Sample records for bituminous coatings

  1. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction


    Dipankar Sarkar; Manish Pal; Sarkar, Ashoke K.


    There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46...

  2. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

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    Dipankar Sarkar


    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  3. Bituminous sands : tax issues

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    Patel, B. [PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs.

  4. Effect of Cement on Properties of Over-Burnt Brick Bituminous Concrete Mixes (United States)

    Sarkar, Dipankar; Pal, Manish


    The present investigation is carried out to propose the use of cement coated over burnt brick aggregate in the preparation of bituminous concrete mix. The effect of cement on various mechanical properties such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient (stability to flow ratio), indirect tensile strength, stripping, rutting and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study, different cement percentages such as 2, 3, 4 and 5 % by weight of aggregate have been mixed with Over Burnt Brick Aggregate (OBBA). The laboratory results indicate that bituminous concrete prepared by 4 % cement coated OBBA gives the highest Marshall stability. The bituminous concrete mix with 4 % cement shows considerable improvement in various mechanical properties of the mix compared to the plain OBBA concrete mix.

  5. Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines. (United States)

    Fisne, Abdullah; Okten, Gündüz; Celebi, Nilgün


    Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uzülmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m(-3). It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration.

  6. Facies studies of bituminous coals in Poland

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    Nowak, Grzegorz J. [Polish Geological Institute, Lower Silesian Branch, al. Jaworowa 19, 53-122, Wroclaw (Poland)


    Polish bituminous coal basins are associated exclusively with Carboniferous deposits, differing in origin and geological structure. This paper presents only short review of papers of Polish authors on coal facies studies of Carboniferous coals occurring in the Lower Silesian Coal Basin (LSCB), Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) and Lublin Coal Basin (LCB) of Poland. Facies investigations of Carboniferous coals of Poland have been in progress over 20 years. The results of these studies have provided new information on such subjects as: (1) recognition of main depositional conditions in paleomires, (2) determine prevailing paleoplant communities, (3) appraisal of peat-forming environment reconstruction-types and characteristics of paleomires. These facies analyses are connected to results of such studies as: pure coal petrology, using maceral and microlithotype composition as parameters of the environment of coal deposition, combined results of petrological, palynological and sedimentological studies.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路春美; 程世庆; 邵延玲; 张晔


    Through a lot of experiments, a new kind of stove using horizontal combustion technique for bituminous coal briquet has been developed. Making use of this stove, studies have been made on burning process of bituminous coal briquet, distribution of temperature field in the stove, the regularities of evolution and combustion of volatile matter, the burning rate and efficiency of bituminous coal briquet, characteristics of fire-sealing and sulfur-retention. The results show that, with the technique, some achievements can be obtained in combustion of bituminous coal briquet, such as lower pollution that the flue gas black degree is below 0.5R and dust concentration is below 90mg/m3 . The stove's combustion efficiency reaches 90%, sulfur fixing efficiency is 60%, and CO concentration is decreased by 40% compared with other traditional stoves. With so many advantages, the stove can be used extensively in civil stoves and smaller industrial boilers.

  8. Modification Bituminous Binders Petroleum Resin (Based on C9 Fraction

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    Elena A. Chigorina


    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to measure the basic parameters of a bituminous binder obtained by modification of the BND 60/90 binder with petroleum resin, for both dynamic and static modification modes.

  9. Effects of bituminous layer as backfill material on mechanical behavior in tunnel model


    Moriyoshi, Akihiro; Takano, Shin-ei; Urata, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Takaki


    This paper describes the effects of bituminous material as a backfill material on mechanical behavior in model tunnel in laboratory. It is known that load spreading and relaxation of bituminous material are good properties. Then if we use bituminous material as a backfill material of tunnel, the tunnel will have waterproof, good load spreading property. We used new bituminous material (Aquaphalt) which can solidify in water. We conducted relaxation test in tension for new bituminous mat...

  10. The bituminous sands : a Canadian mirage?

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    Rousse, D.R. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Nasr, G.J. [Lebanese Univ., Roumieh (Lebanon). Faculty of Engineering; Turcotte, S.F. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Etudes Internationales et Mondialisation; Salah, N.B. [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques De Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia). LMMP


    This paper examined the controversy about the potential role of a significant increase in Canadian oil sands production in order to bridge the upcoming gap between the world's increasing energy demand and the total recoverable oil supply. The paper presented the actual potential of different scenarios and considered the prediction cost forecasts. A brief overview of environmental impacts and the real return on investments were also provided. Environmental impacts that were considered included land degradation; water contamination; ecosystem damage; and air pollution. Nuclear energy was also presented as a possible solution. The paper demonstrated that even in a very optimistic scenario, Canada's oil sands accelerated production has a negligible effect on the aforementioned gap, has a considerable impact on environment that has yet to be accounted for. Energy ratios that were presented included energy return on energy investment; energy available on energy used; and energy payback. It was concluded that enhanced recovery techniques are clearly needed for future sustainable exploitation of these bituminous sands. 32 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Investigation of synthesis of silicon carbide from bituminous coal

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    Wang, X.; He, E.; Chen, S. [Xian University of Science and Technology, Xian (China). Dept of Materials Technology


    Three kinds of bituminous coal were investigated in SiC synthesis reaction under N{sub 2} atmosphere protection. It was found that bituminous coal could be used as the carbon source to synthesise SiC. However, there was a significant difference in the quantity of SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, which was the by product, from the different types of bituminous coal. It had been indicated by the research work that the bituminous coal's volatile constituents and the micro-structure of the coke (such as porosity, micromorphology of pore and specific surface area etc.) were the two critical factors which determined the generation of SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} in this reaction system. The difference of these three kinds of bituminous coal in volatile constituents and coke's micro-structure were studied under temperature ranging from 1200 to 1600{degree}C and their effects on the SiC reaction system was also discussed. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification

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    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (United States)


    This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

  13. A study on spontaneous ignition of bituminous coal

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    Xin-Rui Li; Hiroshi Koseki; Yusaku Iwata [National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster, Tokyo (Japan)


    The thermal properties of four bituminous coals were studied using isothermal and temperature-programmed calorimeters, such as a differential thermal analysis, a heat flux calorimeter C80 and an thermal activity monitor (TAM-III). The corresponding spontaneous ignition was measured in an adiabatic spontaneous ignition tester. It was found that there were weak exothermic activities in bituminous coal at 50-100 {sup o}C and meanwhile carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide was generated. These thermal behaviors are responsible for the self heating from 50{sup o}C and spontaneous ignition at 80{sup o}C. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. A study on spontaneous ignition of bituminous coal

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    Li Xin-Rui


    Full Text Available The thermal properties of four bituminous coals were studied using isothermal and temperature-programmed calorimeters, such as a differential thermal analysis, a heat flux calorimeter C80 and an thermal activity monitor (TAM-III. The corresponding spontaneous ignition was measured in an adiabatic spontaneous ignition tester. It was found that there were weak exothermic activities in bituminous coal at 50-100°C and meanwhile carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide was generated. These thermal behaviors are responsible for the self heating from 50°C and spontaneous ignition at 80°C.

  15. Unexpectedly high uptake of palladium by bituminous coals

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    Lakatos, J. [Research Lab. for Mining Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Glasgow (United Kingdom)


    The uptake of palladium as a conversion catalyst onto coals of different rank was investigated. Palladium fixation occurs by a different mode to that for alkaline earth and first row transition metals. Therefore, the dispersion of relatively high concentration of palladium by an ion sorption process is even possible for bituminous coals. (orig.)

  16. Amenability of Muzret bituminous coal to oil agglomeration

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    Sahinoglu, E.; Uslu, T. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mining Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)


    Laboratory scale agglomeration tests were undertaken to investigate the amenability of Muzret (Yusufeli-Artvin) bituminous coal to oil agglomeration. Kerosene was extensively used as oil in the tests. In addition, fuel oil, diesel oil, and hazelnut oil were also used in order to determine the effect of oil type. The effects of the parameters including coal content, kerosene content, agglomeration time, coal particle size, pH, oil type, and agitation rate, on the combustible matter recovery, ash reduction and pyritic sulphur reduction, were investigated. It was found that Muzret bituminous coal could be readily cleaned by oil agglomeration with substantial reductions in ash and pyritic sulphur content. Maximum combustible matter recovery, ash reduction and pyritic sulphur reduction were achieved to be 85.54%, 59.98%, and 85.17%, respectively. (author)

  17. Co-pyrolysis characteristic of biomass and bituminous coal. (United States)

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Aibin; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangsuo


    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of biomass and bituminous coal have been studied in this work. The temperature was up to 900°C with the heating rates of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C/min. Rice straw, saw dust, microcrystalline cellulose, lignin and Shenfu bituminous coal were chosen as samples. Six different biomass ratios were used. The individual thermal behavior of each sample was obtained. The experimental weight fractions of the blended samples and the calculated values were compared. The results show that the weight fractions of the blended samples behave differently with calculated ones during the co-pyrolysis process. With the increasing biomass ratio, relative deviations between experimental weight fractions and calculated ones are larger. H/C molar ratio, heat transfer properties of biomass would affect to the interaction between biomass and coal. The maximum degradation rates are slower than the calculated ones. The activation energy distributions also changed by adding some biomass into coal.

  18. Performance of PAHs emission from bituminous coal combustion

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    严建华; 尤孝方; 李晓东; 倪明江; 尹雪峰; 岑可法


    Carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated in coal combustion have caused great environmental health concern. Seventeen PAHs (16 high priority PAHs recommended by USEPA plus Benzo[e]pyrene) present in five raw bituminous coals and released during bituminous coal combustion were studied. The effects of combustion temperature, gas atmosphere, and chlorine content of raw coal on PAHs formation were investigated. Two additives (copper and cupric oxide) were added when the coal was burned. The results indicated that significant quantities of PAHs were produced from incomplete combustion of coal pyrolysis products at high temperature, and that temperature is an important causative factor of PAHs formation. PAHs concentrations decrease with the increase of chlorine content in oxygen or in nitrogen atmosphere. Copper and cupric oxide additives can promote PAHs formation (especially the multi-ring PAHs) during coal combustion.

