WorldWideScience

Sample records for bituminous coatings

  1. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  2. Bituminization plant Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this leaflet the principle of the bituminization plant for radioactive concentrate (the intermediate liquid radioactive waste generated during the NPP A1, V-1, V-2 operations) solidification used in the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) is presented

  3. Cold bituminous mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Delak, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Asphalt mix (short also asphalt) can be obtained from nature (natural asphalt) or produced technically (artificial asphalt), i. e. as a mix of bituminous binder, stone grain, and other additives that improve the asphalt properties. The beginnings of the use of asphalt can be traced from 6,000 to 4,000 BC since people back then knew some materials that contained bitumen as a binder. A more frequent use of the natural asphalt, however, starts around 3,000 BC. Different peoples used it primar...

  4. Effect of Cement on Properties of Over-Burnt Brick Bituminous Concrete Mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Dipankar; Pal, Manish

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation is carried out to propose the use of cement coated over burnt brick aggregate in the preparation of bituminous concrete mix. The effect of cement on various mechanical properties such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient (stability to flow ratio), indirect tensile strength, stripping, rutting and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study, different cement percentages such as 2, 3, 4 and 5 % by weight of aggregate have been mixed with Over Burnt Brick Aggregate (OBBA). The laboratory results indicate that bituminous concrete prepared by 4 % cement coated OBBA gives the highest Marshall stability. The bituminous concrete mix with 4 % cement shows considerable improvement in various mechanical properties of the mix compared to the plain OBBA concrete mix.

  5. Leachability of bituminized radioactive waste. Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bituminized radioactive waste that will be returned from COGEMA, France is planned to be disposed of in deep geologic repository in Japan. Data on leachability of radionuclides from bituminized waste are required for the performance assessment of the disposal. We made a literature survey on bitumen and bituminized radioactive waste, placing emphasis on leach tests and leach data in terms of geologic disposal. This survey revealed that reliable leach data on transuranium elements and data obtained under reducing conditions that is characteristic to deep underground are lacking. (author). 64 refs

  6. Bituminous reference document: synthesis of knowledge on the long time behavior of bituminous packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a synthesis of the knowledge acquired at the CEA on the behavior of bituminous packages. In this framework, the CEA studied bituminous packages in generic conditions of a package lifetime. The main factors, the evolution mechanisms and influential parameters have been determined and quantitative s simulation have been developed. After a description of the main initial bituminous packages characterizations, the evolutions in saturated and un-saturated environment are exposed. (A.L.B.)

  7. 30 CFR 716.4 - Special bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines. 716.4 Section... INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.4 Special bituminous coal mines. (a) Definition. Special bituminous coal surface mines as used in this section means those...

  8. Evaluating Self Healing Capability of Bituminous Mastics

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, J.; Ven, M. van de; Wu, S.; Yu, J.; Molenaar, A.

    2012-01-01

    The self-healing capability of bituminous materials has been known for many years. Researches were mostly focused on the self healing behaviour during load repetitions. The tests are either time consuming and/or complex. In this paper, a simple self healing test procedure is presented combining the fracture-healing-re-fracture test (FHR) with morphological observations. A fast displacement speed loading was applied first to produce a flat open crack with a crack width of 100–200 μm. Then the ...

  9. Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondi, Giulio; Tataranni, Piergiorgio; Pettinari, Matteo;

    2014-01-01

    . Cold recycling is, among the recycling techniques, certainly the most studied and developed: it allows the recovering of bituminous material from an existing pavement without the addition of heat, whilst ensuring the creation of high quality bound base layers. A wide range of materials have been tested...... together with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and, consequently, there is a large number of variables that can be considered in the mix-design process of new eco-friendly Cold Recycled Mixes. In particular, the present research involves the use of Crumb Rubber within a mixture containing 100% Reclaimed...... Asphalt Pavement, cold recycled with bitumen emulsion and cement. Two different Crumb Rubbers were adopted: one from the ambient production method, and one produced with the cryogenic process. The goal of this research project was to analyze and evaluate the different physical and mechanical...

  10. Skid resistance of bituminous surfaces in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colony, D. C.

    1984-03-01

    Statistical studies of skid number (SN) on the state highway system in Ohio reveal apparently systematic variations in distributions of SN among the twelve districts in the state. These variations appear to be significantly related to traffic and to geological characteristics of a given district. Regression calculations using traffic index, a function of ADT and age of the pavement surface in months, show a high correlation with SN, although standard errors of estimate were too large to make the equations useful for predicting SN from traffic variables. Similar results were obtained by elating SN to physiographic features in the state. Pavement surface type (bituminous or pcc) and coarse aggregate type (limestone, gravel or slag) are significantly related to SN.

  11. Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uezuelmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m-3. It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration. (authors)

  12. Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    This review covers analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings, raw materials, and substrates upon which coatings are placed. Techniques include chemical and electrochemical methods, chromatography, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, microscopy, and miscellaneous techniques. (MVL)

  13. Development of non-standard equipment of bituminization line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description is presented of some components of the bituminization line developed at the Research Institute of Chemical Installations in Brno. The film rotor evaporator has an evaporation area of 2 m2. The mixing tank is the main technological assembly for processing loose materials, i.e., sorbents and fly ash which it mixes with melted bitumen. The screw conveyor with a three-way valve is designed for batching the dried radioactive sorbent and fly ash into mixing tanks. Attention is also devoted to certain systems of measurement and control of the bituminization line, namely to measurement of the level of the bituminization product, the flow rate of bituminization emulsion and the water-sorbent mixture and to the diagnostics of failure and accident conditions of the film rotor evaporator. (Z.M.)

  14. Bituminous and asphaltic membranes for radioactive waste repositories on land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study has been to identify, within generic designs for waste facilities, areas where bituminous materials might be incorporated as a barrier. The report is presented in three sections: Part I - The properties of bitumen are described, with particular reference to the long-term behaviour of the material. The durability of bitumen is discussed, including aspects such as ageing, microbial degradation, chemical resistance and radiation resistance. Part II -The use of bituminous materials in hydraulic engineering is outlined. Much of this section of the report concentrates on the use of bituminous materials in embankment dams and reservoir construction. A review of material technology and construction techniques is presented and a detailed assessment made of the performance of the materials in service. Part III - Generic trench type radioactive waste repository designs incorporating bituminous materials are presented. Material and construction specifications for the designs are detailed, and a performance assessment presented. (author)

  15. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are ralated to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product. (author)

  16. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for the long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

  17. Effects of bituminous layer as backfill material on mechanical behavior in tunnel model

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyoshi, Akihiro; Takano, Shin-ei; Urata, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Takaki

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of bituminous material as a backfill material on mechanical behavior in model tunnel in laboratory. It is known that load spreading and relaxation of bituminous material are good properties. Then if we use bituminous material as a backfill material of tunnel, the tunnel will have waterproof, good load spreading property. We used new bituminous material (Aquaphalt) which can solidify in water. We conducted relaxation test in tension for new bituminous mat...

  18. The bituminous sands : a Canadian mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, D.R. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Nasr, G.J. [Lebanese Univ., Roumieh (Lebanon). Faculty of Engineering; Turcotte, S.F. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Etudes Internationales et Mondialisation; Salah, N.B. [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques De Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia). LMMP

    2009-07-01

    This paper examined the controversy about the potential role of a significant increase in Canadian oil sands production in order to bridge the upcoming gap between the world's increasing energy demand and the total recoverable oil supply. The paper presented the actual potential of different scenarios and considered the prediction cost forecasts. A brief overview of environmental impacts and the real return on investments were also provided. Environmental impacts that were considered included land degradation; water contamination; ecosystem damage; and air pollution. Nuclear energy was also presented as a possible solution. The paper demonstrated that even in a very optimistic scenario, Canada's oil sands accelerated production has a negligible effect on the aforementioned gap, has a considerable impact on environment that has yet to be accounted for. Energy ratios that were presented included energy return on energy investment; energy available on energy used; and energy payback. It was concluded that enhanced recovery techniques are clearly needed for future sustainable exploitation of these bituminous sands. 32 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Bituminization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results and experiences are summed up from the research and development of the technology of bituminization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive concentrates generated in the operation of nuclear power plants with WWER-440 reactors. The experiments took place on a pilot plant bituminization line with various model solutions at an evaporator capacity of 70, 100 and 140 litres per hour. The composition of the solutions changed in dependence on the knowledge of the composition of actual concentrates in the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The following factors were studied in the concentrate: the effect of its pH, its borate content and content of metal carbonates, the content of organic acid salts, the content of detergents, etc., on the process of bituminization. Physico-chemical conditions are described under which the operation of the evaporator was fail-safe and filling of the bituminization product with salts homogeneous. A low water content of up to 1% was achieved. The properties of the bituminization product were negatively affected by a high level of heavy metal oxides, surfactants, oxalates and citrates. In order to improve the properties of the product it will be necessary to replace bitumen emulsion Silembit-60 used as reinforcement matrix, by a different type of bitumen. (Z.M.)

  20. Measurement of heat generation from simulated bituminized product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fire and explosion incident occurred at Bituminization Demonstration Facility of PNC Tokai Works on March 11, 1997. In order to ascertain the cause of incident, the investigation has been pushed forward. For the investigation, we prepared simulated bituminized product of measurement of heat generation in low temperature region less than 200degC. We used calvet Calorimeter MS80 for the heat generation measurement. Result of measurement, we were able to catch the feeble heat generation from bituminized product. The maximum calorific value that was able to detect it in isothermal measurement was approximately 1 mW/g in 160degC. It was approximately 2 mW/g in 200degC. And, as the another measurement, the measurement condition went heat rate by 0.01degC/minute, the highest temperature 190degC. As a result, the maximum generation of heat value that was able to detect it was approximately 0.5 mW/g. I changed simulated bituminized products and measured these. A difference of condition is salt particle size, salt content rate (45%, 60%), addition of the simulated precipitate. But there was not a difference in the generation of heat characteristic detected. (author)

  1. Unexpectedly high uptake of palladium by bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J. [Research Lab. for Mining Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The uptake of palladium as a conversion catalyst onto coals of different rank was investigated. Palladium fixation occurs by a different mode to that for alkaline earth and first row transition metals. Therefore, the dispersion of relatively high concentration of palladium by an ion sorption process is even possible for bituminous coals. (orig.)

  2. Performance of PAHs emission from bituminous coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严建华; 尤孝方; 李晓东; 倪明江; 尹雪峰; 岑可法

    2004-01-01

    Carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated in coal combustion have caused great environmental health concern. Seventeen PAHs (16 high priority PAHs recommended by USEPA plus Benzo[e]pyrene) present in five raw bituminous coals and released during bituminous coal combustion were studied. The effects of combustion temperature, gas atmosphere, and chlorine content of raw coal on PAHs formation were investigated. Two additives (copper and cupric oxide) were added when the coal was burned. The results indicated that significant quantities of PAHs were produced from incomplete combustion of coal pyrolysis products at high temperature, and that temperature is an important causative factor of PAHs formation. PAHs concentrations decrease with the increase of chlorine content in oxygen or in nitrogen atmosphere. Copper and cupric oxide additives can promote PAHs formation (especially the multi-ring PAHs) during coal combustion.

  3. Amenability of Muzret bituminous coal to oil agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahinoglu, E.; Uslu, T. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mining Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    Laboratory scale agglomeration tests were undertaken to investigate the amenability of Muzret (Yusufeli-Artvin) bituminous coal to oil agglomeration. Kerosene was extensively used as oil in the tests. In addition, fuel oil, diesel oil, and hazelnut oil were also used in order to determine the effect of oil type. The effects of the parameters including coal content, kerosene content, agglomeration time, coal particle size, pH, oil type, and agitation rate, on the combustible matter recovery, ash reduction and pyritic sulphur reduction, were investigated. It was found that Muzret bituminous coal could be readily cleaned by oil agglomeration with substantial reductions in ash and pyritic sulphur content. Maximum combustible matter recovery, ash reduction and pyritic sulphur reduction were achieved to be 85.54%, 59.98%, and 85.17%, respectively. (author)

  4. Identification of aggregates for Tennessee bituminous surface courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Heather Jean

    Tennessee road construction is a major venue for federal and state spending. Tax dollars each year go to the maintenance and construction of roads. One aspect of highway construction that affects the public is the safety of its state roads. There are many factors that affect the safety of a given road. One factor that was focused on in this research was the polish resistance capabilities of aggregates. Several pre-evaluation methods have been used in the laboratory to predict what will happen in a field situation. A new pre-evaluation method was invented that utilized AASHTO T 304 procedure upscaled to accommodate surface bituminous aggregates. This new method, called the Tennessee Terminal Textural Condition Method (T3CM), was approved by Tennessee Department of Transportation to be used as a pre-evaluation method on bituminous surface courses. It was proven to be operator insensitive, repeatable, and an accurate indication of particle shape and texture. Further research was needed to correlate pre-evaluation methods to the current field method, ASTM E 274-85 Locked Wheel Skid Trailer. In this research, twenty-five in-place bituminous projects and eight source evaluations were investigated. The information gathered would further validate the T3CM and find the pre-evaluation method that best predicted the field method. In addition, new sources of aggregates for bituminous surface courses were revealed. The results of this research have shown T3CM to be highly repeatable with an overall coefficient of variation of 0.26% for an eight sample repeatability test. It was the best correlated pre-evaluation method with the locked wheel skid trailer method giving an R2 value of 0.3946 and a Pearson coefficient of 0.710. Being able to predict field performance of aggregates prior to construction is a powerful tool capable of saving time, money, labor, and possibly lives.

  5. Wetting of bituminized ion-exchangers under simulated repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the present plans the spent nuclear fuel from four Finnish nuclear power units will be transferred after interim storage to the final disposal site where it will be encapsulated and disposed of in a final repository constructed into the bedrock at a depth of 500 meters. Low and medium level waste generated at nuclear power plants will be finally disposed of in caverns constructed in the bedrock at the power plant site. The safety of the final disposal is based on a multibarrier concept and the degree of safety is estimated by using predictive models. The properties of the waste form are taken into account in the design of the repository construction. Bitumen has been chosen as an immobilisation agent for the wet wastes at Olkiluoto Power Plant, where two BWR units, TVO 1 and TVO 2, have separate bituminization facilities designed by Asea-Atom. Properties of bituminized spent ion-exchange resins from Olkiluoto power plant have been studied by VTT Chemical Technology since the late 70's. These studies have concentrated mainly on determining the long-term behaviour of the bituminization product under the repository conditions. Current interest lies on wetted product as a diffusion barrier. For this purpose a microscopic method for the visualisation of the structure of the wetted product has been developed. The equilibration of the samples in simulated concrete groundwater is currently going on at a temperature of 5-8 deg. C. Preliminary results are presented in this paper. Diffusion experiments have been planned for the further characterising of the wetted product as a release barrier for radionuclides including modelling. (author)

  6. Sorption of aqueous phosphorus onto bituminous and lignitous coal ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at the development of a phosphorus removal technology for waste water, phosphate (PO43-) retention behavior of bituminous and lignitous coal ashes was investigated using a batch reactor. Ash samples, including fresh and weathered fly and bottom ashes, were studied for their sorption isotherms and reversibility. Fly ashes had a much higher phosphate retention capacity (4000-30,000 mg P/kg) than bottom ashes (15-600 mg P/kg). Lignitous coal ashes were more capable of retaining phosphate than bituminous coal ashes. The retention process was largely irreversible, and the irreversibility increased with the increase in the retention capacity. Weathering enlarged the retention capacity of the bituminous bottom ash, but substantially lowered that of the fly ash, likely due to the difference in the weather-induced changes between the fly and bottom ashes. Sorption isotherms of fly ashes were found to be adequately represented by the Langmuir model while those of bottom ashes fitted better to the Freundlich model. Concentrations of Ca2+ and PO43- in the aqueous phase were measured at the end of sorption and desorption experiments, and were compared with solubilities of three calcium phosphate minerals. The aqueous solutions were saturated or super-saturated with respect to tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) and hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH), and slightly under-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium phosphate. It is concluded that precipitation of calcium phosphate is the predominant mechanism for phosphate retention by coal ash under the conditions studied. There is a strong and positive correlation between alkalinity and phosphate sorption capacity. Consequently, acid neutralization capacity (ANC) can be used as an indicator of phosphate sorption capacity of coal ashes

  7. Sorption of aqueous phosphorus onto bituminous and lignitous coal ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Jinying; Kirk, Donald W. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada); Jia, Charles Q. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada)], E-mail: cqjia@chem-eng.toronto.edu; Liu Xinan [College of Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2007-09-05

    Aiming at the development of a phosphorus removal technology for waste water, phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) retention behavior of bituminous and lignitous coal ashes was investigated using a batch reactor. Ash samples, including fresh and weathered fly and bottom ashes, were studied for their sorption isotherms and reversibility. Fly ashes had a much higher phosphate retention capacity (4000-30,000 mg P/kg) than bottom ashes (15-600 mg P/kg). Lignitous coal ashes were more capable of retaining phosphate than bituminous coal ashes. The retention process was largely irreversible, and the irreversibility increased with the increase in the retention capacity. Weathering enlarged the retention capacity of the bituminous bottom ash, but substantially lowered that of the fly ash, likely due to the difference in the weather-induced changes between the fly and bottom ashes. Sorption isotherms of fly ashes were found to be adequately represented by the Langmuir model while those of bottom ashes fitted better to the Freundlich model. Concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} in the aqueous phase were measured at the end of sorption and desorption experiments, and were compared with solubilities of three calcium phosphate minerals. The aqueous solutions were saturated or super-saturated with respect to tricalcium phosphate (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}) and hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}OH), and slightly under-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium phosphate. It is concluded that precipitation of calcium phosphate is the predominant mechanism for phosphate retention by coal ash under the conditions studied. There is a strong and positive correlation between alkalinity and phosphate sorption capacity. Consequently, acid neutralization capacity (ANC) can be used as an indicator of phosphate sorption capacity of coal ashes.

  8. Low-level radioactive wastes bituminization - ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes the research and development of low level radioactive waste treatment by bituminization process in Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN). Low level radioactive solid waste was simulated by mixed ion exchange resin. Cation exchange and anion resin were loaded with lithium and boric acid respectively and were incorporated in bitumen of suitable rheological properties. The simulated solid wastes incorporated in bitumen were 30 to 46 weight %. The rheological properties of waste product bitumen-mixed resin have been reported. The waste product with bitumen V-65 showed best physical and rheological properties and grave lowest leaching rates of boron and lithium. (author)

  9. Retardation of the spontaneous ignition of bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, X.; Drysdale, D. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Department of Civil Engineering and Building Science

    1995-12-31

    The effect of five retardants on a bituminous coal has been investigated in a temperature-controlled oven. The activation energy of oxidation in the coal inhibited by one of the retardants increases by up to 20kJ/mol, in comparison to that of the coal wetted with water. The factors affecting inhibition are considered. A kinetic interpretation of the retardation mechanism is proposed, and the possibility of using the most effective retarder in practice is discussed. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Behaviour of bituminized ion-exchangers under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a final report containing all the research activities and results from the period 13 July 1997-28 February 2001. The purpose of the research was to study the ageing behaviour of bituminized ion-exchanger product under simulated repository conditions. The chosen temperature in this study was 5-8 deg. C and the equilibration solution used was artificial concrete water to simulate the conditions in the final disposal. The aim was to study the properties of wetted product as a release barrier for such important waste nuclides as Sr-90 and Cs-137, which are normal constituents of the bituminized ion-exchangers. All the nine exchanged waters were analysed by ion chromatography (IC) including the follow-up of the water absorption of the samples. All the samples, which were picked up for microscopic examination, have also been analysed. A saturation-elution test was performed with one diffusion sample using tritium (H-3) as a tracer. The results have been presented and further modelling will be performed later. Further two diffusion samples were tested using H-3, Na-22 and Cl-36 as radioactive tracers. The equilibration solution was artificial concrete ground water spiked with H-3 and Na-22 and in the other case with H-3 and Cl-36. Tritium was an internal reference when comparing the results of the equilibration behaviour of Na-22 and Cl-36. From the radioactive input cells samples were taken as a function of time to monitor the equilibration process. Elution of the samples and modelling of the results will be performed later. Na-22 and Cl-36 were chosen to demonstrate the behaviour of a simple anion and cation. Diffusion tests with important waste nuclides Sr-90 and Cs-137 have been scheduled to years 2001-2002. The aim of the performed research project was to study the barrier properties of the bituminized product. The measured parameters and modelling of the results will reflect the behaviour of the wetted product as a part of the multibarrier system providing

  11. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  12. Environmental problems caused by bituminous schist and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schist, as a disposal of mine, has harmful effects on environment. however, several manners can be utilized to prevent the environmental destruction as well as an economical benefit is gained. In this study, environmental problems caused by bituminous schist and other disposals have been investigated on a specific lignite coal mine where schist is disposed as waste material. Pollution and damage on land and in water sources around the coal district and the villages have been observed, recorded and several solutions to environmental problems have been proposed. Discussed proposals will not only solve the environmental pollution problem but also provide waste management facility. Industrial structure of the district enables such a disposal to be used as an economical raw material. Besides, general effects of the coal mine and the power plant nearby have been discussed from environmental point of view, too. 7 refs

  13. Study of thermal reactivity during bituminization of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the study of chemical reactions and phases transitions which can occur between magnesium nitrate, sodium nitrate, cobalt sulphur product, and nickel potassium ferrocyanide, when they are heated together during bituminization process of nuclear waste. The applied methodology associates a few techniques: temperature, enthalpy, and kinetics of reaction are determined by calorimetry, reaction products are characterised by chemical analyses, mass spectrometry and XRD analysis. Three fields of temperature and energy are observed in function of composition (one compound or a mixture of compounds). The study of reactions between NaNO3 and cobalt sulphur product shows that the presence of water has got an effect on reaction temperature. The study of Mg(NO3)2, 6 H2O and CoS shows an overlapping of different signals, and that the reaction rate is very slow (a few hours). (author)

  14. State of the art report on bituminized waste forms of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, research and development results on the bituminization of radioactive wastes are closely reviewed, especially those regarding waste treatment technologies, waste solidifying procedures and the characteristics of asphalt and solidified forms. A new concept of the bituminization method is suggested in this report which can improve the characteristics of solidified forms. Stable solid forms with high leach resistance, high thermal resistance and good compression strength were produced by the suggested bituminization method, in which spent polyethylene from agricultural farms was added. This report can help further research and development of improved bituminized forms of radioactive wastes that will maintain long term stabilities in disposal sites. (author). 59 refs., 19 tabs., 18 figs

  15. State of the art report on bituminized waste forms of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Kook; Shon, Jong Sik; Kim, Kil Jeong; Lee, Kang Moo; Jung, In Ha

    1998-03-01

    In this report, research and development results on the bituminization of radioactive wastes are closely reviewed, especially those regarding waste treatment technologies, waste solidifying procedures and the characteristics of asphalt and solidified forms. A new concept of the bituminization method is suggested in this report which can improve the characteristics of solidified forms. Stable solid forms with high leach resistance, high thermal resistance and good compression strength were produced by the suggested bituminization method, in which spent polyethylene from agricultural farms was added. This report can help further research and development of improved bituminized forms of radioactive wastes that will maintain long term stabilities in disposal sites. (author). 59 refs., 19 tabs., 18 figs

  16. Synthesis document on the long time behavior of packages: operational document ''bituminous'' 2204

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is realized in the framework of the law of 1991 on the radioactive wastes management. The 2004 synthesis document on long time behavior of bituminous sludges packages is constituted by two documents, the reference document and the operational document. This paper presents the operational model describing the water alteration of the packages and the associated radioelements release, as the gas term source and the swelling associated to the self-irradiation and the bituminous radiolysis. (A.L.B.)

  17. Polygenic formation model of the planet's bituminous belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrievsky, A. N.; Balanyuk, I. E.

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to nontraditional hydrocarbon sources. Today the portion of nontraditional gas in the world extraction is 15% or 450 billion cubic meters, which hat makes up the volume of total gas exports from Russia. As is known, the easy-prospecting oil has been already found. The innovative technologies in geophysics, drilling, and excavation and the increased extraction coefficient expect further development and industrial compliance with these requirements. Based on calculations, the world oil reserves are now one trillion of stock tank barrels and one trillion barrels have been already extracted. The evergrowing demand for energy gives rise to the necessity of searching for and extracting more oil resources, and both these aspects are unique problems. The search for profitable petroleum deposits has become more and more difficult even in the leading companies. The increment of the world resources is a key vital question; therefore, the elaboration of criteria for the discovery of nontraditional deposits take on special significance in the economic respect. The authors are working out a conception that will be a guideline for future finding of the richest oil deposits in active geodynamic zones. For the first time, we suggest the polygenic formation model of the planet's bituminous belts.

  18. A process for the bituminization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for the incorporation of sodium nitrate solutions in bitumen, with a view to the bituminization of radioactive wastes. This process has involved the development of a chemical process and its technological application. A double jacket reactor equipped with an anchor-type stirrer has been built. Sodium nitrate (NaNO3) solutions with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) are fed into the reactor simultaneously with a bitumen emulsion while heated oil is circulated through the double jacket. After all the water has evaporated, the mixture is ''simmered'' at 170/180 deg C for up to 5 hours in order to get a homogeneous product which will be suitable for final storage. The product contains small salt crystals (10/50 μm) and has high viscosity (200/2000 poise at 160 deg C and 12 rpm), so that the possibility of sedimentation is eliminated. In comparative experiments with molten bitumen, large salt aggregates, inhomogeneously distributed, make the product unsuitable. It has been found that NaOH is responsible for the polimerization of the bitumen, which raises its viscosity. The degree of polimerization depends on the NaOH concentration and ''simmering'' time and temperature. NaOH is added to NaNO3 in order to raise the mixture's viscosity and thereby prevent sedimentation

  19. The hydrogasification of lignite and sub-bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, B.; Fallon, P. T.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-02-01

    A North Dakota lignite and a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogenated at up to 900°C and 2500 psi hydrogen pressure. Yields of gaseous hydrocarbons and aromatic liquids have been studied as a function of temperature, pressure, residence time, feed rates and H2/coal ratio. Coal feed rates in excess of 10 lb/hr have been achieved in the 1 in. I. D.×8 ft reactor and methane concentration as high as 55% have been observed. A four-step reaction model was developed for the production and decomposition of the hydrocarbon products. A single object function formulated from the weighted errors for the four dependent process, variables, CH4, C2H6, BTX, and oil yields, was minimized using a program containing three independent iterative techniques. The results of the nonlinear regression analysis for lignite show that a first-order chemical reaction model with respect to C conversion satisfactorily describes the dilute phase hydrogenation. The activation energy for the initial products formation was estimated to be 42,700 cal/gmole and the power of hydrogen partial pressure was found to be +0.14. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.83. The mechanism, the rate expressions, and the design curves developed can be used for scale-up and reactor design.

  20. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  1. Fuel properties of bituminous coal and pyrolytic oil mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Hazlin; Sharuddin, Munawar Zaman; Daud, Ahmad Rafizan Mohamad; Syed-Hassan, Syed Shatir A.

    2014-10-01

    Investigation on the thermal decomposition kinetics of coal-biooil slurry (CBS) fuel prepared at different ratios (100:0,70:30,60:40,0:100) was conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The materials consisted of Clermont bituminous coal (Australia) and bio-oil (also known as pyrolytic oil) from the source of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) that was thermally converted by means of pyrolysis. Thermal decomposition of CBS fuel was performed in an inert atmosphere (50mL/min nitrogen) under non-isothermal conditions from room temperature to 1000°C at heating rate of 10°C/min. The apparent activation energy (Ea.) and pre-exponential factor (A) were calculated from the experimental results by using an Arrhenius-type kinetic model which first-order decomposition reaction was assumed. All kinetic parameters were tabulated based on the TG data obtained from the experiment. It was found that, the CBS fuel has higher reactivity than Clermont coal fuel during pyrolysis process, as the addition of pyrolytic oil will reduce the Ea values of the fuel. The thermal profiles of the mixtures showed potential trends that followed the characteristics of an ideal slurry fuel where high degradation rate is desirable. Among the mixture, the optimum fuel was found at the ratio of 60:40 of pyrolytic oil/coal mixtures with highest degradation rate. These findings may contribute to the development of a slurry fuel to be used in the vast existing conventional power plants.

  2. Bituminous reference document: synthesis of knowledge on the long time behavior of bituminous packages; Dossier de reference bitume: synthese des connaissances sur le comportement a long terme des colis bitumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sercombe, J.; Adenot, F.; Vistoli, P.P.; Parraud, S.; Riglet-Martial, C.; Gwinner, B.; Felines, I.; Tiffreau, C.; Libert, M

    2004-07-01

    This document is a synthesis of the knowledge acquired at the CEA on the behavior of bituminous packages. In this framework, the CEA studied bituminous packages in generic conditions of a package lifetime. The main factors, the evolution mechanisms and influential parameters have been determined and quantitative s simulation have been developed. After a description of the main initial bituminous packages characterizations, the evolutions in saturated and un-saturated environment are exposed. (A.L.B.)

  3. Surface Properties of Photo-Oxidized Bituminous Coals: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Natural weathering has a detrimental effect on the hydrophobic nature of coal, which in turn can influence clean-coal recovery during flotation. Few techniques are available that can establish the quality of coal surfaces and that have a short analysis time to provide input for process control. Luminescence emissions which can be quantified with an optical microscope and photometer system, are measurably influenced by degree of weathering as well as by mild storage deterioration. In addition, it has been shown that when vitrinite is irradiated with a relatively high intensity flux of violet- or ultraviolet- light in the presence of air, photo-oxidation of the surface occurs. The combination of measuring the change in luminescence emission intensity with degree of surface oxidation provided the impetus for the current investigation. The principal aim of this research was to determine whether clear correlations could be established among surface oxygen functionality, hydrophobicity induced by photo-oxidation, and measurements of luminescence intensity and alteration. If successful, the project would result in quantitative luminescence techniques based on optical microscopy that would provide a measure of the changes in surface properties as a function of oxidation and relate them to coal cleanability. Two analytical techniques were designed to achieve these goals. Polished surfaces of vitrain bands or a narrow size fraction of powdered vitrain concentrates were photo-oxidized using violet or ultraviolet light fluxes and then changes in surface properties and chemistry were measured using a variety of near-surface analytical techniques. Results from this investigation demonstrate that quantitative luminescence intensity measurements can be performed on fracture surfaces of bituminous rank coals (vitrains) and that the data obtained do reveal significant variations depending upon the level of surface oxidation. Photo-oxidation induced by violet or ultraviolet light

  4. Effects of salt content on leaching properties of synthetic bituminized wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leaching properties of soluble components (Na+, NO3−, and NO2−) in synthetic bituminized wastes with various characteristics, such as salt content, salt composition, and bitumen matrix, were quantitatively evaluated by means of an aqueous leaching test. Micropores were formed in the bituminized waste by the leaching of soluble salts. The penetrability of bitumen and the salt content affected the size and the shape of the micropores observed by scanning electron microscopy. The linear relationship between leaching fraction of the soluble components and square root of leaching time was observed, and the diffusion coefficient of the soluble component was determined by Fick's law. The diffusion coefficients of ionic species of interest were similar to each other. Moreover, the diffusion coefficient agreed among bituminized wastes with the same salt content, even if salt composition and bitumen matrix were different. The diffusion coefficient of the component was proportional to the salt content in the synthetic bituminized wastes. It was found that the salt content in the bituminized waste was one of the key factors to determine the diffusion coefficient. (author)

  5. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  6. Safety assessment for the bituminization facility of the medium-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment for the home-made bituminization facility of the medium-level waste during hot test is made. The average external dose equivalent per month is 0.136 x 10-2 Sv. The radioactive substance released into the environment is much lower than the permissible limit. The danger of burning and exploding of the bituminized product is avoided because the operation temperature is controlled strictly below 170 C degree. The report also briefly describes the structural characteristic of the facility, the main process and radiation protection and safety measures

  7. Project and design of apparatus and equipment of pilot plant experimental bituminization line PS 44 EBO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modifications are described made in the design of major components of the pilot plant experimental bituminization line involving: the mixing equipment, the film rotor evaporator, the calciner, and various transport mechanisms for handling drums and containers. The difficulty and complexity of the problem which Kralovopolska strojirna Brno, the end supplier of the bituminization line, will have to tackle is evident mainly from the case of bridge cranes, which feed the line, and the full-portal gantry crane which handles the containers and drums at regional sites of radioactive waste disposal. (Z.M.)

  8. Installation in the A-1 plant of an experimental bituminization line by VUCHZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the termination of the experimental operation of the bituminization line at the Research Institute for Chemical Installations in Brno, the line was dismantled and transferred to the nucler power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice. The installation of the line, the layout of the assemblies are described and the results of tests with non-radioactive simulated wastes and actual radioactive wastes briefly described. An amount of 3.2 m3 of actual radioactive wastes from the V-1 nuclear power plant was processed in the tests. The results confirmed the suitability of bituminization for processing liquid radioactive wastes from WWER nuclear power plants. (Z.M.)

  9. Use of waste plastic in construction of bituminous road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Jirge

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottles, containers and packing strips etc. is increasing day by day. As a result amount of waste plastic also increases. This leads to various environmental problems. Many of the wastes produced today will remain in the environment for many years leading to various environmental concerns. Therefore it is necessary to utilize thewastes effectively with technical development in each field. Many by-products are being produced using the plastic wastes. Our present work is helping to take care of these aspects. Plastic waste, consisting of carry bags, cups and other utilized plastic can be used as a coating over aggregate and this coated stone can be used for roadconstruction. The mix polymer coated aggregate and tyre modified bitumen have shown higher strength. Use of this mix for road construction helps to use plastics waste. Once the plastic waste is separated from municipal solid waste, the organic matter can be converted into manure and used. Our paper will discuss in detail theprocess and its successful applications.

  10. 8th RILEM International Symposium on Testing and Characterization of Sustainable and Innovative Bituminous Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Partl, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of RILEM TC 237-SIB (Testing and characterization of sustainable innovative bituminous materials and systems). The papers have been selected for publication after a rigorous peer review process and will be an invaluable source to outline and clarify the main directions of present and future research and standardization for bituminous materials and pavements. The following topics are covered: - Characterization of binder-aggregate interaction - Innovative testing of bituminous binders, additives and modifiers - Durability and aging of asphalt pavements - Mixture design and compaction analysis - Environmentally sustainable materials and technologies - Advances in laboratory characterization of bituminous materials - Modeling of road materials and pavement performance prediction - Field measurement and in-situ characterization - Innovative materials for reinforcement and interlayer systems - Cracking and damage characterization of asphalt pavements - Rec...

  11. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Bueno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance.

  12. Development and operation experience from pilot-plant for bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes (UBD-200)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are given for investigations of liquid radioactive wastes bituminization on the pilot-plant of continious operation. The bituminization process is divided into two stages. On the first stage salts with definite moisture content are obtained. On the second stage, wet salts are mixed with melted bitumen. In this process the salts are finally dryed and bitumen compound produced is transported towards the discharge assembly. Design of the dryer and mixer is described and their technical parameters are given. Salt-bitumen compound is discharged in moulding bogies with volume of 0.5 m3. After hardening, salt-bitumen compound blocks are removed for burial. Average composition of liquid radioactive wastes coming for solidification is given. Dependences of the salt-bitumen compound characteristics on the parameters of the technological process of bituminization are given as well as the results of analysis of filling of compound by salts at the block height of 0.3 m. It is shown that division of the bituminization process into two stages do not affect on the chemical stability of compound. (I.T.)

  13. Towards an Accurate Stress Dependant Time & Frequency Domain VE Response Model for Bituminous Binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.; Huurman, M.; Pronk, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Linear viscoelastic properties of bituminous binders for short loading times are analyzed using dynamic mechanical analysis methods. Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) test with parallel plate (PP) configuration is widely used for this purpose. Due to the complex stress distribution over the cross-sectio

  14. Bituminization system of low level liquid waste in Genkai Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bituminization system for low level radioactive liquid wastes has such advantages as its volume reduction is 6 to 10 times higher than the cementing systems, and the exuding ratio of radioactive nuclides from bituminized body into sea water is smaller, because the solids containing radioactive nuclides are solidified into oily bitumen which is very water repellent. Therefore, Genkai No.2 reactor plant has adopted the batch bituminization system, the main equipment of which being a drum mixer. This equipment has the capacity of treating 35 m3 of drain from the machines (boron 21,000 ppm) yearly, mainly composed of boric acid, and 85 m3 of floor drain/laundry drain yearly (solids 1.1 wt.%). This paper describes the outline of the system, the improvement of the installation, operating method, operation control, and the results of cold and hot operations. At the beginning of the trial operation, the concentrated laundry drain from No.1 reactor during the regular inspection was bituminized, and the concentrated sodium borate solution from No.2 reactor was treated since July, 1980. These results show the good volume reduction, condensate-processing capability, mixer controllability and mixer decontamination efficiency. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Effect of bituminous coal properties on carbon dioxide and methane high pressure sorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich; Sýkorová, Ivana; Machovič, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 139, JAN 1 (2015), s. 115-124. ISSN 0016-2361 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : bituminous coal * sorption capacity * maceral composition * Upper Silesian Coal Basin Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.520, year: 2014

  16. Testing of the possibility for the use of BEWAG-coal cinder in bituminous supporting layers of asphalt fastening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueckert, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    In order to develop further use of coal cinder granulate the suitability of that granulate has been tested for use as an additional material for bituminous supporting layers. Results: (1) The granulate can be used for asphalt supporting layers Type B according TVT 72. (2) The granulation scope 0/5 mm is recommended. (3) The granular share of the mineral mixture can amount up to 30% of weight. (4) Standard-Bitumen B 65 can be used as bituminous binders. (5) The optimum consistence of the bituminous materials has to be found according of an aptitude test.

  17. Transformism in Alberta: The Environmental Political Economy of the Bituminous Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Rosene, Ryan

    This thesis attempts to help establish environmental political economy as a viable academic field while providing an example of work in the discipline. It offers an analysis of societal processes resulting in the co-optation and/or neutralization of critical environmentalist ideas. Using Alberta's bituminous sands as a case study, and a Gramsci-influenced eco-Marxist theory as a foundation, the thesis argues that the term 'environmental transformism' (inspired by the Gramscian term trasformismo) is helpful in describing and framing such processes. Accordingly, the ensuing chapters provide an analysis of why environmental transformism is happening in Alberta, and demonstrate how this mechanism works at protecting the status quo from threatening ideologies, thereby consolidating neoliberal capitalism. A concluding argument discusses the inherent dangers posed to society by the transformism of certain environmental subjectivities. The thesis begins by introducing the contentious social and environmental issues surrounding the development of the bituminous sands.

  18. Radiation-chemical transformation of synthetic oil from oil-bituminous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Like as test subject was used synthetic oil from oil-bituminous rocks of Balakhany deposit. The regularities of synthetic oils radiation-chemical transformations were studied. Laboratory researches were carried out in an interval of absorbed dose 43-216 kGr and dose rate 0.5 Gr/s. Concentration, radiation-chemical yields of the received gases in the various absorbed doses were established. Results of researches allow to estimate possibility use of oil products received from synthetic oil for isolation of radioactive sources from environment. The purpose of the given work is research of radiation stability of synthetic oil from bituminous rock. Results of such researches will allow to estimate possibility of production different purpose oil products from synthetic oil in a radiation-chemical way and also use of these materials for isolation of radioactive sources from environment

  19. Long-term behavior of bituminized waste: modelling of auto-irradiation and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During interim storage, the main evolution factor of the bituminized wastes is radiolysis under auto-irradiation, while in deep disposal conditions, after radioactive decrease, site resaturation with water, and container corrosion, the main factor of evolution is leaching by water. This paper presents two models, designed to describe respectively radiolytic gas evacuation, and bituminized waste alteration under leaching. The first model is based on the integration of simple descriptions of gas production by radiolysis, gas diffusive transport, bubble nucleation and ripening, and bubble transport under buoyancy and viscosity. The second model is based on simple descriptions of water adsorption and solubilization at the surface, water diffusion into the matrix, water uptake by the most soluble salts, salt grain swelling and alteration of matrix waterproofing, diffusive transport of salts out of the waste. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  20. A Method to Estimate the Dynamic Displacement and Stress of a Multi-layered Pavement with Bituminous or Concrete Materials

    OpenAIRE

    LU, ZHENG; Yao, Hailin; Zhang, JingBo

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, a method to estimate the dynamic characteristics of a multilayered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials is proposed. A mechanical model is established to investigate the dynamic displacement and stress of the multi-layered pavement structure. Both the flexible and the rigid pavements, corresponding to bituminous materials and concrete materials, respectively, are studied. The theoretical solutions of the multi-layered pavement structure are deduced considering...

  1. Is Atomic Force Microscopy suited as Tool for fast Screening of Bituminous Materials? An Inter-laboratory Comparison Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, S.N.; Dillingh, B.; Erkens, S.M.J.G.; Schmets, A. J. M.; Fischer, H.R.; Scarpas, A.; Schitter, G.

    2013-01-01

    Bituminous binders are known to have microstructures at typical length scales of micrometers. This microstructure can be probed with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Now that worldwide several research groups are reporting AFM results on bitumen, it is becoming important to improve the understanding of the reproducibility and objectivity of the technique for studying bituminous samples. When reproducibility and stability are proven, AFM can be a tool for asphalt professionals to rapidly screen ...

  2. Modelling the quasi-static behaviour of bituminous material using a cohesive zone model

    OpenAIRE

    Tabakovic, Amir; Karac, Aleksandar; Ivankovic, Alojz; Gibney, Amanda; McNally, Ciaran; Gilchrist, M. D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of a cohesive zone model for simulating the performance of bituminous material subjected to quasistatic loading. The Dugdale traction law was implemented within a finite volume code in order to simulate the binder course mortar material response when subjected to indirect tensile loading. A uniaxial tensile test and a threepoint bend test were employed to determine initial stress-strain curves at different test rates and the cohesive zone parameters (...

  3. Influence of properties of bituminous binders on the strength of formed coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ashok K.; Das, Bani P.; Tripathi, Prem S.M. [Central Fuel Research Institute, P.O. FRI-828108, Dhanbad (India)

    2002-03-20

    The role of different chemical characteristics (coking value, quinoline insolubles, elemental composition, {beta}-resin, toluene solubles) of various coal tar- and petroleum-based bituminous binders, such as heavy fraction of HTC tar, processed LTC tar, pitch and asphalt as also the mixed binder in controlling the strength of formed coke made from char prepared from non-coking Chirimiri coal and coke breeze (prepared after carbonising Jharia coal), respectively, has been studied in some detail. The objective was to investigate as to whether and how the properties of these bituminous binders govern the strength of formed coke. It is found that these properties of the binders do play significantly important role in controlling the strength of formed coke both during curing and carbonisation. These parameters of the binders are found to be closely related with their atomic C/H ratios. Notwithstanding the varying composition of the binders of different origin, be they coal tar or petroleum based, the atomic C/H ratio seems to be the most important characteristics of the bituminous binders, upon which the strength of formed coke depends predominantly. This also holds true when mixed binders were used. The results show that at a C/H ratio of about 1, the strength of the briquettes either on curing or on carbonising remains almost similar and that strong cured briquettes can be produced by using a bituminous binder with a C/H ratio less than 1, whilst for obtaining strong carbonised briquettes, binders with C/H ratio greater than 1 are preferable.

  4. Slagging behavior of upgraded brown coal and bituminous coal in 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Katsuya; Pak, Haeyang; Takubo, Yoji [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Kobe (Japan). Mechanical Engineering Research Lab.; Tada, Toshiya [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Takasago (Japan). Coal and Energy Technology Dept.; Ueki, Yasuaki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Energy Science Div.; Yoshiie, Ryo; Naruse, Ichiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate behaviors of ash deposition during combustion of Upgraded Brown Coal (UBC) and bituminous coal in a 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler. A blended coal consisting 20 wt% of the UBC and 80 wt% of the bituminous coal was burned for the combustion tests. Before the actual ash deposition tests, the molten slag fractions of ash calculated by chemical equilibrium calculations under the combustion condition was adopted as one of the indices to estimate the tendency of ash deposition. The calculation results showed that the molten slag fraction for UBC ash reached approximately 90% at 1,523 K. However, that for the blended coal ash became about 50%. These calculation results mean that blending the UBC with a bituminous coal played a role in decreasing the molten slag fraction. Next, the ash deposition tests were conducted, using a practical pulverized coal combustion boiler. A water-cooled stainless-steel tube was inserted in locations at 1,523 K in the boiler to measure the amount of ash deposits. The results showed that the mass of deposited ash for the blended coal increased and shape of the deposited ash particles on the tube became large and spherical. This is because the molten slag fraction in ash for the blended coal at 1,523 K increased and the surface of deposited ash became sticky. However, the mass of the deposited ash for the blended coal did not greatly increase and no slagging problems occurred for 8 days of boiler operation under the present blending conditions. Therefore, appropriate blending of the UBC with a bituminous coal enables the UBC to be used with a low ash melting point without any ash deposition problems in a practical boiler.

