WorldWideScience

Sample records for bituminous pavement including

  1. Development of New Bituminous Pavement Design Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    The report and work of COST Action 333 sets in place the foundation for a coherent, cost-effective and harmonised European pavement design method. In order to do this, the work programme focused on information gathering, identification of requirements and the selection of the necessary design...

  2. Application of infrared camera to bituminous concrete pavements: measuring vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janků, Michal; Stryk, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Infrared thermography (IR) has been used for decades in certain fields. However, the technological level of advancement of measuring devices has not been sufficient for some applications. Over the recent years, good quality thermal cameras with high resolution and very high thermal sensitivity have started to appear on the market. The development in the field of measuring technologies allowed the use of infrared thermography in new fields and for larger number of users. This article describes the research in progress in Transport Research Centre with a focus on the use of infrared thermography for diagnostics of bituminous road pavements. A measuring vehicle, equipped with a thermal camera, digital camera and GPS sensor, was designed for the diagnostics of pavements. New, highly sensitive, thermal cameras allow to measure very small temperature differences from the moving vehicle. This study shows the potential of a high-speed inspection without lane closures while using IR thermography.

  3. Water Accumulation and Behavior of Surfactant Associated with Moisture Permeation in Bituminous Pavement on Concrete Deck Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Iwao; Moriyoshi, Akihiro; Tsunekawa, Masami

    2006-01-01

    Water-related damage is one of the major problems for the durability of the bituminous pavement and concrete slabs of concrete deck bridges. In particular, damage can be drastically accelerated by the intervention of water and some chemicals such as surfactants and salts. Therefore, the mass transfer mechanism of water and the mechanism of chemical absorption in pavement materials are important to study. The authors previously pointed out that water storage in bituminous pavement layers is ca...

  4. A Method to Estimate the Dynamic Displacement and Stress of a Multi-layered Pavement with Bituminous or Concrete Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng LU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, a method to estimate the dynamic characteristics of a multilayered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials is proposed. A mechanical model is established to investigate the dynamic displacement and stress of the multi-layered pavement structure. Both the flexible and the rigid pavements, corresponding to bituminous materials and concrete materials, respectively, are studied. The theoretical solutions of the multi-layered pavement structure are deduced considering the compatibility condition at the interface of the structural layers. By introducing FFT (Fast Fourier Transform algorithm, some numerical results are presented. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental result implied that the proposed method is reasonable in predicting the stress and displacement of a multi-layered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6071

  5. Assessment of the Remaining Life of Bituminous Layers in Road Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálmán Adorjányi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a mechanistic-empirical approach is presented for the assessment of bearing capacity condition of asphalt pavement layers by Falling Weight Deflectometer measurements and laboratory fatigue tests. The bearing capacity condition ratio was determined using past traffic data and the remaining fatigue life which was determined from multilayer pavement response model. The traffic growth rate was taken into account with finite arithmetic and geometric progressions. Fatigue resistance of layers’ bituminous materials was obtained with indirect tensile fatigue tests. Deduct curve of condition scores was derived with Weibull distribution.

  6. Review and environmental impact assessment of green technologies for base courses in bituminous pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthonissen, Joke; Van den bergh, Wim; Braet, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a critical review of different approaches applied in the Belgian asphalt sector in order to reduce the environmental impact of bituminous road construction works. The focus is on (1) reusing reclaimed asphalt pavement, (2) reducing the asphalt production temperature, and (3) prolonging the service life of the pavement. Environmental impact assessment of these methods is necessary to be able to compare these approaches and understand better the ability to reduce the environmental impact during the life cycle of the road pavement. Attention should be drawn to the possible shift in environmental impact between various life cycle stages, e.g., raw material production, asphalt production, or waste treatment. Life cycle assessment is necessary to adequately assess the environmental impact of these approaches over the entire service life of the bituminous pavement. The three approaches and their implementation in the road sector in Flanders (region in Belgium) are described and the main findings from life cycle assessment studies on these subjects are discussed. It was found from the review that using reclaimed asphalt pavement in new bituminous mixtures might yield significant environmental gains. The environmental impact of the application of warm mix asphalt technologies, on the other hand, depends on the technique used. - Highlights: • Recycling, lower production temperature and durability of asphalt are investigated. • The use of RAP in new asphalt mixtures yields significant environmental advantages. • It would be beneficial to allow RAP in asphalt mixtures for wearing courses. • The use of particular additives might counteract the environmental gain from WMA. • The service life and the environmental data source influence the LCA results.

  7. Review and environmental impact assessment of green technologies for base courses in bituminous pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthonissen, Joke, E-mail: joke.anthonissen@uantwerpen.be [Faculty of Applied Engineering, University of Antwerp, Rodestraat 4, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Van den bergh, Wim, E-mail: wim.vandenbergh@uantwerpen.be [Faculty of Applied Engineering, University of Antwerp, Rodestraat 4, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Braet, Johan, E-mail: johan.braet@uantwerpen.be [Department Engineering Management, Faculty of Applied Economics, University of Antwerp, Prinsstraat 13, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2016-09-15

    This paper provides a critical review of different approaches applied in the Belgian asphalt sector in order to reduce the environmental impact of bituminous road construction works. The focus is on (1) reusing reclaimed asphalt pavement, (2) reducing the asphalt production temperature, and (3) prolonging the service life of the pavement. Environmental impact assessment of these methods is necessary to be able to compare these approaches and understand better the ability to reduce the environmental impact during the life cycle of the road pavement. Attention should be drawn to the possible shift in environmental impact between various life cycle stages, e.g., raw material production, asphalt production, or waste treatment. Life cycle assessment is necessary to adequately assess the environmental impact of these approaches over the entire service life of the bituminous pavement. The three approaches and their implementation in the road sector in Flanders (region in Belgium) are described and the main findings from life cycle assessment studies on these subjects are discussed. It was found from the review that using reclaimed asphalt pavement in new bituminous mixtures might yield significant environmental gains. The environmental impact of the application of warm mix asphalt technologies, on the other hand, depends on the technique used. - Highlights: • Recycling, lower production temperature and durability of asphalt are investigated. • The use of RAP in new asphalt mixtures yields significant environmental advantages. • It would be beneficial to allow RAP in asphalt mixtures for wearing courses. • The use of particular additives might counteract the environmental gain from WMA. • The service life and the environmental data source influence the LCA results.

  8. Reuse of bituminous pavements: A mini-review of research, regulations and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthonissen, Joke; Van den Bergh, Wim; Braet, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Bituminous pavement can be recycled - even multiple times - by reusing it in new bituminous mixtures. If the mechanical properties of the binder get worse, this reclaimed asphalt is often used in the sub-structure of the road. Apparently, up till now, no end-of-life phase exists for the material. Actually, defining the end-of-life and the end-of-waste stage of a material is important for life cycle assessment modelling. Various standards and scientific studies on modelling life cycle assessment are known, but the crucial stages are not yet defined for reclaimed asphalt pavement. Unlike for iron, steel and aluminium scrap, at this moment, no legislative end-of-waste criteria for aggregates are formulated by the European Commission. More research is necessary in order to develop valuable end-of-life criteria for aggregates. This contribution is a mini-review article of the current regulations, standards and studies concerning end-of-life and end-of-waste of reclaimed asphalt pavement. The existing methodology in order to define end-of-waste criteria, a case study on aggregates and the argumentation used in finished legislative criteria are the basis to clarify some modelling issues for reclaimed asphalt material. Hence, this contribution elucidates the assignment of process environmental impacts to a life cycle stage as defined by EN15804, that is, end-of-life stage (C) and the supplementary information Module D with benefits and loads beyond the system boundary.

  9. Assessment of an Impulse GPR Antenna Abilities in Investigation of Transversal Cracks of the Bituminous Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiński, L.; Sudyka, J.

    2012-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique is commonly used for detection of internal singularities of construction structure. The method is particularly efficient in the case of linear horizontal objects when profile scanning is being performed in the direction perpendicular to object elongation and polarization of the electric field is parallel to the elongation. Then the singular object manifests itself in the echogram as a scattering hyperbola. Similar response is generated by an object having shape close to a vertical half plane with horizontal edge, when the edge acts like the scattering linear object. The use of GPR technique for investigation of transversal cracks in the bituminous pavement would seem to be promising, but numerous paradoxes occur just at the beginning tests. Even well visible cracks of more than ten millimeters thickness doesn't generate noticeable GPR response, while thinner ones sometimes can produce strong response but in the deeper interior of the pavement. Thus arise a more general question: what the GPR technique can tell us about the cracks? Trying to study this problem some laboratory tests were performed to estimate efficiency of signal generation by structures simulating idealized cracks' shapes. Next long-term (several years) visual observation and repeated GPR scanning was performed on the three road sections (each one of several hundred meters length) with heavy traffic, where ongoing cracking process occurs. The preliminary measurements were directed to obtain the proper way of scanning. The main aim of the analysis was to find GPR characteristics of cracks that can be noticed on echograms. It was performed by detailed correlation of the visually observed cracks position with echograms using decimeter precision. These efforts provided a list of diagnostic GPR characteristics of cracks and some provisional scale of their intensity. In several cases the cracks were probed by drillings to recognize structures responsible for signal

  10. Saw & seal, airport pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Due to extreme cold temperatures, hot bituminous pavements on Maines airports are subject to transverse : or thermal cracking. This can lead to poorly performing pavement structure causing heaving and : settlement problems. Studies have shown that...

  11. Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondi, Giulio; Tataranni, Piergiorgio; Pettinari, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Today recycling is one of the most innovative and interesting techniques for the rehabilitation of destressed road pavements. In recent years the increased interest in this process, has led to the development of various alternative methods for the recovery and the reuse of road bituminous materials....... Cold recycling is, among the recycling techniques, certainly the most studied and developed: it allows the recovering of bituminous material from an existing pavement without the addition of heat, whilst ensuring the creation of high quality bound base layers. A wide range of materials have been tested...

  12. Overlay design method based on visual pavement distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A method for designing the thickness of overlays for bituminous concrete pavements in Virginia is described. In this method the thickness is calculated by rating the amount and severity of observed pavement distress and determining the total accumula...

  13. Paint Pavement Marking Performance Prediction Model That Includes the Impacts of Snow Removal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Hypothesized that snow plows wear down mountain road pavement markings. 2007 Craig et al. -Edge lines degrade slower than center/skip lines 2007...retroreflectivity to create the models. They discovered that paint pavement markings last 80% longer on Portland Cement Concrete than Asphalt Concrete at low AADT...retroreflectivity, while yellow markings lost 21%. Lu and Barter attributed the sizable degradation to snow removal, sand application, and studded

  14. Best practices and performance assessment for preventive maintenance treatments for Virginia pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Preventive maintenance has the potential to improve network condition by retarding future pavement deterioration. This : report outlines guidelines for implementing a preventive maintenance policy for bituminous pavements. : Preventive maintenance tr...

  15. Long-term Performance of Granular Bases Including the Effect of Wet-Dry Cycles on Inverted Base Pavement Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to advance the understanding of alternative pavement designs. In particular, potential techniques such as inverted base pavements (IBP) have increased the importance of granular aggregate bases (GAB) in pavement s...

  16. Chemomechanics of Damage Accumulation and Damage-Recovery Healing in Bituminous Asphalt Binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauli, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    As a contribution to the development of mutli-scale multi-physics approaches to modelling pavement performance, the present thesis considers the topic of damage accumulation accompanied by damage recover self-healing of the bituminous asphalt phase of pavement systems. It is found insightful that by

  17. Treatments for clays in aggregates used to produce cement concrete, bituminous materials, and chip seals : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The clay contamination of coarse and fine aggregates and its effects on pavement performance of portland cement concrete, bituminous mixes and chip seals is a major concern for Texas Department of Transportation. We proposed (i) to determine what typ...

  18. Field cracking performance of airfield rigid pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Mehta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses cracking in airport pavements as studied in Construction Cycle 6 of testing carried out at the National Airport Pavement Testing Facility by the Federal Aviation Administration. Pavements of three different flexural strengths as well as two different subgrades, a soft bituminous layer and a more rigid layer known as econocrete, were tested. In addition to this, cracking near two types of isolated transition joints, a reinforced edge joint and a thickened edge joint, was considered. The pavement sections were tested using a moving load simulating that of an aircraft. It has been determined that the degree of cracking was reduced as the flexural strength of the pavement was increased and that fewer cracks formed over the econocrete base than over the bituminous base. In addition, the thickened edge transition joint was more effective in preventing cracking at the edges compared to the reinforced edge joint.

  19. Skid resistance of bituminous surfaces in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colony, D. C.

    1984-03-01

    Statistical studies of skid number (SN) on the state highway system in Ohio reveal apparently systematic variations in distributions of SN among the twelve districts in the state. These variations appear to be significantly related to traffic and to geological characteristics of a given district. Regression calculations using traffic index, a function of ADT and age of the pavement surface in months, show a high correlation with SN, although standard errors of estimate were too large to make the equations useful for predicting SN from traffic variables. Similar results were obtained by elating SN to physiographic features in the state. Pavement surface type (bituminous or pcc) and coarse aggregate type (limestone, gravel or slag) are significantly related to SN.

  20. Investigation on Using SBS and Active Carbon Filler to Reduce the VOC Emission from Bituminous Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Peiqiang; Wu, Shaopeng; Li, Fuzhou; Xiao, Yue; Zhang, Honghua

    2014-01-01

    Bituminous materials are playing a vital role in pavement design and the roofing industry because of outstanding properties. Unfortunately, bituminous materials will release volatile organic compounds (VOC), making them non-environmentally friendly. Therefore, technologies that can be used to decrease the VOC emission are urgently required. In this research, the VOC emission and material behaviors were analyzed and compared to investigate the possibility of adding styrene butadiene styrene (S...

  1. 78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... receipt of comments must include a self-addressed, stamped postcard or you may print the acknowledgment... in the highway industry, the FHWA is interested in how some of these new technologies and techniques...

  2. 8th RILEM International Symposium on Testing and Characterization of Sustainable and Innovative Bituminous Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Partl, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of RILEM TC 237-SIB (Testing and characterization of sustainable innovative bituminous materials and systems). The papers have been selected for publication after a rigorous peer review process and will be an invaluable source to outline and clarify the main directions of present and future research and standardization for bituminous materials and pavements. The following topics are covered: - Characterization of binder-aggregate interaction - Innovative testing of bituminous binders, additives and modifiers - Durability and aging of asphalt pavements - Mixture design and compaction analysis - Environmentally sustainable materials and technologies - Advances in laboratory characterization of bituminous materials - Modeling of road materials and pavement performance prediction - Field measurement and in-situ characterization - Innovative materials for reinforcement and interlayer systems - Cracking and damage characterization of asphalt pavements - Rec...

  3. Rutting performance of cold bituminous emulsion mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Ahmad Kamil; Ali, Noor Azilatom; Shaffie, Ekarizan; Hashim, Wardati; Rahman, Zanariah Abd

    2017-10-01

    Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixture (CBEM) is an environmentally friendly alternative to hot mix asphalt (HMA) for road surfacing, due to its low energy requirements. However, CBEM has generally been perceived to be less superior in performance, compared to HMA. This paper details a laboratory study on the rutting performance of CBEM. The main objective of this study is to determine the Marshall properties of CBEM and to evaluate the rutting performance. The effect of cement in CBEM was also evaluated in this study. The specimens were prepared using Marshall Mix Design Method and rutting performance was evaluated using the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA). Marshall Properties were analysed to confirm compliance with the PWD Malaysia's specification requirements. The rutting performance for specimens with cement was also found to perform better than specimens without cement. It can be concluded that Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures (CBEM) with cement is a viable alternative to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) as their Marshall Properties and performance obtained from this study meets the requirements of the specifications. It is recommended that further study be conducted on CBEM for other performance criteria such as moisture susceptibility and fatigue.

  4. Adhesion Promoters in Bituminous Road Materials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Oliviero Rossi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on certain classes of organic compounds known variously in the specific literature of asphalt as adhesion promoters, antistripping agents, wetting agents, antistrips, or adhesion agents. These kinds of organic additives are currently formulated to enhance the bitumen coating of mineral aggregates and improve the workability of asphalt mixtures. In this review, the term “adhesion promoters” includes both synthetic organic compounds as well as those extracted from natural resources, mixed in trace amounts to bitumen. Their main role is to alter the interfacial energy, so that the presence of water, even in trace, does not weaken the bitumen-aggregate bond and tends to favor adhesion. The report also considers the chemical functionalities that play a predominant role in bonding, as well as the effects of surface modification of the aggregate due to the presence of adhesion promoters in pre-blended bituminous mixtures. Although bitumen is widely used in road pavement construction and the discussion is mainly addressed to the improvement of adhesion in road materials, adhesion and wetting properties can also represent a general issue in various bitumen-based industrial products.

  5. Reuse of steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Sanzeni, Alex; Rondi, Luca

    2012-03-30

    This paper presents a comprehensive study to evaluate the mechanical properties and environmental suitability of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures. A variety of tests were executed on samples of EAF slag to characterize the physical, geometrical, mechanical and chemical properties as required by UNI EN specifications, focusing additionally on the volumetric expansion associated with hydration of free CaO and MgO. Five bituminous mixtures of aggregates for flexible road pavement were designed containing up to 40% of EAF slag and were tested to determine Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength. The leaching behaviour of slag samples and bituminous mixtures was evaluated according to the UNI EN leaching test. The tested slag showed satisfactory physical and mechanical properties and a release of pollutants generally below the limits set by the Italian code. Tests on volume stability of fresh materials confirmed that a period of 2-3 months is necessary to reduce effects of oxides hydration. The results of tests performed on bituminous mixtures with EAF slag were comparable with the performance of mixtures containing natural aggregates and the leaching tests provided satisfactory results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cold bituminous mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Delak, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Asphalt mix (short also asphalt) can be obtained from nature (natural asphalt) or produced technically (artificial asphalt), i. e. as a mix of bituminous binder, stone grain, and other additives that improve the asphalt properties. The beginnings of the use of asphalt can be traced from 6,000 to 4,000 BC since people back then knew some materials that contained bitumen as a binder. A more frequent use of the natural asphalt, however, starts around 3,000 BC. Different peoples used it primar...

  7. Aqueous radioactive waste bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.S.

    1980-08-01

    The bituminzation of decontamination and ion exchange resin stripping wastes with four grades of asphalt was investigated to determine the effects of asphalt type on the properties of the final products. All waste forms deformed readily under light loads indicating they would flow if not restrained. It was observed in all cases that product leaching rates increased as the hardness of the asphalt used to treat the waste increased. If bituminization is adopted for any Ontario Hydro aqueous radioactive wastes they should be treated with soft asphalt to obtain optimum leaching resistance and mechanical stability during interim storage should be provided by a corrosion resistant container

  8. The airport pavements reinforced with Mineral-Asphalt Mixtures’ (MAM layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marszałek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents original solutions, methodology, and procedure for determining the thickness of bituminous overlays for renovation and modernization of the existing airfield pavements.Using the Westergaard method, the algorithm and nomograms were developed in order to determine the edge stress and the loading force. The nomograms are a state of the art solutions that have never been presented in a similar form. After derivation of aforementioned dependencies, the practical way to use the nomograms, depending on the existing bituminous airport pavement, was demonstrated.The plots were developed on the basis of calculations using the derived equations. They will definitely facilitate the procedure of selecting the thickness of the flexible overlay to the airport pavements which require repair or modernization.[b]Keywords[/b]: airport rigid pavements, airport vulnerable pavements, strengthening the pavement

  9. Bituminous and asphaltic membranes for radioactive waste repositories on land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The aim of the study has been to identify, within generic designs for waste facilities, areas where bituminous materials might be incorporated as a barrier. The report is presented in three sections: Part I - The properties of bitumen are described, with particular reference to the long-term behaviour of the material. The durability of bitumen is discussed, including aspects such as ageing, microbial degradation, chemical resistance and radiation resistance. Part II -The use of bituminous materials in hydraulic engineering is outlined. Much of this section of the report concentrates on the use of bituminous materials in embankment dams and reservoir construction. A review of material technology and construction techniques is presented and a detailed assessment made of the performance of the materials in service. Part III - Generic trench type radioactive waste repository designs incorporating bituminous materials are presented. Material and construction specifications for the designs are detailed, and a performance assessment presented. (author)

  10. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Moisés; Luong, Jeanne; Terán, Fernando; Viñuela, Urbano; Vázquez, Víctor; Paje, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on th...

  11. Nonlinearity of bituminous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiafico, S.; Babadopulos, L. F. A. L.; Sauzéat, C.; Di Benedetto, H.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental characterization of the strain dependency of the complex modulus of bituminous mixtures for strain amplitude levels lower than about 110 μm/m. A series of strain amplitude sweep tests are performed at different temperatures (8, 10, 12 and 14°C) and frequencies (0.3, 1, 3 and 10 Hz), during which complex modulus is monitored. For each combination of temperature and frequency, four maximum strain amplitudes are targeted (50, 75, 100 and 110 μm/m). For each of them, two series of 50 loading cycles are applied, respectively at decreasing and increasing strain amplitudes. Before each decreasing strain sweep and after each increasing strain sweep, 5 cycles are performed at constant maximum targeted strain amplitude. Experimental results show that the behavior of the studied material is strain dependent. The norm of the complex modulus decreases and phase angle increases with strain amplitude. Results are presented in Black and Cole-Cole plots, where characteristic directions of nonlinearity can be identified. Both the effects of nonlinearity in terms of the complex modulus variation and of the direction of nonlinearity in Black space seem to validate the time-temperature superposition principle with the same shift factors as for linear viscoelasticity. The comparison between results obtained during increasing and decreasing strain sweeps suggests the existence of another phenomenon occurring during cyclic loading, which appears to systematically induce a decrease of the norm of the complex modulus and an increase of the phase angle, regardless of the type of the strain sweep (increasing or decreasing).

  12. Investigation on Using SBS and Active Carbon Filler to Reduce the VOC Emission from Bituminous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiqiang Cui

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous materials are playing a vital role in pavement design and the roofing industry because of outstanding properties. Unfortunately, bituminous materials will release volatile organic compounds (VOC, making them non-environmentally friendly. Therefore, technologies that can be used to decrease the VOC emission are urgently required. In this research, the VOC emission and material behaviors were analyzed and compared to investigate the possibility of adding styrene butadiene styrene (SBS and active carbon filler into bituminous materials to develop environmentally-friendly materials. Thermal gravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-MS and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy testing (UV-Vis were employed to characterize the VOC emission process. Temperature sweep testing and frequency sweep testing were conducted to evaluate the rheological properties of bituminous materials. Research results indicated that the combined introduction of 4 wt% styrene butadiene styrene (SBS and 4 wt% active carbon filler cannot only significantly lower the VOC emission speed and amount, but also improve the deformation resistance behavior at a higher temperature. SBS and active carbon filler can be used to reduce the VOC emission form bituminous materials.

  13. Investigation on Using SBS and Active Carbon Filler to Reduce the VOC Emission from Bituminous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peiqiang; Wu, Shaopeng; Li, Fuzhou; Xiao, Yue; Zhang, Honghua

    2014-08-26

    Bituminous materials are playing a vital role in pavement design and the roofing industry because of outstanding properties. Unfortunately, bituminous materials will release volatile organic compounds (VOC), making them non-environmentally friendly. Therefore, technologies that can be used to decrease the VOC emission are urgently required. In this research, the VOC emission and material behaviors were analyzed and compared to investigate the possibility of adding styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) and active carbon filler into bituminous materials to develop environmentally-friendly materials. Thermal gravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy testing (UV-Vis) were employed to characterize the VOC emission process. Temperature sweep testing and frequency sweep testing were conducted to evaluate the rheological properties of bituminous materials. Research results indicated that the combined introduction of 4 wt% styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) and 4 wt% active carbon filler cannot only significantly lower the VOC emission speed and amount, but also improve the deformation resistance behavior at a higher temperature. SBS and active carbon filler can be used to reduce the VOC emission form bituminous materials.

  14. Bituminization of liquid radioactive waste. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G'oshev, G.S.; Gradev, G.D.; Stefanova, I.G.; Milusheva, A.G.; Guteva, E.S.; Stefanov, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    The elaborated technology for bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes (salt concentrates) is characterized by the fact that the bituminization process takes place in two stages: concentration of the liquid residue and evaporation of the water with simultaneous homogeneous incorporation of the salts in the melted bitumen. An experimental installation for bituminization of salt concentrates was designed on the basis of this technology. The experience accumulated during the design and construction of the installation for bituminization of salt concentrates could be used for designing and constructing an industrial installation for bituminization of the liquid residue of the nuclear power plants. 2 tabs., 3 figs., 3 refs

  15. Processing of bituminous coal tar at high temperature with bituminous coal additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Hartmann, G.B.; Hupfer, H.; Leonhardt, P.

    1943-05-10

    In short tests, results of the effects of a bituminous coal addition to the processing of tar and pitch were obtainable. Coal used was that from the Heinitz Mines (Upper Silesian), saturated with 1--1.2% iron sulphate. On a mixture of bituminous coal tar residue and tar oil, with a relatively low level of solids and asphalt, a substitution was made for the addition of 2% alkalized iron-grude-catalyst with 20% coal. The same yield was reached using a straight-run procedure. The coal gave somewhat more gasification and additional asphalt in the sludge without increasing the solids content correspondingly. In spite of this, the carbonization results were somewhat improved, which led one to conclude that the coal addition fostered the decomposition of the tar asphalt, and, that the asphalt from the coal could be better carbonized than that out of the tar. One found, also, that the tar mixture with coal additive permitted trouble-free hydrogenation to gasoline and middle oil. Still another short test met with success. A bituminous coal tar pitch containing 24% benzene solids and 36% asphalt, which could not be processed with iron catalyst or even molybdenum-grude, was hydrogenated to gasoline and middle oil with a usable yield of .25 by a 20--25% addition of coal. Here too, the carbonization results were good. The addition of coal had no notable influence on the properties of the resulting oils. The document included test procedures. 11 tables.

  16. Application of the portable pavement seismic analyser (PSPA) for pavement analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJVDM

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available of pavement types, including Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) sections and Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) test sites. The data are analysed for repeatability, variability, isotropy, and ranges of seismic stiffness values. Information is provided...

  17. Analysis of the sensitivity of the impact resonance frequency test as a tool to determine the elastic properties of bituminous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tauste

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The modulus value of bituminous materials is a key factor in the design of road pavements and the estimation of their life service. This parameter can be measured in laboratory but, unfortunately, this requires the deterioration of the pavement so as the consumption of time and resources. Therefore, this study analyses the feasibility of using impact resonance frequency tests as an alternative to traditional methods for determining the dynamic modulus of bituminous mixtures. The sensitivity of this technique has been studied by analyzing its repeatability and reproducibility, studying the variations in the values measured by modifying the dimensions of the specimens, test temperatures and types of mixture tested. In addition, this non-destructive technique has been compared with other traditional tests used to determine the elastic properties of bituminous materials. The results show that this test could be an interesting tool to characterize the properties and damage state of asphalt layers.

  18. Analysis of the sensitivity of the impact resonance frequency test as a tool to determine the elastic properties of bituminous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauste, R.; Moreno-Navarro, F.; Gallego, R.; Rubio-Gámez, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    The modulus value of bituminous materials is a key factor in the design of road pavements and the estimation of their life service. This parameter can be measured in laboratory but, unfortunately, this requires the deterioration of the pavement so as the consumption of time and resources. Therefore, this study analyses the feasibility of using impact resonance frequency tests as an alternative to traditional methods for determining the dynamic modulus of bituminous mixtures. The sensitivity of this technique has been studied by analyzing its repeatability and reproducibility, studying the variations in the values measured by modifying the dimensions of the specimens, test temperatures and types of mixture tested. In addition, this non-destructive technique has been compared with other traditional tests used to determine the elastic properties of bituminous materials. The results show that this test could be an interesting tool to characterize the properties and damage state of asphalt layers. [es

  19. Pavement thickness evaluation using ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Dwayne Arthur

    Accurate knowledge of pavement thickness is important information to have both at a network and project level. This information aids in pavement management and design. Much of the time this information is missing, out of date, or unknown for highway sections. Current technologies for determining pavement thickness are core drilling, falling weight deflectometer (FWD), and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Core drilling provides very accurate pin point pavement thickness information; however, it is also time consuming, labor intensive, intrusive to traffic, destructive, and limited in coverage. FWD provides nondestructive estimates of both a surface thickness and total pavement structure thickness, including pavement, base and sub-base. On the other hand, FWD is intrusive to traffic and affected by the limitations and assumptions the method used to estimate thickness. GPR provides pavement surface course thickness estimates with excellent data coverage at highway speed. Yet, disadvantages include the pavement thickness estimation being affected by the electrical properties of the pavement, limitations of the system utilized, and heavy post processing of the data. Nevertheless, GPR has been successfully utilized by a number of departments of transportation (DOTs) for pavement thickness evaluation. This research presents the GPR thickness evaluation methods, develops GPRPAVZ the software used to implement the methodologies, and addresses the quality of GPR pavement thickness evaluation.

  20. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Bueno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance.

  1. Towards improved correlations between bitumen properties and rutting resistance of bituminous mixtures - FunDBitS literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Fátima A.; Hofko, Bernhard; De Visscher, Joëlle; Tanghe, Tine; da Costa, Margarida Sá

    2017-09-01

    Bitumen is the most common binder used in the production of bituminous mixtures for road paving, having a fundamental influence on the performance of the pavement. However, it is not yet fully understood which bitumen properties have a significant influence on the behaviour of bituminous mixtures. In this context, the FunDBitS project was developed. Its main objective was to prepare recommendations on the properties of the bitumen to be specified in order to obtain suitable bituminous mixtures, namely in what concerns to its resistance to permanent deformation (rutting), stiffness, low temperature cracking, fatigue cracking and binder/aggregate interaction. In this framework, the research studies that have become internationally available since the BiTVal project were reviewed in order to assess performance-based bitumen characteristics, which may be introduced into bitumen specification standards. This paper specifically presents the main conclusions regarding the properties of bitumen related to the behaviour to permanent deformation of bituminous mixtures. It was concluded that the most promising test is the “non-recoverable creep compliance” (Jnr) from the Multiple Stress Creep and Recovery (MSCR) test method, although Zero/Low Shear Viscosity (ZSV/LSV) by creep or oscillation test method can also give good correlations with permanent deformation of bituminous mixtures.

  2. Economy of bituminous coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Hochstetter, H.

    1944-05-11

    The influence of various factors on the production cost of (Janina) bituminous coal hydrogenation is analyzed briefly. The initial reckoning yielded a production cost of 188 marks per metric ton of gasoline and middle oils. The savings concomitant to changes of one percent in gasification, one percent in utilization of purified coal, one percent raising of space/time yield, one percent increase in throughput, one percent in coal concentration in the paste, and one percent in low temperature carbonization yield are listed. Factors affecting hydrogen consumption are listed in a table. Investigations showed the carbon-richest coal to produce a deviation in the effect of gasification upon the working costs by only 10 percent when compared with the Janina coal. Thus, the values listed were considered as guidelines for all kinds of bituminous coal. The calculations admitted the following conclusions: a maximum concentration of coal in the paste is desirable; one can assume a 2 percent reduction in the utilization with a 10 percent increase in throughput, as long as no changes in low temperature carbonization yield take place by changing the distribution in oil production; this configuration would change if the major concern were gas production instead of working costs, or if hydrogen production were the bottleneck. 1 table.

  3. The effect of Cryogenic Crumb Rubber in cold recycled mixes for road pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettinari, Matteo; Dondi, Giulio; Sangiorgi, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    of cold recycled mixes for road bases is considerable. Furthermore, new products are continuously being introduced or developed for recycling purposes. The objective of this research project was to test the effects, both mechanically and environmentally, of crumb rubber included in 100% Reclaimed Asphalt...... in Italy, is also moving in this direction, lowering the manufacturing temperatures of bituminous mixes and reducing or ultimately eliminating the use of virgin raw materials. Currently, a wide range of materials are used and, consequently, the number of variables to be considered in the mix-design process...... Pavement cold mixes for road bases, bound with bitumen emulsion and cement. The crumb rubber is produced cryogenically with granulometric selection, which together with the bitumen, the cement and the fine fractions of the mix forms a resilient mastic capable of imparting significant fatigue resistance...

  4. 30 CFR 716.4 - Special bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines. 716.4 Section... INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.4 Special bituminous coal mines. (a) Definition. Special bituminous coal surface mines as used in this section means those bituminous...

  5. A380 pavement experimental program-rigid campaign : slab pattern, instrumentation, static test procedure, fatigue test introduction

    OpenAIRE

    LERAT, P; FABRE, C; BALAY, JM

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes several experimentations on rigid pavements at Toulouse Blagnac airport, tested with heavy aircraft landing gear simulator developed by Airbus S.A.S. The main contributors of this program are Airbus, the French Civil Aviation Administration (STBA) and the French Road and Bridges Laboratory (LCPC). The first part of the program (1998 2000) deals with bituminous pavement. In 2001-2002-2003 the program has focused on Rigid tests. The main aim has been therefore to improve th...

  6. Leachability of bituminized radioactive waste. Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Toshiyuki; Nakayama, Shinichi; Iida, Yoshihisa; Nagano, Tetsushi

    1999-02-01

    Bituminized radioactive waste that will be returned from COGEMA, France is planned to be disposed of in deep geologic repository in Japan. Data on leachability of radionuclides from bituminized waste are required for the performance assessment of the disposal. We made a literature survey on bitumen and bituminized radioactive waste, placing emphasis on leach tests and leach data in terms of geologic disposal. This survey revealed that reliable leach data on transuranium elements and data obtained under reducing conditions that is characteristic to deep underground are lacking. (author). 64 refs

  7. Performance and cost effectiveness of permeable friction course (PFC) pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    In this project, the research team evaluated the performance of Permeable Friction Courses (PFC) over time and compared it against other types of wearing surface pavement layers. Several pavement sections including Asphalt Rubber (AR) PFCs, Performan...

  8. AASHTO mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide parametric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This study focuses on assessing the robustness of the AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG v 1.1) for rigid pavement : design projects in Wisconsin. The primary tasks conducted in this study included performing sensitivity analys...

  9. Rigid pavements distresses - pavement condition index evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Tiago David da Costa Prudente

    2014-01-01

    Pavements require maintenance in order to provide good service levels during their life period. Because of the significant costs of this operation and the importance of a proper planning, a pavement evaluation methodology, named Pavement Condition Index (PCI), was created by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This methodology allows for the evaluation of the pavement condition along the life period, generally yearly, with minimum costs and, in this way, it is possible to plan the maintenance a...

  10. Cold weather paving requirements for bituminous concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Cold weather paving specifications were developed from work by Corlew and Dickson, who used a computer solution to predict the cooling rate of bituminous concrete. Virginia had used a minimum atmospheric temperature as a criterion; however, it was ev...

  11. An experimental evaluation of coke production from bituminous coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaloc, M.; Janik, M.; Rojak, A.

    1981-01-01

    Results of studies of laboratory coking of bituminous coal tar are presented, which verify the technical feasibility and suitability of this engineering process for coke production. Thanks to the closed-system character of the process, it is suitable for technological and hygienic reasons. The yield of pitch coke is higher by comparison with that from chamber coking; also the properties of this coke are better; it is suitable for more varied applications, including the production of large-diameter graphite electrodes.

  12. The use of whitetopping technology in the aspect of implementation of repairs of flexible pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Rudnicki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of technical and economic implementation of repairs of bituminous pavements using whitetopping technology at the example of classical jointed solutions and the continuous reinforcement. The problems of repairs of asphalt roads in the context of steadily progressive degradation of flexible pavements in Poland are discussed.The types of pavement constructions were presented, with particular emphasis on characteristics of flexible pavements. There were identified and described significant factors contributing to damage, which consequently lead to surface degradation. Also there have been described the types of concrete pavements and their characteristics, taking into account modern technology of cement concrete overlays made in various technologies. The results of the analysis of technical and economic implementation of repairs of flexible pavements using whitetopping technology are presented at the example of classical jointed solutions and the continuous reinforcement. The benefits and potential difficulties in the implementation of pavements repairs as cement concrete technology are indicated.[b]Keywords[/b]: road, repair, whitetopping, overlay, flexible surface, cement concrete pavement, continuous reinforcement

  13. Development of bituminization process for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Masao; Miyao, Hidehiko; Mizuno, Ryukichi

    1973-01-01

    For the bituminization of radioactive wastes from a fuel reprocessing plant, the leachability, irradiation stability and burning property of bitumen products have been studied. Sodium nitrate was used for simulated evaporator concentrate, and mixed with distillation bitumen or blown bitumen; the sodium nitrate content in the mixture was 30 to 60 wt%. The distillation bitumen is superior to the blown bitumen in leachability and flash point, but inferior in the increase of volume by irradiation. Since the volume increase is not large, the distillation bitumen is satisfactory for the bituminization of the evaporator concentrate from a fuel reprocessing plant. (Mori, K.)

