AAS) and HR-ICP-MS. Cd-binding compounds in SEC elutates were investigated further by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). CCBC was >90 times higher in the exposed group relative to the reference group (Mann-Whitney's P phytochelatins (PCs), a family of cystein-rich oligopeptides, was confirmed in Cd-containing SEC fractions by HPLC-MS. The appearance of more complex PCs was coupled to declining concentrations of GSH. To our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating the presence of PCs in a macromycete.

  12. Labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Meloni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25% presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35% and open-air markets (25% compared with the big retailing chains (20%. The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products.

  13. An ecosystem-based approach and management framework for the integrated evaluation of bivalve aquaculture impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cranford, Peter J.; Kamermans, Pauline; Krause, Gesche;

    2012-01-01

    to assess DPSIR framework components, are reviewed with a focus on the key environmental issues associated with bivalve farming. Indicator selection criteria are provided to facilitate constraining the number of indicators within the management framework. It is recommended that an ecosystem-based approach...... for bivalve aquaculture be based on a tiered indicator monitoring system that is structured on the principle that increased environmental risk requires increased monitoring effort. More than 1 threshold for each indicator would permit implementation of predetermined impact prevention and mitigation measures......An ecosystem-based approach to bivalve aquaculture management is a strategy for the integration of aquaculture within the wider ecosystem, including human aspects, in such a way that it promotes sustainable development, equity, and resilience of ecosystems. Given the linkage between social...

  14. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lucy M; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D; Girisha, S K; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Venugopal, M N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety.

  15. Bamboo thickets alter the demographic structure of Euterpe edulis population: A keystone, threatened palm species of the Atlantic forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Débora Cristina; Rodrigues, Ricardo Ribeiro; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    The rapid spread of bamboos can strongly affect forest structure by interfering plant regeneration and reducing local biodiversity. Considering that bamboos exert a negative influence on the plant community, our main goal was to investigate how this influence manifests at the population level. We compared the demographic structure of the threatened palm Euterpe edulis between bamboo and non-bamboo dominated patches within the Atlantic forest. In the study site, the native bamboo Guadua tagoara has created a marked patchiness and heterogeneity in the vegetation. Plots were set up randomly in bamboo and non-bamboo patches and the heights of all E. edulis individuals were measured. Data from canopy openness and litter depth were collected for both patches. Greater number of E. edulis was recorded in bamboo patches. However, frequency distribution of the height classes differed between patches revealing a predominance of seedling and sapling I classes in bamboo patches, in comparison to a more evenly distribution of height classes in non-bamboo patches. The canopy in bamboo patches was more open and the litter depth was thicker. Our analyses evidenced G. tagoara is functioning as a demographic bottleneck of natural population of E. edulis by arresting its later stages of regeneration and in high densities that bamboos may limit recruitment of this palm species.

  16. Partículas flexuosas de aspecto viral aisladas de achira (canna edulis ker.) afectada por clorosis en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Reichel, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Observaciones al microscopio electrónico de extractos de hojas de achira (Canna edulis) afectada por una clorosis, precedente del departamento del Huila (Colombia) revelaron la presencia de partículas flexuosas de aspecto viral de aproximadamente 600 nm x 10 nm. Este es el primer reporte de partículas flexuosas de aspecto viral infectando a achira en Colombia.

  17. In situ method for measurements of community clearance rate on shallow water bivalve populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni W.; Dolmer, Per; Vismann, Bent

    2011-01-01

    An open-top chamber was designed for measuring ambient community clearance rate on undisturbed bivalve populations in the field. The chamber was pressed 5-10 cm down in the sediment on the mussel bed. It holds approximately 30-40 cm water column equal to a volume of 43-77 L. It was provided...... with an air lift connected to a SCUBA diver pressure tank generating a continuous and gentle water circulation. This ensures a complete mixture of suspended particles, and thereby, a maximum filtration by the bivalves. An in situ fluorometer was mounted to record plant pigment reduction due to mussel...

  18. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis using fundamental parameter approach of Catha edulis and other related plant samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A., E-mail: shaltout_a@hotmail.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Moharram, Mohammed A. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Mostafa, Nasser Y. [Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    This work is the first attempt to quantify trace elements in the Catha edulis plant (Khat) with a fundamental parameter approach. C. edulis is a famous drug plant in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula. We have previously confirmed that hydroxyapatite represents one of the main inorganic compounds in the leaves and stalks of C. edulis. Comparable plant leaves from basil, mint and green tea were included in the present investigation as well as trifolium leaves were included as a non-related plant. The elemental analyses of the plants were done by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy. Standard-less quantitative WDXRF analysis was carried out based on the fundamental parameter approaches. According to the standard-less analysis algorithms, there is an essential need for an accurate determination of the amount of organic material in the sample. A new approach, based on the differential thermal analysis, was successfully used for the organic material determination. The obtained results based on this approach were in a good agreement with the commonly used methods. Depending on the developed method, quantitative analysis results of eighteen elements including; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were obtained for each plant. The results of the certified reference materials of green tea (NCSZC73014, China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel, Beijing, China) confirmed the validity of the proposed method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative analysis of Catha edulis was carried out using standardless WDXRF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential thermal analysis was used for determination of the loss of ignition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existence of hydroxyapatite in Catha edulis plant has been confirmed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CRM results confirmed the validity of the developed method.

  19. Single, binary and multi-component adsorption of some anions and heavy metals on environmentally friendly Carpobrotus edulis plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiban, Mohamed; Soudani, Amina; Sinan, Fouad; Persin, Michel

    2011-02-01

    A low-cost adsorbent and environmentally friendly adsorbent from Carpobrotus edulis plant was used for the removal of NO(3)(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) ions from single, binary and multi-component systems. The efficiency of the adsorbent was studied using batch adsorption technique under different experimental conditions by varying parameters such as pH, initial concentration and contact time. In single component systems, the dried C. edulis has the highest affinity for Pb(2+), followed by NO(3)(-), Cd(2+) and H(2)PO(4)(-), with adsorption capacities of 175mg/g, 125mg/g, 28mg/g and 26mg/g, respectively. These results showed that the adsorption of NO(3)(-) and H(2)PO(4)(-) ions from single and binary component systems can be successfully described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Freundlich adsorption model, showed the best fit to the single and binary experimental adsorption data. These results also indicated that the adsorption yield of Pb(2+) ion was reduced by the presence of Cd(2+) ion in binary metal mixture. The competitive adsorption of NO(3)(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) ions on dried C. edulis plant shows that NO(3)(-) and H(2)PO(4)(-) anions are able to adsorb on different free binding sites and Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) cations are able to adsorb on the same active sites of C. edulis particles. The dried C. edulis was found to be efficient in removing nitrate, phosphate, cadmium and lead from aqueous solution as compared to other adsorbents already used for the removal of these ions. PMID:20951008

  20. cDNA and Gene Structure of MytiLec-1, A Bacteriostatic R-Type Lectin from the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaj Hasan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MytiLec is an α-d-galactose-binding lectin with a unique primary structure isolated from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis. The lectin adopts a β-trefoil fold that is also found in the B-sub-unit of ricin and other ricin-type (R-type lectins. We are introducing MytiLec(-1 and its two variants (MytiLec-2 and -3, which both possess an additional pore-forming aerolysin-like domain, as members of a novel multi-genic “mytilectin family” in bivalve mollusks. Based on the full length mRNA sequence (911 bps, it was possible to elucidate the coding sequence of MytiLec-1, which displays an extended open reading frame (ORF at the 5′ end of the sequence, confirmed both at the mRNA and at the genomic DNA sequence level. While this extension could potentially produce a polypeptide significantly longer than previously reported, this has not been confirmed yet at the protein level. MytiLec-1 was revealed to be encoded by a gene consisting of two exons and a single intron. The first exon comprised the 5′UTR and the initial ATG codon and it was possible to detect a putative promoter region immediately ahead of the transcription start site in the MytiLec-1 genomic locus. The remaining part of the MytiLec-1 coding sequence (including the three sub-domains, the 3′UTR and the poly-A signal was included in the second exon. The bacteriostatic activity of MytiLec-1 was determined by the agglutination of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which was reversed by the co-presence of α-galactoside. Altogether, these data support the classification of MytiLec-1 as a member of the novel mytilectin family and suggest that this lectin may play an important role as a pattern recognition receptor in the innate immunity of mussels.

  1. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of Defects in γ-irradiated Marine Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and Scallop (Pecten jacobaeus) Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseoğlu, R.; Köksal, F.; Birey, M.

    2004-11-01

    EPR studies have been performed on some gamma-irradiated marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and scallops (Pecten jacobaeus) from the families of Mytilidae and Pectinidae, respectively. Before γ-irradiation, the EPR lines of Mytilus galloprovincialis indicated the existence of Mn2+ ions, which were not observed in the powders of scallop shells. γ -irradiation induced defects in powders of Mytilus galloprovincialis shells, were attributed to orthorhombic CO-3 , axial CO3-3 , orthorhombic CO-2 , freely rotating CO-2 , freely rotating SO-2 , axial SO-3 , isotropic PO2-4 and organic free radicals. γ -irradiation induced defects in powders of Pecten jacobaeus shells were attributed to orthorhombic CO-3 , axial CO3-3 , orthorhombic CO-2 , freely rotating CO-2 , freely rotating SO-2 , and axial SO-3 free radicals. The EPR parameters of the free radicals were compared with literature data on similar defects

  2. Future Challenges and Possibilities for the Danish Long-line Production of Blue Mussels, Mytilus edilus (L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pernille

    .4 m s-1 did not affect the clearance rates of M. edulis when twenty mussels were allowed to form self-organized clumps. However, when only three M. edulis were present, mussels became inactive at current velocities >0.6 m s-1. The tolerance to high current velocities provides opportunities...... effect on respiration rate. We concluded that DST most likely caused the reduction in clearance rate. Therefore DST-containing mussels can be a latent problem for mussel growth in future Danish offshore mussel production, as it is in other offshore mussel productions in Europe. Mussel growth and food...