  19. Steam and air plasma gasification of bituminous coal and petrocoke


    Vladimir Messerle; Alexander Ustimenko


    This paper presents a numerical analysis and experimental investigation of two very different solid fuels, low-rank bituminous coal of 40 % ash content and petrocoke of 3 % ash content, gasification under steam and air plasma conditions with an aim of producing synthesis gas. Numerical analysis was fulfilled using the software package TERRA for equilibrium computation. Using the results of the numerical simulation, experiments on plasma steam gasification of the petrocoke and air and steam ga...

  20. Evaluation of the Properties of Bituminous Concrete Prepared from Brick-Stone Mix Aggregate


    Dipankar Sarkar; Manish Pal; Sarkar, Ashoke K.; Umesh Mishra


    The paper describes an investigation into mechanical properties of brick-stone bituminous concrete mix. The effect of brick-stone mix on various mechanical properties of the bituminous concrete such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall Quotient (stability to flow ratio), Indirect Tensile Strength, stripping, rutting, and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study over-burnt brick aggregate (OBBA) and stone aggregate (SA) have been mixed in different ratios ...

  1. Concentration of viruses from water on bituminous coal

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    Lakhe, S.B.; Parhad, N.M.


    The potential of bituminous coal for adsorption of viruses, using poliovirus as a model, was investigated. Influence of pH of water on the adsorption of viruses on a coal bed with and without addition of cation (Al/sup 3 +/) indicated that poliovirus could be adsorbed efficiently at pH 5 in presence of AlCl/sub 3/ at a concentration of 0.0005 M. studies on the effect of different concentrations of monovalent, divalent and trivalent cations showed that the trivalent cation was more effective and was required at a lower concentration than other cations tested. A coal bed of 1.5 g could adsorb as high as 204,000 PFU from water based on the absence of virus in the filtrate. Total organic carbon content of the water did not interfere in virus adsorption to coal. The results obtained indicated that a bituminous coal bed could be used as one of the methods for efficient concentration of viruses from water. 31 refs., 8 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of the Properties of Bituminous Concrete Prepared from Brick-Stone Mix Aggregate

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    Dipankar Sarkar


    Full Text Available The paper describes an investigation into mechanical properties of brick-stone bituminous concrete mix. The effect of brick-stone mix on various mechanical properties of the bituminous concrete such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall Quotient (stability to flow ratio, Indirect Tensile Strength, stripping, rutting, and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study over-burnt brick aggregate (OBBA and stone aggregate (SA have been mixed in different ratios (by weight such as 20 : 80, 40 : 60, 60 : 40, and 80 : 20, respectively. The laboratory results indicate that bituminous concrete, prepared by 20% brick aggregate and 80% stone aggregate, gives the highest Marshall stability. This bituminous concrete mix shows considerable improvement in various mechanical properties of the mix as compared to the other mixes.

  3. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

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    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi


    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  4. Leaching tests of simulated Cogema bituminized waste form

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    Nakayama, S.; Akimoto, T.; Iida, Y.; Nagano, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)


    The leaching behavior of COGEMA-type bituminized radioactive waste was studied for the atmospheric and anaerobic conditions. Active and inactive laboratory-scale bitumen samples, including two major salts of NaNO{sub 3} and BaSO{sub 4}, were contacted with deionized water, an alkaline solution (0.01 mol/L Ca(OH){sub 2} or 0.03 mol/L KOH), or a saline solution (0.5 mol/L KCl). It was found that the release of salt was reduced in the Ca(OH){sub 2} solution compared with deionized water under the atmospheric conditions. No significant difference in the concentrations of {sup 237}Np in leachants contacted with the samples for 7 days was observed between the atmospheric and the anaerobic conditions. (authors)

  5. Steam and air plasma gasification of bituminous coal and petrocoke

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    Vladimir Messerle


    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical analysis and experimental investigation of two very different solid fuels, low-rank bituminous coal of 40 % ash content and petrocoke of 3 % ash content, gasification under steam and air plasma conditions with an aim of producing synthesis gas. Numerical analysis was fulfilled using the software package TERRA for equilibrium computation. Using the results of the numerical simulation, experiments on plasma steam gasification of the petrocoke and air and steam gasification of the coal were conducted in an original installation. Nominal power of the plasma installation is 100 kWe and sum consumption of the reagents is up to 20 kg/h. High quality synthesis gas was produced in the experiments on solid fuels plasma gasification. It has been found that the synthesis gas content at about 97.4 vol.% can be produced. Comparison between the numerical and experimental results showed satisfactory agreement. 

  6. Investigation of the combustion characteristics of Zonguldak bituminous coal using DTA and DTG

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    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Okutan, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    Combustion characteristics of coking, semicoking, and noncoking Turkish bituminous coal samples from Zonguldak basin were investigated applying differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) techniques. Results were compared with that of the coke from Zonguldak bituminous coal, a Turkish lignite sample from Soma, and a Siberian bituminous coal sample. The thermal data from both techniques showed some differences depending on the proximate analyses of the samples. Noncombustible components of the volatile matter led to important changes in thermal behavior. The data front both methods were, evaluated jointly, and some thermal properties were interpreted considering these methods in a complementary combination.

  7. State of the art report on bituminized waste forms of radioactive wastes

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    Kim, Tae Kook; Shon, Jong Sik; Kim, Kil Jeong; Lee, Kang Moo; Jung, In Ha


    In this report, research and development results on the bituminization of radioactive wastes are closely reviewed, especially those regarding waste treatment technologies, waste solidifying procedures and the characteristics of asphalt and solidified forms. A new concept of the bituminization method is suggested in this report which can improve the characteristics of solidified forms. Stable solid forms with high leach resistance, high thermal resistance and good compression strength were produced by the suggested bituminization method, in which spent polyethylene from agricultural farms was added. This report can help further research and development of improved bituminized forms of radioactive wastes that will maintain long term stabilities in disposal sites. (author). 59 refs., 19 tabs., 18 figs

  8. Influence of association of "EVA-NBR" on indirect tensile strength of modified bituminous concrete (United States)

    Chinoun, M.; Soudani, K.; Haddadi, S.


    The aim of this work is to contribute to the improvement of the mechanical properties of bituminous concrete by modification of bituminous concrete. In this study, we present the results of the indirect tensile strength "ITS" of modified bituminous concrete by the combination of two modifiers, one is a plastomer EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) and the other is a industrial waste from the shoe soles grinding NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) as crumb rubber. To modify the bitumen a wet process was used. The results show that the modification of bitumen by EVA-NBR combination increases their resistance to the indirect traction "ITS" compared to the bituminous concrete control. The mixture of 5% [50% EVA+ 50% NBR] is given the best result among the other associations.

  9. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

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    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang


    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in C. to C. range as well as in excess of C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  10. Reactivity and characterisation of various rank Turkish bituminous coal chars

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    Kizgut, S.; Baran, Y.; Cuhadaroglu, D. [Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering


    A set of seven bituminous coal chars has been characterised by IR spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG) and elemental analysis. FTIR study provided suitable information to establish differences between coal samples according to their chemical compositions. The reactivity of these samples was also studied and correlated with the coal parameters of mean vitrinite reflectance, fuel ratio and H/C ratio. The data suggest that reactivity as determined can be correlated with the mean vitrinite reflectance, fuel ratio and H/C ratio (0.90). The order of reactivity of samples were; Amasra (S1) (R-m=0.65) > Azdavay (S4) (R-m=0.99) {approx_equal} Armutcuk (S2) (R-m=0.81) {approx_equal} Acenta (S3) (R-m=0.92) > Ac2l2k (S6) (R-m=1.11) Cay (S5) (R-m=1.03) > Sogutozu (S7) (R-m=2.14).

  11. Chemical and Pyrolytic Thermogravimetric Characterization of Nigerian Bituminous Coals

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    Nyakuma Bemgba Bevan


    Full Text Available The discovery of new coal deposits in Nigeria presents solutions for nation’s energy crises and prospects for socioeconomic growth and sustainable development. Furthermore, the quest for sustainable energy to limit global warming, climate change, and environmental degradation has necessitated the exploration of alternatives using cleaner technologies such as coal pyrolysis. However, a lack of comprehensive data on physico-chemical and thermal properties of Nigerian coals has greatly limited their utilization. Therefore, the physico-chemical properties, rank (classification, and thermal decomposition profiles of two Nigerian bituminous coals – Afuze (AFZ and Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ – were examined in this study. The results indicate that the coals contain high proportions of C, H, N, S, O and a sufficiently high heating value (HHV for energy conversion. The coal classification revealed that the Afuze (AFZ coal possesses a higher rank, maturity, and coal properties compared to the Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ coal. A thermal analysis demonstrated that coal pyrolysis in both cases occurred in three stages; drying (30-200 °C, devolatilization (200-600 °C, and char decomposition (600-1000 °C. The results also indicated that pyrolysis at 1000 °C is not sufficient for complete pyrolysis. In general, the thermochemical and pyrolytic fuel properties indicate that the coal from both places can potentially be utilized for future clean energy applications.

  12. Fuel properties of bituminous coal and pyrolytic oil mixture (United States)

    Hamdan, Hazlin; Sharuddin, Munawar Zaman; Daud, Ahmad Rafizan Mohamad; Syed-Hassan, Syed Shatir A.


    Investigation on the thermal decomposition kinetics of coal-biooil slurry (CBS) fuel prepared at different ratios (100:0,70:30,60:40,0:100) was conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The materials consisted of Clermont bituminous coal (Australia) and bio-oil (also known as pyrolytic oil) from the source of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) that was thermally converted by means of pyrolysis. Thermal decomposition of CBS fuel was performed in an inert atmosphere (50mL/min nitrogen) under non-isothermal conditions from room temperature to 1000°C at heating rate of 10°C/min. The apparent activation energy (Ea.) and pre-exponential factor (A) were calculated from the experimental results by using an Arrhenius-type kinetic model which first-order decomposition reaction was assumed. All kinetic parameters were tabulated based on the TG data obtained from the experiment. It was found that, the CBS fuel has higher reactivity than Clermont coal fuel during pyrolysis process, as the addition of pyrolytic oil will reduce the Ea values of the fuel. The thermal profiles of the mixtures showed potential trends that followed the characteristics of an ideal slurry fuel where high degradation rate is desirable. Among the mixture, the optimum fuel was found at the ratio of 60:40 of pyrolytic oil/coal mixtures with highest degradation rate. These findings may contribute to the development of a slurry fuel to be used in the vast existing conventional power plants.