  5. Microstructural self-healing of bituminous materials: Combined experimental and numerical study

    OpenAIRE

    Pauli, A; Schmets, A. J. M.; Kasbergen, C.; Varveri, K.; Scarpas, A.

    2013-01-01

    Bituminous materials form a class of materials that possess the intrinsic ability to selfheal. This self-healing capability is evidenced by the observation that the service life of these materials ‘in the field’ exceeds the service life as predicted by standard mechanical laboratory tests. This mismatch between laboratory prediction and field service life is usually accounted for by applying a shift or healing factor. In this contribution we demonstrate a model that is based on the observatio...

  6. The microstructure of petroleum vacuum residue films for bituminous concrete: a microscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourty, E D; Tamminga, A Y; Michels, M A J; Vellinga, W-P; Meijer, H E H

    2011-02-01

    Selected carbon-rich refinery residues ('binders') mixed with mineral particles can form composite materials ('bituminous concrete') with bulk mechanical properties comparable to those of cement concrete. The microstructural mechanism underlying the remarkable composite properties has been related to the appearance of a rigid percolating network consisting of asphaltenes and mineral particles [Wilbrink M. et al. (2005) Rigidity percolation in dispersions with a structured visco-elastic matrix. Phys. Rev. E71, 031402]. In this paper, we explore the microstructure of thin binder films of varying thickness with a number of microscopic characterization techniques, and attempt to relate the observed microstructure to the distinctive mechanical behaviour. Two binders, only one of which has been proven to be suitable for bituminous concrete were investigated, and their microstructure compared. Both binders show the formation of asphaltene aggregates. The binder suitable for bituminous concrete is distinguished by the fact that the asphaltenes show a stronger tendency towards such aggregation, due to a higher concentration and less stabilization in the maltene phase. They also show a clear affinity to other species (such as waxes) and may act as nucleation sites for crystals and aggregates of those species. PMID:21118207

  7. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  8. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  9. Fatigue and healing properties of bituminous mastics reinforced with nano-sized additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagata, Ezio; Baglieri, Orazio; Tsantilis, Lucia; Dalmazzo, Davide; Chiappinelli, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The research work described in the paper focused on fatigue and healing properties of bituminous mastics reinforced with nano-sized additives. Commercially available multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and montmorillonite nanoclay (NC) were combined with a single base bitumen and a standard mineral filler to produce bituminous mastics. These blends were prepared in the laboratory by making use of a technique consisting in simple shear mixing followed by sonication. Fatigue behaviour of mastics under repeated loading was investigated by means of time sweeps performed in the strain-controlled mode at various amplitudes. Healing potential was assessed by adopting a testing protocol specifically conceived to discriminate between recovery of damage induced by fatigue loading and other artefact phenomena which may affect material response. All rheological measurements were carried out with a dynamic shear rheometer in the parallel plates geometry. Outcomes of the experimental investigation were found to be highly dependent on the nature of additive type, as a result of the key role played by interaction mechanisms that nano-particles can establish within the bituminous mastic.

  10. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-04-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  11. The projects of reducing environmental pollution at the collieries belonging to Petrosani Autonomous Bituminous Coal Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic development in the Jiu Valley, as practised in the mining and processing of bituminous coal, has had a dynamic character without taking into account, however, the harmful impact on the environment. The most severe problem of environmental pollution in the Jiu Valley is that of the pollution of the Jiu River due to the discharge of waste water from the technological processes of mining and processing coal. This paper presents some solutions for reducing this environmental pollution, especially the Jiu water pollution. 1 ref

  12. Fire and explosion incident at bituminization demonstration facility of PNC Tokai works, on march 11, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 11, a fire and explosion incident occurred at the Bituminization Demonstration Facility (BDF) of Tokai Reprocessing Plant in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Soon after the incident, PNC (now reorganized to JNC) started to investigate the facility damage, operational records around the incident, technical notes including facility design and reviews of R and D results, operators witness and to perform several analysis, tests and calculations. This paper describes outline and cause of the incident which were concluded based on the results of continuous serious investigation, analysis and calculation. (author)

  13. Investigation of activity release from bituminized intermediate-level waste forms under thermal stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the consequences of a fire during fabrication, intermediate storage and transport of bituminized NaNO3 waste forms, the fractions of plutonium released from the waste forms were assessed. For this purpose, laboratory tests were made with PuO2-containing specimens as well as a field test with specimens containing Eu2O3. By the evaluation of plutonium release in the laboratory and by the determination of the total sodium release and the relative Eu/Na release in the field tests the plutonium release can be deduced from full-scale specimens. The results show that for bituminized waste forms with high NaNO3 contents (approx. 36 wt%) the average plutonium release obtained in laboratory testing is 15%. In the field tests (IAEA fire test conditions) an average Eu release of 8% was found. These results justify the statement that also for waste forms in open 175 L drum inserts a maximum plutonium release of about 15% can be expected. From the time-dependence of Eu/Na release in the field tests an induction period of 15-20 minutes between the start of testing and the first Na/Eu release can be derived. The maximum differential Na/Eu release occurs after a test period of 45 to 60 minutes duration and after 90 to 105 minutes (tests K2 and K4, respectively); after that time also the highest temperatures in the products are measured. The release values were determined for products in open 175 L drum inserts which in this form are not eligible for intermediate and ultimate storage. For bituminized waste forms in concrete packages (lost concrete shieldings) a delayed increase in temperature to only 70-80 deg. C takes place (4-5 hours after extinction of the fire) if the fire lasts 45 minutes. The concrete package remains intact under test conditions. This means that activity release from bituminized waste forms packaged in this way can be ruled out in the case under consideration. (author)

  14. Bituminization of radioactive waste concentrates from reprocessing, nuclear research establishments and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of the major results of R and D work performed at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center from 1967 until 1977 for fixing radioactive waste concentrates in bitumen and for characterizing the resulting products. Moreover, the report provides a compilation of operating experience gathered at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center in bituminizing low and medium level evaporator concentrates. The report also contains the results of R and D work carried out by external institutes on behalf of the KfK. (orig.)

  15. A Method to Estimate the Dynamic Displacement and Stress of a Multi-layered Pavement with Bituminous or Concrete Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng LU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, a method to estimate the dynamic characteristics of a multilayered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials is proposed. A mechanical model is established to investigate the dynamic displacement and stress of the multi-layered pavement structure. Both the flexible and the rigid pavements, corresponding to bituminous materials and concrete materials, respectively, are studied. The theoretical solutions of the multi-layered pavement structure are deduced considering the compatibility condition at the interface of the structural layers. By introducing FFT (Fast Fourier Transform algorithm, some numerical results are presented. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental result implied that the proposed method is reasonable in predicting the stress and displacement of a multi-layered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6071

  16. Low SO2 emission from CFB co-firing MSW and bituminous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing-Gang; Li, Zhi-Wei; Na, Yong-Jie; Ba, Shao-Lin; Sun, Yun-Kai; He, Jun

    2004-01-01

    Influence of co-firing rate on SO2 emission from co-firing municipal solid waste (MSW) and bituminous containing high amount of sulfur (1.79%) was studied in a 0.15 MWt circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The temperature selected is 1123 K, typical for MSW incineration using CFB. The particle concentration in the dilution zone of the furnace, the alkali metal concentration and sulfate concentration in the recirculating ash and fly ash, and flue gas composition were determined. The results showed that the addition of MSW leads to a significant decrease in SO2 emission. Concentration of SO2 in flue gas decreased to 0 with the co-firing rate greater than 51%. This reduction in SO2 emission is attributed both to the high particle concentration in the dilution zone of the furnace, the high content of alkali metals in the bed material, and to the comparatively high concentration of HCI in flue gas during co-firing of MSW and bituminous. PMID:15559820

  17. THE HISTORY OF EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION OF BITUMINOUS AND KEROGENOUS DEPOSITS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed thal the first known sedimens of natural bitumen or asphalt in coastal Croatia were exploited as the early moddle ages. Yet authenticated written documents about Vinišće near Trogir derive from no earlier than 1628, about Vrgorac/Paklina from only 1753. By the end of the 18th century, many deposits were discovered in Dalmatia, but it was Škrip on the Island of Brač and Suhi Dolac that were important. The earliest known deposits and occurrences of kerogenous rocks, or bituminous or oil shales, are mentioned as stone or fossil coal in Sovinjak, in the upper course of the River Mirna, and in Rebići in Istria; near Sinj, Slivno not far from the River Neretva, Mirta and near Nerežišće on the Island uf Brač. All if these were well known and described in 1804, while Sovinjak was mentioned in the 16th century. In the article, some of new information derived from mining and geological research into bituminous and kerogenous sediments and deposits are provided (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. Assessing radioactive concentrates and waste vapor condensate in solidifying radioactive wastes by bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview is presented of chemical and radiochemical methods used in the world for the analysis of the concentrate of liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants destined for bituminization. Most methods are also suitable for an analysis of the condensate of waste vapors produced in bituminization. The methods of analysis of the radioactive concentrate from the V-1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice and of the waste vapors condensate were developed and tested in practice. Gross gamma activity was measured using a well-type Na(Tl) scintillation detector, the content of radionuclides was determined using semiconductor Ge(Li) spectrometry. The concentration of boric acid in the concentrate was determined by titration with mannite; in the condensate, using spectrophotometry with curcumine. The content of nitrates in both the concentrate and the condensate was determined spectrophotometrically using salicylic acid, the content of nitrites was determined by spectrophotometry using sulfanilic acid and α-naphthylamine. Carbonates and chlorides were determined by titration, sodium and potassium by flame photometry. The content of organic acids was measured by gravimetry of extracted methyl esters, the content of surfactants by spectrophotometry. Infrared spectrophotometry was used in determining hydrocarbons in the waste vapor condensate. The measured value range and the measurement errors are shown for each method. (A.K.)

  19. Feasibility study of producing lump fuel using oil-bituminous sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldybaev, A.B.; Ermagambetov, B.T.; Mamraeva, K.M.; Shin, R.G.; Bakirova, R.K. (Institut Organicheskogo Sinteza i Uglekhimii AN KazSSR (USSR))

    1991-04-01

    Describes production of lump fuel by briquetting and coking different mixtures of non-caking coal with coal preparation sludge and bitumen extracted from oil sands. The coal used was from the Shubarkol'sk coal deposit (USSR); the sludge was from the Saburkhanskaya preparation plant. Properties and composition of oil-bituminous sands and of bitumen to be used as binder are given. Technological details of the briquetting and coking processes are provided. Results show that briquets produced from mixtures of coal and oil-bituminous sands can only be used as a high-ash lump fuel, which cannot be further processed into semicoke. Experiments were carried out briquetting coal or coke, sludge and 6-8% bitumen extracted from the sands, varying coal or coke grain fractions and composition of the mixture. An increased briquet strength was found after using the vacuum-distilled 300-350 C bitumen fraction. Briquets from this non-caking coal with bitumen binder are regarded as ecologically clean fuel. 5 refs.

  20. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B) Production as Landfill Liner

    OpenAIRE

    Müfide Banar; Yücel Güney; Aysun Özkan; Zerrin Günkaya; Eren Bayrakcı; Derya Ulutaş

    2016-01-01

    Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW) was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded...

  1. Mechanical properties of hot bituminous mixes manufactured with recycled aggregate of Silestone® waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, M. C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research project which analyzes the viability of incorporating waste material from decorative quartz solid surfacing in the manufacture of hot bituminous mixes. For this purpose, various bituminous mixes were manufactured with waste aggregate in different percentage. A set of tests were carried out that permitted the characterization of the mechanical behavior of these mixes. The results of these tests were similar to the results obtained when conventional mixes made from virgin quarry aggregate were tested. The results for moisture sensitivity as well as for wheel track rutting on mixes showed the optimal performance of this waste material even under very demanding traffic conditions. Laboratory studies showed that the use of this waste material in the manufacture of bituminous mixes is technically viable and can provide high-quality recycled aggregates at a very low cost, which can be used in the pavement of road.

    Este artículo muestra los resultados de un proyecto de investigación que tiene por objeto analizar la viabilidad de incorporación de residuos procedentes de piedra decorativa en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas en caliente. Para ello se fabricaron mezclas con áridos reciclados de residuos procedentes de piedra decorativa en distintos porcentajes, realizando un conjunto de ensayos que posibilitaron caracterizar el comportamiento mecánico de dichas mezclas. Los resultados obtenidos fueron similares a los de las mezclas convencionales fabricadas con áridos vírgenes procedentes de cantera. Los valores de resistencia conservada ante la acción del agua y deformación en pista, pusieron de manifiesto la aptitud del residuo incluso ante las condiciones de tráfico más exigentes. Los trabajos realizados en el laboratorio indican que la utilización del residuo en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas es técnicamente viable, pudiendo obtenerse áridos reciclados de gran calidad y

  2. Adsorption of bituminous components at oil/water interfaces investigated by quartz crystal microbalance: implications to the stability of water-in-oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goual, Lamia; Horváth-Szabó, Géza; Masliyah, Jacob H; Xu, Zhenghe

    2005-08-30

    Silica-gel-coated QCM crystals oscillating in a thickness shear mode are used to measure adsorption of bituminous components in water-saturated heptol (1/1 vol ratio of a heptane/toluene mixture) at the oil/water interface. In addition to the viscoelasticity of the adsorbed film, the effects of the bulk liquid density and viscosity as well as the liquid trapped in interfacial cavities are taken into account for the calculation of adsorbed mass. Asphaltenes in heptol adsorb continuously at the oil/water interface, while resins (the surface-active species in maltenes) show adsorption saturation in the same solvent. For Athabasca bitumen in heptol, two adsorption regimes are observed depending on concentration. At low concentrations, a slow, non-steady-state, and irreversible adsorption takes place. At high concentrations, a steady-state adsorption with limited reversibility results in a quick adsorption saturation. The threshold concentration between these adsorption regimes is 1.5 wt % and 8 wt % for oil/water and oil/gold interfaces, respectively. The threshold concentration, the total adsorbed amount, and the flux of non-steady-state adsorption depend on the resin-to-asphaltene ratio. The threshold concentration is related to the earlier reported critical bitumen concentration characterizing the rigid-to-flexible transition of the interfacial film. We propose a new mechanism based on the change of the effective resin-to-asphaltene ratio with dilution to explain both the adsorption behavior and emulsion stability. PMID:16114932

  3. Development prospects for Bazhenov formation bituminous claystones in the southeast of the West Siberian Plate (Tomsk Region)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article considers the use of time-tested bituminous shale development technologies in the southeast of the West Siberian Plate (Tomsk Region). A research target is the bituminous claystones of the Bazhenov formation. The Bazhenov formation was divided into stratigraphic units, and the sequence of forming these units within the territory under study was restored on the basis of the peculiarities of the Bazhenov formation section structure with gamma-ray logging data. The joint analysis of logs (gamma-ray logging, resistivity logging, SP logging, neutron gamma-ray logging, induction logging) and core data revealed the wide development of carbonatization processes in the lower stratigraphic units of the Bazhenov formation, whereas the upper, most bituminous units do not have the signs of carbonatization. It is a favorable factor for using the existing technologies of producing hydrocarbons from analogous sedimentary deposits. Considering the degree of lithological disconnection of an oilbearing object from adjacent reservoir formations allows making a conclusion that the application of the existing technologies for developing bituminous claystones can be implemented only in the insignificant territory of the area under study where the Bazhenov formation overlies Georgiev formation claystones being over 8 meters thick. To develop the oil and gas potential of the Bazhenov formation in other territories, there will be a need for new technologies that allow forming a fracture-cavernous matrix in a carbonate rock

  4. Examination and comparision of structure: lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal. [10 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, R.E.; Hayatsu, R.; Scott, R.G.; Moore, L.P.; Studier, M.H.

    1976-01-01

    Coal can be described as an amorphous mixture of macromolecules each made up of a complex array of organic molecules chemically linked together. Methods for breaking up these macromolecules in order to characterize the aromatic structural types have been explored. Pyrolysis is a common method for depolymerizing coal, but under the conditions necessary for pyrolysis much structural rearrangement occurs making a comparison of the products to the initial structural groups in coal difficult if not impossible. One approach has been to use a variety of selective oxidation methods. Aqueous sodium dichromate, aqueous air oxidation with uv light, and hydrogen peroxide in acetic acid have been used. Initial results of some of these studies have been published. This work has been extended to include characterization and comparison of a lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite. Besides the oxidation products, the monomeric organic molecules trapped within the macromolecules are examined and the results interpreted in relation to coal structure and the coalification process.

  5. Bituminization of simulated waste, spent resins, evaporator concentrates and animal ashes by extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the study of bituminization of simulated radwaste - spennt ion-exchange resins, borate evaporator/concentrates and animal ashes, are presented and discussed. Distilled and oxidizer bitumen were used. Characterization of the crude material and simulated wastes-bitumen mixtures of varying weigt composition (30, 40, 50, 60% by weight of dry waste material) was carried out. The asphaltene and parafin contents in the bitumens were also determined. Some additives and were used with an aim to improve the characteristcs of solidified wastes. For leaching studies, granular ion-exchange resins were with Cs - 134 and mixtures of resin-bitumen were prepared. The leaching studies were executed using the IAEA recommendation and the ISO method. A conventional screw-extruder, common in plastic industry, was used determine operational parameters and process difficulties. Mixtures of resin-bitumen and evaporator concentrate-bitumen obtained from differents operational conditions were characterized. (Author)

  6. Physical properties of solid fuel briquettes from bituminous coal waste and biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZARRINGHALAM-MOGHADDAM A; GHOLIPOUR-ZANJANI N; DOROSTIS; VAEZ M

    2011-01-01

    Biomass and bituminous coal fines from four different coalfields were used to produce fuel briquettes.Two physical properties of briquettes,water resistance index and compressive strength were analyzed.The influence of type and quantity of biomass on physical properties was also studied.The results reveal that depending on the mineral content of the coal,the physical properties of the briquettes differ noticeably.The comparison of briquettes with and without biomass showed that the presence of the beet pulp increased CS in all types of coal samples.Samples containing beet pulp had better physical properties than sawdust.Mezino Ⅱ coal briquettes had highest CS and WRI than the other ones.Calorific value of biomass/Mezino Ⅱ coal briquettes was lessened in comparison with raw coal,but it remained in an acceptable range.

  7. Combustion characteristics and arsenic retention during co-combustion of agricultural biomass and bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui; Hu, Yunhu

    2016-08-01

    A combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and laboratory-scale circulated fluidized bed combustion experiment was conducted to investigate the thermochemical, kinetic and arsenic retention behavior during co-combustion bituminous coal with typical agricultural biomass. Results shown that ignition performance and thermal reactivity of coal could be enhanced by adding biomass in suitable proportion. Arsenic was enriched in fly ash and associated with fine particles during combustion of coal/biomass blends. The emission of arsenic decreased with increasing proportion of biomass in blends. The retention of arsenic may be attributed to the interaction between arsenic and fly ash components. The positive correlation between calcium content and arsenic concentration in ash suggesting that the arsenic-calcium interaction may be regarded as the primary mechanism for arsenic retention. PMID:27136608

  8. Application of laser microprobe (LAMMA 1000) to "fingerprinting" of coal constituents in bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Hercules, D.M.; Morelli, J.J.; Sellers, G.A.; Mattern, D.; Thompson-Rizer, C. L.; Brown, F.W.; Millay, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    A laser microprobe (LAMMA-1000) microchemical analysis of vitrinites of different morphologies but similar reflectances within the same bituminous coal bed indicates distinct "fingerprint" spectra. The banded form of vitrinite contains Li, Ti, Ba, Sr, F, and Cl which were not detected in the nonbanded vitrinite. These differences may indicate a different plant source or the introduction of these elements from fluids mobilized during diagenesis. The nonbanded vitrinite (called corpocollinite), which was contained in a pyrite coal-ball seed fern permineralization of Myeloxylon, may have been protected from influx of these elements due to entrapment by pyrite during an early peat stage. An ion at M/Z 65, which is characteristic of the banded vitrinite, may indicate C5H5+ and, perhaps a difference in the chemical structure of the two vitrinites. These results demonstrate that "fingerprint" spectra can be obtained from vitrinite macerals by LAMMA and that these "fingerprints" have genetic implications. ?? 1987.

  9. Progress in developing a model for interaction of bituminized waste products with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reported work is part of a study of long-term properties of bituminized waste products. The long-term goal is: - estimating the swelling and degradation of an agglomerate of ion exchange resins and bitumen when submerged in water, - estimating the consequent pressure build-up and degradation of surrounding barriers in the repository. The report describes the first steps in calculating diffusion of water into the heterogeneous medium of ion exchange resins and bitumen and the consequent swelling of the material. Different models for the effective diffusivity are applied and implemented into a new version of the code GEOPATH which then also considers the swelling due to water uptake. Two-dimensional cylindrical geometry is considered. Results from some test calculations are shown. It is concluded that swelling is an important effect which can be handled theoretically if basic data are available. (authors)

  10. Comparative study of test methods for bituminized and other low- and medium-level solidified waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of the behaviour of bituminized or cemented simulated low- or medium-level radioactive waste in contact with water or salt solutions have been investigated. The solubility (approximately 0.5%) and the diffusion coefficient (approximately 5.10-8 cm2/sec) determining transort of water in pure bitumen have been measured for Mexphalte 40/50 at room temperature. A weighing method has been used to study water uptake and swelling of bituminized sodium nitrate, sodium sulphate or cation-exchange resin. The swelling of samples in contact with water was in some cases very pronounced. In strong salt solutions the tendency to swell is much less. The particle size of the embedded waste material is an important parameter. Thermal pre-treatment of cation-exchange resin before bituminization does not seem to improve the quality of the final product. The interaction between bituminized-exchange resin and concrete barrier materials has been studied. Microbial degradation of bitumen and bituminized waste under aerobic conditions has been investigated. It is probably of minor importance as far as leaching is concerned. A method for measuring leaching from a plane surface of cemented waste has been developed. The method avoids the problem of cracks between the sample and the container. Leaching from cemented sodium nitrate or sulphate was investigated. Absorption of CO2 from the atmosphere was found to have only minor effect on Cs- and Na-leaching but gave a pronounced decrease in Ca-leaching. The use of silica-fume as an additive to cemented sodium nitrate decreased the leach rate by a factor 4. (author)

  11. Uraniferous lignites and bituminous clays of the Serres Basin. Pt. A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lignites of the southern area (Christos-Vissiani-Lefkes-Perdikari) and the bituminous clay silts of the northern area (Maramena, Ano Metohi, Chrysopigi) are the main uraniferous beds in the Serres Basin. The sediments of the basin (Upper Miocene to recent) have been stratigraphically divided into three informal unities: the Lefkon, Georgios and Spilia formations. The uraniferous lignites pertaining to the Lefkon limnic-fluvial formation are developed into two discrete horizons, the upper Double Seam and the lower Main Seam. The bituminous clays are of the same age with the lignites, those of Maramena being, however, younger, equivalent to the marine and brackish Georgios formation. The continuity, thickness and dip of the strata reveal considerable regional changes resulting from the intense tectonism of the basin. Further to the surface works the upper lignites have been reached through small excavations and also about 100 boreholes totalling 10,000 m have been drilled. The composition of the organic constituents and the calorific value show a dull transitional to shiny hard lignite with ash rich in pyrite and sulphur. There have been no discrete U minerals detected, while the electron microprobe analysis showed that the uranium is uniformly disseminated into the lignite mass, mainly absorbed through its humic acids. More than 75% of the uranium is extractable, the control of its combustion conditions being, however, a major problem. The potential reserves have been up to date estimated to be of over 4,000 tons (uranium metal), this figure resulting mainly from data evaluated from the borehole γ-ray logs using the computer programmes LOGFILE and LOGPLOT developed at the Radioactive Raw Materials Dept. of the Greek AEC. (author)

  12. Kinetics and equilibrium modeling of uranium(VI) sorption by bituminous shale from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Oil shales are sedimentary rocks containing a polymeric matter in a mineral matrix. • Sorption potential of bituminous shale (BS) for uranium recovery was investigated. • U(VI) sorption increased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature. • Kinetic data were analyzed based on single and two resistance diffusion models. • The results fit well to the McKay equation assuming film and intraparticle diffusion. - Abstract: Sorption of U(VI) onto a bituminous shale (BS) from a nuclear power plant project site in Black Sea region was investigated for potential risk assessment when it releases into the environment with contaminated ground and surface water. The sorption characteristics of the BS for U(VI) recovery were evaluated as a function of contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, pH and temperature. Kinetic results fit better with pseudo-second-order model rather than pseudo-first-order. The possibility of diffusion process was analyzed based on Weber–Morris intra-particle diffusion model. The McKay equation assuming film- and intraparticle diffusion better predicted the data than the Vermeulen approximation presuming surface diffusion. Equilibrium sorption data were modeled according to the Langmuir, Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) and Freundlich isotherm equations. Sorption capacity increased from 0.10 to 0.15 mmol g−1 in 298–318 K temperature range. FT-IR analysis and pH dependent sorption studies conducted in hydroxide and carbonate media revealed that U(VI) species were sorbed in uranyl and its hydroxo forms on the BS. Desorption studies showed that U(VI) leaching with Black Sea water was negligible from the loaded BS. The activation parameters (Ea, ΔH∗ and ΔG∗) estimated from diffusion coefficients indicated the presence of an energy barrier in the sorption system. However, thermodynamic functions derived from sorption equilibrium constants showed that overall sorption process was spontaneous in nature and

  13. Distribution of inorganic and organic substances in the hydrocyclone separated Slovak sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton Zubrik; Slavomir Hredzak; Ludmila Turcaniova; Michal Lovas; Ingo Bergmann; Klaus Dieter Becker; Maria Lukcova; Vladimir Sepelak [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Institute of Geotechnics

    2010-08-15

    A low-rank Slovak sub-bituminous coal from the Handlova deposit was physically treated by washing in a water-only cyclone with the goal to find the separation effect for inorganic (mainly Fe-bearing minerals) and organic substances (humic acids, diterpanes). A high-quality coal product with the ash content in the dry matter of 9.02% and carbon content of C{sup d} = 68.12% at a mass yield of 29.51% was obtained using the water-only cyclone processing. At first, the physically treated coal samples were detailed characterized by XRD, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, FT-IR and HR-TEM. In addition to non-crystalline organic coal components, inorganic compounds belonging to silicate minerals (kaolinite, muscovite and quartz) as well as to Fe-bearing sulphide minerals (pyrite) were identified in the sub-bituminous coal by XRD. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy detected the presence of iron carbonate (siderite), iron-containing clay mineral and two sulphur-containing minerals (pyrite, jarosite) in the untreated coal. On the other hand, only one Fe-bearing mineral, (pyrite) was found in the washed coal. Effect of the physical separation is also demonstrated in FT-IR spectra, where the peak at 1040 cm{sup -1} representing the silicate component in the untreated sample is not detectable in the washed coal sample. Presence of extractive organic substances, i.e. humic acids and tetracyclic diterpane (16a(H)-phyllocladane), in the hydrocyclone products is also evidenced. It was confirmed that the isolated diterpenoic compound is attendant in the washed product with the lowest ash content and it is assimilated with the organic part of coal. Surprisingly, humic acids were found in the highest concentration in the slurry that has the highest content of ash (63.14%). 54 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Inoculum density of Glomus mosseae and growth of onion plants in unsterilized bituminous coal spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of inoculum, density (number of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) propagules g/sup -1/ of inoculum) on the growth of onions (Allium cepa L.) infected by Glomus mosseae (Nicol and Gerd). Gerdemann and Trappe, Comb nov in unsterilized coal spoil containing indigenous VAM fungi, including G. mosseae, was investigated. The amount of onion roots converted to mycorrhizas by inoculant fungus, estimated by a gridline intersect method, increased with inoculum density (..gamma..0.62, P0.05) until a plateau was reached. Onion growth responses also increased significantly (P<0.05) with the amount of VAM inoculum present in the coal spoil. The initial linear relationship between inoculum propagules (MPN estimates), percent colonization of onion roots and onion shoot dry weight became quadratic as the number of infection propagules increased. VAM infection had no significant effect on root:shoot ratios. Similarly there was no significant interaction (P>0.05) between the inoculum density, VAM-colonized root mass and the onion root:shoot fresh weight ratios. The amount of the windswept bituminous coal spoil bound to VAM (presumably because of VAM external hyphae) also increased as inoculum density increased (..gamma..0.63, P<0.05). There was a stronger correlation (ga0.85, P<0.05) between the amount of spoil adhered per plant and the root fresh wt plant/sup -1/ indicating that root effects were primarily responsible for increasing spoil adherence. There were negative correlations (P<0.05) between root fresh wt plant/sup -1/ (..gamma..-0.68), inoculum density (..gamma..-0.589), percent root elngth infected (..gamma..-0.73) and the amount of spoil adhered g/sup -1/ root fresh wt. The possible exploitation of VAM in revegetation of bituminous coal spoil is discussed. 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of the effect of heat-adhesive emulsions for tack coats with shear test from the road research laboratory of Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Miró Recasens, José Rodrigo; Martínez Reguero, Adriana Haydée; Pérez Jiménez, Félix Edmundo

    2006-01-01

    The use of conventional emulsions for tack coats can cause problems as they frequently stick to the tires of construction vehicles. Consequently the bond between the asphalt layers is inadequate. The importance of tack coats in the performance of the pavement means that bituminous emulsions are constantly being improved. Recently, new types of emulsions have been developed from very low penetration bitumen that contains no flux. They are known as “heat-adhesive” emulsions and they are resista...

  16. The effect of petrographical composition of coals and bituminous sediments on the material and isotopic composition of dry natural gases from artificial recoalification reactions. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results indicate that on the basis of the material and isotopic composition of natural gases conclusions can be drawn with regard to the character (humic or bituminous) of the parent rock. Thus, genetic relations assumed to exist between humic sediments (e.g. coal seams) and dry natural gases as well as bituminous rocks and wet natural gases are experimentally confirmed. In addition, from analyses of the materials approximate data can be derived on the degree of carbonization of coal or bituminous sediments in the main phase of gas separation. Furthermore, these analyses were used to elucidate the question whether authochthonous or allochthonous deposits are present. It could be shown that the maceral composition of coals and of the organo-petrographical inclusions in bituminous sediments determines the isotopic composition of methane in recoalification gases to a considerable degree. (author)

  17. Study on the cause of the fire and explosion incident at Bituminization Demonstration Facility of PNC Tokai Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 11, 1997, a fire and explosion incident occurred in Bituminization Demonstration Facility (BDF) at Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). The cause of the incident was thoroughly investigated and after thirty meetings of 'Investigation Committee of Science and Technology Agency (STA)'. STA reported possible cause of this incident. Continually detailed investigation was discussed at 'Follow-up Committee of STA'. Based on the results of five meetings, JNC concluded that the main cause of fire was frictional heating and viscous heating in the extruder, which provided an unusually high temperature in the bituminized product at filling, since there was no chemical analysis data suggesting the generation of chemical heat. It is considered that these excessive heat generations were due to the decreased feed rate of liquid waste to the extruder. The Follow-up Committee almost agreed to this conclusion. This paper describes general information concerning the incident and details of the cause of the incident. (author)

  18. Effect of organic calcium compounds on combustion characteristics of rice husk, sewage sludge, and bituminous coal: thermogravimetric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihui; Duan, Feng; Huang, Yaji

    2015-04-01

    Experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer to assess the enhancement of combustion characteristics of different solid fuels blended with organic calcium compounds (OCCs). Rice husk, sewage sludge, and bituminous coal, and two OCC were used in this study. Effect of different mole ratios of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S ratio) on the combustion characteristics were also investigated. Results indicated that combustion performance indexes for bituminous coal impregnated by OCC were improved, however, an inverse trend was found for sewage sludge because sewage sludge has lower ignition temperature and higher volatile matter content compared to those of OCC. For rice husk, effect of added OCC on the combustion characteristics is not obvious. Different solid fuels show different combustion characteristics with increases of Ca/S ratio. The maximum combustion performance indexes appear at Ca/S ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 for OCC blended with Shenhua coal, rice husk, and sewage sludge, respectively. PMID:25638405

  19. The bituminization in Marcoule and la Hague plants. Description of the processes and the fire risk prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical precipitation is an efficient process to decontaminate liquid effluents and has been selected as early as 1966 for the liquid waste treatment of MARCOULE. The process has been designed by the French CEA and improved along the time. The first implementation in LA HAGUE was for the STE 2 facility (Station de Traitement d'Effluents no 2). A new facility, STE 3, has been commissioned in 1989 in LA HAGUE, benefiting from these previous experience and therefore contributing into a drastic reduction of liquid discharges. The sludges coming from the treatment in MARCOULE and STE 3 are bituminized into continuous extruders. The resulting waste is kept in interim storage, waiting for final disposal. The industrial production, up to now, is close to 10000 drums (55 gallons) in LA HAGUE and 60000 drums in MARCOULE. A retrieval operation of the MARCOULE drums from the present storage has been launched to send them into a recently built interim storage operating since the beginning of 2000. At the present time, in LA HAGUE, evaporation has been preferred to chemical precipitation for the treatment of liquid effluents. After concentration, the effluents go to the vitrification and the volume of resulting waste is much smaller. However, bituminization is still the preferred option for the 10000 m3 of sludges resulting from the STE 2 operations which are being stored in tanks. A complete reevaluation of the operation safety measures of bituminization has been made lately in both plants following recent incidents on other installations. The paper describes the chemical precipitation and the bituminization processes and focuses on safety measures which are implemented for prevention, detection and fight. (authors)

  20. Dye-adsorption capacity of bituminous fly ash and its pozzolanic property after used as dye-adsorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Penpolcharoen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Bituminous fly ash, which is an industrial waste, was used as an adsorbent to remove dyestuff from the textile-dye wastewater. The batch kinetic and isotherm experiments of the synthetic wastewater were firstly conducted to determine the adsorption behavior and optimal conditions for adsorption. The optimal conditions were then applied to the actual textile-dye wastewater. Under the original conditions of fly ash and wastewater, the results indicated that the color could be removed up to 86.6...

  1. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  2. A preliminary investigation into the physical and chemical properties of biomass ashes used as aggregate fillers for bituminous mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melotti, Roberto; Santagata, Ezio; Bassani, Marco; Salvo, Milena; Rizzo, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Fly and bottom ashes are the main by-products arising from the combustion of solid biomass. Since the production of energy from this source is increasing, the processing and disposal of the resulting ashes has become an environmental and economic issue. Such ashes are of interest as a construction material because they are composed of very fine particles similar to fillers normally employed in bituminous and cementitious mixtures. This research investigates the potential use of ash from biomass as filler in bituminous mixtures. The morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of 21 different ashes and two traditional fillers (calcium carbonate and "recovered" plant filler) were evaluated and discussed. Leaching tests, performed in order to quantify the release of pollutants, revealed that five ashes do not comply with the Italian environmental re-use limits. Experimental results show a wide range of values for almost all the investigated properties and a low correlation with biomass type in terms of origin and chemical composition. Furthermore, sieving and milling processes were found to improve the properties of the raw material in terms of grading and sample porosity. The effectiveness of these treatments and the low content of organic matter and harmful fines suggest that most of the biomass ashes investigated may be regarded as potential replacements for natural filler in bituminous mixtures. PMID:23790672

  3. Analysis and modeling of 3D complex modulus tests on hot and warm bituminous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Nguyen Hoang; Sauzéat, Cédric; Di Benedetto, Hervé; González-León, Juan A.; Barreto, Gilles; Nicolaï, Aurélia; Jakubowski, Marc

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the results of laboratory testing of hot and warm bituminous mixtures containing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP). Complex modulus measurements, using the tension-compression test on cylindrical specimens, were conducted to determine linear viscoelastic (LVE) behavior. Sinusoidal cyclic loadings, with strain amplitude of approximately 50ṡ10-6, were applied at several temperatures (from -25 to +45 °C) and frequencies (from 0.03 Hz to 10 Hz). In addition to axial stresses and strains, radial strains were also measured. The complex modulus E ∗ and complex Poisson's ratios ν ∗ were then obtained in two perpendicular directions. Measured values in these two directions do not indicate anisotropy on Poisson's ratio. The time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP) was verified with good approximation in one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) conditions for the same values of shift factor. Experimental results were modeled using the 2S2P1D model previously developed at the University of Lyon/ENTPE. In addition, specific analysis showed that eventual damage created during complex modulus test is very small and is equivalent to the effect of an increase of temperature of about 0.25 °C.

  4. Contribution to physico-chemical study of Timahdit bituminous schists (Morocco): Organic matters and metalloporphyrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Timahdit bituminous schists have been analysed by different methods. The experimental results obtained using these methods concern the behaviour of the schists and the Kerogen facing the pyrolysis, as well as the separation of the hydrocarbons and the metalloporphyrins. For this purpose the techniques used are: 'Rock Eval' pyrolysis, thermogravimetric analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance (E.P.R.) for the raw rock and the Kerogen; infrared (I.R.), gas chromatography and E.P.R. for the extracted organic matters; E.P.R., I.R., nuclear magnetic resonance (N.M.R.), ultraviolet (U.V.) and mass spectrometry for the metalloporphyrins identification and characterization. The analysis of these schists has shown that: We can extract per solvent only 1% of organic matters, ferric oxide hasn't any effect neither on the pyrolysis nor on the organic matters extraction and that the Kerogen of these schists are relatively rich in hydrocarbonic compounds. The gas chromatography reveal the presence of alkanes with odd number of carbons and isoprenoids. All these criteria indicate an immature, little developped organic matter which having probably a marine origin but possessing a good oil potential. It has also been observed that a part of Iron, Nickel and Vanadium in the schists are incorporated into the organic matters. Nickel and Vanadium are into macrocycles which are porphyrins. A method for extracting and separating these porphyrins has been developped. 43 figs., 21 tabs., 58 refs. (author)

  5. Influence of Extrusion Conditions on the Rheological Behavior of Nuclear Bituminized Waste Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, bitumen has been used since four decades as a container material for low/intermediate activity and long lifetime radionuclides. Industrial Bituminized Waste Products (BWP) are produced by continuous extrusion of 60 wt.% bitumen and 40 wt.% salts, in which a very small fraction is radioactive. These incorporated salts are, in majority, of two types: soluble or insoluble. During storage, the organic matrix subjected to irradiation produces gases, which can give rise to BWP swelling in the container and then to a possible overflow. The extent of gas production is directly linked to the degree of dispersion of the salts into the bitumen matrix. To quantify this dispersion, the effect of extrusion operating conditions, such as feed rate and screw speed, have been studied using a laboratory scale co-rotating twin screw extruder. BWP rheological characterization shows the development of a pseudo-solid plateau at low frequency and a change in the linear viscoelastic domain when screw speed and feed rate are varied, indicating a modification of the dispersion state. Samples characterization with environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) confirms in the case of insoluble and soluble salts a change in the number of agglomerates, accompanied by an improvement of the dispersion at high screw speed but less remarkable with the feed rate. A Carreau-Yasuda law with a yield stress is proposed to describe the theological behaviour of these materials. The effects of volume fraction and maximum volume fraction on viscosity are described using a Krieger-Dougherty equation. (authors)

  6. Development of a method to determine the nuclide inventory in bituminized waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until the 1980s, bitumen was used as a conditioning agent for weak to medium radioactive liquid waste. Its use can be ascribed mainly to the properties that indicated that the matrix was optimal. However, fires broke out repeatedly during the conditioning process, so that the method is meanwhile no longer permitted in Germany. There are an estimated 100 waste packages held by the public authorities in Germany that require a supplementary declaration. In contrast to the common matrices, such as for example resins or sludges, there is still no standardized technology for taking samples and subsequently determining the radio-nuclide for bitumen. Aspects, such as the thermoplastic behaviour, make determining the nuclide inventory more difficult in bituminized waste packages. The development of a standardized technology to take samples with a subsequent determination of the radio-nuclide analysis is the objective of a project funded by the BMBF. Known, new methods, specially developed for the project, are examined on inactive bitumen samples and then transferred to active samples. At first non-destructive methods are used. The resulting information forms an important basis to work out and apply destructive strategy for sampling and analysis. Since the project is on-going, this report can only address the development of the sampling process. By developing a sampling system, it will be possible to take samples from an arbitrary selected location of the package across the entire matrix level and thus gain representative analysis material. The process is currently being optimized. (orig.)

  7. Elemental analysis of Indonesian and Australian bituminous coal used at Kapar Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analytical (INAA) technique is used for the determination of thirty elements in five coal samples collected from Kapar power station, imported from Indonesia and Australia. Analyses of the samples are being associated with standards. All irradiation were performed in the nuclear reactor of Malaysia Nuclear Agency (MNA). samples were counted by Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector for short period irradiations at MNA, while for the long period irradiations the samples were counted at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The concentrations of thirty elements have been determined: The major components are Cl, Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Ti, and Na with the mean concentrations in the range between 70±69 ppm-6100±1639 ppm; and the trace elements are Zr, V, Mn, Sc, Cr, Co, As, Br, Rb, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Th, U and Ta with the mean concentrations in the range between 0.1381±0.0202 - 69.0±2.8 ppm. The results have been compared to the reported data of eight coal samples from the United States and the reported data of Australian bituminous coal. (Author)

  8. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2005-11-01

    Prolonged exposure to airborne respirable coal dust is responsible for coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), commonly called black lung. Health research studies have identified that the prevalence and severity of CWP are directly related to both the amount of dust exposure and the coal rank. The amount of airborne respirable dust (ARD) smaller than 10 micrometers generated from breakage of different coals varies widely. To investigate the cause, researchers for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have conducted experiments to identify the causes of airborne respirable dust liberation. Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals from eight mines. The results indicate that the proximate analysis of a coal sample can provide a very good indicator of the potential for a dust problem. For application to the coal mining, processing, and utilization industries, data from 977 US coal seams compiled by the Department of Energy (DoE) has been used to calculate this dust generation potential from an equation based on the NIOSH measured data. A simple procedure for this calculation is provided. 1 fig.

  9. Burnout behaviour of bituminous coals in air-staged combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluger, F.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Process Engineering and Power Plant (IVD)

    2001-07-01

    In order to determine the influence on burnout by the combustion conditions and the coal preparation, three bituminous coals sold on the world market, from three different locations in Poland, South Africa, and Australia, were studied more closely. For this purpose, the coals were ground in two different particle size ranges, which, besides the influence of the combustion conditions, such a temperature, residence time, and stoichiometry, made it possible to also investigate the impact on burnout by the coal preparation. The experiments were carried out in an electrically heated entrained-flow reactor with a thermal input of 8.5 kW. The parameters for the experiments are wall temperature (1000-1350{degree}C), air ratio (0.6-1.15) and two particle sizes (70% {lt} 75 {mu}m, 90% {lt} 75 {mu}m). The results show that in general, for increasing temperatures, the burnout quality will improve. For the Australian Illawara coal, another outcome is increased NOx emissions. Lowering the air ratio in the reduction zone leads to less NOx emission but to increased unburnt matter in ash. For the smaller particle size fraction, the analysis of the different particle sizes shows an improvement of the burnout without a change in NOx emissions. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Development of refilling techniques of LA-type bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In JAEA, 13,296 drums of low-radioactivity bituminized waste products (BWPs) have been stored in asphalt solidification storages. In order to effectively utilize the space of the BWP in a repository site, refilling techniques of the BWP from the drum to a box-shaped container were studied. Tentative processes, which we devised, consisted of (1) take-off of BWP from the drum, (2) separation of a post filling part from BWP and (3) refilling of BWP to a box-shaped container. Two methods for each process were selected, and work efficiencies of the methods were investigated by using a synthetic BWP. (1) Two take-off methods: one was falling down of the BWP from the drum at high temperature such as 100°C and 150°C, and the other was removing the cut drum from the BWP at low temperature. In the former case, it was found that at least 20wt% of the BWP was attached on the container. In the latter case, ca. 100wt% of the BWP was easily recovered by cutting and peeling the drum below 10°C. (2) Two separation methods: one was cutting off the post filling part by using a flat blade, and the other was crushing the post filling part by using a mechanical hammer. In the former case, the BWP could be cut in 2 h, but it was observed that some BWP was attached on the blade. In the latter case, it was found that the post filling part was easily crushed from the BWP below 0°C. (3) Two filling methods: one was filling the softened BWP by heating, and the other was pressure filling. In the both method, filling rates of the BWP were 100wt% and 98.8wt%, respectively. Volume of the BWP after the filling tests increased 6vol% and 2vol% compared to theoretical volume, respectively. (author)

  11. Study on the submicron and micron morphology and the properties of poor bituminous coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei-Fang Fu; Huai-Chun Zhou; Qing-Yan Fang; Hai Yao; Jianrong Qiu; Minghou Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2007-05-15

    Carbon burnout and its reaction mechanism have been widely focused on in the past decades. The properties of burnout, submicron and micron morphology and the reaction mechanism of poor bituminous coal/char (PBC) in a W-shaped power plant boiler was studied and was compared with those in DTF and in TGA, which showed that the degree of PBC burnout in TGA at 1450{sup o}C was greater than or approximately equal to that in a W-shaped boiler, and that the complexity of the reactions among residual char, oxygen and SiO{sub 2} did not seem to result in mass loss in TGA, although the weight percentage of the residual char in ash decreased from 33% ad (air dry basis) at 900{sup o}C to 9% and at 1450{sup o}C. According to the distribution of pores and the properties of the char burnout, the char can be simply categorized into three classes: char burnout easy, char burnout difficult and char burnout very difficult. The differences of the reaction mechanism must be considered while predicting the burning rate and degree of char burnout in a full-scale boiler by making use of experimental results from TGA and DTF. A different char particle contains markedly different amount of carbons, but for a special char particle, the ratio of carbon to ash is generally constant, and an ash shell does not exist on the char surface. The fusion mineral matter composing of C-O-Si-Al is amorphous, not in the form of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} above 1450{sup o}C.