  14. Permeable pavement study (Edison)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types...

  15. Pavement Subgrade Performance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Ullidtz, Per; Macdonald, Robin

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the second test in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM) under the International Pavement Subgrade Performance Study. Pavement response was measured in different layers, and compared to different theroretical values. Performance in terms of plastic strains, rutting...

  16. Quieter pavements guidance document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This report provides guidance and better practice recommendations to the National Park : Service for selecting pavement surfaces to minimize tire-pavement noise. The report : contains an overview of common technologies and methods for quieter pavemen...

  17. Concrete pavement joint deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Concrete pavements are an important part of our national infrastructure. In recent years the relatively small number of reported joints deteriorating prematurely in concrete pavements around Indiana has increased. Changes over the past 45 years in IN...

  18. Firing a sub-bituminous coal in pulverized coal boilers configured for bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Spitz; R. Saveliev; M. Perelman; E. Korytni; B. Chudnovsky; A. Talanker; E. Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2008-07-15

    It is important to adapt utility boilers to sub-bituminous coals to take advantage of their environmental benefits while limiting operation risks. We discuss the performance impact that Adaro, an Indonesian sub-bituminous coal with high moisture content, has on opposite-wall and tangentially-fired utility boilers which were designed for bituminous coals. Numerical simulations were made with GLACIER, a computational-fluid-dynamic code, to depict combustion behavior. The predictions were verified with full-scale test results. For analysis of the operational parameters for firing Adaro coal in both boilers, we used EXPERT system, an on-line supervision system developed by Israel Electric Corporation. It was concluded that firing Adaro coal, compared to a typical bituminous coal, lowers NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions, lowers LOI content and improves fouling behavior but can cause load limitation which impacts flexible operation. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Summary report on the performance of open graded friction course quieter pavements : I-5 Lynnwood, SR-520 Medina, I-405 Bellevue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This document summarizes the acoustic properties and pavement performance of three asphalt quieter pavement projects. Each of the projects included open graded friction course pavement built with sections of crumb rubber and polymer modified asphalt ...

  20. Wetting of bituminized ion-exchangers under simulated repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, H.; Valkiainen, M.

    2001-01-01

    According to the present plans the spent nuclear fuel from four Finnish nuclear power units will be transferred after interim storage to the final disposal site where it will be encapsulated and disposed of in a final repository constructed into the bedrock at a depth of 500 meters. Low and medium level waste generated at nuclear power plants will be finally disposed of in caverns constructed in the bedrock at the power plant site. The safety of the final disposal is based on a multibarrier concept and the degree of safety is estimated by using predictive models. The properties of the waste form are taken into account in the design of the repository construction. Bitumen has been chosen as an immobilisation agent for the wet wastes at Olkiluoto Power Plant, where two BWR units, TVO 1 and TVO 2, have separate bituminization facilities designed by Asea-Atom. Properties of bituminized spent ion-exchange resins from Olkiluoto power plant have been studied by VTT Chemical Technology since the late 70's. These studies have concentrated mainly on determining the long-term behaviour of the bituminization product under the repository conditions. Current interest lies on wetted product as a diffusion barrier. For this purpose a microscopic method for the visualisation of the structure of the wetted product has been developed. The equilibration of the samples in simulated concrete groundwater is currently going on at a temperature of 5-8 deg. C. Preliminary results are presented in this paper. Diffusion experiments have been planned for the further characterising of the wetted product as a release barrier for radionuclides including modelling. (author)

  1. On-road Bicycle Pavement Markings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A mile by mile breakdown of the on-street bicycle pavement markings installed within the City of Pittsburgh. These include bike lanes, shared lane markings...

  2. Radioactive wastes bituminization by the pilot-plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golinsky, M.; Ferenc, M.; Ksendzak, Z.; Tikal, A.

    1978-01-01

    Operation experience of pilot-plant for bituminization of radioactive wastes by the method of hot mixing is described. The results obtained have conffirmed parameters of the process gained in laboratory conditions for asphalts D-35 and P-60. The results are stated for experiments of bituminization of still residuums obtained as a result of distillation of low and intermediate-level of activity sewage waters. Chemical composition of the still residuums and characteristics of the P-60 asphalt are given. Bituminization of crystal sodium nitrate and supersaturated solutions at 200 centigrades up to 30% contents of salt in the compound was performed. It is shown that bituminization results depend on salts composition of radioactive wastes subject to solidification. The results are described of investigations of bituminization by the method of hot mixing of still residuums of radioactive wastes containing sodium nitrates on the pilot-plant. Parameters are given of bituminization process and characteristics of compounds obtained in bituminization of still residuums in a form of concentrates. Leachind process for wastes solidificated by the method of bituminization has been investigated. Leaching rate for radionuclides incorporated into bituminization products depending on time of storage is given. Results of the spectrometric analysis of solidificated concentrates, bituminization product and gaseous products of radioactive wastes processing by the method of hot mixing are given. (I.T.) [ru

  3. Study of Rheological Properties of Bituminous Binders in Middle and High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remišová Eva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The bitumen binders in road pavements are exposed traffic loading effect at different climatic conditions. A resistance to these stresses depends on bitumen properties as well. The paper presents rheological properties (G*, δ, ν* determined and compared for four bituminous binders (unmodified and polymer modified bitumen at temperature 46 – 60 (80 °C and dynamic viscosity at temperature 130 – 190 °C (Brookfield viscometer. On the basis of viscosity results it is possible to set optimal production and compaction temperatures. Elastic and viscous behavior of binder in the middle temperature is determined in rheometers. The higher value of complex modulus, the stiffer bitumen binder is able to resist deformation. The greater content of elastic components (e.g. polymer in bitumen varies mainly elastic-viscous properties of primary bitumen.

  4. Behaviour of bituminized radioactive wastes under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaro, S.; Gilardi, T.; Vistoli, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    Studies are carried out by the CEA in order to predict the behaviour of bituminized radioactive wastes under self irradiation. Bitumen radiolysis produces gas (mainly H 2 ) which diffuses in the organic matrix. If the hydrogen yield is higher than the diffusion flux through the free surface, hydrogen concentration increases and exceeds its solubility in bitumen. Beyond saturation, bubbles are formed and gas is also evacuated by bubbles drift. The aim of these studies is to evaluate the evacuation capacity of radiolytic gas produced in function of initial bituminized wasteform characteristics. A model was developed to achieve this purpose, by calculating the evolution of bubbles population considering all elementary mechanisms of gas evacuation. (authors)

  5. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-08-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  6. Bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradev, G.D.; Ivanov, V.I.; Stefanova, I.G.; Milusheva, A.G.; Guteva, E.S.; Zhelyazkov, V.T.; Stefanov, G.I.; G'oshev, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    Salt-bitumen products are produced by the method of 'hot mixing' of some Bulgarian bitumens (road bitumen PB 66/99 and the hydroinsulating bitumen HB 80/25) and salts (chlorides, sulphates, borates, salt mixtures modelling the liquid waste from nuclear power plants) in different ratios to determine the optimum conditions for bituminization of liquid radioactive waste. The penetration, ductility and softening temperature were determined. The sedimentation properties and the thermal resistance of the various bitumen-salt mixtures were studied. The most suitable bitumen for technological research at the Kozloduy NPP was found to be the road bitumen PB 66/90 with softening temperature at 48 o C. The optimum amount of salts incorporated in the bitumen - about 45% - was found. No exothermal effects were observed in the bituminization process in the temperature range of up to 200 o C. The results obtained may be useful in the elaboration of a technology for bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes in the Kozloduy NPP. 4 tabs., 5 figs., 4 refs

  7. Assessment of highway pavements using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plati, Christina; Loizos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Highway infrastructure is a prerequisite for a functioning economy and social life. Highways, often prone to congestion and disruption, are one of the aspects of a modern transport network that require maximum efficiency if an integrated transport network, and sustainable mobility, is to be achieved. Assessing the condition of highway structures, to plan subsequent maintenance, is essential to allow the long-term functioning of a road network. Optimizing the methods used for such assessment will lead to better information being obtained about the road and underlying ground conditions. The condition of highway structures will be affected by a number of factors, including the properties of the highway pavement, the supporting sub-base and the subgrade (natural ground), and the ability to obtain good information about the entire road structure, from pavement to subgrade, allows appropriate maintenance programs to be planned. The maintenance of highway pavements causes considerable cost and in many cases obstruction to traffic flow. In this situation, methods that provide information on the present condition of pavement structure non-destructively and economically are of great interest. It has been shown that Ground-Penetrating-Radar (GPR), which is a Non Destructive Technique (NDT), can deliver information that is useful for the planning of pavement maintenance activities. More specifically GPR is used by pavement engineers in order to determine physical properties and characteristics of the pavement structure, information that is valuable for the assessment of pavement condition. This work gives an overview on the practical application of GPR using examples from highway asphalt pavements monitoring. The presented individual applications of GPR pavement diagnostics concern structure homogeneity, thickness of pavement layers, dielectric properties of asphalt materials etc. It is worthwhile mentioning that a number of applications are standard procedures, either

  8. Bituminization of low- and medium-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefillatre, G.

    1976-01-01

    French operations are presented concerning mainly: the bituminization of radioactive wastes produced in light water reactors; the direct bituminization of liquid effluents without concentration; the experiments carried out for 18 months on the land burial of concentrates solidified by bitumen into blocks of 100 liters. The knowledge acquired in France is exposed: in Valduc and in Saclay with facilities equipped with thin film evaporators and in Marcoule with the conditioning of trilaurylamine and tributyl-phosphate. At last the Cadarache bituminization [fr

  9. Pavement Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Comprehensive Environmental and Structural AnalysesThe ERDC Pavement Testing Facility, located on the ERDC Vicksburg campus, was originally constructed to provide an...

  10. Cost-Effective Pavement Performance Management of Indiana's Enhanced National Highway System through Strategic Modification of the Pavement Rehabilitation Treatment Trigger Values

    OpenAIRE

    Noureldin, Menna; Fricker, Jon D.; Sinha, Kumares C.

    2015-01-01

    Cost-Effective Pavement Performance Management of Indiana's Enhanced National Highway System through Strategic Modification of the Pavement Rehabilitation Treatment Trigger Values Presented during Session 3: Policy and Funding, moderated by Magdy Mikhail, at the 9th International Conference on Managing Pavement Assets (ICMPA9) in Alexandria, VA. Includes conference paper and PowerPoint slides.

  11. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison Environmental Center - proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavements including interlocking concrete permeable pavers, p...

  12. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison Environmental Center - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavement including: interlocking concrete permeable pavers...

  13. Update to permeable pavement research at the Edison Environmental Center - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavement including: interlocking concrete permeable paver...

  14. Evaluation of concrete pavements with materials-related distress : appendix G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    An evaluation of cores sampled from six concrete pavements was performed. Factors contributing to pavement distress observed in the field were determined, including expansive alkali-silica reactivity and freeze-thaw deterioration related to poor entr...

  15. Effect of drainage in unbound aggregate bases on flexible pavement performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    It has been well demonstrated that a positive subsurface drainage is beneficial in enhancing pavement performance and thus extending pavement service life. Typical permeable base materials include asphalt/cement-treated, open-graded aggregates and un...

  16. Transition from manual to automatic rutting measurements : effect on pavement serviceability index values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Pavement Serviceability Index (pSn is used by New Mexico Department of Transportation : (NMDOT) to express the serviceability level of a pavement section at the network level. The PSI : is calculated with distress ratings (including rutting) and ...

  17. Evaluation of concrete pavements with materials-related distress : appendix C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    An evaluation of cores sampled from six concrete pavements was performed. Factors contributing to pavement distress observed in the field were determined, including expansive alkali-silica reactivity and freeze-thaw deterioration related to poor entr...

  18. Evaluation of concrete pavements with materials-related distress : appendix B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    An evaluation of cores sampled from six concrete pavements was performed. Factors contributing to pavement distress observed in the field were determined, including expansive alkali-silica reactivity and freeze-thaw deterioration related to poor entr...

  19. Considerations for rigid vs. flexible pavement designs when allowed as alternate bids : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This report documents the research conducted for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) : concerning the use of pavement alternates. The scope of the project includes reviewing the state-of-thepractice : in methods used for pavement type sele...

  20. Evaluation of concrete pavements with materials-related distress : appendix E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    An evaluation of cores sampled from six concrete pavements was performed. Factors contributing to pavement distress observed in the field were determined, including expansive alkali-silica reactivity and freeze-thaw deterioration related to poor entr...

  1. Flexible and composite structures for premium pavements. Volume 2, Design manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    This design manual presents the results of a detailed study to identify and design flexible and composite pavement configurations which will perform as premium or "zero-maintenance" pavements. This manual includes identification and classification of...

  2. Pretreatment of bituminous coal for hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer, H.

    1943-03-29

    Bituminous coal became plastic at certain temperature ranges and swelled, causing plugging of preheater tubes. With few exceptions, this problem was encountered only when hydrogenating bituminous coal. This swelling often appeared in the coking of coals, and for the majority of the cases it was found that efforts to reduce the baking ability of bituminous coal also reduced the swelling of coal paste in the preheater tubes. Three methods of pretreatment to reduce swelling were preheating, oxidation (anoxidation), and sulfur treatment. The preheating by hot nitrogen at 250 atm for 3 hours showed no improvement in swelling characteristics, but produced a greater asphalt content and a lower amount of gasification. Absorption of oxygen was shown to increase the viscosity of the coal paste, while preheating in a vacuum showed no effects. Oxidation (anoxidation) increased the splitting and gasification and gave higher asphalt content. The baking ability of Saar coal could be destroyed by addition of 2.5% sulfur and heating for 1/sup 1///sub 2/ hours at 110/sup 0/C, in a stream of H/sub 2/S. The volatile content dropped significantly when the same coal was heated to 200/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C. When neutralized Saar coal was dried under a stream of H/sub 2/S, only slight deterioration of the yield was noted with equal degree of gasification. It was concluded that a more or less distinct improvement would be observed from the absorption of sulfur, but that residue processing would have to be altered to account for the sulfur content.

  3. Bituminization of radioactive wastes at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hild, W.; Kluger, W.; Krause, H.

    1976-05-01

    A summary is given of the main operational experience gained at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe in 4 years operation of the bituminization plant for evaporator concentrates from low- and medium level wastes. At the same time some of the essential results are compiled that have been obtained in the R + D activities on bituminization. (orig.) [de

  4. Response Modelling of Bitumen, Bituminous Mastic and Mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on testing and modelling the viscoelastic response of bituminous binders. The main goal is to find an appropriate response model for bituminous binders. The desired model should allow implementation into numerical environments such as ABAQUS. On the basis of such numerical

  5. Simple volatility test for bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A simple, inexpensive test measuring the volatility or fuming propensity of bituminous materials with good repeatability has been devised. The test depends on measuring the mass loss which occurs when a small sample of the material is heated in a shallow open dish on a thermostatic hotplate for a fixed time. A rectilinear inverse relation between the mass losses and the softening points of a series of pitches from one source has been found, and the test has been shown to give results which correlate well with other methods for characterizing pitch volatility. Test results obtained with a range of tar products from pitches to creosotes all showed similarly good repeatability. (4 refs.)

  6. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, grade...

  7. Desert Pavement Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haff, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Combining plan view information from aerial photography showing details of stream channels on desert pavement surfaces with process-based erosion models, a high-resolution, synthetic topography DEM...

  8. Precast concrete pavement - systems and performance review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Josef; Kohoutková, Alena; Křístek, Vladimír; Vodička, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Long-term traffic restrictions belong to the key disadvantages of conventional cast-in-plane concrete pavements which have been used for technical structures such as roads, parking place and airfield pavements. As a consequence, the pressure is put on the development of such systems which have short construction time, low production costs, long-term durability, low maintenance requirements etc.. The paper presents the first step in the development of an entirely new precast concrete pavement (PCP) system applicable to airfield and highway pavements. The main objective of the review of PCP systems is to acquire a better understanding of the current systems and design methods used for transport infrastructure. There is lack of information on using PCP systems for the construction of entirely new pavements. To most extensive experience is dated back to the 20th century when hexagonal slab panels and system PAG were used in the Soviet Union for the military airfields. Since cast-in-situ pavements became more common, the systems based on precast concrete panels have been mainly utilized for the removal of damaged sections of existing structures including roads, highways etc.. Namely, it concerns Fort Miller Super Slab system, Michigan system, Uretek Stitch system and Kwik system. The presented review indicates several issues associated with the listed PCP systems and their applications to the repair and rehabilitation of existing structures. Among others, the type of manufacturing technology, particularly the position of slots for dowel bars, affects the durability and performance of the systems. Gathered information serve for the development of a new system for airfield and highway pavement construction.

  9. Bituminization of radioactive wastes: safety problems and application fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefillatre, G.; Leconnetable, J.

    1975-01-01

    The bituminization of low and medium radioactive wastes has many advantages: volume and weight reduction; homogeneity of the solid obtained; good resistance to leaching (biological resistance to microorganisms, resistance to radiations); very favorable characteristics for transport and storage. The latest bituminization facility put into service at the CEA is that of the Saclay Center. The bituminization unit is located after a primary evaporator having a distillation capacity of 2m 3 /h. It enables the coating of effluents at the rate of 60l/h [fr

  10. Permeable pavement study (Edison)

    Science.gov (United States)

    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, New Jersey, that incorporated permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). Each permeable pavement type has four, 54.9-m2, lined sections that direct all infiltrate into 5.7-m3 tanks enabling complete volume collection and sampling. This paper highlights the results from a 12-month period when samples were collected from 13 rainfall/runoff events and analyzed for nitrogen species, orthophosphate, and organic carbon. Differences in infiltrate concentrations among the three permeable pavement types were assessed and compared with concentrations in rainwater samples and impervious asphalt runoff samples, which were collected as controls. Contrary to expectations based on the literature, the PA infiltrate had significantly larger total nitrogen (TN) concentrations than runoff and infiltrate from the other two permeable pavement types, indicating that nitrogen leached from materials in the PA strata. There was no significant difference in TN concentration between runoff and infiltrate from either PICP or PC, but TN in runoff was significantly larger than in the rainwater, suggesting meaningful inter-event dry de

  11. Effects of using silica fume and polycarboxylate-type superplasticizer on physical properties of cementitious grout mixtures for semiflexible pavement surfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koting, Suhana; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Mahmud, Hilmi; Mashaan, Nuha S; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Katman, Herdayati; Husain, Nadiah Md

    2014-01-01

    Semi-flexible pavement surfacing is a composite pavement that utilizes the porous pavement structure of the flexible bituminous pavement, which is subsequently grouted with appropriate cementitious materials. This study aims to investigate the compressive strength, flexural strength, and workability performance of cementitious grout. The grout mixtures are designed to achieve high strength and maintain flow properties in order to allow the cement slurries to infiltrate easily through unfilled compacted skeletons. A paired-sample t-test was carried out to find out whether water/cement ratio, SP percentages, and use of silica fume influence the cementitious grout performance. The findings showed that the replacement of 5% silica fume with an adequate amount of superplasticizer and water/cement ratio was beneficial in improving the properties of the cementitious grout.

  12. Effects of Using Silica Fume and Polycarboxylate-Type Superplasticizer on Physical Properties of Cementitious Grout Mixtures for Semiflexible Pavement Surfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhana Koting

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-flexible pavement surfacing is a composite pavement that utilizes the porous pavement structure of the flexible bituminous pavement, which is subsequently grouted with appropriate cementitious materials. This study aims to investigate the compressive strength, flexural strength, and workability performance of cementitious grout. The grout mixtures are designed to achieve high strength and maintain flow properties in order to allow the cement slurries to infiltrate easily through unfilled compacted skeletons. A paired-sample t-test was carried out to find out whether water/cement ratio, SP percentages, and use of silica fume influence the cementitious grout performance. The findings showed that the replacement of 5% silica fume with an adequate amount of superplasticizer and water/cement ratio was beneficial in improving the properties of the cementitious grout.

  13. Assessing Asphalt and Concrete Pavement Surface Texture in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad I. Sarsam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of safety characteristics into the traditional pavement structural design or in the functional evaluation of pavement condition has not been established yet. The design has focused on the structural capacity of the roadway so that the pavement can withstand specific level of repetitive loading over the design life. On the other hand, the surface texture condition was neither included in the AASHTO design procedure nor in the present serviceability index measurements. The pavement surface course should provide adequate levels of friction and ride quality and maintain low levels of noise and roughness. Many transportation departments perform routine skid resistant testing, the type of equipment used for testing varies depending on the preference of each transportation department. It was felt that modeling of the surface texture condition using different methods of testing may assist in solving such problem. In this work, Macro texture and Micro texture of asphalt and cement concrete pavement surface have been investigated in the field using four different methods (The Sand Patch Method, Outflow Time Method, British Pendulum Tester and Photogrammetry Technique. Two different grain sizes of sand have been utilized in conducting the Sand Patch while the Micro texture was investigated using the British Pendulum tester method at wet pavement surface conditions. The test results of the four methods were correlated to the skid number. It was concluded that such modeling could provide instant data in the field for pavement condition which may help in pavement maintenance management.

  14. Consideration of pavement roughness effects on vehicle-pavement interaction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present some of the results of the vehicle-pavement interaction project, mainly in terms of the expected effects of pavement roughness on the moving dynamic effects in pavement analysis and design. Background is provided...

  15. Long-Term Pavement Performance Program determination of in-place elastic layer modulus : backcalculation methodology and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Deflection data have been measured at periodic intervals with a falling weight deflectometer on all rigid, flexible, semirigid, : and rehabilitated pavement test sections included in the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program. A : common use o...

  16. Annual asphalt pavement industry survey on recycled materials and warm-mix asphalt usage : 2009-2012, [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this survey was to quantify the use of recycled materials, including RAP and RAS, and WMA produced by the asphalt pavement industry. The National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) conducted a voluntary survey of asphalt mixture pro...

  17. Flexible pavement rehabilitation using pulverization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Pulverization is a roadway rehabilitation strategy that involves in-place recycling of the entire existing flexible pavement layer and some of the existing granular base layer (Figure 1). Pavement pulverization provides an alternative to conventional...

  18. Training development for pavement preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This research project strives to help the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) fully achieve the full benefits of pavement : preservation through training on proper selection, design, and application of pavement preservation treatments. In some ca...

  19. Effect of antistripping additives on the compaction of bituminous concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of antistripping additives on the compaction of bituminous concrete. To do this, the densities obtained on test sections with and without additive were compared. Comparisons of nuclear d...

  20. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are ralated to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product. (author)

  1. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for the long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

  2. Design of bituminous surface mixes with high skid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The Virginia Highway Research Council has proposed a study of the skid resistance of bituminous surfaces incorporating relatively hard and expensive aggregates. The hardness of the aggregates to be used aluminum oxide (Exolon) and calcined kaolin -- ...

  3. Design of bituminous mixes with high skid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Certain highway locations need exceptionally high skid resistance because of the alignment, geometry, and drainage of the roadway and the complex turning maneuvers required. Several beam specimens made of bituminous mixes incorporating unconventional...

  4. Analysis of the use of coal tar as a binder in bituminous mixtures, using Marshall and Ramcodes methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Díaz, R.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an alternative use of coal tar, a by-product of the steel industry, given the problems of accumulation and negative environmental impact. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the incorporation of coal tar as a binder in paving mixtures. First, this paper presents the origin, description of the main characteristics, and properties of tar. Then, this paper evaluates the mix of coal tar by means of the RAMCODES and Marshall methodologies to determine its resistance. The results of the tests explain the physical and mechanical properties of the mix. Taking into account the results of both methods, this paper makes a comparison to determine the suitability of the RAMCODES methodology in the mix design. Finally, it analyzes the alternatives to coal tar that can be used as binders in bituminous mixes for pavement and the advantages of their uses under some specific conditions.

  5. Development of Enhanced Pavement Deterioration Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Ercisli, Safak

    2015-01-01

    Modeling pavement deterioration and predicting the pavement performance is crucial for optimum pavement network management. Currently only a few models exist that incorporate the structural capacity of the pavements into deterioration modeling. This thesis develops pavement deterioration models that take into account, along with the age of the pavement, the pavement structural condition expressed in terms of the Modified Structural Index (MSI). The research found MSI to be a significant input...

  6. Mechanical properties of hot bituminous mixes manufactured with recycled aggregate of Silestone® waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, M. C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research project which analyzes the viability of incorporating waste material from decorative quartz solid surfacing in the manufacture of hot bituminous mixes. For this purpose, various bituminous mixes were manufactured with waste aggregate in different percentage. A set of tests were carried out that permitted the characterization of the mechanical behavior of these mixes. The results of these tests were similar to the results obtained when conventional mixes made from virgin quarry aggregate were tested. The results for moisture sensitivity as well as for wheel track rutting on mixes showed the optimal performance of this waste material even under very demanding traffic conditions. Laboratory studies showed that the use of this waste material in the manufacture of bituminous mixes is technically viable and can provide high-quality recycled aggregates at a very low cost, which can be used in the pavement of road.

    Este artículo muestra los resultados de un proyecto de investigación que tiene por objeto analizar la viabilidad de incorporación de residuos procedentes de piedra decorativa en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas en caliente. Para ello se fabricaron mezclas con áridos reciclados de residuos procedentes de piedra decorativa en distintos porcentajes, realizando un conjunto de ensayos que posibilitaron caracterizar el comportamiento mecánico de dichas mezclas. Los resultados obtenidos fueron similares a los de las mezclas convencionales fabricadas con áridos vírgenes procedentes de cantera. Los valores de resistencia conservada ante la acción del agua y deformación en pista, pusieron de manifiesto la aptitud del residuo incluso ante las condiciones de tráfico más exigentes. Los trabajos realizados en el laboratorio indican que la utilización del residuo en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas es técnicamente viable, pudiendo obtenerse áridos reciclados de gran calidad y

  7. Optical microtopographic inspection of asphalt pavement surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Freitas, E. F.; Torres, H.; Cerezo, V.

    2017-08-01

    Microtopographic and rugometric characterization of surfaces is routinely and effectively performed non-invasively by a number of different optical methods. Rough surfaces are also inspected using optical profilometers and microtopographer. The characterization of road asphalt pavement surfaces produced in different ways and compositions is fundamental for economical and safety reasons. Having complex structures, including topographically with different ranges of form error and roughness, the inspection of asphalt pavement surfaces is difficult to perform non-invasively. In this communication we will report on the optical non-contact rugometric characterization of the surface of different types of road pavements performed at the Microtopography Laboratory of the Physics Department of the University of Minho.

  8. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  9. Case study: dynamic modulus characterization of naturally occurring bituminous sands for sustainable pavement applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available . The presence of high bitumen content makes oil sand materials problematic for field operations of off-road haul trucks and shovels during the warm spring and summer months. The behavior of oil sand materials is primarily dependent upon stress states...

  10. Creep recovery behaviour of bituminous binders - relevance to permanent deformation of asphalt pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mturi, GAJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available to differentiate the resistance to permanent deformation of different road binders. The MSCR test is essentially a repeated creep-recovery test at a fixed loading/unloading interval. This paper aims to highlight the limitations of the MSCR test but also show how...

  11. Deformation Properties and Fatigue of Bituminous Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Schlosser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation properties and fatigue performance are important characteristics of asphalt bound materials which are used for construction of pavement layers. Viscoelastic asphalt mixtures are better characterized via dynamic tests. This type of tests allows us to collate materials with regard to axle vibrations which lie usually in the range of 6 Hz–25 Hz for standard conditions. Asphalt modified for heat sensitivity in the range from −20°C to +60°C has significant impact on the overall characteristics of the mixture. Deformation properties are used as inputs for empirical mixture design, and fatigue performance of asphalt mixtures reflects the parameters of functional tests. Master curves convey properties of asphalt mixtures for various conditions and allow us to evaluate them without the need of time expensive testing.

  12. Solar Radiation effect on the bituminous binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadeo Rico, A.; Torres Perez, A.

    2010-01-01

    Asphalt, used as binder in road construction, becomes more brittle and harder during working life on the surface of the road pavement, conducting toward their deterioration. This is caused by the oxidation of the molecular functional groups of the asphalt molecular structure. Moreover, it is observed that ultraviolet radiation increases the oxidation process. However, the effect of solar light on the asphalt degradation has been poorly researched. The aim of this work is to study asphalt ageing caused by effect of solar radiation, by using standard test. Four commercial asphalts from different companies were selected: two with penetration number 50/70, and the other two polymer modified asphalts. From each of the asphalts forty samples were taken off and placed in four different aging conditions of temperature and radiation for a period ranging from 40 to 500 days. Ring and Ball test, and Fraass breaking Point test, were used to analyse the changes of asphalt properties after exposition to solar radiation. The results of the four analyzed asphalts showed a distinct behaviour; not only in the test temperature increase but also in the rate. Another experiment was carried out. Samples from a hot mix asphalt batch were placed under solar radiation, and were compacted by the Marshall procedure after increasing periods of time. Density and resistance to plastic flow using Marshall Apparatus were measured. Results showed an increase in the stability of samples under radiation. Both experiments show that the solar radiation is enough to cause changes in the asphalt molecular structure due to oxidation. So that, the study of the effect of the solar radiation on the asphalt properties could be a good tool to asses the performances of asphalt pavement. (Author) 26 refs.

  13. Laboratory evaluation of characteristics of recycled asphalt pavement in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The main objective of this research was to evaluate characteristics of milled Recycled Asphalt : Pavements (RAP) collected from selected milled roadways in Kansas. The RAP was collected from three : selected milled roadways including K-25 in Grant Co...

  14. Evaluation of construction strategies for PCC pavement rehabilitation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    This study investigated project management level solutions to optimizing resources, minimizing costs : (including user costs) and time for PCC pavement rehabilitation projects. This study extensively : evaluated the applicability of the Construction ...

  15. Dynamic Modeling of Pavements with Application to Deflection Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Stine Skov

    Pavement surface deflection measurements are the primary means of evaluating the bearing capacity of a pavement. The most common type of device used for measuring pavement surface deflections is the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD). However, increasing attention has been given to the Rolling Wheel...... with different speeds is needed. In this thesis a new Finite Element formulation for transient dynamic loading of a layered half space is developed. Equations are derived in 2D and 3D and include efficient absorbing boundary conditions in the form of the Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) which ensures capability...

  16. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  17. Optimization and standardization of pavement management processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    This report addresses issues related to optimization and standardization of current pavement management processes in Kentucky. Historical pavement management records were analyzed, which indicates that standardization is necessary in future pavement ...

  18. Permeable Pavements at Purdue

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Two case studies will be presented describing sustainable drainage alternatives. The processes used for the 2nd Street project in Seymour will provide a comparison of the design processes for conventional and green infrastructure solutions. Purdue University will discuss a number of permeable pavement installations on campus and provide a map for viewing. Asphalt, concrete, and permeable paver options will be discussed.

  19. Stabilized Base Courses for Advanced Pavement Design Report 1: Literature Review and Field Performance Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grogan, William

    1999-01-01

    .... Field data collected included structural data in the form of nondestructive testing (NDT) performed with a falling weight deflectometer, visual condition survey using the pavement condition index...

  20. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  1. Automatic Pavement Crack Recognition Based on BP Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Sun, Lijun; Ning, Guobao; Tan, Shengguang

    2014-01-01

    A feasible pavement crack detection system plays an important role in evaluating the road condition and providing the necessary road maintenance. In this paper, a back propagation neural network (BPNN) is used to recognize pavement cracks from images. To improve the recognition accuracy of the BPNN, a complete framework of image processing is proposed including image preprocessing and crack information extraction. In this framework, the redundant image information is reduced as much as possib...

  2. Development of a catalog of resilient modulus values for aggregate base for use with the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Base aggregate is one of the intermediate layers in a pavement system for both flexible and rigid surfaces. Characterization : of base aggregate is necessary for pavement thickness design. Many transportation agencies, including the Virginia Departme...

  3. Measurement of heat generation from simulated bituminized product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yoshiyuki; Yoneya, Masayuki [TRP Safety Evaluation and Analysis team, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The fire and explosion incident occurred at Bituminization Demonstration Facility of PNC Tokai Works on March 11, 1997. In order to ascertain the cause of incident, the investigation has been pushed forward. For the investigation, we prepared simulated bituminized product of measurement of heat generation in low temperature region less than 200degC. We used calvet Calorimeter MS80 for the heat generation measurement. Result of measurement, we were able to catch the feeble heat generation from bituminized product. The maximum calorific value that was able to detect it in isothermal measurement was approximately 1 mW/g in 160degC. It was approximately 2 mW/g in 200degC. And, as the another measurement, the measurement condition went heat rate by 0.01degC/minute, the highest temperature 190degC. As a result, the maximum generation of heat value that was able to detect it was approximately 0.5 mW/g. I changed simulated bituminized products and measured these. A difference of condition is salt particle size, salt content rate (45%, 60%), addition of the simulated precipitate. But there was not a difference in the generation of heat characteristic detected. (author)

  4. Prediction of average annual surface temperature for both flexible and rigid pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan LOGANATHAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The surface temperature of pavements is a critical attribute during pavement design. Surface temperature must be measured at locations of interest based on time-consuming field tests. The key idea of this study is to develop a temperature profile model to predict the surface temperature of flexible and rigid pavements based on weather parameters. Determination of surface temperature with traditional techniques and sensors are replaced by a newly developed method. The method includes the development of a regression model to predict the average annual surface temperature based on weather parameters such as ambient air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and precipitation. Detailed information about temperature and other parameters are extracted from the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP online database. The study was conducted on 61 pavement sections in the state of Alabama for a 10-year period. The developed model would predict the average annual surface temperature based on the known weather parameters. The predicted surface temperature model for asphalt pavements was very reliable and can be utilized while designing a pavement. The study was also conducted on seven rigid pavement sections in Alabama to predict their surface temperature, in which a successful model was developed. The outcome of this study would help the transportation agencies by saving time and effort invested in expensive field tests to measure the surface temperature of pavements.

  5. Incorporating Traffic Speed Deflection Data in Pavement Management Decision Making for Flexible Pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Thyagarajan, Senthilmurugan; Sivaneswaran, Nadarajah; Petros, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Systematic pavement condition evaluation and development of an optimized set of pavement treatment strategies are two key tasks in the pavement management process that assists in making informed decisions on future construction actions. Current State Highway Agency's pavement management systems are primarily based on surface condition data, and surface cracking is mainly used as an indicator of the pavement structural condition. However, with effective pavement preservation activities that in...

  6. Processing of a Silesian bituminous coal tar mixture at 600 atm to heavy oil excess in a 10-liter oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer, H.

    1942-10-28

    An analysis was made of a bituminous coal tar mixture for consideration as raw material for Blechhammer. A breakdown of the composition and yield charts is provided. A table compared it to a coke tar pitch and a bituminous tar mixture from a different carbonization process and its yields were approximately between the yield values of these two. Although the sludge extraction produced sufficient yields in the experiment, the yields would not be as good within full-scale industry. A day by day progress description of the experimentation is provided including all operational details. The experimental results and the pros and cons are summarized briefly. Fifteen tables of data provide analysis of all the elements tested.

  7. Properties of bituminization product from Olkiluoto power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Vuorinen, U.

    1985-09-01

    In Finland, disposal into repositories excavated into bedrock on the present power plant sites is considered to be the most feasible alternative for the low- and intermediate level wastes. The Nuclear Waste Commission of the Finnish power companies has sponsored mainly experimental research work on long-term properties of bituminized ion exchange resin performed in the Reactor Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland since 1981. This report presents results on follow-up measurements of the leach tests started in 1981 and results on new leach tests with cement equilibrated water. Swelling of the bituminization product caused by water uptake is considered important. Both unrestricted and restricted swelling measurements were performed and are reported here. In addition to leaching and swelling also radiolytic gas generation and pH-changes of the leachant are discussed

  8. Pulp and paper plant wastes valorisation in bituminous mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, R; Benta, A; Ferreira, V M; Machado, L M

    2010-04-01

    Nowadays, the increasing amount of wastes is a concerning reality and the environmental aspects has become a major priority. Following this worry, the purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the possibility of using pulp and paper inorganic wastes, named dregs and grits, in bituminous mixtures as aggregate replacement to reduce environmental effects of these wastes disposal. First, the wastes were chemically and physically characterized and also tested primarily taking into account the requirements for aggregates in bituminous mixtures. Then, formulations were prepared replacing aggregates with wastes in different amounts. The mechanical properties of these mixtures containing wastes were compared with reference samples based on standard methods. According to the results it was possible to verify that grits had a good performance and it might be directly tested industrially as an aggregate in road construction. On the other hand, dregs need to be treated before incorporation to guarantee stable mixes in terms of water sensitivity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Solidification of radioactive wastes by bituminization technology. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchlik, S.; Brzobohaty, J.