  13. Bituminous reference document: synthesis of knowledge on the long time behavior of bituminous packages; Dossier de reference bitume: synthese des connaissances sur le comportement a long terme des colis bitumes

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    Sercombe, J.; Adenot, F.; Vistoli, P.P.; Parraud, S.; Riglet-Martial, C.; Gwinner, B.; Felines, I.; Tiffreau, C.; Libert, M


    This document is a synthesis of the knowledge acquired at the CEA on the behavior of bituminous packages. In this framework, the CEA studied bituminous packages in generic conditions of a package lifetime. The main factors, the evolution mechanisms and influential parameters have been determined and quantitative s simulation have been developed. After a description of the main initial bituminous packages characterizations, the evolutions in saturated and un-saturated environment are exposed. (A.L.B.)

  14. Surface Properties of Photo-Oxidized Bituminous Coals: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Natural weathering has a detrimental effect on the hydrophobic nature of coal, which in turn can influence clean-coal recovery during flotation. Few techniques are available that can establish the quality of coal surfaces and that have a short analysis time to provide input for process control. Luminescence emissions which can be quantified with an optical microscope and photometer system, are measurably influenced by degree of weathering as well as by mild storage deterioration. In addition, it has been shown that when vitrinite is irradiated with a relatively high intensity flux of violet- or ultraviolet- light in the presence of air, photo-oxidation of the surface occurs. The combination of measuring the change in luminescence emission intensity with degree of surface oxidation provided the impetus for the current investigation. The principal aim of this research was to determine whether clear correlations could be established among surface oxygen functionality, hydrophobicity induced by photo-oxidation, and measurements of luminescence intensity and alteration. If successful, the project would result in quantitative luminescence techniques based on optical microscopy that would provide a measure of the changes in surface properties as a function of oxidation and relate them to coal cleanability. Two analytical techniques were designed to achieve these goals. Polished surfaces of vitrain bands or a narrow size fraction of powdered vitrain concentrates were photo-oxidized using violet or ultraviolet light fluxes and then changes in surface properties and chemistry were measured using a variety of near-surface analytical techniques. Results from this investigation demonstrate that quantitative luminescence intensity measurements can be performed on fracture surfaces of bituminous rank coals (vitrains) and that the data obtained do reveal significant variations depending upon the level of surface oxidation. Photo-oxidation induced by violet or ultraviolet light

  15. Effect of mix parameters on longevity of bituminous mixtures (United States)

    Reichle, Clayton Matthew

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of varying aggregate sources, aggregate gradations on the stripping and rutting potential of bituminous based plant mixes specified by the Missouri Department of Transportation. The different aggregate combinations included two different aggregate sources (Potosi Dolomite and Jefferson City Dolomite) including two variations for the Jefferson City Dolomite mix to simulate a marginally in-specification mix and an out-of-specification but in-field tolerance mix. The "field" mix simulated the marginal mix where field tolerance of high dust and low binder content were maximized. All three mixes were evaluated for stripping susceptibility using the Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR) test and the Hamburg Wheel Tracking Device (HWTD). The mix characteristics (unit weight, effective binder content, and air voids) were used for a Level 3 analysis in the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) to determine long term pavement distress conditions such as fatigue cracking, rutting, and IRI (smoothness). The Potosi mix exhibited the best resistance to rutting and stripping during both the TSR testing as well as the Hamburg testing. The Jefferson City In-Spec and Out-of-Spec mixes showed less resistance to rutting and stripping in order, respectively. This was expected for the Jefferson City mixes where the aggregate was of lower quality (higher Los Angeles Abrasion, Micro Deval loss, absorption, and deleterious materials). Also, in the case of the Jefferson City Out-of-Spec mix, the binder content was lower. Upon evaluating the mixes using the MEPDG software, it was shown that mix characteristics such as air voids, VMA, and VFA influenced the fatigue cracking, rutting, and IRI predictions to a minor degree.

  16. Carbon molecular sieves from bituminous coal by controlled coke deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, S.N.; Patwardhan, S.R.; Gangadhar, B. (Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)


    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and zeolites are widely used as microporous sieving solids for gas and liquid separations. However, due to hydrophobicity, better thermal stability, and neutrality in both acidic and alkaline media, CMSs have definite advantages over zeolites. In the present work, an effort has been made to develop suitable process conditions for synthesizing CMSs from the locally available bituminous coal. The coal was crushed, milled, and agglomerated with sulfate pulp waste liquor (SPWL) or coal-tar pitch (CTP) as the binders, and then carbonized in nitrogen atmosphere at 800{degree}C for about 60 minutes. In order to narrow down the pore mouth sizes, acetylene and benzene were each cracked separately at 800{degree}C to facilitate the deposition of coke on the char. Acetylene and benzene were cracked for 3 to 10 minutes, and 10 to 30 minutes, respectively. Acetylene cracked samples did not show good separation, probably because of over-coking in deeper locations. In contrast benzene cracked samples were found to be highly suitable for CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} separation. The best result (i.e. uptake ratio of 39.9) was obtained for feed benzene entrainment in N{sub 2} of 1.27 x 10{sup -4} g/ml, cracking time of 30 minutes, and this ratio was more than 10 times that of non-coked sample. CMS samples produced using SPWL as binder showed poor O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} uptake ratios throughout (1 to 1.5), whereas samples with CTP as binder showed far more encouraging results, the best uptake ratio being 5.5 for benzene-nitrogen feed stream containing 3.508 x 10{sup -4} g/ml benzene and 5 minutes cracking time. This ratio is about 5.5 times more than that of uncoked sample. 4 tabs., 10 figs., 17 refs.

  17. Following changes in the constitution of rapidly heated bituminous vitrinites (United States)

    Mathews, Jonathan Paul


    Molecular models, which represent the constitution (the chemical and physical structure) of bituminous vitrinites from the Upper Freeport and Lewiston-Stockton coal seams, were generated computationally. Incorporation of physical data significantly reduced the number of possible structures and forced the inclusion of hydroaromatic structures. This limited the bonding types and the extent of bonding to the coal matrix. The use of vitrinites (telocollinite) rather than whole coals reduced the complexity of the molecular structures and precluded incorporation of other maceral functionalities (such as long chain aliphatics or highly condensed aromatic structures) into the models. A narrow size fraction of each vitrinite was pyrolyzed in a drop-tube reactor under conditions representative of the devolatilization stage of pulverized coal combustion. The collected chars represented the transition from vitrinite to almost fully devolatilized char. Computational fluid dynamics were used to calculate the range of time-temperature histories of the particles in the reactor. Significant variation (up to 400sp°C and 0.15 s residence time) was found within a cuts primarily due to different extents of swelling, different particle sizes and the associated differences in mass loss. The vitrinite models were subjected to via various pyrolysis mechanisms and the resulting char structure compared to those of the experimentally-produced chars. The breaking of bonds in order of bond strengths did not produce a reasonable initial char structure; one which was similar to the parent vitrinite. The weaker bonds tend to be aliphatic in nature, hence breaking these bonds resulted in a structure that was too aromatic and hydrogen deficient. 'Rules' of pyrolysis, which were reasonable for the transitions of this rank of vitrinite under rapid heating conditions were proposed. Five-membered rings, either formed via ring condensation or originally present in the vitrinite, introduce curvature into

  18. The results of experimental asbestos research into the washing of bituminized sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agalarov, M.S.; Mangasarova, A.G.; Zhirnov, B.I.


    Bituminized sandstone was exposed to washing by its removal at the Kirmak deposits under the operation of ''Leninneft''' of the National Mining Institute, and the National Mining Institutes Umbaki deposits under the operation of ''Karagandaneft'''. Various compositions were employed as washing agents including an oil-water mixture. The composition of bituminus oil is given and the method used in the preparation of the mixture is presented. Research has indicated that the coefficient for washing the bituminized sandstone hinges on the various compositions of the oil-water washing fluid and the types of bitumins when this process is undertaken at temperatures of 291-293 degrees Calvin. At temperatures of 358-363 degrees Calvin, this relationship disappears and the coefficient for washing aproaches one.

  19. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.


    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  20. Modification of granular activated carbon surface by chitosan coating for geosmin removal: sorption performances. (United States)

    Vinitnantharat, S; Rattanasirisophon, W; Ishibashi, Y


    This study presents the results of the sorption performances for geosmin removal by sorption onto granular activated carbons (GAC) manufactured from different raw materials of coconut shell and bituminous coal. The surface of GAC was modified by chitosan coating. The 90% deacetylated chitosan flakes were used for coating on GAC with the GAC: chitosan ratio of 5:1. The surface of GAC was characterised by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and measurement of the pH solution of GAC samples. The sorption of geosmin onto the chitosan for both uncoated and coated GACs could be described by the Freundlich adsorption model. Data revealed that the sequence of Freundlich constant (K(F)) was chitosan coated bitominous coal (CB) > uncoated bituminous coal (UB) > chitos approximately equal to an coated coconut shell (CC) approximately equal to uncoated coconut shell (UC). The bituminous coal based GAC with chitosan coating had a maximum capacity of 23.57 microg/g which was approximately two-fold of uncoated bituminous coal based GAC. Two simplified kinetic models, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order, were tested to investigate the sorption mechanisms. It was found that the intraparticle diffusion was a rate controlling step for the sorption and followed the pseudo-second order equation.

  1. Use of waste plastic in construction of bituminous road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Jirge


    Full Text Available Bottles, containers and packing strips etc. is increasing day by day. As a result amount of waste plastic also increases. This leads to various environmental problems. Many of the wastes produced today will remain in the environment for many years leading to various environmental concerns. Therefore it is necessary to utilize thewastes effectively with technical development in each field. Many by-products are being produced using the plastic wastes. Our present work is helping to take care of these aspects. Plastic waste, consisting of carry bags, cups and other utilized plastic can be used as a coating over aggregate and this coated stone can be used for roadconstruction. The mix polymer coated aggregate and tyre modified bitumen have shown higher strength. Use of this mix for road construction helps to use plastics waste. Once the plastic waste is separated from municipal solid waste, the organic matter can be converted into manure and used. Our paper will discuss in detail theprocess and its successful applications.

  2. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Bueno


    Full Text Available Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance.