  12. Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-megawatt utility boiler in Taiwan firing bituminous coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Lee, Hsiu-Hsia; Hwang, Jyh-Feng; Chen, Wang

    2010-05-01

    Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-MW tangential-fired utility boiler in Taiwan burning Australian and Chinese bituminous coal blends was investigated. Flue gases were simultaneously sampled at the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) inlet, the SCR outlet, the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, and the stack. Samplings of coal, lime, bottom ash/slag, fly ash, and gypsum slurry were also conducted. Results indicated that flue gases at the inlet to SCR contained a great potion of particle-bound mercury (Hg(p)), 59-92% of the total mercury. Removal of mercury was not observed for the SCR system. However, repartitioning of mercury species across the SCR occurred that significantly increased the portion of elemental mercury (Hg0) to up to 29% and oxidized mercury (Hg2+) to up to 33% in the SCR outlet gas. Overreporting of Hg(p) at the inlet of SCR may cause the observed repartitioning; the high ammonia/nitric oxide circumstance in the SCR unit was also speculated to cause the mercury desorption from ash particles and subsequent reentrance into the gas phase. ESP can remove up to 99% of Hg(p), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) can remove up to 84% of Hg2+. Mercury mass balances were calculated to range between 81 and 127.4%, with an average of 95.7% wherein 56-82% was in ESP fly ash, 8.7-18.6% was retained in the FGD gypsum, and 6.2-26.1% was emitted from the stack. Data presented here suggest that mercury removal can be largely enhanced by increasing the conversion of Hg0 into Hg(p) and Hg2+. PMID:20480850

  13. Development of new non destructive methods for bituminized radioactive waste drums characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste constitute a major issue for the nuclear industry. One of the key points is their characterization to optimize their management: treatment and packaging, orientation towards the suited disposal. This thesis proposes an evaluation method of the low-energy photon attenuation, based on the gamma-ray spectra Compton continuum. Effectively, the 241Am measurement by gamma-ray spectrometry is difficult due to the low energy of its main gamma-ray (59.5 keV). The photon attenuation strongly depends on the bituminous mix composition, which includes very absorbing elements. As the Compton continuum also depends on this absorption, it is possible to link the 59.5 keV line attenuation to the Compton level. Another technique is proposed to characterize uranium thanks to its fluorescence X-rays induced by the gamma emitters already present in the waste. The uranium present in the drums disturbs the neutron measurements and its measurement by self-induced X-ray fluorescence allows to correct this interference. Due to various causes of error, the total uncertainty is around 50 % on the activity of the radioisotope 241Am, corrected by the peak to Compton technique. The same uncertainty is announced on the uranium mass measured by self induced X-ray fluorescence. As a consequence of these promising results, the two methods were included in the industrial project of the 'Marcoule Sorting Unit'. One major advantage is that they do not imply any additional material because they use information already present in the gamma-ray spectra. (author)

  14. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF TEST PROTOCOLS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF MAGNETO-RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FIELD-RESPONSIVE BITUMINOUS BINDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Santagata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-rheological fluids are materials that exhibit a significant change in their rheological properties in the presence of a magnetic field. Because of such a field-dependent behavior, they can act as smart materials in applications in which changeable performances are desired. In road pavement engineering, the use of bitumen-based magneto-rheological fluids may open innovative scenarios related to the construction of smart pavement sections and to the investigation of damage mechanisms in binders and mixtures. The research work presented in this study explored magneto-rheological properties of several field-responsive bituminous binders obtained from two different base bitumens combined with multi-wall carbon nanotubes and powder iron. The experimental program included oscillatory shear loading tests at different temperatures, performed in the strain controlled mode by means of a dynamic shear rheometer equipped with a magneto-rheological device. The investigation was carried out with the specific goal of identifying critical issues which should be taken into account in materials preparation, testing procedures and data analysis. Undesired overheating of specimens during testing was identified and taken into account for a correct interpretation of experimental data. Thus, while the field-sensitivity of carbon nanotubes was found to be negligible as a result of the magnetic shielding action of bitumen, it was shown that powder iron can significantly affect the magneto-rheological properties of bituminous binders when employed in sufficiently high amounts. Moreover, obtained results indicated that selection of base bitumen is a key factor in designing bituminous-based smart materials. Practical implications which derive from the study are mainly relative to the fine-tuning of laboratory characterization procedures which should necessarily overcome current limitations in temperature regulation and magnetic field generation. Experimental data

  16. Assessment of 137Cs and 90Sr leachate rate from bituminous radioactive wastes in surface soil disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental disposal of tested bitumen units with 107 Bq/kg 137Cs and 90Sr specific activity in surface soil was conducted to evaluate environmental impact of bituminized radioactive wastes. Calculations of volume integral were carried out using computer. Due to determination of integral numerical value it was founded, that 1.6x108 Bq enter soil from the unit during 10 years. The obtained value may be used as normalizing parameter at simulation of radionuclide leaching from monolithic forms as well as for correct selection of boundary conditions in dispersion equation at simulation of radioactive contamination migration

  17. Petrographic and Vitrinite Reflectance Analyses of a Suite of High Volatile Bituminous Coal Samples from the United States and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents vitrinite reflectance and detailed organic composition data for nine high volatile bituminous coal samples. These samples were selected to provide a single, internally consistent set of reflectance and composition analyses to facilitate the study of linkages among coal composition, bitumen generation during thermal maturation, and geochemical characteristics of generated hydrocarbons. Understanding these linkages is important for addressing several issues, including: the role of coal as a source rock within a petroleum system, the potential for conversion of coal resources to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and the interactions between coal and carbon dioxide during enhanced coalbed methane recovery and(or) carbon dioxide sequestration in coal beds.

  18. Behaviour of bituminized waste under gamma irradiation. Effect of STE3 decontamination process components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid wastes of light and medium activity are treated by chemical co-precipitation and sludge are mixed with bitumen. Irradiation is responsible of gas production and potential swelling of the embedded. It prevails on limitation of filling of storage containers and activity to 140 Ci. The aim of this work is the study of influence of the components of the decontamination process on the behaviour of bituminous wastes, in order to control swelling and to state radiolysis mechanisms, both for production and storage of wastes. For pure bitumen, mechanism of production of H2 and CH4 are specified. Oxygen consumption, localised on the surface of samples, leads to conversion of aromatic oils and resins to asphaltenes, by a chain reaction mechanism. CO2 et CO are reaction products of gaseous oxygen, respectively with bitumen and light hydrocarbons. The composition of bitumen is slightly modified to heavier and higher polarity products, with parallel hardening. NaNO3, Na2SO4, BaSO4, PPFNi, K2SO4, NiSO4, et diatoms DIT3R et DIC3 have strictly a dilution effect towards gas generation. CoS, above 1% embedded, strongly inhibits production of H2, CH4 and light hydrocarbons. Degradation of bitumen being reduced, a radical mechanism with both radicals H· et R· might exist. Kinetic shows that a bi-radicals mechanism (or more) is probable. In the same way, Raney's nickel induces a important decrease of production of H2, CH4 et C2, with a capacity of 7,7 ml/g. Swelling depends on dimension of sample gas production and dose rate. Solid content and particle size are not determining parameters. Low swelling is obtained for penetrability higher than 70 1/10 mm, This can be realised by addition of a solvent as TBP and by increasing temperature above 40 deg C. Rheological characterizations (oscillation and creeping mode) have not been successful to correlate swelling with a physical parameter. (author)

  19. Mechanical, sorption and transport experiments on a German high volatile bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensterblum, Y.; Krooss, B.M. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal; Massarotto, Paul [Queensland Univ., Brisbane, St Lucia, QLD (Australia). School of Engineering

    2013-08-01

    A high volatile bituminous coal (vitrinite reflectance: 0.93%, carbon content: 83%) from the Prosper-Haniel mine, North Rhine-Westphalia has been studied using a comprehensive set of measurements and experimental procedures at RWTH Aachen University and the University of Queensland. Using the True Triaxial Stress Coal Permeameter (TTSCP) (Massarotto 2003) of the University of Queensland, permeability and gas displacement tests were performed on an 80 mm cube of the Prosper-Haniel coal. Extensive data sets were recorded to assess the effects of stress changes on gas transport and the impact of nitrogen, methane and CO{sub 2} sorption on the mechanical properties. We investigate the permeability coefficients for helium, nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide measured on this sample as a function of net stress. As expected, permeability values decrease with increasing stress. Methane and nitrogen have nearly identical permeability coefficients throughout the entire net stress range, while permeability coefficients measured with helium are higher and those measured with CO{sub 2} significantly lower. During the permeability measurements with CO{sub 2} an anisotropic swelling of the coal cube by about 0.19% to 0.23% was observed. The volumetric effect (swelling) is 100 times slower than gas displacement. Simultaneous mechanical tests indicated a softening of the coal block upon exposure to CO{sub 2}. Thus, a decrease of Young's modulus (YM) of the coal cube during the CO{sub 2} flow test was observed as compared to the methane and nitrogen tests. High-pressure sorption isotherms with CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} were determined on different grain-size fractions of the Prosper-Haniel coal at 318K and different moisture contents. Methane sorption capacity decreases by 29% with increasing moisture content. Also, a decrease of sorption rate was observed with increasing moisture content. While sorption rates are generally faster for CO{sub 2} than for CH{sub 4}, the sorption

  20. Organic geochemistry of Upper Carboniferous bituminous coals and clastic sediments from the Lublin Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Marek R.; Karger, Michał; Gazda, Lucjan; Grafka, Oliwia

    2013-09-01

    Bituminous coals and clastic rocks from the Lublin Formation (Pennsylvanian, Westphalian B) were subjected to detailed biomarker and Rock-Eval analyses. The investigation of aliphatic and aromatic fractions and Rock-Eval Tmax suggests that the Carboniferous deposits attained relatively low levels of thermal maturity, at the end of the microbial processes/initial phase of the oil window. Somewhat higher values of maturity in the clastic sediments were caused by postdiagenetic biodegradation of organic matter. The dominance of the odd carbon-numbered n-alkanes in the range n-C25 to n-C31 , high concentrations of moretanes and a predominance of C 28 and C29 steranes are indicative of a terrigenous origin of the organic matter in the study material. This is supported by the presence of eudesmane, bisabolane, dihydro-ar-curcumene and cadalene, found mainly in the coal samples. In addition, tri- and tetracyclic diterpanes, e. g. 16β(H)-kaurane, 16β(H)-phyllocladane, 16α(H)-kaurane and norisopimarane, were identified, suggesting an admixture of conifer ancestors among the deposited higher plants. Parameters Pr/n-C17 and Rdit in the coal samples show deposition of organic matter from peat swamp environments, with the water levels varying from high (water-logged swamp) to very low (ephemeral swamp). Clastic deposits were accumulated in a flood plain environment with local small ponds/lakes. In pond/lake sediments, apart from the dominant terrigenous organic matter, research also revealed a certain quantity of algal matter, indicated, i.a., by the presence of tricyclic triterpanes C28 and C29 and elevated concentrations of steranes. The Paq parameter can prove to be a useful tool in the identification of organic matter, but the processes of organic matter biodegradation observed in clastic rocks most likely influence the value of the parameter, at the same time lowering the interpretation potential of these compounds. The value of Pr/Ph varies from 0.93 to 5.24 and from 3

  1. Characterization of burning and CO2 gasification of chars from mixtures of Zonguldak (Turkey) and Australian bituminous coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, different mixtures (30 wt.% + 70 wt.% and 50 wt.% + 50 wt.%, respectively) of Zonguldak bituminous coal (Turkey) and an Australian bituminous coal are carbonized to obtain char samples. The ignition temperatures of the samples are determined by sending O2 onto the samples in a system designed for determining the ignition temperature. The gasification reactivity of the chars in a CO2 atmosphere is also measured at temperatures between 800 deg. C and 1050 deg. C. The relationship between the ignition temperature and the burning character of the same samples is investigated thermogravimetrically. The moisture, ash and volatile matter analyses are also performed. An increase in carbonization temperature leads to a decrease in the amount of volatile matter. The differences between the effects of volatile matter on the ignition temperature and the gasification reactivity of the samples with CO2 might be explained by the change in pore structure and the varying catalytic effect of mineral components in the structure. It is also seen that there is a good correlation between the thermal analysis and the complete analysis results of the samples

  2. Single particle ignition and combustion of anthracite, semi-anthracite and bituminous coals in air and simulated oxy-fuel conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Riaza Benito, Juan; Khatami, Reza; Levendis, Yiannis A.; Álvarez González, Lucía; Gil Matellanes, María Victoria; Pevida García, Covadonga; Rubiera González, Fernando; Pis Martínez, José Juan

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental investigation has been conducted on the combustion behavior of single particles (75–150 μm) of four coals of different ranks: anthracite, semi-anthracite, medium-volatile bituminous and high-volatile bituminous. A laboratory-scale transparent laminar-flow drop-tube furnace, electrically-heated to 1400 K, was used to burn the coals. The experiments were performed in different combustion atmospheres: air (21%O2/79%N2) and four simulated dry oxy-fuel conditions: 21%O2/79%CO2, 30%O2...

  3. Morbus Coats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förl, B.; Schmack, I.; Grossniklaus, H.E.; Rohrschneider, K.

    2010-01-01

    Der fortgeschrittene Morbus Coats stellt im Kleinkindalter eine der schwierigsten Differenzialdiagnosen zum Retinoblastom dar. Wir beschreiben die klinischen und histologischen Befunde zweier Jungen im Alter von 9 und 21 Monaten mit einseitiger Leukokorie. Trotz umfassender Diagnostik mittels Narkoseuntersuchung, MRT und Ultraschall konnte ein Retinoblastom nicht sicher ausgeschlossen werden, und es erfolgte eine Enukleation. Histologisch wurde die Diagnose eines Morbus Coats gesichert. Da eine differenzialdiagnostische Abgrenzung zwischen Morbus Coats und Retinoblastom schwierig sein kann, halten wir in zweifelhaften Fällen auch angesichts der eingeschränkten Visusprognose und potenzieller Sekundärkomplikationen beim fortgeschrittenen Morbus Coats eine Enukleation für indiziert. PMID:18299842

  4. Petrography and geochemistry of Oligocene bituminous coal from the Jiu Valley, Petrosani basin (southern Carpathian Mountains), Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Stucker, J.D. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); University of Kentucky Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Morehead, KY, 40351 (United States); Tatu, Calin A. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Immunology, Clinical Laboratory No. 1, Pta. E. Murgu No. 2, RO-1900 Timisoara (Romania); Buia, Grigore [University of Petrosani, Department of Geology, University St. 20, RO-2675 Petrosani (Romania)

    2010-05-01

    Belt samples of Oligocene (Chattian) bituminous coal from 10 underground mines located in the Jiu Valley, Hunedoara County, Petrosani basin, Romania, have been examined and analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, major-, minor- and trace-element chemistry, organic petrography, and vitrinite reflectance. The mineral chemistry and mode of occurrence of trace elements also have been investigated using SEM and electron microprobe techniques. Twenty coal beds occur in the Jiu Valley and most of the samples are from bed no. 3, the most productive bed of the Dilja-Uricani Formation of Oligocene age. The Petrosani basin, oriented SW-NE, is 48-km long, 10-km wide at the eastern part and 2-km wide at the western part. The coal mines are distributed along the center of the valley generally following the Jiu de Vest River. Reflectance measurements indicate that the rank of the coals ranges from high-volatile B to high-volatile A bituminous. Overall, rank decreases from the southwest to the northeast. In bed no. 3, R{sub max} varies from 0.75% in the northeast to 0.93% in the southwest. Although, most Oligocene coals in Romania and adjacent countries are lignite in rank, the Jiu Valley bituminous coals have been affected by regional metamorphism and attending hydrothermal fluids related to the Alpine orogenic event. The coals are all dominated by vitrinite; resinite and funginite are important minor macerals in most of the coals. Pyrite and carbonate generally dominate the mineral assemblages with carbonate more abundant in the northwest. Siderite occurs as nodules and masses within the macerals (generally vitrinite). Dolomite and calcite occur as fracture fillings, plant-cell fillings, and in other authigenic forms. Late-stage fracture fillings are siderite, dolomite, calcite, and ankerite. In one instance, two populations of siderite ({proportional_to} 35 and {proportional_to} 45 wt.% FeO) plus ankerite fill a large fracture. Late-stage pyrite framboid alteration is Ni

  5. Dependence of carbon dioxide sorption on the petrographic composition of bituminous coals from the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Sýkorová, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2011), s. 312-323. ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1146; GA AV ČR IAA300460804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : bituminous coal * sorption capacity * maceral composition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.248, year: 2011

  6. Effect of structural alteration on the macromolecular properties of brown and bituminous coals, quantitative relationships to the hydrogenation reactivity with tetralin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Kuznetsova, L.I. [Inst. of Chemistry and Chemico-Metallurgical Processes, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Bimer, J.; Salbut, P.D. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Warszawa (Poland); Gruber, R. [Univ. de Metz (France)

    1996-12-31

    The mobility of macromolecular network has been found to be the fundamental property of both brown and bituminous coals governing the reactivity for hydrogenation with tetralin. In Kansk-Achinsk brown coal, this was primarily affected by carboxylate cross-linking via polyvalent cations like Ca.

  7. Comparative study of thermal properties of bio-coal from aromatic spent with low rank sub-bituminous coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vineet; Baruah, B P; Khare, Puja

    2013-06-01

    In present investigation, biocoal samples were prepared from aromatic plant waste of two perennial grasses, i.e. Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemongrass) and Vetiveria zizanioides (khus) after oil extraction, root of Rosa damascene (rose), bark of Eucalyptus citriodora. These biocoals were characterized by proximate, ultimate, metal, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and ash analyses. Activation energies, initial temperature of devolatilization, maximum rate of weight loss (Rmax), fouling, slagging and alkali index were determined on the basis of TGA and ash analysis. These biocoals have good calorific values. There is possibility of slagging and fouling in combustion system but it is not severe. Owing to their similar fuel properties as high sulphur sub-bituminous coal, they can be good candidates for co-firing. Blending of these biocoals with high sulphur coals will serve dual purpose as (i) alternate fuel, and (ii) reduction in SO2 emission. PMID:23603187

  8. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. PMID:22944493

  9. Effect of oxidation on the chemical nature and distribution of low-temperature pyrolysis products from bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; MacPhee, J.A.; Vancea, L.; Ciavaglia, L.A.; Nandi, B.N.

    1983-04-01

    Two bituminous coals, a high volatile Eastern Canadian and a medium volatile Western Canadian, were used to investigate the effect of oxidation on yields and chemical composition of gases, liquids and chars produced during coal pyrolysis. Pyrolysis experiments were performed at 500 C using the Fischer assay method. Mild oxidation of coals resulted in a decrease of liquid hydrocarbon yields. Further coal oxidation increased the proportion of aromatic carbon in liquid products as determined by N.M.R. and also increased the content of oxygen in liquid products. The content of oxygen in chars was markedly lower than in corresponding coals. An attempt is made to explain reactions occurring during oxidation and subsequent pyrolysis of coal on the basis of differences in chemical composition of gases, liquids and chars. (19 refs.)

  10. Effect of oxidation on the chemical nature and distribution of low-temperature pyrolysis products from bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Ciavaglia, L.A.; MacPhee, J.A.; Nandi, B.N.; Vancea, L.

    1983-04-01

    Two bituminous coals, a high volatile Eastern Canadian and a medium volatile Western Canadian, were used to investigate the effect of oxidation on yields and chemical composition of gases, liquids and chars produced during coal pyrolysis. Pyrolysis experiments were performed at 500/sup 0/C using the Fischer assay method. Mild oxidation of coals resulted in a decrease of liquid hydrocarbon yields. Further coal oxidation increased the proportion of aromatic carbon in liquid products as determined by n.m.r., and also increased the content of oxygen in liquid products. The content of oxygen in chars was markedly lower than in corresponding coals. An attempt is made to explain reactions occurring during oxidation and subsequent pyrolysis of coal on the basis of differences in chemical composition of gases, liquids and chars.

  11. Sprayed coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, H. D.

    1980-03-01

    Thermal spraying is shown to be an efficient means for the protection of surface areas against elevated temperature, wear, corrosion, hot gas corrosion, and erosion in structural aircraft components. Particularly in jet engines, numerous parts are coated by flame, detonation, or plasma spraying techniques. The applied methods of flame, detonation, and plasma spraying are explained, as well as electric arc spraying. Possibilities for spray coatings which meet aircraft service requirements are discussed, as well as methods for quality control, especially nondestructive test methods. In particular, coating characteristics and properties obtained by different spray methods are described, and special attention is paid to low pressure plasma spraying.

  12. Hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Dan, J.; Boving, H.; Hintermann, H.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many process...

  13. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  14. Bituminous solidification, disposal, transport and burial of spent ion-exchange resins. Part of a coordinated programme on treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project dealing with the incorporation of spent ion-exchange resins into bitumen was performed within the Agency coordinated research programme on treatment of spent ion-exchange resins. Physical and chemical properties of commercial ion-exchange resins, bitumens and bituminized resins were studied. It was shown that bitumen with low oil content and with a softening point of 60-70 deg. C are applicable for the incorporation of resins. The final waste form is allowed to contain maximum 50% resin. The comprehensive study of the biological resistance of B-30 bitumen was performed. That showed that any bacteriological attack can be regarded as generally insignificant. A continuously operating technology was realized on a semi-plant scale. The best operating conditions of this technology were determined. On the basis of the experience gained from the experiments a design of the bituminization plant of 50m3 dry resin/year treatment capacity was proposed

  15. Advances in Interlaboratory Testing and Evaluation of Bituminous Materials State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 206-ATB

    CERN Document Server

    Bahia, Hussain; Canestrari, Francesco; Roche, Chantal; Benedetto, Hervé; Piber, Herald; Sybilski, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    This STAR on asphalt materials presents the achievements of RILEM TC 206 ATB, acquired over many years of interlaboratory tests and international knowledge exchange. It covers experimental aspects of bituminous binder fatigue testing; the background on compaction methods and imaging techniques for characterizing asphalt mixtures including validation of a new imaging software; it focuses on experimental questions and analysis tools regarding mechanical wheel tracking tests, comparing results from different labs and using finite element techniques. Furthermore, long-term rutting prediction and evaluation for an Austrian road are discussed, followed by an extensive analysis and test program on interlayer bond testing of three different test sections which were specifically constructed for this purpose. Finally, the key issue of manufacturing reclaimed hot mix asphalt in the laboratory is studied and recommendations for laboratory ageing of bituminous mixtures are given.

  16. Effect of transesterification degree and post-treatment on the in-service performance of NCO-functionalized vegetable oil bituminous products

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier; Partal López, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The bitumen modification through polyurethane prepolymers presents significant benefits for the manufacture of bituminous products for the paving industry. In this sense, this work explores the use, as bitumen modifier, of a novel reactive prepolymer synthesized by reaction of 4,4´,diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and a vegetable oil-based polyol, castor oil (CO), previously transesterified with pentaerythritol. On the one hand, thermal analysis on transesterified CO revealed a highly stabl...

  17. Evaluation of bituminized waste reactivity; Maitrise de la reactivite thermique lors de l'elaboration d'un conditionnement de dechets radioactifs par le bitume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaro, S.; Moulinier, D. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets (DCC/DESD/SEP), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2000-07-01

    The bituminization process has been used for conditioning low and medium level (LML) radioactive waste, particularly to immobilize coprecipitation slurries and evaporation concentrates generated by effluent treatment. The process consists in mixing bitumen matrix with inactive soluble and slightly soluble salts added to insolubilize the radionuclides or resulting from the neutralization of acid effluents. This operation is performed at a sufficient temperature - depending on waste composition and bitumen grade to ensure the flow of the resulting mixture into metal containers. Exothermicity due to salts/salts or salts/bitumen reactions depending on the type of waste can be induced during or after the mixing step. This could produce an additional heat emission that the drum must be able to release to avoid a potentially incidental pattern with ignition risk, explaining why the CEA has been involved in evaluating the thermal reactivity of bituminized waste and its repercussions on the bituminization process. Given the difficulty of discriminating each exothermal reaction, the characterization of a global reactivity appears as a further precautionary measure, in addition to the definition of a working safety margin. The CEA has accordingly developed studies on this aspect. The article discusses the experimental methodology developed for the determination of the global reactivity. (authors)

  18. Co-combustion of bituminous coal and biomass fuel blends: Thermochemical characterization, potential utilization and environmental advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui

    2016-10-01

    The thermochemical characteristics and gaseous trace pollutant behaviors during co-combustion medium-to-low ash bituminous coal with typical biomass residues (corn stalk and sawdust) were investigated. Lowering of ignition index, burnout temperature and activation energy in the major combustion stage are observed in the coal/biomass blends. The blending proportion of 20% and 30% are regarded as the optimum blends for corn stalk and sawdust, respectively, in according the limitations of heating value, activation energy, flame stability and base/acid ratio. The reductions of gaseous As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) were 4.5%, 7.8%, 6.3%, 9.8%, 9.4% and 17.4%, respectively, when co-combustion coal with 20% corn stalk. The elevated capture of trace elements were found in coal/corn stalk blend, while the coal/sawdust blend has the better PAHs control potential. The reduction mechanisms of gaseous trace pollutants were attributed to the fuel property, ash composition and relative residence time during combustion. PMID:27393832

  19. Utilising neural networks and closed form solutions to determine static creep behaviour and optimal polypropylene amount in bituminous mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Tapkın

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The testing procedure in order to determine the precise mechanical testing results in Marshall design is very time consuming. Also, the physical properties of the asphalt samples are obtained by further calculations. Therefore if the researchers can obtain the stability and flow values of a standard mixture with the help of mechanical testing, the rest of the calculations will just be mathematical manipulations. Determination of mechanical testing parameters such as strain accumulation, creep stiffness, stability, flow and Marshall Quotient of dense bituminous mixtures by utilising artificial neural networks is important in the sense that, cumbersome testing procedures can be avoided with the help of the closed form solutions provided in this study. Marshall specimens, prepared by utilising polypropylene fibers, were tested by universal testing machine carrying out static creep tests to investigate the rutting potential of these mixtures. On the very well trained data basis, artificial neural network analyses were carried out to propose five separate models for mechanical testing properties. The explicit formulation of these five main mechanical testing properties by closed form solutions are presented for further use for researches.

  20. Dye-adsorption capacity of bituminous fly ash and its pozzolanic property after used as dye-adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penpolcharoen, M.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous fly ash, which is an industrial waste, was used as an adsorbent to remove dyestuff from the textile-dye wastewater. The batch kinetic and isotherm experiments of the synthetic wastewater were firstly conducted to determine the adsorption behavior and optimal conditions for adsorption. The optimal conditions were then applied to the actual textile-dye wastewater. Under the original conditions of fly ash and wastewater, the results indicated that the color could be removed up to 86.65% by 12 g of the fly ash /L of the wastewater within 30 min. Its adsorption was described by the Freundlich isotherm. The dye-adsorbed fly ash was further studied on its pozzolanic property in terms of compressive strength by using it as a partial substitute to Portland cement type I to produce mortar. The result revealed that the highest compressive strength was of the sample containing 10% by weight of the dye-adsorbed fly ash in replacement of cement. It possessed 215 kg/cm2 at 28 days, which is 92.67% of the sample containing 10% by weight of the original fly ash in replacement of cement, or 83.33 of the cement mortar. For the environmental concern, leachabilities of lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu and zinc (Zn from all mortars were also carried out. No leaching of the heavy metals from any samples could be detected. Hence, the dye-adsorbed fly ash can be used as an environmental friendly construction material.

  1. Nuclear method for determination of asphalt content corrected for moisture in bituminous mixture. Final report, March 1988-February 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents results of research on the development of a method for determination of asphalt content corrected for moisture using the nuclear-gauge method. The researchers selected an approach that involved rapid drying of the asphalt concrete samples in a microwave oven prior to the determination of asphalt content using a Troxler Model 3241-C nuclear asphalt-content gauge. As a reference, asphalt contents were also measured using quantitative extraction. In general, good agreement was found between asphalt contents measured by the Troxler Model 3241-C nuclear gauge and asphalt contents measured by quantitative extraction. In extended sampling for Plant 1, no significant increase in nuclear gauge error was seen over a 10-day sampling period, which indicates that daily calibration of the nuclear gauge is probably unnecessary to maintain satisfactory performance. The field demonstration of the procedure of drying the bituminous mixture in a microwave oven and then determining its asphalt content by the nuclear method indicated asphalt-content results were obtained approximately 1 hour faster than results obtained by quantitative extraction

  2. JV Task-123 Determination of Trace Element Concentrations at an Eastern Bituminous Coal Plant Employing an SCR and Wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Laudal

    2008-05-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) and with funding from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducting tests to prove that a high level of mercury control (>90%) can be achieved at a power plant burning a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. With funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), DOE, and Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates Program, the EERC completed an additional sampling project to provide data as to the behavior of a number of trace elements across the various pollution control devices, with a special emphasis on the wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Results showed that the concentrations of almost all the elements of interest leaving the stack were very low, and a high percentage of the trace elements were captured in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (for most, >80%). Although, with a few exceptions, the overall mass balances were generally quite good, the mass balances across the wet FGD were more variable. This is most likely a result of some of the concentrations being very low and also the uncertainties in determining flows within a wet FGD.

  3. Applied Technological Direction of Power Plant Ash and Slag Waste Management when Kuznetsk Bituminous Coal is Burned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihach Snejana A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently a lot of power plants have a problem with storage of coal combustion solid by-products (ash and slag. Holding capacity of existing power plants available ash dumps were enlarged and modernized repeatedly. Many plants have two or even three of them. Today new ash dump construction is economically inconvenient due to need to assign new plots of land and their inconveniently big distance from a plant, which increase ash and slag transportation expenses. The goal of our research work is to find promising directions for ash and slag waste mass utilization based on Kuznetsk bituminous coals experimental data on ultimate composition and properties. The experimental research of ash, slag and their mixture samples from ash dumps brought us to conclusion that the most promising direction for these materials application in large quantities is construction industry including road construction. Be-sides, we lined up some other directions for ash, slag, and ash and slag mixture possible application. These directions might not provide mass utilization but they are promising from a point of view of the researched waste properties.

  4. Analysis of moisture susceptibility of different loose coated asphalt mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The durability is one of the significant properties of bituminous paving mixtures. It is shown that moisture damage is one of the primary factors affecting the durability of the mixtures. Moisture damage is basically a combined result of two mechanisms: a) Loss of adhesion between the bitumen and aggregate interface and b) Loss of cohesion in the mixture along with several other factors like the changes in binders, aggregates qualities and something else. The aim of this study is therefore to examine the moisture sensitivity, of different combinations of five different kinds of aggregate quarries/sources and six binder types of different penetration grade and properties, and compare the performance of these combinations between four laboratory tests: Static Immersion Test, Total Water Immersion Test (TWIT) Test, Boiling TWIT Test and Rolling Bottle Test. The tests have been carried out at the Taxila Institute of Transportation Engineering (TITE) to obtain the data for loose coated bituminous paving mixtures. The results show that the combination of Margallah aggregate source and ELVALOY Polymer Modified Bitumen provides best resistance against moisture damage and Rolling Bottle Test is the best test to discriminate between different loose coated Asphalt mixtures, irrespective of time taken by the test. major factors that caused moisture-related problems: adhesive failure, bitumen stripping off the aggregate surface and cohesive failure which is due to the loss of mixture stiffness. Moisture-related problems do not occur without the presence of water and traffic, which provides energy to break the adhesive bonds and cause cohesive failures. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles can also accelerate the distress in the pavement. Since the performance of Asphalt mixtures under the affect of moisture is a very complex issue, various researches have been made to simulate the moisture damage in the past years. Asphalt technologists have carried out many attempts to develop

  5. Effect of asphaltene and resin oils on the viscosity of bituminous petroleum materials to be used as asphalt primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencomo, M. R.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bituminous crude from the Machete, Venezuela, area, which has such a fluid consistency that it falls outside the normal scope of the A5TM D-5 (1 penetration test exceeding the 3D-mm ceiling specified in that standard and can be used as an asphalt primer: Like other asphalt products, these materials are -chemically speaking- a mix of numerous naphthenic, paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds containing sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen and so on. They have a dense and a malthene oil phase which, along with the natural hydrocarbons additives used in these products acts as a volatile fluidizer. The former is described as a mix of asphaltenes: complex high molecular weight substances that are insoluble in paraffinic hydrocarbons and soluble in aromatic compounds such as benzene. The malthene oil phase, in turn, consists in a mix of resins and hydrocarbons and together the two constitute a colloidal system. The experiments discussed in the present paper were conducted to determine the effect of the proportion of asphaltenes and resin oils on the viscosity of such bituminous crude emulsions/ with a view to their use as primers. These experiments were run in a Parr batch reactor in a nitrogen atmosphere using n-heptane as a solvent. The resins were separated after the asphaltenes precipitated from the samples and subsequently from the malthene fraction obtained. The results showed that the asphaltenes account for the structural characteristics and consistency of the medium and the resin oils for its cohesive properties/,the malthene oils act as solvents.Los crudos extrapesados procedentes del área Machete (Venezuela son materiales de consistencia blanda o fluida, por lo que se salen del campo en el que normalmente se aplica el ensayo de penetración a productos asfálticos según el método ASTM D-5 (1, cuyo límite máximo es 30 mm, y pueden ser utilizados como pinturas asfálticas de imprimación. Al igual que otros productos

  6. Functional group and individual maceral chemistry of high volatile bituminous coals from southern Indiana: Controls on coking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The individual maceral chemistries of two Pennsylvanian, high volatile bituminous coals, the Danville Coal Member (Dugger Formation, R o=0.55%) and the Lower Block Coal Member (Brazil Formation, R o=0.56%) of Indiana, were investigated using electron microprobe and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) techniques, with the purpose of understanding differences in their coking behavior. Microprobe results reveal that carbon contents are highest in inertinite and sporinite, followed by desmocollinite and telocollinite. Oxygen and organic nitrogen are most abundant in telocollinite and desmocollinite; sporinite and inertinite contain lesser amounts of these two elements. Organic sulfur contents are highest in sporinite, lowest in inertinite, and intermediate in desmocollinite and telocollinite. Vitrinites within the Danville and Lower Block coals are very similar in elemental composition, while Lower Block inertinites and sporinites have higher carbon, lower oxygen, and sulfur contents which, when combined with the inertinite-and sporinite-rich composition of the Lower Block seam, strongly influences its whole coal chemistry. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry revealed greater aromatic hydrogen in the Lower Block coal, along with higher CH2/CH3 ratios, which suggest that liptinites contribute considerable amounts of long-chain, unbranched aliphatics to the overall kerogen composition of the Lower Block coal. Long-chain, unbranched aliphatics crack at higher temperatures, producing tar and oily byproducts during coking; these may help increase Lower Block plasticity. Electron microprobe and FTIR results indicate that individual maceral chemistries, combined with the maceral composition of the seam, are the primary control of better coking properties of the Lower Block coal. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Processes related to the water uptake by EUROBITUM bituminized radioactive waste: Theoretical considerations and first experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the present Belgian radioactive waste management program, EUROBITUM bituminized radioactive waste will be disposed of in a geologically stable underground clay formation. The Boom Clay is studied as a potential host formation because of its low diffusion and high retention properties towards radionuclides. The presence of the radioactive waste should not disturb these properties. Due to the presence of hygroscopic salts (25 to 30 weight% NaNO3), EUROBITUM will take up pore water which will result in a swelling and possibly in a very high swelling pressure. First scoping calculations suggest that the swelling pressure exerted to Boom Clay should remain below 7 to 8 MPa to avoid the formation of fractures. If the bitumen in EUROBITUM behaved like a perfect semi-permeable membrane and if no swelling were allowed after the dissolution of NaNO3 into a saturated solution of 10.8 M, osmotic pressures of ∼50 MPa could be attained. To better understand the interaction between the swelling EUROBITUM and the host formation, coupled hydro-chemical-mechanical constitutive laws for EUROBITUM have to be developed. To this purpose, water uptake tests under constant volume ('confined') and constant stress ('semi-confined') conditions are being performed. After ∼2 years of hydration of small inactive EUROBITUM samples in constant volume conditions, the swelling pressure has raised to ∼12 MPa. The volume of samples that can swell against counter pressures of 2.2, 3.3, or 4.4 MPa (constant stress tests) increased with ∼5 to 11 volume%, independently of the applied counter pressure. Approximately 10 weight% of the initial NaNO3 content has been leached. (authors)

  8. Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for bitumen and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitumen samples and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria, were analysed for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th employing gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in soil varied from (45.2 ± 5.3) to (484.2 ± 25.9), BDL (below detectable limit) to (27.7 ± 2.1) and (22.8 ± 2.7) to (62.4 ± 6.8) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The corresponding mean values were (240.2 ± 133.5), (13.3 ± 8.0) and (40.0 ± 10.2) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the bitumen were (58.4 ± 36.4), (16.1 ± 13.3) and (32.5 ± 13.1) Bq.kg-1, respectively, for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. The mean absorbed dose and effective dose for the soil samples were (41.5 ± 8.9) nGy.h-1 and (50.7 ± 10.9) μSv.y-1, respectively, while those of the bitumen samples were (29.5 ± 15.6) nGy.h-1 and (36.1 ± 19.1) μSv.y-1, respectively. For radiological hazard assessment, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were determined. The values of the radium equivalent activity and external hazard index obtained for the soil and bitumen samples were lower than the recommended limit. (authors)

  9. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  10. Disposal of bituminized and other low- and medium-level wastes: Waste characterization and the retention of migrating radionuclides by steel corrosion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegalski, Kendra Mylene Foltz

    1998-09-01

    The validity of using scaling factors with the reference nuclide, sp{137}Cs, for activity determinations of sp{238}Pu, sp{239,\\ 240}Pu, and sp{241}Am in low- and medium-level bituminized and unconditioned evaporator concentrates (ECs) produced at Riso National Laboratory (RNL), Denmark was investigated. The presence of constant activity ratios between sp{137}Cs and the Pu isotopes above was predicted because a large part of this waste stream originated from research on irradiated light water reactor fuel. Activity ratios were measured in different waste samples by comparison of gamma-measurements to results from destructive analyses using alpha-spectrometry. Results were verified using activity ratios of spent low-enriched fuel from the literature. Continuation studies on the mechanisms influencing releases from bituminized low- and medium-level wastes were performed by leach tests on samples of various compositions and exposed to diverse environments. Four compositions of bituminized materials were studied including (1) bitumen with NaNOsb3 and BaSOsb4, (2) bitumen with NaNOsb3, BaSOsb4, and Nisb2Fe(CN)sb6, (3) bitumen with NaNOsb3, BaSOsb4, Nisb2Fe(CN)sb6, and K-soap, and (4) bituminized RNL ECs. Leachant solutions used included (1) filtered deionized water, (2) 0.001-N KOH, (3) 0.01-N KOH, and (4) 0.001-N Ca(OH)sb2. One trial was exposed to high-humidity air while two others had a cement disk suspended in the leachant. Some of the resulting data was used for the on-going validation of the SWL (Swelling, Water uptake, and Leaching) code created at RNL. To improve the accuracy of projected releases from radioactive waste disposal systems, the sorption characteristics of steel corrosion products were investigated with a special emphasis on competitive sorption between Sr and Na. The corrosion rate of steel exposed to various environments was studied qualitatively and, with some systems, quantitatively. Traditional and non-traditional adsorption

  11. Progressive oxidation of pyrite in five bituminous coal samples: An As XANES and 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring pyrite commonly contains minor substituted metals and metalloids (As, Se, Hg, Cu, Ni, etc.) that can be released to the environment as a result of its weathering. Arsenic, often the most abundant minor constituent in pyrite, is a sensitive monitor of progressive pyrite oxidation in coal. To test the effect of pyrite composition and environmental parameters on the rate and extent of pyrite oxidation in coal, splits of five bituminous coal samples having differing amounts of pyrite and extents of As substitution in the pyrite, were exposed to a range of simulated weathering conditions over a period of 17 months. Samples investigated include a Springfield coal from Indiana (whole coal pyritic S = 2.13 wt.%; As in pyrite = detection limit (d.l.) to 0.06 wt.%), two Pittsburgh coal samples from West Virginia (pyritic S = 1.32-1.58 wt.%; As in pyrite = d.l. to 0.34 wt.%), and two samples from the Warrior Basin, Alabama (pyritic S = 0.26-0.27 wt.%; As in pyrite = d.l. to 2.72 wt.%). Samples were collected from active mine faces, and expected differences in the concentration of As in pyrite were confirmed by electron microprobe analysis. Experimental weathering conditions in test chambers were maintained as follows: (1) dry Ar atmosphere; (2) dry O2 atmosphere; (3) room atmosphere (relative humidity ∼20-60%); and (4) room atmosphere with samples wetted periodically with double-distilled water. Sample splits were removed after one month, nine months, and 17 months to monitor the extent of As and Fe oxidation using As X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, respectively. Arsenic XANES spectroscopy shows progressive oxidation of pyritic As to arsenate, with wetted samples showing the most rapid oxidation. 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy also shows a much greater proportion of Fe3+ forms (jarosite, Fe3+ sulfate, FeOOH) for samples stored under wet conditions, but much less difference among samples stored

  12. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  13. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  14. Multi-layer coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.; Gonsalves, Peter R.

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed herein are coating materials and methods for applying a top-layer coating that is durable, abrasion resistant, highly transparent, hydrophobic, low-friction, moisture-sealing, anti-soiling, and self-cleaning to an existing conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating. The top coat imparts superior durability performance and new properties to the under-laying conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating without reducing the anti-reflectiveness of the coating. Methods and data for optimizing the relative thickness of the under-layer high temperature anti-reflective coating and the top-layer thickness for optimizing optical performance are also disclosed.