    1985-01-01

    The bituminization line consists of a rotor film evaporator, a condenser, reserve tanks of bitumen emulsion and model concentrates, a roller train, a vapour concentrate tank, a control console, a bitumen emulsion pump, a model concentrates pump, and a tank for model concentrate preparation. Anion-active emulsion Silembit S-60 produced by Paramo Pardubice was chosen as the bitumen emulsion. A block diagram is given of the experimental bituminization line and its processing is described of model nonactive concentrates whose composition corresponds to that of actual wastes from the V-1 nuclear power plant. Successful tests of the line showed that it could be used for the disposal of radioactive wastes. (E.S.)

  10. Comparison of the performances of several modified bituminous mix formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoula, Samia; Haddadi, Smail; Mokhtar, Khedidja Ait

    2012-09-01

    The mechanical behaviour of several formulas of bituminous concrete containing polymer (HDPE), polymer-bitumens (EVA) and waste of sole of shoes (containing copolymer butadiene-styrene-SBR noted DSBR and ethylene and vinyl acetate-EVA noted DEVA) were studied. The aim of this work is to improvement of the poor mechanicals performances of a bituminous concrete formula (0/14) which isn't conforming to the Algerian standards. Also, the mechanical tests showed that the permanent deformations and the indirect tensile strength at the temperatures of service resistances are improved. At high-temperature service, formulas of asphalt bitumen-EVA most resistant against the average temperature in service, it mixes made with waste are best resistant. All the formulas have a good behaviour with water.

  11. Tire-Pavement Friction Characteristics with Elastic Properties of Asphalt Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The skid-resisting performance of pavement is a critical factor in traffic safety. Recent studies primarily analyze this behavior by examining the macro or micro texture of the pavement. It is inevitable that skid-resistance declines with time because the texture of pavement deteriorates throughout its service life. The primary objective of this paper is to evaluate the use of different asphalt pavements, varying in resilience, to optimize braking performance on pavement. Based on the systematic dynamics of tire-pavement contact, and analysis of the tire-road coupled friction mechanism and the effect of enlarging the tire-pavement contact area, road skid resistance was investigated by altering the elastic modulus of asphalt pavement. First, this research constructed the kinetic contact model to simulate tire-pavement friction. Next, the following aspects of contact behaviors were studied when braking: tread deformation in the tangential pavement interface, actual tire-pavement contact in the course, and the frictional braking force transmitted from the pavement to the tires. It was observed that with improvements in pavement elasticity, the actual tire-pavement contact area increased, which gives us the ability to effectively strengthen the frictional adhesion of the tire to the pavement. It should not be overlooked that the improvement in skid resistance was caused by an increase in pavement elasticity. This research approach provides a theoretical basis and design reference for the anti-skid research of asphalt pavements.

  12. Nigerian bituminous coal as a fuel-coal. | OGUGBUAJA | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian bituminous coal as a fuel-coal. V O OGUGBUAJA, C L NDIOKWERE, G A DIMARI. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v6i2.16113 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

  13. Identification of aggregates for Tennessee bituminous surface courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Heather Jean

    Tennessee road construction is a major venue for federal and state spending. Tax dollars each year go to the maintenance and construction of roads. One aspect of highway construction that affects the public is the safety of its state roads. There are many factors that affect the safety of a given road. One factor that was focused on in this research was the polish resistance capabilities of aggregates. Several pre-evaluation methods have been used in the laboratory to predict what will happen in a field situation. A new pre-evaluation method was invented that utilized AASHTO T 304 procedure upscaled to accommodate surface bituminous aggregates. This new method, called the Tennessee Terminal Textural Condition Method (T3CM), was approved by Tennessee Department of Transportation to be used as a pre-evaluation method on bituminous surface courses. It was proven to be operator insensitive, repeatable, and an accurate indication of particle shape and texture. Further research was needed to correlate pre-evaluation methods to the current field method, ASTM E 274-85 Locked Wheel Skid Trailer. In this research, twenty-five in-place bituminous projects and eight source evaluations were investigated. The information gathered would further validate the T3CM and find the pre-evaluation method that best predicted the field method. In addition, new sources of aggregates for bituminous surface courses were revealed. The results of this research have shown T3CM to be highly repeatable with an overall coefficient of variation of 0.26% for an eight sample repeatability test. It was the best correlated pre-evaluation method with the locked wheel skid trailer method giving an R2 value of 0.3946 and a Pearson coefficient of 0.710. Being able to predict field performance of aggregates prior to construction is a powerful tool capable of saving time, money, labor, and possibly lives.

  14. Gamma radiation hazard to miners in bituminous coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skubacz, K.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation hazard to miners working in 16 bituminous coal mines was determined by a thermoluminescence method. While the miners exposure to gamma radiation is higher than that of the general population, the yearly dose was never found to exceed 5 mSv in any investigated person. Factors contributing to the estimate of the exposure hazard and the need for individual dose monitoring in mines are discussed in more detail. 3 refs., 4 figs. (author)

  15. Biodegradation of bituminous products from processing liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibensky, L.; Krejci, F.; Hladky, E.; Halama, D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the possible ways of disturbing the stability of bituminous products from liquid radioactive waste processing, is biodegradation caused by common microorganisms. Pseudomonas bacteria and a Bacillus cereus culture were selected for experimental study of cultivation of microorganisms. Experiments with mixed cultures were also performed. Pitches, ajatin and imidazoline were used as inhibitors. The thin layer and the emulsion methods were used in assessing biological corrosion. The results of the experiments are discussed with respect to the dependence of bacterial growth on bitumen biodegradation, the effect of pH on bitumen degradation and the effect of inhibitors on bitumen biodegradation. The salts contained in bituminous products were not found to significantly affect the rate of destruction. The degree of degradation was found to mainly depend on the bitumen, its chemical composition, and on the conditions of storage. It was also found that inhibitor additions in some cases modified the properties of the matrix such that it became more liquid. The coefficient of extractibility thus increased of matrix salts. The recultivation of bacteria on a full-value medium resulted in the loss of the inhibitory effect. In some cases, the inhibitor even stimulated the growth of microorganisms. The use of inhibitors in an effort to achieve biostability of bituminous products thus did not solve the problem. (Z.M.). 2 tabs., 9 refs

  16. Polyfunctional Modifiers for Bitumen and Bituminous Materials with High Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Feizrakhmanovich Kemalov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade increase in capacity and the intensity of vehicular traffic has increased manifoldly, including heavy trucks, super singles, and higher tire pressures, resulting in significant increase of dynamic loads on the road surface which in turn lead to high quality requirements for bitumen in order to avoid premature wear and failure of asphalt concrete pavements. One of the possibilities to increase the quality of bitumen is to use special additives and modifiers that can provide a high adhesion to mineral filler and inhibit the aging and degradation processes in the asphalt coating. To achieve this, in the present study composite modifiers based on bisimidazolines derivatives were synthesized. The developed polyfunctional modifier (PFM of complex action provides enhanced thermal stability, significantly improves the adhesion between bitumen binder and aggregates, and also improves the physical-mechanical properties of the asphalt concrete. Based on the test results it is recommended to use the synthesized samples of the PFM additive with complex action in asphalt mixtures for road paving.

  17. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  18. Premature asphalt concrete pavement cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) has identified hot mix asphalt concrete : (HMAC) pavements that have displayed top-down cracking within three years of construction. The objective of : the study was to evaluate the top-down cr...

  19. Pavement management using hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, Balehager; Gomez, Richard B.; Roper, William E.; Carrasco, Oscar

    2003-08-01

    Public Works facilities require up-to-date information on the health status of the road network they maintain. However, roadway maintenance and rehabilitation involves the greatest portion of a municipality's annual operating budget. Government officials use various technologies such as a pavement management system to assist in making better decisions about their roadways systems, pavement condition, history, and projects. Traditionally, manual surveying has served as the method of obtaining this information. To better assist in decision-making, a regionally specific spectral library for urban areas is being developed and used in conjunction with hyperspecrtal imaging, to map urban materials and pavement conditions. A Geographical Information and Positioning System (GIS/GPS) will also be implemented to overlay relative locations. This paper will examine the benefits of using hyperspectral imaging over traditional methods of roadway maintenance and rehabilitation for pavement management applications. In doing so, we will identify spatial and spectral requirements for successful large-scale road feature extraction.

  20. GPR used in combination with other NDT methods for assessing pavements in PPP projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizos, Andreas; Plati, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Pavement Engineering of National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) gained through its research activities in various Greek PPP projects as well its involvement in several related European and International scientific actions. It is suggested that the implementation of such protocol could support the pavement management activities with respect to the needs of a PPP project. This is accomplished through the resulted advantages that include simplicity in application, economic benefits and familiarity that are very important factors towards the optimization of the resources and the utilization of the available information; both of them are required for the orderly operation of a PPP project. Acknowledgments: This work benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar."

  1. Environmentally Friendly Pavements: final report

    OpenAIRE

    Aksnes, Jostein

    2009-01-01

    This final report presents the main results, advice and recommendations from the research and development program Environmentally Friendly Pavements run by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) in the period 2004-2009. The main focus of the project has been to optimise the environmental properties of road surfaces with respect to low road tyre noise and road dust emissions. The project has shown that: The tested environmentally friendly pavements give an initial noise r...

  2. Fracture mechanics in pavement design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available MODELLING FRACTURE IN PAVEMENT MATERIALS The cohesive crack approach can be incorporated in finite element method (FEM) to simulate fracture in pavement materials. In this paper an embedded discontinuity method (EDM) based on the work by Sancho et al... through elements, in other words, independent of nodal positions and element boundaries. The EDM was used for the numerical simulation of two examples of fracture tests on road materials from the literature. The model is applied to reproduce...

  3. Intelligent system for pavement management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Brega, Jose R.; Alba Soria, Manoel H.; Marar, Joao F.; Sementille, Antonio C.

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes a method for the evaluation of pavement condition through artificial neural networks using the MLP backpropagation technique. Two of the most used procedures for detecting the pavement conditions were applied: the 'overall severity index' and the 'irregularity index.' Tests with the model demonstrated that the simulation with the neural network gives better results than the procedures recommended by the highway officials. This network may also be applied for the construction of a graphic computer environment.

  4. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavements including interlocking concrete permeable pavers, pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. The permeable pavements are limited to parking spaces while adjacent driving lanes are impermeable and drain to the permeable surfaces. The parking lot is instrumented for continuous monitoring with thermistors and water content reflectometers that measure moisture as infiltrate passes through the storage gallery beneath the permeable pavements into the underlying native soil. Each permeable surface of the parking lot has four lined sections that capture infiltrate in tanks for water quality analyses; these tanks are capable of holding volumes up to 4.1 m3, which represents up to 38 mm (1.5 in.) for direct rainfall on the porous pavement and runoff from adjacent driving lanes that drain into the permeable surface.Previous technical releases concerning the demonstration site focused on monitoring techniques, observed chloride and nutrient concentrations, surface hydrology, and infiltration and evaporation rates. This presentation summarizes these past findings and addresses current water quality efforts including pH, solids analysis, total organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand. Stormwater runoff continues to be a major cause of water pollution in

  5. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  6. A pavement Moisture Accelerated Distress (MAD) identification system, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, S. H.; Darter, M. I.; Dempsey, B. J.

    1981-09-01

    A users manual is designed which provides the engineer with a rational method of examining a pavement and determining rehabilitation needs that are related to the causes of the existing distress, particularly moisture related distress. The key elements in this procedure are the MAD Index developed in Volume 1, the Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and the Moisture Distress Index (MDI). Step by step procedures are presented for calculating each parameter. Complete distress identification manuals are included for asphalt surfaced highways and jointed reinforced concrete highways with pictures and descriptions of all major distress types. Descriptions of the role moisture plays in the development of each distress type are included.

  7. Calibration of PMIS pavement performance prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Improve the accuracy of TxDOTs existing pavement performance prediction models through calibrating these models using actual field data obtained from the Pavement Management Information System (PMIS). : Ensure logical performance superiority patte...

  8. Appraisal of the Causes of Pavement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    used environmental observations in addition to geotechnical test to study ... 1Department of Applied Geophysics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria ... have contributed to the pavement failure. Keywords: Remote Sensing, Geotechnical Investigation, Road Pavement Failure, Basement Complex. Environment.

  9. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervious pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Environmental Protection Agency's Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavingstone pervious pavement systems. The pavingstones themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between...

  10. Equivalent damage of loads on pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prozzi, JA

    2009-05-26

    Full Text Available This report describes a new methodology for the determination of Equivalent Damage Factors (EDFs) of vehicles with multiple axle and wheel configurations on pavements. The basic premise of this new procedure is that "equivalent pavement response...

  11. Dynamic contracting mechanism for pavement maintenance management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, H.C.; De Ridder, H.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances, financial possibilities and changes of demands have increasingly affected the pavement maintenance environment for outsourcing in recent years. This induces complexity in the contracting methods of pavement maintenance activities. Despite the fact that current contracting

  12. Minimization of reflection cracks in flexible pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the performance of fabrics used under overlays in an effort to minimize longitudinal and alligator cracking in flexible pavements. It is concluded, although the sample size is small, that the treatments will extend the pavement ...

  13. Evaluation of pavement surface friction treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The implementation of a pavement preservation program involves a learning curve with not only a determination to succeed, but : also the courage to fail. Also, successful implementation of pavement preservation program requires knowledge of the perfo...

  14. Serviceable pavement marking retroreflectivity levels : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This research addressed an array of issues related to measuring pavement markings retroreflectivity, factors : related to pavement marking performance, subjective evaluation process, best practices for using mobile : retroreflectometers, sampling pav...

  15. An approach to pavement management in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The report summarizes the objectives and benefits of formal pavement management systems and outlines an approach believed by the author to be practical for Virginia. The management of Virginia interstate pavements and a proposed random-sampling plan ...

  16. Sustainable concrete pavements : a manual of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Developed as a more detailed follow-up to a 2009 briefing document, Building Sustainable Pavement with Concrete, this guide provides a clear, concise, and cohesive discussion of pavement sustainability concepts and of recommended practices for maximi...

  17. Pavement performance evaluation, phase II : data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Phase I and II of this study tested approximately 1500 rehabilitated pavements (asphalt and PCC) : throughout the State. These pavements ranged from 5 to 15 years old and were intended to develop a : snapshot of how various rehabilitations were perfo...

  18. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  19. Assessment Of The Deterioration Degree Of Airfield Pavement Functional Constituents Made Of Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barszcz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic feature of the approach to the analysis of the airfield pavement deterioration degree as outlined in this paper is the fact that not only existing deteriorations are taken into account of but also already completed historical repairs. This approach enables determination of resources needed to conduct repairs and setting up reasonable schedules of future overhauls. The proposed index of the pavement deterioration degree, calculated on the basis of measured deficiencies and past repairs, makes it possible to assess the technical condition of the airfield pavement in a comprehensive manner. The key information indispensable to evaluate the degree of deterioration of the airfield pavement surface includes data which can be acquired from already completed stocktaking inventories. The stocktaking process is based on the catalogue of deficiencies typical for airfield pavements and the rules for stocktaking measurements.

  20. Automatic Pavement Crack Recognition Based on BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A feasible pavement crack detection system plays an important role in evaluating the road condition and providing the necessary road maintenance. In this paper, a back propagation neural network (BPNN is used to recognize pavement cracks from images. To improve the recognition accuracy of the BPNN, a complete framework of image processing is proposed including image preprocessing and crack information extraction. In this framework, the redundant image information is reduced as much as possible and two sets of feature parameters are constructed to classify the crack images. Then a BPNN is adopted to distinguish pavement images between linear and alligator cracks to acquire high recognition accuracy. Besides, the linear cracks can be further classified into transversal and longitudinal cracks according to the direction angle. Finally, the proposed method is evaluated on the data of 400 pavement images obtained by the Automatic Road Analyzer (ARAN in Northern China and the results show that the proposed method seems to be a powerful tool for pavement crack recognition. The rates of correct classification for alligator, transversal and longitudinal cracks are 97.5%, 100% and 88.0%, respectively. Compared to some previous studies, the method proposed in this paper is effective for all three kinds of cracks and the results are also acceptable for engineering application.

  1. High Performance Concrete Pavement in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    Nantung, Tommy E

    2011-01-01

    Until the early 1990s, curling and warping of Portland cement concrete pavement did not concern pavement engineers in many transportation agencies. Since beginning construction of the interstate system in the United States in the late 1950s through the late 1980s, the performance of Portland cement concrete pavement has been associated with properties of concrete as a pavement material. In those years developed standards and design guidelines emphasized better concrete materials and construct...

  2. Calibration on MEPDG Low Temperature Cracking Model and Recommendation on Asphalt Pavement Structures in Seasonal Frozen Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG to design and maintain asphalt pavements in China, it is necessary to calibrate transfer functions of distresses in MEPDG with local conditions, including traffics, environment, and materials as well as measured pavement distresses data in field. Comprehensive single factor sensitivity analyses of factors that influence thermal cracking of asphalt pavements were conducted utilizing the MEPDG low temperature cracking (LTC model. Additionally, multiple factor sensitivity analyses were carried out as well, based on which pavement structures with sound thermal cracking resistance were recommended for seasonal frozen regions in China. Finally, the field data of thermal cracks on typical asphalt pavements in China was utilized to calibrate the LTC model in MEPDG. An improvement was proposed on MEPDG LTC model, after which was applied, the predicted thermal cracking from MEPDG LTC model agrees well with measured thermal cracking in China.

  3. Full depth bituminous recycling of I-70, Thomas County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In 1990, 13 full depth asphalt pavement test sections were built on a portion of I-70 in Thomas County, Kansas. Various combinations of hot mix and cold recycle mixes with different additives were used to build the test sections. Two of the test sect...

  4. Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Pavement Skid Resistance on Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah I. Al-Mansour

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Transport (MOT in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had collected a massive amount of friction measurements using a Mu-meter covering most of the major highway network in the kingdom. Traffic accident data of 89 high accident rate locations from four main different highway classes were extracted from the MOT accident records. Pavement skid resistance for the selected locations was determined from the pavement skid resistance records. The objective of this paper is to utilize these data to investigate the effects of pavement skid resistance on traffic accidents. The analysis included establishing relationships between skid resistance and accident number, accident significance and accident density. It was determined that a decreasing skid resistance leads to an increase in traffic accidents. Acritical value of skid resistance was also established based on number, significance and density of accidents.

  6. Pavement maintenance optimization model using Markov Decision Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandiartha, P.; Duffield, C. F.; Razelan, I. S. b. M.; Ismail, A. b. H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an optimization model for selection of pavement maintenance intervention using a theory of Markov Decision Processes (MDP). There are some particular characteristics of the MDP developed in this paper which distinguish it from other similar studies or optimization models intended for pavement maintenance policy development. These unique characteristics include a direct inclusion of constraints into the formulation of MDP, the use of an average cost method of MDP, and the policy development process based on the dual linear programming solution. The limited information or discussions that are available on these matters in terms of stochastic based optimization model in road network management motivates this study. This paper uses a data set acquired from road authorities of state of Victoria, Australia, to test the model and recommends steps in the computation of MDP based stochastic optimization model, leading to the development of optimum pavement maintenance policy.

  7. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  8. Influence of pavement macrotexture on PM10 emissions from paved roads: A controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Swarup; James, David E.

    2012-12-01

    This paper investigates influence of pavement macrotexture on paved road PM10 emissions. This study was conducted on different paved roadway types (local, collector and minor arterial) in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada. Pavement macrotexture was measured using the ASTM E 965 sand patch method and the Digital Surface Roughness Meter™ (DSRM™). A controlled constant soil loading with known PM10 fraction was applied to cleaned road surfaces. The Desert Research Institute's (DRI) Mini-PI-SWERL™ (Portable In-Situ Wind ERosion Lab) was used to estimate PM10 mass emissions and cumulative mass emitted from pavement surfaces. PM10 mass emissions using controlled applied soil loadings generally declined with increasing pavement macrotexture at all applied shear levels. The relationships were statistically significant, and indicate that pavement macrotexture may need to be included in future development of revised paved road PM10 emissions factors. A change in the slope of emitted PM10 mass and pavement macrotexture occurred between 0.8 and 0.9 mm mean texture depth (MTD). Anomalies in PM10 mass emissions were observed at MTDs exceeding 1.2 mm. Two-way frequency distributions of pavement surface features obtained from DSRM measurements were analyzed to explain the observed anomalies. Results showed that pavement surface feature size distributions may influence on PM10 emissions from paved roads at similar MTDs. PM10 mass emissions were found to linearly depend on adjusted mode size of the pavement surface aggregate. A sharp decrease in friction velocities, computed from wind erosion theory, at MTDs above 0.9 mm matched an observed sharp decrease in PM10 emissions rates at MTDs above 0.9 mm, indicating that classical wind erosion theory could be adapted for non-erodible pavement surfaces and linearly relate PM10 emissions rates to applied shear stress at an aerodynamic roughness height of 0.075 mm.

  9. Low NOx firing systems for bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyrim, W.; Scheffknecht, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the case of lignite fluidized boilers the denitrification down to less than 200 mg/m 3 was possible with primary measures on the firing side only. On account of the excellent results achieved with the reconstructed plants the firing systems for the new generation of brown coal fire steam generators with a capacity of 800 MW and more is designed in a similar way. For bituminous coal fire steam generators the primary measures on the firing side are nor sufficient to keep the German NO x emission limit. Therefore these units had to be retrofitted with a SCR-DENOX plant. The experience with the new firing system made in a 110 MW steam generator in Austria with a wide range of fuels is introduced. One of the largest bituminous coal fired once-trough steam generator built by EVT is the boiler for the power station Bexbach I (750 MW). The firing system is designed as a tangential firing system with 32 jet burners. These are arranged in pairs in the corners and divided into 4 burner levels with 4 burner pairs each. One mill is allocated to each burner level. An important characteristic feature is that the four bowl mills are arranged on one side of the steam generator. The plant is constructed with upper air nozzles which are arranged above the top burner level for the reduced of nitrogen oxides. During tests at steam generator with similar design, the nO x formation could be reduced from 750 to 500 mg/m 3 s.t.p. (dry, 6% O 2 ) with an addition of upper air of 20% at 100% unit capacity and constant total flow. As a main approach for the further reduction of the primary NO x emission at bituminous coal fired steam generators with tangential firing systems, the experience gained from the firing of brown coal has also been taken into account. A fundamental aspect in this respect was the vertical air staging in the direction of the furnace height. The results of many tests in a test reactor have shown that the differences of the achievable NO x values of brown and

  10. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  11. Pretreatment of bituminous coal for hydrogenation (older experiments)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer, H.

    1943-03-29

    The tendency for coal paste to become plastic inside a certain temperature range, which sometimes caused plugging in the preheater tubes, was observed only in bituminous coal. This phenomenon, called swelling, was seen as parallel to the increase in volume of the coal in coking or carbonization, which had been observed with melting bituminous coal. Although the parallel did not hold for all cases, the frequent simultaneous occurrence of the two phenomena suggested the possibility that those treatments of coal which reduced its baking ability would also improve its behavior in the preheater. Unequivocal results were not obtained, but certain predictions could be made about a pretreatment of coal for hydrogenation. (1) With preheating, no influence with regard to pressure plugging was detected in Brassert coal, although Saar coal Louisenthal, preheated, produced a better asphalt content and lower gasification experimentally. (2) Change in coal due to anoxidation increased the viscosity of the coal paste, while preheating in vacuum had no effect. (3) The baking ability of Saar coal could be destroyed by a sulfur treatment, without appreciably diminishing the volatile content. In general, a distinct improvement was observed with the absorption of sulfur.

  12. Co-pyrolysis characteristic of biomass and bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Aibin; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangsuo

    2015-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of biomass and bituminous coal have been studied in this work. The temperature was up to 900°C with the heating rates of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C/min. Rice straw, saw dust, microcrystalline cellulose, lignin and Shenfu bituminous coal were chosen as samples. Six different biomass ratios were used. The individual thermal behavior of each sample was obtained. The experimental weight fractions of the blended samples and the calculated values were compared. The results show that the weight fractions of the blended samples behave differently with calculated ones during the co-pyrolysis process. With the increasing biomass ratio, relative deviations between experimental weight fractions and calculated ones are larger. H/C molar ratio, heat transfer properties of biomass would affect to the interaction between biomass and coal. The maximum degradation rates are slower than the calculated ones. The activation energy distributions also changed by adding some biomass into coal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural radioactivity associated with bituminous coal mining in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogun, F.A.; Mokobia, C.E.; Fasasi, M.K.; Ogundare, F.O.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma spectroscopic method was used to determine the natural radioactivity associated with the mining of Nigerian bituminous coal for the purpose of determining the radiological implications of coal mining in the country. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides detected range from 0.20±0.002 to 48.42±5.32 Bq kg -1 . The overall natural radionuclide contribution to the radioactivity of the environment was found to be 404.16±23.44 Bq kg -1 . Of this, coal waste (tailing) alone contributed 49.5% representing the largest contribution. Coal contributed just 5.5%. A comparison of the concentrations obtained in this work for coal with those from other parts of the world indicates that the radioactivity content of the Nigerian bituminous coal is not significantly different. The outdoor and indoor exposure rates in air 1 m above the ground are estimated to be (6.31±1.20)x10 -8 and (7.57±1.20) x10 -8 Gy h -1 , respectively, for the mining environment. These values compare very well with the global values reported by UNSCEAR: 5x10 -8 and 6x10 -8 Gy h -1 , respectively. The resulting annual effective dose equivalent estimated is (4.49±0.74)x10 -4 Sv yr -1 . This also compares favourably with the global value -4x10 -4 Sv yr -1 , reported by UNSCEAR

  14. A review on automated pavement distress detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Tom B.J.; Golroo, Amir

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, extensive research has been conducted on pavement distress detection. A large part of these studies applied automated methods to capture different distresses. In this paper, a literature review on the distresses and related detection methods are presented. This review also includes

  15. Forensic Investigation of Premature Failure of a Roadway Pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tests conducted on the pavement layers of the failed road included moisture content, particle size distribution of soil samples, Atterberg limit tests, in-situ density and dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) tests. An empirical equation from published literature was used to compute the California bearing ratio (CBR) of various ...

  16. Calorific efficiency of bituminous coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, H.; Schappert, H.

    1942-02-20

    The calorific efficiency of coal hydrogenation was the relation between the calories contained in the desired final product, that is, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (L.P.G.), and the calories contained in the coal required to produce the desired final product. A table of the efficiency of the power plant was given. Calorific efficiency of hydrogen production was then discussed, with figure 1 showing the heat flow diagram; tables 1 and 2 contained data for the coke plant and the water gas plant, respectively. Calorific efficiency of hydrogenation proper was discussed, with figure 2 showing the heat flow diagram for the production of aviation gasoline, and with the corresponding energy values given in table 3. The next topic of discussion was the possibility of increasing the calorific efficiency of total hydrogenation by: introduction of Linde process, utilization of kiln residues, introduction of paste heat exchange, and recovering the waste heat from the hot letdown and products. Table 4 gave data on the hydrogenation for aviation gasoline. The efficiency of hydrogen production was 26.3% without counting possible improvements or by-products for the process. The efficiency of the hydrogenation process itself was 49.0% for production of aviation gasoline and 51.1% for production of auto gasoline. However, for combined hydrogenation and hydrogen production, the efficiencies became 27.2% and 28.9% respectively. If all of the improvements mentioned above (including hydrogen production by Linde-process decomposition of product gases) were introduced, the efficiencies would rise to about 34.6% and 36.8%, respectively. 5 diagrams, 4 tables

  17. Bitumen rubber asphalt mix testing for South African pavement design method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The South Africa National Road Agency Ltd has entered into a research and laboratory testing agreement with the CSIR to support the revision of the South African Pavement Design Method (SAPDM). The research includes characterising a bitumen...

  18. Mechanical Properties of Portland Cement Concrete With Recycled Asphalt Pavement as Partial Replacement for Coarse Aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Finding constructive uses for construction waste byproducts contributes to green engineering principles. One such plentiful material is recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). This report looks at the mechanical viability of including RAP in a high strength...

  19. Long-term pavement performance ancillary information management system (AIMS) reference guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This document provides information on the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program ancillary information. : Ancillary information includes data, images, reference materials, resource documents, and other information that : support and extend the...

  20. Selection of pavement foundation geomaterials for the construction of a new runway

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The selection of foundation geomaterials including base/subbase unbound granular aggregate is critical for the design of flexible airfield pavements in the United States. These materials must meet the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) selection...

  1. Computer-based guidelines for concrete pavements : HIPERPAV III : user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This user manual provides guidance on how to use the new High PERformance PAVing (HIPERPAV) III software program for the analysis of early-age Portland cement concrete pavement (PCCP) behavior. HIPERPAV III includes several improvements over prev...

  2. An Optimization Model for Design of Asphalt Pavements Based on IHAP Code Number 234

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Ghanizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pavement construction is one of the most costly parts of transportation infrastructures. Incommensurate design and construction of pavements, in addition to the loss of the initial investment, would impose indirect costs to the road users and reduce road safety. This paper aims to propose an optimization model to determine the optimal configuration as well as the optimum thickness of different pavement layers based on the Iran Highway Asphalt Paving Code Number 234 (IHAP Code 234. After developing the optimization model, the optimum thickness of pavement layers for secondary rural roads, major rural roads, and freeways was determined based on the recommended prices in “Basic Price List for Road, Runway and Railway” of Iran in 2015 and several charts were developed to determine the optimum thickness of pavement layers including asphalt concrete, granular base, and granular subbase with respect to road classification, design traffic, and resilient modulus of subgrade. Design charts confirm that in the current situation (material prices in 2015, application of asphalt treated layer in pavement structure is not cost effective. Also it was shown that, with increasing the strength of subgrade soil, the subbase layer may be removed from the optimum structure of pavement.

  3. Comparison of winter temperature profiles in asphalt and concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) determine which pavement type, asphalt or concrete, has : higher surface temperatures in winter and 2) compare the subsurface temperatures under asphalt and : concrete pavements to determine the pavement typ...

  4. Minnesota Local Agency Pavement Marking : Mining Existing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Pavement marking is important for safety. Maximizing pavement marking performance in terms of increased retroreflectivity, within limited budget constraints, allows agencies to make better decisions toward providing more effective pavement marking pe...

  5. Texas flexible pavements overlays : review and analysis of existing databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Proper calibration of pavement design and rehabilitation performance models to : conditions in Texas is essential for cost-effective flexible pavement design. The degree of : excellence with which TxDOTs pavement design models is calibrated will d...

  6. Tuning in to pavement radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a phenomenon known all over Africa, for which there is no really satisfactory term in English but which is summed up in the French term 'radio trottoir', literally 'pavement radio'. It may be defined as the popular and unofficial discussion of current affairs in Africa,

  7. The Concrete and Pavement Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world is characterized by the extensive use of concrete and asphalt pavement. Periodically, these materials are replaced and the old materials disposed of. In this challenge, students will be asked to develop ways to reuse the old materials. It is important for students to understand how concrete and asphalt are made and applied, as…

  8. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Lab.

    2002-06-01

    Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals to investigate the various factors influencing airborne respirable dust generation. Bituminous coal samples from 8 mines (5 U.S. and 3 Polish) were uniformly prepared and processed through a double roll crusher located in a low air velocity wind tunnel. Experimental factors studied included inherent coal seam constituents, specific energy of crushing, product size characteristics, dust cloud electrostatic field, and specific quantity of airborne respirable dust generated. A combination of factors is associated with the generation of airborne respirable dust. One factor involved is the effect of coal rank, described by the inherent moist fuel ratio, on the product size characteristics. However, since coals of high moist fuel ratio (high rank) are generally more extensively cleated, it is suggested that the degree of cleating is directly responsible for the quantity of respirable-sized particles produced in the crushed product material for eastern U.S. coals. This is implied by the relationship of ash content and at least one mineral constituent (pyrite, determined from pyritic sulfur analysis) to the percentage of airborne respirable dust. A clear delineation of coals, based on well-known proximate analysis characteristics, that generate the most respirable dust appears to be possible. It was also shown that the dust-generating characteristics of coals could be reasonably described by both the moist fuel ratio and the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI). These results show a clear distinction between eastern and western U.S. coals. However, no consistent distinction for Polish coal was observed.

  9. Feasibility of reclaimed asphalt pavement as aggregate in portland cement concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This research effort was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using minimally processed reclaimed : asphalt pavement (RAP) as aggregate replacement in concrete pavements. This research demonstrated : that concretes with up to 50 percent of the fi...

  10. Comparison of accelerated pavement test results with long term pavement behaviour and performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jooste, FJ

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the following:how accelerated pavement testing predictions compare with actual road behaviour and performance the relative influences of load and environmental factors on pavement deterioration and how well...

  11. An integrated pavement data management and feedback system (PAMS) : evaluation of pavement condition rating procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    This report describes an evaluation of a method for use in the Highway Needs Study pavement condition rating. The methods by which the Department generates and manages pavement condition data in the overall process of providing a network of highways ...

  12. Integration and Evaluation of Automated Pavement Distress Data in INDOT’s Pavement Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This study was in two parts. The first part established and demonstrated a framework for pavement data integration. This is critical for fulfilling QC/QA needs of INDOTs pavement management system, because the precision of the physical location re...

  13. Long-term pavement performance information management system : pavement performance database user reference guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    This document provides information to aid in understanding and using the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program pavement performance database. This document provides an introduction to the structure of the LTPP program, the relational structur...

  14. Long-term pavement performance pavement loading user guide (LTPP PLUG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    "This guide addresses the selection and use of axle loading defaults for Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design : Guide (MEPDG) applications. The defaults were developed based on weigh-in-motion (WIM) data from the Long- : Term Pavement Performance (L...

  15. Advanced Pavement Design: Finite Element Modeling for Rigid Pavement Joints, Report II: Model Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hammons, Michael

    1998-01-01

    .... The objective of this research was to obtain data on the response of the ng'id pavement slab-joint-foundation system by conducting laboratory-scale experiments on jointed rigid pavement models...

  16. MoDOT pavement preservation research program volume IV, pavement evaluation tools-data collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The overarching goal of the MoDOT Pavement Preservation Research Program, Task 3: Pavement Evaluation Tools Data : Collection Methods was to identify and evaluate methods to rapidly obtain network-level and project-level information relevant to :...

  17. Study of thermal reactivity during bituminization of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouffe, Sh.

    2004-10-01

    This work deals with the study of chemical reactions and phases transitions which can occur between magnesium nitrate, sodium nitrate, cobalt sulphur product, and nickel potassium ferrocyanide, when they are heated together during bituminization process of nuclear waste. The applied methodology associates a few techniques: temperature, enthalpy, and kinetics of reaction are determined by calorimetry, reaction products are characterised by chemical analyses, mass spectrometry and XRD analysis. Three fields of temperature and energy are observed in function of composition (one compound or a mixture of compounds). The study of reactions between NaNO 3 and cobalt sulphur product shows that the presence of water has got an effect on reaction temperature. The study of Mg(NO 3 ) 2 , 6 H 2 O and CoS shows an overlapping of different signals, and that the reaction rate is very slow (a few hours). (author)

  18. Environmental problems caused by bituminous schist and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmas, N.; Aykul, H.; Erarslan, K.; Ediz, I.G.

    1998-01-01

    Schist, as a disposal of mine, has harmful effects on environment. however, several manners can be utilized to prevent the environmental destruction as well as an economical benefit is gained. In this study, environmental problems caused by bituminous schist and other disposals have been investigated on a specific lignite coal mine where schist is disposed as waste material. Pollution and damage on land and in water sources around the coal district and the villages have been observed, recorded and several solutions to environmental problems have been proposed. Discussed proposals will not only solve the environmental pollution problem but also provide waste management facility. Industrial structure of the district enables such a disposal to be used as an economical raw material. Besides, general effects of the coal mine and the power plant nearby have been discussed from environmental point of view, too. 7 refs

  19. Optimization of the encapsulation process of bituminized radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jarine E.C.; Tello, Clédola C.O.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose alternatives for the deposition of bituminized waste in metallic packages coated with a cementitious matrix for surface repository, aiming to meet the standards criteria and increasing the integrity of the metallic packaging during the planned storage time, transportation and disposal. For this purpose, tests will be carried out to evaluate cement pastes and mortar with cementitious additives, aiming at the durability and reduction of pores. Leaching tests with different thicknesses will also be carried out, where optimization of the encapsulation can meet safety, durability and economy standards for the repository, as well as practices that contribute to reduce environmental impacts and the economic burden imposed on future generations

  20. Ultrasound data for laboratory calibration of an analytical model to calculate crack depth on asphalt pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franesqui, Miguel A; Yepes, Jorge; García-González, Cándida

    2017-08-01

    This article outlines the ultrasound data employed to calibrate in the laboratory an analytical model that permits the calculation of the depth of partial-depth surface-initiated cracks on bituminous pavements using this non-destructive technique. This initial calibration is required so that the model provides sufficient precision during practical application. The ultrasonic pulse transit times were measured on beam samples of different asphalt mixtures (semi-dense asphalt concrete AC-S; asphalt concrete for very thin layers BBTM; and porous asphalt PA). The cracks on the laboratory samples were simulated by means of notches of variable depths. With the data of ultrasound transmission time ratios, curve-fittings were carried out on the analytical model, thus determining the regression parameters and their statistical dispersion. The calibrated models obtained from laboratory datasets were subsequently applied to auscultate the evolution of the crack depth after microwaves exposure in the research article entitled "Top-down cracking self-healing of asphalt pavements with steel filler from industrial waste applying microwaves" (Franesqui et al., 2017) [1].