  3. Chemomechanics of Damage Accumulation and Damage-Recovery Healing in Bituminous Asphalt Binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauli, A.T.


    As a contribution to the development of mutli-scale multi-physics approaches to modelling pavement performance, the present thesis considers the topic of damage accumulation accompanied by damage recover self-healing of the bituminous asphalt phase of pavement systems. It is found insightful that b

  4. 8th RILEM International Symposium on Testing and Characterization of Sustainable and Innovative Bituminous Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Partl, Manfred


    This work presents the results of RILEM TC 237-SIB (Testing and characterization of sustainable innovative bituminous materials and systems). The papers have been selected for publication after a rigorous peer review process and will be an invaluable source to outline and clarify the main directions of present and future research and standardization for bituminous materials and pavements. The following topics are covered: - Characterization of binder-aggregate interaction - Innovative testing of bituminous binders, additives and modifiers - Durability and aging of asphalt pavements - Mixture design and compaction analysis - Environmentally sustainable materials and technologies - Advances in laboratory characterization of bituminous materials - Modeling of road materials and pavement performance prediction - Field measurement and in-situ characterization - Innovative materials for reinforcement and interlayer systems - Cracking and damage characterization of asphalt pavements - Rec...

  5. Microstructural self-healing of bituminous materials: Combined experimental and numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauli, A.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Kasbergen, C.; Varveri, K.; Scarpas, A.


    Bituminous materials form a class of materials that possess the intrinsic ability to selfheal. This self-healing capability is evidenced by the observation that the service life of these materials ‘in the field’ exceeds the service life as predicted by standard mechanical laboratory tests. This mism

  6. Transformism in Alberta: The Environmental Political Economy of the Bituminous Sands (United States)

    Katz-Rosene, Ryan

    This thesis attempts to help establish environmental political economy as a viable academic field while providing an example of work in the discipline. It offers an analysis of societal processes resulting in the co-optation and/or neutralization of critical environmentalist ideas. Using Alberta's bituminous sands as a case study, and a Gramsci-influenced eco-Marxist theory as a foundation, the thesis argues that the term 'environmental transformism' (inspired by the Gramscian term trasformismo) is helpful in describing and framing such processes. Accordingly, the ensuing chapters provide an analysis of why environmental transformism is happening in Alberta, and demonstrate how this mechanism works at protecting the status quo from threatening ideologies, thereby consolidating neoliberal capitalism. A concluding argument discusses the inherent dangers posed to society by the transformism of certain environmental subjectivities. The thesis begins by introducing the contentious social and environmental issues surrounding the development of the bituminous sands.

  7. Characteristics of the gasoline fraction obtained by thermodestruction of bituminous oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleyev, A.M.; Margulis, B.Y.; Martynov, A.A.; Vigdergauz, M.S.


    A chromatographic evaluation of the 35-95/sup 0/C gasoline fraction obtained by thermal decomposition of bituminous oil was carried out. The initial analysis involving liquid chromatography in conjunction with fluorescent indicator spectra pointed to the presence of aromatic, olefinic, and paraffin fractions, which were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography. The final results indicated that thermal destruction by means of a gas generator yields products similar to those obtained by oxidative cracking.

  8. Parameters which Affect the Stiffness of Bitumen and Bituminous Hot Mixes



    This paper deals with bitumen and bituminous mixes, using suitable mathematical models that take into account the parameters affecting their elastic and plastic stiffnesses. These parameters are stress level and acting time, penetration index, softening time and temperature. Viscosity and the total acting time of the load affect the elastic stiffness of bitumen. The elastic stiffness of bitumen and the voluminous concentration of the aggregate influence the elastic stiffness of th...

  9. Sphagnum Moss in the Athabasca Bituminous Sands Region Reveals No Significant Atmospheric Contamination by "Heavy Metals"


    SHOTYK W.; BELLAND Rene; DUKE John; KEMPTER Heike; KRACHLER MICHAEL; NOERNBERG Tommy; VILE Melanie; WIEDER Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan


    Sphagnum moss were collected from three sites at each of twenty-one ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs in the vicinity of and surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca Bituminous Sands in Alberta. Compared with contemporary Sphagnum moss from multiple sites at each of four bogs in rural locations of southern Germany, the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb and Tl, similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th and V. ...

  10. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others


    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  11. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath


    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  12. A fiber-reinforced composite structure for the repair of thermally cracked bituminous pavements (United States)

    Frantzen, Jeffrey Alan


    The apparatus under development in this project is a structural component or beam fabricated from a fiber reinforced plastic composite (FRPC). The FRPC beam is a structural repair component intended to bridge a deteriorated thermal crack in full depth bituminous pavements or partial depth bituminous pavements over portland cement concrete. The bridging action provided by the FRPC beam is intended to minimize roughness through the repaired area for up to five years, eliminate reappearance of the deteriorated crack, and provide a controlled expansion crack that can be treated with standard sealing techniques. This apparatus is designed for maintenance use as a field expedient, semi-permanent repair using tools that are commonly available at the Area Maintenance level. Three FRPC beams were constructed for field trial in a thermally cracked, full depth bituminous pavement on US-36 east of Hiawatha, Kansas. Each of the beams were instrumented with bonded metal foil strain gages and field installation by KDOT Maintenance forces was done in August and September of 1997. The FRPC beams have been evaluated since installation and this evaluation will continue for up to five years. Evaluation of the beams has been accomplished through static load tests using the strain gage instrumentation and Falling Weight Deflectometer measurements. The FRPC beams have performed satisfactorily as of the date of writing.

  13. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.


    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  14. Characteristics of the benzene fraction of products resulting from the thermal destruction of bituminous petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleev, A.M.; Margulis, B.Ya.; Martynov, A.A.; Vigdergauz, M.S.


    A description is given of a method for the chromatographic analysis of the 35 to 95/sup 0/C benzene feaction produced from the thermal destruction of bituminous petroleum. Aromatic, olefin, and paraffin-naphthene fractions were identified in the first stage of fluid chromatography with a fluorescent indicator. Gas chromatography was employed to undertake a detailed analysis of each fraction. The results of the analysis indicate that the use of a thermogas generator in the process of thermodestruction approximates the process of oxidative cracking. 11 references, 4 figures.

  15. Assessment of the Remaining Life of Bituminous Layers in Road Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálmán Adorjányi


    Full Text Available In this paper, a mechanistic-empirical approach is presented for the assessment of bearing capacity condition of asphalt pavement layers by Falling Weight Deflectometer measurements and laboratory fatigue tests. The bearing capacity condition ratio was determined using past traffic data and the remaining fatigue life which was determined from multilayer pavement response model. The traffic growth rate was taken into account with finite arithmetic and geometric progressions. Fatigue resistance of layers’ bituminous materials was obtained with indirect tensile fatigue tests. Deduct curve of condition scores was derived with Weibull distribution.

  16. Adsorption of SO2 on bituminous coal char and activated carbon fiber prepared from phenol formaldehyde (United States)

    DeBarr, Joseph A.; Lizzio, Anthony A.; Daley, Michael A.


    Carbon-based materials are used commercially to remove SO2 from coal combustion flue gases. Historically, these materials have consisted of granular activated carbons prepared from lignite or bituminous coal. Recent studies have reported that activated carbon fibers (ACFs) may have potential in this application due to their relatively high SO2 adsorption capacity. In this paper, a comparison of SO2 adsorption for both coal-based carbons and ACFs is presented, as well as ideas on carbon properties that may influence SO2 adsorption

  17. Hydrocarbon Generating Potential of Mineral—Bituminous Matrix in Source Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建平; 黄第藩


    Mineral-bituminous matrix(MBM) makes up a major part of source rocks,but its potential in hydrocarbon generation is uncertain,Mineral and organic (Maceral and kerogen) compositions,organic maturity and fluorescence of MBM are studied based on source rock samples from eastern Jiuquan(Jiudong)Basin.The results show that MBM is dominated by inorganic minerals and among the small percentage of organic components those of secondary origins are predominant over the primary species.This strongly indicates that the significance of MBM in hydrocarbon generation is limited.

  18. Synergistic effect on thermal behavior during co-pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass model components blend with bituminous coal. (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shuzhong; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Lin; Meng, Haiyu


    Co-thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass and coal has been investigated as an effective way to reduce the carbon footprint. Successful evaluating on thermal behavior of the co-pyrolysis is prerequisite for predicting performance and optimizing efficiency of this process. In this paper, pyrolysis and kinetics characteristics of three kinds of lignocellulosic biomass model components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) blended with a kind of Chinese bituminous coal were explored by thermogravimetric analyzer and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. The results indicated that the addition of model compounds had different synergistic effects on thermal behavior of the bituminous coal. The cellulose showed positive synergistic effects on the thermal decomposition of the coal bituminous coal with lower char yield than calculated value. For hemicellulose and lignin, whether positive or negative synergistic was related to the mixed ratio and temperature range. The distribution of the average activation energy values for the mixtures showed nonadditivity performance.

  19. Low SO2 emission from CFB co-firing MSW and bituminous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qing-gang; LI Zhi-wei; NA Yong-jie; BAO Shao-lin; SUN Yun-kai; HE Jun


    Influence of co-firing rate on SO2 emission from co-firing municipal solid waste(MSW) and bituminous containing high amount of sulfur(1.79%) was studied in a 0.15 MWt circulating fluidized bed(CFB). The temperature selected is 1123 K, typical for MSW incineration using CFB. The particle concentration in the dilution zone of the furnace, the alkali metal concentration and sulfate concentration in the recirculating ash and fly ash, and flue gas composition were determined. The results showed that the addition of MSW leads to a significant decrease in SO2 emission. Concentration of SO2 in flue gas decreased to 0 with the co-firing rate greater than 51%. This reduction in SO2 emission is attributed both to the high particle concentration in the dilution zone of the furnace, the high content of alkali metals in the bed material, and to the comparatively high concentration of HCl in flue gas during co-firing of MSW and bituminous.