  3. А new Gal/GalNAc-specific lectin from the mussel Mytilus trossulus: Structure, tissue specificity, antimicrobial and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikalovets, Irina V; Kovalchuk, Svetlana N; Litovchenko, Alina P; Molchanova, Valentina I; Pivkin, Mikhail V; Chernikov, Oleg V

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, a new Gal/GalNAc specific lectin from the mussel Mytilus trossulus (designated as MTL) was identified, and its expression levels, both in tissues and toward pathogen stimulation, were then characterized. The MTL primary structure was determined via cDNA sequencing. Deduced sequence of 150 amino acid residues showed 89% similarity to lectins from the mussels Crenomytilus grayanus and Mytilus galloprovincialis that were the first members of a new family of zoolectins. The results indicated that the MTL might be involved in immune response toward pathogen infection, and it might perform different recognition specificity toward bacteria or fungi.

  4. Effects of Soil Characteristics, Allelopathy and Frugivory on Establishment of the Invasive Plant Carpobrotus edulis and a Co-Occuring Native, Malcolmia littorea

    OpenAIRE

    Novoa, Ana; González, Luís; Moravcová, Lenka; Pyšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Background The species Carpobrotus edulis, native to South Africa, is one of the major plant invaders of Mediterranean coastal ecosystems around the world. Invasion by C. edulis exerts a great impact on coastal habitats. The low number of native species in invaded communities points to the possible existence of mechanisms suppressing their germination. In this study we assessed whether soil factors, endozoochory, competition and allelopathic effects of the invader affect its own early establi...

  5. Antioxidant Capacity and the Correlation with Major Phenolic Compounds, Anthocyanin, and Tocopherol Content in Various Extracts from the Wild Edible Boletus edulis Mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuel Vamanu; Sultana Nita

    2013-01-01

    Boletus edulis is a wild edible mushroom habitually consumed by rural populations. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts was obtained in cold and hot water from dried fruit bodies. The antioxidant activity of freeze-dried extracts from B. edulis were investigated using free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, metal chelating effect, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and the identification of antioxidant compounds. The levels of different compounds with antioxidant properties were higher...

  6. Temperature dependent larval occurrence and spat settlement of the invasive brackish water bivalve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, M.; van der Velde, G.; Wijnhoven, S.; Rajagopal, S.

    2014-01-01

    Mytilopsis leucophaeata, an invasive bivalve species, causes fouling problems by settling on submerged constructions and in cooling water circuits in brackish water. To predict spat fall we studied the larval occurrence and settlement of this species in the brackish Noordzeekanaal canal in the Nethe

  7. Bivalve aquaculture transfers in Atlantic Europe. Part A: Transfer activities and legal framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muehlbauer, F.; Fraser, D.; Brenner, M.;

    2014-01-01

    Intentional transfers of numerous bivalve species have had a long tradition and are commonly conducted along the European Atlantic coast. However numerous studies have concluded that intentional transfer of species for aquaculture purposes is one of the most principal vectors for the introduction...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Emerging Bivalve Pathogen Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinard, Edward J; Dubert, Javier; Nelson, David R; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Barja, Juan L

    2016-07-28

    Vibrio tubiashii subsp. europaeus is a bivalve pathogen isolated during episodes of mortality affecting larval cultures in different shellfish hatcheries. Here, we announce the draft genome sequence of the type strain PP-638 and describe potential virulence factors, which may provide insight into the mechanism of pathogenicity.

  9. Shell growth and environmental control of methanophyllic Thyasirid bivalves from Svalbard cold seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michael; Åström, Emmelie; Ambrose, William; Locke, William; Oliver, Graham; Hong, Wei-Li; Carroll, JoLynn

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of molluscan shell material (sclerochronology) can provide information about an organism's age, growth history, and environmental conditions during its lifetime. Bivalve molluscs are common members of hydrothermal vents and methane cold seeps communities where, supported by chemosynthetic symbionts, they can reach high density and biomass. But little is known about methane-associated bivalve populations inhabiting high-Arctic cold seeps, and sclerochronological analysis of methane-influenced bivalves is rare. We measured growth rates and elemental and isotopic shell signatures in a newly discovered species of bivalve (Thyasiridae) from cold seeps at 350-390m depth southwest of Svalbard. First discovered in 2014, recently described shells of Thyasira capitanea sp.nov. were found at 2 independent seep systems in Storfjordrenna. Mean shell carbon isotopic ratios from inorganic δ13C (mean = -4.8‰) and organic δ13C (mean = -26.9‰) fractions clearly indicate a methane influenced habitat and food source for these organisms. Shell mineral ratios (Li/Ca, Mg/Ca, Mn/Ca, Fe/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Pb/Ca) sampled along the axis of growth with laser-ablated ICP-MS exhibit variability through time and between sites, suggesting that concentrations of these elements that may be affected by methane emissions. The mineralogical data also elucidates the internal pattern of shell deposition and growth checks, and combined with the isotopic and growth rate data, enables us to interpret the temporal history of methane release from these locations.

  10. Burrowing Behavior of a Deposit Feeding Bivalve Predicts Change in Intertidal Ecosystem State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, T.J.; Bodnar, W.; Koolhaas, A.; Dekinga, A.; Holthuijsen, S.; Ten Horn, J.; McSweeney, N.; van Gils, J.A.; Piersma, T,

    2016-01-01

    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  11. Burrowing behavior of a deposit feeding bivalve predicts change in intertidal ecosystem state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, Tanya J.; Bodnar, Wanda; Koolhaas, Anita; Dekinga, Anne; Holthuijsen, Sander; ten Horn, Job; McSweeney, Niamh; van Gils, Jan; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  12. A molecular phylogeny of bivalve mollusks: ancient radiations and divergences as revealed by mitochondrial genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Plazzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bivalves are very ancient and successful conchiferan mollusks (both in terms of species number and geographical distribution. Despite their importance in marine biota, their deep phylogenetic relationships were scarcely investigated from a molecular perspective, whereas much valuable work has been done on taxonomy, as well as phylogeny, of lower taxa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present a class-level bivalve phylogeny with a broad sample of 122 ingroup taxa, using four mitochondrial markers (MT-RNR1, MT-RNR2, MT-CO1, MT-CYB. Rigorous techniques have been exploited to set up the dataset, analyze phylogenetic signal, and infer a single final tree. In this study, we show the basal position of Opponobranchia to all Autobranchia, as well as of Palaeoheterodonta to the remaining Autobranchia, which we here propose to call Amarsipobranchia. Anomalodesmata were retrieved as monophyletic and basal to (Heterodonta + Pteriomorphia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Bivalve morphological characters were traced onto the phylogenetic trees obtained from the molecular analysis; our analysis suggests that eulamellibranch gills and heterodont hinge are ancestral characters for all Autobranchia. This conclusion would entail a re-evaluation of bivalve symplesiomorphies.

  13. Bivalve grazing, nutrient cycling and phytoplankton dynamics in an estuarine ecosystem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, T.C.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis has considered the impact of the suspension feeding bivalve Mytilusedulis on nutrient cycling and phytoplankton in an estuarine ecosystem. The research was started within the framework of an extensive research project with the objective to evaluate the changes in the Oosterschelde ecosys

  14. Physiological effects of hypercapnia in the deep-sea bivalve Acesta excavata (Fabricius, 1779) (Bivalvia; Limidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Karen M.; Kristiansen, Erlend; Zachariassen, Karl Erik

    2011-01-01

    The option of storing CO(2) in subsea rock formations to mitigate future increases in atmospheric CO(2) may induce problems for animals in the deep sea. In the present study the deep-sea bivalve Acesta excavata was subjected to environmental hypercapnia (pHSW 6.35, P(CO2), =33,000 mu atm) corresp...

  15. Subtle differences between male and female Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus in feeding on the bivalve Macoma balthica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, JB; Alting, D; Bunskoeke, EJ; Ens, BJ; Heg, D

    1996-01-01

    In this paper an analysis is made of subtle behavioural differences between adult male and female Ovstercatchers feeding on Macoma balthica under field conditions and in captivity. Macoma is a tellinid bivalve that in the Dutch Wadden Sea is mainly preyed upon during spring and summer when it is bur

  16. Validation and comparison of methods for enumeration of faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in bivalve molluscs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; Poelman M; Stegeman H; Warmerdam C; Teunis PFM; Roda Husman AM de; RIKILT; MGB

    2007-01-01

    The main result of the validation study to show the equivalence of two methods for the enumeration of faecal coliforms in bivalve molluscs is that the plate count method on Mac Conkey agar was indeed found to be equivalent to the MPN method. Meaning that the Netherlands fulfilled the demands as stat

  17. Uptake of contaminants of emerging concern by the bivalves Anodonta californiensis and Corbicula fluminea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Niveen S; Müller, Claudia E; Morgan, Rachel R; Luthy, Richard G

    2014-08-19

    Uptake of seven contaminants regularly detected in surface waters and spanning a range of hydrophobicities (log D(ow) -1 to 5) was studied for two species of freshwater bivalves, the native mussel Anodonta californiensis and the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea. Batch systems were utilized to determine compound partitioning, and flow-through systems, comparable to environmental conditions in effluent dominated surface waters, were used to determine uptake and depuration kinetics. Uptake of compounds was independent of bivalve type. Log bioconcentration factor (BCF) values were correlated with log D(ow) for nonionized compounds with the highest BCF value obtained for triclocarban (TCC). TCC concentrations were reduced in the water column due to bivalve activity. Anionic compounds with low D(ow) values, i.e., clofibric acid and ibuprofen, were not removed from water, while the organic cation propranolol showed biouptake similar to that of TCC. Batch experiments supported compound uptake patterns observed in flow-through experiments. Contaminant removal from water was observed through accumulation in tissue or settling as excreted pseudofeces or feces. The outcomes of this study indicate the potential utility of bivalve augmentation to improve water quality by removing hydrophobic trace organic compounds found in natural systems. PMID:25017714

  18. Mosaic haploid-diploid embryos and polyspermy in the tellinid bivalve Macoma balthica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuizen, PC; Pijnacker, LP

    2002-01-01

    We investigated meiosis, fertilization, and early development in eggs of the tellinid bivalve Macoma balthica (L.), which has external fertilization. Meiosis is standard but polyspermy is found to be very common. In all eight crosses examined, mosaic embryos consisting of a mixture of diploid (2n =

  19. Nutritional and reproductive strategies in a chemosymbiotic bivalve living in a tropical intertidal seagrass bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, M.; Sall, A.A.; Ely, S.O.; Nauta, R.W.; van Gils, J.A.; Piersma, T.