  1. Ultrasound data for laboratory calibration of an analytical model to calculate crack depth on asphalt pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Franesqui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the ultrasound data employed to calibrate in the laboratory an analytical model that permits the calculation of the depth of partial-depth surface-initiated cracks on bituminous pavements using this non-destructive technique. This initial calibration is required so that the model provides sufficient precision during practical application. The ultrasonic pulse transit times were measured on beam samples of different asphalt mixtures (semi-dense asphalt concrete AC-S; asphalt concrete for very thin layers BBTM; and porous asphalt PA. The cracks on the laboratory samples were simulated by means of notches of variable depths. With the data of ultrasound transmission time ratios, curve-fittings were carried out on the analytical model, thus determining the regression parameters and their statistical dispersion. The calibrated models obtained from laboratory datasets were subsequently applied to auscultate the evolution of the crack depth after microwaves exposure in the research article entitled “Top-down cracking self-healing of asphalt pavements with steel filler from industrial waste applying microwaves” (Franesqui et al., 2017 [1].

  2. Inverted base pavements: construction and performance

    KAUST Repository

    Papadopoulos, Efthymios

    2017-05-11

    Inverted base pavements involve a well-compacted granular aggregate base built between a thin asphalt concrete layer and a cement-treated base. Inverted base pavements can be constructed using conventional equipment and procedures but require proper quality control. This study reviews the extensive South African experience and case histories in the USA. Accumulating evidence suggests that inverted base pavements are a viable alternative and can outperform conventional pavements at a lower cost. Inverted base pavements rely on the complementary interaction between layers. The cement-treated base provides a stiff foundation for efficient compaction and constrains the deformation of the stress-sensitive granular aggregate base. The thin asphalt surface layer deforms as a membrane and develops low tensile stress. Additional large-scale field tests should be conducted to assess the performance of inverted base pavement designs in a wide range of conditions relevant to the USA.

  3. ANALYSES OF THE INFLUENCE OF MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS ON PAVEMENT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Vukobratović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, only empirical design methods are used in the application of well-known standards for pavement structure design. Given this fact, it is assumed that material characteristics correspond to average quality materials. Thus, the aim of this study included examining the influence of material characteristics on pavement design analyzing changes in the cement bound base layer (CBL characteristics with respect to the occurrence of cracks and changes in the asphalt layer given typical seasonal changes. The study involved varying CBL modulus as 15 GPa, 10 GPa, and 5 GPa. Additionally, the moduli of asphalt layers were varied from 6 MPa to 2 MPa to simulate real conditions in pavement structure life. The analyses indicated that there was a significant difference in pavement behavior with respect to changes in material characteristics. Given these significant differences, it is extremely important to properly define material characteristics while using empirical design methods. Proper material characterization combined with the utilization of empirical and analytical methods increases the possibility of reducing layers thickness to design cost-effective structures.

  4. Representative volume element of asphalt pavement for electromagnetic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhi Pellinen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this study was to investigate the representative volume element (RVE needed to correlate the nondestructive electromagnetic (EM measurements with the conventional destructive asphalt pavement quality control measurements. A large pavement rehabilitation contract was used as the test site for the experiment. Pavement cores were drilled from the same locations where the stationary and continuous Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR measurements were obtained. Laboratory measurements included testing the bulk density of cores using two methods, the surface-saturated dry method and determining bulk density by dimensions. Also, Vector Network Analyzer (VNA and the through specimen transmission configuration were employed at microwave frequencies to measure the reference dielectric constant of cores using two different footprint areas and therefore volume elements. The RVE for EM measurements turns out to be frequency dependent; therefore in addition to being dependent on asphalt mixture type and method of obtaining bulk density, it is dependent on the resolution of the EM method used. Then, although the average bulk property results agreed with theoretical formulations of higher core air void content giving a lower dielectric constant, for the individual cores there was no correlation for the VNA measurements because the volume element seizes deviated. Similarly, GPR technique was unable to capture the spatial variation of pavement air voids measured from the 150-mm drill cores. More research is needed to determine the usable RVE for asphalt.

  5. Cracking of open traffic rigid pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Niken Chatarina; Siswanto Yudi; Widodo; Tjahjono Elly

    2017-01-01

    The research is done by observing the growth of real structure cracking in Natar, Lampung, Indonesia compared to C. Niken’s et al research and literature study. The rigid pavement was done with open traffic system. There are two main crack types on Natar rigid pavement: cracks cross the road, and cracks spreads on rigid pavement surface. The observation of cracks was analyzed by analyzing material, casting, curing, loading and shrinkage mechanism. The relationship between these analysis and s...

  6. Short term performance and effect of speed humps on pavement condition of Alexandria Governorate roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Bekheet

    2014-12-01

    Some performance trends were observed and found to be statistically significant, including superior short-term performance of projects with good or average construction QC records when compared to poor construction QC records. Raveling was the most widely observed distress, while load-related distresses were not common. The analysis also showed that the presence of improper speed humps significantly affected the pavement condition, reducing the PCI of the pavement sections by up to 19 PCI points.

  7. Influence of association of "EVA-NBR" on indirect tensile strength of modified bituminous concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinoun, M.; Soudani, K.; Haddadi, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the improvement of the mechanical properties of bituminous concrete by modification of bituminous concrete. In this study, we present the results of the indirect tensile strength "ITS" of modified bituminous concrete by the combination of two modifiers, one is a plastomer EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) and the other is a industrial waste from the shoe soles grinding NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) as crumb rubber. To modify the bitumen a wet process was used. The results show that the modification of bitumen by EVA-NBR combination increases their resistance to the indirect traction "ITS" compared to the bituminous concrete control. The mixture of 5% [50% EVA+ 50% NBR] is given the best result among the other associations.

  8. State of the art report on bituminized waste forms of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Kook; Shon, Jong Sik; Kim, Kil Jeong; Lee, Kang Moo; Jung, In Ha

    1998-03-01

    In this report, research and development results on the bituminization of radioactive wastes are closely reviewed, especially those regarding waste treatment technologies, waste solidifying procedures and the characteristics of asphalt and solidified forms. A new concept of the bituminization method is suggested in this report which can improve the characteristics of solidified forms. Stable solid forms with high leach resistance, high thermal resistance and good compression strength were produced by the suggested bituminization method, in which spent polyethylene from agricultural farms was added. This report can help further research and development of improved bituminized forms of radioactive wastes that will maintain long term stabilities in disposal sites. (author). 59 refs., 19 tabs., 18 figs

  9. A new radiometric instrument designed to measure the parameters of bituminous coal on transport belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, P.

    1993-01-01

    A new radiometric instrument developed in Czechoslovakia, for the measurement of ash content of bituminous coal, and for the determination of approximate values of moisture and weight is described. (Author)

  10. Prediction of performance and evaluation of flexible pavement rehabilitation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Won Wayne Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Five test sections with different additives and strategies were established to rehabilitate a State-maintained highway more effectively in Rhode Island (RI: control, calcium chloride, asphalt emulsion, Portland cement and geogrid. Resilient moduli of subgrade soils and subbase materials before and after full depth rehabilitation were employed as input parameters to predict the performance of pavement structures using AASHTOWare Pavement ME Design (Pavement ME software in terms of rutting, cracking and roughness. It was attempted to use Level 1 input (which includes traffic full spectrum data, climate data and structural layer properties for Pavement ME. Traffic data was obtained from a Weigh-in-Motion (WIM instrument and Providence station was used for collecting climatic data. Volumetric properties, dynamic modulus and creep compliance were used as input parameters for 19 mm (0.75 in. warm mix asphalt (WMA base and 12.5 mm (0.5 in. WMA surface layer. The results indicated that all test sections observed AC top-down (longitudinal cracking except Portland cement section which passed for all criteria. The order in terms of performance (best to worst for all test sections by Pavement ME was Portland cement, calcium chloride, control, geogrid, and asphalt emulsion. It was also observed that all test sections passed for both bottom up and top down fatigue cracking by increasing thickness of either of the two top asphalt layers. Test sections with five different base/subbase materials were evaluated in last two years through visual condition survey and measurements of deflection and roughness to confirm the prediction, but there was no serious distress and roughness. Thus these experiments allowed selecting the best rehabilitation/reconstruction techniques for the particular and/or similar highway, and a framework was formulated to select an optimal technique and/or strategy for future rehabilitation/reconstruction projects. Finally, guidelines for

  11. Investigation and analytical results of bituminized products in drums at filing room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Atsuhiro; Kato, Yoshiyuki; Sano, Yuichi; Kitajima, Takafumi; Fujita, Hideto

    1999-09-01

    This report describes the results of investigation of the bituminized products in drums, liquid waste in the receiving tank V21 and the bituminized mixture in the extruder. The investigation of the products in drums showed most of the unburned products filled after 28B had abnormality, such as hardened surfaces, caves and porous brittle products. The particle sizes of the salt fixed in bituminized products depended neither on batch number nor on feed rate. It indicates the fining of the salt particle caused by the decreased feed rate did not occur. The measured concentrations of metals and anions in the bituminized products showed no abnormality. The catalytic content was not recognized in the products. The infrared absorption spectra obtained with the bituminized products show the oxidation at the incident occurred without oxygen. There was no organic phase on the surface of liquid waste in V21. Chemical analysis and thermal analysis on the precipitate in V21 showed no abnormality. Concentration of sodium nitrate/nitrite in the mixture collected from the extruder was lower than normal products. These results show no chemical activation of the bituminized products. It can be concluded that the chemical characteristics of the products had little abnormality even around the incident. (author)

  12. Evaluating life cycle costs of perpetual pavements in China using operational pavement management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud A. Sultan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Highway transportation is considered as vital factor in China’s economic growth; many high grade highways have been constructed in China during the last decades. The research and application of perpetual asphalt pavement (PP technology have been deployed in China since 2000. The semi-rigid pavement has been normally considered as typical pavement of high class highways in the design according to the Chinese experience. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of different Chinese perpetual pavements using operational pavement management system and to examine its suitability for use in the design and construction of more economical and durable pavements. It has been found that the use of thin asphalt layers over semi-rigid pavement foundation in PP structure will create more sustainable, economical, and durable PP structures in comparison with typical thick asphalt layers PP structures.

  13. Advances in Interlaboratory Testing and Evaluation of Bituminous Materials State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 206-ATB

    CERN Document Server

    Bahia, Hussain; Canestrari, Francesco; Roche, Chantal; Benedetto, Hervé; Piber, Herald; Sybilski, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    This STAR on asphalt materials presents the achievements of RILEM TC 206 ATB, acquired over many years of interlaboratory tests and international knowledge exchange. It covers experimental aspects of bituminous binder fatigue testing; the background on compaction methods and imaging techniques for characterizing asphalt mixtures including validation of a new imaging software; it focuses on experimental questions and analysis tools regarding mechanical wheel tracking tests, comparing results from different labs and using finite element techniques. Furthermore, long-term rutting prediction and evaluation for an Austrian road are discussed, followed by an extensive analysis and test program on interlayer bond testing of three different test sections which were specifically constructed for this purpose. Finally, the key issue of manufacturing reclaimed hot mix asphalt in the laboratory is studied and recommendations for laboratory ageing of bituminous mixtures are given.

  14. Bituminous reference document: synthesis of knowledge on the long time behavior of bituminous packages; Dossier de reference bitume: synthese des connaissances sur le comportement a long terme des colis bitumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sercombe, J.; Adenot, F.; Vistoli, P.P.; Parraud, S.; Riglet-Martial, C.; Gwinner, B.; Felines, I.; Tiffreau, C.; Libert, M

    2004-07-01

    This document is a synthesis of the knowledge acquired at the CEA on the behavior of bituminous packages. In this framework, the CEA studied bituminous packages in generic conditions of a package lifetime. The main factors, the evolution mechanisms and influential parameters have been determined and quantitative s simulation have been developed. After a description of the main initial bituminous packages characterizations, the evolutions in saturated and un-saturated environment are exposed. (A.L.B.)

  15. Appraisal of the Causes of Pavement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Pavement failures are very common features on. Nigeria in roads after few years of performance and often before attaining the design age. These roads are continuously reconstructed or rehabilitated without any effort made to identify factor(s) responsible for their perpetual failure. Pavement failures can ...

  16. Load Response Analysis of Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the filed data of Fuzhou test road, load response regulation of nonlinear pavement structure was analyzed in this paper; Mechanics software was adopted to analyze linear elastic and nonlinear of the pavement structure, analyzed results and road filed data were compared, and determine the correlation between them and the field data.

  17. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of a pervious pavement can be effective as a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete paver systems as a type of porous pavement. Although the pavers are impermeable, the spaces between the pave...

  18. Numerical Simulation of Tire-Pavement Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srirangam, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Good skid resistance of a pavement surface is essential for road safety. Loss of skid resistance can lead to property damage and loss of lives. Ever increasing need of driver safety poses challenges to the highway authorities to evaluate pavement conditions even more precisely under different

  19. Crackscope : automatic pavement cracking inspection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The CrackScope system is an automated pavement crack rating system consisting of a : digital line scan camera, laser-line illuminator, and proprietary crack detection and classification : software. CrackScope is able to perform real-time pavement ins...

  20. Modelling Flexible Pavement Response and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    This textbook is primarily concerned with models for predicting the future condition of flexible pavements, as a function of traffic loading, climate, materials, etc., using analytical-empirical methods.......This textbook is primarily concerned with models for predicting the future condition of flexible pavements, as a function of traffic loading, climate, materials, etc., using analytical-empirical methods....

  1. The use of reflective and permeable pavements as a potential practice for heat island mitigation and stormwater management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H; Harvey, J T; Holland, T J; Kayhanian, M

    2013-01-01

    To help address the built environmental issues of both heat island and stormwater runoff, strategies that make pavements cooler and permeable have been investigated through measurements and modeling of a set of pavement test sections. The investigation included the hydraulic and thermal performance of the pavements. The permeability results showed that permeable interlocking concrete pavers have the highest permeability (or infiltration rate, ∼0.5 cm s −1 ). The two permeable asphalt pavements showed the lowest permeability, but still had an infiltration rate of ∼0.1 cm s −1 , which is adequate to drain rainwater without generating surface runoff during most typical rain events in central California. An increase in albedo can significantly reduce the daytime high surface temperature in summer. Permeable pavements under wet conditions could give lower surface temperatures than impermeable pavements. The cooling effect highly depends on the availability of moisture near the surface layer and the evaporation rate. The peak cooling effect of watering for the test sections was approximately 15–35 °C on the pavement surface temperature in the early afternoon during summer in central California. The evaporative cooling effect on the pavement surface temperature at 4:00 pm on the third day (25 h after watering) was still 2–7 °C lower compared to that on the second day, without considering the higher air temperature on the third day. A separate and related simulation study performed by UCPRC showed that full depth permeable pavements, if designed properly, can carry both light-duty traffic and certain heavy-duty vehicles while retaining the runoff volume captured from an average California storm event. These preliminarily results indicated the technical feasibility of combined reflective and permeable pavements for addressing the built environment issues related to both heat island mitigation and stormwater runoff management. (letter)

  2. E2CAV, Pavement layer thickness estimation system based on image texture operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Barrios Arcila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Public roads are an essential part of economic progress in any country; they are fundamental for increasing the efficiency on transportation of goods and are a remarkable source of employment. For its part, Colombia has few statistics on the condition of its roads; according with INVIAS the state of the roads in Colombia can be classified as “Very Good” (21.1%, “Good” (34.7%, and “Regular” or “Bad” (43.46%. Thus, from the point of view of pavement rehabilitation, it is worth securing the quality of those roads classified as “Regular” or “Bad”. Objective: In this paper we propose a system to estimate the thickness of the pavement layer using image segmentation methods. The pavement thickness is currently estimated using radars of terrestrial penetration, extraction of cores or making pips; and it is part of structural parameters in the systems of evaluation of pavement. Method: The proposed system is composed of a vertical movement control unit, which introduces a video scope into a small hole in the pavement, then the images are obtained and unified in a laptop. Finally, this mosaic is processed through texture operators to estimate the thickness of the pavement. Users can select between the Otsu method and Gabor filters to process the image data. Results: The results include laboratory and field tests; these tests show errors of 5.03% and 11.3%, respectively, in the thickness of the pavement. Conclusion: The proposed system is an attractive option for local estimation of pavement thickness, with minimal structural damage and less impact on mobility and number of operators.

  3. Fatigue and rutting lives in flexible pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexible pavement is designed based on axle load limits and climatic conditions. The Egyptian code has specified certain load limits that should not be exceeded. The overweight trucks cause severe deterioration to the pavement and thus reduce its life. The study aims at studying the effect of axle load increase, and the variation in pavement modulus, on the overall pavement life. The research uses the BISAR software and the Egyptian environmental and pavement materials conditions to estimate the tensile strains occurring under the asphalt concrete (AC layer and the compressive strains above the subgrade surface. The results revealed that tensile and compressive strain increased with increasing axle loads and decreased with increasing asphalt layer modulus thus the violating trucks should be unloaded when their weights exceed certain limits. Base thickness and subgrade resilient modulus were the key elements which control the equilibrium between fatigue and rutting lives.

  4. GHG emission quantification for pavement construction projects using a process-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charinee Limsawasd

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions have attracted much attention for their impacts upon the global environment. Initiating of new legislation and regulations for control of GHG emissions from the industrial sectors has been applied to address this problem. The transportation industries, which include operation of road pavement and pavement construction equipment, are the highest GHG-emitting sectors. This study presents a novel quantification model of GHG emissions of pavement construction using process-based analysis. The model is composed of five modules that evaluate GHG emissions. These are: material production and acquisition, (2 material transport to a project site, (3 heavy equipment use, (4 on-site machinery use, and, (5 on-site electricity use. The model was applied to a hypothetical pavement project to compare the environmental impacts of flexible and rigid pavement types during construction. The resulting model can be used for evaluation of environmental impacts, as well as for designing and planning highway pavement construction.

  5. Effect of interlayer bonding quality of asphalt layers on pavement performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskula, Piotr; Rys, Dawid

    2017-09-01

    The quality of interlayer bonding at the interfaces between the asphalt layers in flexible pavements affects the overall pavement performance. Lack or partial lack of interlayer bonding between asphalt layers can cause pavement’s premature failures such as rutting, slippage of the wearing course, cracking or simply a reduction in the calculated fatigue life of the pavement structure. This paper shows the case studies of investigation of actual or potential premature failure of newly reconstructed and constructed pavements where low quality of interlayer bonding has a dominant meaning. In situ and laboratory tests were performed and followed by analytical calculation of pavement structure where thicknesses of layers and maximum shear strengths obtained from the tests were used. During the investigation it was found out that a low quality of tack coat as well as the same aggregate gradation in the bonded asphalt mixtures were the main reasons behind the weak quality of interlayer bonding. Partial interlayer bonding has a strong influence on reduction of calculated fatigue life of pavement. The summary of the paper includes recommendations on how to avoid the low quality of interlayer bonding of asphalt layers.

  6. Comparative field permeability measurement of permeable pavements using ASTM C1701 and NCAT permeameter methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Kayhanian, Masoud; Harvey, John T

    2013-03-30

    Fully permeable pavement is gradually gaining support as an alternative best management practice (BMP) for stormwater runoff management. As the use of these pavements increases, a definitive test method is needed to measure hydraulic performance and to evaluate clogging, both for performance studies and for assessment of permeability for construction quality assurance and maintenance needs assessment. Two of the most commonly used permeability measurement tests for porous asphalt and pervious concrete are the National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) permeameter and ASTM C1701, respectively. This study was undertaken to compare measured values for both methods in the field on a variety of permeable pavements used in current practice. The field measurements were performed using six experimental section designs with different permeable pavement surface types including pervious concrete, porous asphalt and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Multiple measurements were performed at five locations on each pavement test section. The results showed that: (i) silicone gel is a superior sealing material to prevent water leakage compared with conventional plumbing putty; (ii) both methods (NCAT and ASTM) can effectively be used to measure the permeability of all pavement types and the surface material type will not impact the measurement precision; (iii) the permeability values measured with the ASTM method were 50-90% (75% on average) lower than those measured with the NCAT method; (iv) the larger permeameter cylinder diameter used in the ASTM method improved the reliability and reduced the variability of the measured permeability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślik, Ewelina; Konieczny, Tomasz; Bobik, Bartłomiej

    2018-01-01

    One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures of bituminous coal with different types of solid waste (5, 10 and 15% of mass fraction) were used. Solid waste types consisted of: printed, colored PE caps, fragmented cable trunking, fragmented car gaskets and shredded tires from trucks. During the incineration of a given mixture of municipal waste with bituminous coal, the velocity of exhaust gas was specified, the concentration and mass flow of fly ash were determined together with the physico-chemical parameters of the exhaust gas, the samples of emitted fly ash were taken as the test material. Particle size analysis of fly ash was performed using laser particle sizer Fritch Analysette 22. The PM10 share from all fly ashes from incineration of mixtures was about 100%. Differences were noted between PM2.5 and PM1.

  8. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Ewelina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures of bituminous coal with different types of solid waste (5, 10 and 15% of mass fraction were used. Solid waste types consisted of: printed, colored PE caps, fragmented cable trunking, fragmented car gaskets and shredded tires from trucks. During the incineration of a given mixture of municipal waste with bituminous coal, the velocity of exhaust gas was specified, the concentration and mass flow of fly ash were determined together with the physico-chemical parameters of the exhaust gas, the samples of emitted fly ash were taken as the test material. Particle size analysis of fly ash was performed using laser particle sizer Fritch Analysette 22. The PM10 share from all fly ashes from incineration of mixtures was about 100%. Differences were noted between PM2.5 and PM1.

  9. Development of bituminous coal chambers with respect to throughput

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schappert, H.

    1942-10-17

    This short report compared three coal liquefaction plants in Germany which operated principally on bituminous coal and which had been built a few years apart in time. From the earliest plant (Scholven) to the latest (Blechhammer), the liquid-phase throughput had been almost tripled, partly because of the change from 300-atm to 700-atm operation, and partly because of the use of heat exchange to heat the coal paste part way to reaction temperature. This introduction of coal paste heat exchange reduced the load on preheaters so much that the amount of heat necessary in the preheater to heat one (metric) ton of coal paste to reaction temperature was reduced from 320,000 kcal to 170,000 kcal. Another development in the middle plant (Gelsenberg) was the addition of a portion of the cold coal paste at the input to the second reaction oven in each chamber, letting the heat of reaction itself heat that paste to reaction temperature (and at the same time regulating the temperature of the reaction better). Finally it was noted that for the production of a given amount of synthetic fuel, Blechhammer needed only about half as many reaction chambers as did Scholven.

  10. The hydrogasification of lignite and sub-bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, B.; Fallon, P. T.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-02-01

    A North Dakota lignite and a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogenated at up to 900°C and 2500 psi hydrogen pressure. Yields of gaseous hydrocarbons and aromatic liquids have been studied as a function of temperature, pressure, residence time, feed rates and H2/coal ratio. Coal feed rates in excess of 10 lb/hr have been achieved in the 1 in. I. D.×8 ft reactor and methane concentration as high as 55% have been observed. A four-step reaction model was developed for the production and decomposition of the hydrocarbon products. A single object function formulated from the weighted errors for the four dependent process, variables, CH4, C2H6, BTX, and oil yields, was minimized using a program containing three independent iterative techniques. The results of the nonlinear regression analysis for lignite show that a first-order chemical reaction model with respect to C conversion satisfactorily describes the dilute phase hydrogenation. The activation energy for the initial products formation was estimated to be 42,700 cal/gmole and the power of hydrogen partial pressure was found to be +0.14. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.83. The mechanism, the rate expressions, and the design curves developed can be used for scale-up and reactor design.

  11. A process for the bituminization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Ziv, E.; Manor, D.; Levin, I.

    1977-06-01

    A process is described for the incorporation of sodium nitrate solutions in bitumen, with a view to the bituminization of radioactive wastes. This process has involved the development of a chemical process and its technological application. A double jacket reactor equipped with an anchor-type stirrer has been built. Sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) solutions with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) are fed into the reactor simultaneously with a bitumen emulsion while heated oil is circulated through the double jacket. After all the water has evaporated, the mixture is ''simmered'' at 170/180 deg C for up to 5 hours in order to get a homogeneous product which will be suitable for final storage. The product contains small salt crystals (10/50 μm) and has high viscosity (200/2000 poise at 160 deg C and 12 rpm), so that the possibility of sedimentation is eliminated. In comparative experiments with molten bitumen, large salt aggregates, inhomogeneously distributed, make the product unsuitable. It has been found that NaOH is responsible for the polimerization of the bitumen, which raises its viscosity. The degree of polimerization depends on the NaOH concentration and ''simmering'' time and temperature. NaOH is added to NaNO 3 in order to raise the mixture's viscosity and thereby prevent sedimentation

  12. Chemical and Pyrolytic Thermogravimetric Characterization of Nigerian Bituminous Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyakuma Bemgba Bevan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of new coal deposits in Nigeria presents solutions for nation’s energy crises and prospects for socioeconomic growth and sustainable development. Furthermore, the quest for sustainable energy to limit global warming, climate change, and environmental degradation has necessitated the exploration of alternatives using cleaner technologies such as coal pyrolysis. However, a lack of comprehensive data on physico-chemical and thermal properties of Nigerian coals has greatly limited their utilization. Therefore, the physico-chemical properties, rank (classification, and thermal decomposition profiles of two Nigerian bituminous coals – Afuze (AFZ and Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ – were examined in this study. The results indicate that the coals contain high proportions of C, H, N, S, O and a sufficiently high heating value (HHV for energy conversion. The coal classification revealed that the Afuze (AFZ coal possesses a higher rank, maturity, and coal properties compared to the Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ coal. A thermal analysis demonstrated that coal pyrolysis in both cases occurred in three stages; drying (30-200 °C, devolatilization (200-600 °C, and char decomposition (600-1000 °C. The results also indicated that pyrolysis at 1000 °C is not sufficient for complete pyrolysis. In general, the thermochemical and pyrolytic fuel properties indicate that the coal from both places can potentially be utilized for future clean energy applications.

  13. Theoretical Relationships Between Moduli for Soil Layers Beneath Concrete Pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    method of analysis used for rigid pavements and the elastic layer method of analysis used for both rigid and flexible pavements. Twenty-three pavement sections were selected to illustrate the usage of these relationships. These sections represent the widest possible variation of rigid pavement types for which sufficient materials data was available. For the sections studied and within the context of linear analysis, these relationships demonstrate that the peak pavement stress can usually be computed by either method

  14. Performance-Based Evaluation of Joint Sealants for Concrete Pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Khuri, Ramzi Emile

    1998-01-01

    Pavement concrete joints are the weakest locations in concrete pavement systems. They are man-made cracks to accommodate concrete slab expansion and contraction due to temperature fluctuations. Sealant is usually used in pavement joints to prevent roadway debris, deicing chemicals, and moisture from entering the joint. When sealant fails, the pavement deteriorates rapidly; and when joint sealant performs adequately, the pavement preserves its intended performance. In the field, joint seala...

  15. Note on the chemical composition of the asphalts of bituminous coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boente, L.

    1942-10-13

    This report was written not as a result of extensive unified experiments, but as a result of collected observations during the course of various investigations. It interpreted two of the major groups of constituents of the asphalts from hydrogenation of bituminous coal as the following: (1) highly condensed aromatics (including heterocyclic compounds with oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur in the rings) (a) in dehydrogenated form, or (b) in partially hydrogenated form, and (2) reaction products from labile, partially hydrogenated highly condensed aromatics (a) through oxidation reactions, or (b) through condensation and polymerization reactions. These types of compounds seemed to come from rather symmetric precursors that were not split during pressure hydrogenation, as were most constituents of coal, but were dehydrogenated instead. The types of compounds mentioned above shared several properties with the asphalts, including precipitation and adsorption properties. Some examples given of Group 1 compounds were coronene and several derived from it, as well as napthoxanthene, carbazole, and diphenylene sulfide. One example given to illustrate Group 2 was some hypothetical reactions of a proposed hexakeideca-hydrocoronene.

  16. Leaching behavior of a simulated bituminized radioactive waste form under deep geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Iida, Yoshihisa; Nagano, Tetsushi; Akimoto, Toshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    The leaching behavior of a simulated bituminized waste form was studied to acquire data for the performance assessment of the geologic disposal of bituminized radioactive waste. Laboratory-scale leaching tests were performed for radioactive and non-radioactive waste specimens simulating bituminized waste of a French reprocessing company, COGEMA. The simulated waste was contacted with deionized water, an alkaline solution (0.03-mol/l KOH), and a saline solution (0.5-mol/l KCl) under atmospheric and anoxic conditions. The concentrations of Na, Ba, Cs, Sr, Np, Pu, NO 3 , SO 4 and I in the leachates were determined. Swelling of the bituminized waste progressed in deionized water and KOH. The release of the soluble components, Na and Cs, was enhanced by the swelling, and considered to be diffusion-controlled in the swelled layers of the specimens. The release of sparingly soluble components such as Ba and Np was solubility-limited in addition to the progression of leaching. Neptunium, a redox-sensitive element, showed a distinct difference in release between anoxic and atmospheric conditions. The elemental release from the bituminized waste specimens leached in the KCl was very low, which is likely due to the suppression of swelling of the specimens at high ionic strength. (author)

  17. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, NJ, that incorporated three different permeable pavement types in the parking lanes – permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). An impermeable liner installed 0.4 m below the driving surface in four 11.6-m by 4.74-m sections per each pavement type captures all infiltrating water and routes it to collection tanks that can contain events up to 38 mm. Each section has a design impervious area to permeable pavement area ratio of 0.66:1. Pressure transducers installed in the underdrain collection tanks measured water level for 24 months. Level was converted to volume using depth-to-volume ratios for individual collection tanks. Using a water balance approach, the measured infiltrate volume was compared to rainfall volume on an event-basis to determine the rainfall retained in the pavement strata and underlying aggregate. Evaporation since the previous event created additional storage in the pavement and aggregate layers. Events were divided into three groups based on antecedent dry period (ADP) and three, four-month categories of potential e

  18. DETECTION OF CRACKS IN ASPHALT PAVEMENT DURING ROAD INSPECTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin STANIEK

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road inspection is one of key processes of a pavement management system, whose function is to examine and describe the road infrastructure condition. When thoroughly performed, it provides the information required to implement an adequate road infrastructure maintenance policy and plan ad hoc repairs or refurbishments. This article discusses a solution for automatic asphalt pavement cracking detection, based on image-processing technology. This solution makes it possible to identify different crack types, i.e., transverse, longitudinal, alligator-type and technological cracks. The detection process is based on the application of various methods, including statistical difference identification for pre-assumed image analysis directions, i.e., in and opposite to the test vehicle running direction. The purpose of the morphological and filtering operations applied was to reduce the image noise level. The solution proposed was verified using video material in the form of a sequence of images recorded using the test vehicle.

  19. Evaluating Functional and Structural Condition Based Maintenances of Airfield Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarefder R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates airfield pavements’ functional- and structural-condition to determine the most economical maintenance method. As a part of the analysis, Pavement Condition Index (PCI for several runways, taxiways, and aprons has been determined by MicroPAVER. Structural evaluation of airport pavements has been performed by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD test. Evaluation of Layer Moduli and Overlay Design (ELMOD also determines the required overlay thickness based on the E-values, i.e. FWD data analysis. Damage analysis determines the time of repeated overlay application. In addition, functional parameters have been included to determine the time of functional maintenance. Maintenance and rehabilitation alternatives have been selected to develop different program strategies. Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA has been performed to determine the maintenance cost. Structural condition based maintenance cost is compared to functional condition based maintenance cost. Comparison shows that structural condition based approach yields cheaper maintenance strategies than functional condition based maintenance approach.

  20. Validation of asphalt mixture pavement skid prediction model and development of skid prediction model for surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Pavement skid resistance is primarily a function of the surface texture, which includes both microtexture and macrotexture. Earlier, under the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Research Project 0-5627, the researchers developed a method to p...

  1. Evaluation of non-destructive technologies for construction quality control of HMA and PCC pavements in Louisiana : [tech summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Current roadway quality control and quality acceptance (QC/QA) procedures for the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development : (LADOTD) include coring for thickness, density, and air voids in hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements and thickness ...

  2. Evaluation of non-destructive technologies for construction quality control of HMA and PCC pavements in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Current roadway quality control and quality acceptance (QC/QA) procedures for the Louisiana Department of Transportation and : Development (LADOTD) include coring for thickness, density, and air voids in hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements and thickness ...

  3. Evaluation of non-destructive technologies for construction quality control of HMA and PCC pavements in Louisiana : [research project capsule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Current roadway quality control and quality acceptance (QC/QA) procedures : for Louisiana include coring for thickness, density, and air void checks in hot : mix asphalt (HMA) pavements and thickness and compressive strength for : Portland cement con...

  4. Determination of the appropriate use of pavement surface history in the KDOT life-cycle analysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate KDOTs pavement surfacing history and recommend : whether or not the departments life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) procedure should include a surfacing history : component, and, if so, how the LC...

  5. Temperature induced healing in strained bituminous materials observed by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, A.; Schitter, G.

    2013-01-01

    Bitumen is the binder in the composite material named asphalt concrete. Under cyclic mechanical loading of traffic passing over the pavement, eventually damage will initiate in the pavement, leading to eventual structural failure. This damaging process is accelerated by time dependent change of the

  6. Study the Relationship between Pavement Surface Distress and Roughness Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubaraki Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, pavement sections from the highway connected Jeddah to Jazan were selected and analyzed to investigate the relationship between International Roughness Index (IRI and pavement damage including; cracking, rutting, and raveling. The Ministry of Transport (MOT of Saudi Arabia has been collecting pavement condition data using the Road Surface Tester (RST vehicle. The MOT measures Roughness, Rutting (RUT, Cracking (CRA, raveling (RAV. Roughness measurements are calculated in terms of the International Roughness Index (IRI. The IRI is calculated over equally spaced intervals along the road profile. Roughness measurements are performed at speed between at 80 kilometers per hour. Thus RST vehicle has been used to evaluate highways across the country. The paper shows three relationships including; cracking (CRA verses roughness (IRI, rutting (RUT verses IRI, and raveling (RAV verses IRI. Also, the paper developed two models namely; model relates IRI to the three distress under study, and model relates IRI to ride quality. The results of the analysis claim at 95% confidence that a significant relationship exist between IRI and cracking, and raveling. It’s also shown that rutting did not show significant relationship to IRI values. That’s leads to conclude that the distresses types: cracking and raveling may possibly be described as ride quality distresses at different level of significant. Rutting distress described as non-ride quality type’s distresses.