  20. GC/MS Analysis of Fractional Extraction of Fusain from Tongting Bituminous Coal in CS2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Fusain from Tongting (Huaibei, Anhui Province) bituminous (FTTB) coal was fractionally extracted using Soxhlet extractor with CS2. Then the extracts were analyzed with GC/MS. Comparison of experimental data between FTTB coal and clarain from Tongting bituminous (CTTB) coal was carried out. The results show that the kinds of small molecule components detected by GC/MS of FTTB are less than those of CTTB. Long-chain alkanes exist mostly in the extracts of fusain. Macromolecular networks are predominant in the FTTB coal mainly composed of inertinite in the coal petrography. The size of micropores in the FTTB coal is relatively small, and the development of micropores is relatively low. Thus the content of aromatic compounds with affinity for micropores is relative low in FTTB, while the content of long-chain alkanes with affinity for macromolecule networks is relatively high. Sub-components in exinite determine the distribution of long-chain alkanes extracted in the last stage. Odd-numbered carbon distribution appears when resin is most in exinite, while high carbon alkane distribution appears when exinite is dominant in cutinite. Small aromatic molecules are firstly packed in micropores, and exist in a free state after micropores are saturated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić


    Full Text Available It is assumed thal the first known sedimens of natural bitumen or asphalt in coastal Croatia were exploited as the early moddle ages. Yet authenticated written documents about Vinišće near Trogir derive from no earlier than 1628, about Vrgorac/Paklina from only 1753. By the end of the 18th century, many deposits were discovered in Dalmatia, but it was Škrip on the Island of Brač and Suhi Dolac that were important. The earliest known deposits and occurrences of kerogenous rocks, or bituminous or oil shales, are mentioned as stone or fossil coal in Sovinjak, in the upper course of the River Mirna, and in Rebići in Istria; near Sinj, Slivno not far from the River Neretva, Mirta and near Nerežišće on the Island uf Brač. All if these were well known and described in 1804, while Sovinjak was mentioned in the 16th century. In the article, some of new information derived from mining and geological research into bituminous and kerogenous sediments and deposits are provided (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. Biomarker geochemistry of bituminous shale sequence and crude oil in the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, Turkey (United States)

    Kara-Gulbay, Reyhan; Erdogan, Mert; Korkmaz, Sadettin; Kadinkiz, Gökhan


    In the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, bituminous shale sequence with thickness ranging between 72 and 160 m occurs in lacustrine deposits of Upper Miocene-Pliocene age. The live oil has also been observed in this bituminous shale sequence. Rock-Eval/TOC, GC and GC-MS analyses were conducted on selected bituminous shale samples from four borehole (key-12/1, key-12/2, key-12/3 key-12/4) and one crude oil sample from a borehole (key-12/2) in the basin. In this study, organic matter type, maturity and depositional environment of bituminous shale are evaluated and the origin of crude oil is determined by the bituminous shale-crude oil correlation. The total organic carbon (TOC) values of the bituminous shale samples range from 1.21-13.98 wt% with an average TOC value of 4.75wt%. The bituminous shale sequence is characterized by high HI (127-662 mg HC/g TOC) and low OI (7-50 mgCO2/TOC). Tmax varies from 332-419ᵒC. Very low Pr/Ph ratios of bituminous shale (0.09-0.22) are indicative of anoxic depositional conditions. C27 is dominate sterane for bituminous shale and crude oil samples with C27>C29>C28. Normal steranes are more dominant compare to iso- and diasteranes. Ouite high sterane/hopane ratios (1.14-2.70) indicate dominant algal organic matter input for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. C31R/hopane ratio for bituminous shale and crude oil samples are very low (0.09-0.13) and these ratio show a lacustrine depositional envirronment for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. Sterane and terpane distributions of bituminous shale and crude oil are very similar. A very good correlation in terms of biomarker between bituminous shale and crude oil samples indicate that source rock of crude oil is bituminous shale. The 22S/(22R + 22S) C32 homohopane ratios of bituminous shale and crude oil samples are found to be 0.56 and 0.61, indicating that homohopane isomerization has attained equilibrium and bituminous shale and crude oil are

  3. Mechanical properties of hot bituminous mixes manufactured with recycled aggregate of Silestone® waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, M. C.


    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research project which analyzes the viability of incorporating waste material from decorative quartz solid surfacing in the manufacture of hot bituminous mixes. For this purpose, various bituminous mixes were manufactured with waste aggregate in different percentage. A set of tests were carried out that permitted the characterization of the mechanical behavior of these mixes. The results of these tests were similar to the results obtained when conventional mixes made from virgin quarry aggregate were tested. The results for moisture sensitivity as well as for wheel track rutting on mixes showed the optimal performance of this waste material even under very demanding traffic conditions. Laboratory studies showed that the use of this waste material in the manufacture of bituminous mixes is technically viable and can provide high-quality recycled aggregates at a very low cost, which can be used in the pavement of road.

    Este artículo muestra los resultados de un proyecto de investigación que tiene por objeto analizar la viabilidad de incorporación de residuos procedentes de piedra decorativa en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas en caliente. Para ello se fabricaron mezclas con áridos reciclados de residuos procedentes de piedra decorativa en distintos porcentajes, realizando un conjunto de ensayos que posibilitaron caracterizar el comportamiento mecánico de dichas mezclas. Los resultados obtenidos fueron similares a los de las mezclas convencionales fabricadas con áridos vírgenes procedentes de cantera. Los valores de resistencia conservada ante la acción del agua y deformación en pista, pusieron de manifiesto la aptitud del residuo incluso ante las condiciones de tráfico más exigentes. Los trabajos realizados en el laboratorio indican que la utilización del residuo en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas es técnicamente viable, pudiendo obtenerse áridos reciclados de gran calidad y

  4. Osmosis-induced swelling of Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste in constant total stress conditions (United States)

    Valcke, E.; Marien, A.; Smets, S.; Li, X.; Mokni, N.; Olivella, S.; Sillen, X.


    In geological disposal conditions, contact of Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste, which contains high amounts of the hygroscopic and highly soluble NaNO 3, with groundwater will result in water uptake and swelling of the waste, and in subsequent leaching of the embedded NaNO 3 and radionuclides. The swelling of and the NaNO 3 leaching from non-radioactive Eurobitum samples, comprised between two stainless steel filters and in contact with 0.1 M KOH, was studied in restricted (semi-confined) swelling conditions, i.e. under a constant total stress, or counterpressure, of 2.2, 3.3, or 4.4 MPa ( i.e. oedometer conditions). Four tests were stopped after hydration times between 800 and 1500 days, and the samples were analyzed by micro-focus X-ray Computer Tomography (μCT) and by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). The complete set of data enabled a consistent interpretation of the observations and lead to an improved understanding of the phenomenology of the water uptake, swelling, and NaNO 3 leaching in restricted swelling conditions. Under the studied conditions, the bituminous matrix surrounding the NaNO 3 crystals and pores with NaNO 3 solution behaved as a highly efficient semi-permeable membrane, i.e. osmotic processes occurred. In the main part of the leached layers, a high average NaNO 3 concentration and related to this a high osmotic pressure prevailed, explaining why in the studied range the swelling was not measurably affected by the counterpressure. At the interface with the stainless steel filters, a low permeable re-compressed bitumen layer was formed, contributing to the slow release of NaNO 3 compared to the water uptake rate. A fully coupled Chemo-Hydro-Mechanical (CHM) constitutive model has been developed that integrates the key processes involved and that reproduces satisfactorily the results; this is presented in another work. Combination of the experimental and the modelling study allow to conclude that under semi

  5. Development prospects for Bazhenov formation bituminous claystones in the southeast of the West Siberian Plate (Tomsk Region) (United States)

    Belozerov, V. B.; Baranov, V. E.; Dmitriev, A. Y.


    The article considers the use of time-tested bituminous shale development technologies in the southeast of the West Siberian Plate (Tomsk Region). A research target is the bituminous claystones of the Bazhenov formation. The Bazhenov formation was divided into stratigraphic units, and the sequence of forming these units within the territory under study was restored on the basis of the peculiarities of the Bazhenov formation section structure with gamma-ray logging data. The joint analysis of logs (gamma-ray logging, resistivity logging, SP logging, neutron gamma-ray logging, induction logging) and core data revealed the wide development of carbonatization processes in the lower stratigraphic units of the Bazhenov formation, whereas the upper, most bituminous units do not have the signs of carbonatization. It is a favorable factor for using the existing technologies of producing hydrocarbons from analogous sedimentary deposits. Considering the degree of lithological disconnection of an oilbearing object from adjacent reservoir formations allows making a conclusion that the application of the existing technologies for developing bituminous claystones can be implemented only in the insignificant territory of the area under study where the Bazhenov formation overlies Georgiev formation claystones being over 8 meters thick. To develop the oil and gas potential of the Bazhenov formation in other territories, there will be a need for new technologies that allow forming a fracture-cavernous matrix in a carbonate rock.

  6. Organic Material and Trace Elements of Bituminous Rocks in the Ozank(o)y Field, Ankara, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Bituminous rocks in the Ozank(o)y (Ankara) field are different from those of the Paleocenecontent of organic material-rich rocks in the Ozank(o)y (Ankara) field is 3.66-40.72 % wt averaging 14.34%. The dominant organic materials are algae/amorphous accompanied by minor amount of herbaceous material (The dominant kerogen type is Type-Ⅰ with a limited amount of Type-Ⅱ kerogen.).The bituminous rocks in the Ozank(o)y field are enriched in heavy metals such as Ni, Mn, As and Cr. In comparison with the average enrichment values of elements, Ni, Mn, As and Cr in bituminous shales of the Ozank(o)y field are as about 4.38, 14.93, 10.90 and 5.58 times as average values. The average concentrations of these heavy metals are also as high as 215 × 10-6, 828 × 10-6, 58.54 × 10-6, and 148× 10-6 respectively. In addition, sorption properties of clay and organic materials are also important for metal enrichments in the bituminous shales.

  7. Combustion characteristics and arsenic retention during co-combustion of agricultural biomass and bituminous coal. (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui; Hu, Yunhu


    A combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and laboratory-scale circulated fluidized bed combustion experiment was conducted to investigate the thermochemical, kinetic and arsenic retention behavior during co-combustion bituminous coal with typical agricultural biomass. Results shown that ignition performance and thermal reactivity of coal could be enhanced by adding biomass in suitable proportion. Arsenic was enriched in fly ash and associated with fine particles during combustion of coal/biomass blends. The emission of arsenic decreased with increasing proportion of biomass in blends. The retention of arsenic may be attributed to the interaction between arsenic and fly ash components. The positive correlation between calcium content and arsenic concentration in ash suggesting that the arsenic-calcium interaction may be regarded as the primary mechanism for arsenic retention.