    2014-01-01

    Sulphide-oxidizing endosymbiont-bearing bivalves often dominate the infauna of seagrass-covered sediments, where they control sulphide levels and contribute to carbon cycling by feeding on chemosynthetically fixed carbon and suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM). Previous studies from temperat

  20. Nutritional and reproductive strategies in a chemsoymbiotic bivalve living in a tropical intertidal seagrass bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Matthijs; Sall, Amadou Abderahmane; Ely, SIdi Ould; Nauta, Reindert W.; Gils, Jan A. van; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Sulphide-oxidizing endosymbiont-bearing bivalves often dominate the infauna of seagrass-covered sediments, where they control sulphide levels and contribute to carbon cycling by feeding on chemosynthetically fixed carbon and suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM). Previous studies from temperat

  1. A double test of the parasite manipulation hypothesis in a burrowing bivalve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelaar, P; Drent, J; de Goeij, P

    2003-01-01

    The parasite manipulation hypothesis predicts that parasites should be selected to manipulate host behaviour to facilitate transmission to the next host. The bivalve Macoma balthica burrows less deep when parasitized by the trematode Parvatrema affinis. Shallow burrowing increases the likelihood of

  2. Modiolarca lateralis (Pteryomorphia: Mytilidae: bivalve associated to six species of ascidians from Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I Cañete

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the presence of the bivalve Modiolarca lateralis (Say, 1822 in six tropical ascidians Ascidia curvata, A. sydneiensis, A. panamensis, A. interrupta, Herdmania pallida and Polycarpa spongiabilis collected at depths of 1-3 m on coral reefs, mangrove roots and dock supports in Almirante Bay, Bocas del Toro, Panama (9°18'N, 82°13'W during June-July 2011. Bivalve prevalence varied between 9-30% across species, but was mainly associated with A. panamensis, P. spongiabilis and A. interrupta. Prevalence seems to be influenced by tunic thickness rather than by the ascidian size. Bivalves varied in size (0.6-11 mm shell length, with the smallest individual found in A. sydneiensis. There were only one or two bivalves per ascidians, although a maximum of 18 was found in one A. panamensis. M. lateralis seems to behave similarly to its temperate counterparts: it has a variety of hosts, occurs mainly in the anterior region of the ascidians, and has a variable abundance per host.

  3. Lysosomal membrane stability of the mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.), as a biomarker of tributyltin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Hussein K; Snyman, Reinette G; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Adekola, Folahan A; Ximba, Bhekumusa J; Slabber, Michelle Y

    2015-05-01

    The effect of tributyltin (TBT) on the stability of hemocytic lysosome membranes of the mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the use thereof as a biomarker of TBT-induced stress, was investigated. Mussels were exposed to 0.1 and 1.0 µg/L tributyltin respectively for 4 weeks. Lysosomal membrane stability of hemocytes was tested weekly by means of the neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay, after which the mussel samples were analyzed for TBT content. The two exposed groups exhibited significantly increased (p galloprovincialis.

  4. Metabolomic analysis revealed that female mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was sensitive to bisphenol A exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chenglong; Wei, Lei; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2014-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic compound used in numerous chemicals, such as polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, and it can be released into aquatic environment and poses risk on aquatic organisms. In this work, metabolomics was applied to characterize the metabolic responses in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to BPA. Our results indicated that the gonad of female mussel was sensitive to BPA exposures (1 and 10 μg/L) for one month. However, no significant metabolic responses were observed in male mussel gonads exposed to these two concentrations of BPA. Overall, this limited study suggested that the gender differences should be considered in marine ecotoxicology.

  5. In vitro germination and embryogenic competence acquisition of Euterpe edulis Martius immature zygotic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Witt Saldanha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated different aspects of in vitro germination and embryogenic competence of immature zygotic embryos of E. edulis. The embryos germinated on full or half-strength MS (MS or MS/2 medium combined with sucrose (20, 30 and 40 g L-1. The effect of calcium chloride concentrations (0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 mM on the induction of somatic embryogenesis was tested. The embryos were germinated on MS or MS/2. Germination of zygotic embryos and the number of roots per plantlet were not affected by the culture medium and sucrose concentration. Plantlet height and fresh weight were influenced by both; the difference was greatest in MS medium with 40 g L-1 sucrose. The induction of somatic embryogenesis was not influenced by doses of calcium chloride, whereas the number of somatic embryos formed was affected. The germination capacity of somatic embryos of heart-of-palm tree was not influenced by the media tested

  6. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci developed for Passiflora edulis Sims. in related Passiflora Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Alvarenga Fachardo Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the selected 41 SSR markers developed for yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims. for their transferability to 11 different Passiflora species. Twenty-one SSR were successfully amplified in 10 wild species of passion fruit producing 101 bands. All the markers were amplifiable for at least one species. The mean transferability was 68,8%, ranging from 15,4% (primer PE11 to 100 % (PE13, PE18, PE37, PE41 and PE88. Transferability was higher for the species from the Passiflora subgenus than for those from the Decaloba and Dysosmia subgenus. The results indicated a high level of nucleotide sequence conservation of the primer regions in the species evaluated, and consequently, they could potentially be used for the establishment of molecular strategies for use in passion fruit breeding and genetics.

  7. Characterization of starch from two ecotypes of andean achira roots (Canna edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Fausto H; Zevillanos, Roberto; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2009-08-26

    Starches from two ecotypes of achira roots (Canna edulis Ker-Gawler) were characterized and compared to commercial potato and corn starches. This included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of starch granules and amylose content determination of starch. Starch solutions or gels were tested by rotational viscometry, Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), and texture analysis. Some starch samples were subjected to various treatments: pH reduction, autoclaving at high temperature, and high shear before testing by rotational viscometry. Achira starch showed some unusual properties, such as very large oblong granules (approximately 45-52 microm major axis and approximately 33-34 microm minor axis) and relatively high amylose content (approximately 33-39%). The San Gaban achira ecotype formed high-consistency gels upon cooling, both in RVA study (5% starch) and in texture analysis (8% starch), compared to other starch gels and also exhibited higher thermal resistance to viscosity breakdown. PMID:19627148

  8. Depth-related gradients in community structure and relatedness of bivalves and isopods in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Angelika; Linse, Katrin; Ellingsen, Kari E.; Somerfield, Paul J.

    2016-05-01

    Despite increased research over the last decade, diversity patterns in Antarctic deep-sea benthic taxa and their driving forces are only marginally known. Depth-related patterns of diversity and distribution of isopods and bivalves collected in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean are analysed. The data, sampled by epibenthic sledge at 40 deep-sea stations from the upper continental slope to the hadal zone (774-6348 m) over a wide area of the Southern Ocean, comprises 619 species of isopods and 81 species of bivalves. There were more species of isopods than bivalves in all samples, and species per station varied from 2 to 85 for isopods and from 0 to 18 for bivalves. Most species were rare, with 72% of isopod species restricted to one or two stations, and 45% of bivalves. Among less-rare species bivalves tended to have wider distributions than isopods. The species richness of isopods varied with depth, showing a weak unimodal curve with a peak at 2000-4000 m, while the richness of bivalves did not. Multivariate analyses indicate that there are two main assemblages in the Southern Ocean, one shallow and one deep. These overlap over a large depth-range (2000-4000 m). Comparing analyses based on the Sørensen resemblance measure and Γ+ (incorporating relatedness among species) indicates that rare species tend to have other closely related species within the same depth band. Analysis of relatedness among species indicates that the taxonomic variety of bivalves tends to decline at depth, whereas that of isopods is maintained. This, it is speculated, may indicate that the available energy at depth is insufficient to maintain a range of bivalve life-history strategies.

  9. An overview of chemosynthetic symbioses in bivalves from the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Duperron

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea bivalves found at hydrothermal vents, cold seeps and organic falls are sustained by chemosynthetic bacteria that ensure part or all of their carbon nutrition. These symbioses are of prime importance for the functioning of the ecosystems. Similar symbioses occur in other bivalve species living in shallow and coastal reduced habitats worldwide. In recent years, several deep-sea species have been investigated from continental margins around Europe, West Africa, eastern Americas, the Gulf of Mexico, and from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In parallel, numerous, more easily accessible shallow marine species have been studied. Herein we provide a summary of the current knowledge available on chemosymbiotic bivalves in the area ranging west-to-east from the Gulf of Mexico to the Sea of Marmara, and north-to-south from the Arctic to the Gulf of Guinea. Characteristics of symbioses in 53 species from the area are summarized for each of the five bivalve families documented to harbor chemosynthetic symbionts (Mytilidae, Vesicomyidae, Solemyidae, Thyasiridae and Lucinidae. Comparisons are made between the families, with special emphasis on ecology, life cycle, and connectivity. Chemosynthetic symbioses are a major adaptation to ecosystems and habitats exposed to reducing conditions. However, relatively little is known regarding their diversity and functioning, apart from a few "model species" on which effort has focused over the last 30 yr. In the context of increasing concern about biodiversity and ecosystems, and increasing anthropogenic pressure on oceans, we advocate a better assessment of the diversity of bivalve symbioses in order to evaluate the capacities of these remarkable ecological and evolutionary units to withstand environmental change.