  15. Osmosis-induced water uptake by Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste and pressure development in constant volume conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marieen, A., E-mail: amarien@sckcen.be [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Mokni, N., E-mail: Nadia.mokni@upc.edu [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences, Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Calle Gran Capitan, s/n, Edificio C-1, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Valcke, E. [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Olivella, S. [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences, Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Calle Gran Capitan, s/n, Edificio C-1, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Smets, S. [Waste and Disposal Expert Group, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Li, X., E-mail: xli@sckcen.be [EIG EURIDICE, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The water uptake by Eurobitum is studied to judge the safety of geological disposal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High pressures of up to 20 MPa are measured in constant volume water uptake tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology of leached Eurobitum samples is studied with {mu}CT and ESEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observations are reproduced by an existing CHM formulation for Eurobitum. - Abstract: The chemo-hydro-mechanical (CHM) interaction between swelling Eurobitum radioactive bituminized waste (BW) and Boom Clay is investigated to assess the feasibility of geological disposal for the long-term management of this waste. These so-called compatibility studies include laboratory water uptake tests at Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN, and the development of a coupled CHM formulation for Eurobitum by the International Center for Numerical Methods and Engineering (CIMNE, Polytechnical University of Cataluna, Spain). In the water uptake tests, the osmosis-induced swelling, pressure increase and NaNO{sub 3} leaching of small cylindrical BW samples (diameter 38 mm, height 10 mm) is studied under constant total stress conditions and nearly constant volume conditions; the actual geological disposal conditions should be intermediate between these extremes. Two nearly constant volume tests were stopped after 1036 and 1555 days to characterize the morphology of the hydrated BW samples and to visualize the hydrated part with microfocus X-ray Computer Tomography ({mu}CT) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). In parallel, a coupled CHM formulation is developed that describes chemically and hydraulically coupled flow processes in porous materials with salt crystals, and that incorporates a porosity dependent membrane efficiency, permeability and diffusivity. When Eurobitum BW is hydrated in (nearly) constant volume conditions, the osmosis-induced water uptake results in an increasing pressure to

  16. Dike intrusions into bituminous coal, Illinois Basin: H, C, N, O isotopic responses to rapid and brief heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Gao, L.; Sauer, P.E.; Topalov, K.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike long-term heating in subsiding sedimentary basins, the near-instantaneous thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter near magmatic intrusions is comparable to artificial thermal maturation in the laboratory in terms of short duration and limited extent. This study investigates chemical and H, C, N, O isotopic changes in high volatile bituminous coal near two Illinois dike contacts and compares observed patterns and trends with data from other published studies and from artificial maturation experiments. Our study pioneers in quantifying isotopically exchangeable hydrogen and measuring the D/H (i.e., 2H/1H) ratio of isotopically non-exchangeable organic hydrogen in kerogen near magmatic contacts. Thermal stress in coal caused a reduction of isotopically exchangeable hydrogen in kerogen from 5% to 6% in unaltered coal to 2-3% at contacts, mostly due to elimination of functional groups (e.g., {single bond}OH, {single bond}COOH, {single bond}NH2). In contrast to all previously published data on D/H in thermally matured organic matter, the more mature kerogen near the two dike contacts is D-depleted, which is attributed to (i) thermal elimination of D-enriched functional groups, and (ii) thermal drying of hydrologically isolated coal prior to the onset of cracking reactions, thereby precluding D-transfer from relatively D-enriched water into kerogen. Maxima in organic nitrogen concentration and in the atomic N/C ratio of kerogen at a distance of ???2.5 to ???3.5 m from the thicker dike indicate that reactive N-compounds had been pyrolytically liberated at high temperature closer to the contact, migrated through the coal seam, and recombined with coal kerogen in a zone of lower temperature. The same principle extends to organic carbon, because a strong ??13Ckerogen vs. ??15Nkerogen correlation across 5.5 m of coal adjacent to the thicker dike indicates that coal was functioning as a flow-through reactor along a dynamic thermal gradient facilitating back

  17. Osmosis-induced water uptake by Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste and pressure development in constant volume conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariën, A.; Mokni, N.; Valcke, E.; Olivella, S.; Smets, S.; Li, X.

    2013-01-01

    The chemo-hydro-mechanical (CHM) interaction between swelling Eurobitum radioactive bituminized waste (BW) and Boom Clay is investigated to assess the feasibility of geological disposal for the long-term management of this waste. These so-called compatibility studies include laboratory water uptake tests at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK•CEN, and the development of a coupled CHM formulation for Eurobitum by the International Center for Numerical Methods and Engineering (CIMNE, Polytechnical University of Cataluña, Spain). In the water uptake tests, the osmosis-induced swelling, pressure increase and NaNO3 leaching of small cylindrical BW samples (diameter 38 mm, height 10 mm) is studied under constant total stress conditions and nearly constant volume conditions; the actual geological disposal conditions should be intermediate between these extremes. Two nearly constant volume tests were stopped after 1036 and 1555 days to characterize the morphology of the hydrated BW samples and to visualize the hydrated part with microfocus X-ray Computer Tomography (μCT) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). In parallel, a coupled CHM formulation is developed that describes chemically and hydraulically coupled flow processes in porous materials with salt crystals, and that incorporates a porosity dependent membrane efficiency, permeability and diffusivity. When Eurobitum BW is hydrated in (nearly) constant volume conditions, the osmosis-induced water uptake results in an increasing pressure to values that can be (in theory) as high as 42.8 MPa, being the osmotic pressure of a saturated NaNO3 solution. After about four years of hydration in nearly constant volume water uptake tests, pressures up to 20 MPa are measured. During this hydration period only the outer layers with a thickness of 1-2 mm were hydrated (as derived from μCT and ESEM analyses), and only about 10-20% of the initial NaNO3 content was released by the samples. In the studied test

  18. Dike intrusions into bituminous coal, Illinois Basin: H, C, N, O isotopic responses to rapid and brief heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Mastalerz, Maria; Gao, Ling; Sauer, Peter E.; Topalov, Katarina

    2009-10-01

    Unlike long-term heating in subsiding sedimentary basins, the near-instantaneous thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter near magmatic intrusions is comparable to artificial thermal maturation in the laboratory in terms of short duration and limited extent. This study investigates chemical and H, C, N, O isotopic changes in high volatile bituminous coal near two Illinois dike contacts and compares observed patterns and trends with data from other published studies and from artificial maturation experiments. Our study pioneers in quantifying isotopically exchangeable hydrogen and measuring the D/H (i.e., 2H/ 1H) ratio of isotopically non-exchangeable organic hydrogen in kerogen near magmatic contacts. Thermal stress in coal caused a reduction of isotopically exchangeable hydrogen in kerogen from 5% to 6% in unaltered coal to 2-3% at contacts, mostly due to elimination of functional groups (e.g., sbnd OH, sbnd COOH, sbnd NH 2). In contrast to all previously published data on D/H in thermally matured organic matter, the more mature kerogen near the two dike contacts is D-depleted, which is attributed to (i) thermal elimination of D-enriched functional groups, and (ii) thermal drying of hydrologically isolated coal prior to the onset of cracking reactions, thereby precluding D-transfer from relatively D-enriched water into kerogen. Maxima in organic nitrogen concentration and in the atomic N/C ratio of kerogen at a distance of ˜2.5 to ˜3.5 m from the thicker dike indicate that reactive N-compounds had been pyrolytically liberated at high temperature closer to the contact, migrated through the coal seam, and recombined with coal kerogen in a zone of lower temperature. The same principle extends to organic carbon, because a strong δ13C kerogen vs. δ15N kerogen correlation across 5.5 m of coal adjacent to the thicker dike indicates that coal was functioning as a flow-through reactor along a dynamic thermal gradient facilitating back-reactions between mobile

  19. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  20. Use of a thin-film evaporator for bitumen coating of radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the development in the laboratory of a process for coating evaporation concentrates with bitumen, a technological study of this coating process has been undertaken. The report describes a pilot installation for the bitumen coating of concentrates, which uses a thin-film evaporator LUWA L 150. The first, inactive series of tests was designed to determine the maximum and optimum capacities of the evaporator by varying the amounts of bitumen and of concentrate, the rotor speed and the thermo-fluid temperature. Two rotors were tested, one of conventional type, the other a model especially designed for high viscosity products. The maximum capacity of evaporation of the apparatus is 72 kg/hr for a heating temperature of 221 deg. C. During normal operation, the evaporator can produce 50 kg/hr of coated product containing 55 to 60 per cent of bitumen (Mexphalte 40/50), the water content of the product remaining under 0.5 per cent. A second series of tests will shortly be carried out on this pilot installation using, in particular, bituminous emulsions containing mainly Mexphalte 40/50 and 80/100. (authors)

  1. Spanish Round Robin test on water sensitivity test of bituminous mixtures; Ejercicio espanol interlaboratorios sobre el ensayo de sensibilidad al gua de mezclas bituminosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Saez, R.; Enrique Gabeiras, L.; Miranda Perez, L.; Valor Hernandez, F.

    2011-07-01

    The amendment of Article 542 and 543 on the hot asphalt mixtures included in the Spanish Technical specifications for Road Construction (PG-3), by Circular Order 24/2008, introduced a new series of modification to adapt Spanish regulations to European standards series EN 13108. Among the various amendments, new tests methods and design criteria are considered, as UNE-EN 12697-12 for assessing the water sensitivity on compacted specimens, which is mandatory for every kind of bituminous mixture. In this paper, firstly a comparison between the European method and the old Spanish method described in the NLT-162 is made, explaining the experimental conditions selected. The results of an interlaboratory study or Round Robin Test conducted in ten Spanish laboratories are subsequently described and analyzed, in order to allow each laboratory to assess its technical performance, and also to determine quantitatively the precision of the new method in terms of repeatability and reproducibility. (Author) 15 refs.

  2. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (USA). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

    2008-12-15

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

  3. 纤维沥青混合料的拌和成型工艺研究%Research on Mixing and Shaping Technology of Fiber Bituminous Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程英伟; 何晓鸣

    2012-01-01

    利用正交试验对剑麻纤维沥青混凝土混合料的拌和成型工艺进行研究.在固定配合比的前题下,以拌和方案、沥青加热温度、集料加热温度和成型温度为试验因素,模拟路面施工的各种拌和成型情况设计了L9正交表分别进行马歇尔试验.运用极差分析法对试验结果进行分析,确定了纤维沥青混合料拌和成型的优选方案为“同步法拌和+沥青加热温度为175℃+集料加热温度为206℃+成型温度为165℃”.最后分析了几种试验因素对试验指标的影响机理.%In this paper, mixing and shaping technology of bituminous concrete mixture with sisal fiber is researched by orthogonal experiment. Under a fixed mix proportion, mixing solutions, asphalt heating temperature, aggregate heating temperature and shaping temperature are selected as test factors. The variety of mixing and shaping in pavement construction is simulated by designing a L9 orthogonal table for Marshall tests. Range Analysis Method is used to analyze test results, and then the optimal scheme of mixing and shaping for fiber bituminous concrete mixture is determined. The optimal scheme is "synchronization method of mixing+asphalt heating temperature of 175℃+aggregate heating temperature of 206℃ + shaping temperature of 165℃”. Last, the influence mechanism of test factors on test indicators is analyzed.

  4. European coatings conference - Marine coatings. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This volume contains 13 lectures (manuscripts or powerpoint foils) with the following topics: 1. Impact of containerization on polyurethane and polyurea in marine and protective coatings (Malte Homann); 2. The application of combinatorial/high-throughput methods to the development of marine coatings (Bret Chisholm); 3. Progress and perspectives in the AMBIO (advanced nanostructured surfaces for the control of biofouling) Project (James Callow); 4. Release behaviour due to shear and pull-off of silicone coatings with a thickness gradient (James G. Kohl); 5. New liquid rheology additives for high build marine coatings (Andreas Freytag); 6. Effective corrosion protection with polyaniline, polpyrrole and polythiophene as anticorrosice additives for marine paints (Carlos Aleman); 7. Potential applications of sol gel technology for marine applications (Robert Akid); 8: Performance of biocide-free Antifouling Coatings for leisure boats (Bernd Daehne); 9. Novel biocidefree nanostructured antifouling coatings - can nano do the job? (Corne Rentrop); 10. One component high solids, VOC compliant high durability finish technology (Adrian Andrews); 11. High solid coatings - the hybrid solution (Luca Prezzi); 12. Unique organofunctional silicone resins for environmentally friendly high-performance coatings (Dieter Heldmann); 13. Silicone-alkyd paints for marine applications: from battleship-grey to green (Thomas Easton).

  5. Corrosion inhibiting organic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, E.

    1984-10-16

    A corrosion inhibiting coating comprises a mixture of waxes, petroleum jelly, a hardener and a solvent. In particular, a corrosion inhibiting coating comprises candelilla wax, carnauba wax, microcrystalline waxes, white petrolatum, an oleoresin, lanolin and a solvent.

  6. chemo-Hydro-mechanical modelling of in-situ disposal of a bituminized radioactive waste in boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The current reference solution of the Belgian Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Fissile Materials (ONDRAF/NIRAS) envisages underground disposal of Eurobitum Bituminized radioactive Waste (BW) in a geologically stable clay formation. In Belgium, the Boom Clay, which is a 30 to 35 million years old and ∼100 m thick marine sediment is being studied as a potential host formation because of its favorable properties to limit and delay the migration of the leached radionuclides to the biosphere over extended periods of time. The current disposal concept foresees that several drums (220 litres) of Eurobitum would be grouped in thick-walled cement-based secondary containers, which in turn would be placed in concrete-lined disposal galleries that are excavated at mid-depth in the clay layer. Only 80-90 % of the total volume of the drum is filled with Eurobitum.The remaining voids between the containers would be backfilled with a cement-based material. The interaction between the BW and the host clay formation is a very complicated chemo-hydro-mechanical process and depends not only on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the Boom Clay itself, but also on that of the BW. In fact, the osmosis-induced uptake of water by the dehydrated hygroscopic salts embedded in the waste induces a geo-mechanical perturbation of the host formation, caused by the swelling and the increase of the pressure in and around the waste. The objectives of the Chemo-Hydro-Chemical (CHM) analysis presented in this work are (i) to get insights on the kinetics of water uptake by BW, dissolution of the embedded NaNO3 crystals, solute leaching, and maximum generated pressure under disposal conditions and (ii) to study the stress redistribution due to the recompression of the clay around a gallery caused by the swelling pressure of the bitumen and the admissible swelling pressure for Boom clay. Firstly, a CHM formulation of chemically and

  7. Coatings: Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demands imposed on the coating industry to reduce environmental pollution and energy consumption and to produce high quality coatings in an era where the cost of raw materials increases continuously, have stimulated interest and research in radiation curing methods for coatings. Radiation such as ionising radiation, visible light, infra red and micro waves can be applied. In this article attention is given to electron beam curing and special reference is made to modern wood coating equipment

  8. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  9. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products

  10. Fuel particle coating data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of coating on nuclear fuel particles for the High-Temperature Fuels Technology program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory included process studies for low-density porous and high-density isotropic carbon coats, and for ZrC and ''alloy'' C/ZrC coats. This report documents the data generated by these studies

  11. Ceramic with zircon coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An article comprises a silicon-containing substrate and a zircon coating. The article can comprise a silicon carbide/silicon (SiC/Si) substrate, a zircon (ZrSiO.sub.4) intermediate coating and an external environmental/thermal barrier coating.

  12. Optical Properties of Window Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Window coating used for the building in recent years is described. Important design principles, practical coating materials, and attainable optical properties for research-type coatings are introduced. Discussion is carried out on the spectrally selective coatings, the electrochromic coatings, and the thermochromic coatings.

  13. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  14. Metallic coating of microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates

  15. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen;

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed in...... order to review the current coating baseline. The performance of several material combinations, considering a simple bi-layer, simple multilayer and linear graded multilayer coatings are tested and simulation of the mirror performance considering both the optimized coating design and the coating...

  16. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim;

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this review is to describe some of the important topics related to the use of marine and protective coatings for anticorrosive purposes. In this context, "protective" refers to coatings for containers, offshore constructions, wind turbines, storage tanks, bridges, rail cars......, and petrochemical plants while "marine" refers to coatings for ballast tanks, cargo holds and cargo tanks, decks, and engine rooms on ships. The review aims at providing a thorough picture of state-of-the-art in anticorrosive coatings systems. International and national legislation aiming at reducing...... the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to...

  17. Coated Aerogel Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  18. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  19. Preliminary coating design and coating developments for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland;

    2011-01-01

    We present initial novel coating design for ATHENA. We make use of both simple bilayer coatings of Ir and B4C and more complex constant period multilayer coatings to enhance the effective area and cover the energy range from 0.1 to 10 keV. We also present the coating technology used for these...... designs and present test results from coatings....

  20. Experimental Study on Minimum Ignition Temperature of Bituminous Coal Dust Cloud%烟煤煤尘云最低着火温度实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓军; 屈姣; 王秋红; 谢长春

    2014-01-01

    In this PaPer,study and measurement were carried out on the minimum ignition temPerature of three kinds of bituminous coal dust clouds by using the Godbert-Greenwald heating furnace,including the non-caking coal taken from Dafusi Mine in Binxian County,the gas coal from Kouzi East Mine in Anhui Province and the lean coal from 301 working face of Tianchi Mine in Shanxi Province. It was found out from the exPerimental results that the ash content of the gas coal,non-caking coal and lean coal increased in turn,their volatile content reduced in turn,their fixed carbon content increased in turn,and the water content of the lean coal,gas coal and non-caking coal increased in turn;the minimum ignition temPerature of the three kinds of bituminous coal dust clouds decreased with the reduction of their Particle sizes;based on their minimum ignition temPeratures,it was found out that the hardest ignited coal dust was the lean coal and the easiest ignited coal dust was gas coal. This study can Provide an exPerimental basic for the safe Production in coal mines.%为了研究彬县大佛寺矿不粘煤、安徽口孜东矿气煤、山西天池矿301工作面瘦煤等3种烟煤的煤尘云最低着火温度,实验采用Godbert-Greenwald加热炉对以上3种烟煤的煤尘云最低着火温度进行了测试。研究发现气煤、不粘煤、瘦煤的灰分依次增大,挥发分依次减小,固定碳依次增大,水分随瘦煤、气煤、不粘煤依次增大;这3种烟煤煤尘云的最低着火温度都随煤尘粒径的减小而降低;根据最低着火温度,得知煤尘云被引燃的难易程度依次为瘦煤、不粘煤、气煤。此基础研究可为煤矿的安全生产提供实验依据。

  1. Thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous mixtures at low temperatures. Links between the binder characteristics and the mix properties; Comportement thermomecanique des enrobes bitumeux a basses temperatures: relations entre les proprietes du liant et de l'enrobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olard, F.

    2003-10-01

    This thesis has been realized within the framework of a partnership between the Ecole Nationale des TPE, APPIA and EUROVIA. The company Total has also been associated to this project. The study deals with the thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous materials at low temperatures. The aim is to establish the links between the characteristics of the binder and the properties of bituminous mixes at low temperatures, and to better understand the existing low-temperature parameters and criteria for binders (or to propose new ones), related to the in-situ behavior of bituminous mixtures. A large experimental campaign has been carried out so as to fulfill this goal. After a bibliographical study on the rheology and the thermo-mechanical properties of (pure or modified) binders, putties and mixes, the experimental campaign carried out both in the small strain domain and in the large strain domain, is presented. The low temperature behavior of binders has been evaluated with three common fundamental tests: i)the complex modulus determination, ii)the Bending Beam Rheometer and iii)the tensile strength at a constant strain rate and constant temperatures. A new three point bending test on pre-notched bitumen beams has also been developed at the ENTPE. The low-temperature fracture properties of bitumens were studied at constant temperatures and cross-head speeds considering the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) assumptions. The thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous mixtures has been studied by performing i)complex modulus tests, ii)measurements of the coefficient of thermal dilatation and contraction, iii)tensile tests at constant temperatures and strain rates, and iv)Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Tests. Apart from the determination of some pertinent links between binder and mix properties and discriminating characteristics with regard to the thermal cracking of bituminous mixes at low temperatures, the analysis has also consisted in modeling the behavior of

  2. Biocompatibility of Niobium Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    René Olivares-Navarrete; Jhon Jairo Olaya; Claudia Ramírez; Sandra Elizabeth Rodil

    2011-01-01

    Niobium coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering were evaluated as a possible surface modification for stainless steel (SS) substrates in biomedical implants. The Nb coatings were deposited on 15 mm diameter stainless steel substrates having an average surface roughness of 2 mm. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the coatings three different in vitro tests, using human alveolar bone derived cells, were performed: cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. Stainles...

  3. Oxide coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.

    1995-06-01

    Monolithic SiC heat exchangers and fiber-reinforced SiC-matrix composite heat exchangers and filters are susceptible to corrosion by alkali metals at elevated temperatures. Protective coatings are currently being developed to isolate the SiC materials from the corrodants. Unfortunately, these coatings typically crack and spall when applied to SiC substrates. The purpose of this task is to determine the feasibility of using a compliant material between the protective coating and the substrate. The low-modulus compliant layer could absorb stresses and eliminate cracking and spalling of the protective coatings.

  4. Superhard Nanocomposite Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The recent development in the field of nanocomposite coatings with good mechanical properties is critically reviewed in this paper. The design principle and materials selection for the nanocomposite coatings are introduced. Different methods for the preparation of superhard nanocomposite coatings are described with emphasis on the magnetron sputtering. Based on recent theoretical and experimental results regarding the appearance of superhardness in nanocomposite coating, lattice parameter changes, crystallite size, microstructure and morphology are reviewed in detail. Also emphasized are the mechanical properties (especially on hardness) and the ways by which the properties are derived.

  5. Study of the contribution from gamma dose rate and radon concentration in civilian housing caused by the use of construction material having processing residues from uranium containing bituminous coal in Freital, Saxony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past, widerspread use of residues from processing uranium containing bituminous coal in the former mining region of Freital, Saxony, for construction led to increased concentrations of natural radionuclides in the building material of civilian housing. Measurement of the local dose levels in such housing, analytical characterization of the building material, and model calculations allow for the assessment of the contribution of the material to the total radioactive exposure of residents. (orig.)

  6. Development of a method to determine the nuclide inventory in bituminized waste packages; Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Bestimmung des Nuklidinventars in bituminierten Abfallgebinden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesalic, E.; Kortman, F.; Lierse von Gostomski, C. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Zentrale Technisch-Wissenschaftliche Betriebseinheit Radiochemie Muenchen (RCM)

    2014-01-15

    Until the 1980s, bitumen was used as a conditioning agent for weak to medium radioactive liquid waste. Its use can be ascribed mainly to the properties that indicated that the matrix was optimal. However, fires broke out repeatedly during the conditioning process, so that the method is meanwhile no longer permitted in Germany. There are an estimated 100 waste packages held by the public authorities in Germany that require a supplementary declaration. In contrast to the common matrices, such as for example resins or sludges, there is still no standardized technology for taking samples and subsequently determining the radio-nuclide for bitumen. Aspects, such as the thermoplastic behaviour, make determining the nuclide inventory more difficult in bituminized waste packages. The development of a standardized technology to take samples with a subsequent determination of the radio-nuclide analysis is the objective of a project funded by the BMBF. Known, new methods, specially developed for the project, are examined on inactive bitumen samples and then transferred to active samples. At first non-destructive methods are used. The resulting information forms an important basis to work out and apply destructive strategy for sampling and analysis. Since the project is on-going, this report can only address the development of the sampling process. By developing a sampling system, it will be possible to take samples from an arbitrary selected location of the package across the entire matrix level and thus gain representative analysis material. The process is currently being optimized. (orig.)

  7. Changes in optical properties, chemistry, and micropore and mesopore characteristics of bituminous coal at the contact with dikes in the Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Schimmelmann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in high-volatile bituminous coal (Pennsylvanian) near contacts with two volcanic intrusions in Illinois were investigated with respect to optical properties, coal chemistry, and coal pore structure. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) increases from 0.62% to 5.03% within a distance of 5.5??m from the larger dike, and from 0.63% to 3.71% within 3.3??m from the small dike. Elemental chemistry of the coal shows distinct reductions in hydrogen and nitrogen content close to the intrusions. No trend was observed for total sulfur content, but decreases in sulfate content towards the dikes indicate thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Contact-metamorphism has a dramatic effect on coal porosity, and microporosity in particular. Around the large dike, the micropore volume, after a slight initial increase, progressively decreases from 0.0417??cm3/g in coal situated 4.7??m from the intrusive contact to 0.0126??cm3/g at the contact. Strongly decreasing mesopore and micropore volumes in the altered zone, together with frequent cleat and fracture filling by calcite, indicate deteriorating conditions for both coalbed gas sorption and gas transmissibility. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Innovations in coating technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Sharareh S; Toegel, Stefan; Viernstein, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Despite representing one of the oldest pharmaceutical techniques, coating of dosage forms is still frequently used in pharmaceutical manufacturing. The aims of coating range from simply masking the taste or odour of drugs to the sophisticated controlling of site and rate of drug release. The high expectations for different coating technologies have required great efforts regarding the development of reproducible and controllable production processes. Basically, improvements in coating methods have focused on particle movement, spraying systems, and air and energy transport. Thereby, homogeneous distribution of coating material and increased drying efficiency should be accomplished in order to achieve high end product quality. Moreover, given the claim of the FDA to design the end product quality already during the manufacturing process (Quality by Design), the development of analytical methods for the analysis, management and control of coating processes has attracted special attention during recent years. The present review focuses on recent patents claiming improvements in pharmaceutical coating technology and intends to first familiarize the reader with the available procedures and to subsequently explain the application of different analytical tools. Aiming to structure this comprehensive field, coating technologies are primarily divided into pan and fluidized bed coating methods. Regarding pan coating procedures, pans rotating around inclined, horizontal and vertical axes are reviewed separately. On the other hand, fluidized bed technologies are subdivided into those involving fluidized and spouted beds. Then, continuous processing techniques and improvements in spraying systems are discussed in dedicated chapters. Finally, currently used analytical methods for the understanding and management of coating processes are reviewed in detail in the last section of the review. PMID:19075909

  9. Superhydrophobic silica coating by dip coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herein, we report a simple and low cost method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic coating surface on quartz substrates via sol-gel dip coating method at room temperature. Desired surface chemistry and texture growth for superhydrophobicity developed under double step sol–gel process at room temperature. The resultant superhydrophobic surfaces were characterized by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle (WCA) measurement, differential thermal gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) calorimetry and optical spectrometer. Coating shows the ultra high water contact angle about 168 ± 2° and water sliding angle 3 ± 1° and superoleophilic with petroleum oils. This approach allows a simple strategy for the fabrication process of superhydrophilic–superhydrophobic on same surfaces with high thermal stability of superhydrophobicity up to 560 °C. Thus, durability, special wettability and thermal stability of superhydrophobicity expand their application fields.

  10. Mechanically Invisible Polymer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    phase comprises particles, said particles comprising a filler material and an encapsulating coating of a second polymeric material, wherein the backbones of the first and second polymeric materials are the same. The composition may be used in electroactive polymers (EAPs) in order to obtain mechanically...... invisible polymer coatings....

  11. Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Sharon; Peters, Wanda; Hasegawa, Mark; Hedgeland, Randy; Petro, John; Novo-Gradac, Kevin; Wong, Alfred; Triolo, Jack; Miller, Cory

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a zeolite-based sprayable molecular adsorber coating that has been developed to alleviate the size and weight issues of current ceramic puck-based technology, while providing a configuration that more projects can use to protect against degradation from outgassed materials within a spacecraft, particularly contamination-sensitive instruments. This coating system demonstrates five times the adsorption capacity of previously developed adsorber coating slurries. The molecular adsorber formulation was developed and refined, and a procedure for spray application was developed. Samples were spray-coated and tested for capacity, thermal optical/radiative properties, coating adhesion, and thermal cycling. Work performed during this study indicates that the molecular adsorber formulation can be applied to aluminum, stainless steel, or other metal substrates that can accept silicate-based coatings. The coating can also function as a thermal- control coating. This adsorber will dramatically reduce the mass and volume restrictions, and is less expensive than the currently used molecular adsorber puck design.

  12. HA-Coated Implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Bechtold, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable and long lasting fixation between living bone and the implant surface. In total joint replacements of cementless designs, coatings of calcium phosphates were introduced as a means of...... evaluating bone-implant fixation with HA coatings....

  13. Coating of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, G.F.; Dekker, C.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of highly crystalline graphene and coating said graphene with a layer. Said graphene may have further structures, such as nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons. The coated graphene can be used for biomolecular analysis and modification, such as DNA-sequencing, as

  14. RADIATION-CURABLE COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of radiation-curable coatings as a technology for reducing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from surface coating operations. urvey of the literature was conducted to assess the state of the technology and emissions from radiation...

  15. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has sign

  16. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  17. Charged-particle coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.L.; Crane, J.K.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-08-29

    Advanced target designs require thicker (approx. 300 ..mu..m) coatings and better surface finishes that can be produced with current coating techniques. An advanced coating technique is proposed to provide maximum control of the coating flux and optimum manipulation of the shell during processing. In this scheme a small beam of ions or particles of known incident energy are collided with a levitated spherical mandrel. Precise control of the incident energy and angle of the deposition flux optimizes the control of the coating morphology while controlled rotation and noncontact support of the shell minimizes the possibility of particulate or damage generated defects. Almost infinite variability of the incident energy and material in this process provides increased flexibility of the target designs which can be physically realized.

  18. Modern coating processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Articles collected in this volume explain both the present state of technique and current developments and problems in the environment of the following coating processes: - Hardfacing welding and soldering; - Thermal spraying; - Thin film technique (CVD, PVD); - Galvanising. Apart from basic representation of the conventional use of the different processes, both the new technological and material developments are to the fore. In this context, the purposeful post-treatment of coatings and the combination of different processes to achieve special coating properties should be mentioned. Examples of this show the hot isostatic pressing or laser melting of sprayed coatings, the simultaneous spraying and shot-blasting and the combination of galvanic and thin film techniques for the manufacture of hybrid systems. A further important group of subjects concerns the testing of various coatings. (orig.)

  19. Radiation curable coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a low-toxicity diluent component for radiation curable coating compositions that contain an acrylyl or methacryly oligomer or resin component such as an acrylyl urethane oligomer. The low-toxicity diluent component of this invention is chosen from the group consisting of tetraethlorthosilicate and tetraethoxyethylorthosilicate. When the diluent component is used as described, benefits in addition to viscosity reduction, may be realized. Application characteristics of the uncured coatings composition, such as flowability, leveling, and smoothness are notably improved. Upon curing by exposure to actinic radiation, the coating composition forms a solid, non-tacky surface free of pits, fissures or other irregularities. While there is no readily apparent reactive mechanism by which the orthosilicate becomes chemically bonded to the cured coating, the presence of silicon in the cured coating has been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. 12 drawing

  20. Charged-particle coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced target designs require thicker (approx. 300 μm) coatings and better surface finishes that can be produced with current coating techniques. An advanced coating technique is proposed to provide maximum control of the coating flux and optimum manipulation of the shell during processing. In this scheme a small beam of ions or particles of known incident energy are collided with a levitated spherical mandrel. Precise control of the incident energy and angle of the deposition flux optimizes the control of the coating morphology while controlled rotation and noncontact support of the shell minimizes the possibility of particulate or damage generated defects. Almost infinite variability of the incident energy and material in this process provides increased flexibility of the target designs which can be physically realized

  1. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  2. Fluorine Based Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Brassard

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic coatings, inspired by nature, are an emerging technology. These water repellent coatings can be used as solutions for corrosion, biofouling and even water and air drag reduction applications. In this work, synthesis of monodispersive silica nanoparticles of ~120 nm diameter has been realized via Stöber process and further functionalized using fluoroalkylsilane (FAS-17 molecules to incorporate the fluorinated groups with the silica nanoparticles in an ethanolic solution. The synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles have been spin coated on flat aluminum alloy, silicon and glass substrates. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles with fluorinated groups has been confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR by showing the presence of C-F and Si-O-Si bonds. The water contact angles and surface roughness increase with the number of spin-coated thin films layers. The critical size of ~119 nm renders aluminum surface superhydrophobic with three layers of coating using as-prepared nanoparticle suspended solution. On the other hand, seven layers are required for a 50 vol.% diluted solution to achieve superhydrophobicity. In both the cases, water contact angles were more than 150°, contact angle hysteresis was less than 2° having a critical roughness value of ~0.700 µm. The fluorinated silica nanoparticle coated surfaces are also transparent and can be used as paint additives to obtain transparent coatings.

  3. Anticorrosion diffusion coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of chemical- and heat treatment on corrosion resistance of steels in aqueous solutions of acids, salts and alkalies has been investigated to find a possibility of replacing stainless steel by carbon or low-alloyed steels with diffusion coatings. Data on corrosion resistance of steels with diffusion coatings such as Cr, Cr-Si, Cr-Ti, Cr-Al, Zr-Al, V-Al are presented. The mechanism of fracture of steels with coatings prepared under optimum conditions is studied

  4. Development of new non destructive methods for bituminized radioactive waste drums characterization; Developpement de nouvelles methodes de caracterisation non destructive pour des dechets radioactifs enrobes dans du bitume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, P

    2004-10-15

    Radioactive waste constitute a major issue for the nuclear industry. One of the key points is their characterization to optimize their management: treatment and packaging, orientation towards the suited disposal. This thesis proposes an evaluation method of the low-energy photon attenuation, based on the gamma-ray spectra Compton continuum. Effectively, the {sup 241}Am measurement by gamma-ray spectrometry is difficult due to the low energy of its main gamma-ray (59.5 keV). The photon attenuation strongly depends on the bituminous mix composition, which includes very absorbing elements. As the Compton continuum also depends on this absorption, it is possible to link the 59.5 keV line attenuation to the Compton level. Another technique is proposed to characterize uranium thanks to its fluorescence X-rays induced by the gamma emitters already present in the waste. The uranium present in the drums disturbs the neutron measurements and its measurement by self-induced X-ray fluorescence allows to correct this interference. Due to various causes of error, the total uncertainty is around 50 % on the activity of the radioisotope {sup 241}Am, corrected by the peak to Compton technique. The same uncertainty is announced on the uranium mass measured by self induced X-ray fluorescence. As a consequence of these promising results, the two methods were included in the industrial project of the 'Marcoule Sorting Unit'. One major advantage is that they do not imply any additional material because they use information already present in the gamma-ray spectra. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Campbell

    2008-12-31

    This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

  6. Multilayer optical dielectric coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, John L.

    1990-01-01

    A highly damage resistant, multilayer, optical reflective coating includes alternating layers of doped and undoped dielectric material. The doping levels are low enough that there are no distinct interfaces between the doped and undoped layers so that the coating has properties nearly identical to the undoped material. The coating is fabricated at high temperature with plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques to eliminate defects, reduce energy-absorption sites, and maintain proper chemical stoichiometry. A number of differently-doped layer pairs, each layer having a thickness equal to one-quarter of a predetermined wavelength in the material are combined to form a narrowband reflective coating for a predetermined wavelength. Broadband reflectors are made by using a number of narrowband reflectors, each covering a portion of the broadband.

  7. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  8. Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that deals with the nanostructured superhydrophobic (SH) powders developed at ORNL. This project seeks to (1) improve powder quality; (2) identify binders for plastics, fiberglass, metal (steel being the first priority), wood, and other products such as rubber and shingles; (3) test the coated product for coating quality and durability under operating conditions; and (4) application testing and production of powders in quantity.

  9. Advanced coated particle fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coated particle fuel (cpf) has been developed for use in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, but it may find applications in other types of reactors. In JAERI, besides the development of cpf for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, conceptual studies of the cpf applications in actinide burner reactors and space reactors have been made. The conceptual design studies as well as the research and development of advanced coatings, ZrC and TiN, are reviewed. (author)

  10. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  11. Residual stresses within sprayed coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yi; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou

    2005-01-01

    Some important developments of residual stress researches for coating-based systems were studied. The following topics were included the sources of residual stresses in coatings: error analysis of Stoney's equation in the curvature method used for the measurement of coating residual stress, the modeling of residual stress and some analytical models for predicting the residual stresses in coatings. These topics should provide some important insights for the fail-safe design of the coating-based systems.

  12. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Steven J.; Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  13. Biocompatibility of Niobium Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Olivares-Navarrete

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Niobium coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering were evaluated as a possible surface modification for stainless steel (SS substrates in biomedical implants. The Nb coatings were deposited on 15 mm diameter stainless steel substrates having an average surface roughness of 2 mm. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the coatings three different in vitro tests, using human alveolar bone derived cells, were performed: cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. Stainless steel substrates and tissue culture plastic were also studied, in order to give comparative information. No toxic response was observed for any of the surfaces, indicating that the Nb coatings act as a biocompatible, bioinert material. Cell morphology was also studied by immune-fluorescence and the results confirmed the healthy state of the cells on the Nb surface. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating shows that the film is polycrystalline with a body centered cubic structure. The surface composition and corrosion resistance of both the substrate and the Nb coating were also studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and potentiodynamic tests. Water contact angle measurements showed that the Nb surface is more hydrophobic than the SS substrate.

  14. Coated particle waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes

  15. Coated particle waste form development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes.

  16. White coat, patient gown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellbery, Caroline; Chan, Melissa

    2014-12-01

    Much has been written about the symbolic function of the white coat: its implications of purity, its representation of authority and professionalism, and its role in consolidating a medical hierarchy. By contrast, the medical literature has paid almost no attention to the patient gown. In this article, we argue that in order to understand the full implications of the white coat in the doctor-patient relationship, we must also take into account patients' dress, and even undress. We explore contemporary artistic images of white coat and patient gown in order to reveal the power differential in the doctor-patient relationship. Artistic representations capture some of the cultural ambivalence surrounding the use of the white coat, which confers professional status on its wearer, while undermining his or her personal identity. At the other end of the sartorial spectrum, hospital gowns also strip wearers of their identity, but add to this an experience of vulnerability. Although compelling reasons for continuing to wear the white coat in circumscribed settings persist, physicians should be mindful of its hierarchical implications. Ample room remains for improving patients' privacy and dignity by updating the hospital gown. PMID:24687912

  17. Microbial activity in argillite waste storage cells for the deep geological disposal of French bituminous medium activity long lived nuclear waste: Impact on redox reaction kinetics and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, A.; Leone, L.; Charlet, L.

    2009-04-01

    Micro-organisms are ubiquitous and display remarkable capabilities to adapt and survive in the most extreme environmental conditions. It has been recognized that microorganisms can survive in nuclear waste disposal facilities if the required major (P, N, K) and trace elements, a carbon and energy source as well as water are present. The space constraint is of particular interest as it has been shown that bacteria do not prosper in compacted clay. An evaluation of the different types of French medium and high level waste, in a clay-rich host rock storage environment at a depth between 500 and 600 m, has shown that the bituminous waste is the most likely candidate to accommodate significant microbial activity. The waste consists of a mixture of bitumen (source of bio-available organic matter and H2 as a consequence of its degradation and radiolysis) and nitrates and sulphates kept in a stainless steel container. The assumption, that microbes only have an impact on reaction kinetics needs to be reassessed in the case where nitrates and sulphates are present since both are known not to react at low temperatures without bacterial catalysis. The additional impact of both oxy-anions and their reduced species on redox conditions, radionuclide speciation and mobility gives this evaluation their particular relevance. Storage architecture proposes four primary waste containers positioned into armoured cement over packs and placed with others into the waste storage cell itself composed of a cement mantle enforcing the argillite host rock, the latter being characterized by an excavation damaged zone constricted both in space and in time and a pristine part of 60 m thickness. Bacterial activity within the waste and within the pristine argillite is disregarded because of the low water activity (low mobility of critical RN, • increased retardation of mobile RN in biofilms (i.e. adsorption on microbial cell surfaces and products of possible biomineralization); complexation by

  18. Parametric and dynamic studies of an iron-based 25-kWth coal direct chemical looping unit using sub-bituminous coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Integrated, moving bed chemical looping reactor with iron-oxide based oxygen carrier. • Coal carbon conversion from 84.8% to 99.9%, thermal capacity 7.4 to 27.7 kWth, O2 demand less than 1.3%. • Dynamic temperature of moving bed reducer is established and tracked during coal injection. • CH4 and CO present at initial coal injection, eliminated after oxygen carrier activated. • Lower coal injection had higher volatiles residence time and conversion. - Abstract: The iron-based Coal-Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) combustion process is an alternative to conventional oxy-combustion technologies, where the oxygen used for fuel conversion in the CDCL process is provided by an iron-oxide based oxygen carrier instead of an air separation unit. The iron oxide is reduced using coal in the reducer reactor, producing highly-pure CO2 in the flue gas, and the reduced iron oxide is regenerated in a separate combustor reactor using air. The CDCL process at Ohio State has been developed and demonstrated in a 25 kWth sub-pilot unit, and it is the first chemical looping demonstration unit with a circulating moving bed reactor for solid fuel conversion. To date, the CDCL sub-pilot unit at OSU has been operated for more than 680 h, with a 200-h continuous operation, providing important data on long term operability as well as parametric optimization. This paper discusses recent parametric operational experience with sub-bituminous coal as the fuel, where dynamic changes in variables were performed to observe the effects on the unit itself. Measurements included temperature, pressure, and gas concentrations from the reducer and combustor. Furthermore, effects of different variables, such as flue gas recycle ratios (enhancer gas flow rates), feed port injection, and temperature, were observed. Tests confirmed high coal conversions with high purity of CO2 achieved in the flue gas. Overall, the moving bed design of the reducer results in nearly full coal conversion

  19. Conductive epoxypolyamide coating composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabeau, M.N.; Rohrbacher, F.

    1991-10-01

    This patent describes a conductive coating composition comprising a film forming binder and pigment in a pigment to binder weight ratio of about 15:100 to 100:100. It comprises 40-70% by weight of an amine component having at least two reactive amine groups selected from the group consisting of an amine, polyamide, polyamido amine resin or mixtures thereof; and 30-60% by weight of an epoxy resin having at least two epoxy groups per resin molecule; wherein the pigment comprises an electrically conductive pigment that comprises silica selected from the group consisting of amorphous silica, a silica containing material or silica coated pigment, the silica being in association with a two- dimensional network of antimony-containing tin oxide crystallites in which the antimony content ranges from about 1-30% by weight of the tin oxide and the composition forms a coating having a surface conductivity of at least 100 Ransburg units.

  20. Preparation of hydrophobic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Eric D.; Shah, Pratik B.; Singh, Seema; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2009-02-03

    A method for preparing a hydrophobic coating by preparing a precursor sol comprising a metal alkoxide, a solvent, a basic catalyst, a fluoroalkyl compound and water, depositing the precursor sol as a film onto a surface, such as a substrate or a pipe, heating, the film and exposing the film to a hydrophobic silane compound to form a hydrophobic coating with a contact angle greater than approximately 150.degree.. The contact angle of the film can be controlled by exposure to ultraviolet radiation to reduce the contact angle and subsequent exposure to a hydrophobic silane compound to increase the contact angle.

  1. Bioceramics for implant coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison A Campbell

    2003-11-01

    Early research in this field focused on understanding the biomechanical properties of metal implants, but recent work has turned toward improving the biological properties of these devices. This has led to the introduction of calcium phosphate (CaP bioceramics as a bioactive interface between the bulk metal impart and the surrounding tissue. The first CaP coatings were produced via vapor phase processes, but more recently solution-based and biomimetic methods have emerged. While each approach has its own intrinsic materials and biological properties, in general CaP coatings promise to improve implant biocompatibility and ultimately implant longevity.

  2. Methods and means for coating paper by film coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, Marc; Ter Veer, Arend Berend Cornelis; Vrieling-Smit, Annet; Delnoye, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to the field of paper coating, more in particular to means and methods for providing paper with at least one layer of pigment using film coating to obtain a well printable surface. Provided is a method for preparing coated paper comprising the steps of: a) providing a pigmente

  3. On the oxidation of the dissolved organic matter in Boom clay by NaNO3 and NaNO2 from disposed Eurobitum bituminized waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In Belgium, Boom Clay is studied as a potential host clay formation for the final disposal of EUROBITUM bituminized waste, which consists of 60 wt% hard bitumen (Mexphalt R85/40) and 40 wt% waste. The main salts that are present in the bituminized waste are NaNO3, 20-30 wt%, and CaSO4, 4-6 wt%. After disposal of the waste in the clay, an uptake of pore water by the embedded, dehydrated and hygroscopic salts will lead to a swelling of the waste and to a release of the salts into the Boom Clay. A possible consequence of the salt release is the oxidation of the clay by nitrate and, possibly, nitrite, resulting in a lower reducing capacity of the clay towards redox sensitive radionuclides, which in turn could have an impact on the migration behaviour of these radionuclides. The extent of oxidation of authigenic Boom Clay redox sensitive components, like organic matter and pyrite is studied at the SCK.CEN. As a first step in the study of the influence of nitrate and nitrite on the redoxactive Boom Clay components, we performed batch tests with dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM was exposed to different concentrations of nitrate and nitrite for more than one year in both biotic and abiotic conditions. This paper will discuss the results obtained by exposing DOM to nitrate and nitrite and comparing two methods for the determination of its redox capacity. NaNO3 or NaNO2, previously stored under inert atmosphere to remove all oxygen gas, was added to Boom Clay water collected from a piezometer to obtain final salt concentrations of 0.1 and 0.005 M NaNO3, or 0.05 and 0.005 M NaNO2. Sodium azide, also stored under inert atmosphere, was added (0.2 wt. %) to inhibit the microbial activity in the tests, creating abiotic conditions. All solutions were prepared in an anaerobic glove box. The nitrate and nitrite reduction by DOM was followed by analysing the concentrations of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium in the solutions and of

  4. Thermal relaxation of bituminous coal to improve donation ability of hydrogen radicals in flash pyrolysis; Sekitan kozo kanwa ni yoru suiso radical kyoyo noryoku no kojo wo mezashita netsubunkai mae shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    In terms of coal conversion reaction, the behavior of bituminous coal heated beyond a glass transition point was examined on the basis of pyrolyzed products, and the effect of an increase in proton mobility on promotion of coal decomposition was evaluated. In experiment, after Illinois bituminous coal specimen was heated up to a specific temperature in N2 or He gas flow at a rate of 5K/min, the specimen was directly transferred to a pyrolyzer for instantaneous pyrolysis. As the experimental result, the glass transition temperature of the Illinois coal specimen was calculated to be 589K from a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profile. From the pyrolysis result of the Illinois coal specimen heated up to 623K, the char yield decreased by 3kg as compared with that of the original coal, while the tar yield increased by 4kg up to 27kg per 100kg of the original coal. This tar increase was larger than that of cooled coal. These results suggested that the donation of hydrogen radicals to coal fragments is improved with an increase in proton mobility. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Study of stabilization/solidification processes (of solid porous wastes) based on hydraulic or bituminous binders; Etude des procedes de stabilisation/solidification (des dechets solides poreux) a base de liants hydrauliques ou de liants bitumineux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sing-Teniere, Ch.