  8. Physical properties of solid fuel briquettes from bituminous coal waste and biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Biomass and bituminous coal fines from four different coalfields were used to produce fuel briquettes.Two physical properties of briquettes,water resistance index and compressive strength were analyzed.The influence of type and quantity of biomass on physical properties was also studied.The results reveal that depending on the mineral content of the coal,the physical properties of the briquettes differ noticeably.The comparison of briquettes with and without biomass showed that the presence of the beet pulp increased CS in all types of coal samples.Samples containing beet pulp had better physical properties than sawdust.Mezino Ⅱ coal briquettes had highest CS and WRI than the other ones.Calorific value of biomass/Mezino Ⅱ coal briquettes was lessened in comparison with raw coal,but it remained in an acceptable range.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路春美; 王永征


    This paper discusses the evolution regularity and the absorption characters of sulfide for bituminous briquette burned in a horizontal burning furnace. The evolution rate of sulphur is affected by some factors, such as the sulphur content in the burning coal, burning time and the meane excess air coefficient in the furnace. With processing the experimental result, the calculation related expression has been obtained to predict the evolution rate of sulfide. The sulphur absorption efficiency of briquette is affected by the factors such as the character of the sulphur sorbent, the type of the coal and the operating parameters. "By means of appropriately adjusting the calciumsulphur mole ratio, the mean excess air coefficient and the time-interval between pushing two layer briquettes, a high sulphur absorption efficiency (>74%) can be obtained.

  10. Biological markers in bitumens and pyrolyzates of Upper Cretaceous bituminous chalks from the Ghareb Formation (Israel) (United States)

    Rullkötter, Jürgen; Aizenshtat, Zeev; Spiro, Baruch


    The sterane and triterpane distributions of three bituminous chalks from the Upper Cretaceous Ghareb Formation (Israel) were investigated both in the original extractable bitumens and in extracts obtained after pyrolysis of whole rock and isolated kerogen samples at 450°C. Pyrolysis was performed in a closed system under hydrous (whole rock) and anhydrous conditions (isolated kerogens). The carbon number distributions of steranes and triterpanes differ significantly between original bitumen and pyrolyzates. Unlike the bitumens in which diasteranes were not detected, the anhydrous pyrolyzates contain small amounts of diasteranes. The presence of water during pyrolysis leads to an increase of sterane isomerization, the abundant formation of diasteranes and an increase of the 18α( H)- trisnorneohopane/17α( H)- trisnorhopane ratio. Sterane isomerization maturation parameters show a closer match between original bitumen and pyrolyzates after pyrolysis in a closed system when compared with an open system.

  11. Distribution of inorganic and organic substances in the hydrocyclone separated Slovak sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton Zubrik; Slavomir Hredzak; Ludmila Turcaniova; Michal Lovas; Ingo Bergmann; Klaus Dieter Becker; Maria Lukcova; Vladimir Sepelak [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Institute of Geotechnics


    A low-rank Slovak sub-bituminous coal from the Handlova deposit was physically treated by washing in a water-only cyclone with the goal to find the separation effect for inorganic (mainly Fe-bearing minerals) and organic substances (humic acids, diterpanes). A high-quality coal product with the ash content in the dry matter of 9.02% and carbon content of C{sup d} = 68.12% at a mass yield of 29.51% was obtained using the water-only cyclone processing. At first, the physically treated coal samples were detailed characterized by XRD, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, FT-IR and HR-TEM. In addition to non-crystalline organic coal components, inorganic compounds belonging to silicate minerals (kaolinite, muscovite and quartz) as well as to Fe-bearing sulphide minerals (pyrite) were identified in the sub-bituminous coal by XRD. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy detected the presence of iron carbonate (siderite), iron-containing clay mineral and two sulphur-containing minerals (pyrite, jarosite) in the untreated coal. On the other hand, only one Fe-bearing mineral, (pyrite) was found in the washed coal. Effect of the physical separation is also demonstrated in FT-IR spectra, where the peak at 1040 cm{sup -1} representing the silicate component in the untreated sample is not detectable in the washed coal sample. Presence of extractive organic substances, i.e. humic acids and tetracyclic diterpane (16a(H)-phyllocladane), in the hydrocyclone products is also evidenced. It was confirmed that the isolated diterpenoic compound is attendant in the washed product with the lowest ash content and it is assimilated with the organic part of coal. Surprisingly, humic acids were found in the highest concentration in the slurry that has the highest content of ash (63.14%). 54 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Lab.


    Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals to investigate the various factors influencing airborne respirable dust generation. Bituminous coal samples from 8 mines (5 U.S. and 3 Polish) were uniformly prepared and processed through a double roll crusher located in a low air velocity wind tunnel. Experimental factors studied included inherent coal seam constituents, specific energy of crushing, product size characteristics, dust cloud electrostatic field, and specific quantity of airborne respirable dust generated. A combination of factors is associated with the generation of airborne respirable dust. One factor involved is the effect of coal rank, described by the inherent moist fuel ratio, on the product size characteristics. However, since coals of high moist fuel ratio (high rank) are generally more extensively cleated, it is suggested that the degree of cleating is directly responsible for the quantity of respirable-sized particles produced in the crushed product material for eastern U.S. coals. This is implied by the relationship of ash content and at least one mineral constituent (pyrite, determined from pyritic sulfur analysis) to the percentage of airborne respirable dust. A clear delineation of coals, based on well-known proximate analysis characteristics, that generate the most respirable dust appears to be possible. It was also shown that the dust-generating characteristics of coals could be reasonably described by both the moist fuel ratio and the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI). These results show a clear distinction between eastern and western U.S. coals. However, no consistent distinction for Polish coal was observed.

  13. Numerical study of bituminous coal combustion in a boiler furnace with bottom blowing (United States)

    Zroychikov, N. A.; Kaverin, A. A.


    Results obtained by the numerical study of a solid fuel combustion scheme with bottom blowing using Ekibastuz and Kuznetsk bituminous coals of different fractional makeup are presented. Furnace chambers with bottom blowing provide high-efficiency combustion of coarse-grain coals with low emissions of nitrogen oxides. Studying such a combustion scheme, identification of its technological capabilities, and its further improvement are topical issues. As the initial object of study, we selected P-57-R boiler plant designed for burning of Ekibastuz bituminous coal in a prismatic furnace with dry-ash (solid slag) removal. The proposed modernization of the furnace involves a staged air inflow under the staggered arrangement of directflow burners (angled down) and bottom blowing. The calculation results revealed the specific aerodynamics of the flue gases, the trajectories of solid particles in the furnace chamber, and the peculiarities of the fuel combustion depending on the grinding fineness. It is shown that, for coal grinding on the mill, the overall residue on the screen plate of 90 µm ( R 90 ≤ 27% for Ekibastuz coal and R 90 ≤ 15% for Kuznetsk coal) represents admissible values for fuel grind coarsening in terms of economic efficiency and functional reliability of a boiler. The increase in these values leads to the excess of regulatory heat losses and unburned combustible losses. It has been established that the change in the grade of the burned coal does not significantly affect the flow pattern of the flue gases, and the particles trajectory is essentially determined by the elemental composition of the fuel.

  14. Assessment of an Impulse GPR Antenna Abilities in Investigation of Transversal Cracks of the Bituminous Pavement (United States)

    Krysiński, L.; Sudyka, J.


    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique is commonly used for detection of internal singularities of construction structure. The method is particularly efficient in the case of linear horizontal objects when profile scanning is being performed in the direction perpendicular to object elongation and polarization of the electric field is parallel to the elongation. Then the singular object manifests itself in the echogram as a scattering hyperbola. Similar response is generated by an object having shape close to a vertical half plane with horizontal edge, when the edge acts like the scattering linear object. The use of GPR technique for investigation of transversal cracks in the bituminous pavement would seem to be promising, but numerous paradoxes occur just at the beginning tests. Even well visible cracks of more than ten millimeters thickness doesn't generate noticeable GPR response, while thinner ones sometimes can produce strong response but in the deeper interior of the pavement. Thus arise a more general question: what the GPR technique can tell us about the cracks? Trying to study this problem some laboratory tests were performed to estimate efficiency of signal generation by structures simulating idealized cracks' shapes. Next long-term (several years) visual observation and repeated GPR scanning was performed on the three road sections (each one of several hundred meters length) with heavy traffic, where ongoing cracking process occurs. The preliminary measurements were directed to obtain the proper way of scanning. The main aim of the analysis was to find GPR characteristics of cracks that can be noticed on echograms. It was performed by detailed correlation of the visually observed cracks position with echograms using decimeter precision. These efforts provided a list of diagnostic GPR characteristics of cracks and some provisional scale of their intensity. In several cases the cracks were probed by drillings to recognize structures responsible for signal

  15. Experimental and computational study and development of the bituminous coal entrained-flow air-blown gasifier for IGCC (United States)

    Abaimov, N. A.; Osipov, P. V.; Ryzhkov, A. F.


    In the paper the development of the advanced bituminous coal entrained-flow air- blown gasifier for the high power integrated gasification combined cycle is considered. The computational fluid dynamics technique is used as the basic development tool. The experiment on the pressurized entrained-flow gasifier was performed by “NPO CKTI” JSC for the thermochemical processes submodel verification. The kinetic constants for Kuznetsk bituminous coal (flame coal), obtained by thermal gravimetric analysis method, are used in the model. The calculation results obtained by the CFD model are in satisfactory agreements with experimental data. On the basis of the verified model the advanced gasifier structure was suggested which permits to increase the hydrogen content in the synthesis gas and consequently to improve the gas turbine efficiency. In order to meet the specified requirements vapor is added on the second stage of MHI type gasifier and heat necessary for air gasification is compensated by supplemental heating of the blasting air.