  10. First records of Freshwater Bivalves of Ilha Grande National Park, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Ragonha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ilha Grande National Park, Paraná, Brazil, is located in the Upper Paraná River and has characteristics typical of a floodplains. This protected area includes lagoons connected and disconnected to the Paraná River, although the latter also connect during periods of high water level, thus composing a heterogeneous group of lacustrine environments. The enormous potential the flora and fauna diversities are still little known to the region, as can be seen through benthic invertebrates, inclunding bivalves mollusks. The granulometric composition of these floodplain lagoons was formed mainly by mud and very fine sand. Furthermore, organic matter composition was predominantly of fine particulate. The other abiotic factors differed from lagoons located within the island of the park to those located in the left margin of Paraná River. The results demonstrated the importance of abiotic factors such as the physical composition of granulometric texture, organic matter and macrophyte banks, to the establishment of bivalves in these floodplain lagoons. We recorded bivalves of Pisidium (native, Diplodon (native, and Corbicula (invasive. The highest values of Diplodon sp. density were observed at São João/C lake, for Pisidium sterkianum (Pilsbry, 1897 at São João/M lake, and to Jatobá/C lagoon with high density of invasive species Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774. This study to obtain conduct the first records of freshwater bivalves in floodplains lagoon in the Ilha Grande National Park, and provides contributions to better understanding the ecology of these mollusks. The recording of native species in the region of Upper Paraná River floodplain after a lomg period without new records, demonstrated the importance of protecting the lagoons of the Ilha Grande National Park as they can be a possible refuge to some species of native freshwater bivalves.

  11. Study of some marine bivalves as the biomonitor candidates for environmental assessment of the Jianzhou Bay by NAA and AAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangPei-Qun; WangWen-Qi; 等

    1998-01-01

    Some kinds of marine bivalves were selected as the biomonitor candidates to study the possibility of the environmentalassessmentof the jiaozhou Bay with biomonitors.The contents of 29 elements in bivalve samples were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry.It is found that clam is a suitable kind of marine bivalves as a biomonitor to evaluate the environmental quality of the Jiaozhou Bay.the environmental status of some sampling sites in this marine area wastentatively assessed by the biomonitors of calm and mussel.

  12. Mytilus galloprovincialis-type foot-protein-1 alleles occur at low frequency among mussels in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuizen, PC; Koolhaas, A; Bol, A; Piersma, T

    2002-01-01

    The presence of M. galloprovincialis-type genes among the population of mussels in the Dutch Wadden Sea, historically described as M edulis, was assessed. We applied the molecular technique in which a fragment of the gene coding for an adhesive protein of the byssus of mussels is amplified by PCR an

  13. Mytilus antiquorum J. Sowerby, 1821 and other Pliocene mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from the Southern North Sea Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoenen, M.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Nieulande, van F.A.D.

    2000-01-01

    Mytilus antiquorum J. Sowerby, 1821, is recorded from the Coralline Crag Formation of East Anglia (UK) and the Lillo Formation (Oorderen, Kruisschans and Merksem members) of the Antwerp area (Belgium). The species is diagnosed on the basis of newly collected material and differentiated from modern E

  14. Urastoma cyprinae in natural and cultured mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis LmK) populations in México

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cáceres-Martínez; R. Vásquez-Yeomans; R. Sluys

    1996-01-01

    The turbellarian Urastoma cyprinae (Urastomidae) was found parasitizing Mytilus galloprovincialis in natural beds and culture long-lines at Ensenada, Baja California, north-west Mexico. The parasite caused some damage to the gills of the host. Prevalence was monitored between January 1995 and Januar

  15. Depletion of plankton in a raft culture of Mytilus galloprovincialis in Ría de Vigo, NW Spain. I. Phytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, J.K.; Nielsen, T.G.; Van Duren, L.A.; Maar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Food depletion in mussel cultivation has been rarely studied and seldom demonstrated. In this study, concentrations of phytoplankton in and around a blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis raft culture unit in the Ría de Vigo were measured during a 2 wk study period in July 2004. Flow direction and cu

  16. Heavy metals monitoring in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Apulian coasts (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SPADA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn and one semi-metal (As were determined in tissues of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis collected along the Apulian coasts (Mediterranean sea. This project, performed in 2009, was targeted toward the assessment of levels and spatial distribution of metals in the environment in order to evaluate the coastal water quality using mussels as bioindicators and health risk for mussel consumers.The concentrations (mg/kg d.w. of these metals ranged from 6.35 to 76.17 for arsenic (As, 0.38 to 2.54 for cadmium (Cd, 0.96 to 9.46 for chromium (Cr, 5.26 to 19.22 for copper (Cu, 0.10 to 0.81 for mercury (Hg, 25.00 to 110.51 for zinc (Zn and from 0.37 to 3.25 for lead (Pb. These levels were lower than the permissible limits set by European Commission and FAO with the exception for Cr in three sampling stations. Evaluation of the risk associated to molluscs consumption for human health suggested that there is no evident risk for a moderate Mytilus g. consumer, however heavy metals concentrations must be monitored periodically and carefully with respect to the consumers health.

  17. Seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis in plant communities of the Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Henrique Santin Brancalion; Ricardo Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of seed size and number differences among plant populations growing in contrasting habitats can provide relevant information about ecological strategies that optimize reproductive effort. This may imply important consequences for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Therefore, we sought to investigate seed size-number trade-off in Euterpe edulis populations growing in plant communities in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Seed dry mass and seed number per bunch were evaluate...

  18. Sap-flow velocity reduction by soil water deficit observed in a Lithocarpus edulis forest on Kyushu Island, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Komatsu, Hikaru; Katayama, Ayumi; Kume, Tomonori; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines transpiration reduction due to soil water deficits observed in a Lithocarpus edulis forest on Kyushu Island, south-western Japan. Continuous sap flow measurements were performed on six trees to monitor changes in tree transpiration rates. A reduction in sap flow velocity was observed in the period between late-September and late-October 2003. Precipitation amounts for this period were limited resulting in a corresponding low soil matric potential. A clear reduction in sap ...

  19. Plant species diversity and dynamics in forests invaded by Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Shangbin Bai; Guomo Zhou; Yixiang Wang; Qianqian Liang; Juan Chen; Yanyan Cheng; Rui Shen

    2013-01-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is an economically important plant, widely cultivated not only for its delicious shoots and versatile culms, but also as an important biomass resource in southern China.However, with its robust growth and strong rhizomes, it has recently been shown to be a problem tree, capable of dominating some forest stands. Indeed, it may displace species within the community it invades with considerable potential impacts. However, little is known about the consequences ...

  20. Study the possibility of use of extracts of the mushroom Boletus edulis in the production of functional dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Aleksandrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are rich in proteins. The most rich in proteins is Boletus edulis (white mushroom, and total protein contains all the essential amino acids. The low bioavailability of proteins Boletus edulis stimulates the search for ways to improve. One way to improve the bioavailability of nutrients of Boletus edulis is an extraction. This article presents the results of studies of extracts of white mushroom (Boletus edulis, obtained using different methods of processing the chopped dry fruiting body. The effect of physical and biotechnological parameters on the efficiency of the extraction of proteins was studied. The spectral characteristics and protein content of the obtained extracts were determined. It is shown that the ultrasonic extraction activation leads to the most efficient protein extraction(an increase of 9.5%. It is also significantly affected by the duration of extraction. The use of the enzyme preparation in the investigated ratios do not have a positive impact, however, enzymatic treatment in conjunction with ultrasound treatment increased the efficiency of 13.5%, showing the complex diffusion processes in the fruiting bodies of mushrooms. Increasing the length of the extraction, despite the high content of protein in the extract, is impractical because of the risk of bacterial contamination of high-nutritive extract. Increasing the temperature of the process has no significant effect on the protein content, but it reduces the value of the extract, due to the destruction of heat-labile components, which include vitamins and secondary metabolites. The extract application rate for curd product was determined. For the test samples organoleptic characteristics and titratable acidity were determined. The most appropriate dose of the extract in the manufacture of making curd product is 15% by weight of the finished product.

  1. Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis

    OpenAIRE

    Anbalagan, T

    2009-01-01

    A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with...

  2. New records and a new species of bivalve (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Miocene hydrocarbon seep deposits, North Island, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, Kristian P; Jingeng, Sha; Little, Crispin T S; Campbell, Kathleen A

    2016-01-01

    Fourteen bivalve taxa belonging to 11 families are present in at least 13 early to middle Miocene hydrocarbon seep deposits in the East Coast Basin, North Island, New Zealand. Among these are at least three new species, one of which, Semeloidea (s. l.) bexhavenensis sp. nov. (Lasaeidae), is described here. New distribution data are recorded for bivalve species in the families Limidae, Propeamussiidae, Malleidae and Solemyidae. Additional morphological details of Gigantidas coseli (Mytilidae) and Pratulum quinarium (Cardiidae) are provided based upon previously unrecorded internal shell features. Palaeoecological analysis indicates that bivalves utilized a broad range of modes of life and niches within the New Zealand Miocene seep environment, and no more than ca. 30% of these bivalve species were likely to have been obligate to seeps. PMID:27615822

  3. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis using fundamental parameter approach of Catha edulis and other related plant samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A.; Moharram, Mohammed A.; Mostafa, Nasser Y.