  7. Surface Properties of Photo-Oxidized Bituminous Coals: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Natural weathering has a detrimental effect on the hydrophobic nature of coal, which in turn can influence clean-coal recovery during flotation. Few techniques are available that can establish the quality of coal surfaces and that have a short analysis time to provide input for process control. Luminescence emissions which can be quantified with an optical microscope and photometer system, are measurably influenced by degree of weathering as well as by mild storage deterioration. In addition, it has been shown that when vitrinite is irradiated with a relatively high intensity flux of violet- or ultraviolet- light in the presence of air, photo-oxidation of the surface occurs. The combination of measuring the change in luminescence emission intensity with degree of surface oxidation provided the impetus for the current investigation. The principal aim of this research was to determine whether clear correlations could be established among surface oxygen functionality, hydrophobicity induced by photo-oxidation, and measurements of luminescence intensity and alteration. If successful, the project would result in quantitative luminescence techniques based on optical microscopy that would provide a measure of the changes in surface properties as a function of oxidation and relate them to coal cleanability. Two analytical techniques were designed to achieve these goals. Polished surfaces of vitrain bands or a narrow size fraction of powdered vitrain concentrates were photo-oxidized using violet or ultraviolet light fluxes and then changes in surface properties and chemistry were measured using a variety of near-surface analytical techniques. Results from this investigation demonstrate that quantitative luminescence intensity measurements can be performed on fracture surfaces of bituminous rank coals (vitrains) and that the data obtained do reveal significant variations depending upon the level of surface oxidation. Photo-oxidation induced by violet or ultraviolet light

  8. Sensitivity quantification of airport concrete pavement stress responses associated with top-down and bottom-up cracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Rezaei-Tarahomi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA’s rigid pavement design standard employs the NIKE3D-FAA software to compute critical pavement responses of concrete airport pavement structures. NIKE3D-FAA is a modification of the original NIKE3D three-dimensional finite element analysis program developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL of the U.S. Department of Energy, and is currently used in the FAA’s FAARFIELD program. This study evaluated the sensitivity of NIKE3D-FAA rigid pavement responses with respect to top-down and bottom-up cracking. The analysis was conducted by positioning a Boeing 777-300ER (B777-300ERaircraft at different locations (interior, corner, and edge of slab as baseline while varying other NIKE3D-FAA inputs, including rigid pavement geometric features, mechanical properties of paving and foundation materials, equivalent temperature gradient and thermal coefficient of Portland Cement Concrete (PCC layers. Several sensitivity charts were developed by examining the sensitivity of critical pavement responses to each input variation. Sensitivity evaluations were performed using a normalized sensitivity index (NSI as the quantitative metric. Using such sensitivity evaluation, the most significant NIKE3D-FAA input parameters for generating an effective synthetic database that will lower computational cost for future modeling developments were identified. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, Airfield concrete pavement, Finite element analysis, Top down cracking

  9. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  10. Study on the coprocessing of Xingiang Heishan bituminous coal with Tahe petroleum residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.; Zhao, P.; Li, K. [China Shenhua Coal to Liquefaction Corporation Ltd., Ordo (China)

    2007-02-15

    The reaction process of coprocessing Xinjiang Heishan bituminous coal and petroleum residue from Tahe petroleum chemical corporation was studied by using a Japanese vibrating horizontal autoclave. The effects of different petroleum residual addition on coal liquefaction was investigated and compared with the liquefaction result under the condition of exclusive Heishan bituminous coal. The results show that compared with the liquefaction results with only Heishan bituminous coal, coal-residual coprocessing has the characteristics of low hydrogen consumption, low gas and high oil yield. Coal conversion and oil yield was increased with proper addition of petroleum residues. In this experimental system, the optimum addition of petroleum residue is 20%. Coal conversion and oil yield are increased by 1.5% and 11% respectively. 2 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  11. Results of exploitation of a pilot-plant installation for bituminization of radioactive sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golinski, M.; Ksiazak, Z.; Surala, J.; Dziubecki, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results are discussed of exploitation of a pilot-plant installation for bituminization of radioactive sludges of an efficiency of 25 l/h. In a time period of 20 month 120 cycles were carried out in which 60 m 3 of 2-4% sludges from treatment of low-level waste by the phosphate-ferrocyanide method were solidified. The P-60 asphalt was used for bituminization. The bituminization products contained 5-13.5% of mineral substances. Their activity was in the range 5 x 10 -4 - 5 x 10 -3 μCi/g for alpha emitters and 1.2 - 3.8 x 10 -2 μCi/g for beta emitters. (author)

  12. Investigation clogging dynamic of permeable pavement systems using embedded sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghmanesh, Mostafa; Borst, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Permeable pavement is a stormwater control measure commonly selected in both new and retrofit applications. However, there is limited information about the clogging mechanism of these systems that effects the infiltration. A permeable pavement site located at the Seitz Elementary School, on Fort Riley, Kansas was selected for this study. An 80-space parking lot was built behind the school as part of an EPA collaboration with the U.S. Army. The parking lot design includes a permeable interlocking concrete pavement section along the downgradient edge. This study monitored the clogging progress of the pavement section using twelve water content reflectometers and three buried tipping bucket rain gauges. This clogging dynamic investigation was divided into three stages namely pre-clogged, transitional, and clogged. Recorded initial relative water content of all three stages were significantly and negatively correlated to antecedent dry weather periods with stronger correlations during clogged conditions. The peak relative water content correlation with peak rainfall 10-min intensity was significant for the water content reflectometers located on the western edge away from the eastern edge; this correlation was strongest during transition stage. Once clogged, rainfall measurements no longer correlated with the buried tipping bucket rain gauges. Both water content reflectometers and buried tipping bucket rain gauges showed the progress of surface clogging. For every 6 mm of rain, clogging advanced 1 mm across the surface. The results generally support the hypothesis that the clogging progresses from the upgradient to the downgradient edge. The magnitude of the contributing drainage area and rainfall characteristics are effective factors on rate and progression of clogging.

  13. Comparisons of Faulting-Based Pavement Performance Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Faulting prediction is the core of concrete pavement maintenance and design. Highway agencies are always faced with the problem of lower accuracy for the prediction which causes costly maintenance. Although many researchers have developed some performance prediction models, the accuracy of prediction has remained a challenge. This paper reviews performance prediction models and JPCP faulting models that have been used in past research. Then three models including multivariate nonlinear regression (MNLR model, artificial neural network (ANN model, and Markov Chain (MC model are tested and compared using a set of actual pavement survey data taken on interstate highway with varying design features, traffic, and climate data. It is found that MNLR model needs further recalibration, while the ANN model needs more data for training the network. MC model seems a good tool for pavement performance prediction when the data is limited, but it is based on visual inspections and not explicitly related to quantitative physical parameters. This paper then suggests that the further direction for developing the performance prediction model is incorporating the advantages and disadvantages of different models to obtain better accuracy.

  14. Estimated Valuation of the Cost of Road Construction with the Use of Composite Cationic Bituminous Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorotynseva Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for formation of prices for road construction works producing, by using composite of cationic bituminous structures, is dictated by absence of this type of work in estimate-normative base, due to the fact that this type of materials had never been used before. Estimated specifications could be used either for determination of work cost or for substantiation of efficiency of using new type of materials. This paper provides basic concepts, related to formation of estimate-normative base for determination of construction and installation works cost, particularly road construction works, also it shows formation of coating installation prices by using composite of cationic bituminous emulsions.

  15. User's guide : pavement marking management system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Pavement markings play a critical role in maintaining a safe and efficient driving environment for road users, especially during nighttime conditions. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) spends millions of dollars each year for installatio...

  16. Permeable Pavement Research - Edison, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides the background and summary of results collected at the permeable pavement parking lot monitored at the EPA facility in Edison, NJ. This parking lot is surfaced with permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. ...

  17. Class C fly ash in pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Portland cement is the most dominant material used in concrete pavements in the state of Nebraska. In order to improve performance, reduce cost, and advance sustainability, a percentage of the Portland cement is replaced with a recycled material know...

  18. Performance of I-57 recycled concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 1986-1987 the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) constructed a demonstration project on I-57 near Effingham, Illinois to evaluate the viability : of recycling an existing jointed reinforced concrete pavement for use as its primary aggreg...

  19. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  20. Long term monitoring of moisture under pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring of the environmental instrumentation installed under select pavement sections constructed : by the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) in 1995 on US 23 in Delaware County, Ohio was : continued. The measurements made consisted of soil ...

  1. Concrete pavement construction basics : tech notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    This tech note has been produced for developers, consultants, and engineers planning concrete pavement construction projects, superintendents and supervisors who want a basic training aid and reference, and crew members new to the concrete paving ind...

  2. Noise measurements of highway pavements in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This report presents the results of noise testing performed on Texas pavements between May of 2006 and the : summer of 2008. Two field test methodologies were used: roadside noise measurement with SPL meters and onvehicle : sound intensity measuremen...

  3. Improving safety in pavement field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) collects pavement condition and performance data each year, using both site-specific equipment that requires temporary traffic control (TTC) operations (either moving or closed operations) and full-size...

  4. Reformulated pavement remaining service life framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    "Many important decisions are necessary in order to effectively provide and manage a pavement network. At the heart : of this process is the prediction of needed future construction events. One approach to providing a single numeric on : the conditio...

  5. Optimization of safety on pavement preservation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    To achieve a goal of reducing highway crash fatalities by 4% each year to improve roadway safety, the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) is actively seeking opportunities to incorporate safety improvements into its current pavement preservat...

  6. Revision of South African pavement design method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kannemeyer, L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has a long pavement engineering history in terms of developing methodologies and solutions for supporting the local economy using available materials under specific environmental and socio-economic conditions. Over the past 10 years...

  7. Mechanistic flexible pavement overlay design program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The current Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LADOTD) overlay thickness design method follows the Component : Analysis procedure provided in the 1993 AASHTO pavement design guide. Since neither field nor laboratory tests a...

  8. Life cycle assessment of asphalt pavement maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at developing a life cycle assessment (LCA) model to quantify the impact of pavement preservation on energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The construction stage contains material, manufacture, transportation and plac...

  9. Performance evaluation of precast prestressed concrete pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    This report describes in detail an experimental investigation of an innovative precast prestressed concrete pavement (PPCP) system used to rehabilitate a 1,000 ft. section of interstate highway located on the northbound lanes of I-57 near Charleston,...

  10. Development of Pavement Condition Index Model Using PAVER 6.5.7 for Flexible Pavement Urban Roads in Kerbala City

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Ali Ewadh; Raid Rahman Almuhanna; Saja Jasim Alasadi

    2017-01-01

    The pavement condition index (PCI) is an important factor indicating pavement condition of roads. The pavement is one of the basic parts of the road infrastructure. Accordingly the aim of this paper is to develop a pavement condition index model using PAVER 6.5.7 for a flexible pavement urban roads in the Kerbala city center. The development model is depending on the PCI value of 109 sample sections having 57.8 km length, Data collected for pavement distress (type, dimension, and severity) w...

  11. Fusing complementary images for pavement cracking measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Ming; Zhao, Zuyun; Xu, Bugao; Yao, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Cracking is a major pavement distress that jeopardizes road serviceability and traffic safety. Automated pavement distress survey (APDS) systems have been developed using digital imaging technology to replace human surveys for more timely and accurate inspections. Most APDS systems require special lighting devices to illuminate pavements and prevent shadows of roadside objects that distort cracks in the image. Most artificial lighting devices are laser based, and are either hazardous to unprotected people or require dedicated power supplies on the vehicle. This study was aimed to develop a new imaging system that can scan pavement surface at highway speed and determine the level of severity of pavement cracking without using any artificial lighting. The new system consists of dual line-scan cameras that are installed side by side to scan the same pavement area as the vehicle moves. Cameras are controlled with different exposure settings so that both sunlit and shadowed areas can be visible in two separate images. The paired images contain complementary details useful for reconstructing an image in which the shadows are eliminated. This paper intends to present (1) the design of the dual line-scan camera system, (2) a new calibration method for line-scan cameras to rectify and register paired images, (3) a customized image-fusion algorithm that merges the multi-exposure images into one shadow-free image for crack detection, and (4) the results of the field tests on a selected road over a long period. (paper)

  12. Thermal stability analysis under embankment with asphalt pavement and cement pavement in permafrost regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junwei, Zhang; Jinping, Li; Xiaojuan, Quan

    2013-01-01

    The permafrost degradation is the fundamental cause generating embankment diseases and pavement diseases in permafrost region while the permafrost degradation is related with temperature. Based on the field monitoring results of ground temperature along G214 Highway in high temperature permafrost regions, both the ground temperatures in superficial layer and the annual average temperatures under the embankment were discussed, respectively, for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements. The maximum depth of temperature field under the embankment for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements was also studied by using the finite element method. The results of numerical analysis indicate that there were remarkable seasonal differences of the ground temperatures in superficial layer between asphalt pavement and concrete pavement. The maximum influencing depth of temperature field under the permafrost embankment for every pavement was under the depth of 8 m. The thawed cores under both embankments have close relation with the maximum thawed depth, the embankment height, and the service time. The effective measurements will be proposed to keep the thermal stabilities of highway embankment by the results.

  13. Thermal Stability Analysis under Embankment with Asphalt Pavement and Cement Pavement in Permafrost Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Junwei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The permafrost degradation is the fundamental cause generating embankment diseases and pavement diseases in permafrost region while the permafrost degradation is related with temperature. Based on the field monitoring results of ground temperature along G214 Highway in high temperature permafrost regions, both the ground temperatures in superficial layer and the annual average temperatures under the embankment were discussed, respectively, for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements. The maximum depth of temperature field under the embankment for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements was also studied by using the finite element method. The results of numerical analysis indicate that there were remarkable seasonal differences of the ground temperatures in superficial layer between asphalt pavement and concrete pavement. The maximum influencing depth of temperature field under the permafrost embankment for every pavement was under the depth of 8 m. The thawed cores under both embankments have close relation with the maximum thawed depth, the embankment height, and the service time. The effective measurements will be proposed to keep the thermal stabilities of highway embankment by the results.

  14. How to reduce tire-pavement noise : better practices for constructing and texturing concrete pavement surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Concrete pavements can be designed and constructed to be as quiet as any other conventional pavement type in use today. This report : provides an overview of how this can be doneand done consistently. : In order to construct a quieter concrete pav...

  15. Demonstration of using quieter pavement in Death Valley National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Death Valley National Park provided an environment that allowed a demonstration of : quieter pavement use. Sound measurements near the tire-pavement interface, near the : road, and in areas of frequent human use were conducted and analyses performed ...

  16. Continuous real time measurement of pavement quality during construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Intelligent Compaction has been investigated as a means of improving the quality of asphalt pavements during their : construction. The long term performance of an asphalt pavement is directly related to its load bearing capability and : is determined...

  17. Laboratory fatigue evaluation of continuously fiber-reinforced concrete pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Portland cement concrete (PCC) is the worlds most versatile construction material. PCC has : been in use in the United States for over 100 years. PCC pavement is generally constructed as : either continually reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) or ...

  18. Evaluation of recycled concrete as aggregate in new concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the use of recycled concrete as coarse aggregate in new concrete pavements. : Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) produced from demolished pavements in three geographically dispersed locations in Washington state were used to perfo...

  19. Mobile geographic information system solution for pavement condition surveys [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The State Materials Office (SMO) of the Florida : Department of Transportation (FDOT) performs : annual Pavement Condition Surveys (PCS) of : the Departments extensive pavement network. : This work is performed by single-person crews in : inertial...

  20. Guidelines for PCC inputs to AASHTOWare Pavement ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research study was to develop guidelines for portland cement concrete (PCC) material inputs to the : AASHTOWare Pavement ME Design program. The AASHTOWare Pavement ME Design is the software program used by the : Mississippi Depa...

  1. Long term pavement performance computed parameter : frost penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    As the pavement design process moves toward mechanistic-empirical techniques, knowledge of seasonal changes in pavement structural characteristics becomes critical. Specifically, frost penetration information is necessary for determining the effect o...

  2. Predicting low-temperature cracking in asphalt pavements : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    In Wisconsin's winter climate, low temperatures can cause asphalt pavements to contract and crack, reducing their ride quality and service lives. To help engineers more accurately determine how well certain pavement designs will fare in such conditio...

  3. Effect of friction on rolling tire-pavement interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    In this research, a three-dimensional (3-D) tire-pavement interaction model is developed using FEM to analyze the tire-pavement contact stress distributions at various rolling conditions (free rolling, braking/accelerating, and cornering). In additio...

  4. Precision and accuracy of mechanistic-empirical pavement design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of mechanistic-empirical pavement design methods is increasing internationally. Although mechanistic-empirical design does offer some insight into pavement behaviour and performance, at least more so than empirical design methods...

  5. Advanced Automated Detection Analysis and Classification of Cracks in Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Functional Session 5: Pavement Management Moderated by Akyiaa Hosten This presentation was held at the Pavement Evaluation 2014 Conference, which took place from September 15-18, 2014 in Blacksburg, Virginia. Presentation only

  6. Investigation clogging dynamic of permeable pavement systems using embedded sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permeable pavement is a stormwater control measure commonly selected in both new and retrofit applications. However, there is limited information about the clogging mechanism of these systems that effects the infiltration. A permeable pavement site located at the Seitz Elementary...

  7. Mechanistic flexible pavement overlay design program : tech summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LADOTD) currently follows the 1993 : AASHTO pavement design guides component analysis method in its fl exible pavement overlay thickness : design. Such an overlay design method, how...

  8. Software offers transparent, straightforward assessment of pavement additives : research spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Adding new materials to pavement layers is a proven technique to : improve performance. Many types of additivesfrom engineered : polymers and acids to recycled pavement, crumb rubber, shingles : and glasshave been used to help construct better ...

  9. Overview of the South African mechanistic pavement design analysis method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A historical overview of the South African mechanistic pavement design method, from its development in the early 1970s to the present, is presented. Material characterization, structural analysis, and pavement life prediction are discussed...

  10. Evaluating the performance of sustainable perpetual pavements using recycled asphalt pavement in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud A. Sultan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast highways network in China is moving from the phase of construction to the phase of maintenance, and with the introduction of new technique of perpetual pavement in last decade, it is necessary to consider recycling as one of the promising solutions for rehabilitation of old asphalt concrete pavement and ultimately to convert them into perpetual pavements. The aim is to reuse the existing pavement materials for several reasons, mainly to preserve natural resources such as aggregates, and to satisfy economic requirements by reducing the cost of highway construction and rehabilitation. A detailed testing program has been carried out on recycled asphalt pavements materials (RAP to evaluate their mechanical and structural characteristics to be used for the construction and rehabilitation of road pavements. Different types of RAP mixes have been stabilized by Portland cement to find the most suitable one from the point of view of design, construction, economy and environment. The analysis of life cycle costs has been carried out using system analysis and management of pavement program (SAMP5. The analysis of life cycle costs showed that the use of Portland cements with small percentages improves the structural characteristics of recycled asphalt materials to be used as stabilized base pavement layers for new or rehabilitated old road pavements and also for the construction and rehabilitation of perpetual pavements. A large amount of savings in construction and rehabilitation cost has been achieved by the use of stabilized RAP materials in addition to important contributions to the environment and preserving of natural resources.

  11. Network level pavement evaluation with 1 mm 3D survey system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin C.P. Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest iteration of PaveVision3D Ultra can obtain true 1 mm resolution 3D data at full-lane coverage in all 3 directions at highway speed up to 60 mph. This paper introduces the PaveVision3D Ultra technology for rapid network level pavement survey on approximately 1280 center miles of Oklahoma interstate highways. With sophisticated automated distress analyzer (ADA software interface, the collected 1 mm 3D data provide Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT with comprehensive solutions for automated evaluation of pavement surface including longitudinal profile for roughness, transverse profile for rutting, predicted hydroplaning speed for safety analysis, and cracking and various surface defects for distresses. The pruned exact linear time (PELT method, an optimal partitioning algorithm, is implemented to identify change points and dynamically determine homogeneous segments so as to assist ODOT effectively using the available 1 mm 3D pavement surface condition data for decision-making. The application of 1 mm 3D laser imaging technology for network survey is unprecedented. This innovative technology allows highway agencies to access its options in using the 1 mm 3D system for its design and management purposes, particularly to meet the data needs for pavement management system (PMS, pavement ME design and highway performance monitoring system (HPMS.

  12. Asphalt Pavement Pothole Detection and Segmentation Based on Wavelet Energy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penghui Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Potholes are one type of pavement surface distresses whose assessment is essential for developing road network maintenance strategies. Existing methods for automatic pothole detection either rely on expensive and high-maintenance equipment or could not segment the pothole accurately. In this paper, an asphalt pavement pothole detection and segmentation method based on energy field is put forward. The proposed method mainly includes two processes. Firstly, the wavelet energy field of the pavement image is constructed to detect the pothole by morphological processing and geometric criterions. Secondly, the detected pothole is segmented by Markov random field model and the pothole edge is extracted accurately. This methodology has been implemented in a MATLAB prototype, trained, and tested on 120 pavement images. The results show that it can effectively distinguish potholes from cracks, patches, greasy dirt, shadows, and manhole covers and accurately segment the pothole. For pothole detection, the method reaches an overall accuracy of 86.7%, with 83.3% precision and 87.5% recall. For pothole segmentation, the overlap degree between the extracted pothole region and the original pothole region is mostly more than 85%, which accounts for 88.6% of the total detected pavement pothole images.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Pavements: A Critical Review of Existing Literature and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santero, Nicholas; Masanet, Eric; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-04-20

    This report provides a critical review of existing literature and modeling tools related to life-cycle assessment (LCA) applied to pavements. The review finds that pavement LCA is an expanding but still limited research topic in the literature, and that the existing body of work exhibits methodological deficiencies and incompatibilities that serve as barriers to the widespread utilization of LCA by pavement engineers and policy makers. This review identifies five key issues in the current body of work: inconsistent functional units, improper system boundaries, imbalanced data for asphalt and cement, use of limited inventory and impact assessment categories, and poor overall utility. This review also identifies common data and modeling gaps in pavement LCAs that should be addressed in future work. These gaps include: the use phase (rolling resistance, albedo, carbonation, lighting, leachate, and tire wear and emissions), asphalt fumes, feedstock energy of bitumen, traffic delay, the maintenance phase, and the end-of-life phase. This review concludes with a comprehensive list of recommendations for future research, which shed light on where improvements in knowledge can be made that will benefit the accuracy and comprehensiveness of pavement LCAs moving forward.

  14. A real-time 3D scanning system for pavement distortion inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qingguang; Yao, Ming; Yao, Xun; Xu, Bugao

    2010-01-01

    Pavement distortions, such as rutting and shoving, are the common pavement distress problems that need to be inspected and repaired in a timely manner to ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper introduces a real-time, low-cost inspection system devoted to detecting these distress features using high-speed 3D transverse scanning techniques. The detection principle is the dynamic generation and characterization of the 3D pavement profile based on structured light triangulation. To improve the accuracy of the system, a multi-view coplanar scheme is employed in the calibration procedure so that more feature points can be used and distributed across the field of view of the camera. A sub-pixel line extraction method is applied for the laser stripe location, which includes filtering, edge detection and spline interpolation. The pavement transverse profile is then generated from the laser stripe curve and approximated by line segments. The second-order derivatives of the segment endpoints are used to identify the feature points of possible distortions. The system can output the real-time measurements and 3D visualization of rutting and shoving distress in a scanned pavement

  15. Stresses and strains in pavement structures due to the effect of temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svilar Mila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At its absolute amount, stresses due to the effect of temperature in the pavement structures, especially those rigid, are often of the same order of magnitude as those resulting from vehicles' load, but it happens that due to such impact many slabs become cracked before the road is handed over into operation. The temperature stresses which occur in pavement structures include stresses due to bending and buckling, stresses due to friction and hidden stresses. Stresses caused by the influence of temperature in the pavement structure during the day are generally below the strength of the component materials so they do not cause the consequences for structure. However, appearance of residual stresses and their accumulation after a sufficiently long period of time may lead to failure in structure, i.e. thermal fatigue. The paper presents the effects of temperature changes on the pavement structures in the physical and mechanical terms, and the manner in which the temperature is taken into account during the design of pavement structures.

  16. Framework for incorporating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) into pavement and bridge management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobanjo, John O.; Tawfiq, Kamal S.

    1999-02-01

    One of the major components of an infrastructure management system is the condition assessment or deterioration modeling. With application to highway pavements and bridges, this paper presents conceptually how nondestructive evaluation (NDE) results can be utilized to provide a quantitative assessment of the infrastructure condition in a format usable for network-level pavement management systems and bridge management systems. NDE techniques typically applied to pavements include Visual Rating, Falling Weight Deflectometer, Dynaflect, Seismic Pavement Analyzer, and the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Bridges can also be evaluated using the GPR. NDE is particularly useful at the network level of infrastructure management because of the mobility of conducting the tests. Detailed mechanistic methods have been suggested for NDE interpretation but this method may not be practical at network level. Interpretation of NDE results, through knowledge-based systems and intelligent databases indicate the defects and residual capacity of infrastructures. Measured physical properties and defects in the infrastructure component materials can be correlated to existing scales of condition assessment such as in the NBI and PONTIS formats for bridge management and also to an index or rating such as the PSI in highway pavements.

  17. Microstructural self-healing of bituminous materials : Combined experimental and numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauli, A.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Kasbergen, C.; Varveri, K.; Scarpas, A.

    2013-01-01

    Bituminous materials form a class of materials that possess the intrinsic ability to selfheal. This self-healing capability is evidenced by the observation that the service life of these materials ‘in the field’ exceeds the service life as predicted by standard mechanical laboratory tests. This

  18. The X-ray fluorescent method for determination of total sulphur in bituminous coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widowska-Kusmierska, J.; Siess, K.

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescent technique for the determination of total sulphur covering concentrations from 0,1 to 10% has been applied for bituminous coals showing a great variability in qualitative and quantitative composition of mineral matter (ash). The described method is a quick one giving results during one hour. The obtained good accuracy of determinations gives prospects for wide industrial application. (author)

  19. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the bituminous coal resources of the United States, identifies those resources which are potentially amenable to Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), identifies products and markets in the vicinity of selected target areas, identifies UCG concepts, describes the state of the art of UCG in bituminous coal, and presents three R and D programs for development of the technology to the point of commercial viability. Of the 670 billion tons of bituminous coal remaining in-place as identified by the National Coal Data System, 32.2 billion tons or 4.8% of the total are potentially amenable to UCG technology. The identified amenable resource was located in ten states: Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. The principal criteria which eliminated 87.3% of the resource was the minimum thickness (42 inches). Three R and D programs were developed using three different concepts at two different sites. Open Borehole, Hydraulic Fracture, and Electrolinking concepts were developed. The total program costs for each concept were not significantly different. The study concludes that much of the historical information based on UCG in bituminous coals is not usable due to the poor siting of the early field tests and a lack of adequate diagnostic equipment. This information gap requires that much of the early work be redone in view of the much improved understanding of the role of geology and hydrology in the process and the recent development of analytical tools and methods.

  20. Effect of bituminous coal properties on carbon dioxide and methane high pressure sorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich; Sýkorová, Ivana; Machovič, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 139, JAN 1 (2015), s. 115-124 ISSN 0016-2361 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : bituminous coal * sorption capacity * maceral composition * Upper Silesian Coal Basin Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.611, year: 2015

  1. Pre-treatment of bituminized NPP wastes for disposal in near-surface repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; Tello, Clédola Cássia Oliveira de, E-mail: vanessamotavieira@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The implementation of the national repository is an important technical requirement, and a legal requirement for the entry into operation of the nuclear power plant Angra 3. The Brazilian repository is being planned to be a near-surface one. In Brazil the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are immobilized using cement and bitumen for Angra 1 and Angra 2 NPP, respectively. The main problems due to the disposal of bituminized wastes in repositories are swelling of the waste products and their degradation in the long term. To accommodate the swelling of the bituminized wastes, the drums are filled up to 70 - 90% of their volume, which reduces the structural the repository stability and the disposal availability. Countries, which use bitumen in the solidification of NPP's radioactive waste and have near-surface repositories, need to immobilize this bituminized waste within other drums containing cement pastes or mortars to disposal them. This study aims to find solutions for the storage in surface repository of bituminized radioactive waste products, making them compatible with the acceptance criteria of cemented waste products. It was also performed a modeling with the results obtained in the leaching test using the ALT program and defined the transport model of the cesium leachate element and it was verified that in the early times the leaching was governed by the diffusion model and later by the partition model. The results obtained in this study can be used in the evaluation of performance of repositories. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Procedures for Backcalculation of Airfield Pavement Moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    surface and the base pavement is positively in good condition Cb = 0.8 if only reflective cracks or only joint reflective cracks are present on...backcalculation routine with the real pavement scenario.  Testing in proximity of cracks or joints results in measured deflection basins that... pavement (JPCP) 1 Plant mix (emulsified asphalt) material, cold-laid 20 Jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP) 1 Cracked and seated PCC

  3. Pavement Condition Survey in Kagawa Prefecture using ROMDAS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Mamunur Rashid; 角川, 浩二

    2006-01-01

    Highway is one of the most important areas among the various facilities of infrastructure. Therefore, most of the organizations related to the infrastructure management system pay higher attention to the pavement which is the most important facility of highway management. An effective pavement management system (PMS) helps to carry out all the preservation and necessary maintenance operations of the pavement. In order to implement a pavement management system, data collection that indicates e...

  4. A fuzzy logic approach for pavement section classification

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, M; Rahman, M; Nolle, L; Mathavan, S

    2013-01-01

    Section classification is one of the primary challenges in any successful pavement management system. Sections are normally classified based on their pavement condition index in order to categorise as "good", "moderate" and "poor". Conventionally, this has been done by comparing various pavement distress data against threshold values. However, borderline values between two categories have significant influence on the subsequent pavement maintenance and rehabilitation decision. This study is t...

  5. AutoPAVER: A software package for automated pavement evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Mark D.; Shahin, M. Y.; Walther, Jeanette A.

    1990-07-01

    This research developed a method that improves data collection and reduces data entry times for Pavement Condition Index (PCI) surveys for use with PAVER, a pavement maintenance management system. The method, AutoPAVER, is a microcomputer software package used to analyze pictures of pavement surfaces and to forward the resulting analysis to PAVER. The user works interactively with the system to identify and classify pavement distresses. Distress measurement and data entry are done on the computer.

  6. Pavement Condition Survey in Kagawa Prefecture using ROMDAS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mamunur Rashid; 角川, 浩二

    2005-01-01

    Highway is one of the most important areas among the various facilities of infrastructure. Therefore, most of the organizations related to the infrastructure management system pay higher attention to the pavement which is the most important facility of highway management. An effective pavement management system (PMS) helps to carry out all the preservation and necessary maintenance operations of the pavement. In order to implement a pavement management system, data collection that indicates e...

  7. Design and construction of PCC pavements. Volume 2, design features and practices that influence performance of pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A study has been conducted to evaluate and analyze Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements in order to develop recommendations for the design and construction of long-lived concrete pavements. In involved a detailed evaluation and analysis of the PC...

  8. Design and construction of PCC pavements, volume 2 : design features and practices that influence performance of pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A study has been conducted to evaluate and analyze portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements in order to : develop recommendations for the design and construction of long-lived concrete pavements. It involved a : detailed evaluation and analysis of th...

  9. Design and construction of PCC pavements. Volume 1, summary of design features and construction practices that influence performance of pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    A study has been conducted to evaluate and analyze Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements in order to develop recommendations for the design and construction of long-lived concrete pavements. In involved a detailed evaluation and analysis of the PC...

  10. Evaluation of current Louisiana flexible pavement structures using PMS data and new mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide : tech summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) developed under the National Cooperative Highway : Research Program (NCHRP) Project 1-37A represents a major change as compared to the 1993 AASHTO Pavement : Design Guide. MEPDG provides a r...

  11. Evaluation of current Louisiana flexible pavement structures using PMS data and new M-E pavement design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The proposed study uses the new MEPDG together with data available from LADOTDs Pavement Management System (PMS) and other data sources from LADOTDs main frame to evaluate typical flexible pavement structures currently used and to make changes ...

  12. Knowledge Discovery and Pavement Performance : Intelligent Data Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miradi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to discover knowledge from data about asphalt road pavement problems to achieve a better understanding of the behavior of them and via this understanding improve pavement quality and enhance its lifespan. Four pavement problems were chosen to be investigated; raveling

  13. Estimating the benefits of improved drainage on pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drainage quality is an important parameter which affects the performance of highway pavements. In India, since last few years considerable importance has been given to the drainage as per of pavement. A poor quality of drainage results in premature deterioration of the pavement structure and necessitating large ...

  14. Effect of training algorithms on neural networks aided pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Routine pavement maintenance necessitates present structural diagnosis and condition evaluation of pavements by employing non-destructive test equipment such as the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD). FWD testing of pavements involves measuring time-domain surface deflections resulting from applied impulse ...

  15. Effect of age of permeable pavements on their infiltration function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terry Lucke; ir. Floris Boogaard; Simon Beecham

    2013-01-01

    This study describes field investigations designed to compare the infiltration capacities of 55 permeable pavement systems installed in the Netherlands and in Australia. The ages of the pavements varied from 1 to 12 years. Using infiltrometer testing, the performance of the pavements has been

  16. Future design of perpetual pavements for New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-29

    This study provides guidance for future designs of perpetual pavements in New Mexico. The perpetual pavement in this study refers to only hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement sections designed for a useful life of 50 years or more without having major dist...

  17. Pavement sound absorption measurements in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-19

    In the U.S., the topic of pavement sound absorption in regard to tire-pavement noise has shown increased interest and research over the last several years. Four types of pavement sound absorption measurements with various applications are discussed: ...

  18. Surface composition of silica particles embedded in an Australian bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, B; Pigram, P J; Lamb, R N

    1999-07-01

    The composition and structure of the surface layers of a series of silica particles (10-20 microns across), embedded in a bituminous coal from the Whybrow seam, Sydney Basin, Australia, have been characterized in situ using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOFSIMS), ion imaging, and depth profiling. The silica particles investigated are typically encased in a multilayered shell, the composition of which differs from average composition of both the silica and the bulk coal. The analysis directly demonstrates the presence of a silanol-rich (Si-OH) interfacial layer 3 nm in thickness. This silanol-rich region separates the bulk silica and a complex non-silica layer encasing the particles. The interfacial region also shows significant lithium enrichment (approximately fivefold over bulk) which implies diffusion and precipitation of lithium-containing species during the authigenetic formation of the surface layers of the silica grains. The outer layer encasing the silica particles is 10 nm in thickness and is composed of clays and carbonates, and, in some cases, includes organic material. The elemental constituents of this layer include aluminium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, and lesser amounts of titanium and copper. The variation in the aluminium concentration from the outermost surface to the deeper layers is less than that of other non-silica species. A relatively high amount of calcium is found associated with the silica bulk. Although only non-respirable-sized silica particles are examined in this work, the methods of analysis developed have potential in providing an insight into the surface composition of respirable particles and in further studies of the surface bioavailability of silica species.

  19. Aerobic Biofilms Grown from Athabasca Watershed Sediments Are Inhibited by Increasing Concentrations of Bituminous Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, John R.; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Roy, Julie L.; Swerhone, George D. W.; Korber, Darren R.; Greer, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Sediments from the Athabasca River and its tributaries naturally contain bitumen at various concentrations, but the impacts of this variation on the ecology of the river are unknown. Here, we used controlled rotating biofilm reactors in which we recirculated diluted sediments containing various concentrations of bituminous compounds taken from the Athabasca River and three tributaries. Biofilms exposed to sediments having low and high concentrations of bituminous compounds were compared. The latter were 29% thinner, had a different extracellular polysaccharide composition, 67% less bacterial biomass per μm2, 68% less cyanobacterial biomass per μm2, 64% less algal biomass per μm2, 13% fewer protozoa per cm2, were 21% less productive, and had a 33% reduced content in chlorophyll a per mm2 and a 20% reduction in the expression of photosynthetic genes, but they had a 23% increase in the expression of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes. Within the Bacteria, differences in community composition were also observed, with relatively more Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria and less Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes in biofilms exposed to high concentrations of bituminous compounds. Altogether, our results suggest that biofilms that develop in the presence of higher concentrations of bituminous compounds are less productive and have lower biomass, linked to a decrease in the activities and abundance of photosynthetic organisms likely due to inhibitory effects. However, within this general inhibition, some specific microbial taxa and functional genes are stimulated because they are less sensitive to the inhibitory effects of bituminous compounds or can degrade and utilize some bitumen-associated compounds. PMID:24056457

  20. Effectiveness of various public private partnership pavement rehabilitation treatments: A big data informatics survival analysis of pavement service life : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Past research efforts have used a wide variety of methodological approaches to analyze pavement performance indicators, pavement rehabilitation treatments, and pavement service life. Using big data informatics methods, the intent of this study is to ...