    1998-02-01

    The first part of this thesis presents the regulatory framework and the technical context linked with the study of stabilized/solidified wastes and with the evaluation of stabilization/solidification processes. A presentation of the two type of ultimate wastes under study (a used catalyst and an activated charcoal) and an analysis of the processes is given. The second part is devoted to the experimental characterization of both types of porous wastes. The third part deals with the processing of such wastes using an hydraulic binder. The study stresses on both on the stabilization/solidification efficiency of the process and on the conditions of its implementation. The same work is made for a process that uses a bituminous binder. Some choice criteria for the selection of the better process are deduced from the examination of the overall data collected. The waste characterization methodology is applied six times: two times for the raw wastes, two times for the same wastes processed with an hydraulic binder, and two times for the same wastes processed with a bituminous binder. (J.S.)

  6. Optical coatings for fiber lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Dong-mei; ZHU Zhen; YUE Wei

    2005-01-01

    Fiber laser is the future development direction for the high energy lasers. This paper describs two kinds of optical coatings for fiber laser, including long and short wave pass filters. The one characteristic of fiber laser coatings lies in that coatings should separate two closely wavelength light including laser pump wavelength (980 nm) and laser irradiation wavelength(1 050~1 100 nm). At the same time, the coatings should have high laser damage threshold.

  7. Carbon coatings for medical implants

    OpenAIRE

    K. Bakowicz-Mitura; P. Couvrat; I. Kotela; P. Louda; D. Batory; J. Grabarczyk

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper we report in vitro and in vivo results of Nanocrystalline Diamond Coatings whichare used in medicine onto medical implants The very important property of carbon coatings is the protectionliving organism against the metalosis. Different medical implants with complicated shapes are covering byNanocrystalline Diamond Coatings by RF dense plasma CVD.Design/methodology/approach: 1) Material characterizations of deposited coatings have been evaluated by using:Transmission Ele...

  8. Foam coating of filtration media

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Mirva

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to find out if foam coating could be applied to non-woven filtration media. The goal was to increase collection efficiency without significantly decreasing air permeability. In the theoretical part, foams and their characteristics were the centre of attention. Coating in general and, of course, foam coating were also studied. The empirical part consisted of series of foaming experiments and pilot scale coating experiments. In the foaming experiments differ...

  9. Tribological characterization of selected hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Patrik

    2009-01-01

    Hard coatings are often used for protection of tool surfaces due to coating properties like low friction and high wear resistance. Even though many of the hard coatings have been tested for wear, it is important to try new wear test setups to fully understand tribological mechanisms and the potential of hard coatings. Few experiments have been performed with dual-coated systems where the sliding contact surfaces are coated with the same, or different, hard coating. The dual-coated system coul...

  10. TABLET COATING TECHNIQUES: CONCEPTS AND RECENT TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ankit

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tablet coating is a common pharmaceutical technique of applying a thin polymer-based film to a tablet or a granule containing active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs. Solid dosage forms are coated for a number of reasons, the most important of which is controlling the release profiles. The amount of coating on the surface of a tablet is critical to the effectiveness of the oral dosage form. Tablets are usually coated in horizontal rotating pans with the coating solution sprayed onto the free surface of the tablet bed. The advantages of tablet coating are taste masking, odour masking, physical and chemical protection, protects the drug from the gastric environment etc. There are various techniques for tablet coating such as sugar coating, film coating, and enteric coating. Recent trends in pharmaceutical technologies are the development of coating methods which overcomes the various disadvantages associated with solvent based coatings. In these latest technologies coating materials are directly coated onto the surface of solid dosage forms without using any solvent. Various solventless coatings are available such as electrostatic dry coating, magnetically assisted impaction coating, compression coating, hot melt coating, powder coating, and supercritical fluid coating. Supercell Coating Technology is a revolutionary tablet coating that accurately deposits controlled amounts of coating materials on tablets even if they are extremely hygroscopic or friable. Magnetically assisted impaction coating, electrostatic dry coating in solventless coatings, aqueous film coating and Supercell coating technology are also available recent technique of coating. An ideal tablet should be free from any visual defect or functional defect. The advancements and innovations in tablet manufacture have not decreased the problems, often encountered in the production, instead have increased the problems, mainly because of the complexities of tablet presses; and/or the

  11. Niobium coating techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Calatroni, S

    2008-01-01

    We will give a historical overview of the niobium on copper sputtering technology for RF cavities and discuss the main advantages and disadvantages with respect to bulk niobium cavities. Some highlights of the present understanding will be given and some recent developments in the coating technology will be discussed.

  12. Coatings for transport industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof LUKASZKOWICZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations concerned structural analysis, as well as mechanical properties and wear resistant of MeN/DLC double-layer coating deposited by hybrid PVD/PACVD method. In sliding dry friction conditions, after the break-in time, the friction coefficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.03-0.06.

  13. Rheology of Coating Materials and Their Coating Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabsch, C.; Grüner, S.; Otto, F.; Sommer, K.

    2008-07-01

    Lots of particles used in the pharmaceutical and the food industry are coated to protect the core material. But almost no investigations about the coating material behavior do exist. In this study the focus was on the rheological material properties of fat based coating materials. Rotational shear experiments to determine the viscosity of a material were compared to oscillatory shear tests to get information about the vicoelastic behavior of the coating materials. At the liquid state the viscosity and the viscoelastic properties showed a good analogy. The viscoelastic properties of the solid coating materials yielded differences between materials that have the same properties at the liquid state.

  14. Active coatings technologies for tailorable military coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, J. L., III

    2007-04-01

    The main objective of the U.S. Army's Active Coatings Technologies Program is to develop technologies that can be used in combination to tailor coatings for utilization on Army Materiel. The Active Coatings Technologies Program, ACT, is divided into several thrusts, including the Smart Coatings Materiel Program, Munitions Coatings Technologies, Active Sensor packages, Systems Health Monitoring, Novel Technology Development, as well as other advanced technologies. The goal of the ACT Program is to conduct research leading to the development of multiple coatings systems for use on various military platforms, incorporating unique properties such as self repair, selective removal, corrosion resistance, sensing, ability to modify coatings' physical properties, colorizing, and alerting logistics staff when tanks or weaponry require more extensive repair. A partnership between the U.S. Army Corrosion Office at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ along with researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ, Clemson University, SC, University of New Hampshire, NH, and University of Massachusetts (Lowell), MA, are developing the next generation of Smart Coatings Materiel via novel technologies such as nanotechnology, Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS), meta-materials, flexible electronics, electrochromics, electroluminescence, etc. This paper will provide the reader with an overview of the Active Coatings Technologies Program, including an update of the on-going Smart Coatings Materiel Program, its progress thus far, description of the prototype Smart Coatings Systems and research tasks as well as future nanotechnology concepts, and applications for the Department of Defense.

  15. Ceramic coating on ceramic with metallic bond coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishitake, K.; Era, H.; Otsubo, F.; Sonoda, T.

    1997-09-01

    The change in structure and adhesion strength of the interface by heating in air has been investigated for a plasma- sprayed alumina coating on a ceramic substrate with a 50Ni- 50Cr alloy bond coating. A veined structure composed of NiO, NiCr 2O4, and NiAl2O4 oxides grew from the bond coating into cracks or pores in the top coating and the alumina substrate after heating at 1273 K for 20 h in air. The NiAl2O4 spinel may have formed by the oxidization of nickel, which subsequently reacted with the alumina coating or the substrate. The mechanism of the penetration of the spinel oxides into the cracks or pores is not clear. The adhesion strength of the coating is increased to about 15 MPa after heating at 1273 K for 20 h in air, compared to an as- sprayed coating strength of only 1.5 MPa.

  16. Flame-coating method and flame-coating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method and the device of the present invention improve the quality and operation efficiency of coating applied to corner portions of under water reactor structural components of a nuclear reactor. Namely, powders for the flame-coating are provided with ferromagnetic property in a step of forming coating films to underwater structural members by an underwater flame-coating method in a nuclear reactor. A flow of plasma arc can be bent by applying magnetic fields to the flame-coating plasma arc. Accordingly, coatings can be applied to corner portions particularly to pad-weld portions among welded members. Further, the flame-coating can be applied while being conformed to the shape of the place where a surface layer is formed, by controlling the extension of the plasma arc by making the shape of the plasma arc irradiated on the surface of a work rectangular, elliptic or linear. (I.S.)

  17. Infrared optical coatings in SITP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ding-quan; ZHANG Feng-shan

    2005-01-01

    Infrared optical coatings in SITP (Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics) mainly cover the spectrum range from 0.7 μm to 15 μm, and visible and near-UV range are also been included. The coatings are mainly used for metal-reflectance mirrors, Anti-reflection(AR) lens and windows, filters, and dichroic beam splitters. Coatings passed some dependability tests. These optical coated devices usually consist in a remote observing instrument. Most coating materials are commercial products. And one kind of special material PbTe is made by ourselves. Some main results of our research department are reported.

  18. Dust is the dominant source of "heavy metals" to peat moss (Sphagnum fuscum) in the bogs of the Athabasca Bituminous Sands region of northern Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Bicalho, Beatriz; Cuss, Chad W; Duke, M John M; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Steinnes, Eiliv; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Sphagnum fuscum was collected from twenty-five ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca Bituminous Sands (ABS) in northern Alberta (AB) in order to assess the extent of atmospheric contamination by trace elements. As a control, this moss species was also collected at a bog near Utikuma (UTK) in an undeveloped part of AB and 264km SW of the ABS region. For comparison, this moss was also collected in central AB, in the vicinity of the City of Edmonton which is approximately 500km to the south of the ABS region, from the Wagner Wetland which is 22km W of the City, from Seba Beach (ca. 90km W) and from Elk Island National Park (ca. 45km E). All of the moss samples were digested and trace elements concentrations determined using ICP-SMS at a commercial laboratory, with selected samples also analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis at the University of Alberta. The mosses from the ABS region yielded lower concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Tl, and Zn compared to the moss from the Edmonton area. Concentrations of Ni and Mo in the mosses were comparable in these two regions, but V was more abundant in the ABS samples. Compared with the surface vegetation of eight peat cores collected in recent years from British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick, the mean concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in the mosses from the ABS region are generally much lower. In fact, the concentrations of these trace elements in the samples from the ABS region are comparable to the corresponding values in forest moss from remote regions of central and northern Norway. Lithophile element concentrations (Ba, Be, Ga, Ge, Li, Sc, Th, Ti, Zr) explain most of the variation in trace metal concentrations in the moss samples. The mean concentrations of Th and Zr are greatest in the moss samples from the ABS region, reflecting dust inputs to the bogs from open pit mines, aggregate

  19. Graphite coating of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives an account of work conducted on graphite coating of (1) zircaloy fuel tubes for CANDU type power reactors and (2) stainless steel bearing plates for S3F vault structure commissioned at Tarapur for storage of radioactive waste. Graphite has been chosen as a coating material because it is not only an excellent lubricating material but also can withstand severe radiation from nuclear fuel or radioactive waste up to fairly high temperatures. The paper first describes in detail the equipments and experimental procedure standardised to achieve an adherent graphite coating of 5 to 9 μm thickness by using alcohol based suspension of graphite. Graphite coated tubes were evaluated by subjecting it to various destructive and nondestructive testing. Thousands of fuel tubes were coated so far and loaded in RAPP-2 for studying their inpile behaviour. Finally a flowsheet is presented to achieve the graphite coating on fuel tubes as per specifications. The second part of the paper deals with the various techniques examined to obtain the graphite coating on 450 mm square stainless steel plates with alcohol based graphite suspension. An unique spray coating procedure involving both graphite suspension and lacquor was evolved for carrying out the coating operation at site. Co-efficient of friction between graphite coated SS plates was found to be as low as 6.77 per cent. A batch of 280 SS bearing plates were coated with graphite and utilised for commissioning the vault structure at Tarapur. (author). 5 figures

  20. Methods for Coating Particulate Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  1. BIODEGRADABLE COATING FROM AGATHIS ALBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORYAWATI MULYONO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The adhesive property of copal makes it as a potential coating onto aluminum foil to replace polyethylene. This research aimed to develop copal-based coating. The coating was prepared by extracting the copal in ethyl acetate and dipping the aluminium foil in ethyl acetate soluble extract of copal. The characterization of coating included its thickness, weight, thermal and chemical resistance, and biodegradation. The results showed that the coating thickness and weight increased as the copal concentration and dipping frequency increased. Thermal resistance test showed that the coating melted after being heated at 110°C for 30 min. Copal-based coating wasresistant to acidic solution (pH 4.0, water, and coconut oil, but was deteriorated in detergent 1% (w/v and basic solution (pH 10.0. Biodegradability test using Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed weight reduction of 76.82% in 30 days.

  2. QUALITY IN METALLIZED COATING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Eker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalized coating is attained by atomizing the coating metal by melting with proper gas (propane, acetylene or others and oxygen compound and then spraying it with compressed air all over the surface to be coated. Metallization in the application is the process of vaporization of the needed metal with tungsten in vacuumed media. This system among the PVD Coating groups is known as Evaporation Coating all through the world. Although the very fine metal layer that condenses over the product to be coated varies from sector to sector; it is generally used with aesthetic and decorative aims. The surface of the part to be coated is cleaned off the effects such as dirt, dust and oils etc. this cleaning method varies according to the size, shape and material of the piece to be coated. Surface cleaning before coating is very important in the sense of coating life, quality and strength. Otherwise, expected yield cannot be attained from the metalized and corrosion start can be observed shortly due to remnants on the places which are not thoroughly cleaned. Since metallization is a vaporization method; it is ionized by melting on all places which are in high-vacuumed. But there occurs an adsorption problem on some plastic types, therefore a smooth coating is attained applying an adherence through interlayer on these products before coating or with corona application. In food packaging sector metalized coated products are used because of their barrier feature towards light, water vapor, oxygen and other gases. This method of packaging is widely used in such kinds of sectors due to being most economical in packaging sector. For example; food packaging sector which holds a great place in flexible packaging group uses metalized coating system due to their barrier feature of metalized film with the aim of preventing oxidation of food products, decreasing the need of protective addition agent and extending the shell-life. Moreover cosmetic packaging group and

  3. Coat proteins isolated from clathrin coated vesicles can assemble into coated pits

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Isolated human fibroblast plasma membranes that were attached by their extracellular surface to a solid substratum contained numerous clathrin coated pits that could be removed with a high pH buffer (Moore, M.S., D.T. Mahaffey, F.M. Brodsky, and R.G.W. Anderson. 1987. Science [Wash. DC]. 236:558-563). When these membranes were incubated with coat proteins extracted from purified bovine coated vesicles, new coated pits formed that were indistinguishable from native coated pits. Assembly was de...

  4. Superelastic Orthopedic Implant Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Eric; Devaney, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Kramer, Joshua; El Khaja, Ragheb; Fonte, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    The demand for hip and knee replacement surgery is substantial and growing. Unfortunately, most joint replacement surgeries will fail within 10-25 years, thereby requiring an arduous, painful, and expensive revision surgery. To address this issue, a novel orthopedic implant coating material ("eXalt") has been developed. eXalt is comprised of super elastic nitinol wire that is knit into a three-dimensional spacer fabric structure. eXalt expands in vivo to conform to the implantation site and is porous to allow for bone ingrowth. The safety and efficacy of eXalt were evaluated through structural analysis, mechanical testing, and a rabbit implantation model. The results demonstrate that eXalt meets or exceeds the performance of current coating technologies with reduced micromotion, improved osseointegration, and stronger implant fixation in vivo.

  5. Acrylic purification and coatings

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Radon (Rn) and its decay daughters are a well-known source of background in direct WIMP detection experiments, as either a Rn decay daughter or an alpha particle emitted from a thin inner surface layer of a detector could produce a WIMP-like signal. Different surface treatment and cleaning techniques have been employed in the past to remove this type of contamination. A new method of dealing with the problem has been proposed and used for a prototype acrylic DEAP-1 detector. Inner surfaces of the detector were coated with a layer of ultra pure acrylic, meant to shield the active volume from alphas and recoiling nuclei. An acrylic purification technique and two coating techniques are described: a solvent-borne (tested on DEAP-1) and solvent-less (being developed for the full scale DEAP-3600 detector).

  6. Thermal barrier coating materials

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, David R.; Simon R. Phillpot

    2005-01-01

    Improved thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) will enable future gas turbines to operate at higher gas temperatures. Considerable effort is being invested, therefore, in identifying new materials with even better performance than the current industry standard, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). We review recent progress and suggest that an integrated strategy of experiment, intuitive arguments based on crystallography, and simulation may lead most rapidly to the development of new TBC materials.

  7. New casting coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project the results of the researches about the influence of the four types of ceramic coatings of the evaporating patterns (on the basis of talc, mullite, zircon and cordierite) on the talc of the Lost Foam process and the castings quality are presented. For the valid evaluation of the results, some parallel examinations of the quality of castings obtained by casting in sand were carried out. (Original)

  8. Environmentally regulated aerospace coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Virginia L.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace coatings represent a complex technology which must meet stringent performance requirements in the protection of aerospace vehicles. Topcoats and primers are used, primarily, to protect the structural elements of the air vehicle from exposure to and subsequent degradation by environmental elements. There are also many coatings which perform special functions, i.e., chafing resistance, rain erosion resistance, radiation and electric effects, fuel tank coatings, maskants, wire and fastener coatings. The scheduled promulgation of federal environmental regulations for aerospace manufacture and rework materials and processes will regulate the emissions of photochemically reactive precursors to smog and air toxics. Aerospace organizations will be required to identify, qualify and implement less polluting materials. The elimination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) and implementation of pollution prevention requirements are added constraints which must be addressed concurrently. The broad categories of operations affected are the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and repair of military, commercial, general aviation, and space vehicles. The federal aerospace regulations were developed around the precept that technology had to be available to support the reduction of organic and air toxic emissions, i.e., the regulations cannot be technology forcing. In many cases, the regulations which are currently in effect in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), located in Southern California, were used as the baseline for the federal regulations. This paper addresses strategies used by Southern California aerospace organizations to cope with these regulatory impacts on aerospace productions programs. All of these regulatory changes are scheduled for implementation in 1993 and 1994, with varying compliance dates established.

  9. Biomimetic implant coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, E; Velten, D; Breme, J

    2007-02-01

    Biomaterials and tissue engineering technologies are becoming increasingly important in biomedical practice, particularly as the population ages. Cellular responses depend on topographical properties of the biomaterial at the nanometer scale. Structures on biomaterial surfaces are used as powerful tools to influence or even control interactions between implants and the biological system [; ]. The influence of nanometer sized surface structures on osteoblastlike cell interactions was tested with niobium oxide coatings on polished titanium slices (cp-Ti grade 2). The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of nanoscopic surface structures on osteoblast interactions in order to support collagen I production and cell adhesion. The coatings were done by means of the sol-gel process. The surface structure was adjusted by annealing of the metaloxide ceramic coatings due to temperature depended crystal growth. The applied annealing temperatures were 450, 550 and 700 degrees C for 1 h, corresponding to Ra-numbers of 7, 15 and 40 nm. The surfaces were characterized by means of AFM, DTA/TG, diffractometry and white light interferometry. The cell reactions were investigated concerning adhesion kinetics, migration, spreading, cell adhesion, and collagen I synthesis. The smooth surface (Ra=7 nm) resulted in the fastest cell anchorage and cell migration. The closest cell adhesion was reached with the surface structure of Ra=15 nm. The roughest surface (Ra=40 nm) impedes the cell migration as well as a proper spreading of the cells. The best results concerning cell adhesion and spreading was reached with an intermediate surface roughness of Ra=15 nm of the niobium oxide coating on cp-titanium slices. PMID:16828342

  10. Anti-Corrosion Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    SuperSpan RM 8000 is an anti-corrosion coating which effectively counteracts acid degradation, abrasive wear, and cracking in power industry facilities. It was developed by RM Industrial Products Company, Inc. with NERAC assistance. It had previously been necessary to shut down plants to repair or replace corroded duct-work in coal burning utilities. NASA-developed technology was especially useful in areas relating to thermoconductivity of carbon steel and the bonding characteristics of polymers. The product has sold well.

  11. Edison's vacuum coating patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the over one thousand patents bearing Thomas A. Edison's name are several for vacuum coating processes including chemical vapor deposition, evaporation, and sputter deposition. Beginning in 1880 Edison applied for patents that described carbon deposition processes that would now be called pyrolytic chemical vapor deposition. In 1884 Edison applied for a patent (granted in 1894) that described coating by evaporation in a vacuum by direct resistance heating or arc heating using a continuous current. Edison called the process 'electro vacuous deposition'. He prophetically wrote, 'the uses of the invention are almost infinite'. Edison also employed sputter deposition and in 1900 applied for a patent on a 'Process of Coating Phonograph Records'. Issued in 1902, the patent describes using a 'silent or brush electrical discharge' produced by an induction coil. The National Phonograph Company, one of Edison's many enterprises, used the sputtering process to deposit a thin layer of gold on wax phonograph cylinder masters that could then be electroplated to form molds to mass produce celluloid duplicates. The method was used for 20 years, from 1901 to 1921. It enabled the reproduction of cylinder grooves less than 0.001 in. deep at a density of 200 grooves per in. From 1913 to 1921, 10-in.-diameter Edison Diamond Disc phonograph records were made using the same method. Sputtering was abandoned in 1927, as it could not be scaled up to produce the 12 in. disks that were then introduced

  12. for zeolite coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Rambo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotemplating is the processing of microcellular ceramics by reproduction of natural morphologies, where the microstructural features of the biotemplate are maintained in the biomorphic ceramic. Different biotemplates with distinct pore anatomies were used to produce biomorphic supports for the zeolite coating: wood, cardboard, sea-sponge and sisal. The biomorphic ceramics were produced by distinguished processing routes: Al-gas infiltration-reaction, liquid-metal infiltration, dip-coating and sol-gel synthesis, in order to produce nitrides, carbides and oxides, depending on the processing conditions. The zeolite coating was performed by hydrothermal growth of MFI-type (Silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 zeolite crystals onto the internal pore walls of the biomorphic templates. The final biomorphic ceramic-zeolite composites were physically characterized, evaluated in terms of their gas adsorption capabilities and correlated to their microstructure and specific pore anatomy. The combination of the properties of the biomorphic ceramics with the adsorption properties of zeolites results in materials with distinct properties as potential candidates for adsorption and catalytic applications due to their characteristic porosity, molecular sieving capabilities and high thermo-mechanical strength.

  13. Surface coating of plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam hardening technology has been used mainly for the cross-linking reaction of plastic materials, but recently attention has been paid to the easiness of handling due to the reduction of equipment size and as the countermeasures for preventing atmospheric pollution caused by solvent type paints, Particularly the authors notices the excellent surface properties of electron beam-hardened coatings themselves, and advanced the research and development as one means to give functions to plastic films. In this paper, the transcription foil films having hardness and blur-preventing films are reported. The transcription process for the transcription foils on which hard coating is applied beforehand is shown. The electron beam hardening hard coating was provided next to a supporting film, and its material was polymer or oligomer/polyfunctional monomer/additive. As a primer layer, acrylic polymer was used. The procedure of making transcription foils is explained, and it is important to form uniform, smooth films. If the formation of water drops on surfaces can be prevented, blur does not arise. By heightening the hydrophilicity of material surfaces with electron beam, it may be done. By the selection of the irradiation amount of electron beam and materials, the balance must be maintained. (K.I.)

  14. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor L.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Maghsoodi, Sina; Colson, Thomas E.; Yang, Yu S.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.

    2016-04-19

    Disclosed is a coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly, systems and methods for curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using high temperature air-knives, infrared emitters and direct heat applicators are disclosed.

  15. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Brenor L; Maghsoodi, Sina; Neyman, Patrick J; Gonsalves, Peter R; Hirsch, Jeffrey G; Yang, Yu S

    2015-02-24

    Disclosed are coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly systems and methods for skin curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using a high temperature air-knife are disclosed.

  16. High-temperature protective coatings on superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培生; 梁开明; 周宏余

    2002-01-01

    Protective coatings are essential for superalloys to serve as blades of gas turb ines at high temperatures, and they primarily include aluminide coating, MCrAlY overlay coating, thermal barrier coating and microcrystalline coating. In this paper, all these high-temperature coatings are reviewed as well as their preparing techniques. Based on the most application and the main failure way, the importance is then presented for further deepgoing study on the high-temperature oxidation law of aluminide coatings.

  17. Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating and Molecular Adsorber Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kenneth M.; Abraham, Nithin S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed two unique coating formulations that will keep surfaces clean and sanitary and contain contaminants.The Lotus Dust Mitigation Coating, modeled after the self-cleaning, water-repellant lotus leaf, disallows buildup of dust, dirt, water, and more on surfaces. This coating, has been successfully tested on painted, aluminum, glass, silica, and some composite surfaces, could aid in keeping medical assets clean.The Molecular Adsorber Coating is a zeolite-based, sprayable molecular adsorber coating, designed to prevent outgassing in materials in vacuums. The coating works well to adsorb volatiles and contaminates in manufacturing and processing, such as in pharmaceutical production. The addition of a biocide would also aid in controlling bacteria levels.

  18. Dense protective coatings, methods for their preparation and coated articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulyani, Sonia; Bhatia, Tania; Smeggil, John G.

    2015-12-29

    A method for depositing a protective coating on a complex shaped substrate includes the steps of: (1) dipping a complex shaped substrate into a slurry to form a base coat thereon, the slurry comprising an aqueous solution, at least one refractory metal oxide, and at least one transient fluid additive present in an amount of about 0.1 percent to 10 percent by weight of the slurry; (2) curing the dipped substrate; (3) dipping the substrate into a precursor solution to form a top barrier coat thereon; and (4) heat treating the dipped, cured substrate to form a protective coating.

  19. Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposite Bond Coat or Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation addresses the problem of coatings (meant to reduce gas permeation) applied to polymer matrix composites spalling off in service due to incompatibility with the polymer matrix. A bond coat/coating has been created that uses chemically functionalized nanoparticles (either clay or graphene) to create a barrier film that bonds well to the matrix resin, and provides an outstanding barrier to gas permeation. There is interest in applying clay nanoparticles as a coating/bond coat to a polymer matrix composite. Often, nanoclays are chemically functionalized with an organic compound intended to facilitate dispersion of the clay in a matrix. That organic modifier generally degrades at the processing temperature of many high-temperature polymers, rendering the clay useless as a nano-additive to high-temperature polymers. However, this innovation includes the use of organic compounds compatible with hightemperature polymer matrix, and is suitable for nanoclay functionalization, the preparation of that clay into a coating/bondcoat for high-temperature polymers, the use of the clay as a coating for composites that do not have a hightemperature requirement, and a comparable approach to the preparation of graphene coatings/bond coats for polymer matrix composites.

  20. 某600 MW机组烟煤锅炉低N0x改造及效果分析%Low NOx Retrofit for Certain 600 MW Bituminous Coal Boiler and Performance Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁鹏飞

    2013-01-01

    The retrofit effect of certain 600 MW bituminous coal boiler indicates that low NOx combustion technology can reduce the NOx production to 70%, but there are some problems, such as combustion economy and large spray water. Strong reduction atmosphere of burner zone may cause high temperature corrosion on water wall. Therefore, it is suggested to spray some anticorrosive material for prevention.%对某600 MW机组烟煤锅炉进行低NOx改造,改造后锅炉总体性能良好,NOx减排达到70%.但改造对锅炉燃烧经济性、减温水量产生负面影响,同时主燃烧器区形成的强还原性气氛还可能对水冷壁造成高温腐蚀,必须采取喷涂等防腐手段加以预防.

  1. Techno-economic Comparison of IGCC Systems Employing Bituminous and Lignite%基于烟煤、褐煤的IGCC系统技术经济性对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李政; 梁心玉; 薛亚丽

    2012-01-01

    近年来,褐煤提质技术的发展使得褐煤的高效利用成为可能。基于一种先进的褐煤干燥技术—内部废热利用流化床干燥(wirbelschicht-trocknung mit interner abw rmenu-tzung,WTA),采用ASPEN Plus软件及美国电力研究协会(electric power research institute,EPRI)的技术评价准则(technical assessment guide,TAG),分别对烟煤整体煤气化联合循环(integrated gasification combined cycle,IGCC)电站和褐煤IGCC电站进行技术经济性分析。详细介绍了WTA单元及燃气轮机变工况的建模方法。计算结果表明,引入WTA技术后,褐煤IGCC电站的发电效率比采用传统干燥方式时约提高4.6个百分点,整体性能与烟煤IGCC电站相差不大;而褐煤IGCC电站的发电成本比烟煤IGCC电站低24.4%。高效的褐煤干燥技术能显著提高褐煤IGCC电站的效率,而褐煤低廉的价格又对降低发电成本十分有利,褐煤很可能成为比烟煤更适合IGCC的燃料。%The development of lignite upgrading has enabled the efficient utilization of lignite recently.Based on the description of an advanced lignite drying techniquewirbelschicht-trocknung mit interner abw rmenutzung(WTA),techno-economic analysis of two integrated gasification combined cycle(IGCC) systems employing bituminous and lignite were performed by using ASPEN Plus software and the EPRI technical assessment guide.The WTA model and gas turbine off-design model were explained in detail.The result shows that pre-drying lignite by WTA can increase the net thermal efficiency of lignite IGCC power plant by up to 4.6% points compared to traditional lignite drying technology,making the performance of lignite IGCC as good as bituminous IGCC;but the cost of electricity of lignite IGCC is 24.4% lower than that of bituminous IGCC.Advanced drying technique can improve the performance of lignite IGCC and lignite’s cheap price helps to bring down the cost of electricity.Therefore lignite is

  2. Special coatings for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Calatroni, S

    2004-01-01

    Several LHC components require a thin film coating. These coatings fall in two main categories, namely NEG coatings to improve the vacuum behaviour of chambers or conductive coatings to decrease the surface impedance of components. Examples of the first category are the intersection vacuum chambers of the different experiments, where the required vacuum can be obtained only with a NEG coating because of the large distance of the nearest pumping station. The graphite jaws of collimators are an example of the second category. In this case the high impedance of graphite must be decreased by a thin copper coating. These and other cases will be illustrated both with respect to the machine requirements and to the production programme.

  3. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  4. Coatings for fusion reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The internal surfaces of a tokamak fusion reactor control the impurity injection and gas recycling into the fusion plasma. Coating of internal surfaces may provide a desirable and possibly necessary design flexibility for achieving the temperatures, ion densities and containment times necessary for net energy production from fusion reactions to take place. In this paper the reactor environments seen by various componentare reviewed along with possible materials responses. Characteristics of coating-substrate systems, important to fusion applications, are delineated and the present status of coating development for fusion applications is reviewed. Coating development for fusion applications is just beginning and poses a unique and important challenge for materials development

  5. Thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.; Allen, L. E.; Mccollum, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    A continuous powder coating system was developed for coating carbon fiber with LaRC-TPI (Langley Research Center-Thermoplastic Polyimide), a high-temperature thermoplastic polymide invented by NASA-Langley. The coating line developed used a pneumatic fiber spreader to separate the individual fibers. The polymer was applied within a recirculating powder coating chamber then melted using a combination of direct electrical resistance and convective heating to make it adhere to the fiber tow. The tension and speed of the line were controlled with a dancer arm and an electrically driven fiber wind-up and wind-off. The effects of heating during the coating process on the flexibility of the prepreg produced were investigated. The uniformity with which the fiber tow could be coated with polymer also was examined. Composite specimens were fabricated from the prepreg and tested to determine optimum process conditions. The study showed that a very uniform and flexible prepeg with up to 50 percent by volume polymer could be produced with this powder coating system. The coating line minimized powder loss and produced prepeg in lengths of up to 300 m. The fiber spreading was found to have a major effect on the coating uniformity and flexibility. Though test results showed low composite tensile strengths, analysis of fracture surfaces under scanning electron microscope indicated that fiber/matrix adhesion was adequate.

  6. Decontamination and coating of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology is being developed to decontaminate lead used in shielding applications in contaminated environments for recycle as shieldings. Technology is also being developed to coat either decontaminated lead or new lead before it is used in contaminated environments. The surface of the coating is expected to be much easier to decontaminate than the original lead surface. If contamination becomes severely embedded in the coating and cannot be removed, it can be easily cut with a knife and removed from the lead. The used coating can be disposed of as radioactive (hot hazardous) waste. The lead can then be recoated for further use as a shielding material

  7. Ceramic electrolyte coating and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2007-08-28

    Aqueous coating slurries useful in depositing a dense coating of a ceramic electrolyte material (e.g., yttrium-stabilized zirconia) onto a porous substrate of a ceramic electrode material (e.g., lanthanum strontium manganite or nickel/zirconia) and processes for preparing an aqueous suspension of a ceramic electrolyte material and an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material. The invention also includes processes for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material onto pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  8. Conduit Coating Abrasion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    During my summer internship at NASA I have been working alongside the team members of the RESTORE project. Engineers working on the RESTORE project are creating ·a device that can go into space and service satellites that no longer work due to gas shortage or other technical difficulties. In order to complete the task of refueling the satellite a hose needs to be used and covered with a material that can withstand effects of space. The conduit coating abrasion test will help the researchers figure out what type of thermal coating to use on the hose that will be refueling the satellites. The objective of the project is to determine whether or not the conduit coating will withstand the effects of space. For the RESTORE project I will help with various aspects of the testing that needed to be done in order to determine which type of conduit should be used for refueling the satellite. During my time on the project I will be assisting with wiring a relay board that connected to the test set up by soldering, configuring wires and testing for continuity. Prior to the testing I will work on creating the testing site and help write the procedure for the test. The testing will take place over a span of two weeks and lead to an informative conclusion. Working alongside various RESTORE team members I will assist with the project's documentation and records. All in all, throughout my internship at NASA I hope to learn a number of valuable skills and be a part of a hard working team of engineers.

  9. SPS: scrubbing or coating ?

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, J M

    2012-01-01

    The operation of the SPS with high intensity bunched beams is limited by the electron cloud building-up in both the arcs and long straight sections. Two consolidation options have been considered: mitigation of the electron cloud using coatings or relying, as before, on the scrubbing runs. A status report on both options will be given with a particular emphasis on measurements plans for 2012 and pending issues. The testing needs, corresponding beam parameters and MD time in 2012 will be addressed. The criteria for the decision making and the corresponding schedule will be discussed.

  10. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  11. Pack cementation coatings for alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi-Rong; Zheng, Minhui; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on a Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloy in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the composition of the pack and on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi{sub 2} and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. In cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air at 700 and 1050{degrees}C, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. The codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium into low alloy steel have been achieved using elemental Al and Cr powders and a two-step pack cementation process. Sequential process treatments at 925{degrees}C and 1150{degrees}C yield dense and uniform ferrite coatings, whose compositions are close to either Fe{sub 3}Al or else FeAl plus a lower Cr content, when processed under different conditions. The higher content of Al in the coatings was predicted by thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium in the gas phase. The effect of the particle size of the metal powders on the surface composition of the coating has been studied for various combinations of Al and Cr powders.

  12. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating material

  13. White coat hypertension in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurko, Alexander; Minarik, Milan; Jurko, Tomas; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    The article summarizes current information on blood pressure changes in children during clinic visit. White coat as a general dressing of physicians and health care personnel has been widely accepted at the end of the 19th century. Two problems can be associated with the use of white coat: white coat phenomenon and white coat hypertension. Children often attribute pain and other unpleasant experience to the white coat and refuse afterwards cooperation with examinations. Definition of white coat hypertension in the literature is not uniform. It has been defined as elevated blood pressure in the hospital or clinic with normal blood pressure at home measured during the day by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system. White coat effect is defined as temporary increase in blood pressure before and during visit in the clinic, regardless what the average daily ambulatory blood pressure values are. Clinical importance of white coat hypertension is mainly because of higher risk for cardiovascular accidents that are dependent on end organ damage (heart, vessels, kidney). Current data do not allow any clear recommendations for the treatment. Pharmacological therapy is usually started in the presence of hypertrophic left ventricle, changes in intimal/medial wall thickness of carotic arteries, microalbuminuria and other cardiovascular risk factors. Nonpharmacological therapy is less controversial and certainly more appropriate. Patients have to change their life style, need to eliminate as much cardiovascular risk factors as possible and sustain a regular blood pressure monitoring. PMID:26786497

  14. Intumescent coatings under fast heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Català, Pere;

    2012-01-01

    Intumescent coatings are widely used to delay or minimise the destructive effects of fire. They are usually tested under conditions that simulate the relatively slow build-up of heat in a normal fire. Here, the effects of damage during a fire causing sudden heating of the coating were studied....

  15. Bright Prospects for Fluorine Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Fluorine coatings are a category of new coatings with fluorine-containing resins as the major film forming substances.They have excellent weather resistance,solvent resistance, acid/alkali resistance, no toxicity and no hazards,and they contribute to film stability.

  16. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  17. POWDER COATINGS: A TECHNOLOGY REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1995, surface coatings accounted for nearly 2.55 million Mg of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions nationally, which is more than 12% of VOC emissions from all sources. In recent years, powder coatings have been steadily gaining popularity as an alternative to solvent-bo...

  18. Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

  19. Applicability of coatings to control metal dusting

    OpenAIRE

    Hermse, C.G.M.; Wortel, J.C. van

    2009-01-01

    We have performed a long term comparative study between five wrought and three centricast materials, both as-is, and in coated condition. Two commercially available coatings were applied to each different alloy. One coating was aluminum based with a chromium rich intermediate layer. The other coating was nickel rich with substantial amounts of silicon and aluminum. Both types of coating were of good quality, and did not show (micro)defects. The coated and bare alloy samples were exposed in a ...

  20. Coating of silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Ackermann, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland;

    2009-01-01

    For the International X-ray observatory (IXO), a mirror module with an effective area of 3 m2 at 1.25 keV and at least 0.65 m2 at 6 keV has to be realized. To achieve this goal, coated silicon pore optics has been developed over the last years. One of the challenges is to coat the Si plates and...... still to realize Si-Si bonding. It has been demonstrated that ribbed silicon plates can be produced and assembled into stacks. All previously work has been done using uncoated Si plates. In this paper we describe how to coat the ribbed Si plates with an Ir coating and a top C coating through a mask so...

  1. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2011-01-01

    of action is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a......The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system....... These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence of these defects. However, the understanding of the coating, its components, characteristics and mechanism...

  2. Dynamic residual stress in thermal sprayed coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhiping; Yang Yuanyuan

    2005-01-01

    With the modified Almen method, the forming and development process of residual stress in a thermal sprayed coating has been obtained. The test results identify that the residual stress in a coating is depend on coating material properties, technique and coating thickness. The paper pays much attention to the hysteresis between the coating temperature and residual stress in the coating or between the applied stress and the strain of the coating, and confirms that the fact is resulted from the"Gas Fix" character of a thermal sprayed coating.

  3. Radiation curing: coatings and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial experiments conducted in the late 1960's at Radiation Dynamics, Inc. (now IBA Industrial, Inc.) showed that by removing the pigment from a radiation curable coating formulation, the same binder system could be used as a matrix system for electron beam (EB) cured fiber reinforced composites. Recently, the binder systems used for EB curable coatings have also been successfully used (without pigments) as the matrices for EB and X-ray cured fiber composites. Insights gained from the development of coatings were translated into desirable properties for matrix materials. For example, understanding the surface wetting characteristics of a coating facilitated the development of a matrix that would wet fibers; the development of coatings that would adhere to rigid substrates as metal while being bent, as for coil coatings, and which would exhibit impact resistance when cured on a metal also imparted impact resistance to cured composite materials. Thermal analyses conducted on the coating binder cured at low energies were consistent with analyses performed on thick cross-sections as used for matrices. The configuration of the final product then dictated the modality of curing, be it low-energy EB for coatings or higher energy EB or X-ray curing for composites. In industrial radiation chemistry, one deals with monomers and oligomers (∼ 102 and ∼ 103 to 104 Daltons molecular weight, respectively). Thus, one can approach the development of coating binders or matrix systems as one would approach the synthesis of organic polymers. The desired final material is a fully cured and cross-linked polymer. In contrast, concepts involved in '' formulating '' are often derived from dealing with high molecular weight polymers (∼ 105 + Daltons) in which intense mechanical mixing is used to bring different ingredients together. When synthesizing a radiation curable coating or matrix system, greater attention is given to microphase compatibility as reflected in the

  4. Optical coating preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to optimize the properties of optical components, thin film deposition with controlled thickness and refractive index is often needed. Two different deposition techniques are proposed in this article and illustrated with examples: physical vapor deposition (PVD) and liquid sol-gel process (LSG). PVD and LSG techniques are equivalent as far as the following topics are concerned: elaboration of oxide or composite coated material, optical performance, mechanical performance, and laser performance. PVD is better for the elaboration of metallic films, the design of multi-layers or complex pile-up of layers. LSG is better for the treatment of large surfaces, for substrates with complicated shapes and for its low cost. PVD technique has been widely used so it benefited from an industrial maturity and a clean technology concerning wastes and effluents. On the contrary LSG is a new technique not yet widely used in industrial processes but that looks promising. (A.C.)

  5. Radiation hardenable coating composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compositions for a radiation hardenable coating material are provided which are easily workable and have superior weather and corrosion resisting properties required for the precoat metal. The main constituent of the composition comprises (a) 20-60% by weight of a first polymer having a molecular weight of not less than 3,000 and containing 0.1-0.4 unsaturated radicals per molecular weight of 1,000, (b) 10-60% by weight of a second polymer having a molecular weight of not less than 1,000 and containing 1-5 unsaturated radicals per molecular weight of 1,000, and (c) 70-5% by weight of vinyl monomers copolymerizable with the first polymer (a) and the second polymer (b). The high energy electron beam irradiating process is employed as a method of hardening these compositions. The energy level of the electron beams range between 0.1 to 3 MeV. In one of the examples, the first polymer was made by polymerizing 200 g of ethyl acetate, 185 g of ethyl acrylate, 15 g of acrylic acid, 5.3 g of azobisbutyl nitrile and 25 g of n-dodecyl mercaptan by heating, and then adding 8.5 g of glycidyl methacrylate, 40 g of hydroquinone and 50 g of tributylbenzyl ammonium chloride by heating. The second polymer was made by polymerizing 200 g of ethyl acetate, 162 g of ethyl acrylate, 38 g of acrylic acid, 5.3 g of azobisbutyl nitrile and 6.0 g of n-dodecyl mercaptan by heating, and then adding 47 g of glycidyl methacrylate, 40 mg of hydroquinone and 500 mg of triethyl benzoyl ammonium chloride by heating. A coating material was made by mixing 30 parts of the first polymer, 40 parts of the second polymer and 30 parts of methyl methacrylate with some pigments. (Iwakiri, K.)

  6. Nature Inspired Surface Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubner, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Materials Scientists more and more are looking to nature for clues on how to create highly functional surface coatings with exceptional properties. The fog harvesting capabilities of the Namib Desert beetle, the beautiful iridescent colors of the hummingbird, and the super water repellant abilities of the Lotus leaf are but a few examples of the amazing properties developed over many years in the natural world. Nature also makes extensive use of the pH-dependent behavior of weak functional groups such as carboxylic acid and amine functional groups. This presentation will explore synthetic mimics to the nano- and microstructures responsible for these fascinating properties. For example, we have demonstrated a pH-induced porosity transition that can be used to create porous films with pore sizes that are tunable from the nanometer scale to the multiple micron scale. The pores of these films, either nano- or micropores, can be reversibly opened and closed by changes in solution pH. The ability to engineer pH-gated porosity transitions in heterostructured thin films has led to the demonstration of broadband anti-reflection coatings that mimic the anti-reflection properties of the moth eye and pH-tunable Bragg reflectors with a structure and function similar to that found in hummingbird wings and the Longhorn beetle. In addition, the highly textured honeycomb-like surfaces created by the formation of micron-scale pores are ideally suited for the creation of superhydrophobic surfaces that mimic the behavior of the self-cleaning lotus leaf. The development of synthetic "backbacks" on immune system cells that may one day ferry drugs to disease sites will also be discussed.

  7. Tribological Performance of Coated Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth Holmberg; Anssi Laukkanen

    2004-01-01

    The fundamentals of coating tribology is presented in a generalised holistic approach to friction and wear mechanisms of coated surfaces in dry sliding contacts. It is based on a classification of the tribological contact process into macromechanical, micromechanical, tribochemical contact mechanisms and material transfer. The tribological contact process is dominated by the macromechanical mechanisms, which have been systematically analysed by using four main parameters: the coating-to-substrate hardness relationship, the film thickness, the surface roughness and the debris in the contact. In this paper special attention is given to the microlevel mechanisms, and in particular new techniques for modelling the elastic, plastic and brittle behaviour of the surface by finite element (FEM) computer simulations. The contact condition with a sphere sliding over a plate coated with a very thin hard coating is analysed. A three dimensional FEM model has been developed for calculating the first principal stress distribution in the scratch tester contact of a diamond spherical tip moving with increased load on a 2 μm thick titanium nitride (TiN) coated steel surface. The model is comprehensive in that sense that it considers elastic, plastic and fracture behaviour of the contact surfaces. By identifying from a scratch experiment the location of the first crack and using this as input data can the fracture toughness of the coating be determined.