    2012-01-01

    This work is the first attempt to quantify trace elements in the Catha edulis plant (Khat) with a fundamental parameter approach. C. edulis is a famous drug plant in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula. We have previously confirmed that hydroxyapatite represents one of the main inorganic compounds in the leaves and stalks of C. edulis. Comparable plant leaves from basil, mint and green tea were included in the present investigation as well as trifolium leaves were included as a non-related plant. The elemental analyses of the plants were done by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy. Standard-less quantitative WDXRF analysis was carried out based on the fundamental parameter approaches. According to the standard-less analysis algorithms, there is an essential need for an accurate determination of the amount of organic material in the sample. A new approach, based on the differential thermal analysis, was successfully used for the organic material determination. The obtained results based on this approach were in a good agreement with the commonly used methods. Depending on the developed method, quantitative analysis results of eighteen elements including; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were obtained for each plant. The results of the certified reference materials of green tea (NCSZC73014, China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel, Beijing, China) confirmed the validity of the proposed method.

  4. Designing conservation strategies to preserve the genetic diversity of Astragalus edulis Bunge, an endangered species from western Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Julio; Barrios, Sara; Bobo-Pinilla, Javier; Lorite, Juan; Martínez-Ortega, M Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Astragalus edulis (Fabaceae) is an endangered annual species from the western Mediterranean region that colonized the SE Iberian Peninsula, NE and SW Morocco, and the easternmost Macaronesian islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura). Although in Spain some conservation measures have been adopted, it is still necessary to develop an appropriate management plan to preserve genetic diversity across the entire distribution area of the species. Our main objective was to use population genetics as well as ecological and phylogeographic data to select Relevant Genetic Units for Conservation (RGUCs) as the first step in designing conservation plans for A. edulis. We identified six RGUCs for in situ conservation, based on estimations of population genetic structure and probabilities of loss of rare alleles. Additionally, further population parameters, i.e. occupation area, population size, vulnerability, legal status of the population areas, and the historical haplotype distribution, were considered in order to establish which populations deserve conservation priority. Three populations from the Iberian Peninsula, two from Morocco, and one from the Canary Islands represent the total genetic diversity of the species and the rarest allelic variation. Ex situ conservation is recommended to complement the preservation of A. edulis, given that effective in situ population protection is not feasible in all cases. The consideration of complementary phylogeographic and ecological data is useful for management efforts to preserve the evolutionary potential of the species. PMID:26844014

  5. Designing conservation strategies to preserve the genetic diversity of Astragalus edulis Bunge, an endangered species from western Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Julio; Barrios, Sara; Bobo-Pinilla, Javier; Lorite, Juan; Martínez-Ortega, M Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Astragalus edulis (Fabaceae) is an endangered annual species from the western Mediterranean region that colonized the SE Iberian Peninsula, NE and SW Morocco, and the easternmost Macaronesian islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura). Although in Spain some conservation measures have been adopted, it is still necessary to develop an appropriate management plan to preserve genetic diversity across the entire distribution area of the species. Our main objective was to use population genetics as well as ecological and phylogeographic data to select Relevant Genetic Units for Conservation (RGUCs) as the first step in designing conservation plans for A. edulis. We identified six RGUCs for in situ conservation, based on estimations of population genetic structure and probabilities of loss of rare alleles. Additionally, further population parameters, i.e. occupation area, population size, vulnerability, legal status of the population areas, and the historical haplotype distribution, were considered in order to establish which populations deserve conservation priority. Three populations from the Iberian Peninsula, two from Morocco, and one from the Canary Islands represent the total genetic diversity of the species and the rarest allelic variation. Ex situ conservation is recommended to complement the preservation of A. edulis, given that effective in situ population protection is not feasible in all cases. The consideration of complementary phylogeographic and ecological data is useful for management efforts to preserve the evolutionary potential of the species.

  6. Anodontites trapesialis (LAMARCK, 1819: a bivalve parasite of freshwater fishes / Anodontites trapesialis (LAMARCK, 1819: um bivalve parasito de peixes de água doce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Teresa Silva-Souza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve mollusk Anodontites trapesialis has been indicated as an alternative source for aquaculture because it is considered a food of good nutritional value with a protein content close to that of fish. Its shells can be utilized as fertilizer and mixed to the food of domestic animals, and the nacre can be used to manufacture buttons and crafts. However, the larvae of A. trapesialis, which are the lasidium type, are obligatory parasites of freshwater fishes, and the introduction of this bivalve in fish farm tanks have caused trouble and losses for producers. Nothing is known, however, about their development in these environments. On the other hand, it should be pointed out that A. trapesialis is on Brazil’s list of species threatened with extinction. This article provides a compilation of information present in the literature, offering a detailed review, with the aim of presenting a general panorama of what is known about Anodontites trapesialis and its larval parasitism of fishes.O molusco bivalve, Anodontites trapesialis, tem sido indicado como fonte alternativa para a aqüicultura, por ser considerado um alimento de bom valor nutricional com um conteúdo protéico próximo ao do pescado. Suas conchas podem ser utilizadas como fertilizantes calcáreos e ser agregadas a alimentos de animais domésticos e o nácar pode ser utilizado para fabricar botões e artesanatos. No entanto, as larvas de A. trapesialis, que são do tipo lasidium, são parasitas obrigatórias de peixes de água doce e a introdução desse bivalve em tanques de piscicultura tem causado transtornos e prejuízos aos produtores. Nada se conhece, porém, sobre o seu desenvolvimento nesses ambientes. Por outro lado, ressalta-se que A. trapesialis consta da lista brasileira de espécies ameaçadas de extinção. No presente artigo são compiladas as informações presentes na literatura, em uma revisão detalhada, com o objetivo de apresentar o panorama geral do

  7. Passiflora edulis Sims: the correct taxonomic way to cite the yellow passion fruit (and of others colors) Passiflora edulis Sims: a maneira taxonômica correta de referir-se ao maracujá-amarelo (e aos de outras cores)

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Carlos Bernacci; Marta Dias Soares-Scott; Nilton Tadeu Vilela Junqueira; Ilene Ribeiro da Silva Passos; Laura Maria Molina Meletti

    2008-01-01

    Passiflora edulis, the passion fruit native from Brazil, has several common names (such as sour passion fruit, yellow passion fruit, black passion fruit, and purple passion fruit), and presents a wide variability with the different rind colors of its fruits, which are very easy to notice. However, in 1932, Otto Degener suggested that the yellow passion fruit had its origin in Australia through breeding, calling it P. edulis forma flavicarpa, and that it could be distinguished by the color of ...

  8. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic significance of freshwater bivalves in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, Western Interior, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Steven C.

    2004-05-01

    Freshwater unionid bivalves are spatially and temporally distributed throughout the Morrison depositional basin, and locally dominate the biomass of many aquatic depositional environments. Two bivalve assemblages are identified. Within-channel assemblages are death assemblages that have been transported and may represent mixed assemblages from multiple communities. These assemblages are predominately disarticulated, in current stable orientations, and composed of higher stream velocity ecophenotypes (medium size, lanceolate form, and very thick shells). The floodplain-pond assemblages are disturbed neighborhood assemblages in the mudstones inhabited during life. The bivalves are predominately articulated, variable in size, and composed of low stream velocity ecophenotypes (large maximum sizes, ovate shell shapes, and thinner shells). The glochidial parasitic larval stage of unionid bivalves provides an effective means of dispersing species throughout drainage basins. These larvae attach to fish and are carried through the fluvial drainage where the larvae detach and establish new bivalve communities. Preliminary paleobiogeographic analyses are drawn at the genus level because of the need to reevaluate bivalve species of the Morrison. Unio spp. and Vetulonaia spp. are widespread throughout the Morrison depositional basin, but Hadrodon spp. are restricted to the eastern portion of the Colorado Plateau during Salt Wash Member deposition, suggesting that Salt Wash drainage was isolated from other contemporaneous regions of the basin. Bivalves from five localities in the Morrison Formation were thin-sectioned for growth band analysis. Growth bands of modern unionid bivalves are produced when the valves are forced to close. Closure can produce annual growth bands in response to seasonal variation, such as temperature-induced hibernation, or precipitation-induced aestivation or turbidity. Pseudoannual growth bands form from non-cyclical events such as predation attacks or

  9. Metals and organotins in multiple bivalve species in a one-off global survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Strand, Jakob; Christensen, Jan H.;

    2011-01-01

    The Galathea 3 expedition circumnavigated the globe in 2006-2007 and collected marine samples from six continents. Bivalves were collected from harbours, other impacted locations and reference sites, and samples from 57 sites were analyzed for metals and 47 for organotins, to assess current...... contamination levels on a global scale. Metal concentrations in nine bivalve species were normalised to the Mytilidae family using conversion factors based on cosampled species and literature bioconcentration factors. The lowest metal and tributyltin concentrations were below background assessment...... concentrations (BACs) agreed in the Oslo-Paris convention (OSPAR) for the North Sea, and at most harbours the concentrations were orders of magnitude above BACs. The lowest concentrations of Cd and Pb measured here suggest that the BACs should be lower in a worldwide context. The sources of metals were...