  16. Valorization of bituminous coal pulps using column flotation; Valorisation de fines de charbon bitumineux par flottation en colonnes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gursu, G.; Hicyilmaz, C. [Universite du Moyen-Orient, Ankara (Turkey); Bilgen, S. [Universite de Mersin (Turkey)


    Washing tests were performed with 5 x 5 x 200 cm{sup 3} laboratory flotation columns on bituminous coal pulps from Zonguldak (Turkey) containing 47.52% of ash. The final product contains 10% of ash with a 73.52% recovery. A re-washing of this concentrate allows to obtain a final product with 5.88% of ash and a 59.27% recovery. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  17. Potential of water-washing of rape straw on thermal properties and interactions during co-combustion with bituminous coal. (United States)

    Ma, Qiulin; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun


    The aim of this work was to study the thermal properties and interactions during co-combustion of rape straw (RS) before and after water-washing with bituminous coal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the properties and interactions during co-combustion of RS with bituminous coal (at 10, 20, 40 and 60% RS). The feasibility and potential of water-washing as an RS pre-treatment was also explored. Reactivity and the amount of heat released followed a quadratic trend, while changes to the degree of interactions between the fuels conformed to a cosine curve. Water-washing increased the ignition and burn-out temperatures and slightly decreased reactivity. Demineralization negatively affected the previously synergistic co-firing relationship, nevertheless, the amount of heat released increased by 10.28% and the average activation energy (146kJ/mol) was lower than that of the unwashed blend (186kJ/mol). Overall, water-washing of RS could prove a useful pre-treatment before co-combustion with bituminous coal.

  18. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.


    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  19. Chemistry of thermally altered high volatile bituminous coals from southern Indiana (United States)

    Walker, R.; Mastalerz, Maria; Brassell, S.; Elswick, E.; Hower, J.C.; Schimmelmann, A.


    The optical properties and chemical characteristics of two thermally altered Pennsylvanian high volatile bituminous coals, the non-coking Danville Coal Member (Ro = 0.55%) and the coking Lower Block Coal Member (Ro = 0.56%) were investigated with the purpose of understanding differences in their coking behavior. Samples of the coals were heated to temperatures of 275????C, 325????C, 375????C and 425????C, with heating times of up to one hour. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro%) rises with temperature in both coals, with the Lower Block coal exhibiting higher reflectance at 375????C and 425????C compared to the Danville coal. Petrographic changes include the concomitant disappearance of liptinites and development of vesicles in vitrinites in both coals, although neither coal developed anisotropic coke texture. At 375????C, the Lower Block coal exhibits a higher aromatic ratio, higher reflectance, higher carbon content, and lower oxygen content, all of which indicate a greater degree of aromatization at this temperature. The Lower Block coal maintains a higher CH2/CH3 ratio than the Danville coal throughout the heating experiment, indicating that the long-chain unbranched aliphatics contained in Lower Block coal liptinites are more resistant to decomposition. As the Lower Block coal contains significant amounts of liptinite (23.6%), the contribution of aliphatics from these liptinites appears to be the primary cause of its large plastic range and high fluidity. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A.


    Prolonged exposure to airborne respirable coal dust is responsible for coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), commonly called black lung. Health research studies have identified that the prevalence and severity of CWP are directly related to both the amount of dust exposure and the coal rank. The amount of airborne respirable dust (ARD) smaller than 10 micrometers generated from breakage of different coals varies widely. To investigate the cause, researchers for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have conducted experiments to identify the causes of airborne respirable dust liberation. Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals from eight mines. The results indicate that the proximate analysis of a coal sample can provide a very good indicator of the potential for a dust problem. For application to the coal mining, processing, and utilization industries, data from 977 US coal seams compiled by the Department of Energy (DoE) has been used to calculate this dust generation potential from an equation based on the NIOSH measured data. A simple procedure for this calculation is provided. 1 fig.

  1. Comparing potentials for gas outburst in a Chinese anthracite and an Australian bituminous coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guoqing; Saghafi Abouna


    Gas outbursts in underground mining occur under conditions of high gas desorption rate and gas content, combined with high stress regime, low coal strength and high Young’s modulus. This combination of gas and stress factors occurs more often in deep mining. Hence, as the depth of mining increases, the poten-tial for outburst increases. This study proposes a conceptual model to evaluate outburst potential in terms of an outburst indicator. The model was used to evaluate the potential for gas outburst in two mines, by comparing numerical simulations of gas flow behavior under typical stress regimes in an Australian gassy mine extracting a medium-volatile bituminous coal, and a Chinese gassy coal mine in Qinshui Basin (Shanxi province) extracting anthracite coal. We coupled the stress simulation program (FLAC3D) with the gas simulation program (SIMED II) to compute the stress and gas pressure and gas content distribution following development of a roadway into the targeted coal seams. The data from gas content and stress distribution were then used to quantify the intensity of energy release in the event of an outburst.

  2. Burnout behaviour of bituminous coals in air-staged combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluger, F.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Process Engineering and Power Plant (IVD)


    In order to determine the influence on burnout by the combustion conditions and the coal preparation, three bituminous coals sold on the world market, from three different locations in Poland, South Africa, and Australia, were studied more closely. For this purpose, the coals were ground in two different particle size ranges, which, besides the influence of the combustion conditions, such a temperature, residence time, and stoichiometry, made it possible to also investigate the impact on burnout by the coal preparation. The experiments were carried out in an electrically heated entrained-flow reactor with a thermal input of 8.5 kW. The parameters for the experiments are wall temperature (1000-1350{degree}C), air ratio (0.6-1.15) and two particle sizes (70% {lt} 75 {mu}m, 90% {lt} 75 {mu}m). The results show that in general, for increasing temperatures, the burnout quality will improve. For the Australian Illawara coal, another outcome is increased NOx emissions. Lowering the air ratio in the reduction zone leads to less NOx emission but to increased unburnt matter in ash. For the smaller particle size fraction, the analysis of the different particle sizes shows an improvement of the burnout without a change in NOx emissions. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The thermal decomposition studies of three Polish bituminous coking coals and their blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzesinska, M.; Szeluga, U.; Czajkowska, S.; Muszynski, J.; Zachariasz, J.; Pusz, S.; Pilawa, B. [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 34, 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Kwiecinska, B. [AGH-University of Science and Technology, Aleja Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Koszorek, A. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry and Technology, Silesian Technical University, Krzywoustego 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)


    The objective of this work was to investigate the thermal decomposition of various bituminous coal blends. Three Polish coals of varying rank (82.7, 86.2 and 88.7 wt.% carbon content) and caking ability (weak, moderate and strong) were collected from the Krupinski, Szczyglowice and Zofiowka mines, respectively. These coals were used to prepare binary and ternary blends. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) were used. The weight loss and heat flow during pyrolysis, and storage/loss elastic modulus measured as a function of increasing temperature were related to the caking ability of coals. Parameters determined with the TGA and the DSC methods in the binary and ternary blends were correlated with the proportion of strongly-caking-coal concentration in the blend. The weight loss of coal blends was found to be additive parameter. The DSC thermograms of binary blends were found to be different from those of the ternary blends, which suggests a different course for this blend pyrolysis. (author)

  4. Analysis and modeling of 3D complex modulus tests on hot and warm bituminous mixtures (United States)

    Pham, Nguyen Hoang; Sauzéat, Cédric; Di Benedetto, Hervé; González-León, Juan A.; Barreto, Gilles; Nicolaï, Aurélia; Jakubowski, Marc


    This paper presents the results of laboratory testing of hot and warm bituminous mixtures containing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP). Complex modulus measurements, using the tension-compression test on cylindrical specimens, were conducted to determine linear viscoelastic (LVE) behavior. Sinusoidal cyclic loadings, with strain amplitude of approximately 50ṡ10-6, were applied at several temperatures (from -25 to +45 °C) and frequencies (from 0.03 Hz to 10 Hz). In addition to axial stresses and strains, radial strains were also measured. The complex modulus E ∗ and complex Poisson's ratios ν ∗ were then obtained in two perpendicular directions. Measured values in these two directions do not indicate anisotropy on Poisson's ratio. The time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP) was verified with good approximation in one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) conditions for the same values of shift factor. Experimental results were modeled using the 2S2P1D model previously developed at the University of Lyon/ENTPE. In addition, specific analysis showed that eventual damage created during complex modulus test is very small and is equivalent to the effect of an increase of temperature of about 0.25 °C.

  5. Variations in pore characteristics in high volatile bituminous coals: Implications for coal bed gas content (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Strapoc, D.; Solano-Acosta, W.; Rupp, J.


    The Seelyville Coal Member of the Linton Formation (Pennsylvanian) in Indiana was studied to: 1) understand variations in pore characteristics within a coal seam at a single location and compare these variations with changes occurring between the same coal at different locations, 2) elaborate on the influence of mineral-matter and maceral composition on mesopore and micropore characteristics, and 3) discuss implications of these variations for coal bed gas content. The coal is high volatile bituminous rank with R0 ranging from 0.57% to 0.60%. BET specific surface areas (determined by nitrogen adsorption) of the coals samples studied range from 1.8 to 22.9??m2/g, BJH adsorption mesopore volumes from 0.0041 to 0.0339??cm3/g, and micropore volumes (determined by carbon dioxide adsorption) from 0.0315 to 0.0540??cm3/g. The coals that had the largest specific surface areas and largest mesopore volumes occur at the shallowest depths, whereas the smallest values for these two parameters occur in the deepest coals. Micropore volumes, in contrast, are not depth-dependent. In the coal samples examined for this study, mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes. It is especially clear in the case of micropores, where an increase in mineral-matter content parallels the decrease of micropore volume of the coal. No obvious relationships were observed between the total vitrinite content and pore characteristics but, after splitting vitrinite into individual macerals, we see that collotelinite influences both meso- and micropore volume positively, whereas collodetrinite contributes to the reduction of mesopore and micropore volumes. There are large variations in gas content within a single coal at a single location. Because of this variability, the entire thickness of the coal must be desorbed in order to determine gas content reliably and to accurately calculate the level of gas saturation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. An evaluation of a two-stage spiral processing ultrafine bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew D. Benusa; Mark S. Klima [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Mineral Engineering


    Testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of a multistage Multotec SX7 spiral concentrator treating ultrafine bituminous coal. This spiral mimics a two-stage separation in that the refuse is removed after four turns, and the clean coal and middlings are repulped (without water addition) and then separated in the final three turns. Feed samples were collected from the spiral circuit of a coal cleaning plant located in southwestern Pennsylvania. The samples consisted of undeslimed cyclone feed (nominal -0.15 mm) and deslimed spiral feed (nominal 0.15 x 0.053 mm). Testing was carried out to investigate the effects of slurry flow rate and solids concentration on spiral performance. Detailed size and ash analyses were performed on the spiral feed and product samples. For selected tests, float-sink and sulfur analyses were performed. In nearly all cases, ash reduction occurred down to approximately 0.025 mm, with some sulfur reduction occurring even in the -0.025 mm interval. The separation of the +0.025 mm material was not significantly affected by the presence of the -0.025 mm material when treating the undeslimed feed. The -0.025 mm material split in approximately the same ratio as the slurry, and the majority of the water traveled to the clean coal stream. This split ultimately increased the overall clean coal ash value. A statistical analysis determined that both flow rate and solids concentration affected the clean coal ash value and yield, though the flow rate had a greater effect on the separation. 23 refs.