  1. Organic petrology and geochemistry of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl, north-central Afghanistan: Depositional environment and source rock potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Sanfilipo, John

    2016-01-01

    Organic geochemistry and petrology of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl outcrop samples from Madr village in north-central Afghanistan were characterized via an integrated analytical approach to evaluate depositional environment and source rock potential. Multiple proxies suggest the organic-rich (TOC ∼6 wt.%) bituminous marls are ‘immature’ for oil generation (e.g., vitrinite Ro extracts with high polar components, consistent with extraction from S-rich Type IIs organic matter which could generate hydrocarbons at low thermal maturity. Low Fe-sulfide mineral abundance and comparison of Pr/Ph ratios between saturate and whole extracts suggest limited Fe concentration resulted in sulfurization of organic matter during early diagenesis. From these observations, we infer that a Type IIs kerogen in ‘immature’ bituminous marl at Madr could be generating high sulfur viscous oil which is seeping from outcrop. However, oil-seep samples were not collected for correlation studies. Aluminum-normalized trace element concentrations indicate enrichment of redox sensitive trace elements Mo, U and V and suggest anoxic-euxinic conditions during sediment deposition. The bulk of organic matter observed via optical microscopy is strongly fluorescent amorphous bituminite grading to lamalginite, possibly representing microbial mat facies. Short chain n-alkanes peak at C14–C16 (n-C17/n-C29 > 1) indicating organic input from marine algae and/or bacterial biomass, and sterane/hopane ratios are low (0.12–0.14). Monoaromatic steroids are dominated by C28clearly indicating a marine setting. High gammacerane index values (∼0.9) are consistent with anoxia stratification and may indicate intermittent saline-hypersaline conditions. Stable C isotope ratios also suggest a marine depositional scenario for the Suzak samples, consistent with the presence of marine foraminifera including abundant planktic globigerinida(?) and rare benthic discocyclina(?) and nummulites(?). Biomarker 2

  2. Mechanical behavior of flexible pavements undergoing thermal gradients - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.10848

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielli Vassoler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The proper structural understanding of a pavement should consider, according to the pavement mechanics, the aspects related to the traffic load, the environment and material properties. When asphaltic materials are used, the stress/strain relationships and the dependencies of load-time and temperature are key parameters for understanding flexible pavement performance. In this study, we employed the finite elements method to calculate stress/strain in flexible pavements structures considering temperature variation. The input data includes material stiffness, which is function of temperature and changes with position and time. The pavement temperature is obtained through the heat transfer differential equation, applying the Laplace transform and its numerical inversion. The finite elements grid was generated by the software ANSYS® and imported by the software MATLAB®. In order to determine the stiffness of the first layer (asphalt concrete we used the average of four nodes, depending on the each node temperature. The result evidences the importance of thermal gradients for the pavement analysis, both for the fatigue cracking and the accumulation of plastic deformations. The use of unique modulus for asphalt concrete layer generates results far from reality.

  3. Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing of Warm-Mix Asphalt (WMA) for Airfield Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Rushing Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory US Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199...Table 1. Foundation layer soil properties as constructed . ...................................................................... 7  Table 2. WMA...during production of bituminous paving materials. In recent years, warm-mix asphalt (WMA) has replaced HMA for many paving projects. WMA is a general

  4. Use of additives to improve the capacity of bituminous mixtures to be heated by means of microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, J.; Val, M.A. del; Contreras, V.; Páez, A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the potential of adding electric arc furnace slag to bituminous mixtures to be heated by microwaves. The susceptibility of bituminous mixtures to microwave energy is limited and so, in order to improve the energy performance of the heating process, it is necessary to incorporate additives or components to the mixture so as to improve the capacity for microwave heating. The article presents the results of adding various components, (steel wool, scrap tire wire, silicon carbide, iron filings) and an alternative aggregate: electric arc furnace slag. According to the results obtained in the laboratory, slag addition of at least 5% by weight of the bituminous mixture represents the best option for both technical and economic reasons. The results may promote the valorization of this steel industry residue in bituminous mixtures by improving microwave heating response. [es

  5. Durability of saw-cut joints in plain cement concrete pavements : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate factors influencing the durability of the joints in portland cement concrete pavement in the state of Indiana. : The scope of the research included the evaluation of the absorption of water in concrete...

  6. Three-dimensional modelling of sound absorption in porous asphalt pavement for oblique incident waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer-Krijnen, Marieke; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Glorieux, C.

    2015-01-01

    Sound absorption of porous asphalt pavements is an important property when reducing tyre-road noise. A hybrid model has been developed to predict the sound absorption of porous roads. This model is a combination of an analytical analysis of the sound eld and a numerical approach, including both the

  7. Interim revision of the South African Mechanistic-Empirical pavement design method for flexible pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available an interim revision of the SAMDM recommending increased contact stress values at the tyre-pavement interface; updated unbound material characterisation parameters; effective stress analysis for unbound material; and revised damage models for estimating...

  8. Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Flexible Pavement Performance Prediction Models Volume I Executive Research Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this research study was to develop performance characteristics or variables (e.g., ride quality, rutting, : fatigue cracking, transverse cracking) of flexible pavements in Montana, and to use these characteristics in the : implementa...

  9. Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Flexible Pavement Performance Prediction Models Volume II Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this research study was to develop performance characteristics or variables (e.g., ride quality, rutting, : fatigue cracking, transverse cracking) of flexible pavements in Montana, and to use these characteristics in the : implementa...

  10. Tyre-pavement interface contact stresses on flexible pavements - quo vadis?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available on tyre inflation pressure on this route is also given. The paper also discusses an improved definition of the actual tyre/pavement interaction of modern heavy vehicles and their loads on the current flexible road infrastructure....

  11. Development of Pavement Condition Index Model Using PAVER 6.5.7 for Flexible Pavement Urban Roads in Kerbala City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Ali Ewadh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The pavement condition index (PCI is an important factor indicating pavement condition of roads. The pavement is one of the basic parts of the road infrastructure. Accordingly the aim of this paper is to develop a pavement condition index model using PAVER 6.5.7 for a flexible pavement urban roads in the Kerbala city center. The development model is depending on the PCI value of 109 sample sections having 57.8 km length, Data collected for pavement distress (type, dimension, and severity were used to find PCI. The filtering and outlier analysis was done by using a polynomial (fourth-degree constrained least squared for statistical process. These processes were done by (PAVER 6.5.7 software. The result of the prediction model of PCI shows that it is valid to be used in the prediction of the condition of pavement for the same family type

  12. Long-term behaviour of bituminized waste: modelling self-irradiation and leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simondi-Teisseire, B.; Vistoli, P.P.; Libert, M.; Gilardi, T. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Physico-Chimie, DPC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chaix, P. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie, DPC, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Blanc, V. [Cogema, 78 - Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France)

    2001-07-01

    During interim storage, the main evolution factor of bituminized wastes is radiolysis, due to self-irradiation. In deep disposal conditions, after site re-saturation and corrosion of the containers, the main evolution will be due to leaching. This paper deals with two models designed to describe respectively radiolytic gas evacuation (JACOB- 2) and bituminized waste leaching (COLONBO), and some of the typical results obtained from these two models. The first model describes radiolytic gas production, diffusive transport of gas, bubble nucleation and ripening and movement under buoyancy. The second one is based on descriptions of water sorption, solubilization, and diffusion into the matrix, water uptake by the most soluble salts leading to alteration of the matrix and finally to diffusive transport of the salts outside the bitumenisate. (author)

  13. Research on the thermal decomposition of Mongolian Baganuur lignite and Naryn sukhait bituminous coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ariunaa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The technical characteristics, elemental composition of the organic and mineral matters, ash melting behaviors and carbonization and gasification reactivities of coals from Baganuur and Naryn sukhait deposits were investigated. The results of proximate and ultimate analysis confirmed that the coal from Baganuur deposit can be graded as a low rank lignite B2 mark coal and Naryn sukhait coal is a bituminous G mark one. The carbonization and gasification experiments were performed using TGA apparatus and fixed bed quartz reactor. The data obtained with two experimental reactors showed that Baganuur lignite had lower thermal stability and much higher CO2 gasification reactivity at 950°C as compared to those for Naryn sukhait bituminous coal.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 16 (42, 2015, 22-29

  14. Estimated Valuation of the Cost of Road Construction with the Use of Composite Cationic Bituminous Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Vorotynseva Anna; Ovsiannikov Andrey; Bolgov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The need for formation of prices for road construction works producing, by using composite of cationic bituminous structures, is dictated by absence of this type of work in estimate-normative base, due to the fact that this type of materials had never been used before. Estimated specifications could be used either for determination of work cost or for substantiation of efficiency of using new type of materials. This paper provides basic concepts, related to formation of estimate-normative bas...

  15. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Dipankar; Pal, Manish; Sarkar, Ashoke K.

    2016-01-01

    There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46...

  16. [Determination of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons during the installation of bituminous acoustic insulation panels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianello, G; Marrubini, G; La Bua, R; Laurini, C; Bergamaschi, A

    2006-01-01

    Two kinds of bituminous European and Asiatic origin panels, used as acoustic insulators in the production of electrical household appliances have been analysed. The tests, made at 180 degrees C, operation temperature during the assembly phases, have been executed by sampling the smokes released during the thermal treatment, subsequently analysed by GC-MS. The results showed a marked difference between the two samples in the amount of the issued compounds, essentially constituted by alkyl-aromatic hydrocarbons, IPA and Alkyl-IPA.

  17. Integration of pavement cracking prediction model with asset management and vehicle-infrastructure interaction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Not long after the construction of a pavement or a new pavement surface, various : forms of deterioration begin to accumulate due to the harsh effects of traffic loading : combined with weathering action. In a recent NEXTRANS project, a pavement crac...

  18. Multi-resolution information mining and a computer vision approach to pavement condition distress analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Pavement Condition surveys are carried out periodically to gather information on pavement distresses that will guide decision-making for maintenance and preservation. Traditional methods involve manual pavement inspections which are time-consuming : ...

  19. Evaluation of Long-Life Concrete Pavement Practices for Use in Florida : [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Current Florida construction practices produce asphalt pavements with a service life of 12 to 20 years before needing rehabilitation; concrete pavements are typically designed for 20 years. However, pavements with much longer design lives are possibl...

  20. Evaluation of Long-Life Concrete Pavement Practices for Use in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Current Florida construction practices produce asphalt pavements with a service life of 12 to 20 years before needing rehabilitation; concrete pavements are typically designed for 20 years. However, pavements with much longer design lives are possibl...

  1. Determination of coefficient of thermal expansion effects on Louisiana's PCC pavement design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    With the development of the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) as a new pavement design tool, the : coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is now considered a more important design parameter in estimating pavement : performance inclu...

  2. Determination of coefficient of thermal expansion for Portland Cement Concrete pavements for MEPDG Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) is an important parameter in Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) pavement analysis and design as it is directly proportional to the magnitude of temperature-related pavement deformations throughout the pavement s...

  3. Measurement, Construction, and Maintenance of Skid-Resistant Airport Pavement Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-18

    This advisory circular (AC) contains guidelines and procedures for the design : and construction of skid-resistant pavement, pavement evaluation with friction : measuring equipment, and maintenance of high skid-resistant pavements. 45p.

  4. On-board sound intensity tire-pavement noise study in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "This research investigated tire-pavement noise on various types of pavements across North Carolina by using On- : Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) method. To mitigate traffic noise, quieter pavement may provide advantages that : noise barriers cannot. T...

  5. Developing a network-level structural capacity index for structural evaluation of pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a structural index for use in network-level pavement evaluation to facilitate : the inclusion of the pavements structural condition in pavement management applications. The primary goal of network-level...

  6. Predicting pavement condition index using international roughness index in Washington DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A number of pavement condition indices are used to conduct pavement management assessments, two of which are the : International Roughness Index (IRI) and Pavement Condition Index (PCI). The IRI is typically measured using specialized : equipment tha...

  7. Carbon Isotope Analyses of Individual Hydrocarbon Molecules in Bituminous Coal, Oil Shale and Murchison Meteorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungsook Kim

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the origin of organic matter in meteorite, terrestrial rocks which contain organic compounds similar to the ones found in carbonaceous chondrites are studied and compared with Murchison meteorite. Hydrocarbon molecules were extracted by benzene and methanol from bituminous coal and oil shale and the extracts were partitioned into aliphatic, aromatic, and polar fractions by silica gel column chromatography. Carbon isotopic ratios in each fractions were analysed by GC-C-IRMS. Molecular compound identifications were carried by GC-MS Engine. Bituminous coal and oil shale show the organic compound composition similar to that of meteorite. Oil shale has a wide range of δ(13C, -20.1%_0 - -54.4%_0 compared to bituminous coal, -25.2%_0 - -34.3%_0. Delta values of several molecular compounds in two terrestrial samples are different. They show several distinct distributions in isotopic ratios compared to those of meteorite; Murchison meteorite has a range of δ(13C from -13%_0 to +30%_0. These results provide interpretation for the source and the formation condition of each rock, in particular alteration and migration processes of organic matter. Especially, they show an important clue whether some hydrocarbon molecules observed in meteorite are indigenous or not.

  8. Prediction of Marshall Parameters of Modified Bituminous Mixtures Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Khuntia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the application of artificial neural networks (ANN and least square support vector machine (LS-SVM for prediction of Marshall parameters obtained from Marshall tests for waste polyethylene (PE modified bituminous mixtures. Waste polyethylene in the form of fibres processed from utilized milk packets has been used to modify the bituminous mixes in order to improve their engineering properties. Marshall tests were carried out on mix specimens with variations in polyethylene and bitumen contents. It has been observed that the addition of waste polyethylene results in the improvement of Marshall characteristics such as stability, flow value and air voids, used to evaluate a bituminous mix. The proposed neural network (NN model uses the quantities of ingredients used for preparation of Marshall specimens such as polyethylene, bitumen and aggregate in order to predict the Marshall stability, flow value and air voids obtained from the tests. Out of two techniques used, the NN based model is found to be compact, reliable and predictable when compared with LS-SVM model. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to identify the importance of the parameters considered.

  9. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  10. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  11. Cracking of open traffic rigid pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Chatarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is done by observing the growth of real structure cracking in Natar, Lampung, Indonesia compared to C. Niken’s et al research and literature study. The rigid pavement was done with open traffic system. There are two main crack types on Natar rigid pavement: cracks cross the road, and cracks spreads on rigid pavement surface. The observation of cracks was analyzed by analyzing material, casting, curing, loading and shrinkage mechanism. The relationship between these analysis and shrinkage mechanism was studied in concrete micro structure. Open traffic make hydration process occur under vibration; therefore, fresh concrete was compressed and tensioned alternately since beginning. High temperature together with compression, cement dissociation, the growth of Ca2+ at very early age leads abnormal swelling. No prevention from outside water movement leads hydration process occur with limited water which caused spreads fine cracks. Limited water improves shrinkage and plastic phase becomes shorter; therefore, rigid pavement can’t accommodate the abnormal swelling and shrinking alternately and creates the spread of cracks. Discontinuing casting the concrete makes both mix under different condition, the first is shrink and the second is swell and creates weak line on the border; so, the cracks appear as cracks across the road.

  12. Permeable pavement research – Edison, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are the slides for the New York City Concrete Promotional Council Pervious Concrete Seminar presentation. The basis for the project, the monitoring design and some preliminary monitoring data from the permeable pavement parking lot at the Edison Environmental Center are pre...

  13. "Full-Scale Testing of Pavement Response"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Ekdahl, Peter

    1998-01-01

    methods for determining stresses, strains and deflections in pavement structurers.Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test were done on the test sections, and stresses and strains were measured both under FWD loading and under a rolling wheel load. Different back-analysis procedures were used to derive...

  14. Microstructural pavement material characterization: some examples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, Martin B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilisation of advanced measurement techniques should assist in the characterization of pavement materials at a micro-scale. The motivating factor for such an approach is that material properties at the micro-level have a critical role...

  15. Texas perpetual pavements : new design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Since 2001, the State of Texas has been designing and constructing perpetual pavements : on some of its heavily trafficked highways where the expected 20-year truck-traffic estimate of : 18 kip ESALs is in excess of 30 million (TxDOT, 2001). To date,...

  16. Relationship between road pavement failures, engineering indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents the results of a study carried out to relate the frequency of pavement failures, the engineering indices of the subgrade materials and the underlying geology. The results show a high variability in the indices such as the liquid limit, LL, the plasticity index, PI, the maximum dry density, MDD, the optimum ...

  17. The Reflective Cracking in Flexible Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais Jorge

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reflective cracking is a major concern for engineers facing the problem of road maintenance and rehabilitation. The problem appears due to the presence of cracks in the old pavement layers that propagate into the pavement overlay layer when traffic load passes over the cracks and due to the temperature variation. The stress concentration in the overlay just above the existing cracks is responsible for the appearance and crack propagation throughout the overlay. The analysis of the reflective cracking phenomenon is usually made by numerical modeling simulating the presence of cracks in the existing pavement and the stress concentration in the crack tip is assessed to predict either the cracking propagation rate or the expected fatigue life of the overlay. Numerical modeling to study reflective cracking is made by simulating one crack in the existing pavement and the loading is usually applied considering the shear mode of crack opening. Sometimes the simulation considers the mode I of crack opening, mainly when temperature effects are predominant.

  18. Pavement behaviour under the super single tyre

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, AW

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Pavement behaviour under the super single tyre (SST) was investigated and compared with that under a conventional dual tyre (CDT). Contact areas and contact pressures over a range of loading conditions were measured and compared. Two approaches were...

  19. Lessons learned : pavement marking warranty contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, UDOT implemented a performance-based warranty on a portion of an I-15 pavement marking : project. The awarded contract requested a contractor warranty on the implemented markings for a total : duration of six years. This is the first time th...

  20. A preliminary study of mechanistic approach in pavement design to accommodate climate change effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnaeni, S. R.; Pramesti, F. P.; Budiarto, A.; Setyawan, A.

    2018-03-01

    Road damage is caused by some factors, including climate changes, overload, and inappropriate procedure for material and development process. Meanwhile, climate change is a phenomenon which cannot be avoided. The effects observed include air temperature rise, sea level rise, rainfall changes, and the intensity of extreme weather phenomena. Previous studies had shown the impacts of climate changes on road damage. Therefore, several measures to anticipate the damage should be considered during the planning and construction in order to reduce the cost of road maintenance. There are three approaches generally applied in the design of flexible pavement thickness, namely mechanistic approach, mechanistic-empirical (ME) approach and empirical approach. The advantages of applying mechanistic approach or mechanistic-empirical (ME) approaches are its efficiency and reliability in the design of flexible pavement thickness as well as its capacity to accommodate climate changes in compared to empirical approach. However, generally, the design of flexible pavement thickness in Indonesia still applies empirical approach. This preliminary study aimed to emphasize the importance of the shifting towards a mechanistic approach in the design of flexible pavement thickness.

  1. The development and geometry of shape change in Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledon pavement cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halsey Leah E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaf epidermis is an important architectural control element that influences the growth properties of underlying tissues and the overall form of the organ. In dicots, interdigitated pavement cells are the building blocks of the tissue, and their morphogenesis includes the assembly of specialized cell walls that surround the apical, basal, and lateral (anticlinal cell surfaces. The microtubule and actin cytoskeletons are highly polarized along the cortex of the anticlinal wall; however, the relationships between these arrays and cell morphogenesis are unclear. Results We developed new quantitative tools to compare population-level growth statistics with time-lapse imaging of cotyledon pavement cells in an intact tissue. The analysis revealed alternating waves of lobe initiation and a phase of lateral isotropic expansion that persisted for days. During lateral isotropic diffuse growth, microtubule organization varied greatly between cell surfaces. Parallel microtubule bundles were distributed unevenly along the anticlinal surface, with subsets marking stable cortical domains at cell indentations and others clearly populating the cortex within convex cell protrusions. Conclusions Pavement cell morphogenesis is discontinuous, and includes punctuated phases of lobe initiation and lateral isotropic expansion. In the epidermis, lateral isotropic growth is independent of pavement cell size and shape. Cortical microtubules along the upper cell surface and stable cortical patches of anticlinal microtubules may coordinate the growth behaviors of orthogonal cell walls. This work illustrates the importance of directly linking protein localization data to the growth behavior of leaf epidermal cells.

  2. Digital image processing as a tool for pavement distress evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, A.; Loizos, A.; Flouda, A.

    The information obtained through accurate condition assessment of pavement surface distress data is needed as an essential input to any decision making process concerning pavement management policy. At the same time technological advances in automated inspection systems provide the opportunity to automate the collection and evaluation of the pavement surface condition. In this paper a method developed jointly by the Laboratories of Highway Engineering and Photogrammetry of the National Technical University of Athens is described and proposed. The method involves digital image processing techniques to provide suitable digital imagery as input to specialised software developed especially for this project. This software determines objectively and fully automatically the type, the extent and the severity of surface crackings for flexible road pavements. The proposed method presenten substantial agreement, when compared with systematic visual ratings of existing pavement crackings carried out according to the internationally accepted requirements for airfield and road pavement of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  3. Asphalt Concrete Overlay Optimization Based on Pavement Performance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mikolaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle length of pavement with asphalt concrete material (ACM surfacing is significantly influenced, in addition to transport loading and climatic conditions, by design method and rehabilitation timing. Appropriate overlay thickness calculation and estimation of optimal rehabilitation time are crucial to maximizing life cycle length and, concurrently, reducing road administration costs and road user costs. This article describes a comprehensive method of ACM rehabilitation design. For optimization of life cycle cost analysis (LCCA based design, mathematical analytical solution in combination with experimental verification of physical, mechanical, and fatigue characteristics is utilized. Pavement performance, that is, functions mathematically describing pavement’s degradation characteristics of operational capability, is represented by longitudinal and transverse unevenness; these are used to describe relations between traffic loading and pavement’s bearing capacity on 1 : 1 scale. Optimizing of rehabilitation plan is carried out by making a cost benefit analysis (CBA for several rehabilitation scenarios in which different rehabilitation timing produces different capital cost requirements and social benefits. Rehabilitation scenarios differ in technology, the design of which needs to be mathematically optimized, and timing of rehabilitation execution. This article includes a case study for the sake of illustration of practical results and verification of applicability of used methodology.

  4. COMPARISON OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR ROAD PAVEMENT INFRASTRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA DOS SANTOS , Joao Miguel; THYAGARAJAN , Senthilmurugan; KEIJZER , Elisabeth; FERNANDEZ FLORES , Rocio; FLINTSCH , Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Road pavements have considerable environmental burdens associated with their initial construction, maintenance, and usage, which has led the pavement stakeholder community to congregate efforts to better understand and mitigate these negative effects. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a versatile methodology to quantify the effect of decisions regarding the selection of resources and processes. However, there is a considerable variety of tools for conducting pavement LCA. The objective of this p...

  5. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshitake, Isamu; Ishida, Takeo; Fukumoto, Sunao

    2015-01-01

    Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone pow...

  6. Incorporating moving dynamic tyre loads in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available at the University of Pretoria. 4 REAL LIFE TYRE LOADS Characterisation Pavement loading has been shown by various authors to be a dynamic (time-dependent) phenomenon (Divine, 1997; Cebon, 1999). A pavement experiences a vehicle as a moving, time-varying set... is that caused by the pavement roughness-induced movement of the vehicle. This is traditionally termed dynamic pavement loading (Divine, 1997). Tyre load definitions Four types of tyre loading can be identified: 1. A load that is independent of time...

  7. Environmentally friendly pavements: Results from noise measurements 2005-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Truls Svenn; Haukland, Frode; Ustad, Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    CPX-measurements (tyre A) have been performed on a wide range of ordinary dense Norwegian road pavements and special test pavements, as part of the R&D project “Environmental friendly pavements” initiated by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration. The following conclusions can be made from the investigation:- New dense asphalt concrete pavements can give a tyre/road noise level (CPX) of 4-8 dB(A) lower noise level, compared to a chosen reference level for a pavement of type AC 0/1...

  8. Study on Flexible Pavement Failures in Soft Soil Tropical Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, M.; Chee Soon, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Road network system experienced rapid upgrowth since ages ago and it started developing in Malaysia during the colonization of British due to its significant impacts in transportation field. Flexible pavement, the major road network in Malaysia, has been deteriorating by various types of distresses which cause descending serviceability of the pavement structure. This paper discusses the pavement condition assessment carried out in Sarawak and Sabah, Malaysia to have design solutions for flexible pavement failures. Field tests were conducted to examine the subgrade strength of existing roads in Sarawak at various failure locations, to assess the impact of subgrade strength on pavement failures. Research outcomes from field condition assessment and subgrade testing showed that the critical causes of pavement failures are inadequate design and maintenance of drainage system and shoulder cross fall, along with inadequate pavement thickness provided by may be assuming the conservative value of soil strength at optimum moisture content, whereas the exiting and expected subgrade strengths at equilibrium moisture content are far below. Our further research shows that stabilized existing recycled asphalt and base materials to use as a sub-base along with bitumen stabilized open graded base in the pavement composition may be a viable solution for pavement failures.

  9. Crack identification for rigid pavements using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaddin Ersoz, Ahmet; Pekcan, Onur; Teke, Turker

    2017-09-01

    Pavement condition assessment is an essential piece of modern pavement management systems as rehabilitation strategies are planned based upon its outcomes. For proper evaluation of existing pavements, they must be continuously and effectively monitored using practical means. Conventionally, truck-based pavement monitoring systems have been in-use in assessing the remaining life of in-service pavements. Although such systems produce accurate results, their use can be expensive and data processing can be time consuming, which make them infeasible considering the demand for quick pavement evaluation. To overcome such problems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be used as an alternative as they are relatively cheaper and easier-to-use. In this study, we propose a UAV based pavement crack identification system for monitoring rigid pavements’ existing conditions. The system consists of recently introduced image processing algorithms used together with conventional machine learning techniques, both of which are used to perform detection of cracks on rigid pavements’ surface and their classification. Through image processing, the distinct features of labelled crack bodies are first obtained from the UAV based images and then used for training of a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model. The performance of the developed SVM model was assessed with a field study performed along a rigid pavement exposed to low traffic and serious temperature changes. Available cracks were classified using the UAV based system and obtained results indicate it ensures a good alternative solution for pavement monitoring applications.

  10. Performance of recycled asphalt concrete airport pavement surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, G. D.; Hironaka, M. C.

    1986-10-01

    The objective of this research was to make an assessment of the relative performance of recycled versus new asphalt concrete pavement surfaces constructed for airport facilities. To make this assessment, pavement condition index (PCI) surveys and tests on core samples from the hot-mix recycled pavements located on the airports at Needles, California, and Valley City, North Dakota were conducted. Both pavements have a condition rating of very good. The survey and test data were compared with those for recycled highway and virgin material Navy airfield pavements. The recycle pavement at Needles is performing as good as those Navy pavements constructed with virgin material. The recycled pavement at Valley City has a higher deterioration rate than the Navy pavements but this could be attributed to the harsh climate found in North Dakota. The results of this study show that hot-mix recycling was successful at these airports but additional studies are required to determine the applicability of Asphalt Concrete (AC) recycling for reconstruction at all airports.

  11. Identification of Pavement Distress Types and Pavement Condition Evaluation Based on Network Level Inspection for Jazan City Road Network

    OpenAIRE

    M Mubaraki

    2014-01-01

    The first step in establishing a pavement management system (PMS) is road network identification. An important feature of a PMS is the ability to determine the current condition of a road network and predict its future condition. Pavement condition evaluation may involve structure, roughness, surface distress, and safety evaluation. In this study, a pavement distress condition rating procedure was used to achieve the objectives of this study. The main objectives of this study were to identify...

  12. Basic Performance of Fibre Reinforced Asphalt Concrete with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Produced In Low Temperatures with Foamed Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicz-Kowalska, Anna; Iwański, Mateusz M.; Mrugała, Justyna

    2017-10-01

    During the reconstruction of road pavements, the reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), which is obtained through milling of the worn out existing asphalt, is commonly used for producing new base courses in cold recycling processes. Two of these techniques are most popular: one using mineral-cement-emulsion mixes and one utilizing mineral cement mixes with foamed bitumen. Additionally, some amounts of RAP can be incorporated into traditional hot mix asphalt. The demand for energy efficient and environmentally friendly solutions however, results in a need for development of new techniques that would result in cheaper and more reliable solutions with smaller carbon footprint. The reduction of processing temperatures with simultaneous incorporation of reclaimed material is the most efficient way of obtaining these objectives, but it often results in the overall decrease of bituminous mix quality. The paper presents the possibility of using RAP for producing asphalt concrete in warm mix asphalt (WMA) production process by the use of foamed bitumen modified with Fischer-Tropsch synthetic wax and polymer-basalt fibers. Additionally, a series of reference mixtures were produced to investigate the effects of the additives and of the warm process. The carried out analyses and tests shown that the experimental warm mix asphalt produced with RAP and foamed bitumen returned satisfactory performance. The introduction of synthetic F-T wax in the warm foam bitumen mixes resulted in a significantly improved compaction levels and moisture and frost resistance and the addition of polymer-basalt fibers has further improved the permanent deformation resistance of the mixes. All of the designed and tested mixes have fulfilled the requirements for binding course asphalt concrete with medium traffic loads.

  13. ANÁLISIS TÉRMICO DE GEOSINTÉTICOS UTILIZADOS EN LA REHABILITACIÓN DE PAVIMENTOS THERMAL ANALYSIS OF GEOSYNTHETICS USED IN THE REHABILITATION OF PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Norambuena-Contreras

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento de la utilización de los geosintéticos en la rehabilitación de pavimentos flexibles se ha visto incrementado de forma considerable desde la década de los años setenta. Estos materiales presentan una serie de ventajas que motivan su gran demanda en la actualidad. La utilización de geosintéticos en la rehabilitación se basa en su capacidad de resistir deformaciones, atenuando las fisuras y grietas que pudiesen presentar los pavimentos flexibles. Se han realizado dos experiencias en laboratorio para simular el proceso de puesta en obra de los geosintéticos en la zona de intercapa. El procedimiento consiste en verter sobre el geosintético extendido, una capa de mezcla bituminosa en caliente comprendida entre 135 - 165 ºC. El análisis térmico de los resultados obtenidos avala significativamente al material poliéster (PS, con respecto al polipropileno (PP, en futuras aplicaciones de rehabilitación de pavimentos flexibles.The use of geosynthetics in rehabilitating flexible pavements has substantially expanded since the mid-seventies. These materials have a number of advantages that motivate their demand at present. The use of geosynthetics in rehabilitation is based on its ability to resist deformation, attenuating fissures and cracks that flexible pavements could present. Two experiments have been done to simulate the process of placing the geosynthetics in the interlayer area. The process consists of pouring on the spread geosynthetics a layer of hot bituminous mix between 135-165 °C. The thermal analysis of the results shows a significant performance of polyester (PS, compared to polypropylene (PP, in future applications for the rehabilitation of flexible pavements.

  14. Effect of Uphill Flexible Pavements on The Damaging Effect Of Full-Trailer Trucks With Tandem Front Axles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Said Razouki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of traffic on flexible pavements can be expressed in terms of truck equivalence factors. This paper presents a study on the effect of uphill pavements on the damaging effect (truck equivalence factors of two types of full-trailer trucks with tandem front axles. Axle load and geometrical characteristics survey on the two types of full-trailer trucks were carried out for determining the data needed in this study. In addition, uphill slope survey in Kerbala city was done and the data of uphill slope of other Iraqi cities were obtained from previous surveys. The paper reveals that the uphill pavement gradient causes significant increase in truck equivalence factors. In addition, the research reveals that there are many factors affecting the truck equivalence factors on uphill flexible pavements, including the total weight of full-trailer, H/B ratio (height of center of gravity to the wheel base of the truck, magnitude of uphill slope, and the structural number (SN.This work shows the importance of considering the effect of uphill slope in the design of flexible pavements on steep uphill slopes.

  15. Integration of a prototype wireless communication system with micro-electromechanical temperature and humidity sensor for concrete pavement health monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, structural health monitoring and management (SHMM has become a popular approach and is considered essential for achieving well-performing, long-lasting, sustainable transportation infrastructure systems. Key requirements in ideal SHMM of road infrastructure include long-term, continuous, and real-time monitoring of pavement response and performance under various pavement geometry-materials-loading configurations and environmental conditions. With advancements in wireless technologies, integration of wireless communications into sensing device is considered an alternate and superior solution to existing time- and labor-intensive wired sensing systems in meeting the requirements of an ideal SHMM. This study explored the development and integration of a wireless communications sub-system into a commercial off-the-shelf micro-electromechanical sensor-based concrete pavement monitoring system. A success-rate test was performed after the wireless transmission system was buried in the concrete slab, and the test results indicated that the system was able to provide reliable communications at a distance of more than 46 m (150 feet. This will be a useful feature for highway engineers performing routine pavement scans from the pavement shoulder without the need for traffic control or road closure.

  16. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat and PAHs: implications for the environment, human health, and stormwater management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crane, Judy L.; Watts, Alison W.; Scoggins, Mateo; Williams, E. Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat products, widely used in the central and eastern U.S. on parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds, are typically 20-35% coal-tar pitch, a known human carcinogen that contains about 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Research continues to identify environmental compartments—including stormwater runoff, lake sediment, soil, house dust, and most recently, air—contaminated by PAHs from coal-tar-based sealcoat and to demonstrate potential risks to biological communities and human health. In many cases, the levels of contamination associated with sealed pavement are striking relative to levels near unsealed pavement: PAH concentrations in air over pavement with freshly applied coal-tar-based sealcoat, for example, were hundreds to thousands of times higher than those in air over unsealed pavement. Even a small amount of sealcoated pavement can be the dominant source of PAHs to sediment in stormwater-retention ponds; proper disposal of such PAH-contaminated sediment can be extremely costly. Several local governments, the District of Columbia, and the State of Washington have banned use of these products, and several national and regional hardware and home-improvement retailers have voluntarily ceased selling them.

  17. A MECHANISTIC-EMPIRICAL IMPACT ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT TRUCK CONFIGURATIONS ON A JOINTED PLAIN CONCRETE PAVEMENT (JPCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubinda F. Walubita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Until the last decade, the 1993 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO design guide has been traditionally used for the design of flexible and rigid pavements in the USA and some parts of the world. However, because of its inability to meet the new traffic and material challenges, a Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG was introduced based on an NCHRP 1-37 A study conducted in 2004. This study used the MEPDG software and associated models to determine, through comparative truck damage analysis, the effects of nine different truck configurations on a 12 inch-jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP. The study recorded truck damages at the end of each analysis period (40 years and comparatively analyzed the relative pavement damage in terms of fatigue cracking, faulting, and surface roughness. The results indicated that the most critical damage to the concrete pavement was caused by truck cases with high and uneven load distribution and relatively smaller size axles group (e.g. tandem. Other key findings included the following; (1 increase in damage when the truckloads were shifted between the same size axles, (2 decrease in truck damage when the truckloads were shifted from tandem axle to quad axles, and (3 no change in truck damage when the axle spacing was increased between wheels of a quad axle.

  18. Microorganism Removal in Permeable Pavement Parking Lots ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements (pervious concrete, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and porous asphalt) were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed that porous asphalt had much lower concentration in monitored infiltrate compared to pervious concrete and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Concentrations of monitored organisms in infiltrate from porous asphalt were consistently below the bathing water quality standard. Fecal coliform and enterococci exceeded bathing water quality standards more than 72% and 34% of the time for permeable interlocking concrete pavers and pervious concrete, respectively. Purpose is to evaluate the performance of permeable pavement in removing indicator organisms from infiltrating stormwater runoff.

  19. アスファルト混合物の摩耗抵抗改善に関する実験的研究

    OpenAIRE

    新田, 登; 磯崎, 真一

    1987-01-01

    The development of wear resistant bituminous paving mixtures has been considered as one of the important problems in the field of bituminous pavement design in cold regions. In order to contribute to this problem, a series of laboratory tests used an accelerated wearing equipment were made on wearing resistance properties of bituminous mixtures: one is on the wearing process, another is on the effects of mixture components, including volume, size and gradation of coarse aggregate and types of...

  20. Applications of observational techniques in pavement engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJVDM

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available used to obtain these images. Higher resolution images are available through the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) AGIS (Agricultural Geo-Referenced Information System) site. This site provides detailed information on soil, terrain, geology, climate... pavement to be either under- or over-estimated. A further aspect that requires attention during the process of obtaining the images for observational analysis is to ensure that all images are clearly identifiable through a system that would lead...