  10. Cytotoxicity assessment of antibiofouling compounds and by-products in marine bivalve cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domart-Coulon, I; Auzoux-Bordenave, S; Doumenc, D; Khalanski, M

    2000-06-01

    Short-term primary cell cultures were derived from adult marine bivalve tissues: the heart of oyster Crassostrea gigas and the gill of clam Ruditapes decussatus. These cultures were used as experimental in vitro models to assess the acute cytotoxicity of an organic molluscicide, Mexel-432, used in antibiofouling treatments in industrial cooling water systems. A microplate cell viability assay, based on the enzymatic reduction of tetrazolium dye (MTT) in living bivalve cells, was adapted to test the cytotoxicity of this compound: in both in vitro models, toxicity thresholds of Mexel-432 were compared to those determined in vivo with classic acute toxicity tests. The clam gill cell model was also used to assess the cytotoxicity of by-products of chlorination, a major strategy of biofouling control in the marine environment. The applications and limits of these new in vitro models for monitoring aquatic pollutants were discussed, in reference with the standardized Microtox test. PMID:10806375

  11. Paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalves which are not associated with dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, T; Sato, S; Kodama, M

    1989-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSP toxins) were detected in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula sandai collected from Lake Biwa, Shiga Prefecture, Japan, and marine mussel Septifer virgatus from Mutsu Bay where known causative dinoflagellates and their cysts have never been observed. The toxin profile of C. sandai and S. virgatus was considerably different from suspected causative organisms Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Protogonyaulax spp., respectively. The causative organism(s) responsible for PSP toxins in these waters is at present unknown. PMID:2617541

  12. Bivalve grazing, nutrient cycling and phytoplankton dynamics in an estuarine ecosystem.

    OpenAIRE

    Prins, T.C.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis has considered the impact of the suspension feeding bivalve Mytilusedulis on nutrient cycling and phytoplankton in an estuarine ecosystem. The research was started within the framework of an extensive research project with the objective to evaluate the changes in the Oosterschelde ecosystem as an effect of a coastal engineering project (Nienhuis & Smaal, 1994). The Oosterschelde estuary is a system where mussels are dominant consumers, which is at least partly due to the strong re...

  13. Paleogene marine bivalves of the deep-water Keasey Formation in Oregon, Part III: The heteroconchs

    OpenAIRE

    Hickman, Carole S.

    2015-01-01

    The heteroconch bivalve fauna of the deep-water (>200 m) Keasey Formation in northwestern Oregon records the Eocene–Oligocene climatic transition and replacement of tropical widely-distributed taxa by the cryophilic taxa that dominate modern high-latitude faunas of the North Pacific. Low-diversity assemblages occur in tuffaceous mudstone and siltstone facies of a deep nearshore basin at the onset of subduction on the Cascadia Margin. Six species of anomalodesmatan heteroconchs have been treat...

  14. Investigation of the molecular ageing process of the long-lived bivalve Arctica islandica

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Heike

    2013-01-01

    The question on why we age and how ageing proceeds has occupied researchers’ minds for a long time. Demands on research of healthy ageing and geriatric diseases rise with an older growing human population. Thus, studying the mechanisms of ageing in animals with extraordinarily long lifespans could possibly reveal secrets to longevity and healthy ageing. In this study, a short-lived population of the bivalve mollusk Arctica islandica from the Baltic Sea (with a maximum lifesp...

  15. Biogeographic patterns of the marine bivalve Cerastoderma edule along the European coasts

    OpenAIRE

    Krakau, Manuela

    2008-01-01

    The cockle Cerastoderma edule is a common bivalve that inhabits the marine soft-bottom intertidal along European shores. This invertebrate plays a key role in coastal food webs of the Northeast Atlantic coasts due of its high abundances. I studied cockles from 19 sites along the distribution range with the aim to describe the variation of geographic population structures on different analytical levels. Cockles from the Barents Sea to the African Atlantic coast were analysed with respect to th...

  16. The smaller vesicomyid bivalves in the genus Isorropodon (Bivalvia, Vesicomyidae, Pliocardiinae) also harbour chemoautotrophic symbionts

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Clara F.; Cunha, Marina R.; Olu, Karine; Duperron, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Species of Isorropodon are vesicomyid bivalves for which little information is available regarding host phylogeny and bacterial symbioses. In this study we investigated the symbioses in three Isorropodon species from three cold seep areas: Isorropodon bigoti (Gulf of Guinea), Isorropodon megadesmus (Gulf of Cadiz) and Isorropodon perplexum (Eastern Mediterranean). Analysis of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences demonstrated that each vesicomyid species harbours a single symbiont phylot...

  17. Identification of lysozyme activity from two edible bivalves - Perna viridis (Linnaeus) and Meretrix casta (Chemnitz)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, S.; Tanu; Chatterji, A.

    Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 32(1): 85 - 90 (2009) ISSN: 1511-3701 ©Universiti Putra Malaysia Press Received: 20 May 2008 Accepted: 8 October 2008 * Corresponding Author Identification of Lysozyme Activity from Two Edible Bivalves - Perna viridis... (Linnaeus) and Meretrix casta (Chemnitz) Sumita Sharma 1* , Tanu 2 and Anil Chatterji 3 1 National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India 2 Banasthali Universiti, Rajasthan 3 Institute of Tropical Aquaculture, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu...

  18. Development of pollen grain in yellow passion-fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa; Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães de Souza

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available To clarify events occurring during pollen grain formation in yellow passion-fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, floral buds were collected at different stages of development. After bracket, petal and sepal removal the anthers were fixed, dehydrated, embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned at 10 mum and after differential dying with safranin O and fast green, mounted in Canada balsam and observed under optical microscope. Formation of the male gamete followed the normal pattern for angiosperms. Observation covered final sporogenic mass phase up to pollen grain formation; microsporangium tissue modifications were also observed. Microsporogenesis was characterized by sporogenic tissue differentiation in microsporic mother cells, followed by meiosis and resulting in tetrads. Microgametogenesis began with callose microspore release, subsequent mitosis, in addition to radial and tangential tapetum wall degradation, parietal layer compression nearer to the tapetum and endothecium widening, terminating in mature pollen grain formation.Visando elucidar os processos que ocorrem durante a formação dos grãos de pólen em maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, foram coletados botões em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento. As anteras foram desidratadas, embebidas em parafina, cortadas a 10 mm e, após a coloração diferencial com safranina e verde rápido, montadas em bálsamo do Canadá e observadas sob microscópio óptico. A formação do gameta masculino seguiu padrão normal para angiospermas. A observação foi iniciada na fase final de massa esporogênica indo até a formação do grão de pólen, tendo sido também observadas as modificações ocorridas nos tecidos do microsporângio. A microsporogênese foi caracterizada pela diferenciação do tecido esporogênico em células-mãe de micrósporos, passando por meiose e resultando em tétrades. A microgametogênese iniciou-se com a liberação dos micrósporos da calose, os

  19. Dinophysis caudata generated lipophilic shellfish toxins in bivalves from the Nanji Islands, East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Xu, Yixiao; Li, Yang; Qi, Yuzao; Jiang, Tianjiu; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    A 12-month program of monitoring potentially toxic microalgae (that produce lipophilic shellfish toxins; LSTs) and their toxins in bivalves was conducted from April 2006 to March 2007 in the Nanji Islands, East China Sea. Two Dinophysis species, D. caudata and D. acuminata, were identified, and D. caudata was found to be the dominant species. D. caudata was detected in water samples between April and June 2006, and between February and March 2007. It reached its highest abundances in May, with a mean abundance of 1.38×102 cells/L in surface water and 1.25×102 cells/L in bottom water (blooms, between April and July 2006. All of the cultured bivalves sampled between April and June were contaminated with LSTs, with an average toxicity of 85 μg okadaic acid (OA) eq./100 g meat, which was four times higher than the Chinese regulatory limit (20 μg OA eq./100 g meat). Ten out of fifteen wild samples (66.7%) collected during the same period were positive for LSTs, and contained an average LST toxicity of 45 μg OA eq./100 g meat (more than twice the regulatory value). Cultured Patinopecten yessoensis collected on 15 May 2006 had the highest toxicity, 320 μg OA eq./100 g meat, and relatively high toxicities (80 to 160 μg OA eq./100 g meat) were found in bivalves until the end of July.

  20. Lincoln Park shoreline erosion control project: Monitoring for surface substrate, infaunal bivalves and eelgrass, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, L.D.; Thom, R.M.; Gardiner, W.W. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    In 1988, the US Army Corps of Engineers and the City of Seattle placed material on the upper beach at Lincoln Park, in West Seattle, Washington. The fill served to mitigate shoreline erosion that had caused undercutting and collapse of the seawall in several places. A series of pre- and post-construction studies have been conducted to assess the impacts to marine biota of fill placement and movement of surface substrate. This study was designed to monitor infaunal bivalves and eelgrass from intertidal areas in and adjacent to the area of original fill placement. Findings from this survey were compared to previous survey results to determine (1) if recruitment of infaunal bivalves to the fill area has occurred, (2) if infaunal bivalve densities outside the fill area are stable, and (3) if eelgrass distribution and abundance have remained stable along the adjacent shoreline. To maximize comparability of findings from this survey with previous studies, sampling techniques, transects, and tidal elevations were consistent with previous studies at this site.

  1. Internal distribution of uranium and associated genotoxic damages in the chronically exposed bivalve Corbicula fluminea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.simon@irsn.fr [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat, 186 BP3, 13115 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Floriani, Magali; Cavalie, Isabelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Adam, Christelle; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache, Bat, 186 BP3, 13115 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    Uranium (U) internal distribution and involved effects in the bivalve Corbicula fluminea have been studied after direct chronic exposure (90 d, 10 {mu}g.L-1). U distribution was assessed at the subcellular level (Metal Rich Granules -MRG-, pellets and cytosol fractions) in two main organs of the bivalve (gills and visceral mass). Micro-localisation was investigated by TEM-EDX analysis in the gills epithelium. DNA damage in gill and hemolymph samples was measured by the Comet assay. The 90-d exposure period led to a significant increase of U concentration in gills over time (x5) and a large U quantity in subcellular granules in gills. Finally, a significant increase (x2) in DNA damage was noted in exposed gills and haemocytes. This study shows that the accumulation levels and consequently the potential toxicity cannot be successfully predicted only on the basis of concentration in water or in tissues and subcellular fractions after chronic exposure. - Highlights: > Relevant information concerning the chronic impact of uranium on biota is scarce. > We study its biological speciation to explain bioavailability, accumulation, toxicity. > 80% of U accumulated was measured in the pellet fraction (organelles + granules/MRG). > Chronic exposure to U induced genetic damage in gill and haemolymph cells of the bivalve.