  8. Carbon coatings for medical implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bakowicz-Mitura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper we report in vitro and in vivo results of Nanocrystalline Diamond Coatings whichare used in medicine onto medical implants The very important property of carbon coatings is the protectionliving organism against the metalosis. Different medical implants with complicated shapes are covering byNanocrystalline Diamond Coatings by RF dense plasma CVD.Design/methodology/approach: 1 Material characterizations of deposited coatings have been evaluated by using:Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Atomic Force Microscopy(AFM, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES, microX-Ray Spectroscopy and bend test 2 Biological investigationbased on: (a in vivo and (b in vitro examinations as well (c clinical investigations – contact allergy.Findings: It was revealed that Nanocrystalline Diamond Coatings form the barrier diffusion between implantand human environment as a consequence prevent leaching of metallic ions into the body. Additionally, theresearch on carbon coatings proved that diamond layers are biocompatible with living organism. Contact allergyon nickel is inhibited by diamond powders.Practical implications: Practical application metal implants with NCD in orthopedy, cardiosurgery, oralsurgery, maxillo-facial surgery and dermatology.Originality/value: We have observed anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and anticancerogenic responses from thecarbon coatings layers onto medical implants like wires and screws.

  9. Anticorrosion properties of polyaniline-coated pigments in organic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four pigments of various morphology - specularite, α-Fe2O3; goethite, α-FeO(OH); talc, (Mg3(OH)2(Si4O10); and graphite, C - without and with polyaniline phosphate coating, were tested for the anticorrosion performance in coatings produced by epoxy binders on iron plates. The corrosion tests were carried out in a condenser chamber with continuous water condensation or humidity with sulfur dioxide, and in a salt mist cabinet. Polyaniline coating of pigments in all cases improved the anticorrosion properties. Graphite coated with polyaniline performed the best among eight systems under investigation. The role of graphite and polyaniline conductivity in the electron transfers associated with corrosion of iron has been proposed

  10. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  11. Laser-based coatings removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A. [F2 Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D&D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings.

  12. Mechanical properties of boron coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal stress of coatings will cause reliability problems, such as adhesion failure and peeling. We measured the internal stress in boron coatings, which was prepared by the ion plating method, with an apparatus based on the optically levered laser technique. The boron coatings exhibited large compressive stress in the range from -0.5 GPa to -2.6 GPa. It was found that these compressive stresses were decreasing functions of the deposition rate and were increasing functions of the ion bombardment energy. ((orig.))

  13. Radiation resistance of anticorrosion coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results are reported of a study of high-energy radiation and its effects on properties and corrosive behaviour of metals, on plastics, paints, and other coatings. The irradiation tests have been made with various paint compounds on the basis of epoxide resins, polyurethane resins, acryl/styrol dispersions, and with ethyl silicate or alkali silicate zinc dust primers. The coatings have been applied to accelerator component parts and to plate specimens (aluminium, steel) and have been irradiated with energies between 104 and 107 Gy. Very good results have been found for the polyurethane compound and the acryl/styrol dispersion coatings. (orig.)

  14. Experimental evaluation of coating delamination in vinyl coated metal forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a new evaluation and prediction method for coating delamination during sheet metal forming is presented. On the basis of the forming limit diagram (FLD), the current study evaluates the delamination of PET coating by using a cross cut specimen, dome test, and rectangular cup drawing test. Dome test specimens were subjected to biaxial, plane strain, and uniaxial deformation modes. Rectangular cup drawing test specimens were subjected to the deep drawing deformation mode, and compression deformation mode. A vinyl coated metal (VCM) sheet consists of three layers of polymer on the sheet metals: a protective film, a PET layer and a PVC layer. The areas with coating delamination were identified, and the results of the evaluation were plotted according to major and minor strain values, depicting coating delamination. The constructed delamination limit diagram (DLD) can be used to determine the forming limit of VCM during the complex press forming process. ARGUS (GOM) was employed to identify the strain value and deformation mode of the delaminated surface after the press forming. After identifying the areas of delamination, the DLD of the PET coating can be constructed in a format similar to that of the FLD. The forming limit of the VCM sheet can be evaluated using the superimposition of the delamination limit strain of the coating onto the FLD of VCM sheet. The experimental results showed that the proposed test method will support the sheet metal forming process design for VCM sheets. The assessment method presented in this study can be used to determine the delamination limit strain under plastic deformation of other polymer coated metals. The experimental results suggested that the proposed testing method is effective in evaluating delamination for specific applications

  15. A novel trilayer antireflection coating using dip-coating technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Xu; Yi Yin; Haiming Ma; Hui Ye; Xu Liu

    2011-01-01

    We report a new structure for broadband antireflection coating by dip-coating technique,which has minimal cost and is compatible with large-scale manufacturing.The coatings are prepared by depositing SiO2 sol-gel film on a glass substrate,subsequently depositing SiO2 single-layer particle coating through electrostatic attraction,and depositing a final very thin Si02 sol-gel film to improve the mechanical strength of the whole coating structure.The refractive index of the structure changes gradually from the top to the substrate.The transmittance of a glass substrate has been experimentally found to be improved in the spectral range of 400-1400 nn and in the incidence angle range from 0° to at least 45°.The mechanical strength is immensely improved because of the additional thin Si02 sol-gel layer.The surface texture can be applied to the substrates of different materials and shapes as an add-on coating.

  16. Thin CVD Coating Protects Titanium Aluminide Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ronald; Wallace, Terryl; Cunnington, George; Robinson, John

    1994-01-01

    Feasibility of using very thin CVD coatings to provide both protection against oxidation and surfaces of low catalytic activity for thin metallic heat-shield materials demonstrated. Use of aluminum in compositions increases emittances of coatings and reduces transport of oxygen through coatings to substrates. Coatings light in weight and applied to foil-gauge materials with minimum weight penalties.

  17. Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics project is to evaluate and test pretreatment coating systems not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  18. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Levine, S. R.; Glasgow, T. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.

  19. Environmental aspects of coating removal techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of coatings to materials is constantly evolving: the number of techniques for coating application continue to grow and combinations of coating compositions on substrates continue to be expanded. This has lead to the use of ''exotic'' materials for coatings, some of which are considered to be ''toxic''. The growing interest in preserving the environment has begun to impact the coating industry. Residuals from coating removal processes can contaminate the soil, water, and air. Precautions are required to avoid environmental degradation. Coating removal techniques discussed include: microwave, laser ablation, CO, blasting, and plastic blast media. 62 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA, calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality.

  1. DLC coatings for hydraulic applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca NOBILI; Luca MAGAGNIN

    2009-01-01

    Replacement of lubricating oils with water or low-viscosity fluids is highly desirable in many industrial fields, on account of the environmental and economical advantages. Low lubricity of water might be insufficient for proper operation of hydraulic components, and diamond-like carbon(DLC) coatings are very attractive as solid lubricant films. A remote-plasma PACVD process was utilized to deposit hydrogenated DLC coatings (a-C:H) on different substrates. Microindentation measurements show that the coating hardness is around 35 GPa. Tribological behavior was evaluated by block-on-ring tests performed in water and water with alumina. The wear rate was calculated after measuring the wear volume by a laser profilemeter. Morphological and compositional analysis of the wear tracks reveal that coating failure may occur by abrasive wear or delamination, depending on the substrate properties. Hard and smooth substrates give the best results and dispersed alumina particles increase the wear rate.

  2. Self-Healing anticorrosive coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesterova, Tatyana

    %. The number is lower than anticipated and needs to be confirmed. Finally, a 3-D model, based on Monte-Carlo simulations, has been developed for prediction of healing efficiency of a microcapsule-based anticorrosive coating. Two kinds of cracks were considered: cracks accommodated within the bulk coating......Self-healing anticorrosive coatings are multi-component so-called smart materials, which have been proposed as a way to long-lasting corrosion protection of steel structures. The presently most promising technology route is based on microcapsules, filled with active healing agents, and has been...... to capillary forces. The healing agents then start to react, form a polymer network, and =glue‘ the crack. The approach has been applied to development of an epoxy-based self-healing anticorrosive coating for above water heavy duty corrosion protection. Emphasis has been on investigation of practical issues...

  3. Model formulations for the mathematical-statistical evaluation of operation data as a planning assistance in the assessment of face operations in the bituminous coal mining. Modellansaetze fuer die mathematisch-statistische Auswertung von Betriebsdaten als Planungshilfsmittel bei der Einschaetzung von Strebbetrieben im Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griesenbrock, H.P.

    1982-06-14

    Regression models based on comprehensive operating data collections were developed and tested for a sure assessment of the haulage capacity of face conveyors in the Ruhr bituminous coal mining. Starting from a critical view of the previously developed models for the assessment of face operations a factorial model has been developed considering the data in the form of utilization coefficients the parameters of which are not directly but iteratively determinable.

  4. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C.; Lee, Chuck K.; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  5. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  6. Turing and animal coat patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Hariharan, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    The present article describes a beautiful contribution of Alan Turing to our understanding of how animal coat patterns form. The question that Turing posed was the following. A collection of identical cells (or processors for that matter), all running the exact same program, and all communicating with each other in the exact same way, should always be in the same state. Yet they produce nonhomogeneous periodic patterns, like those seen on animal coats. How does this happen? Turing gave an ele...

  7. Lutetium Oxide Coatings by PVD

    OpenAIRE

    Topping, Stephen G; Park, CH; Rangan, SK; Sarin, VK

    2007-01-01

    Due to its high density and cubic structure, Lutetium oxide (Lu2O3) has been extensively researched for scintillating applications. Present manufacturing methods, such as hot pressing and sintering, do not provide adequate resolution due to light scattering of polycrystalline materials. Vapor deposition has been investigated as an alternative manufacturing method. Lutetium oxide transparent optical coatings by magnetron sputtering offer a means of tailoring the coating for optimum scintillati...

  8. Silicone nanocomposite coatings for fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth (Inventor); Lee, Stein S. (Inventor); Singhal, Amit (Inventor); Ou, Runqing (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A silicone based coating for fabrics utilizing dual nanocomposite fillers providing enhanced mechanical and thermal properties to the silicone base. The first filler includes nanoclusters of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a metal oxide and a second filler of exfoliated clay nanoparticles. The coating is particularly suitable for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts, boat sails, and inflatable shelters.

  9. Dielectric coated ion thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an ion accelerator apparatus. It comprises: a source of free electrons; a chamber connected to the source of free electrons; means for accelerating the free electrons within the chamber; means for introducing a flow of a gas comprising atoms having a neutral charge into the chamber, the accelerated free electrons colliding with the atoms of the gas causing valence shell electrons to be lost by the atoms, producing therefrom a plasma of positively charged ions; and a metallic grid plate comprising one wall of the chamber and provided with spaced apart perforations extending therethrough, the grid plate being coated on both its inner and outer sides with a layer of an insulating material having a much higher dielectric constant that the metallic grid plate, the grid plate being connected to an electric potential substantially more negative than the positively charged ions so that ions drifting into the vicinity of the metallic grid plate are accelerated toward it, passing out of the chamber through the perforations. The surface of the layer of insulating material on the inner side of the metallic grid plate has an electric potential approximately equal to that of the plasma and thus acting as a screen grid, both layers of insulating material protecting the metallic grid plate from erosion by charged ions and insulating the chamber against thermal and electrical losses

  10. Transparent conductive coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, S.

    1983-01-01

    Thin film transparent conductors are discussed. Materials with electrical conductivity and optical transparency are highly desirable in many optoelectronic applications including photovoltaics. Certain binary oxide semiconductors such as tin oxide (SnO2) and indium oxide (In2O3) offer much better performance tradeoff in optoelectronics as well as better mechanical and chemical stability than thin semitransparent films. These thin-film transparent conductors (TC) are essentially wide-bandgap degenerate semiconductors - invariably n-type - and hence are transparent to sub-bandgap (visible) radiation while affording high electrical conductivity due to the large free electron concentration. The principal performance characteristics of TC's are, of course, electrical conductivity and optical transmission. The TC's have a refractive index of around 2.0 and hence act as very efficient antireflection coatings. For using TC's in surface barrier solar cells, the photovoltaic barrier is of utmost importance and so the work function or electron affinity of the TC is also a very important material parameter. Fabrication processes are discussed.

  11. Composite hydrophilic coating for conditioner aluminum fins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    To solve the so-called "white rust" and 'water bridge" problems of the aluminum fins for heat exchanger of automobile air conditioner, aimed at nationalizing the art of hydrophilic coating technology, the choice of coating forming and curing materials was investigated. By measuring the water contact angle, SEM surface scanning and ingredients analysis of the coating, optimal parameters and composition are acquired. The coating forming mechanisms of the composition was also expatiated. The coating obtained has good hydrophilic and other properties.

  12. Coating, Titanium Dioxide and Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Aohan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this bachelor’s thesis is to get basic ideas about coating and a deep understanding of properties of titanium dioxide pigments as well as their application and performance in solar electricity energy technology. This thesis consists of three main parts, eight chapters. The first part is about basic knowledge of coating and tests of coated paper. Coating pigments are generally introduced in the part. In the second part, coating additives are introduced in details from ...

  13. Liquid drops impacting superamphiphobic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xu; Schellenberger, Frank; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-06-25

    The dynamics of liquid drops impacting superamphiphobic coatings is studied by high-speed video microscopy. Superamphiphobic coatings repel water and oils. The coating consists of a fractal-like hydrophobized silica network. Mixtures of ethanol-water and glycerin-water are chosen to investigate the influence of interfacial tension and viscosity on spreading and retraction dynamics. Drop spreading is dominated by inertia. At low impact velocity, the drops completely rebound. However, the contact time increases with impact velocity, whereas the restitution coefficient decreases. We suggest that the drop temporarily impales the superamphiphobic coating, although the drop completely rebounds. From an estimate of the pressure, it can be concluded that impalement is dominated by depinning rather than sagging. With increasing velocity, the drops partially pin, and an increasing amount of liquid remains on the coating. A time-resolved study of the retraction dynamics reveals two well-separated phases: a fast inertia-dominated phase followed by a slow decrease of the contact diameter of the drop. The crossover occurs when the diameter of the retracting drop matches the diameter of the drop before impact. We suggest that the depth of impalement increases with impact velocity, where impalement is confined to the initial impact zone of the drop. If the drop partially pins on the coating, the depth of impalement exceeds a depth, preventing the whole drop from being removed during the retraction phase. PMID:23697383

  14. Polyester based hybrid organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojiang

    Polyesters are a class of polymers widely used in organic coatings applications. In this work, four types of organic coatings based on polyester polyols were prepared: UV-curable polyester/poly(meth)acrylate coatings, thermal curable polyester polyurethane-urea coatings, thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings, and UV-curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings. Polyester/poly(meth)acrylate block copolymers are synthesized using a combination of polycondensation and Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). All block copolymers are characterized by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). In the case of unsaturated-polyester-based block copolymers the main chain double bond in the polyester backbone remains almost unaffected during ATRP. The unsaturated block copolymers are crosslinkable and can form networks upon photo-irradiation in the presence of a suitable photoinitiator. These copolymers might be interesting candidates for coatings with better overall properties than those based on neat polyesters. Thermal curable polyester polyol based Polyurethane-Urea (PUU) coatings were formulated using Partially Blocked HDI isocyanurate (PBH), Isophorone Diamine (IPDA), and polyester polyol. As a comparison, the polyurethane coatings (PU) without adding IPDA were also prepared. The mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the PUU and PU coating were investigated by using tensile test and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analyzer (DMTA). It was found that PUU coating exhibited higher crosslink density, Tg, tensile modulus and strength than the corresponding PU coating. Thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings were prepared by using polyamine and cyclic carbonate terminated polyester. Cyclic carbonate terminated polyester was synthesized from the reaction of the carbon dioxide and epoxidized polyester which was prepared from the polyester polyol. The properties of the epoxidized and cyclic carbonate

  15. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1 Anti-reflection coatings, 2 Hard coatings, 3 Clean coat, 4 Mirror coatings, 5 Color tint coating (one of coloring processes, 6 Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes, and 7 Anti-fog coatings. Anti-reflection coatings reduce unwanted reflections from the lens surfaces and increase light transmission. Hard coatings are applied for preventing the plastic lens surface from scratches and abrasion. Hard coatings are not required for the mineral lenses due to their hardness. Clean coat makes the lens surface smooth and hydrophobic. Thus, it prevents the adherence of dust, tarnish, and dirt particles on the lens surface. Mirror coatings are applied onto the sunglasses for cosmetic purpose. Color tinted and photochromic lenses are used for sun protection and absorption of the harmful UV radiations. Anti-fog coatings make the lens surface hydrophilic and prevent the coalescence of tiny water droplets on the lens surface that reduces light transmission. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 359-69

  16. Development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology. ; Study using a small device (study on synthetic iron sulfide catalyst). Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu. ; Kogata sochi ni yoru kenkyu (gosei ryukatetsu shokubai no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, S. (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    This paper reports the execution of device procurement and building construction of small equipment to manufacture synthetic iron sulfide for catalysts used in the NEDOL bituminous coal liquefaction process, carried out in the fiscal year 1992. To study synthetic iron sulfide catalysts manufactured by the dry manufacturing method, it has been planned to install small equipment with a catalyst manufacturing capacity of 10 kg/hr in a process supporting unit (PSU) plant. Major devices and electric measuring instruments have been procured. The construction work included civil engineering and building constructions for part of buildings to accommodate the whole equipment used in the sintering process and an electric room adjoining thereto. Because this small equipment serves also as a PSU exhaust gas treatment facility to treat exhaust gas containing SO2 produced as a sub-product in the sintering process, the PSU exhaust gas treatment process was modified, and the trial operation was carried out in September 1992. Technical standards and operation methods were discussed on each of the sintering process and the exhaust gas treatment process in the small equipment. A process instruction document, and an operation standard for steady operation, start-up and shutdown were prepared.

  17. Coating of catalyst supports - links between slurry characteristics, coating process and final coating quality

    OpenAIRE

    Adegbite, SA

    2010-01-01

    Tightening legislation for vehicles across the world has caused the use of monolith catalysts in automotive emission control to become ubiquitous. Control of the adherence and homogeneity of the platinum group metal (PGM) coating onto the monolith block, to maximise catalytic performance for a minimum PGM loading, is therefore paramount. In this study, an automatic film application is used for coating γ–alumina slurries onto Fecralloy®, an integral component of metallic monolith catalysts, to...

  18. Coating material composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polyester composition is provided for forming a hard and weather-proof coating easily hardened by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams, using a mixture of a polyester component containing a dimer of methacrylate as an acid group with an oligomer having at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. The composition consists of 10%-90% by weight of at least one (a) methacrylic dimer or unsaturated polyester containing its methyl ester as an acid group, (b) telomerized diacrylpolyester or (c) telomerized fiberous polyester having at its distal end a dimer of methacrylate residue, and 90%-10% of a low molecular weight compound having at least two polymerizable unsaturated radicals. The low molecular weight compound is produced by reacting at first saturated cyclic carboxylic anhydride and/or alpha-, beta-ethylenic unsaturated carboxylic anhydride and secondarily a vinyl monomer containing epoxy-radicals with hydroxyl radical-containing vinyl monomer and/or polyhydric alcohol. The aforesaid methacrylic acid dimer dimethyl ester is a byproduct of methyl methacrylate synthesis. This produces monoester monocarboxylic acid or dicarboxylic acid by hydrolysis. In one example, a polyester (a-1) was produced by reacting 0.5 moles of methacrylic acid dimer, 0.5 mol of adipic acid, 1,25 mole of ethylene glycol and 0.005 mol of hydroquinone monomethyl ether. On the other hand, an orgomer (d) is obtained from 1 mol of 2-hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate, 1 mol of maleic anhydride, 0.005 mol of hydroquinon monomethyl ether and 1 mol of glycidyl methacrylate. Next, 80 parts of (a-1) and 20 parts of (d) were mixed. (Iwakiri, K.)

  19. Coating Carbon Fibers With Platinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Duncan, Peter; Coupland, Duncan; Rigali, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    A process for coating carbon fibers with platinum has been developed. The process may also be adaptable to coating carbon fibers with other noble and refractory metals, including rhenium and iridium. The coated carbon fibers would be used as ingredients of matrix/fiber composite materials that would resist oxidation at high temperatures. The metal coats would contribute to oxidation resistance by keeping atmospheric oxygen away from fibers when cracks form in the matrices. Other processes that have been used to coat carbon fibers with metals have significant disadvantages: Metal-vapor deposition processes yield coats that are nonuniform along both the lengths and the circumferences of the fibers. The electrical resistivities of carbon fibers are too high to be compatible with electrolytic processes. Metal/organic vapor deposition entails the use of expensive starting materials, it may be necessary to use a furnace, and the starting materials and/or materials generated in the process may be hazardous. The present process does not have these disadvantages. It yields uniform, nonporous coats and is relatively inexpensive. The process can be summarized as one of pretreatment followed by electroless deposition. The process consists of the following steps: The surfaces of the fiber are activated by deposition of palladium crystallites from a solution. The surface-activated fibers are immersed in a solution that contains platinum. A reducing agent is used to supply electrons to effect a chemical reduction in situ. The chemical reduction displaces the platinum from the solution. The displaced platinum becomes deposited on the fibers. Each platinum atom that has been deposited acts as a catalytic site for the deposition of another platinum atom. Hence, the deposition process can also be characterized as autocatalytic. The thickness of the deposited metal can be tailored via the duration of immersion and the chemical activity of the solution.

  20. Design of Polymer Coatings in Automotive Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Han-lin; ZHANG Ga; BORDES Jean-Michel; CHRISTIAN Coddet

    2004-01-01

    Driven by economical and ecological reasons, thermoplastics based coatings were more and more used in automotive engines. Two design concepts, flame spraying and serigraphy PEEK coatings on light metal substrate, were introduced in this paper. The friction and wear behavior of PEEK based coatings were investigated systematically. Coatings with different crystallinities can be obtained when cooling speed is controlled. Among three sprayed coatings considered with different crystallinities, the one with highest crystallinity exhibits best friction and wear behavior under dry sliding condition. Under lubricated sliding condition, however, the amorphous coating gives lower friction coefficient. The micron particles such as SiC,MoS2 and graphite in composite coatings can improve significantly the coating wear resistance and have a impact on coating friction behavior.

  1. Kinetic regulation of coated vesicle secretion

    CERN Document Server

    Foret, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    The secretion of vesicles for intracellular transport often rely on the aggregation of specialized membrane-bound proteins into a coat able to curve cell membranes. The nucleation and growth of a protein coat is a kinetic process that competes with the energy-consuming turnover of coat components between the membrane and the cytosol. We propose a generic kinetic description of coat assembly and the formation of coated vesicles, and discuss its implication to the dynamics of COP vesicles that traffic within the Golgi and with the Endoplasmic Reticulum. We show that stationary coats of fixed area emerge from the competition between coat growth and the recycling of coat components, in a fashion resembling the treadmilling of cytoskeletal filaments. We further show that the turnover of coat components allows for a highly sensitive switching mechanism between a quiescent and a vesicle producing membrane, upon a slowing down of the exchange kinetics. We claim that the existence of this switching behaviour, also tri...

  2. Electron beam curable coating for fibreboard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One base coat formulation and three top coat formulations with different types of pigment are chosen and the substrate for coating is fibreboard. The curing behaviour, physical and chemical resistance properties, especially for the top coat formulations are studied. It is observed that those top coat formulations are having similar chemical properties and the minimum dose to cure for each of them is 20 kGy but top coat formulations with yellow colour pigment added are the best formulations in terms of physical properties

  3. Chromate conversion coatings and their current application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes formation, composition and possible production technologies of application chromate coatings. Summation of common examples of applications of these coatings in corrosion protection of metals and alloys is provided. Individual chromate coatings are divided by their dominant anions either with CrVI or CrIII. Restrictions of chromate coatings with dominantly CrVI and related toxicity of hexavalent chromium is discussed in detail. In conclusion, examples of both chromium and other, alternative coatings are summed up. Application of these coatings as a protection for concrete hot-dip galvanized reinforcement is also reviewed.

  4. Radiation curable compositions useful as transfer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention is on a method for applying a coating to a thin porous substrate and reducing absorption of the coating into the substrate by applying a radiation-curable composition to a carrying web; the radiation-curable coating composition having a crosslink density of 0.02 to about 1.0 determined by calculation of the gram moles of branch points per 100 grams of uncured coating, and a glass transition temperature of the radiation cured coating within the approximate range of -80 degrees to +100 degrees C. The carrying web being of a nature such that the coating composition, when cured, will not adhere to its surface

  5. Dielectric Coatings for IACT Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Förster, A; Chadwick, P; Held, M

    2013-01-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes for very-high energy gamma-ray astronomy need mirror with high reflectance roughly in the wavelength between 300 and 550 nm. The current standard reflective layer of such mirrors is aluminum. Being permanently exposed to the environment they show a constant degradation over the years. New and improved dielectric coatings have been developed to enhance their resistance to environmental impact and to extend their possible lifetime. In addition, these customized coatings have an increased reflectance of over 95% and are designed to significantly lower the night-sky background contribution. The development of such coatings for mirrors with areas up to 2 m2 and low application temperatures to suite the composite materials used for the new mirror susbtrates of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and the results of extensive durability tests are presented.

  6. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  7. Thermal Coatings for Glass Industry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chráska, Pavel; Neufuss, Karel

    Plzeň : University of West Bohemia, 2014 - (Houdková, Š.; Křenek, T.) ISBN 978-80-261-0433-9. [Workshop on thermal spray and laser clad coatings: Coatings for high temperaure applications. Plzeň (CZ), 14.10.2014-15.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : glass melts * high temperature loading * glass forming tools * service life * coatings Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials http://etsa-thermal-spray.org/uploads/ articles /0662da367b8d9d1b398ff8a37bb8af7c84777a88.pdf

  8. Mixed zirconia calcium phosphate coatings for dental implants: Tailoring coating stability and bioactivity potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhanced coating stability and adhesion are essential for long-term success of orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, the effect of coating composition on mechanical, physico-chemical and biological properties of coated zirconia specimens is investigated. Zirconia discs and dental screw implants are coated using the wet powder spraying (WPS) technique. The coatings are obtained by mixing yttria-stabilized zirconia (TZ) and hydroxyapatite (HA) in various ratios while a pure HA coating served as reference material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometer analysis confirm a similar coating morphology and roughness for all studied coatings, whereas the coating stability can be tailored with composition and is probed by insertion and dissections experiments in bovine bone with coated zirconia screw implants. An increasing content of calcium phosphate (CP) resulted in a decrease of mechanical and chemical stability, while the bioactivity increased in simulated body fluid (SBF). In vitro experiments with human osteoblast cells (HOB) revealed that the cells grew well on all samples but are affected by dissolution behavior of the studied coatings. This work demonstrates the overall good mechanical strength, the excellent interfacial bonding and the bioactivity potential of coatings with higher TZ contents, which provide a highly interesting coating for dental implants. - Highlights: • Different ratios of zirconia (TZ) and calcium phosphate (CP) were deposited on zirconia substrates. • Enhancement of TZ content in mixed coatings increased coating stability. • Enhancement of CP content in mixed coatings increased bioactivity. • All tested coating compositions were non-toxic

  9. Mixed zirconia calcium phosphate coatings for dental implants: Tailoring coating stability and bioactivity potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardun, Karoline [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Treccani, Laura, E-mail: treccani@uni-bremen.de [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Volkmann, Eike [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Streckbein, Philipp [University Hospital, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Department of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Klinikstrasse 33, 35385 Giessen (Germany); Heiss, Christian [University Hospital of Giessen-Marburg, Department of Trauma Surgery, Rudolf-Buchheim-Strasse 7, 35385 Giessen, Germany, (Germany); Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Kerkraderstrasse 9, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Destri, Giovanni Li; Marletta, Giovanni [Laboratory for Molecular Surfaces and Nanotechnology (LAMSUN), Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and CSGI, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Rezwan, Kurosch [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    Enhanced coating stability and adhesion are essential for long-term success of orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, the effect of coating composition on mechanical, physico-chemical and biological properties of coated zirconia specimens is investigated. Zirconia discs and dental screw implants are coated using the wet powder spraying (WPS) technique. The coatings are obtained by mixing yttria-stabilized zirconia (TZ) and hydroxyapatite (HA) in various ratios while a pure HA coating served as reference material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometer analysis confirm a similar coating morphology and roughness for all studied coatings, whereas the coating stability can be tailored with composition and is probed by insertion and dissections experiments in bovine bone with coated zirconia screw implants. An increasing content of calcium phosphate (CP) resulted in a decrease of mechanical and chemical stability, while the bioactivity increased in simulated body fluid (SBF). In vitro experiments with human osteoblast cells (HOB) revealed that the cells grew well on all samples but are affected by dissolution behavior of the studied coatings. This work demonstrates the overall good mechanical strength, the excellent interfacial bonding and the bioactivity potential of coatings with higher TZ contents, which provide a highly interesting coating for dental implants. - Highlights: • Different ratios of zirconia (TZ) and calcium phosphate (CP) were deposited on zirconia substrates. • Enhancement of TZ content in mixed coatings increased coating stability. • Enhancement of CP content in mixed coatings increased bioactivity. • All tested coating compositions were non-toxic.

  10. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (nano-ceramic coatings (TiO2, ZnO) on plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  11. Corrosion-resistant coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.; Kupp, D.M.; Martin, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    SiC-based heat exchangers have been identified as the prime candidate material for use as heat exchangers in advanced combined cycle power plants. Unfortunately, hot corrosion of the SiC-based materials created by alkali metal salts present in the combustion gases dictates the need for corrosion-resistant coatings. The well-documented corrosion resistance of CS-50 combined with its low (and tailorable) coefficient of thermal expansion and low modulus makes CS-50 an ideal candidate for this application. Coatings produced by gelcasting and traditional particulate processing have been evaluated.

  12. Photodegradation mechanisms of TPB coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanGemert, J. K.

    2013-10-01

    In these proceedings I discuss results of a degradation mechanism study of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings of the type used in neutrino and dark matter liquid argon experiments. Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GCMS) we identified the UV blocking impurity benzophenone. We monitored the drop in performance and increase of benzophenone concentration in TPB plates with exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, and demonstrate the correlation between these two variables. We show promisng results obtained by adding a free radical inhibiting stabilizing compound, which improves the initial performance of light-guide coatings by up to 20% and significantly improves their UV stability. These proceedings summarize work previously published in JINST [1].

  13. Thin Films for Coating Nanomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Mukhopadhyay; P.Joshi; R.V.Pulikollu

    2005-01-01

    For nano-structured solids (those with one or more dimensions in the 1-100 nm range), attempts of surface modification can pose significant and new challenges. In traditional materials, the surface coating could be several hundreds nanometers in thickness, or even microns and millimeters. In a nano-structured material, such as particle or nanofibers, the coating thickness has to be substantially smaller than the bulk dimensions (100 nm or less), yet be durable and effective. In this paper, some aspects of effective nanometer scale coatings have been discussed. These films have been deposited by a non-line of sight (plasma)techniques; and therefore, they are capable of modifying nanofibers, near net shape cellular foams, and other high porosity materials. Two types of coatings will be focused upon: (a) those that make the surface inert and (b) those designed to enhance surface reactivity and bonding. The former has been achieved by forming 1-2 nm layer of -CF2- (and/or CF3) groups on the surface, and the latter by creating a nanolayer of SiO2-type compound. Nucleation and growth studies of the plasma-generated film indicate that they start forming as 2-3 nm high islands that grow laterally, and eventually completely cover the surface with 2-3nm film. Contact angle measurements indicate that these nano-coatings are fully functional even before they have achieved complete coverage of 2-3 nm. They should therefore be applicable to nano-structural solids.This is corroborated by application of these films on vapor grown nanofibers of carbon, and on graphitic foams. Coated and uncoated materials are infiltrated with epoxy matrix to form composites and their microstructure, as well as mechanical behaviors are compared. The results show that the nano-oxide coating can significantly enhance bond formation between carbon and organic phases, thereby enhancing wettability,dispersion, and composite behavior. The fluorocarbon coating, as expected, reduces bond formation, and

  14. Laser-based coatings removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D ampersand D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building

  15. Lead brick with a resistant coating and the coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns a lead brick with a resistant coating made from an elastomer material such silicone type, giving a smooth surface able to be decontaminated. The brick allows to build biological protection barriers to protect users against injurious radiations, specially, x radiations or gamma radiations. (N.C.). 6 refs., 4 figs

  16. Anticorrosion properties of polyaniline-coated pigments in organic coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalendová, A.; Sapurina, I.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Veselý, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 12 (2008), s. 3549-3560. ISSN 0010-938X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 847 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : anticorrosion pigment * polyaniline * coating Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.293, year: 2008

  17. 基于热重分析法的烟煤掺烧褐煤特性研究%Combustion Characteristics of Bituminous Coal Blended with Lignite Using Thermo-gravimetric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志斌; 马莹; 戴新; 赵建军; 关彦军; 张锴

    2015-01-01

    针对电厂掺烧褐煤缺乏相关理论指导的技术需求,采用热重分析方法系统考察了包煤、准煤和褐煤的单独燃烧特性,并将两种烟煤分别以10%、30%、50%和70%的比例在相同条件下与褐煤混合燃烧,根据各燃料燃烧特征参数计算了单一煤种及其不同掺混比例的着火指数、燃尽指数和综合燃烧指数。结果表明,褐煤最易着火和燃尽;包煤着火特性较好,但在550~660℃范围内出现难燃峰致使燃尽特性变差;准煤的着火特性最差,燃尽特性略优于包煤;将包煤和准煤与褐煤掺混后燃烧特性有所改善,各燃烧特征温度降低,且综合燃烧指数随褐煤掺烧比例的增加而增加。建议在电厂实际应用时,褐煤的掺烧比例控制在30%-50%之间。%Based on the actual requirement for fundamental theory of blending lignite in coal-fired power stations, combustion characteristics of lignite, bituminous coal and their blends were investigated by using thermogravimetric method ( TGA) in this paper.Lignite was blended with two types of bituminous coals in proportions of 10%, 30%, 50%and 70%, respectively.The ignition index, burnout index and comprehensive combustion index of single and mixed fuels were calculated by means of combustion characteristic parameters.The results show that lig-nite displays the best ignition and burnout performace, Bao coal is easier to ignite but hard to burn out in the tem-perature range of 550 and 660℃.Compared to Bao coal, Zhun coal is the hardest to ignite but better to burn out. The performance of combustion can be improved after blending lignite, which is largely because the comprehensive combustion index of blended coals increases with the increasing ratio of lignite.Therefore, the blending ratio of lig-nite suggested lignite ration should be controlled between 30%and 50%.

  18. EFFECT OF COAL-SWELLING AND SYNCHRONOUSLY SUPPORTED CATALYSTS ON COPROCESSING OF BITUMINOUS COAL AND HEAVY OILS%同步溶胀-担载催化剂对烟煤-重油共炼的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈军; 石斌; 郭龙德; 郭智慧; 田华; 张建芳

    2011-01-01

    以Fe(NO3)3和Na2S分别作为催化剂前体和原位硫化剂,在20℃下分别用水、甲醇(M)、N-N二甲基甲酰胺(DMF)和二甲亚砜(DMSO)对神华烟煤溶胀12 h,同步溶胀-担载催化剂后的烟煤脱除溶剂后与轮古常渣(LGAR)和杜84超稠油(Du84)在2:1油煤质量比,8 MPa冷氢压,420℃,1h的条件下进行加氢共处理.结果表明,神华烟煤经过溶胀处理后与两种重油共处理的液化率都明显提高,煤的转化率明显增大;三种有机溶胀剂相比,DMF同步溶胀促进液化效果最好,其次为DMSO,甲醇最差.两种配油相比,Du84比LGAR更适合煤-重油共处理.XRD分析表明,同步溶胀-担载法制备的溶胀煤栽铁催化剂以非晶态和高分散的状态存在于溶胀煤表面,在共处理中催化剂最终转化为Fe1-xS.在煤-重油共处理中,经DMF同步溶胀-担载的催化剂失活,结晶相对不明显.%Fe(NO3)3 as catalytic precursor and Na2S as in-situ presulfurizer were impregnated on the Shenhua bituminous coals which were synchronously swollen with H2O, methanol, N-N dimethylformamide (DMF) or dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) at 20 'C for 12 h. Then the swollen coals were prepared by vacuum drying. The co-processing of swollen Shenhua coal and two heavy oils(LGAR and Du84) was carried on under the condition of the mass ratio of 2:1 oil to coal, 8 Mpa cold hydrogen pressure,420℃ and 1 h. The coprocessing of the swollen bituminous coal and LGAR or Du84 was significantly improved on the coal liquefaction. Among the three swelling solvents, the improvement of DMF was the highest, that of DMSO was the better and methanol were the lowest. Du84 was favor in the coprocessing than LGAR. By XRD analysis, the iron catalysts on the swollen coal with Fe(NO3)3 synchronously impregnated with the solvents were amorphous and highly dispersed on coal surface and could transform into Fe1-x S in the coprocessing. During the coprocessing, the deactivation of the catalyst synchronously impregnated on

  19. Enhanced adhesion of diamond coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhido

    Diamond coatings are of interest for a wide range of applications due to the unique properties of crystalline diamond. Many applications require that the coating adhere strongly to metallic substrates which may have a large difference in thermal expansion coefficient with diamond. These substrates may also have undesirable chemical interactions with carbon during the deposition of the coatings. Intermediate layers are a possible solution to both of these problems. Such layers can act as diffusion barriers preventing the deleterious chemical interactions, and may help to accommodate the thermal expansion mismatch strains. Several aspects of these issues are addressed in this work. The mechanics of the interface for a coating-substrate system loaded by thermal expansion mismatch is modeled. Both continuous coatings and coatings containing a through-thickness hole surrounded by an annular delamination crack are examined. Analytic expressions for the stress distribution in the film and in the substrate are derived by representing the thermal expansion mismatch loads as tractions and moments acting along the outer free edge of the specimen and along the tip of the annular crack. The loads near the center hole are found to vary with the size of the delamination crack, and hence constitute a driving force for growth of such a delamination. The strain energy release rate for the growth of the annular crack surrounding the central hole is derived, and expressed in terms of the thermal expansion misfit between film and substrate; their thickness, elastic moduli and Poisson's ratios; and the characteristic dimensions of the film-substrate system. The crack driving force is found to decrease as the delamination crack surrounding the hole propagates, and hence a relationship between crack length and crack driving force is established. The requirements for an effective intermediate layer between diamond films and Fe-group containing substrate materials are described, and two

  20. Brownian Thermal Noise in Multilayer Coated Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Ting; Gustafson, Eric K; Adhikari, Rana X; Chen, Yanbei

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the Brownian thermal noise of a multi-layer dielectric coating, used in high-precision optical measurements including interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. We assume the coating material to be isotropic, and therefore study thermal noises arising from shear and bulk losses of the coating materials. We show that coating noise arises not only from layer thickness fluctuations, but also from fluctuations of the interface between the coating and substrate, driven by internal fluctuating stresses of the coating. In addition, the non-zero photoeleastic coefficients of the thin films modifies the influence of the thermal noise on the laser field. The thickness fluctuations of different layers are statistically independent, however, there exists a finite coherence between layers and the substrate-coating interface. Taking into account uncertainties in material parameters, we show that significant uncertainties still exist in estimating coating Brownian noise.

  1. Durable Dust Repellent Coating for Metals Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Durable Dust Repellent Coating (DDRC) consists of nano-phase silica, titania, or other oxide coatings to repel dust in a vacuum environment over a wide range of...

  2. STUDY ON VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF PAPER COATING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng Zhang; Kefu Chen; Rendang Yang

    2004-01-01

    The flow behavior of paper coating is critical to the coating operation. In this work, the influence of the added agents on the flow behavior and the viscoelastic behavior is investigated using rheometer in steady and dynamic oscillatory modes.

  3. Brownian thermal noise in multilayer coated mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ting; Yang, Huan; Gustafson, Eric K.; Adhikari, Rana X.; Chen, Yanbei

    2013-04-01

    We analyze the Brownian thermal noise of a multilayer dielectric coating used in high-precision optical measurements, including interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. We assume the coating material to be isotropic, and therefore study thermal noises arising from shear and bulk losses of the coating materials. We show that coating noise arises not only from layer thickness fluctuations, but also from fluctuations of the interface between the coating and substrate, driven by fluctuating shear stresses of the coating. Although thickness fluctuations of different layers are statistically independent, there exists a finite coherence between the layers and the substrate-coating interface. In addition, photoelastic coefficients of the thin layers (so far not accurately measured) further influence the thermal noise, although at a relatively low level. Taking into account uncertainties in material parameters, we show that significant uncertainties still exist in estimating coating Brownian noise.

  4. Measurements of the optical mirror coating properties

    OpenAIRE

    Braginsky, V. B.; Samoilenko, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    The results of measurement of optical mirror coating are presented. These results indicate that Standard Quantum Limit of sensitivity can be reached in the second stage of LIGO project if it is limited by thermoelastic noise in the coating only.

  5. Antireflective Coatings for Glass and Transparent Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskens, Pascal; Burghoorn, Marieke; Mourad, Maurice Christian Danho; Vroon, Zeger

    2016-07-12

    Antireflective coatings (ARCs) are applied to reduce surface reflections. We review coatings that reduce the reflection of the surface of the transparent substrates float glass, polyethylene terephthalate, poly(methyl methacrylate), and polycarbonate. Three main coating concepts exist to lower the reflection at the interface of a transparent substrate and air: multilayer interference coatings, graded index coatings, and quarter-wave coatings. We introduce and discuss these three concepts, and zoom in on porous quarter-wave coatings comprising colloidal particles. We extensively discuss the four routes for introducing porosity in quarter-wave coatings through the use of colloidal particles, which have the highest potential for application: (1) packing of dense nanospheres, (2) integration of voids through hollow nanospheres, (3) integration of voids through sacrificial particle templates, and (4) packing of nonspherical nanoparticles. Finally, we address the remaining challenges in the field of ARCs, and elaborate on potential strategies for future research in this area. PMID:27187719

  6. Oxidation reaction of pyrolytic carbon coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of pyrolytic carbon coatings on commercial grade graphite substrate in oxidizing environment is described. Specimens were examined under sputtering in plasma of oxygen and argon, or in an oxidizing solution of K2CrO7+H3PO4. Specimens of commercial grade graphite (ATJ) were quickly eroded under these conditions, compared to coated specimens. The erosion rate of the coating is dependent on its thickness and on the mean monticules diameter. The coatings disintegrated in the oxidizing environment in three steps: etching of monticules' boundaries; widening of the boundaries or cracking of the coating; falling off the coating. The degree of erosion decreased with increasing mean monticules diameter and increased where the diameter was non-homogeneous. The resistance of the coating to wear- under these oxidizing conditions- can be enhanced by homogenization of the coating and by its deposition in layered films. (author)

  7. Fusion silicide coatings for tantalum alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, R. V.; Stetson, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the performance of fusion silicide coatings under simulated atmospheric reentry conditions to a maximum temperature of 1810 K (2800 F). Both recently developed and commercially available coatings are included. Data are presented on oxidation rate with and without intentional defecting, the influence of the coatings on the ductile-brittle bend transition temperature, and the mechanical properties. Coatings appear capable of affording protection for at least 100 simulated cycles to 2600 F and 63 cycles to 2800 F.

  8. Microneedle Coating Techniques for Transdermal Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Haj-Ahmad; Hashim Khan; Muhammad Sohail Arshad; Manoochehr Rasekh; Amjad Hussain; Susannah Walsh; Xiang Li; Ming-Wei Chang; Zeeshan Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Drug administration via the transdermal route is an evolving field that provides an alternative to oral and parenteral routes of therapy. Several microneedle (MN) based approaches have been developed. Among these, coated MNs (typically where drug is deposited on MN tips) are a minimally invasive method to deliver drugs and vaccines through the skin. In this review, we describe several processes to coat MNs. These include dip coating, gas jet drying, spray coating, electrohydrodynamic atomisat...

  9. Friction- and wear-reducing coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong; Milner, Robert; Elmoursi, Alaa AbdelAzim

    2011-10-18

    A coating includes a first layer of a ceramic alloy and a second layer disposed on the first layer and including carbon. The coating has a hardness of from 10 to 20 GPa and a coefficient of friction of less than or equal to 0.12. A method of coating a substrate includes cleaning the substrate, forming the first layer on the substrate, and depositing the second layer onto the first layer to thereby coat the substrate.