  1. Pavement cells and the topology puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ross; Sánchez-Corrales, Yara E; Hartley, Matthew; Grieneisen, Verônica A; Marée, Athanasius F M

    2017-12-01

    D'Arcy Thompson emphasised the importance of surface tension as a potential driving force in establishing cell shape and topology within tissues. Leaf epidermal pavement cells grow into jigsaw-piece shapes, highly deviating from such classical forms. We investigate the topology of developing Arabidopsis leaves composed solely of pavement cells. Image analysis of around 50,000 cells reveals a clear and unique topological signature, deviating from previously studied epidermal tissues. This topological distribution is established early during leaf development, already before the typical pavement cell shapes emerge, with topological homeostasis maintained throughout growth and unaltered between division and maturation zones. Simulating graph models, we identify a heuristic cellular division rule that reproduces the observed topology. Our parsimonious model predicts how and when cells effectively place their division plane with respect to their neighbours. We verify the predicted dynamics through in vivo tracking of 800 mitotic events, and conclude that the distinct topology is not a direct consequence of the jigsaw piece-like shape of the cells, but rather owes itself to a strongly life history-driven process, with limited impact from cell-surface mechanics. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Microtexture diagnostics of asphalt pavement surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florková, Zuzana; Pepucha, L.'ubomír

    2017-09-01

    The microtexture of asphalt pavement surface is an essential parameter from the traffic safety point of view and it closely relates to a geometrical, petrological and physical properties of aggregate particle used in asphalt pavement. Microtexture has a significant influence for assurance basic friction values between tire and pavement in relation to a skid resistance properties. Therefore, the microtexture detecting methods are necessary. The British pendulum tester measurements have been carried out on selected sections of roads with different asphalt surfaces. Individual grains of aggregates were taken from the surface of each section from the sliding path and also from the core sample after the extraction. The laboratory profilometry measurements have been practiced on these aggregate samples and subsequently the surface microtexture was investigated based on commonly used texture characteristics and the filtration approach was applied in calculation process. The results have shown the degradation of microtexture values occurs due to polishing of aggregate under loading from traffic in relation to the type of used aggregate. Some correlation between BPN values and texture characteristics was found.

  3. Biowaste utilization in the process of co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howaniec, Natalia; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biowaste utilization in co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite gives the benefits of stable supplies of a primary energy source – coal and utilization of a zero-emission, waste material (i.e. agriculture waste, sewage sludge, etc.) with higher process efficiency and lower negative environmental impact than biomass or coal gasification, respectively. The main focus of the study presented is co-gasification of bituminous coal or lignite with biowaste to hydrogen-rich gas. The experiments were performed in the laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor installation at 700 and 900 °C. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with a color map of studied data were applied in the selection of the optimal operating parameters for biowaste utilization in the co-gasification process based on the experimental data of gasification/co-gasification process as well as physical and chemical properties of fuels tested. The experimental results showed that the carbon conversion rate in co-gasification increased with increasing biomass content in a fuel. The total gas volume and hydrogen volume in co-gasification were higher than the values expected based on the results of the gasification process of the fuels analyzed. - Highlights: • Biowaste co-gasification with bituminous coal/lignite to hydrogen-rich gas. • Steam co-gasification in laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor at 700 and 900 °C. • Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with color map of experimental data. • Carbon conversion increase with increasing biomass content. • The highest total gas and hydrogen volume in co-gasification of C-B20 blend at 900C.

  4. Mineral matter in Spanish bituminous and brown coals. Part 2: mineral matter quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Martinez Alonso, A.; Tascon, J.M.D. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon y sus Derivados, Oviedo (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    A number of methods for mineral matter quantification were applied to a set of Spanish coals. Bituminous coals of different rank from the Asturian Central basin and brown coals from Galician basins were studied. Normative analysis was shown to be an adequate procedure for determining the concentrations of individual mineral species. It was found that mineral constituents of Asturian bituminous coals are, in decreasing abundance order, clay minerals (muscovite, kaolinite), quartz and carbonates. In the case of Galician brown coals kaolinite is the most abundant mineral, followed by quartz and pyrite. Extraction with ammonium acetate and oxidation with hydrogen peroxide yielded equivalent values for the concentrations of alkali and alkaline-earth elements bound to organic matter in brown coals. A series of direct and indirect procedures as well as numerical methods for determining the total mineral matter content of coals were compared. Optimum methods for determining the total mineral matter contents of bituminous coals were low-temperature ashing (LTA) and acid demineralisation. The sum of the LTA yield of ammonium acetate-extracted coal and the total concentration of ion-exchanged elements provided the most reliable results for brown coals. Correction formulae from ash yield previously derived for coals from other basins yielded only slightly satisfactory results for the Spanish coals under study. Results obtained evidence the importance of correctly establishing the nature and concentration of clay minerals present in coal. Also, the convenience of carrying out more comprehensive work to unequivocally establish the mineral matter/ash factors for the various types of Spanish coals is suggested. 65 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. Applied Technological Direction of Power Plant Ash and Slag Waste Management when Kuznetsk Bituminous Coal is Burned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihach Snejana A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently a lot of power plants have a problem with storage of coal combustion solid by-products (ash and slag. Holding capacity of existing power plants available ash dumps were enlarged and modernized repeatedly. Many plants have two or even three of them. Today new ash dump construction is economically inconvenient due to need to assign new plots of land and their inconveniently big distance from a plant, which increase ash and slag transportation expenses. The goal of our research work is to find promising directions for ash and slag waste mass utilization based on Kuznetsk bituminous coals experimental data on ultimate composition and properties. The experimental research of ash, slag and their mixture samples from ash dumps brought us to conclusion that the most promising direction for these materials application in large quantities is construction industry including road construction. Be-sides, we lined up some other directions for ash, slag, and ash and slag mixture possible application. These directions might not provide mass utilization but they are promising from a point of view of the researched waste properties.

  6. Synergistic effect on thermal behavior during co-pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass model components blend with bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shuzhong; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Lin; Meng, Haiyu

    2014-10-01

    Co-thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass and coal has been investigated as an effective way to reduce the carbon footprint. Successful evaluating on thermal behavior of the co-pyrolysis is prerequisite for predicting performance and optimizing efficiency of this process. In this paper, pyrolysis and kinetics characteristics of three kinds of lignocellulosic biomass model components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) blended with a kind of Chinese bituminous coal were explored by thermogravimetric analyzer and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. The results indicated that the addition of model compounds had different synergistic effects on thermal behavior of the bituminous coal. The cellulose showed positive synergistic effects on the thermal decomposition of the coal bituminous coal with lower char yield than calculated value. For hemicellulose and lignin, whether positive or negative synergistic was related to the mixed ratio and temperature range. The distribution of the average activation energy values for the mixtures showed nonadditivity performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The projects of reducing environmental pollution at the collieries belonging to Petrosani Autonomous Bituminous Coal Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arad, V.; Arad, S.; Costinas, B.; Marchis, G.

    1997-01-01

    The economic development in the Jiu Valley, as practised in the mining and processing of bituminous coal, has had a dynamic character without taking into account, however, the harmful impact on the environment. The most severe problem of environmental pollution in the Jiu Valley is that of the pollution of the Jiu River due to the discharge of waste water from the technological processes of mining and processing coal. This paper presents some solutions for reducing this environmental pollution, especially the Jiu water pollution. 1 ref

  8. Investigation of activity release from bituminized intermediate-level waste forms under thermal stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluger, W.; Vejmelka, P.; Koester, R.

    1983-01-01

    To determine the consequences of a fire during fabrication, intermediate storage and transport of bituminized NaNO 3 waste forms, the fractions of plutonium released from the waste forms were assessed. For this purpose, laboratory tests were made with PuO 2 -containing specimens as well as a field test with specimens containing Eu 2 O 3 . By the evaluation of plutonium release in the laboratory and by the determination of the total sodium release and the relative Eu/Na release in the field tests the plutonium release can be deduced from full-scale specimens. The results show that for bituminized waste forms with high NaNO 3 contents (approx. 36 wt%) the average plutonium release obtained in laboratory testing is 15%. In the field tests (IAEA fire test conditions) an average Eu release of 8% was found. These results justify the statement that also for waste forms in open 175 L drum inserts a maximum plutonium release of about 15% can be expected. From the time-dependence of Eu/Na release in the field tests an induction period of 15-20 minutes between the start of testing and the first Na/Eu release can be derived. The maximum differential Na/Eu release occurs after a test period of 45 to 60 minutes duration and after 90 to 105 minutes (tests K2 and K4, respectively); after that time also the highest temperatures in the products are measured. The release values were determined for products in open 175 L drum inserts which in this form are not eligible for intermediate and ultimate storage. For bituminized waste forms in concrete packages (lost concrete shieldings) a delayed increase in temperature to only 70-80 deg. C takes place (4-5 hours after extinction of the fire) if the fire lasts 45 minutes. The concrete package remains intact under test conditions. This means that activity release from bituminized waste forms packaged in this way can be ruled out in the case under consideration. (author)

  9. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 13. Gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the thirteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal, from July 31, 1984 to August 11, 1984. 6 refs., 22 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. Testing of bituminized ion-exchange resin waste products from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.K.; Vuorinen, U.S.

    Testing methods are described and preliminary results presented for the bituminized waste products from TVO nuclear power plant. Radiation effects on the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste product and a pure bitumen sample were studied using an external 60 Co gamma source. Results of the postirradiation study show that the relative density decreases for both the waste products and the bitumen. Softening points rise for waste products but drop for bitumen. Breaking point of the powder resin waste product drops; in the granular resin waste product it rises on the surface and slightly decreases or does not significantly change at the bottom. For bitumen the breaking point rises

  11. Biomarker geochemistry of bituminous shale sequence and crude oil in the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara-Gulbay, Reyhan; Erdogan, Mert; Korkmaz, Sadettin; Kadinkiz, Gökhan

    2016-04-01

    In the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, bituminous shale sequence with thickness ranging between 72 and 160 m occurs in lacustrine deposits of Upper Miocene-Pliocene age. The live oil has also been observed in this bituminous shale sequence. Rock-Eval/TOC, GC and GC-MS analyses were conducted on selected bituminous shale samples from four borehole (key-12/1, key-12/2, key-12/3 key-12/4) and one crude oil sample from a borehole (key-12/2) in the basin. In this study, organic matter type, maturity and depositional environment of bituminous shale are evaluated and the origin of crude oil is determined by the bituminous shale-crude oil correlation. The total organic carbon (TOC) values of the bituminous shale samples range from 1.21-13.98 wt% with an average TOC value of 4.75wt%. The bituminous shale sequence is characterized by high HI (127-662 mg HC/g TOC) and low OI (7-50 mgCO2/TOC). Tmax varies from 332-419ᵒC. Very low Pr/Ph ratios of bituminous shale (0.09-0.22) are indicative of anoxic depositional conditions. C27 is dominate sterane for bituminous shale and crude oil samples with C27>C29>C28. Normal steranes are more dominant compare to iso- and diasteranes. Ouite high sterane/hopane ratios (1.14-2.70) indicate dominant algal organic matter input for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. C31R/hopane ratio for bituminous shale and crude oil samples are very low (0.09-0.13) and these ratio show a lacustrine depositional envirronment for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. Sterane and terpane distributions of bituminous shale and crude oil are very similar. A very good correlation in terms of biomarker between bituminous shale and crude oil samples indicate that source rock of crude oil is bituminous shale. The 22S/(22R + 22S) C32 homohopane ratios of bituminous shale and crude oil samples are found to be 0.56 and 0.61, indicating that homohopane isomerization has attained equilibrium and bituminous shale and crude oil are

  12. Portland cement concrete pavement best practices summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report summarizes the work and findings from WA-RD 744. This work consisted of four separate efforts related to best practices for portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement design and construction: (1) a review of past and current PCC pavement, (2...

  13. Soil Properties And Pavement Performance In The Nigerian Rainforest

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The geotechnical properties of the sub-structure of the Shagamu-Ore-Benin pavement were studied in an attempt to identifying the quality of construction materials and the pavement performance. The sub-structure soil materials were collected from the field and were taken to the laboratory for particle size analysis, Atterberg ...

  14. Inclusion of LCCA in Alaska flexible pavement design software manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Life cycle cost analysis is a key part for selecting materials and techniques that optimize the service life of a pavement in terms of cost and performance. While the Alaska : Flexible Pavement Design software has been in use since 2004, there is no ...

  15. Estimating the benefits of improved drainage on pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The drainage quality is an important parameter which affects the performance of highway pavements. In India ... pavement performance and maintenance needs; and (iii) to quantify the benefits in terms of cost due to the improved drainage ...... Jain was the founder Head of Excellence in Transportation Systems (CTRANS),.

  16. Soil Properties And Pavement Performance In The Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The geotechnical properties of the sub-structure of the Shagamu-Ore-Benin pavement were studied in an attempt to identifying the quality of construction materials and the pavement performance. The sub-structure soil materials were collected from the field and were taken to the laboratory for particle size analysis, Atterberg ...

  17. Long-term Metal Performance of Three Permeable Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA constructed a 4,000-m2 parking lot surfaced with three permeable pavements (permeable interlocking concrete pavers, pervious concrete, and porous asphalt) on the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, NJ in 2009. Samples from each permeable pavement infiltrate were collected...

  18. Engineering properties of common subgrade soils below pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports findings of laboratory testing of common sub-grade soils in pavement structures in Kenya. The materials were collected from different parts of the country. The results are intended to form a database for use by practicing engineers and researchers in the field of pavement engineering. The investigated ...

  19. Innovations in concrete pavements for a sustainable infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradena, M.; Houben, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Concrete pavements (CPs) are durable and they do not need periodic invasive maintenance interventions. Nevertheless, CPs are hardly chosen when only initial costs, instead of life-cycle costs, are considered in the evaluation. Nowadays, there are innovations in Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements

  20. I-81 in-place pavement recycling project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    During the 2011 construction season, the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) completed an in-place pavement : recycling project to rehabilitate a section of pavement on I-81 near Staunton, Virginia. The project consisted of a 3.66-mile : sec...

  1. Initial investigation into development of accelerated pavement evaluation (APE) vehicle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available . This is the option of using the HVS to proof-test a newly constructed or in-service pavement or even to only evaluate the pavement response qualitatively over a very short period. The problem addressed in this report is investigate the opportunity to develop a method...

  2. 3D Tyre/Road pavement contact stress measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR’s proprietary Stress-in-Motion (SIM) measurements provide rational descriptions of 1D, 2D and 3D tyre/road pavement stresses for: Road pavement design testing and evaluation, as well as tyre design, testing and evaluation....

  3. Effects of street tree shade on asphalt concrete pavement performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J. Muchnick

    2005-01-01

    Forty-eight street segments were paired into 24 high-and low-shade pairs in Modesto, California, U.S. Field data were collected to calculate a Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and Tree Shade Index (TSI) for each segment. Statistical analyses found that greater PCI was associated with greater TSI, indicating that tree shade was partially responsible for reduced pavement...

  4. Highway pavement failure induced by poor soil geotechnical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of abundant kaolinite peaks and a subdued goethite peak without any trace of montmorrilonite. The presence of excess fines in the pavement construction materials (soils) contributed to the failure of the highway pavement at this locality. The low CBR value is also a noted cause ...

  5. Application of WIM to pavement design. Effect of WIM accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Leal Bermejo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Weigh-in-motion (WIM techniques can provide data on vehicle and axle weights when they are travelling at full highway speeds. In this paper, the application of WIM data to the design of road pavements is described and the effect of WIM load data accuracy on the estimate of pavement service life is analysed. Thus, the main factors affecting WIM accuracy are explained, especially those related to vehicle-pavement interaction. Afterwards, a trial that has been conducted to evaluate the effect of WIM load data accuracy on pavement life prediction will be presented. The results obtained show that the errors in axle load measurements can lead to higher errors in pavement life estimates.

  6. Evaluation of current Louisiana flexible pavement structures using PMS data and new mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) developed under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Project 1-37A represents a major change as compared to the 1993 AASHTO Pavement Design Guide. The MEPDG provides a r...

  7. Photocatalytic pavement blocks. Air purification by pavement blocks. Final results of the research at BRRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The use of materials can influence to a large extent the environmental impact of traffic and of road infrastructure. Especially in urban areas, where the risk on smog formation during hot summer days is high, the use of photocatalytic pavement blocks can reduce the air pollution significantly. A project on environmental friendly concrete pavement blocks is conducted at the Belgian Road Research Centre. The use of photocatalytic material in the surface of pavement blocks to obtain air purifying materials is investigated. In contact with light, TiO2 as photocatalyst, is able to reduce the NO and NO2 content in the air, caused by the exhaust of traffic. The efficiency is tested on pavement blocks, but the technique can as well be applied on other road elements (e.g. noise reducing walls, linear elements) or as a coating on new materials or existing structures. At the previous TRA conference in Gotenborgh, Sweden, the principle of photocatalysis was presented. In this paper, emphasis will be put on the final results of the 4-year project obtained in laboratory as well as on site at the Leien of Antwerp (10,000 m{sup 2}). The results indicate a durable efficiency towards NOx reduction, which is in favour for the diminishing of the risk on ozone formation. However, the precise translation from the laboratory towards the site is still in question. The results obtained during the project are discussed in this paper.

  8. Reconsideration of tyre-pavement input parameters for the structural design of flexible pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available which have higher inflation pressures and hence higher contact stresses than was previously the case. The aim of this paper is to highlight the variabilities associated with actual measured three-dimensional tyre-pavement contact loading/stress regimes...

  9. Pavement noise research : modeling of quieter pavements in Florida, final report, October 19, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The research on noise created by the tire/pavement interface, while relatively new, has seen considerable interest over the past few years because of the potential benefits and a general desire by the public for quieter highways. The Florida Departme...

  10. Feasibility study of producing lump fuel using oil-bituminous sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldybaev, A.B.; Ermagambetov, B.T.; Mamraeva, K.M.; Shin, R.G.; Bakirova, R.K. (Institut Organicheskogo Sinteza i Uglekhimii AN KazSSR (USSR))

    1991-04-01

    Describes production of lump fuel by briquetting and coking different mixtures of non-caking coal with coal preparation sludge and bitumen extracted from oil sands. The coal used was from the Shubarkol'sk coal deposit (USSR); the sludge was from the Saburkhanskaya preparation plant. Properties and composition of oil-bituminous sands and of bitumen to be used as binder are given. Technological details of the briquetting and coking processes are provided. Results show that briquets produced from mixtures of coal and oil-bituminous sands can only be used as a high-ash lump fuel, which cannot be further processed into semicoke. Experiments were carried out briquetting coal or coke, sludge and 6-8% bitumen extracted from the sands, varying coal or coke grain fractions and composition of the mixture. An increased briquet strength was found after using the vacuum-distilled 300-350 C bitumen fraction. Briquets from this non-caking coal with bitumen binder are regarded as ecologically clean fuel. 5 refs.

  11. THE HISTORY OF EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION OF BITUMINOUS AND KEROGENOUS DEPOSITS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed thal the first known sedimens of natural bitumen or asphalt in coastal Croatia were exploited as the early moddle ages. Yet authenticated written documents about Vinišće near Trogir derive from no earlier than 1628, about Vrgorac/Paklina from only 1753. By the end of the 18th century, many deposits were discovered in Dalmatia, but it was Škrip on the Island of Brač and Suhi Dolac that were important. The earliest known deposits and occurrences of kerogenous rocks, or bituminous or oil shales, are mentioned as stone or fossil coal in Sovinjak, in the upper course of the River Mirna, and in Rebići in Istria; near Sinj, Slivno not far from the River Neretva, Mirta and near Nerežišće on the Island uf Brač. All if these were well known and described in 1804, while Sovinjak was mentioned in the 16th century. In the article, some of new information derived from mining and geological research into bituminous and kerogenous sediments and deposits are provided (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. Isotopic variations in the nitrogen of natural humic and bituminous organic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiehl, G.; Lehmann, M.

    1980-01-01

    delta 15 N-values and nitrogen contents of a series of humic and bituminous organic sediments of different ranks were determined. The change of the isotopic abundance of nitrogen was investigated during heating in model experiments, using a gas flame coal. In the case of humic carbon coals the relative nitrogen contents vary from 0.8 to 1.4% and the delta 15 N-values from + 3.5 to + 6.3 parts per thousand increasing from the brown coal to anthracite ranks. During the coalification process both the delta 15 N-values and the relative nitrogen contents do not vary continuously with the rank, but pass through maxima and minima. Model experiments using a gas flame coal show the same trend. Nitrogen with delta 15 N-values of + 2.8 or -7 parts per thousand was released in pyrolysis experiments, applying a gas flame coal and a steam coal at temperatures of 650 and 1000 0 C, respectively. The investigated bituminous sediments yielded relative amounts of 0.1 to 0.8% with delta 15 N-values of + 4.2 to + 10.7 parts per thousand. The obtained results are discussed with respect to the elucidation of nitrogen genesis in natural gas deposits. (author)

  13. Assessing radioactive concentrates and waste vapor condensate in solidifying radioactive wastes by bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibensky, L.; Krejci, F.; Breza, M.; Timulak, J.; Hladky, E.

    1986-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of chemical and radiochemical methods used in the world for the analysis of the concentrate of liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants destined for bituminization. Most methods are also suitable for an analysis of the condensate of waste vapors produced in bituminization. The methods of analysis of the radioactive concentrate from the V-1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice and of the waste vapors condensate were developed and tested in practice. Gross gamma activity was measured using a well-type Na(Tl) scintillation detector, the content of radionuclides was determined using semiconductor Ge(Li) spectrometry. The concentration of boric acid in the concentrate was determined by titration with mannite; in the condensate, using spectrophotometry with curcumine. The content of nitrates in both the concentrate and the condensate was determined spectrophotometrically using salicylic acid, the content of nitrites was determined by spectrophotometry using sulfanilic acid and α-naphthylamine. Carbonates and chlorides were determined by titration, sodium and potassium by flame photometry. The content of organic acids was measured by gravimetry of extracted methyl esters, the content of surfactants by spectrophotometry. Infrared spectrophotometry was used in determining hydrocarbons in the waste vapor condensate. The measured value range and the measurement errors are shown for each method. (A.K.)

  14. Application of the cementitious grouts on stability and durability of semi flexible bituminous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the results of laboratory test for a high durability semi flexible bituminous mixtures (SFBM). The SFBM consists of an open asphalt structure where a high strength mortar is penetrated into the air voids of the bituminous mixtures. The SFBM combines the cement concrete's strength and the asphalt material flexibility. The objective of this study is to involve in the determination of stability and durability of SFBM by located the position of the specimen on an exposed area for 7, 90, 180 and 240 days. The performance of the SFBM was assessed using Marshall and wheel tracking apparatus. Total 18 specimens were prepared and examined for both of test. The Marshall specimens were cylindrical with dimension of 10.16 cm in diameter and 6.35 cm in high. For wheel tracking test, the specimens consisted of slabs with dimension of 30 cm in length, 30 cm in width and 5 cm in height. The results indicated that the first durability index and second durability index increased significantly. For Marshall test, the first and second durability index increased about 0.9% per day and 52.3%, respectively. However, for wheel tracking test, the first and second durability index increased about 1.9% per day and 119%, respectively.

  15. Laboratory and field evaluations of non-bituminous hot melt pavement marker adhesive Georgia test deck : two year evaluation (fall 2006 product submissions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: : The purpose of the National Transportation Product Evaluation Program (NTPEP) is to provide a cost-effective method of evaluation for materials of common interest among all participating NTPEP member departments. NTPEP reports allow member...

  16. The effect of aggregate type and mix design on the wet skid resistance of bituminous pavement : recommendations for Virginia's Wet Accident Reduction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report (1) identified and characterized Virginia's nonpolishing aggregates in terms of their wet skid resistance, (2) compared the standard ASTM E 274-90 skid test to the British Accelerated Polishing Machine (BAPM) and British PendulumTester (B...

  17. Pavement structure mechanics response of flexible on semi-flexible overlay that based on the old cement concrete pavement damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ruinan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The old cement pavement damage status directly affect the design of the paving renovation. Based on the state of the old road investigation, combined with the research data at home and abroad, use the control index that average deflection, deflection value and CBR value to determine the reasonable time to overlay. Draw up the typical pavement structure according to the principle of combination of old cement pavement overlay structure design, and calculated that the tensile stress and shear stress in asphalt layer ,semi-flexible layer and the tensile in the old cement pavement adopting BISA3.0 statics finite element analysis model when modulus in the old road was diminishing. Use the computed result to analyses the influence of old road damage condition the influence of pavement structure.

  18. Influence of Hydrated Lime on the Properties and Permanent Deformation of the Asphalt Concrete Layers in Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Tameemi Ahmed F.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flexible or asphalt concrete pavement is the paving system most widely adopted all over the world. It has been recognized that there are many different types of the factors affecting the performance and durability of asphalt concrete pavement, including the service conditions, such as: the variation of temperature from mild to extremes and the repeated excessive axle loading as well as the inadequate quality of the raw materials. All of these when combined together are going to accelerate the occurrence of distresses in flexible pavement such as permanent deformation and fatigue cracking. As the result, there has an urgent need to enhance the ability of asphalt concrete mixture to resist distresses happened in pavement. Use of additives is one of the techniques adopted to improve pavement properties. It has been found that hydrated lime might be one of the effective additives because it is widely available and relatively cheap compared to other modifiers like polymers. This paper presents an experimental study of the hydrated-lime modified asphalt concrete mixtures. Five different percentages of the hydrated lime additive were investigated, namely (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 percent. The hydrated lime additive was used as partial replacement of limestone filler by total weight of the aggregate. The designed Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA concretes are for the application of three pavement courses, i.e. Surface, Leveling and Base. These mixtures are designed and tested following Marshall procedure and uniaxial repeated loading to evaluate permanent deformation at different temperatures of 20°C, 40°C and 60°C. The experimental results show that the addition of hydrated lime as a partial replacement of ordinary limestone mineral filler results a significant improvement on mechanical properties and the resistant to permanent deformation of the designed asphalt concrete mixtures.

  19. Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Flexible Pavement Performance Prediction Models Volume III Field Guide - Calibration and User's Guide for the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this research study was to develop performance characteristics or variables (e.g., ride quality, rutting, : fatigue cracking, transverse cracking) of flexible pavements in Montana, and to use these characteristics in the : implementa...

  20. Awaso bauxite red mud-cement based composites: Characterisation for pavement applications

    OpenAIRE

    David Dodoo-Arhin; Rania A. Nuamah; Benjamin Agyei-Tuffour; David O. Obada; Abu Yaya

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of Bauxite residue (red mud) based cement composite mortar blocks for applications in pavement construction. The experimental techniques considered include the structural, thermal, morphological and microscopy analysis of the raw bauxite and red mud samples calcined at 800 °C. Composite mortar blocks of different batch formulations were produced and their physicochemical properties were investigated. The results show that the compressive strength of the as-...

  1. Identification of Pavement Distress Types and Pavement Condition Evaluation Based on Network Level Inspection for Jazan City Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mubaraki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first step in establishing a pavement management system (PMS is road network identification. An important feature of a PMS is the ability to determine the current condition of a road network and predict its future condition. Pavement condition evaluation may involve structure, roughness, surface distress, and safety evaluation. In this study, a pavement distress condition rating procedure was used to achieve the objectives of this study. The main objectives of this study were to identify the common types of distress that exist on the Jazan road network (JRN, either on main roads or secondary roads, and to evaluate the pavement condition based on network level inspection. The study was conducted by collecting pavement distress types from 227 sample units on main roads and 500 sample units from secondary roads. Data were examined through analysis of common types of distress identified in both main and secondary roads. Through these data, pavement condition index (PCI for each sample unit was then calculated. Through these calculations, average PCIs for the main and secondary roads were determined. Results indicated that the most common pavement distress types on main roads were patching and utility cut patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, polished aggregate, weathering and raveling, and alligator cracking. The most common pavement distress types on secondary roads were weathering and raveling, patching and utility cut patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, potholes, and alligator cracking. The results also indicated that 65% of Jazan's main road network has an average pavement condition rating of very good while only 30% of Jazan's secondary roads network has an average pavement condition.

  2. Rheological behaviour of polymer-modified bituminous mastics : a comparative analysis between physical and chemical modification

    OpenAIRE

    Shivokhin, Maxim; García Morales, Moisés; Partal López, Pedro; Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Gallegos Montes, Críspulo

    2012-01-01

    Mastic, a bitumen/filler blend which naturally forms when bitumen is mixed with aggregates is the actual product used to bind coarse mineral particles in the asphalt mixtures. As a result, the characterisation of mastics is essential to improve the understanding of the response and performance of asphalt concrete pavements. On the other hand, the lack of experimental data concerning the behaviour of mastics and, above all, polymer-modified mastics has been lately claimed. In that sense, this ...

  3. Fatigue Behavior of Modified Asphalt Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saad I. Sarsam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue cracking is the most common distress in road pavement. It is mainly due to the increase in the number of load repetition of vehicles, particularly those with high axle loads, and to the environmental conditions. In this study, four-point bending beam fatigue testing has been used for control and modified mixture under various micro strain levels of (250 μƐ, 400 μƐ, and 750 μƐ and 5HZ. The main objective of the study is to provide a comparative evaluation of pavement resistance to the phenomenon of fatigue cracking between modified asphalt concrete and conventional asphalt concrete mixes (under the influence of three percentage of Silica fumes 1%, 2%, 3% by the weight of asphalt content, and (changing in the percentage of asphalt content by (0.5% ± from the optimum. The results show that when Silica fumes content was 1%, the fatigue life increases by 17%, and it increases by 46% when Silica fumes content increases to 2%, and that fatigue life increases to 34 % when Silica fumes content increases to 3% as compared with control mixture at (250 μƐ, 20°C and optimum asphalt content. From the results above, we can conclude the optimum Silica fumes content was 2%. When the asphalt content was 4.4%, the fatigue life has increased with the use of silica fumes by (50%, when asphalt content was 5.4%, the additives had led to increasing the fatigue life by (69%, as compared with the conventional asphalt concrete pavement.

  4. Adaptive road crack detection system by pavement classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, Miguel; Balcones, David; Marcos, Oscar; Llorca, David F; Sotelo, Miguel A; Parra, Ignacio; Ocaña, Manuel; Aliseda, Pedro; Yarza, Pedro; Amírola, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a road distress detection system involving the phases needed to properly deal with fully automatic road distress assessment. A vehicle equipped with line scan cameras, laser illumination and acquisition HW-SW is used to storage the digital images that will be further processed to identify road cracks. Pre-processing is firstly carried out to both smooth the texture and enhance the linear features. Non-crack features detection is then applied to mask areas of the images with joints, sealed cracks and white painting, that usually generate false positive cracking. A seed-based approach is proposed to deal with road crack detection, combining Multiple Directional Non-Minimum Suppression (MDNMS) with a symmetry check. Seeds are linked by computing the paths with the lowest cost that meet the symmetry restrictions. The whole detection process involves the use of several parameters. A correct setting becomes essential to get optimal results without manual intervention. A fully automatic approach by means of a linear SVM-based classifier ensemble able to distinguish between up to 10 different types of pavement that appear in the Spanish roads is proposed. The optimal feature vector includes different texture-based features. The parameters are then tuned depending on the output provided by the classifier. Regarding non-crack features detection, results show that the introduction of such module reduces the impact of false positives due to non-crack features up to a factor of 2. In addition, the observed performance of the crack detection system is significantly boosted by adapting the parameters to the type of pavement.

  5. Literature review of models on tire-pavement interaction noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tan; Burdisso, Ricardo; Sandu, Corina

    2018-04-01

    Tire-pavement interaction noise (TPIN) becomes dominant at speeds above 40 km/h for passenger vehicles and 70 km/h for trucks. Several models have been developed to describe and predict the TPIN. However, these models do not fully reveal the physical mechanisms or predict TPIN accurately. It is well known that all the models have both strengths and weaknesses, and different models fit different investigation purposes or conditions. The numerous papers that present these models are widely scattered among thousands of journals, and it is difficult to get the complete picture of the status of research in this area. This review article aims at presenting the history and current state of TPIN models systematically, making it easier to identify and distribute the key knowledge and opinions, and providing insight into the future research trend in this field. In this work, over 2000 references related to TPIN were collected, and 74 models were reviewed from nearly 200 selected references; these were categorized into deterministic models (37), statistical models (18), and hybrid models (19). The sections explaining the models are self-contained with key principles, equations, and illustrations included. The deterministic models were divided into three sub-categories: conventional physics models, finite element and boundary element models, and computational fluid dynamics models; the statistical models were divided into three sub-categories: traditional regression models, principal component analysis models, and fuzzy curve-fitting models; the hybrid models were divided into three sub-categories: tire-pavement interface models, mechanism separation models, and noise propagation models. At the end of each category of models, a summary table is presented to compare these models with the key information extracted. Readers may refer to these tables to find models of their interest. The strengths and weaknesses of the models in different categories were then analyzed. Finally

  6. Adaptive Road Crack Detection System by Pavement Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Amírola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a road distress detection system involving the phases needed to properly deal with fully automatic road distress assessment. A vehicle equipped with line scan cameras, laser illumination and acquisition HW-SW is used to storage the digital images that will be further processed to identify road cracks. Pre-processing is firstly carried out to both smooth the texture and enhance the linear features. Non-crack features detection is then applied to mask areas of the images with joints, sealed cracks and white painting, that usually generate false positive cracking. A seed-based approach is proposed to deal with road crack detection, combining Multiple Directional Non-Minimum Suppression (MDNMS with a symmetry check. Seeds are linked by computing the paths with the lowest cost that meet the symmetry restrictions. The whole detection process involves the use of several parameters. A correct setting becomes essential to get optimal results without manual intervention. A fully automatic approach by means of a linear SVM-based classifier ensemble able to distinguish between up to 10 different types of pavement that appear in the Spanish roads is proposed. The optimal feature vector includes different texture-based features. The parameters are then tuned depending on the output provided by the classifier. Regarding non-crack features detection, results show that the introduction of such module reduces the impact of false positives due to non-crack features up to a factor of 2. In addition, the observed performance of the crack detection system is significantly boosted by adapting the parameters to the type of pavement.

  7. INVESTIGATION ON UTILITY OF PLASTIC WASTE AS AN ADDITIVE FOR BITUMINOUS CONCRETE USING WET PROCESS OF MIXING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Virendra Tiwari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Plastic waste has become a major environmental issue of concern due to its exponential growth due to rapid urbanization. The paper investigates utility of plastic waste as an additive for bituminous concrete using wet process of mixing. Methodology. The methodology for the present paper has been designed with complex research consisting of Marshall mix design of the bituminous mix added with plastic waste for modifying bitumen using wet process of mixing, performing the tests on the samples and analyzing the results in the form of table and figures. In the present paper LDPE and HDPE type of plastic waste are used to modify the bitumen. Finding. The results show that addition of 6 percent of bitumen improves the Marshall properties of the mix. Use of plastic to modify the bitumen not only makes the road surface more durable but also it is an eco-friendly way of proper disposal of plastic waste. Originality. The processes used for mixing the plastic waste to the bitumen are dry process and wet process. Dry process of mixing the plastic waste to the bituminous mix is most common and lot of study is carried out on its application. In the present paper wet process of mixing has not yet been studied much. Practical Value. The practical application of utilizing the plastic waste to modify bitumen in the bituminous mix improves the stability values resulting in the more durable road surface. Also the method ensures the proper disposal of plastic waste in eco-friendly way.

  8. Appropriate use of locally available materials in concrete, bituminous surfacings and layerworks for roads in rural areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2009-06-17

    Full Text Available and durability of the concrete and probably to increase the shrinkage. Bituminous surfacings are currently tightly specified and comparison with other countries indicates that certain areas of relaxation are possible. These are mostly with respect to the grading...

  9. Viscoelastic Pavement Modeling with a Spreadsheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levenberg, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    The aim herein was to equip civil engineers and students with an advanced pavement modeling tool that is both easy to use and highly adaptive. To achieve this, a mathematical solution for a layered viscoelastic half-space subjected to a moving load was developed and subsequently implemented...... in a spreadsheet environment. The final program can consider up to five fully bonded layers, each isotropic, homogeneous and weightless. The top layer (as well as others if desired) is linear viscoelastic, while the remaining layers are linear elastic. The load is applied vertically to the surface of the system...

  10. The Inhabitants of the Historical Pavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Video: 5 min.This excerpt from the shortfilm Accumulations (2016) is part of Espen Lunde Nielsens PhD-project Architectural Probes of the Infraordinary (2013-2016). The shortfilm explores the (infra-)ordinary versus the extraordinary collective memory of the built environment: From cathedrals...... and boulevards to kiosks and cigarette packs.This particular excerpt presents a framed view of a quasi-historical pavement in downtown Chicago and the coming and going of people. Some are passing by without paying much attention, for others it is their daily workplace and for some an exotic starting point...

  11. The leaf phenophase of deciduous species altered by land pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiaoke; Jiang, Bo; Li, Li

    2018-02-01

    It has been widely reported that the urban environment alters leaf and flowering phenophases; however, it remains unclear if land pavement is correlated with these alterations. In this paper, two popular deciduous urban trees in northern China, ash (Fraxinus chinensis) and maple (Acer truncatum), were planted in pervious and impervious pavements at three spacings (0.5 m × 0.5 m, 1.0 m × 1.0 m, and 2.0 m × 2.0 m apart). The beginning and end dates of the processes of leaf budburst and senescence were recorded in spring and fall of 2015, respectively. The results show that leaf budburst and senescence were significantly advanced in pavement compared to non-pavement lands. The date of full leaf budburst was earlier by 0.7-9.3 days for ash and by 0.3-2.3 days for maple under pavements than non-pavements, respectively. As tree spacing increases, the advanced days of leaf budburst became longer. Our results clearly indicate that alteration of leaf phenophases is attributed to land pavement, which should be taken into consideration in urban planning and urban plant management.