  2. Observations on shell growth and morphology of the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum is not only one of the main mollusc species in the west Pacific Ocean, but also one of the main species for aquaculture in China. Knowledge of growth of the R. philippinarum shell will improve our understanding of the shell as an environmental archive. It is also useful for the aquaculture of R. philippinarum. In this research, a hanging box culture method was introduced in the culture of R. philippinarum. The bivalves were cultured for 126 days, from March 31 to August 3, 2002. The average growth rates of shell width, height, and thickness were 0.069, 0.046, and 0.032 mm/d, respectively. The mean increase of average individual wet mass was 0.028 g/d. The largest growth rates of both shell and average individual wet mass occurred in June, indicating that water temperature and bivalve reproduction were 2 important factors. The shell morphology underwent significant changes with shell growth. The ratio of height to thickness (value of B/C) shifted 1.58 in the first 60 days to 1.54 in the last 30 days, which was resulted from the change in major shell growth direction. Periodic changes in the B/C ratio led to corrugated shell form, which could be used to determine the age of the shell.

  3. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lucy M.; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D.; Girisha, S. K.; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Venugopal, M. N.; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety. PMID:27576351

  4. Pathogenic marine microbes influence the effects of climate change on a commercially important tropical bivalve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lucy M; Alsterberg, Christian; Turner, Andrew D; Girisha, S K; Rai, Ashwin; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Venugopal, M N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change will increase the prevalence of toxic algae and harmful bacteria, which can accumulate in marine bivalves. However, we know little about any possible interactions between exposure to these microorganisms and the effects of climate change on bivalve health, or about how this may affect the bivalve toxin-pathogen load. In mesocosm experiments, mussels, Perna viridis, were subjected to simulated climate change (warming and/or hyposalinity) and exposed to harmful bacteria and/or toxin-producing dinoflagellates. We found significant interactions between climate change and these microbes on metabolic and/or immunobiological function and toxin-pathogen load in mussels. Surprisingly, however, these effects were virtually eliminated when mussels were exposed to both harmful microorganisms simultaneously. This study is the first to examine the effects of climate change on determining mussel toxin-pathogen load in an ecologically relevant, multi-trophic context. The results may have considerable implications for seafood safety. PMID:27576351

  5. Explosive demographic expansion by dreissenid bivalves as a possible result of astronomical forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Harzhauser

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human induced range expansions of invasive dreissenid bivalves are of great concern. However, the underlying biological processes are only poorly understood, partly due to the lack of information on natural expansion events. Here we use the extinct bivalve species Sinucongeria primiformis as a model organism for testing natural (i.e. non-Anthropocene blooms of dreissenid species in a lacustrine system of Lake Pannon during the Tortonian (~10.5 Myr; Late Miocene. 600 samples from a consecutive core were evaluated for the relative abundance of this pavement-forming mollusc, which cover about 8 millennia of Late Miocene time with a decadal resolution. Our data indicate that the settlement by bivalves in the offshore environment was limited mainly by bottom water oxygenation, which follows predictable and repetitive patterns through time. These population fluctuations might be related to solar cycles: successful dreissenid settlement is re-occurring in a frequency known as the lower and upper Gleissberg cycles with a 50–80 and 90–120 yr period. These cycles appear to control regional wind patterns, which are directly linked to water mixing of the lake. This is modulated by the even more prominent 500 yr cycle, which seems to be the most important pacemaker for Lake Pannon hydrology.

  6. Triassic bivalves and the initial marine Mesozoic revolution: A role for predators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoberts, Christopher A.

    2001-04-01

    Marine bivalves document the long-term increase in generic richness through the early Mesozoic. Following the end-Permian crisis, the Early Triassic was marked by a gradual recovery in generic richness (57 Induan and 66 Olenekian genera). Diversity slowly increased in the Middle Triassic (98 Anisian and 121 Ladinian genera) and peaked in the Late Triassic (171 Carnian, 165 Norian, and 143 Rhaetian genera). These data support earlier hypotheses that the recovery following the end-Permian extinction was very gradual and was not completed (in terms of both richness and ecologic complexity) until the Ladinian. Although a Carnian-Norian extinction is not evident in the data and may be a regional event limited to the Tethyan realm, the end-Triassic extinction is profound—fewer than 30 genera (reptiles), which had typically low abundances and limited distribution during the Triassic. Drilling predators, although present during the Triassic, are not considered to be prominent causes of mortality among bivalves. Instead, the infaunalization of bivalves during the Triassic may have been due to several interconnected abiotic and biotic causes associated with the recovery after the end-Permian mass extinction.

  7. Ethno-malacological knowledge of bivalve mollusks gathering in Acupe mangrove, Santo Amaro, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Bezerra Souto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The mangrove is a highly productive ecosystem that carries out important ecological functions and that historically it has been used for the subsistence and income of countless craft fishing communities. In the mangroves of Todos os Santos Bay, including those of the District of Acupe (Santo Amaro – Bahia State, the bivalve mollusks (shellfish are among the most important resources, and their gathering is known as “mariscagem”. This work aims to characterize the knowledge of the local female shellfish gatherers regarding the biology and ecology of bivalve shellfish. Semi-structured interviews were used with local shellfish women (N=54 involving ethnotaxonomy, trophic ecology, hydrodynamics, fenology and ethnocronology. Etic-emic analisys of the data was chosen in order to compare the information obtained in the field to that from the academic literature. The results demonstrated that the shellfish women of Acupe have a significant knowledge of bivalve shellfish, in addition to aspects related to the dynamics of local mangroves, that is sometimes compatible with academic knowledge.

  8. Environmental changes and shallow marine fossil bivalve assemblages of the Lower Cretaceous Miyako Group, NE Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Shigehiro; Maeda, Haruyoshi

    2013-03-01

    We reconstructed the environmental changes recorded in the Lower Cretaceous Miyako Group via facies analysis and delineated the relationship between depositional facies and the occurrence of diverse marine invertebrate macrofossils. The Miyako Group consists of deposits from alluvial bay-head delta, bay-head delta front, central bay, and lower shoreface to inner shelf depositional settings. Fossil bivalve assemblages responded to shifts in these sedimentary environments. We defined three fossil bivalve assemblages from the central bay and lower shoreface to inner shelf deposits. The assemblages in the inner shelf and central bay deposits are clearly different, even though they occur within similar depositional facies. This contrast in assemblages results from environmental differences between closed and open settings; this interpretation is supported by the occurrence of stenohaline crinoids. We defined a fourth bivalve assemblage in a tsunami deposit intercalated within the bay-head delta front deposits. It consists of polygenic allochthonous shells, some that were derived from an estuarine environment or the shallow seafloor and others that were torn from small reefs.

  9. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in sixty-four different bivalve species

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moro, Gianluca; Venier, Paola; Pallavicini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Synonymous codon usage bias (CUB) is a defined as the non-random usage of codons encoding the same amino acid across different genomes. This phenomenon is common to all organisms and the real weight of the many factors involved in its shaping still remains to be fully determined. So far, relatively little attention has been put in the analysis of CUB in bivalve mollusks due to the limited genomic data available. Taking advantage of the massive sequence data generated from next generation sequencing projects, we explored codon preferences in 64 different species pertaining to the six major evolutionary lineages in Bivalvia. We detected remarkable differences across species, which are only partially dependent on phylogeny. While the intensity of CUB is mild in most organisms, a heterogeneous group of species (including Arcida and Mytilida, among the others) display higher bias and a strong preference for AT-ending codons. We show that the relative strength and direction of mutational bias, selection for translational efficiency and for translational accuracy contribute to the establishment of synonymous codon usage in bivalves. Although many aspects underlying bivalve CUB still remain obscure, we provide for the first time an overview of this phenomenon in this large, commercially and environmentally important, class of marine invertebrates. PMID:26713259

  10. Availability of pearl producing marine bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ataur Rahman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted during September 2014 to July 2015 to identify the pearl bearing bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities of marine oyster in captivity based on field investigation. A total of 7 pearl bearing bivalve species were identified in the coast with a salinity of 18-34 ppt, pH 8.1-8.3 and water depth ranged 0.2-2.0 meter in their habitat. From the collected bivalves, most abundant oyster species windowpane oyster, Placuna placenta (Linnaeus, 1758 was reared in fiber glass tanks with seawater for a period of 6 months. During rearing highest survival rate of 88% was observed in T1 with sandy and gravel substratum and lowest survival rate of 78% was found in T2 with muddy substratum. Average temperature and salinity were varied between 24 °C-25 °C and 21-26 ppt respectively. From the reared oyster, highest 54 nos. small pearls in the month of April and lowest 7 pearls in December from a single P. placenta were obtained. The study proved that pearls can be obtained from the marine oysters in captivity in Bangladesh, and this offers large scale culture potentialities in our coast.

  11. Chemosynthetic bacteria found in bivalve species from mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Clara F; Webster, Gordon; Cunha, Marina R; Duperron, Sébastien; Weightman, Andrew J

    2010-09-01

    As in other cold seeps, the dominant bivalves in mud volcanoes (MV) from the Gulf of Cadiz are macrofauna belonging to the families Solemyidae (Acharax sp., Petrasma sp.), Lucinidae (Lucinoma sp.), Thyasiridae (Thyasira vulcolutre) and Mytilidae (Bathymodiolus mauritanicus). The delta(13)C values measured in solemyid, lucinid and thyasirid specimens support the hypothesis of thiotrophic nutrition, whereas isotopic signatures of B. mauritanicus suggest methanotrophic nutrition. The indication by stable isotope analysis that chemosynthetic bacteria make a substantial contribution to the nutrition of the bivalves led us to investigate their associated bacteria and their phylogenetic relationships based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and cloning of bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding genes confirmed the presence of sulfide-oxidizing symbionts within gill tissues of many of the studied specimens. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that most bacteria were related to known sulfide-oxidizing endosymbionts found in other deep-sea chemosynthetic environments, with the co-occurrence of methane-oxidizing symbionts in Bathymodiolus specimens. This study confirms the presence of several chemosynthetic bivalves in the Gulf of Cadiz and further highlights the importance of sulfide- and methane-oxidizing symbionts in the trophic ecology of macrobenthic communities in MV.