  10. Hard Coating on Steel – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. HiteshriJadhav; Mr.Parthiv Trivedi

    2014-01-01

    Now a days various coating techniques are being used in different fields for a large number of applications. This paper consists of different effects and its respective changes on the steel substrate material coated by High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF) coating. It helps enhance the properties such as micro structure, abrasive wear, wear resistance etc. and various techniques such as SEM, XRD, Pin-On-Disc etc. are used to check and analysis these properties. On hard coating steel the material may ...

  11. Deposition and Coating Properties on CVD Tungsten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ji-hong; LI Zheng-xiang; LIU Gao-jian; ZHOU Hui-Huang; CHUN liang

    2004-01-01

    Surface characterization and microstructure studies are performed on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) tungsten coating. There is about 2 μm thickness diffusion layer of tungsten in the molybdenum substrate. The thermal shock test shows tungsten coating has good adhesion with molybdenum substrate, but the elements of oxygen and carbon in the tungsten coating have the bad affection to the adhesion. The result of high-temperature diffusion experiment is the diffusion rate from molybdenum substrate to tungsten coating is faster.

  12. Sputter coating of microspherical substrates by levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, A.T.; Hosford, C.D.

    Microspheres are substantially uniformly coated with metals or nonmetals by simltaneously levitating them and sputter coating them at total chamber pressures less than 1 torr. A collimated hole structure comprising a parallel array of upwardly projecting individual gas outlets is machined out to form a dimple. Glass microballoons,, which are particularly useful in laser fusion applications, can be substantially uniformly coated using the coating method and apparatus.

  13. RECENT TECHNIQUES OF PHARMACEUTICAL SOLVENTLESS COATING: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Shital Dhuppe , S.S. Mitkare*, D.M. Sakarkar

    2012-01-01

    The coating of solid pharmaceutical dosage forms began in the 9th century B. C., with the Egyptians. Conventional coating techniques are based on solvents or water. Solventless coatings are alternative technique of coating. In solventless coating, the coating material is directly spread on the core and then it is cured by special method to form coat. Solventless coating avoids the use of water or it reduces to very small amounts with respect t...

  14. Thermal stability of phosphate coatings on steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The work was validated thermal stability of zinc, manganese and tri-cations phosphate coatings on steel, made from commercial phosphating bath type Pragofos. Thermogravimetric data dehydration of scholzite, phosphophylite and hureaulite coatings in the temperature range 160 °C – 400 °C define the conditions for applying paints with higher firing temperature or thermal spraying ceramic coatings.

  15. Optimized coating removal by cold shock treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of removing coatings from nuclear power plant components, especially such with residual contamination, makes use of the self-contained stress developing during heat extraction. In this connection the nitrogen application process without and with preheating by means of hot air, infrared and microwave radiation was tested. The problem of auxiliary coatings was examined, and model coatings were developed. (DG)

  16. Microstructure and properties of high emissivity coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Dan; Daqiang Cang; Huimin Zhou; Hao Bai; Yanbin Zong

    2008-01-01

    A new coating on lining in industrial furnace for energy saving has been developed. Properties and microstructure of the coatings were revealed by emissivity instrument, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The result indicates that the emissivity of coatings is higher than 0.90 and the thickness of coatings is about 200 μm. ZrO2, Cr2O3 and SiC in the coating benefit practical applications of coatings at high temperature with du-rable high emissivity and the continuous structure between the coatings and the substrate makes the coatings high cohesion and ex-cellent adhesion for both specimens with and without sintering at high temperature. Result fi'om laboratory experiment shows that the heating speed of specimen with coating is higher than that of controlled specimen and the temperature increases 30℃ during the heating. The average temperature drop of specimen with coatings has a 13.5% improvement in the cooling speed. The application of coatings on the checker brick in a blast furnace of 1750 m3 indicates that the coating causes the blast temperature to an average in-crease of 28℃, reduces the fluctuation of blast temperature before the blowing-in and leads to a fuel saving of 10% approximately.

  17. Superhard nano-multilayers and nanocomposite coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Xiaoming; ZHENG Weitao; AN Tao

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent development of nano-multilayers and nanocomposite coatings. The hardening mechanisms and design of hard coating are discussed in details. Recent research on Ti/TiN and nitride/nitride multilayer, Ti-Si-N and Ti-Al-Si-N nanocomposite coatings is described, and the perspectives of the related research are proposed.

  18. Dissolution kinetics of calcium phosphate coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, E M; Lucas, L C

    1998-01-01

    Plasma spray and high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) techniques produce coatings with varying composition and amounts of amorphous and crystalline phases. For coatings containing greater amorphous phases, a higher release of calcium ions is evident when samples are placed in Hank's calcium-free balanced salt solutions. Calcium is released from the amorphous phases in the coating, a conclusion that is supported by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) results. Ion beam sputtering and RF magnetron sputtering under lower energy conditions produce amorphous coatings that will dissolve in a very short time period. When heat treated, crystalline phases are produced in the coatings. Heat-treated coatings are significantly more stable than the amorphous coatings. The dissolution rates of both amorphous and crystalline coatings produced by RF magnetron sputtering have been measured under constant solution conditions at pH 6.50. No reprecipitation is possible under these conditions. The amorphous coating dissolved at a significantly higher rate than the heat-treated coating. Reprecipitation of calcium phosphate onto amorphous coatings is possible in a physiological pH solution. Under these conditions, the dissolution rate of the amorphous coating is four times slower than at the pH 6.50 conditions. PMID:10196809

  19. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.

    1979-01-01

    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  20. Thermal stability of phosphated coatings on steels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Pokorný, P.; Szelag, P.; Cinert, Jakub

    Zagreb: Croatian Metallurgical Society (CMS), 2014 - (Mamuzić, I.). s. 405 ISBN N. [International Symposium of Croatian Metallurgical Society SHMD 2014/11./. 22.06.2014-26.06.2014, Šibenik] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : steel phosphating * phosphate coatings * plasma spraying * ceramic coatings * corrosion resistance * bond strength of coatings Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  1. Progress in coating development for fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of effective and reliable coatings is a key to the viability of most, if not all, fusion blanket systems. The specific purpose and requirements of the coatings vary widely, depending on the blanket concept. The efforts on coating development to date have focused primarily on electrically insulating coatings for the self-cooled lithium concepts with a vanadium alloy structure, and the tritium barrier coatings for the water-cooled, Pb-Li (WCLL) breeder concepts with ferritic steel structures. Although other coating materials are under consideration, most of the effort on the electrically insulating coatings has focused on CaO and AlN coatings on V-4Cr-4Ti alloy structure. Most of the effort on the tritium barrier coating development is focused on Al2O3 coatings formed on aluminized ferritic steels. This paper presents an overview of the status of coating development for the various fusion concepts with emphasis on the materials interaction and chemistry control issues associated with the formation, stability and performance of the coatings

  2. Electron curing of surface coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical development of electron curing of surface coatings has received great impetus since 1970 from dramatic changes in the economics of the conventional thermal process. The most important of these changes are reviewed, including: the Clear Air Act, increasing cost and restrictive allocation of energy, decreased availability and increased costs of solvents, competitive pressure for higher line productivity. The principles of free-radical initiated curing as they pertain to industrial coatings are reviewed. Although such electron initiated processes have been under active development for at least two decades, high volume production applications on an industrial scale have only recently appeared. These installations are surveyed with emphasis on the developments in machinery and coatings which have made this possible. The most significant economic advantages of electron curing are presented. In particular, the ability of electron curing to eliminate substrate damage and to eliminate the curing station (oven) as the pacing element for most industrial surface coating curing applications is discussed. Examples of several new processes of particular interest in the textile industry are reviewed, including the curing of transfer cast urethane films, flock adhesives, and graftable surface finishes

  3. Fatigue failure of coated structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knésl, Zdeněk; Náhlík, Luboš; Bareš, Pavel

    Riga : Institute of polymer mechanics, University of Latvia, 2006. s. 92-92. [Mechanics of Composite Materials. 29.05.2006-02.06.2006, Riga] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP106/04/P084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : protective coatings * interface Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  4. Topology optimization for coated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Andreassen, Erik; Sigmund, Ole

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents new results within the design of three-dimensional (3D) coated structures using topology optimization.The work is an extension of a recently published two-dimensional (2D) method for including coatedstructures into the minimum compliance topology optimization problem. The high...

  5. Protective coatings for commercial particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindl, B.; Teng, Y.H.; Liu, Y.L.

    1994-01-01

    SiC/Al composites are in large-scale production with Al-Si alloy matrices. The same composites with pure Al or low Si matrices need diffusion barriers on the SiC reinforcement to control the interfacial reaction. The present paper describes various approaches taken to obtain protective coatings of...... alumina and zirconia on SiC particulates by sol-gel techniques. Aqueous and organic precursors have been used. The extent of the reaction, i.e., the Si and Al4C3 content in the matrix, was determined by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The reaction rates of some coated particulates in...... liquid Al are decreased by as much as one order of magnitude during the first 15 min of immersion. Pretreatments of the SiC surface, the composition and thickness of the coating interphase and heat treatments of the coated materials have been studied, and are discussed in relation to their effect on the...

  6. Mechanically reliable scales and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Alexander, K.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In many high-temperature fossil energy systems, corrosion and deleterious environmental effects arising from reactions with reactive gases and condensible products often compromise materials performance and, as a consequence, degrade operating efficiencies. Protection of materials from such reactions is best afforded by the formation of stable surface oxides (either as deposited coatings or thermally grown scales) that are slowly reacting, continuous, dense, and adherent to the substrate. However, the ability of normally brittle ceramic films and coatings to provide such protection has long been problematical, particularly for applications involving numerous or severe high-temperature thermal cycles or very aggressive (for example, sulfidizing) environments. A satisfactory understanding of how scale and coating integrity and adherence are improved by compositional, microstructural, and processing modifications is lacking. Therefore, to address this issue, the present work is intended to define the relationships between substrate characteristics (composition, microstructure, and mechanical behavior) and the structure and protective properties of deposited oxide coatings and/or thermally grown scales. Such information is crucial to the optimization of the chemical, interfacial, and mechanical properties of the protective oxides on high-temperature materials through control of processing and composition and directly supports the development of corrosion-resistant, high-temperature materials for improved energy and environmental control systems.

  7. TRIBOLOGICAL COATINGS SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa A. Lopata

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available  The strategy and methodology for selecting of optimal surface treatment for a given tribological application are the main objectives of study. The scheme of development of operation technology of surface treatment and coating deposition is proposed.

  8. Laser micromachining of goldblack coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, N; Dowson, J; Rizvi, N; Rohr, T

    2006-09-20

    Goldblack deposits have been used as high-absorption coatings for thermal infrared detectors for a number of years, principally on large single, or few pixel detectors. We present a new technique that allows the benefits of goldblack to be applied to the current generation of small pixel silicon micromachined thermal infrared detectors. PMID:16946774

  9. Polyaniline-coated silica gel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Quadrat, Otakar; Sapurina, I.; Zemek, Josef; Drelinkiewicz, A.; Hasik, M.; Křivka, I.; Prokeš, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2002), s. 631-637. ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050907 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : polyaniline * polyaniline coating * polyaniline film Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.952, year: 2002

  10. Finite Element Analysis of Ceramic Coatings under Spherical Indentation with Metallic Interlayer: Part Ⅰ Uncracked Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minh-Quy LE; Seock-Sam KIM

    2006-01-01

    Spherical indentation of ceramic coatings with metallic interlayer was performed by means of axisymmetric finite element analysis (FEA). Two typical ceramic coatings with relatively high and low elastic modulus deposited on aluminum alloy and carbon steel were considered. Various combinations of indenter radius-coating thickness ratios and interlayer thickness-coating thickness ratios were used in the modeling. The effects of the interlayer, the coating and the substrate on the indentation behavior, such as the radial stress distribution along the coating surface as well as the coating interface, and the plastic deformation zone evolution in the substrate were investigated in connection with the above mentioned ratios. The coating cracking dominant modes were also discussed within the context of the peak tensile stresses on the coating surface and on the coating interface.

  11. Dip coating of boron nitride thin films on nicalon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses a process involving dip coating of ceramic fibers in H3BO3 solution followed by reaction with NH3 has resulted in the formation of a BN coating on Nicalon and a carbon coated Nicalon fiber. BN coated C-Nicalon fiber maintained its strength during the coating process, while the BN coated Nicalon did not

  12. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  13. Analytical Modeling of Hard-Coating Cantilever Composite Plate considering the Material Nonlinearity of Hard Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Sun; Ying Liu; Guangyu Du

    2015-01-01

    Due to the material nonlinearity of hard coating, the coated structure produces the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of variable stiffness and damping, which make the modeling of hard-coating composite structure become a challenging task. In this study, the polynomial was adopted to characterize this material nonlinearity and an analytical modeling method was developed for the hard-coating composite plate. Firstly, to relate the hard-coating material parameters obtained by test and the analytica...

  14. Evaluation of irradiated coating material specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Jin; Nam, Seok Woo; Cho, Lee Moon [RCS Korea Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    Evaluation result of irradiated coating material specimens - Coating material specimens radiated Gamma Energy(Co 60) in air condition. - Evaluation conditions was above 1 X 10{sup 4} Gy/hr, and radiated TID 2.0 X 10{sup 6} Gy. - The radiated coating material specimens, No Checking, Cracking, Flaking, Delamination, Peeling and Blistering. - Coating system at the Kori no. 1 and APR 1400 Nuclear power plant, evaluation of irradiated coating materials is in accordance with owner's requirement(2.0 X 10{sup 6} Gy)

  15. Transparent electrode with a nanostructured coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan Y; Terentjev, Eugene M

    2011-03-22

    Using single-walled nanotubes as an example, we fabricated transparent conductive coatings and demonstrated a new technique of centrifuge coating as a potential low-waste, solution-based batch process for the fabrication of nanostructured coatings. A theoretical model is developed to account for the sheet resistance exhibited by layered random-network coatings such as nanofilaments and graphene. The model equation is analytical and compact, and allows the correlation of very different scaling regimes reported in the literature to the underlying coating microstructure. Finally, we also show a refined experimental setup to systematically measure the curvature-dependent sheet resistance. PMID:21370898

  16. Coatings for fast breeder reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several types of metallurgical coatings are used in the unique environments of the fast breeder reactor. Most of the coatings have been developed for tribological applications, but some also serve as corrosion barriers, diffusion barriers, or radionuclide traps. The materials that have consistently given the best performance as tribological coatings in the breeder reactor environments have been coatings based on chromium carbide, nickel aluminide, or Tribaloy 700 (a nickel-base hard-facing alloy). Other coatings that have been qualified for limited applications include chromium plating for low temperature galling protection and nickel plating for radionuclide trapping

  17. Coating metals on micropowders by magnetron sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Magnetron sputtering was used to coat various metals on micropowder surfaces. By using this method, the fine particles are better dispersed and can therefore be coated more homogeneously. The micro-powders used include cenospheres from fly ash of coal-burning electric power plants (diameter 40-200 μm and particle density 0.7±0.1 g/cm3), as well as carborundum particles of different sizes. Aluminum, silver, copper, cobalt and nickel were used as the coating metals. Tests showed that the coated metal film was compact adhering tightly on the base powders, and the coated powders possess adequate flow properties.

  18. Method for making nanoporous hydrophobic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou; Sun, Zaicheng

    2013-04-23

    A simple coating method is used to form nanoporous hydrophobic films that can be used as optical coatings. The method uses evaporation-induced self-assembly of materials. The coating method starts with a homogeneous solution comprising a hydrophobic polymer and a surfactant polymer in a selective solvent. The solution is coated onto a substrate. The surfactant polymer forms micelles with the hydrophobic polymer residing in the particle core when the coating is dried. The surfactant polymer can be dissolved and selectively removed from the separated phases by washing with a polar solvent to form the nanoporous hydrophobic film.

  19. TABLET COATING TECHNIQUES: CONCEPTS AND RECENT TRENDS

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Ankit; Bilandi Ajay; Kataria Mahesh Kumar; Khatri Neetu

    2012-01-01

    Tablet coating is a common pharmaceutical technique of applying a thin polymer-based film to a tablet or a granule containing active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Solid dosage forms are coated for a number of reasons, the most important of which is controlling the release profiles. The amount of coating on the surface of a tablet is critical to the effectiveness of the oral dosage form. Tablets are usually coated in horizontal rotating pans with the coating solution sprayed onto the free ...

  20. Beyond CANLUB: an improvement alternative coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, M.; Ferrier, G.A; Chan, P.K.; Corcoran, E.C., E-mail: Paul.Chan@rmc.ca, E-mail: Emily.Corcoran@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Pant, A. [Cameco Fuel Manufacturing Limited, Port Hope/Cobourg, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The CANLUB graphite coating is exclusively used in CANDU nuclear reactors to protect fuel sheaths from stress corrosion cracking. However, uncertainties regarding its quality control, manufacturing continuity, and performance at high burnups provide sufficient motivation for exploring alternative coating materials. Since the chemistry of polysiloxanes may offer improved protection against stress corrosion cracking, we describe the physical and elemental characterization of CANLUB and three commercial polysiloxane coatings. Preliminary results suggest that the Pyromark coating has the greatest potential to replace the CANLUB coating. (author)

  1. Beyond CANLUB: an improvement alternative coating development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANLUB graphite coating is exclusively used in CANDU nuclear reactors to protect fuel sheaths from stress corrosion cracking. However, uncertainties regarding its quality control, manufacturing continuity, and performance at high burnups provide sufficient motivation for exploring alternative coating materials. Since the chemistry of polysiloxanes may offer improved protection against stress corrosion cracking, we describe the physical and elemental characterization of CANLUB and three commercial polysiloxane coatings. Preliminary results suggest that the Pyromark coating has the greatest potential to replace the CANLUB coating. (author)

  2. Levitation, coating, and transport of particulate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several processes in various fields require uniformly thick coatings and layers on small particles. The particles may be used as carriers of catalytic materials (platinum or other coatings), as laser fusion targets (various polymer or metallic coatings), or for biological or other tracer or interactive processes. We have devised both molecular beam and electro-dynamic techniques for levitation of the particles during coating and electrodynamic methods of controlling and transporting the particles between coating steps and to final use locations. Both molecular beam and electrodynamic techniques are described and several advantages and limitations of each will be discussed. A short movie of an operating electrodynamic levitation and transport apparatus will be shown

  3. Levitation, coating, and transport of particulate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-10-12

    Several processes in various fields require uniformly thick coatings and layers on small particles. The particles may be used as carriers of catalytic materials (platinum or other coatings), as laser fusion targets (various polymer or metallic coatings), or for biological or other tracer or interactive processes. We have devised both molecular beam and electro-dynamic techniques for levitation of the particles during coating and electrodynamic methods of controlling and transporting the particles between coating steps and to final use locations. Both molecular beam and electrodynamic techniques are described and several advantages and limitations of each will be discussed. A short movie of an operating electrodynamic levitation and transport apparatus will be shown.

  4. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

  5. Fracture mechanical behavior of thermal sprayed coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work was to study the fracture mechanical behavior of thick coatings to predict the lifetime of coated components. Four different thermal coatings were investigated. One flame sprayed coating of pure molybdenum and three plasma sprayed aluminum-silica coatings with different molybdenum percentages. The microstructure of the coatings was identified with the scanning electron microscope and the light microscope. With a nanoindenter local hardness and young's modulus values were measured. X-ray studies were used to estimate the grain size of the investigated materials. Special fracture mechanical tests were made to study the behavior of cracks parallel to the coating substrate interface. Three point bending tests were carried out to study the behavior of cracks perpendicular to the coating substrate interface. Bending tests on free standing coatings were used to determine the fracture toughness of the coatings. These tests permitted to study the global fracture mechanical behavior of the coatings. By means of indentation fracture toughness tests we examined the local fracture behavior of the materials. With the local toughness values and taking into account the mismatch, and crack path it was possible to predict the results of the global measurements. (author)

  6. Black Molecular Adsorber Coatings for Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Hasegawa, Mark Makoto; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  7. Heat treatment of thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with CoNiCrAlY bond-coat and 0.3 mm thick zirconia top-coat were air plasma sprayed (APS) onto a nickel-base super alloy, Hastelloy-X and 316L stainless substrates. The samples were heat treated at different temperatures. The resulting microstructural features and fracture surfaces of the zirconia top-coat were studied by optical and electron microscopies. Formation of spinels was observed close to the thermal grown oxide (TGO)/top-coat interface, and it was noticed that this layer became thicker during long heat treatments. Top-coat phase stability was assessed by X-ray diffraction, and it was observed that for long heat treatments the top-coat transformed up to 26% into monoclinic phase. Residual stresses and relative interfacial toughness are also important factors, which affect the life of the TBC. They were determined by the hole drill method and by Vickers indentation. The relative interfacial toughness between the top-coat and bond-coat increased with increasing temperature for nickel-base super alloy substrates whereas, for stainless steel based TBCs it increased only up to 650 deg. C and then decreased with increasing temperature. For long heat treatments, the nickel-base TBCs showed that the interface between top-coat and bond-coat deteriorated with extended exposure time

  8. Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  9. Coating to enhance metal-polymer adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathi, A.; Mahulikar, D. [Olin Metals Research Laboratories, New Haven, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An ultra-thin electroplated coating has been developed to enhance adhesion of metals to polymers. The coating was developed for microelectronic packaging applications where it greatly improves adhesion of metal leadframes to plastic molding compounds. Recent tests show that the coating enhances adhesion of different metals to other types of adhesives as well and may thus have wider applicability. Results of adhesion tests with this coating, as well as its other characteristics such as corrosion resistance, are discussed. The coating is a very thin transparent electroplated coating containing zinc and chromium. It has been found to be effective on a variety of metal surfaces including copper alloys, Fe-Ni alloys, Al alloys, stainless steel, silver, nickel, Pd/Ni and Ni-Sn. Contact resistance measurements show that the coating has little or no effect on electrical resistivity.

  10. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A method of preparing an aluminum mold for injection molding is provided, the method comprises the steps of providing an aluminum mold having a least one surface, subjecting the at least one surface to a gas or liquid phase silane to thereby form an anti-stiction coating, the anti-stiction coating...... comprising a chemically bonded monolayer of silane compounds on the at least one surface wherein the silane is a halogenated silane. The at least one surface coated with the anti-stiction coating may be configured to withstand an injection molding process at a pressure above 100 MPa. Furthermore, a mold...... having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding of...

  11. Electrical contact arrangement for a coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; McCamy, James W; Boyd, Donald W

    2013-09-17

    A protective coating is applied to the electrically conductive surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by biasing a conductive member having a layer of a malleable electrically conductive material, e.g. a paste, against a portion of the conductive surface while moving an electrodepositable coating composition over the conductive surface. The moving of the electrodepositable coating composition over the conductive surface includes moving the solar mirror through a flow curtain of the electrodepositable coating composition and submerging the solar mirror in a pool of the electrodepositable coating composition. The use of the layer of a malleable electrically conductive material between the conductive member and the conductive surface compensates for irregularities in the conductive surface being contacted during the coating process thereby reducing the current density at the electrical contact area.

  12. Properties of Plasma and HVOF Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Żórawski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The work compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

  13. PROPERTIES OF PLASMA AND HVOF SPRAYED COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otakar Bokůvka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

  14. ANTIREFLECTION MULTILAYER COATINGS WITH THIN METAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gubanova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of anti-reflective coatings for metal surfaces of Al, Ti, N,i Cr is proposed. The coatings have the form of alternating layers of dielectric/metal/dielectric with the number of cells up to15. The method of calculation of such coatings is proposed. We have calculated the coatings of the type [HfO2/Cr/HfO2]15, [ZrO2/Ti/Al2O3]15, [ZrO2/Cr/ZrO2]15. It is shown that the proposed interference coatings provide reduction of the residual reflectance of the metal several times (from 3.5 to 6.0 in a wide spectral range (300-1000 nm. The proposed coatings can be recommended as anti-reflective coatings for energy saving solar systems and batteries, and photovoltaic cells.

  15. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  16. Permeability of protective coatings to tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permeability of four protective coatings to tritium gas and tritiated water was investigated. The coatings, including two epoxies, one vinyl and one urethane, were selected for their suitability in CANDU plant service in Ontario Hydro. Sorption rates of tritium gas into the coatings were considerably larger than for tritiated water, by as much as three to four orders of magnitude. However, as a result of the very large solubility of tritiated water in the coatings, the overall permeability to tritium gas and tritiated water is comparable. Marked differences were also evident among the four coatings, the vinyl exhibiting an abnormally high retention of free water because of a highly porous surface structure. It appears that epoxy coatings having a high pigment-to-binder ratio are most suited for coating concrete in tritium handling facilities

  17. Wear performance of laser processed tantalum coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrick, Stanley; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit, E-mail: amitband@wsu.edu

    2011-12-01

    This first generation investigation evaluates the in vitro tribological performance of laser-processed Ta coatings on Ti for load-bearing implant applications. Linear reciprocating wear tests in simulated body fluid showed one order of magnitude less wear rate, of the order of 10{sup -4} mm{sup 3}(N.m){sup -1}, for Ta coatings compared to Ti. Our results demonstrate that Ta coatings can potentially minimize the early-stage bone-implant interface micro-motion induced wear debris generation due to their excellent bioactivity comparable to that of hydroxyapatite (HA), high wear resistance and toughness compared to popular HA coatings. Highlights: {yields} In vitro wear performance of laser processed Ta coatings on Ti was evaluated. {yields} Wear tests in SBF showed one order of magnitude less wear for Ta coatings than Ti. {yields} Ta coatings can minimize early-stage micro-motion induced wear debris generation.

  18. Enhanced zirconia thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, D.; Levi, C.; Evans, A. [College of Engineering Santa Barbara (United States). University of California Materials Department

    2006-07-01

    The results of a research programme sponsored by the Department of Energy and directed at establishing some of the scientific issues underpinning the development of enhanced zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are reviewed. Our studies have established the stability ranges for both yttria stabilized and codoped zirconia coating materials and identified the mechanisms responsible for failure of current coating systems. These reveal that it is likely that present EB-PVD coatings systems are limited by the performance of current bond-coats and their oxidation behaviour, especially under thermal cycle conditions, rather than the zirconia coating material itself. These studies provide the scientific framework for the development of enhanced zirconia-based thermal barrier coating systems for advanced industrial gas turbine engine applications. (author)

  19. Use of renewable coatings in thermonuclear devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of simple (C, B, Ce) and complex (TiC, TiN, SiC, TiB2) coatings in fusion devices with magnetic plasma confinement is discussed. Attention is focused on simple coatings - the technology for depositing and removing them, their physical and chemical properties, and their influence on the properties of the confined plasma. Thin-film carbon coatings are widely used because well-developed techniques are available for their deposition and removal, and for controlling their thickness. At the present stage of research, carbon coatings also have the important advantage that the materials (CH4, C2H2) used to synthesize the coating, and the coating material itself, are nontoxic. By contrast, coatings that contain boron or beryllium are either toxic in themselves (finely dispersed Be and BeO particles), or else must by synthesized from toxic materials (primarily diborane, B2H6)

  20. Solar Absorptance of Cermet Coatings Evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic, are being considered for the heat inlet surface of solar Stirling convertors. In this application, the key role of the cermet coating is to absorb as much of the incident solar energy as possible. To achieve this objective, the cermet coating has a high solar absorptance value. Cermet coatings are manufactured utilizing sputter deposition, and many different metal and ceramic combinations can be created. The ability to mix metal and ceramic at the atomic level offers the opportunity to tailor the composition, and hence, the optical properties of these coatings. The NASA Glenn Research Center has prepared and characterized a wide variety of cermet coatings utilizing different metals deposited in an aluminum oxide ceramic matrix. In addition, the atomic oxygen durability of these coatings has been evaluated.

  1. Wear performance of laser processed tantalum coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This first generation investigation evaluates the in vitro tribological performance of laser-processed Ta coatings on Ti for load-bearing implant applications. Linear reciprocating wear tests in simulated body fluid showed one order of magnitude less wear rate, of the order of 10-4 mm3(N.m)-1, for Ta coatings compared to Ti. Our results demonstrate that Ta coatings can potentially minimize the early-stage bone-implant interface micro-motion induced wear debris generation due to their excellent bioactivity comparable to that of hydroxyapatite (HA), high wear resistance and toughness compared to popular HA coatings. Highlights: → In vitro wear performance of laser processed Ta coatings on Ti was evaluated. → Wear tests in SBF showed one order of magnitude less wear for Ta coatings than Ti. → Ta coatings can minimize early-stage micro-motion induced wear debris generation.

  2. Parylene coatings on biological specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nosal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is show how parylene coatings can protect biological specimens.Design/methodology/approach: Parylene technology is a process, in which a thin polymer film of a very uniform thickness is deposited onto the entire surface of any object placed in the reactor. The polymer, either poly-para-xylylene or one of its ring substituted derivatives, is characterized by excellent mechanical and dielectric [1] as well as barrier [2] properties, at the same time being transparent in the entire visible range of radiation. The process takes place at room temperature, which permits to use virtually any material as substrate.Findings: The following work reports results of parylene application to the conservation of such natural objects, as Pieris brassicae butterflies, Pygocentrus piranya pirania fish and Quercus L. oak leaves. The number of specimens was always divided in two, of which one part was coated with 4 micrometers of Parylene C while the other remained uncoated as a reference sample. All the specimen were then placed on the surface of garden soil and kept there at constant temperature of 37°C and constant humidity of 75%, where their disintegration was followed by means of optical microscopy. After several months of staying under these conditions all the coated specimens were intact remaining their full integrity and colors. In contrast to that, the uncoated fish began to decompose after nine days, the uncoated butterflies after twenty one days and uncoated leaves after three months.Practical implications: A very tight deposition, at room temperature of such a coating onto practically any object obviously focuses an attention of conservators of both natural and cultural human heritage [3-6]. Probably the most important advantage of this technology is its extraordinary penetration ability. When coating a fabric, for instance, this feature allows one to deposit parylene film onto single fibers, leaving open space in-between and

  3. High efficiency turbine blade coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Gallis, Michail A.

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600 oC and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the production of layered

  4. Thermomechanical Behavior of Developmental Thermal Barrier Coating Bond Coats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Amit; Tolpygo, Vladimir K.; Hemker, Kevin J.

    2013-04-01

    Thermal expansion, microtensile, and stress relaxation experiments have been performed to contrast and compare the thermal and mechanical response of two experimental (L1 and H1) coatings provided by Honeywell Corporation (Morristown, NY). Thermal expansion experiments reveal that both coatings have coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) that vary with temperature and that the CTE mismatch between the coatings and superalloy substrate is significant in the case of L1 as compared to H1. Values of the 0.2% offset yield stress (YS), Young's modulus ( E), and hardening exponent ( n) are reported. Room-temperature microtensile experiments show higher strain hardening and a very low value of failure strain for L1 as compared to H1. At elevated temperatures, there is a significant decrease in the YS of as-received L1 for (924 MPa at room temperature to 85 MPa at 1000°C) as compared to H1. Finally, a power law creep description for high-temperature stress relaxation is developed and the measured values of the stress exponent ( n = 3) and activation energies ( Q creep = 200-250 kJ/mol) are shown to be consistent with power law creep.

  5. Phased-Array Focusing Potential in Pipe with Viscoelastic Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Velsor, J. K.; Zhang, L.; Breon, L. J.; Rose, J. L.

    2007-03-01

    This work investigates the effectiveness of traditional guided-wave focusing techniques in piping with viscoelastic coating. Focusing results for an uncoated pipe are compared to that of pipe with a fusion-bonded epoxy coating, a coal-tar mastic coating, a coal-tar epoxy coating, a coal-tar tape coating, a wax coating, and an enamel coating. Experimental results are compared to computationally derived models. Results show that, for most coating types, focusing can be achieved without special consideration of the coating. This is significant in that it demonstrates the immediate applicability of traditional focusing techniques to coated pipeline.

  6. Pipeline coatings keep getting more sophisticated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowers, J.

    2004-08-01

    Bredero Shaw is the world's largest pipeline company. It's Canadian division, Shaw Pipe Protection Limited (SPPL), has a technology development laboratory in Calgary where a pipe coating line is being developed along with a deepwater program which tests the performance of sub-sea insulation coatings. Tests are performed at simulated service conditions of temperature, pressure and sea water environment. Research efforts have also focused on oilsands development and the challenge of keeping bitumen hot inside pipes while reducing wear caused by entrained sand. Shaw's high performance composite coating (HPCC) is a high-tech multiple component coating that is applied as a powder spray. It can withstand temperatures of -40 to -50 degrees C and is therefore particularly suited for providing mechanical, corrosion protection in large diameter transmission pipelines such as the Mackenzie Valley Gas Pipeline and the Alaska Pipeline. It is also compatible with cathodic protection. The coating consists of fusion bonded epoxy, polyolefin adhesive and a polyethylene. It has already been used for the Athabasca Pipeline which transports crude oil from Fort McMurray through Cold Lake to Hardisty, Alberta. Other developments include the Dual Powder Abrasion Coating system which consists of two fusion layers that provide damage resistance to pipelines in rocky mountainous terrain. The Yellow Jacket is a two layer coating used for oil and gas gathering systems to resist corrosion, moisture and soil stress. This paper also described other popular coatings such as the polyurethane foam coating called Insul-8 Systems; a sprayed epoxy polymer coating called Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coating; the Cement Mortar Lining; the Flow Efficiency Coating; the Concrete Weight Coating; and, the Rock Jacket corrosion coating. 1 fig.

  7. Multilayer coating for high gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    The multilayer coating for high gradients is reviewed. Not only the S-I-S structure, but also the S-S bilayer structure are also treated. This is an incomplete manuscript of an invited article which will be submitted to a journal. I have uploaded this version in order to help the understanding on my talk at the TESLA Technology Collaboration meeting at Saclay, France.

  8. Polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bober, Patrycja; Špírková, Milena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    Praha : Ústav makromolekulární chemie AV ČR, 2009. P9. ISBN 978-80-85009-60-6. [Workshop: Career in Polymers. 10.07.2009-11.07.2009, Prague] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyaniline * PANI * nanocomposite coatings Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  9. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  10. Thermally Sprayed Silicon Carbide Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Mubarok, Fahmi

    2014-01-01

    Thermal spraying of silicon carbide (SiC) material is a challenging task since SiC tends to decompose during elevated temperature atmospheric spraying process. The addition of metal or ceramic binders as a matrix phase is necessary to facilitate the bonding of SiC particles, allowing SiC coatings to be deposited. In the conventional procedure, the matrix phase is added through mechanical mixing or mechanical alloying of the powder constituents, making it difficult to achieve homogeneous distr...

  11. Optical coatings for document security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Roger W.; Bleikolm, Anton F.

    1996-10-01

    Optical coatings that shift color with viewing angle have been adapted into optically variable foils, pigments, and inks to prevent color copying by color copiers, printers, cameras, or lithographic reproduction. Metal-dielectric multilayer thin-film structures have large color shifts with angle, high chroma, a large color gamut, and light fastness that make them uniquely suited for security inks. World currencies are now protected by these structures.

  12. High temperature solar selective coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    2014-11-25

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

  13. Sputtered coatings for microfluidic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetron sputter-deposited features and coatings are finding a broad range of uses in microfluidic devices being developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Such features are routinely incorporated into multilayer laminated microfluidic components where specific functionality is required, and where other methods for producing these features have been deemed unacceptable. Applications include electrochemical sensors, heaters and temperature probes, electrical leads and insulation layers, piezoelectric actuators and transducers, and chemical modification of surfaces. Small features, such as those required for the production of microsensor electrodes or miniature resistive heaters on microfluidic chips, were patterned using standard lithographic methods, or with masks produced by laser micromachining processes. Thin-film piezoelectric materials such as aluminum nitride have been deposited at low temperatures for use with temperature sensitive materials. Use of the coating technology and its application in the fabrication of specific microfluidic devices, including a groundwater sensor, miniature piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers and actuators, a polymerase chain reaction thermal cycler, and a microchannel flow diagnostic device, are discussed. Technical issues associated with these coatings, such as adhesion, chemical resistance, and surface defects are also addressed. (c) 2000 American Vacuum Society

  14. Standardization in optical coating characterisation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Ristau

    2005-01-01

    In the rapid development course of laser technology and modern optics, optical metrology continuously gains importance for the quality management in the industrial production environment and also for research in optical coatings. Besides absorption and scatter losses, the spectral characteristics and laser induced damage thresholds are considered as common quality factors for coated optical components and often define the optimization targets for new products and applications. Also, these quality parameters are the basis for the comparison of commercial optics and can be found in the product catalogues of most manufacturers of optical components. As a consequence, standardization of characterisation procedures for these fundamental properties evolved to a crucial point for the optics industry. During the last decade, adapted standard measurement techniques have been elaborated and discussed by representatives from many industrial companies and research institutes within working groups of the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO). In this contribution, the current state of standardized characterisation techniques for optical coatings is summarised. Selected standards for the measurement of absorption (ISO 11551), scattering (ISO 13696) and laser induced damage thresholds (ISO 11254, Parts 1 and 2) will be described and discussed in view of their applicability and reproducibility. The report will be concluded by an outlook on the current projects and future tasks of standardization in optics characterisation.

  15. Pedestal substrate for coated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry N.; Patterson, Steven R.

    2001-01-01

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  16. High Critical Current Coated Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Selvamanickam, V. (SuperPower, Inc.)

    2011-12-27

    One of the important critical needs that came out of the DOE’s coated conductor workshop was to develop a high throughput and economic deposition process for YBCO. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, the most critical steps in high technical micro fabrications, has been widely employed in semiconductor industry for various thin film growth. SuperPower has demonstrated that (Y,Gd)BCO films can be deposited rapid with world record performance. In addition to high critical current density with increased film thickness, flux pinning properties of REBCO films needs to be improved to meet the DOE requirements for various electric-power equipments. We have shown that doping with Zr can result in BZO nanocolumns, but at substantially reduced deposition rate. The primary purpose of this subtask is to develop high current density MOCVD-REBCO coated conductors based on the ion-beam assisted (IBAD)-MgO deposition process. Another purpose of this subtask is to investigate HTS conductor design optimization (maximize Je) with emphasis on stability and protection issues, and ac loss for REBCO coated conductors.

  17. Experimental study on the characteristics of NOx emissions from 600 MW supercritical bituminous coal fired boiler with swirl burner%600MW超临界旋流燃烧烟煤锅炉NOx排放特性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳峻峰; 秦鹏; 邹磊; 梁绍华; 张恩先; 黄磊

    2012-01-01

    针对某厂1台600MW超临界低NOx轴向旋流燃烧烟煤锅炉特点,通过变工况(氧量、不同层燃烧器风量分配方式、二次风比率、二次风旋流强度、三次风旋流强度、同层燃烧器风量分配方式和负荷等)试验,分析了锅炉NOx排放特性.试验结果表明:对于燃用烟煤的采用低NOx旋流燃烧器的锅炉,运行氧量燃尽风份额、锅炉负荷及同层燃烧器风量分配方式是NOx排放的主要影响因素.为控制NOx排放,保持锅炉原有热效率,燃烧调整的原则为:(1)在保证锅炉运行安全的前提下应尽量采用低氧燃烧;(2)采用大比例的燃尽风份额;(3)运行负荷不应过低;(4)同层燃烧器风量分配采用双峰方式.%NOx. emissions from a 600 MW supercritical boiler with swirl burner were investigated by performing a serial of tests such as changing O2 concentration, air-distribution of different level burners, secondary air ratio, secondary and tertiary air swirl strength, air-distribution of the burners in same level and boiler load. The test results show that for the bituminous coal fired boiler with swirl burner, the O2 concentration, over fire air (OFA) ratio, boiler load and air-distribution mode of the burners in same level are the main factors affecting NOx emissions. In order to reduce NOx emissions and keep higher boiler efficiency, the following principles about combustion adjustment should be obeyed: (1) the O2 concentration should be kept in the premise of ensuring safe operalion of boiler as lower as possible;{2) large proportion of OFA should be adopted; (3) boiler load should not be loo low; (4) two-peak air distribution mode should be taken among the same level burners.

  18. An experimental method for coating-substrate interface investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Wänstrand, Olle; Podgornik, Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of coated surfaces indicate that in many cases the coating-substrate interface is the weakest part of the coated component, with the coating-to-substrate adhesion being used to evaluate the strength of the coating-substrate interface. While modeling of the coated surface depends on coating and substrate material properties, which are not easy to determine, standard experimental methods do not allow a direct study of the interface. The aim of the present paper is to describe a s...

  19. A New Method to Prepare Hydroxylapatite Coating of Implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new method ( sintering method) to prepare hydroxylapatite coating of implants was developed. The coating was characterized by X- ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy with a Nicolet FTIR aparatus. The adhesion strength of coating to metal substrate were measured. The bone ingrowth of coated substrate was observed and clinical application of coated implants were reported in this paper. The comparison results of sintered coating and plasma sparied coating was discussed.

  20. Microfluidic Controlled Conformal Coating of Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Scott; Wexler, Jason; Wan, Jiandi; Stone, Howard

    2011-11-01

    Coating flows are an important class of fluid mechanics problems. Typically a substrate is coated with a moving continuous film, but it is also possible to consider coating of discrete objects. In particular, in applications involving coating of particles that are useful in drug delivery, the coatings act as drug-carrying vehicles, while in cell therapy a thin polymeric coating is required to protect the cells from the host's immune system. Although many functional capabilities have been developed for lab-on-a-chip devices, a technique for coating has not been demonstrated. We present a microfluidic platform developed to coat micron-size spheres with a thin aqueous layer by magnetically pulling the particles from the aqueous phase to the non-aqueous phase in a co-flow. Coating thickness can be adjusted by the average fluid speed and the number of beads encapsulated inside a single coat is tuned by the ratio of magnetic to interfacial forces acting on the beads.

  1. Tribological properties of CrNx coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Warcholinski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this work is the characterization of the tribological properties thin Cr-N coatings, both monolayer Cr2N, CrN coatings and multilayer Cr/CrN, Cr2N/CrN coatings, deposited by cathodic arc physical vapour deposition (CAPVD.Design/methodology/approach: The deposition parameters of Cr2N and CrN were determined. Structure of the coatings were investigated using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The XRD examination was carried out to specify the phase structure, EDS to define the chemical composition of the coatings. The investigation includes also microhardness, roughness tests, adhesion, friction coefficient and wear rate.Findings: Basing on the scratch test it was shown that the influence of the architecture on the coating’ adhesion is dominant. It was found that the all tested coatings show high critical load Lc2 >70 N. The multilayer coatings show higher critical load when compared to monolayer coatings.Research limitations/implications: The main limitation of this work is linked to the deposition technique itself.It is difficult to avoid surface defects and pinholes that strongly influence the tribological results.Practical implications: Chromium based coatings present good mechanical properties which allow them to be used in several applications; from decorative to protective coatings.Originality/value: The comparison of adhesion and wear resistance of mono- and multilayer coatings based on chromium. The deposition technology enable to obtain the coatings with high adhesion to the substrate. This may be important to advanced coatings industry.

  2. Deformation Properties and Fatigue of Bituminous Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Frantisek Schlosser; Jan Mikolaj; Viera Zatkalikova; Juraj Sramek; Dominika Durekova; Lubos Remek

    2013-01-01

    Deformation properties and fatigue performance are important characteristics of asphalt bound materials which are used for construction of pavement layers. Viscoelastic asphalt mixtures are better characterized via dynamic tests. This type of tests allows us to collate materials with regard to axle vibrations which lie usually in the range of 6 Hz–25 Hz for standard conditions. Asphalt modified for heat sensitivity in the range from −20°C to +60°C has significant impact on the overall charact...

  3. Development of New Bituminous Pavement Design Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    The report and work of COST Action 333 sets in place the foundation for a coherent, cost-effective and harmonised European pavement design method. In order to do this, the work programme focused on information gathering, identification of requirements and the selection of the necessary design...

  4. Deformation Properties and Fatigue of Bituminous Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Schlosser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation properties and fatigue performance are important characteristics of asphalt bound materials which are used for construction of pavement layers. Viscoelastic asphalt mixtures are better characterized via dynamic tests. This type of tests allows us to collate materials with regard to axle vibrations which lie usually in the range of 6 Hz–25 Hz for standard conditions. Asphalt modified for heat sensitivity in the range from −20°C to +60°C has significant impact on the overall characteristics of the mixture. Deformation properties are used as inputs for empirical mixture design, and fatigue performance of asphalt mixtures reflects the parameters of functional tests. Master curves convey properties of asphalt mixtures for various conditions and allow us to evaluate them without the need of time expensive testing.