  12. Flood Mitigation by Permeable Pavements in Chinese Sponge City Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maochuan Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of permeable pavements on flood mitigation at different spatial scales for their effective application, for example, sponge city construction in China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of three types of permeable pavements (i.e., permeable asphalts (PA, permeable concretes (PC, and permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP on flood mitigation at a community scale in China using a hydrological model. In addition, the effects of clogging and initial water content in permeable pavements on flood mitigation performance were assessed. The results indicated that in 12 scenarios, permeable pavements reduced total surface runoff by 1–40% and peak flow by 7–43%, respectively. The hydrological performance of permeable pavements was limited by clogging and initial water content. Clogging resulted in the effectiveness on total surface runoff reduction and peak flow reduction being decreased by 62–92% and 37–65%, respectively. By increasing initial water content at the beginning of the simulation, the effectiveness of total runoff reduction and peak flow reduction decreased by 57–85% and 37–67%, respectively. Overall, among the three types of permeable pavements, PC without clogging had the best performance in terms of flood mitigation, and PICP was the least prone to being clogged. Our findings demonstrate that both the type and the maintenance of permeable pavements have significant effects on their performance in the flood mitigation.

  13. Pavement cracking measurements using 3D laser-scan images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, W; Xu, B

    2013-01-01

    Pavement condition surveying is vital for pavement maintenance programs that ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper first introduces an automated pavement inspection system which uses a three-dimensional (3D) camera and a structured laser light to acquire dense transverse profiles of a pavement lane surface when it carries a moving vehicle. After the calibration, the 3D system can yield a depth resolution of 0.5 mm and a transverse resolution of 1.56 mm pixel −1 at 1.4 m camera height from the ground. The scanning rate of the camera can be set to its maximum at 5000 lines s −1 , allowing the density of scanned profiles to vary with the vehicle's speed. The paper then illustrates the algorithms that utilize 3D information to detect pavement distress, such as transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking, and presents the field tests on the system's repeatability when scanning a sample pavement in multiple runs at the same vehicle speed, at different vehicle speeds and under different weather conditions. The results show that this dedicated 3D system can capture accurate pavement images that detail surface distress, and obtain consistent crack measurements in repeated tests and under different driving and lighting conditions. (paper)

  14. ePave: A Self-Powered Wireless Sensor for Smart and Autonomous Pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Zou, Xiang; Xu, Wenyao

    2017-09-26

    "Smart Pavement" is an emerging infrastructure for various on-road applications in transportation and road engineering. However, existing road monitoring solutions demand a certain periodic maintenance effort due to battery life limits in the sensor systems. To this end, we present an end-to-end self-powered wireless sensor-ePave-to facilitate smart and autonomous pavements. The ePave system includes a self-power module, an ultra-low-power sensor system, a wireless transmission module and a built-in power management module. First, we performed an empirical study to characterize the piezoelectric module in order to optimize energy-harvesting efficiency. Second, we developed an integrated sensor system with the optimized energy harvester. An adaptive power knob is designated to adjust the power consumption according to energy budgeting. Finally, we intensively evaluated the ePave system in real-world applications to examine the system's performance and explore the trade-off.

  15. Effects of Aggregate Gradation on the Physical Properties of Semiflexible Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiah Md. Husain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Semiflexible pavement (SFP, a composite pavement, is formed by filling into a very open porous asphalt skeleton a specifically designed water consistency fluid mortar with a very high early and 28-day strength. The amalgamation of both components will produce a SFP where it will replace the conventional wearing course. The main goal of this investigation is to study the effect of various aggregate gradations towards producing SFP. These include determining the optimum binder, volumetric properties, and durability and strength of each aggregate gradation. The final results were statistically analyzed and two factor variance analyses (ANOVA were performed to check on the significance at certain confidence limits. The results confirmed that different aggregate gradations significantly affect the properties mentioned.

  16. Comparative study of test methods for bituminized and other low- and medium-level solidified waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.; Mose Pedersen, B.; Vinther, A.

    1983-12-01

    Various aspects of the behaviour of bituminized or cemented simulated low- or medium-level radioactive waste in contact with water or salt solutions have been investigated. The solubility (approximately 0.5%) and the diffusion coefficient (approximately 5.10 -8 cm 2 /sec) determining transort of water in pure bitumen have been measured for Mexphalte 40/50 at room temperature. A weighing method has been used to study water uptake and swelling of bituminized sodium nitrate, sodium sulphate or cation-exchange resin. The swelling of samples in contact with water was in some cases very pronounced. In strong salt solutions the tendency to swell is much less. The particle size of the embedded waste material is an important parameter. Thermal pre-treatment of cation-exchange resin before bituminization does not seem to improve the quality of the final product. The interaction between bituminized-exchange resin and concrete barrier materials has been studied. Microbial degradation of bitumen and bituminized waste under aerobic conditions has been investigated. It is probably of minor importance as far as leaching is concerned. A method for measuring leaching from a plane surface of cemented waste has been developed. The method avoids the problem of cracks between the sample and the container. Leaching from cemented sodium nitrate or sulphate was investigated. Absorption of CO 2 from the atmosphere was found to have only minor effect on Cs- and Na-leaching but gave a pronounced decrease in Ca-leaching. The use of silica-fume as an additive to cemented sodium nitrate decreased the leach rate by a factor 4. (author)

  17. Development of Improved Mechanistic Deterioration Models for Flexible Pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Ertman, Hans Larsen

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a pilot study in Denmark with the main objective of developing improved mechanistic deterioration models for flexible pavements based on an accelerated full scale test on an instrumented pavement in the Danish Road Tessting Machine. The study was the first in "International...... Pavement Subgrade Performance Study" sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), USA. The paper describes in detail the data analysis and the resulting models for rutting, roughness, and a model for the plastic strain in the subgrade.The reader will get an understanding of the work needed...

  18. Validation of theoretical models through measured pavement response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    1999-01-01

    mechanics was quite different from the measured stress, the peak theoretical value being only half of the measured value.On an instrumented pavement structure in the Danish Road Testing Machine, deflections were measured at the surface of the pavement under FWD loading. Different analytical models were...... then used to derive the elastic parameters of the pavement layeres, that would produce deflections matching the measured deflections. Stresses and strains were then calculated at the position of the gauges and compared to the measured values. It was found that all analytical models would predict the tensile...

  19. An Innovative Cellular Automata Technique for Mapping Cracking Pattern of Airport Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Fucheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an innovative cellular automata (CA technique was proposed for mapping cracking pattern of the airport pavement. The CA technique was developed to establish a numerical model describing the effect of boundary condition of pavement on zones (CA cells within the pavement. A state function was used to describe the state values in the cells within the CA lattice. The correction coefficient principle is used as the criterion of zone similarity and the corresponding technique is proposed to find similar zones within and between pavements. Three pavement models, HRS, MRS and LRS, tested in FAA, USA, are set as the base pavements to map the cracking patterns of pavements with different sizes from the base pavements. The mapped cracking patterns of unseen pavements are empirically verified by referring to the relative experimental models.

  20. The comparisons of computational models of pavement due to the dynamic load act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valašková Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method (FEM is frequently used to solve current problems of the structural mechanics in engineering practice. The dynamic interaction of the two systems is one of the topics that can be solved using FEM. To simplify the solution of the interaction, it is possible to divide the system in two independent subsystems, vehicle and pavement. Computing software ADINA, based on the principles of the finite element modelling, was adopted to solve the given problem. The results from the first computational model can be used as the inputs for the second model. To analyse stress state of the pavement with different composition, three specific types of pavements were selected – concrete pavement, semi-rigid pavement and flexible pavement. The pavements represent the typical pavement types used for the regular road structures. This article is focused on the analysis of the stress state and the displacements of the pavement induced by the moving load from the traffic.

  1. An assessment of the feasibility of developing and implementing an automated pavement distress survey system incorporating digital image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The rational allocation of pavement maintenance resources requires the periodic assessment of the condition of all pavements. Traditional manual pavement distress surveys, which are based on visual inspection, are labor intensive, slow, and expensive...

  2. Laboratory data to determine impact of coarse aggregate type and cementitious materials on design thickness of PCC pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) needed mechanical and volume change properties of portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement in order to implement pavement thickness design procedures of the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guid...

  3. Predictive design procedures, VESYS users manual : an interim design method for flexible pavements using the VESYS structural subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    This manual has been written to provide the pavement manager and design engineer with a ready reference of procedures to predict the structural responses and hence the integrity of flexible pavements. A pavement section of known geometry is chosen, a...

  4. Climate change, energy, sustainability and pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan; Steyn, Wynand JvdM; Harvey, John

    2014-01-01

    Provides an integrated perspective on understanding the impacts of climate change, energy and sustainable development on transportation infrastructure systems. Presents recent technological innovations and emerging concepts in the field of green and sustainable transportation infrastructure systems with a special focus on highway and airport pavements. Written by leading experts in the field. Climate change, energy production and consumption, and the need to improve the sustainability of all aspects of human activity are key inter-related issues for which solutions must be found and implemented quickly and efficiently. To be successfully implemented, solutions must recognize the rapidly changing socio-techno-political environment and multi-dimensional constraints presented by today's interconnected world. As part of this global effort, considerations of climate change impacts, energy demands, and incorporation of sustainability concepts have increasing importance in the design, construction, and maintenance of highway and airport pavement systems. To prepare the human capacity to develop and implement these solutions, many educators, policy-makers and practitioners have stressed the paramount importance of formally incorporating sustainability concepts in the civil engineering curriculum to educate and train future civil engineers well-equipped to address our current and future sustainability challenges. This book will prove a valuable resource in the hands of researchers, educators and future engineering leaders, most of whom will be working in multidisciplinary environments to address a host of next-generation sustainable transportation infrastructure challenges.

  5. Climate change, energy, sustainability and pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering; Steyn, Wynand JvdM [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Harvey, John (ed.) [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2014-07-01

    Provides an integrated perspective on understanding the impacts of climate change, energy and sustainable development on transportation infrastructure systems. Presents recent technological innovations and emerging concepts in the field of green and sustainable transportation infrastructure systems with a special focus on highway and airport pavements. Written by leading experts in the field. Climate change, energy production and consumption, and the need to improve the sustainability of all aspects of human activity are key inter-related issues for which solutions must be found and implemented quickly and efficiently. To be successfully implemented, solutions must recognize the rapidly changing socio-techno-political environment and multi-dimensional constraints presented by today's interconnected world. As part of this global effort, considerations of climate change impacts, energy demands, and incorporation of sustainability concepts have increasing importance in the design, construction, and maintenance of highway and airport pavement systems. To prepare the human capacity to develop and implement these solutions, many educators, policy-makers and practitioners have stressed the paramount importance of formally incorporating sustainability concepts in the civil engineering curriculum to educate and train future civil engineers well-equipped to address our current and future sustainability challenges. This book will prove a valuable resource in the hands of researchers, educators and future engineering leaders, most of whom will be working in multidisciplinary environments to address a host of next-generation sustainable transportation infrastructure challenges.

  6. Automated management for pavement inspection system (AMPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hung Chi; Girardello, Roberto; Soeller, Tony; Shinozuka, Masanobu

    2003-08-01

    An automated in-situ road surface distress surveying and management system, AMPIS, has been developed on the basis of video images within the framework of GIS software. Video image processing techniques are introduced to acquire, process and analyze the road surface images obtained from a moving vehicle. ArcGIS platform is used to integrate the routines of image processing and spatial analysis in handling the full-scale metropolitan highway surface distress detection and data fusion/management. This makes it possible to present user-friendly interfaces in GIS and to provide efficient visualizations of surveyed results not only for the use of transportation engineers to manage road surveying documentations, data acquisition, analysis and management, but also for financial officials to plan maintenance and repair programs and further evaluate the socio-economic impacts of highway degradation and deterioration. A review performed in this study on fundamental principle of Pavement Management System (PMS) and its implementation indicates that the proposed approach of using GIS concept and its tools for PMS application will reshape PMS into a new information technology-based system providing a convenient and efficient pavement inspection and management.

  7. Application of Conductive Materials to Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Viet Vo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow-melting pavement technique is an advanced preservation method, which can prevent the forming of snow or ice on the pavement surface by increasing the temperature using an embedded heating system. The main scope of this study is to evaluate the impact of conductive additives on the heating efficiency. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity were considered to investigate effects of conductive additives, graphite, and carbon fibers on the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixtures. Also, the distribution of the conductive additives within the asphalt concrete body was investigated by microstructural imaging. An actual test was applied to simulate realistic heating for an asphalt concrete mixture. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon fibers improve the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixes and their combination is more effective than when used alone. As observed in the microstructural image, carbon fibers show a long-range connecting effect among graphite conductive clusters and gather in bundles when added excessively. According to the actual test, adding the conductive additives helps improve snow-melting efficiency by shortening processing time and raising the surface temperature.

  8. Bituminization of simulated waste, spent resins, evaporator concentrates and animal ashes by extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the study of bituminization of simulated radwaste - spennt ion-exchange resins, borate evaporator/concentrates and animal ashes, are presented and discussed. Distilled and oxidizer bitumen were used. Characterization of the crude material and simulated wastes-bitumen mixtures of varying weigt composition (30, 40, 50, 60% by weight of dry waste material) was carried out. The asphaltene and parafin contents in the bitumens were also determined. Some additives and were used with an aim to improve the characteristcs of solidified wastes. For leaching studies, granular ion-exchange resins were with Cs - 134 and mixtures of resin-bitumen were prepared. The leaching studies were executed using the IAEA recommendation and the ISO method. A conventional screw-extruder, common in plastic industry, was used determine operational parameters and process difficulties. Mixtures of resin-bitumen and evaporator concentrate-bitumen obtained from differents operational conditions were characterized. (Author) [pt

  9. Influence of Antioxidant-Enhanced Polymers in Bitumen Rheology and Bituminous Concrete Mixtures Mechanical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Dessouky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effect of polymer enhancement with antioxidant in the rheological properties of bitumen and mechanical properties of bituminous concrete mixture (BCM. In this study, two antioxidant-enhanced polymers were utilized in mitigating bitumen hardening due to aging. The rheological testing consists of temperature sweep using Dynamic Shear Rheometer at various aging conditions. Critical stiffness temperature data from the sweep test suggested that enhanced polymer exhibits less long-term hardening and brittleness compared to standard polymer. The mechanical testing consists of dynamic modulus, indirect tensile, flow number, and beam fatigue tests on BCM exposed to short-term aging. Hamburg wheel tracking test was also performed to assess moisture-damage susceptibility. It is found that the enhanced-polymer BCM exhibited higher modulus, higher tensile strength ratio, improved rutting resistance, lower moisture-damage susceptibility, and slightly increased fatigue life as compared to standard-polymer BCM.

  10. Development of advanced air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal IGCC gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaimov Nikolay A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC technology has two main advantages: high efficiency, and low levels of harmful emissions. Key element of IGCC is gasifier, which converts solid fuel into a combustible synthesis gas. One of the most promising gasifiers is air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal gasifier developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI. The most obvious way to develop advanced gasifier is improvement of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. Modernization of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier is made by changing the regime parameters in order to improve its cold gas efficiency (CGE and environmental performance, namely H2/CO ratio. The first change is supply of high temperature (900°C steam in gasifier second stage. And the second change is additional heating of blast air to 900°C.

  11. Development of advanced air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal IGCC gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaimov, Nikolay A.; Ryzhkov, Alexander F.

    2017-10-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has two main advantages: high efficiency, and low levels of harmful emissions. Key element of IGCC is gasifier, which converts solid fuel into a combustible synthesis gas. One of the most promising gasifiers is air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal gasifier developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI). The most obvious way to develop advanced gasifier is improvement of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. Modernization of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier is made by changing the regime parameters in order to improve its cold gas efficiency (CGE) and environmental performance, namely H2/CO ratio. The first change is supply of high temperature (900°C) steam in gasifier second stage. And the second change is additional heating of blast air to 900°C.

  12. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 9. Gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the ninth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal. The period of gasificastion test was September 13 to October 12, 1983. 9 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  13. Application of laser microprobe (LAMMA 1000) to "fingerprinting" of coal constituents in bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Hercules, D.M.; Morelli, J.J.; Sellers, G.A.; Mattern, D.; Thompson-Rizer, C. L.; Brown, F.W.; Millay, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    A laser microprobe (LAMMA-1000) microchemical analysis of vitrinites of different morphologies but similar reflectances within the same bituminous coal bed indicates distinct "fingerprint" spectra. The banded form of vitrinite contains Li, Ti, Ba, Sr, F, and Cl which were not detected in the nonbanded vitrinite. These differences may indicate a different plant source or the introduction of these elements from fluids mobilized during diagenesis. The nonbanded vitrinite (called corpocollinite), which was contained in a pyrite coal-ball seed fern permineralization of Myeloxylon, may have been protected from influx of these elements due to entrapment by pyrite during an early peat stage. An ion at M/Z 65, which is characteristic of the banded vitrinite, may indicate C5H5+ and, perhaps a difference in the chemical structure of the two vitrinites. These results demonstrate that "fingerprint" spectra can be obtained from vitrinite macerals by LAMMA and that these "fingerprints" have genetic implications. ?? 1987.

  14. Distribution of inorganic and organic substances in the hydrocyclone separated Slovak sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton Zubrik; Slavomir Hredzak; Ludmila Turcaniova; Michal Lovas; Ingo Bergmann; Klaus Dieter Becker; Maria Lukcova; Vladimir Sepelak [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Institute of Geotechnics

    2010-08-15

    A low-rank Slovak sub-bituminous coal from the Handlova deposit was physically treated by washing in a water-only cyclone with the goal to find the separation effect for inorganic (mainly Fe-bearing minerals) and organic substances (humic acids, diterpanes). A high-quality coal product with the ash content in the dry matter of 9.02% and carbon content of C{sup d} = 68.12% at a mass yield of 29.51% was obtained using the water-only cyclone processing. At first, the physically treated coal samples were detailed characterized by XRD, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, FT-IR and HR-TEM. In addition to non-crystalline organic coal components, inorganic compounds belonging to silicate minerals (kaolinite, muscovite and quartz) as well as to Fe-bearing sulphide minerals (pyrite) were identified in the sub-bituminous coal by XRD. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy detected the presence of iron carbonate (siderite), iron-containing clay mineral and two sulphur-containing minerals (pyrite, jarosite) in the untreated coal. On the other hand, only one Fe-bearing mineral, (pyrite) was found in the washed coal. Effect of the physical separation is also demonstrated in FT-IR spectra, where the peak at 1040 cm{sup -1} representing the silicate component in the untreated sample is not detectable in the washed coal sample. Presence of extractive organic substances, i.e. humic acids and tetracyclic diterpane (16a(H)-phyllocladane), in the hydrocyclone products is also evidenced. It was confirmed that the isolated diterpenoic compound is attendant in the washed product with the lowest ash content and it is assimilated with the organic part of coal. Surprisingly, humic acids were found in the highest concentration in the slurry that has the highest content of ash (63.14%). 54 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. The Structure of Sandstones in Productive Horizons of the Permian Bituminous Deposits of Tatarstan (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Khasanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The features of sandstones in productive horizons of the Permian bituminous deposits of Tatarstan (Russia have been considered. The composition and internal structure of sandstones have been studied by optical microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR, and electron microscopy, as well as using a number of physical and chemical methods to solve special problems. The investigated sandstones belong to the greywacke group. The clastic material of sandstones contains grains of feldspar, quartz, mica, and particles of volcanic rocks. The nature and composition of cement are important parameters that determine the filtration-capacity properties of sedimentary rocks. Bituminous deposits are characterized by vertical zoning, which is expressed in the alternation of sites with varying degrees of cementation of rocks. Atten-tion has been also paid to post-sedimentation processes, such as pyritization and calcification. Pyrite forms rare xenomorphic isometric grains. The formation of pyrite occurs in diagenesis and is associated with the processes of biogenic sulfate reduction. The source of calcium for the crystallization of dispersed cal-cite in the porous space of sandstones is the underground waters of red-colored Ufimian deposits characterized by the alkaline properties favorable for calcium migration. According to the data of X-ray computed tomography, the internal space of the studied rocks is not homogeneous and represented by a system of communicated and isolated pores. In the studied samples, two types of organic matter differing in organic radicals have been detected. The first type is an organic substance of coal origin. The second type of organic matter belongs to the oil origin and refers to bitumens in its properties. The presence of a significant percentage of asphaltenes in the bitumen composition indicates the destruction of the oil substance in the near-surface conditions.

  16. The Efficiency Analysis of Low Impact Development Applied in Taiwan: A Case Study of Porous Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. H.; Liu, H. J.; Hsu, N. S.; Chang, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    Low Impact Development (LID) has been developed since the end of 1990s. Lots of successful experience based on this new technology have been made. Taiwan Executive Yuan is conducting a six-year (2014~2019) program "Integrated River Basin Management Plan" applying LID to build sponge cities. Construction and Planning Agency, Ministry of the Interior is editing the manual of LID technology for Taiwan. However, since the hydrological environments, physiographic conditions, climates, the strength and frequency of disasters in Taiwan are different from that in America, this study takes the first laboratory experiment and model simulation to evaluate the efficiency of application of LID in Taiwan.LID Facilities includes porous pavement, rain garden, green roof, tree box filter facilities and so on, and in this study, porous pavement is taken as an example for discussion. In the part of laboratory experiments, the sand box experiments is designed to operate with the specified rainfall return period calculated by Horton formula and rainfall characteristics of Taipei. Then the outflow hydrograph in each designed rainfall of specified return period can be evaluated. As for model simulation, this study constructs LID simulation elements by SWMM model and tests the suitability for simulation of the outflow hydrograph obtained from experiments, and definitely quantifies the efficiency of water retention and flood reduction of porous pavement. The results fits well with the experimental observation data with less than 10% error of pick flow. It suggests that, with LID simulation elements constructed in this study, the efficiency of LID in actual on-site application can be evaluated.The results shows that porous pavement is able to delay arrival time of pick about 5% ~10% and reduce the pick flow about 5%~20%, and hold the ability of near 3~5% water retention. It proves that application of LID can retain water and reduce flood in Taiwan.

  17. Temporal evolution modeling of hydraulic and water quality performance of permeable pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; He, Jianxun; Valeo, Caterina; Chu, Angus

    2016-02-01

    A mathematical model for predicting hydraulic and water quality performance in both the short- and long-term is proposed based on field measurements for three types of permeable pavements: porous asphalt (PA), porous concrete (PC), and permeable inter-locking concrete pavers (PICP). The model was applied to three field-scale test sites in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The model performance was assessed in terms of hydraulic parameters including time to peak, peak flow and water balance and a water quality variable (the removal rate of total suspended solids). A total of 20 simulated storm events were used for model calibration and verification processes. The proposed model can simulate the outflow hydrographs with a coefficient of determination (R2) ranging from 0.762 to 0.907, and normalized root-mean-square deviation (NRMSD) ranging from 13.78% to 17.83%. Comparison of the time to peak flow, peak flow, runoff volume and TSS removal rates between the measured and modeled values in model verification phase had a maximum difference of 11%. The results demonstrate that the proposed model is capable of capturing the temporal dynamics of the pavement performance. Therefore, the model has great potential as a practical modeling tool for permeable pavement design and performance assessment.

  18. Reliability Analysis of Temperature Influence on Stresses in Rigid Pavement Made from Recycled Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Florian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex statistical and sensitivity analysis of principal stresses in concrete slabs of the real type of rigid pavement made from recycled materials is performed. The pavement is dominantly loaded by the temperature field acting on the upper and lower surface of concrete slabs. The computational model of the pavement is designed as a spatial (3D model, is based on a nonlinear variant of the finite element method that respects the structural nonlinearity, enables to model different arrangement of joints, and the entire model can be loaded by thermal load. Four concrete slabs separated by transverse and longitudinal joints and the additional structural layers including soil to the depth of about 3 m are modeled. The thickness of individual layers, physical and mechanical properties of materials, characteristics of joints, and the temperature of the upper and lower surface of slabs are supposed to be random variables. The simulation technique Updated Latin Hypercube Sampling with 20 simulations is used for the reliability analysis. As results of statistical analysis, the estimates of basic statistics of the principal stresses σ1 and σ3 in 106 points on the upper and lower surface of slabs are obtained. For sensitivity analysis the sensitivity coefficient based on the Spearman rank correlation coefficient is used. As results of sensitivity analysis, the estimates of influence of random variability of individual input variables on the random variability of principal stresses σ1 and σ3 are obtained.

  19. Sustainable Pavement Management System in Urban Areas Considering the Vehicle Operating Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Loprencipe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban roads constitute most of the existing roads and they are directly managed by small administrations. Normally, these small administrations do not have sufficient funds or sufficient qualified personnel to carry out this task. This paper deals with an easy-implementation Pavement Management System (PMS to develop strategies to maintain, preserve and rehabilitate urban roads. The proposed method includes the creation of the road network inventory, the visual surveys of the pavement and the evaluation of its condition by the Pavement Condition Index (PCI. The method intends to give a valid tool to road managers to compare alternative maintenance strategies and perform the priority analysis on the network. With this aim, the procedure assesses the Vehicle Operating Costs (VOC by a written regression between PCI and International Roughness Index (IRI. The proposed method has several advantages because it can be easily adapted to various situations and it does not require a large amount of time and money for its implementation.

  20. Effect of friction on rolling tire-pavement interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Accurate modeling of tirepavement contact behavior (i.e., distribution of contact tractions at the : interface) plays an important role in the analysis of pavement performance and vehicle driving safety. : The tirepavement contact is essentiall...

  1. Longitudinal cracking in widened portland cement concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation constructed certain concrete pavements with lane widths greater : than the standard 12 feet in order to reduce stress and deflection caused by vehicle tires running near the edge of : the concrete slabs. Man...

  2. Portland cement concrete pavement restoration : final summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    This final summary report is comprised of an Initial Construction Report; a Final Report; and two Interim Reports. These reports document the construction of Louisiana's Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Restoration project and its performance during...

  3. Use of nonwoven geotextiles as interlayers in concrete pavement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This document describes the potential use of nonwoven geotextile materials as interlayers in concrete pavement systems, particularly unbonded overlays, in the United States. It briefly discusses Germanys experience, availability and cost of nonwov...

  4. Prediction of thermal behavior of pervious concrete pavements in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Because application of pervious concrete pavement (PCPs) has extended to cold-climate regions of the United States, the safety and : mobility of PCP installations during the winter season need to be maintained. Timely application of salt, anti-icing,...

  5. Inferring pavement layer properties from a moving measurement platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian; Levenberg, Eyal; Andersen, M.B.

    2017-01-01

    This work offered a new method for accessing the mechanical properties of pavement layers based on data obtained by a moving measurement platform. The method has the following features: (i) calculations are based on tracking distances to a point on the pavement surface, (ii) measurements...... are not required outside the zone of load influence, and (iii) possibility to access absolute pavement deflections. First, the envisioned platform-design and required readings were presented; next, the interpretation method was outlined and then applied to synthetic (computer-generated) data. Perfect convergence...... was achieved when the correct pavement model and accurate input data were employed. Also, when artificial errors were introduced for assessing sensitivities, only small deviations were generated. Based on these promising outcomes the method will be further studied and developed to support the construction...

  6. Forensic analysis of asphaltic pavement failures in Ghana: case histories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampadu, SIK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many newly constructed asphaltic pavements in Ghana have suffered premature failures shortly after opening to traffic. In all cases, available records from the road agencies appeared to show that the roads were constructed in accordance...

  7. Mobile geographic information system (GIS) solution for pavement condition surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    This report discusses the design and implementation of a software-based solution that will improve the data collection processes during the Pavement Condition Surveys (PCS) conducted by the State Materials Office (SMO) of the Florida Department of Tr...

  8. Implementation of warm-mix asphalt mixtures in Nebraska pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The primary objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of several WMA mixtures as potential asphalt paving : mixtures for Nebraska pavements. To that end, three well-known WMA additives (i.e., Sasobit, Evotherm, and Advera : synthetic ...

  9. Evaluation of reclaimed asphalt pavement for surface mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The Indiana Department of Transportation has successfully used Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) for decades because of its economic : and environmental benefits. Because of uncertainties regarding the types of aggregates contained in RAP and their re...

  10. Evaluation of reclaimed asphalt pavement for surface mixtures : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) has successfully used Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) for decades because of its economic and environmental benefits. However, until recently, INDOT has disallowed the use of RAP in asphalt surface mi...

  11. Evaluation of transverse joint forming methods for PCC pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The members of the Iowa Concrete Paving Association, the National Concrete Pavement Technology Center Research Committee, and : the Iowa Highway Research Board commissioned a study to examine alternative ways of developing transverse joints in portla...

  12. Recycling Old PCC Pavement - Performance Evaluation of FAI 57 Inlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    This report details the construction and performance monitoring efforts of two demonstration projects proposed in an experimental features work plan entitled Recycling Old PCC Pavement". The objectives of this experimental feature were to evaluate th...

  13. Long term monitoring of moisture under pavements : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The research : program consisted of three : distinct : activities. The first activity was a continuation of : the monitoring of environmental instrumentation : under select pavement sections constructed by the : Ohio Department of Transportation (ODO...

  14. Texas pavement preservation center two-year summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Established August 11, 2005, The TPPC serves the broad range of needs of the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), and other agencies within the highway community by promoting awareness of pavement preservation as a feasible and practical maint...

  15. Texas pavement preservation center four-year summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-04

    The Texas Pavement Preservation Center (TPPC), in joint collaboration with the Center for Transportation Research (CTR) of the University of Texas at Austin and the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) of Texas A&M University, promotes the use of pav...

  16. Tack coat optimization for HMA overlays : accelerated pavement test report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Interface bonding between hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays and Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements is one : of the most significant factors affecting overlay service life. This study was performed to quantify the effects of HMA type, : tack coat t...

  17. Evaluation of the use of snowplowable raised pavement markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of snowplowable raised pavement markers (RPM) installed on the RPM system in Kentucky. The durability evaluation dealt wit the marker housing. : The data show that continued...

  18. Use of nondestructive evaluation to detect moisture in flexible pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the currently available nondestructive evaluation technology that holds the greatest potential to detect moisture in flexible pavements and then apply the technology in multiple locations throughout Virginia....

  19. Evaluation of portable retroreflectometer for use on pavement marking materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The subjective rating of the night visibility of pavement marking materials is difficult as it can be influenced by many variables. In an attempt to provide an improved method of determining the night visibility of these materials, a portable retrore...

  20. Development of an automated pavement crack sealing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Pavement crack sealing operations remain predominantly manual due to the challenges associated with automation. The research : performed by the Georgia Tech Research Institute in conjunction with the Georgia Department of Transportation has proved in...

  1. Recycled tires as coarse aggregate in concrete pavement mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The reuse potential of tire chips as coarse aggregates in pavement concrete was examined in this research by : investigating the effects of low- and high-volume tire chips on fresh and hardened concrete properties. One concrete : control mixture was ...

  2. Iowa pavement asset management decision-making framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Most local agencies in Iowa currently make their pavement treatment decisions based on their limited experience due primarily to : lack of a systematic decision-making framework and a decision-aid tool. The lack of objective condition assessment data...

  3. Evaluation of acceptance strength tests for concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-30

    The North Carolina Department of Transportation has used traditionally flexural strength tests for acceptance : testing of Portland cement concrete pavements. This report summarizes a research project implemented to : investigate the feasibility of u...

  4. Airport Pavement Design For The Boeing 777 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-22

    The purpose of this advisory circular is to provide thickness design standards : for pavements intended to serve the Boeing 777 airplane. A new method of design : based on layered elastic analysis has been developed to calculate design : thickness fo...

  5. Rehabilitation design of flexible pavements in South Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This report contains a set of practical course notes on the Rehabilitation Design of flexible pavements in southern Africa based on extensive research by various researchers and / or practitioners in South Africa. The course is intended...

  6. Pavement subgrade MR design values for Michigan's seasonal changes : appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-22

    The resilient modulus (MR) of roadbed soil plays an integral role in the design of pavement systems. Currently, the various regions of the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) use different procedures to determine the MR values. Most of these...

  7. Investigation clogging dynamic of permeable pavement systems using embeded sensors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Permeable pavement is a stormwater control measure commonly selected in both new and retrofit applications. However, there is limited information about the clogging...

  8. Metal concentrations from permeable pavement parking lot in Edison, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements...

  9. Investigation of temperature correction for tire/pavement noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The Volpe Center Acoustics Facility, in support of the Federal Highway Administration, : investigated the influence of temperature on tire/pavement noise in order to provide guidance on correcting for temperature variations in measured sound levels. ...

  10. Deicer usage on concrete and asphalt pavements in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) compile winter maintenance data for the Utah Department of : Transportation (UDOT) to directly compare concrete and asphalt pavements with regards to deicer usage and 2) : determine if there is a statistical...

  11. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis: durable pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project examined the life cycle and economic efficiency of two pavement marking : materials inlaid tape and thermoplastic to find the most economical product for specific : traffic and weather conditions. Six locations in the state of Ma...

  12. Sustainable Mitigation of Stormwater Runoff Through Fully Permeable Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    This report presents the implementation of new design method developed using mechanistic-empirical design approach by University of California Pavement Research Center (UCPRC) through building two test sections at California State University Long Bea...

  13. Safety performance evaluation of converging chevron pavement markings : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to perform a detailed safety analysis of converging chevron : pavement markings, quantifying the potential safety benefits and developing an understanding of the : incident types addressed by the treatment, and (...

  14. Project Level Performance Database for Rigid Pavements in Texas, II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Over the years, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has built a number of CRCP (continuously reinforced : concrete pavement) experimental sections to investigate the effects of design, materials, and construction variables on CRCP : struct...

  15. Inverted base pavements : new field test and design catalogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The current economic situation has severely affected the US road infrastructure and funding has become : inadequate for either maintenance or future growth. : The inverted base pavement structure is a promising alternative to achieve high quality roa...

  16. ANALYSIS OF GROUP MAINTENANCE STRATEGY -ROAD PAVEMENT AND SEWERAGE PIPES-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Keishi; Sugimoto, Yasuaki; Miyamoto, Shinya; Nada, Hideki; Hosoi, Yoshihiko

    Recently, it is critical to manage deteriorating sewerage and road facilities efficiently and strategically. Since the sewerage pipes are mostly installed under road pavement, the works for the replacement of the sewerage pipes are partially common to the works for the road. This means that the replacement cost can be saved by coordinating the timing of the replacements by sewerage pipe and road pavement. The purpose of the study is to develop the model based on Markov decision process to derive the optimal group maintenance policy so as to minimize lifecycle cost. Then the model is applied to case study area and demonstrated to estimate the lifecycle cost using statistical data such as pipe replacement cost, road pavement rehabilitation cost, and state of deterioration of pipes and road pavement.

  17. Benefit cost models to support pavement management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    A critical role of pavement management is to provide decision makers with estimates of the required budget level to achieve specific steady-state network conditions, and to recommend the best allocation of available budget among competing needs for m...

  18. Application of surplus and waste materials in roads pavement making

    OpenAIRE

    Mousavi, S. M.; Fazli, A. H.; Rouzmehr, F.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there are a lot of problems about surpluses and debris made by humans all around the world. Lots of these surpluses seriously harm our natural environment. Reuse of this kind of materials in other processes like building constructions or pavement help our natural environment in every aspect. Asphalt concrete is the main part of pavements in most parts of the world with an increasing rate of production in need of more ways and roads. In this paper we will provide...

  19. Flood Mitigation by Permeable Pavements in Chinese Sponge City Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Maochuan Hu; Xingqi Zhang; Yim Ling Siu; Yu Li; Kenji Tanaka; Hong Yang; Youpeng Xu

    2018-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of permeable pavements on flood mitigation at different spatial scales for their effective application, for example, sponge city construction in China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of three types of permeable pavements (i.e., permeable asphalts (PA), permeable concretes (PC), and permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP)) on flood mitigation at a community scale in China using a hydrological model. In addition, the effects of cloggin...

  20. Research of cost aspects of cement pavements construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuglyi, Artem; Illiash, Sergii; Tymoshchuk, Oleksandr

    2017-09-01

    The tendency to increasing traffic volume on public roads and to increased axle loads of vehicles makes the road scientists to develop scientifically justified methods for preserving the existing and developing the new transport network of Ukraine. One of the options for solving such issues is the construction of roads with rigid (cement concrete) pavement. However, any solution must be justified considering technical and economic components. This paper presents the results of the research of cost aspects of cement pavements construction.