  12. Measuring bioavailable metals using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and transplanted seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus), blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and sea snails (Littorina saxatilis) suspended from monitoring buoys near a former lead-zinc mine in West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Bach, Lis; Gustavson, Kim

    2014-01-15

    Measuring loads of bioavailable metals is important for environmental assessment near mines and other industrial sources. In this study, a setup of monitoring buoys was tested to assess loads of bioavailable metals near a former Pb-Zn mine in West Greenland using transplanted seaweed, mussels and sea snails. In addition, passive DGT samplers were installed. After a 9-day deployment period, concentrations of especially Pb, Zn and Fe in the species were all markedly elevated at the monitoring sites closest to the mine. Lead concentrations in all three species and the DGT-Pb results showed a significant linear correlation. Zinc and Fe concentrations were less correlated indicating that the mechanisms for Zn and Fe accumulation in the three species are more complex. The results show that there is still a significant load of metals from the mine and that such buoys can be an adequate method to assess present loads of bioavailable metals.

  13. The influence of Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and Starfish (Asterias rubens) meals on production performance, egg quality and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients of laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afrose, Sadia; Hammershøj, Marianne; Nørgaard, Jan Værum;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate mussel meal and starfish meals as protein sources for organic layers by studying the effect on production performance, nutrient digestibility and egg quality. A total of 300 Hisex white laying hens (20-week old) were distributed randomly to 6 dietary treatment...... 100 g feed can be used in diets as a high quality protein source for egg production. These meals can replace fish meal; however, an inclusion level higher than 8 g/100 g of mussel or starfish meal may result in a fishy smell of the eggs....... groups, each with five replicates, including a control diet providing fish meal, 3 diets providing mussel meal (4, 8 and 12 g/100 g) and 2 diets providing starfish meal (4 and 8 g/100 g). Laying rate, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, mortality and live weight of the hens did not differ among treatments......The aim of the study was to evaluate mussel meal and starfish meals as protein sources for organic layers by studying the effect on production performance, nutrient digestibility and egg quality. A total of 300 Hisex white laying hens (20-week old) were distributed randomly to 6 dietary treatment...

  14. Trace metal concentrations in Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. From the Salento Coast; La diffusione degli elementi in tracce lungo le coste del Salento. Valutazioni preliminari mediante Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martella, Luigi; Nelli, Luca; Bargagli, Roberto [Siena, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Ambientale

    1997-03-01

    Mussels accumulate trace elements from the water and from ingested food and have been widely used as bio monitors in coastal environments. Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in November 1994, April and August 1995 in 21 locations along a 350 km stretch of the Salento coast. The highest concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Ni were found in samples from harbours and the coast south of the Brindisi industrial area. The increased concentrations of Al, Fe and Cd in mussels from most stations in spring and of Cr and Pb in autumn, was attributed to local anthropogenic sources and run-off from cultivated fields and geochemical anomalies. Comparison with published mussel watch results showed that average element concentrations in Salento mussels were similar or lower than levels measured in similar species throughout the Mediterranean. The metal concentrations in these mussels do not seem to pose health risks for local consumers.

  15. Museum Preserved Bivalves as Indicators of Long-term Trends in Methylmercury Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengen, A. C.; Foslund, H. M.; Greenfield, B. K.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the many efforts to reduce mercury concentrations in the environment, there are relatively few datasets on long-term trends in mercury in biota, especially for the bioavailable form, methylmercury (MeHg). This study used museum preserved bivalves (stored in ethanol) to look at MeHg trends in the Asian date mussel Musculista senhousia and the Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis, collected from San Francisco Bay, California between 1975 and 2012. For each sampling date, 4 to 15 individuals were obtained from museum collections (N = 156 total specimens), freeze-dried, weighed, homogenized, digested, and individually analyzed for MeHg using trace metal clean techniques. The bivalves were also analyzed for δ13C and δ15N to look for changes in food web structure. P. amurensis specimens were only available from 1988 to 2012, and an increase in MeHg was observed during that time. In contrast, M. senhousia specimens were available for the entire 37 year period and exhibited a significant decline in MeHg in the southern reach of the estuary (South Bay). The median MeHg concentration in M. senhousia was highest at 239 ng/g dw in October 1975. That year was the last year of operations for the New Almaden Mercury Mining District, which drained into South Bay. By the 1990s, MeHg concentrations in M. senhousia dropped significantly to a median of 37 ng/g dw. Isotopic δ15N values did not support a hypothesis of reduced trophic position causing the MeHg decline. Over the study duration, δ15N increased in M. senhousia, which we attributed to a baseline shift. We also observed a decline in δ13C since 2000, which may represent a shift in bivalve carbon towards greater utilization of planktonic sources. To validate the use of museum specimens, we ran a preservation study, where we collected fresh bivalves, fixed them in ethanol or formalin, and then transferred them to ethanol for long-term storage. Although MeHg concentrations increased after 1 week, they stabilized over

  16. Contribution to the understanding of the cycle of the protozoan parasite Marteilia refringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, I; Chollet, B; Boyer, S; Bonnet, D; Gaillard, J; Baldi, Y; Robert, M; Joly, J P; Garcia, C; Bouchoucha, M

    2014-02-01

    The paramyxean parasite Marteilia refringens infects several bivalve species including European flat oysters Ostrea edulis and Mediterranean mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. Sequence polymorphism allowed definition of three parasite types 'M', 'O' and 'C' preferably detected in oysters, mussels and cockles respectively. Transmission of the infection from infected bivalves to copepods Paracartia grani could be experimentally achieved but assays from copepods to bivalves failed. In order to contribute to the elucidation of the M. refringens life cycle, the dynamics of the infection was investigated in O. edulis, M. galloprovincialis and zooplankton over one year in Diana lagoon, Corsica (France). Flat oysters appeared non-infected while mussels were infected part of the year, showing highest prevalence in summertime. The parasite was detected by PCR in zooplankton particularly after the peak of prevalence in mussels. Several zooplanktonic groups including copepods, Cladocera, Appendicularia, Chaetognatha and Polychaeta appeared PCR positive. However, only the copepod species Paracartia latisetosa showed positive signal by in situ hybridization. Small parasite cells were observed in gonadal tissues of female copepods demonstrating for the first time that a copepod species other than P. grani can be infected with M. refringens. Molecular characterization of the parasite infecting mussels and zooplankton allowed the distinguishing of three Marteilia types in the lagoon. PMID:24128728

  17. Stable isotopes and metal contamination in caged marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal concentrations and isotopic composition were measured in different tissues of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in waters of the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean) in order to assess pollution levels. The isotopic composition was correlated with lead, cadmium, selenium and nickel obtained from the digestive gland and foot of the mussels. Significant negative correlations were found between cadmium, selenium and zinc and the mussel foot, mainly for 13C. Significant correlations were also found between lead and cadmium and the digestive gland. Pearson correlations indicated that the 13C isotopic signal in foot is a good proxy for the concentration of metals such as lead, cadmium, selenium and zinc. Similarly, 15N isotopic signatures in the digestive gland reflected the lead and cadmium concentration.

  18. Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis from Mali Ston Bay during DSP Toxicity Episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Ujević

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian National Monitoring Program revealed the presence of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP toxicity in Mediterranean blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis from breeding farms in southern Adriatic Sea through January to June 2011. The mouse bioassay tests (MBA; at the time the official method for DSP toxins were accompanied by atypical symptomatology in the animals and this caused doubts about the assay results. Consequently, in parallel studies reported here, the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soft tissue of DSP positive and negative mussels samples was determined. Cd, Cr, Zn and Ni show higher values in approximately 75% of the DSP positive samples, whereas for Pb and Cr the values were 26% and 34%, respectively. This trend was unchanged during the whole observation period.

  19. Copper bioavailability and toxicity to Mytilus galloprovincialis in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Casey; Rosen, Gunther; Colvin, Marienne; Earley, Patrick; Santore, Robert; Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio

    2014-08-15

    The bioavailability and toxicity of copper (Cu) in Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB), San Diego, CA, USA, was assessed with simultaneous toxicological, chemical, and modeling approaches. Toxicological measurements included laboratory toxicity testing with Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) embryos added to both site water (ambient) and site water spiked with multiple Cu concentrations. Chemical assessment of ambient samples included total and dissolved Cu concentrations, and Cu complexation capacity measurements. Modeling was based on chemical speciation and predictions of bioavailability and toxicity using a marine Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). Cumulatively, these methods assessed the natural buffering capacity of Cu in SIYB during singular wet and dry season sampling events. Overall, the three approaches suggested negligible bioavailability, and isolated observed or predicted toxicity, despite an observed gradient of increasing Cu concentration, both horizontally and vertically within the water body, exceeding current water quality criteria for saltwater.

  20. Stable isotopes and metal contamination in caged marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deudero, S; Box, A; Tejada, S; Tintoré, J

    2009-07-01

    Metal concentrations and isotopic composition were measured in different tissues of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in waters of the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean) in order to assess pollution levels. The isotopic composition was correlated with lead, cadmium, selenium and nickel obtained from the digestive gland and foot of the mussels. Significant negative correlations were found between cadmium, selenium and zinc and the mussel foot, mainly for (13)C. Significant correlations were also found between lead and cadmium and the digestive gland. Pearson correlations indicated that the (13)C isotopic signal in foot is a good proxy for the concentration of metals such as lead, cadmium, selenium and zinc. Similarly, (15)N isotopic signatures in the digestive gland reflected the lead and cadmium concentration. PMID:19303611