  5. Microneedle Coating Techniques for Transdermal Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Haj-Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug administration via the transdermal route is an evolving field that provides an alternative to oral and parenteral routes of therapy. Several microneedle (MN based approaches have been developed. Among these, coated MNs (typically where drug is deposited on MN tips are a minimally invasive method to deliver drugs and vaccines through the skin. In this review, we describe several processes to coat MNs. These include dip coating, gas jet drying, spray coating, electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA based processes and piezoelectric inkjet printing. Examples of process mechanisms, conditions and tested formulations are provided. As these processes are independent techniques, modifications to facilitate MN coatings are elucidated. In summary, the outcomes and potential value for each technique provides opportunities to overcome formulation or dosage form limitations. While there are significant developments in solid degradable MNs, coated MNs (through the various techniques described have potential to be utilized in personalized drug delivery via controlled deposition onto MN templates.

  6. Inorganic precursor peroxides for antifouling coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.M.; Pedersen, L.T.; Hermann, M.H.;

    2009-01-01

    antifouling properties, it is also a vital ingredient for the antifouling coating to obtain its polishing and leaching mechanism. In this paper, peroxides of strontium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc are tested as pigments in antifouling coatings. The peroxides react with seawater to create hydrogen peroxide...... shown that it is possible to identify particulates that, when applied as pigments in antifouling coatings, will provide polishing and leaching rates comparable to those of Cu2O-based coatings. Furthermore, the combination of polishing and hydrogen peroxide leaching by a coating based on zinc peroxide in...... and highly seawater-soluble ions of the metal. The goals have been to establish the antifouling potency of an antifouling coating that releases hydrogen peroxide as biocide, and to investigate the potential use of peroxides as water-soluble polishing and leaching pigments. The investigations have...

  7. Simulation to coating weight control for galvanizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; Yan, Zhang; Wu, Kunkui; Song, Lei

    2013-05-01

    Zinc coating weight control is one of the most critical issues for continuous galvanizing line. The process has the characteristic of variable-time large time delay, nonlinear, multivariable. It can result in seriously coating weight error and non-uniform coating. We develop a control system, which can automatically control the air knives pressure and its position to give a constant and uniform zinc coating, in accordance with customer-order specification through an auto-adaptive empirical model-based feed forward adaptive controller, and two model-free adaptive feedback controllers . The proposed models with controller were applied to continuous galvanizing line (CGL) at Angang Steel Works. By the production results, the precise and stability of the control model reduces over-coating weight and improves coating uniform. The product for this hot dip galvanizing line does not only satisfy the customers' quality requirement but also save the zinc consumption.

  8. Microneedle Coating Techniques for Transdermal Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Ahmad, Rita; Khan, Hashim; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Rasekh, Manoochehr; Hussain, Amjad; Walsh, Susannah; Li, Xiang; Chang, Ming-Wei; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    Drug administration via the transdermal route is an evolving field that provides an alternative to oral and parenteral routes of therapy. Several microneedle (MN) based approaches have been developed. Among these, coated MNs (typically where drug is deposited on MN tips) are a minimally invasive method to deliver drugs and vaccines through the skin. In this review, we describe several processes to coat MNs. These include dip coating, gas jet drying, spray coating, electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA) based processes and piezoelectric inkjet printing. Examples of process mechanisms, conditions and tested formulations are provided. As these processes are independent techniques, modifications to facilitate MN coatings are elucidated. In summary, the outcomes and potential value for each technique provides opportunities to overcome formulation or dosage form limitations. While there are significant developments in solid degradable MNs, coated MNs (through the various techniques described) have potential to be utilized in personalized drug delivery via controlled deposition onto MN templates. PMID:26556364

  9. Uniform and Robust Peptoid Microsphere Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L. Servoss

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptoids that are helical and partially water soluble have been shown to self-assemble into microspheres when the peptoid solution is dried on a silicon substrate. Such microsphere coatings have great potential for use in biosensor technologies, specifically to increase the surface area for binding. However, in order to be useful, the peptoids must consistently form uniform coatings. In this study we investigated the effects of various coating protocol parameters on the uniformity of the resulting peptoid microsphere coatings, including (i solvent, (ii administration technique, and (iii drying environment. In addition, we investigated the robustness of the coatings as well as the potential for using a glass substrate. These studies show that uniform, robust peptoid microsphere coatings can be formed using protic solvents, a full coverage administration technique, and drying in open air on silicon or glass substrates.

  10. Coating of particles at supercritical fluid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, C. [BASF AG, GIC/P, D-67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Schreiber, R.; Werther, J.; Brunner, G. [Technical University Hamburg, D-21071 Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    The combination of fluidized bed technology with supercritical carbon dioxide as fluidizing gas and as a solvent for the coating material enables the production of thin, even and solvent-free coatings. However the successful operation of such a coating process requires detailed knowledge of fluidization at supercritical fluid conditions. The results of the experiments show that the minimum fluidization velocity at supercritical fluid conditions can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy. The coating of different solids with paraffin results in thin layers (0.7-2 {mu}m), which are smooth and complete. Therefore, the coating of particles in fluidized beds operated with supercritical fluids can be considered as an alternative to existing coating technologies. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Cermet coatings for solar Stirling space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic, are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power convertor. The role of the cermet coating is to absorb as much of the incident solar energy as possible. The ability to mix metal and ceramic at the atomic level offers the opportunity to tailor the composition and the solar absorptance of these coatings. Several candidate cermet coatings were created and their solar absorptance was characterized as-manufactured and after exposure to elevated temperatures. Coating composition was purposely varied through the thickness of the coating. As a consequence of changing composition, islands of metal are thought to form in the ceramic matrix. Computer modeling indicated that diffusion of the metal atoms played an important role in island formation while the ceramic was important in locking the islands in place. Much of the solar spectrum is absorbed as it passes through this labyrinth

  12. Standard practice for characterization of coatings using conformable Eddy-Current sensors without coating reference standards

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the use of conformable eddy-current sensors for nondestructive characterization of coatings without standardization on coated reference parts. It includes the following: (1) thickness measurement of a conductive coating on a conductive substrate, (2) detection and characterization of local regions of increased porosity of a conductive coating, and (3) measurement of thickness for nonconductive coatings on a conductive substrate or on a conductive coating. This practice includes only nonmagnetic coatings on either magnetic (μ ≠ μ0) or nonmagnetic (μ = μ0) substrates. This practice can also be used to measure the effective thickness of a process-affected zone (for example, shot peened layer for aluminum alloys, alpha case for titanium alloys). For specific types of coated parts, the user may need a more specific procedure tailored to a specific application.

  13. In situ polymerization coating and characteristics of coated NPK compound fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhenghui; ZHU Homing

    2007-01-01

    Controlled release NPK compound fertilizers were prepared by means of in situ polymerization of monomers on the surface of fertilizer granules at room temperature. Methacrylate, α-methyl acrylic acid, and ethylene dimethylacrylate were used as monomers, Dibenzoyl peroxide as initiator, and cobalt naphthenate, and triethyl amine as promoters. The structures of coating materials were characterized by IR spectra. The thermogravimetric analysis result indicated that the coating materials were of good thermal stability. The mean thickness of single coating measured with screw gauge was ca. 140 μm. The morphologies of uncoated and coated fertilizer granules analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy were changed from porosities and gullies to hills and plain. The release rate of coated compound fertilizers in water could be controlled by the hydrophicity and thickness of coating. The increase in coating hydrophicity caused the increase in release rate of fertilizer. The increase in thickness of coating slowed the release rate.

  14. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  15. Adult stem cell coatings for regenerative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Green, David W.; Gang Li; Bruce Milthorpe; Besim Ben-Nissan

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells can become potent tools for the treatment of degenerative disorders such as heart failure, eye disease and osteoarthritis. Housing stem cells inside a hydrogel coating, directly deposited around them individually and in groups, may be an important solution to the problem of increasing stem cell viability and protection in cultivation. Such coatings can target regulatory proteins and genes for maintenance, differentiation and development into tissues. Already polymer coatings are be...

  16. Aluminium-based Coatings for Cadmium Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Cardilli , Emanuele

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium electroplating is widely used in the aerospace industry for the corrosion protection of high strength steels. Cadmium is also used as compatible coating to reduce the galvanic corrosion generated in the assembly of components manufactured with different materials. However, environmental and safety concerns over the high toxicity of cadmium has led to the investigation of suitable replacements. Aluminium coatings are promising coatings for the replacement of electropl...

  17. Coated Metal Articles and Method of Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boller, Ernest R.; Eubank, Lowell D.

    2004-07-06

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  18. Functional composite coatings containing conducting polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Jafarzadeh, Shadi

    2014-01-01

    Organic coatings are widely used to lower the corrosion rate of metallic structures. However, penetration of water, oxygen and corrosive ions through pores present in the coating results in corrosion initiation and propagation once these species reach the metal substrate. Considering the need for systems that offer active protection with self-healing functionality, composite coatings containing polyaniline (PANI) conducting polymer are proposed in this study. In the first phase of my work, PA...

  19. Applications of thin coatings in automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    P. Louda

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Use of thin coatings in automotive industry give economic and ecological savings. This is evoke by reducing of weight of used construction elements and currently by increasing of their service life and with that connected elevating of nanomaterials manufacture qualities.Design/methodology/approach: In the paper was disscussed the possibility of applications of thin coating in automotive industry.Findings: The paper shows the examples of thin coatings application in automotive industr...

  20. Powder coating now available for battery manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Landwehr, Inga; Cudazzo, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A space-saving, cost-efficient and eco-friendly new electrostatic powder coatings for electrode manufacturing: Manufacturing electrodes for electrochemical energy storage is an important and costly process. The disadvantages of so far used liquid-coatings are the high energy and floor space demand of drying-process as well as the application of harmful solvents. A new powder-based coating process eliminates potential hazards and offers numerous advantages.

  1. Uniform and Robust Peptoid Microsphere Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Servoss, Shannon L.; Phillip Blake; Melissa L. Hebert; Dhaval S. Shah

    2013-01-01

    Peptoids that are helical and partially water soluble have been shown to self-assemble into microspheres when the peptoid solution is dried on a silicon substrate. Such microsphere coatings have great potential for use in biosensor technologies, specifically to increase the surface area for binding. However, in order to be useful, the peptoids must consistently form uniform coatings. In this study we investigated the effects of various coating protocol parameters on the uniformity of the resu...

  2. Identification of coated vesicles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Clathrin-coated vesicles were found in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and enriched from spheroplasts by a rapid procedure utilizing gel filtration on Sephacryl S-1000. The coated vesicles (62-nm diam) were visualized by negative stain electron microscopy and clathrin triskelions were observed by rotary shadowing. The contour length of a triskelion leg was 490 nm. Coated vesicle fractions contain a prominent band with molecular weight of approximately 185,000 when analyzed by SDS PAGE. The p...

  3. Modeling of nanoparticle coatings for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Haume, Kaspar; Mason, Nigel J.; Solov'yov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been shown to possess properties beneficial for the treatment of cancerous tumors by acting as radiosensitizers for both photon and ion radiation. Blood circulation time is usually increased by coating the AuNPs with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) ligands. The effectiveness of the PEG coating, however, depends on both the ligand surface density and length of the PEG molecules, making it important to understand the structure of the coating. In this paper the thickn...

  4. Heat Generation by Polypyrrole Coated Glass Fabric

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Rehan Abbasi; J. Militky; J. Gregr

    2013-01-01

    Vapor deposition technique was employed to coat polypyrrole (PPy) on glass substrate using FeCl3 as oxidant and p-toluenesulfonic acid (−OTs) as doping agent. The Joule heating effect of PPy coated E-glass fabric was studied by supplying various DC electric fields. The coated fabric exhibited reasonable electrical stability, possessed medium electrical conductivity and was effective in heat generation. An increase in temperature of conductive fabric subjected to constant voltage was observed ...

  5. Cermet Coatings for Solar Stirling Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Raack, Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power converter. This paper will discuss the solar absorption characteristics of as-deposited cermet coatings as well as the solar absorption characteristics of the coatings after heating. The role of diffusion and island formation, during the deposition process and during heating will also be discussed.

  6. Hydrogel coatings for biomedical and biofouling applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ekblad, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Many applications share a substantial and yet unmet need for prediction and control of interactions between surfaces and proteins or living cells. Examples are blood-contacting biomaterials, biosensors, and non-toxic anti-biofouling coatings for ship hulls. The main focus of this thesis work has been the synthesis, characterization and properties of a group of coatings, designed for such applications. Many types of substrates, particularly plastics, were coated directly with ultrathin, hydrop...

  7. Surface and Mechanical studies of Bismaleimide coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, A. S.; Paul, D.; Dutta, P. P.; Bhattacharjee, G.

    2015-01-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are a new breed of thermosetting resins used mainly for high temperature applications and have major usage in aerospace. BMI polymer coatings were deposited on aluminum and mild steel substrates. The effect of corrosion on mild steel and aluminum by Ringers Solution and there protection using BMI coatings were observed. X-ray diffraction studies showed crystalline nature of the BMI coatings. Surface contact angle measurements were carried out using goniometer.

  8. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  9. Development of formulations of coating materials for wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of formulations for coating wood products as top coat and base coat was developed. Gel content, Buchholz resistance, hardness and adhesion of the coated films were determined. Their grafting properties of base and top coats on cellulose were studied

  10. Silica-Coated Liposomes for Insulin Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Dwivedi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Liposomes coated with silica were explored as protein delivery vehicles for their enhanced stability and improved encapsulation efficiency. Insulin was encapsulated within the fluidic phosphatidylcholine lipid vesicles by thin film hydration at pH 2.5, and layer of silica was formed above lipid bilayer by acid catalysis. The presence of silica coating and encapsulated insulin was identified using confocal and electron microscopy. The native state of insulin present in the formulation was evident from Confocal Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Silica coat enhances the stability of insulin-loaded delivery vehicles. In vivo study shows that these silica coated formulations were biologically active in reducing glucose levels.

  11. Optical coatings for laser fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasers for fusion experiments use thin-film dielectric coatings for reflecting, antireflecting and polarizing surface elements. Coatings are most important to the Nd:glass laser application. The most important requirements of these coatings are accuracy of the average value of reflectance and transmission, uniformity of amplitude and phase front of the reflected or transmitted light, and laser damage threshold. Damage resistance strongly affects the laser's design and performance. The success of advanced lasers for future experiments and for reactor applications requires significant developments in damage resistant coatings for ultraviolet laser radiation

  12. Tribological properties of CrNx coatings

    OpenAIRE

    B. Warcholinski; A. Gilewicz

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is the characterization of the tribological properties thin Cr-N coatings, both monolayer Cr2N, CrN coatings and multilayer Cr/CrN, Cr2N/CrN coatings, deposited by cathodic arc physical vapour deposition (CAPVD).Design/methodology/approach: The deposition parameters of Cr2N and CrN were determined. Structure of the coatings were investigated using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD examination was carried out to specify the phase structure, EDS t...

  13. HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION PERFORMANCE OF ALUMINIDE COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, B.A.; Zhang, Y.; Haynes, J.A.; Wright, I.G.

    2003-04-22

    In order to determine the potential benefits and limitations of aluminide coatings, coatings made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Fe- and Ni-base alloy substrates are being evaluated in various high-temperature environments. Testing of coatings on representative ferritic (Fe-9Cr-1Mo) and austenitic (type 304L stainless steel) alloys has found that high frequency thermal cycling (1h cycle time) can significantly degrade the coating. Based on comparison with similar specimens with no thermal cycling or a longer cycle time (100h), this degradation was not due to Al loss from the coating but most likely because of the thermal expansion mismatch between the coating and the substrate. Several coated Ni-base alloys were tested in a high pressure (20atm) steam-CO2 environment for the ZEST (zero-emission steam turbine) program. Coated specimens showed less mass loss than the uncoated specimens after 1000h at 900 C and preliminary characterization examined the post-test coating structure and extent of attack.

  14. Very High Temperature Sound Absorption Coating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I demonstrated experimentally a very high temperature acoustically absorbing coating for ducted acoustics applications. High temperature survivability at 3500...

  15. Transparent conductive coatings in the far ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongmin; Zukic, Muamer; Park, Jung HO; Wilson, Michele M.; Keffer, Charles E.; Torr, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    In certain cases a space-borne optical instrument with a dielectric window requires a transparent conductive coating deposited on the window to remove the electrostatic charge collected due to the bombardment of ionized particles. Semiconductor and metal films are studied for use as transparent conductive coatings for the front window of far ultraviolet camera. Cr is found to be the best coating material. The theoretical search for the semiconductor and metal coating materials and experimental results for ITO and Cr films are reported.

  16. Electroless alloy/composite coatings: A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R C Agarwala; Vijaya Agarwala

    2003-06-01

    Since the inception of electroless coating by Brenner & Riddell in 1946, it has been the subject of research interest and, in the past two decades, emphasis has shifted to the studies of its properties and applications. The co-deposition of particulate matter or substance within the growing film has led to a new generation of electroless composite coatings, many of which possess excellent wear and corrosion resistance. This valuable process can coat not only electrically conductive materials including graphite but also fabrics, insulators like plastics, rubber etc. The low coating rates with these can provide better reflectivity of plated surfaces and many more applications. Coatings can be tailored for desired properties by selecting the composition of the coating alloy/composite/metallic to suit specific requirements. The market for these coatings is expanding fast as the potential applications are on the rise. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review different electroless alloy/composite coatings with respect to bath types and their composition, properties and applications. Different characterisation studies have been conducted on various electroless nickel-based coatings with emphasis on wear and corrosion properties.

  17. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Conductive Polymer Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; MacDowell, Louis G.

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the corrosion protection performance of twenty nine proprietary conductive polymer coatings for cold rolled steel under immersion in 3.55 percent NaCl. Corrosion potential as well as Bode plots of the data were obtained for each coating after one hour immersion, All coatings, with the exception of one, have a corrosion potential that is higher in the positive direction than the corrosion potential of bare steel under the same conditions. Group A consisted of twenty one coatings with Bode plots indicative of the capacitive behavior characteristic of barrier coatings. An equivalent circuit consisting of a capacitor in series with a resistor simulated the experimental EIS data for these coatings very well. Group B consisted of eight coatings that exhibited EIS spectra showing an inflection point which indicates that two time constants are present. This may be caused by an electrochemical process taking place which could be indicitive of coating failing. These coatings have a lower impedance that those in Group A.

  18. Coatings for the NuSTAR mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Brejnholt, Nicolai;

    2011-01-01

    The NuSTAR mission will be the first mission to carry a hard X-ray(5-80 keV) focusing telescope to orbit. The optics are based on the use of multilayer coated thin slumped glass. Two different material combinations were used for the flight optics, namely W/Si and Pt/C. In this paper we describe the...... entire coating effort including the final coating design that was used for the two flight optics. We also present data on the performance verification of the coatings both on Si witness samples as well as on individual flight mirrors....

  19. Localized plasmons in graphene-coated nanospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Wubs, Martijn;

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytical derivation of the electromagnetic response of a spherical object coated by a conductive film, here exemplified by a graphene coating. Applying the framework of Mie-Lorenz theory augmented to account for a conductive boundary condition, we derive the multipole scattering...... localized plasmons. We consider graphene coatings of both dielectric and conducting spheres, where the graphene coating in the former case introduces the plasmons and in the latter case modifies in interesting ways the existing ones. Finally, we discuss our analytical results in the context of extinction...

  20. Quantitative Image Analysis for Evaluating the Coating Thickness and Pore Distribution in Coated Small Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Laksmana, F. L.; van Vliet, L.J.; Hartman Kok, P. J. A.; Vromans, H; Frijlink, H. W.; Van der Voort Maarschalk, K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to develop a characterization method for coating structure based on image analysis, which is particularly promising for the rational design of coated particles in the pharmaceutical industry. Methods The method applies the MATLAB image processing toolbox to images of coated particles taken with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CSLM). The coating thicknesses have been determined along the particle perimeter, from which a statistical analysis could be performed to obt...

  1. Polymeric Coatings for Electrodynamic Tethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Schuler, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Two polymeric coatings have been developed for the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission. ProSEDS is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster scheduled for launch in August 2000. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta 11 second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the spent stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-km non-conductive tether, the other end of which is attached to an endmass containing several scientific instruments. A bare metal tether would have the best conductivity but thermal concerns preclude this design. A conductive polymer developed by Triton Systems has been optimized for conductivity and thermo-optical properties. The current design for the ProSEDS conductive tether is seven strands of 28 AWG aluminum wire individually coated with 8.7 micrometers (0.35 mil) of an atomic oxygen-resistant conductive polymer composed of a mixture of 87% Clear Oxygen-Resistant polymer (COR) and 13% polyanaline (PANi), wrapped around a braided Kevlar (TM) 49 core. Extensive testing has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to qualify this material for flight on ProSEDS. Atomic oxygen exposure was performed, with solar absorptance and infrared emittance measured before and after exposure. Conductivity was measured before and after atomic oxygen exposure. High voltage tests, up to 1500 V, of the current collecting ability of the COR/PANi have been completed. Approximately 160 meters of the conductive tether closest to the Delta 11 second stage is insulated to prevent any electron reconnection to the tether from the plasma contactor. The insulation is composed of polyimide overcoated with TOR-BP, another polymeric coating developed by Triton for this mission. TOR-BP acts as both insulator

  2. Crop protection by seed coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  3. Quality of Coated Particles: Physical - Mechanical Characterization of Polymeric Film Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perfetti, G.

    2012-01-01

    All coated particle producers, when applying the coating layer(s) would like to know precisely what is the best coating system to use in order to answer customer’s requests. It is, therefore, of very high relevance for many industries, to have a clear understanding of what are the parameters I need

  4. Quantitative Image Analysis for Evaluating the Coating Thickness and Pore Distribution in Coated Small Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laksmana, F.L.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Hartman Kok, P.J.A.; Vromans, H.; Frijlink, H.W.; Van der Voort Maarschalk, K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to develop a characterization method for coating structure based on image analysis, which is particularly promising for the rational design of coated particles in the pharmaceutical industry. Methods The method applies the MATLAB image processing toolbox to images of coate

  5. Fuel particle coating data. [Detailed information on coating runs at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollabaugh, C.M.; Wagner, P.; Wahman, L.A.; White, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Development of coating on nuclear fuel particles for the High-Temperature Fuels Technology program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory included process studies for low-density porous and high-density isotropic carbon coats, and for ZrC and ''alloy'' C/ZrC coats. This report documents the data generated by these studies.

  6. Effect of coating parameters on the microstructure of cerium oxide conversion coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure and morphology of cerium oxide conversion coatings prepared under different deposition conditions were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The coatings were formed by a spontaneous reaction between a water-based solution containing CeCl3 and aluminum alloy 7075-T6 substrates. Microstructural characterization was performed to determine the crystallinity of the coatings and to obtain a better understanding of the deposition parameters on coating microstructure. The results of TEM imaging and electron diffraction analysis indicated that the as-deposited coating was composed of nanocrystalline particles of a previously unreported cerium compound. The particles of the coatings produced using glycerol as an additive were found to be much finer than those of the coatings prepared in the absence of glycerol. This indicates that glycerol may act as a grain refiner and/or growth inhibitor during coating deposition. After deposition, the coated panels were treated for 5 min in a phosphate sealing solution. The sealing treatment converted the as-deposited coating into hydrated cerium phosphate. Panels coated from solutions containing no glycerol followed by phosphate sealing performed poorly in salt fog tests. With glycerol addition, the corrosion resistance of the coatings that were phosphate sealed improved considerably, achieving an average passing rate of 85%

  7. Hydroxyapatite/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) double coating on magnesium for enhanced corrosion resistance and coating flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ji-Hoon; Li, Yuanlong; Kim, Sae-Mi; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Koh, Young-Hag

    2013-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite was deposited on pure magnesium (Mg) with a flexible poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer to reduce the corrosion rate of Mg and enhance coating flexibility. The poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer was uniformly coated on Mg by a spraying method, followed by hydroxyapatite deposition on the poly(ε-caprolactone) using an aerosol deposition method. In scanning electron microscopy observations, inorganic/organic composite-like structure was observed between the hydroxyapatite and poly(ε-caprolactone) layers, resulting from the collisions of hydroxyapatite particles into the poly(ε-caprolactone) matrix at the initial stage of the aerosol deposition. The corrosion resistance of the coated Mg was examined using potentiodynamic polarization tests. The hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating remarkably improved the corrosion resistance of Mg in Hank's solution. In the in vitro cell tests, the coated Mg showed better cell adhesion compared with the bare Mg due to the reduced corrosion rate and enhanced biocompatibility. The stability and flexibility of hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating was investigated by scanning electron microscopy inspections after the coated Mg was deformed. The hydroxyapatite coating on the poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer revealed enhanced coating stability and flexibility without cracking or delamination during bending and stretching compared with the hydroxyapatite single coating. These results demonstrated that the hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating significantly improved the surface corrosion resistance of Mg and enhanced coating flexibility for use of Mg as a biodegradable implant. PMID:23241964

  8. COATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE ANDRÉS CALDERÓN-GUTIERREZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El desempeño anticorrosivo de un recubrimiento orgánico tipo Epoxy-Mastic fue evaluado en condiciones de inmersión continua en solución salina usando espectroscopía de impedancia electroquímica (EIS. Se determinaron los parámetros típicos como la resistencia de poro y resistencia a la transferencia de carga usando un circuito eléctrico equivalente. Se usaron elementos de fase constante (CPE para determinar la fracción de agua absorbida, coeficientes de difusión de masa, solubilidad y coeficientes de hinchamiento, así como también para predecir los tiempos de falla de dicho recubrimiento. Los resultados hallados por medio de medidas EIS concuerdan con la alta resistencia al deterioro que exhibe el recubrimiento. El excelente desempeño protector es debido principalmente a la baja solubilidad y permeabilidad de agua.

  9. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  10. Investigation of metallurgical coatings for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jun Feng

    Metallurgical coatings have been widely used in the automotive industry from component machining, engine daily running to body decoration due to their high hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance and low friction coefficient. With high demands in energy saving, weight reduction and limiting environmental impact, the use of new materials such as light Aluminum/magnesium alloys with high strength-weight ratio for engine block and advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) with better performance in crash energy management for die stamping, are increasing. However, challenges are emerging when these new materials are applied such as the wear of the relative soft light alloys and machining tools for hard AHSS. The protective metallurgical coatings are the best option to profit from these new materials' advantages without altering largely in mass production equipments, machinery, tools and human labor. In this dissertation, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating processing on aluminum alloys was introduced in engine cylinder bores to resist wear and corrosion. The tribological behavior of the PEO coatings under boundary and starve lubrication conditions was studied experimentally and numerically for the first time. Experimental results of the PEO coating demonstrated prominent wear resistance and low friction, taking into account the extreme working conditions. The numerical elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and asperity contact based tribological study also showed a promising approach on designing low friction and high wear resistant PEO coatings. Other than the fabrication of the new coatings, a novel coating evaluation methodology, namely, inclined impact sliding tester was presented in the second part of this dissertation. This methodology has been developed and applied in testing and analyzing physical vapor deposition (PVD)/ chemical vapor deposition (CVD)/PEO coatings. Failure mechanisms of these common metallurgical hard coatings were systematically

  11. Thermal coatings for titanium-aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnington, George R.; Clark, Ronald K.; Robinson, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Titanium aluminides and titanium alloys are candidate materials for use in hot structure and heat-shield components of hypersonic vehicles because of their good strength-to-weight characteristics at elevated temperature. However, in order to utilize their maximum temperature capability, they must be coated to resist oxidation and to have a high total remittance. Also, surface catalysis for recombination of dissociated species in the aerodynamic boundary layer must be minimized. Very thin chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coatings are attractive candidates for this application because of durability and very light weight. To demonstrate this concept, coatings of boron-silicon and aluminum-boron-silicon compositions were applied to the titanium-aluminides alpha2 (Ti-14Al-21Nb), super-alpha2 (Ti-14Al-23-Nb-2V), and gamma (Ti-33Al-6Nb-1Ta) and to the titanium alloy beta-21S (Ti-15Mo-3Al-3Nb-0.2Si). Coated specimens of each alloy were subjected to a set of simulated hypersonic vehicle environmental tests to determine their properties of oxidation resistance, surface catalysis, radiative emittance, and thermal shock resistance. Surface catalysis results should be viewed as relative performance only of the several coating-alloy combinations tested under the specific environmental conditions of the LaRC Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) arc-plasma-heated hypersonic wind tunnel. Tests were also conducted to evaluate the hydrogen transport properties of the coatings and any effects of the coating processing itself on fatigue life of the base alloys. Results are presented for three types of coatings, which are as follows: (1) a single layer boron silicon coating, (2) a single layer aluminum-boron-silicon coating, and (3) a multilayer coating consisting of an aluminum-boron-silicon sublayer with a boron-silicon outer layer.

  12. Antibacterial coating on polymer for space application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagna, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.balagna@polito.it [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Perero, Sergio; Ferraris, Sara; Miola, Marta [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Fucale, Giacomo [Chemical, Clinical and Microbiological Analyses Department C.T.O., Via G. Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Manfredotti, Chiara; Battiato, Alfio [Physics Department, Centre of Excellence ' Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces' and CNISM, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Santella, Daniela [Thales Alenia Space - Italia, Space Infrastructures and Transportation, Engineering - Advanced Projects Unit, Strada Antica di Collegno 253, 10146 Torino (Italy); Verne, Enrica [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Vittone, Ettore [Physics Department, Centre of Excellence ' Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces' and CNISM, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Ferraris, Monica [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    The microbiological contamination on board of spacecraft and orbital stations is a relevant problem in prolonged space exploration. For this purpose, an antibacterial silver nanocluster silica composite coating was deposited on a commercial polymer Combitherm{sup Registered-Sign }, suitable for aerospace application, using the radio frequency (RF) co-sputtering technique. The presence of metallic silver nanoclusters and silica was confirmed by energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) detected through UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry (UV-Vis). The atomic force microscope (AFM) evidenced the coating morphology. The slight hydrophobicity of both coated and uncoated samples was revealed through the contact angle measurement. The antimicrobial behavior was verified through evaluation of the inhibition halo against several bacterial and fungal species. The coating enhanced the Combitherm{sup Registered-Sign} nano-hardness and its resistance to tensile and perforation tests; the coating wear resistance was measured by abrasion test against Kevlar. A folding procedure on the coated Combitherm{sup Registered-Sign} and storage in air for three months was also carried out without deterioration of the measured properties. The coating deposition did not influence the air permeability of Combitherm{sup Registered-Sign }. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A silver nanocluster silica composite coating was deposited on a polymeric film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A co-sputtering technique was used for the coating deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating induced an antibacterial effect on the polymer film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating improved the nano-hardness and the resistance to tensile and perforation.

  13. Coating possibilities for magnetic switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High average power magnetic pulse compression systems are now being considered for use in several applications such as the High Power Radiation Source (HiPoRS) project. Such systems will require high reliability magnetic switches (saturable inductors) that are very efficient and have long lifetimes. One of the weakest components in magnetic switches is their interlaminar insulation. Considerations related to dielectric breakdown, thermal management of compact designs, and economical approaches for achieving these needs must be addressed. Various dielectric insulation and coating materials have been applied to Metglas foil in an attempt to solve the complex technical and practical problems associated with large magnetic switch structures. This work reports various needs, studies, results, and proposals in selecting and evaluating continuous coating approaches for magnetic foil. Techniques such as electrophoretic polymer deposition and surface chemical oxidation are discussed. We also propose continuous photofabrication processes for applying dielectric ribs or spacers to the foil which permit circulation of dielectric liquids for cooling during repetitive operation. 10 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs

  14. NANOCOMPOSITE COATINGS WITH ENHANCED HARDNESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Musil

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the present state of the art in the magnetron sputtering of hart and superhard nanocomposite coatings. It is shown that there are (1) two groups of hard and superhard nanocomposites: (i) nc-MN/hard phase and (ii) nc-MN/soft phase, (2) three possible origins of the enhanced hardness: (i) dislocation-dominated plastic deformation, (ii) cohesive forces between atoms and (iii) nanostructure of materials, and (3) huge differences in the microstructure of single- and two-phase films. A main attention is devoted to the formation of nanocrystalline and/or X-ray amorphous films. Such films are created in a vicinity of transitions between (i)crystalline and amorphous phases, (ii) two crystalline phases of different chemical composition or (iii) two different preferred orientations of grains of the sane material from which the coating is composed. The existence of the last transition makes it possible to explain the enhanced hardness in single-phase films. The thermal stability and oxidation resistance of hard nanocomposite films is also shortly discussed.

  15. Coatings and Surface Treatments for Reusable Entry Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2016-01-01

    This talk outlines work in coatings for TPS done at NASA Ames. coatings and surface treatments on reusable TPS are critical for controlling the behavior of the materials. coatings discussed include RCG, TUFI and HETC. TUFROc is also discussed.

  16. Process to minimize cracking of pyrolytic carbon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-coated microspheroids useful as fuels in nuclear reactors are produced with a low percentage of cracked coatings and are imparted increased strength and mechanical stability characteristics by annealing immediately after the carbon coating processes

  17. Broadband Reflective Coating Process for Large FUVOIR Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZeCoat Corporation will develop and demonstrate a set of revolutionary coating processes for making broadband reflective coatings suitable for very large mirrors...

  18. Measure Guideline. Transitioning From Three-Coat Stucco to One-Coat Stucco With EPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Davis, G. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rapport, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This measure guideline has been developed to help builders transition from using a traditional three-coat stucco wall-cladding system to a one-coat stucco wall-cladding system with expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulated sheathing. The one-coat system maintains the look of a traditional stucco system but uses only a base layer and a finish coat over EPS insulation that achieves higher levels of energy efficiency. Potential risks associated with the installation of a one-coat stucco system are addressed in terms of design, installation, and warranty concerns such as cracking and delamination, along with mitigation strategies to reduce these risks.

  19. The Sensory Quality of Pearl Mullet (Chalcalburnus tarichi) Fillets Coated with Different Coating Materialss

    OpenAIRE

    Kılınççeker, Osman; Kurt, Şükrü

    2010-01-01

    The effects of gluten:zein (30:70, 50:50, 70:30) as first coating, guar gum (0.2, 0.4, 0.6%) as second coating and wheat flour:corn flour (30:70, 50:50, 70:30) as a last coating on the sensory qualities of pearl mullet fillets were determined using response surface methodology. The increasing amount of gluten in the first coating increased L and whiteness values and decreased a values. Colour, appearance, and a values decreased with increased guar gum in the second coating. Increasing whe...

  20. Relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica in C1 bituminous coal in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China%云南省宣威地区非吸烟女性肺癌与C1烟煤中二氧化硅的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光剑; 黄云超; 田林玮; 刘拥军; 郭律; 肖义泽; 侯文俊; 杨堃; 陈颖

    2013-01-01

    二氧化硅颗粒物进入室内空气中随悬浮颗粒物吸入肺部”的迁移富集路线.%Objective To measure the content of silica in C1 bituminous coal and its combustion products in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei,Yunnan Province,China and to investigate the relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica produced naturally in C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei.Methods The C1 bituminous coal widely used in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei was selected as experiment group,while the C2+1,K7,and M30 bituminous coal that was mined and used in the low-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei for more than 10 years were selected as control group.Fourteen paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples from the non-smoking women with non-small cell lung cancer who were born in Xuanwei and were at least the 3rd generation of the family living there were collected from the department of pathology,the ahird affiliated hospital of kunming medical university (tumor hospital of yunnan province).Titrimetric potassium silicofluoride method was used to measure the content of silica in raw coal and its bottom ashes in 20 samples from the experimental group and control group.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in C1 bituminous coal and its bottom ashes,and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in the bottom ashes and coal soot of C1 bituminous coal as well as the lung cancer tissue from the non-smoking women in Xuanwei,and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.The silica particles were separated from the coal soot and bottom ashes and characterized by physical method

  1. Boronized stainless steel with zirconia coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Kolísko, J.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Mastný, L.; Pokorný, P.; Tej, P.

    Ostrava: TANGER Ltd, 2015, s. 1069-1074. ISBN 978-80-87294-62-8. [METAL 2015. International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials /24./. Brno (CZ), 03.06.2015-05.06.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Boronised steel * plasma spraying * ceramic coatings * bond strength * zirkonia coatings Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  2. Optical enhancing durable anti-reflective coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Varadarajan, Aravamuthan; Movassat, Meisam

    2016-07-05

    Disclosed herein are polysilsesquioxane based anti-reflective coating (ARC) compositions, methods of preparation, and methods of deposition on a substrate. In embodiments, the polysilsesquioxane of this disclosure is prepared in a two-step process of acid catalyzed hydrolysis of organoalkoxysilane followed by addition of tetralkoxysilane that generates silicone polymers with >40 mol % silanol based on Si-NMR. These high silanol siloxane polymers are stable and have a long shelf-life in the polar organic solvents at room temperature. Also disclosed are low refractive index ARC made from these compositions with and without additives such as porogens, templates, Si--OH condensation catalyst and/or nanofillers. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for applying coatings to flat substrates including substrate pre-treatment processes, coating processes including flow coating and roll coating, and coating curing processes including skin-curing using hot-air knives. Also disclosed are coating compositions and formulations for highly tunable, durable, highly abrasion-resistant functionalized anti-reflective coatings.

  3. Coatings Preserve Metal, Stone, Tile, and Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    John B. Schutt, a chemist at Goddard Space Flight Center, created a coating for spacecraft that could resist corrosion and withstand high heat. After retiring from NASA, Schutt used his expertise to create new formulations for Daytona Beach, Florida-based Adsil Corporation, which now manufactures a family of coatings to preserve various surfaces. Adsil has created 150 jobs due to the products.

  4. Coating selection for 'Delicious' and other apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gas permeabilities of shellac and several experimental coating formulations, including candelilla wax and shellac-carnauba were measured. These coatings, selected to have a very wide range of gas permeabilities, were applied to freshly harvested or 5-month long-term commercially stored Deliciou...

  5. Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite Coating on Metal Implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela; Barrere, Florence; Blitterswijk, van Clemens A.; Groot, de Klaas; Layrolle, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    The combination of the high mechanical strength of metals with the osteoconductive properties of calcium phosphates make hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium implants widely used in orthopedic surgery. However, the most popular coating method, plasma spraying, exhibits some important drawbacks: the i

  6. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Kessler, Olaf; Hoffmann, Franz; Mayr, Peter

    The deposition of hard coatings with CVD-processes is commonly used to improve the wear resistance e.g. of tool steels in forming. The advantages of CVD are undisputed (high deposition rates with simple equipment, excellent coating properties). Nevertheless, the disadvantage of the CVD-process is...

  7. Tribological study of lubricious DLC biocompatible coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela, M; Garcia-Luis, A; Viviente, J L; Braceras, I; Oñate, J I

    2002-12-01

    DLC (diamond-like carbon) coatings have remarkable tribological properties due mainly to their good frictional behavior. These coatings can be applied in many industrial and biomedical applications, where sliding can generate wear and frictional forces on the components, such as orthopaedic metal implants. This work reports on the development and tribological characterization of functionally gradient titanium alloyed DLC coatings. A PVD-magnetron sputtering technique has been used as the deposition method. The aim of this work was to study the tribological performance of the DLC coating when metal to metal contact (cobalt chromium or titanium alloys) takes place under dry and lubricated test conditions. Prior work by the authors demonstrates that the DLC coating reduced considerably the wear of the ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). The DLC coating during mechanical testing exhibited a high elastic recovery (65%) compared to the values obtained from Co-Cr-Mo (15%) and Ti-6Al-4V (23%). The coating exhibited an excellent tribo-performance against the Ti-6Al-4V and Co-Cr-Mo alloys, especially under dry conditions presenting a friction value of 0.12 and almost negligible wear. This coating has passed biocompatibility tests for implant devices on tissue/bone contact according to international standards (ISO 10993). PMID:15348654

  8. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  9. Permeability of protective coatings to tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permeability of four protective coatings to tritium gas and tritiated water was investigated. The coatings, including two epoxies, one vinyl and one urethane, were selected for their suitability in CANDU plant service in Ontario Hydro. Sorption rates of tritium gas into the coatings were considerably larger than for tritiated water, by as much as three to four orders of magnitude. However, as a result of the very large solubility of tritiated water in the coatings, the overall permeability to tritium gas and tritiated water are comparable, being somewhat larger for HTO. Marked differences were also evident among the four coatings, the vinyl proving to be unique in behaviour and morphology. Because of a highly porous surface structure water condensation takes place at high relative humidities, leading to an abnormally high retention of free water. Desorption rates from the four coatings were otherwise quite similar. Of practical importance was the observation that more effective desorption of tritiated water could be carried out at relatively high humidities, in this case 60%. It was believed that isotopic exchange was responsible for this phenomenon. It appears that epoxy coatings having a high pigment-to-binder ratio are most suited for coating concrete in tritium handling facilities

  10. Inexpensive, removable coating for plaster tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimino, J. M.; Martin, R. R.

    1970-01-01

    Procedure for thinning and spaying a vinyl material provides strippable film for plaster surfaces. Coating is low-cost, effective seal against moisture and other sources of damage. Coating consists of a mixture of hot-spray vinyl material and 30 to 50 percent by volume of methyl ethyl ketone.

  11. Use of nanofillers in wood coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Lawther, John Mark; Sanadi, Anand Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Wood has been used for thousands of years and remains an important material in the construction industry, most often protected with coatings. Development of nanotechnology allows further improvements or new performance properties to be achieved in wood coatings. Increased UV protection with...

  12. Quantitative analysis of thermal insulation coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2014-01-01

    This work concerns the development of simulation tools for mapping of insulation properties of thermal insulation coatings based on selected functional filler materials. A mathematical model, which includes the underlying physics (i.e. thermal conductivity of a heterogeneous two-component coating...

  13. Tests Of Protective Coats For Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdowell, Louis G., III

    1995-01-01

    Report describes laboratory and field tests of candidate paints (primers, tie coats, and topcoats) for use in protecting carbon-steel structures against corrosion in seaside environment at Kennedy Space Center. Coating materials selected because of utility in preventing corrosion, also on basis of legal requirements, imposed in several urban areas, for reduction of volatile organic contents.

  14. Steam generated conversion coating on aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    into functional conversion coatings in order to enhance corrosion resistance and adhesion to paint systems. Chromium based conversion coatings have been extensively used on aluminium alloys to improve adhesion of subsequent paint layers and corrosion resistance. However, the use of hexavalent chromium...

  15. A mechanical impact of coatings on membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Søren; Reus, Roger De; Eriksen, Gert Friis;

    2001-01-01

    The mechanical impact of coatings containing residual stress on membranes is investigated. Closed-form formulas describing this impact are presented and verified using both finite element modeling and physical experiments. Theory and experiments are in good agreement. Thus, a simple tool for design...... of coated pressure sensors is provided....

  16. Electrospraying for efficient coating of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.K.I.

    2013-01-01

    There is a continuous need for thinner edible coatings with excellent barrier properties, and this requires new application methods. Electrospraying is known to yield fine droplets of size down to 20 μm, giving the potential of very thin and even coatings. The droplets size was influenced by flow

  17. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Kessler, Olaf; Hoffmann, Franz;

    1999-01-01

    , the scratch test is used to estimate critical loads for cohesive and adhesive failure of the coatings. Additionally, distortion measurements are carried out. The results emphasize the advantage of induction surface hardening as a method of subsequent heat treatment of CVD-coated steels....

  18. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles stabilized by polymerized PEGylated coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with polymerized PEGylated bilayers were prepared. Bilayers composed of 10-undecenoic acid (UD) inner and UDPEG (PEG ester of UD) outer layers are resistant to aggregation after γ-irradiation. Various methods of coating were developed to prepare small (60-100nm) and ultrasmall (20-35nm) particles without size separation processes

  19. Transport processes in pea seed coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, Joost Thomas van

    2002-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns transport processes in coats of developing pea seeds. The scope of the investigation ranges from seed coat anatomy, via transport studies to the cloning of cDNA encoding proteinaceous membrane pores, and the heterologous expression of these protei

  20. Modeling of an Active Tablet Coating Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschkoff, Gregor; Just, Sarah; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter; Funke, Adrian; Djuric, Dejan; Scharrer, Georg; Khinast, Johannes G

    2015-12-01

    Tablet coating is a common unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry, during which a coating layer is applied to tablet cores. The coating uniformity of tablets in a batch is especially critical for active coating, that is, coating that contains an active pharmaceutical ingredient. In recent years, discrete element method (DEM) simulations became increasingly common for investigating tablet coating. In this work, DEM was applied to model an active coating process as closely as possible, using measured model parameters and non-spherical particles. We studied how operational conditions (rotation speed, fill level, number of nozzles, and spray rate) influence the coating uniformity. To this end, simulation runs were planned and interpreted according to a statistical design of (simulation) experiments. Our general goal was to achieve a deeper understanding of the process in terms of residence times and dimensionless scaling laws. With that regard, the results were interpreted in light of analytical models. The results were presented at various detail levels, ranging from an overview of all variations to in-depth considerations. It was determined that the biggest uniformity improvement in a realistic setting was achieved by increasing the number of spray nozzles, followed by increasing the rotation speed and decreasing the fill level. PMID:26344941