  7. Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-megawatt utility boiler in Taiwan firing bituminous coals. (United States)

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Lee, Hsiu-Hsia; Hwang, Jyh-Feng; Chen, Wang


    Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-MW tangential-fired utility boiler in Taiwan burning Australian and Chinese bituminous coal blends was investigated. Flue gases were simultaneously sampled at the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) inlet, the SCR outlet, the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, and the stack. Samplings of coal, lime, bottom ash/slag, fly ash, and gypsum slurry were also conducted. Results indicated that flue gases at the inlet to SCR contained a great potion of particle-bound mercury (Hg(p)), 59-92% of the total mercury. Removal of mercury was not observed for the SCR system. However, repartitioning of mercury species across the SCR occurred that significantly increased the portion of elemental mercury (Hg0) to up to 29% and oxidized mercury (Hg2+) to up to 33% in the SCR outlet gas. Overreporting of Hg(p) at the inlet of SCR may cause the observed repartitioning; the high ammonia/nitric oxide circumstance in the SCR unit was also speculated to cause the mercury desorption from ash particles and subsequent reentrance into the gas phase. ESP can remove up to 99% of Hg(p), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) can remove up to 84% of Hg2+. Mercury mass balances were calculated to range between 81 and 127.4%, with an average of 95.7% wherein 56-82% was in ESP fly ash, 8.7-18.6% was retained in the FGD gypsum, and 6.2-26.1% was emitted from the stack. Data presented here suggest that mercury removal can be largely enhanced by increasing the conversion of Hg0 into Hg(p) and Hg2+.

  8. Study on the submicron and micron morphology and the properties of poor bituminous coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei-Fang Fu; Huai-Chun Zhou; Qing-Yan Fang; Hai Yao; Jianrong Qiu; Minghou Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion


    Carbon burnout and its reaction mechanism have been widely focused on in the past decades. The properties of burnout, submicron and micron morphology and the reaction mechanism of poor bituminous coal/char (PBC) in a W-shaped power plant boiler was studied and was compared with those in DTF and in TGA, which showed that the degree of PBC burnout in TGA at 1450{sup o}C was greater than or approximately equal to that in a W-shaped boiler, and that the complexity of the reactions among residual char, oxygen and SiO{sub 2} did not seem to result in mass loss in TGA, although the weight percentage of the residual char in ash decreased from 33% ad (air dry basis) at 900{sup o}C to 9% and at 1450{sup o}C. According to the distribution of pores and the properties of the char burnout, the char can be simply categorized into three classes: char burnout easy, char burnout difficult and char burnout very difficult. The differences of the reaction mechanism must be considered while predicting the burning rate and degree of char burnout in a full-scale boiler by making use of experimental results from TGA and DTF. A different char particle contains markedly different amount of carbons, but for a special char particle, the ratio of carbon to ash is generally constant, and an ash shell does not exist on the char surface. The fusion mineral matter composing of C-O-Si-Al is amorphous, not in the form of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} above 1450{sup o}C.

  9. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr


    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Santagata


    Full Text Available Magneto-rheological fluids are materials that exhibit a significant change in their rheological properties in the presence of a magnetic field. Because of such a field-dependent behavior, they can act as smart materials in applications in which changeable performances are desired. In road pavement engineering, the use of bitumen-based magneto-rheological fluids may open innovative scenarios related to the construction of smart pavement sections and to the investigation of damage mechanisms in binders and mixtures. The research work presented in this study explored magneto-rheological properties of several field-responsive bituminous binders obtained from two different base bitumens combined with multi-wall carbon nanotubes and powder iron. The experimental program included oscillatory shear loading tests at different temperatures, performed in the strain controlled mode by means of a dynamic shear rheometer equipped with a magneto-rheological device. The investigation was carried out with the specific goal of identifying critical issues which should be taken into account in materials preparation, testing procedures and data analysis. Undesired overheating of specimens during testing was identified and taken into account for a correct interpretation of experimental data. Thus, while the field-sensitivity of carbon nanotubes was found to be negligible as a result of the magnetic shielding action of bitumen, it was shown that powder iron can significantly affect the magneto-rheological properties of bituminous binders when employed in sufficiently high amounts. Moreover, obtained results indicated that selection of base bitumen is a key factor in designing bituminous-based smart materials. Practical implications which derive from the study are mainly relative to the fine-tuning of laboratory characterization procedures which should necessarily overcome current limitations in temperature regulation and magnetic field generation. Experimental data

  11. Regional differences in the variations of the degree of gas outburst hazard for Mecsek sub-bituminous coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemedi Varga, Z.


    In the collieries of the Mecsek Mountains (South Hungary) in which the sub-bituminous coal is exploited, coal and gas outbursts as well as gas outbursts have been recorded in the Pecs-area since 1984, in the Szaszvar area since 1902, and nowadays in the Komlo-area since 1964. Concerning the degree of gas outbursts hazard, the differences between the Pecs and Komlo areas cannot be explained by the differences in facies, by structural differences and by the frequency of occurrence of igneous rocks. The conditions of coalification seem to be responsible for these differences. In this respect the significance of the so-called second phase coalification is emphasized.

  12. Non-catalytic co-gasification of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (United States)

    Nyendu, Guevara Che

    Fluidization characteristics and co-gasification of pulverized sub-bituminous coal, hybrid poplar wood, corn stover, switchgrass, and their mixtures were investigated. Co-gasification studies were performed over temperature range from 700°C to 900°C in different media (N2, CO2, steam) using a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. In fluidization experiments, pressure drop (Delta P) observed for coal-biomass mixtures was higher than those of single coal and biomass bed materials in the complete fluidization regime. There was no systematic trend observed for minimum fluidization velocity ( Umf) with increasing biomass content. However, porosity at minimum fluidization (εmf) increased with increasing biomass content. Channeling effects were observed in biomass bed materials and coal bed with 40 wt.% and 50 wt.% biomass content at low gas flowrates. The effect of coal pressure overshoot reduced with increasing biomass content. Co-gasification of coal and corn stover mixtures showed minor interactions. Synergetic effects were observed with 10 wt.% corn stover. Coal mixed with corn stover formed agglomerates during co-gasification experiments and the effect was severe with increase in corn stover content and at 900°C. Syngas (H2 + CO) concentrations obtained using CO2 as co-gasification medium were higher (~78 vol.% at 700°C, ~87 vol.% at 800°C, ~93 vol.% at 900°C) than those obtained with N2 medium (~60 vol.% at 700°C, ~65 vol.% at 800°C, ~75 vol.% at 900°C). Experiments involving co-gasification of coal with poplar showed no synergetic effects. Experimental yields were identical to predicted yields. However, synergetic effects were observed on H2 production when steam was used as the co-gasification medium. Additionally, the presence of steam increased H2/CO ratio up to 2.5 with 10 wt.% hybrid poplar content. Overall, char and tar yields decreased with increasing temperature and increasing biomass content, which led to increase in product gas.

  13. Organic geochemistry of Upper Carboniferous bituminous coals and clastic sediments from the Lublin Coal Basin (United States)

    Gola, Marek R.; Karger, Michał; Gazda, Lucjan; Grafka, Oliwia


    Bituminous coals and clastic rocks from the Lublin Formation (Pennsylvanian, Westphalian B) were subjected to detailed biomarker and Rock-Eval analyses. The investigation of aliphatic and aromatic fractions and Rock-Eval Tmax suggests that the Carboniferous deposits attained relatively low levels of thermal maturity, at the end of the microbial processes/initial phase of the oil window. Somewhat higher values of maturity in the clastic sediments were caused by postdiagenetic biodegradation of organic matter. The dominance of the odd carbon-numbered n-alkanes in the range n-C25 to n-C31 , high concentrations of moretanes and a predominance of C 28 and C29 steranes are indicative of a terrigenous origin of the organic matter in the study material. This is supported by the presence of eudesmane, bisabolane, dihydro-ar-curcumene and cadalene, found mainly in the coal samples. In addition, tri- and tetracyclic diterpanes, e. g. 16β(H)-kaurane, 16β(H)-phyllocladane, 16α(H)-kaurane and norisopimarane, were identified, suggesting an admixture of conifer ancestors among the deposited higher plants. Parameters Pr/n-C17 and Rdit in the coal samples show deposition of organic matter from peat swamp environments, with the water levels varying from high (water-logged swamp) to very low (ephemeral swamp). Clastic deposits were accumulated in a flood plain environment with local small ponds/lakes. In pond/lake sediments, apart from the dominant terrigenous organic matter, research also revealed a certain quantity of algal matter, indicated, i.a., by the presence of tricyclic triterpanes C28 and C29 and elevated concentrations of steranes. The Paq parameter can prove to be a useful tool in the identification of organic matter, but the processes of organic matter biodegradation observed in clastic rocks most likely influence the value of the parameter, at the same time lowering the interpretation potential of these compounds. The value of Pr/Ph varies from 0.93 to 5.24 and from 3

  14. Effect of Pre-oxidation on the Properties of Crushed Bituminous Coal and Activated Carbon Prepared Therefrom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The influence of a pre-oxidation process on the chemical properties of crushed bituminous coal and on adsorption properties of the subsequently formed char and activated carbon is discussed in this paper.Datong bituminous coal samples sized 6 mm were oxidized at different temperatures and for different times and then carbonized and activated by steam to obtain activated carbons.A Uniform Design method was used to arrange the experiments, IR and adsorption experiments were used to characterize these oxidized coals, chars and activated carbon samples.The results show that the carboxyl group disappeared and α-CH2 groups joined to alkenes decreased dramatically but the carbonyl group clearly increased in the coal sample oxidized at 543 K; The chemical composition of coal samples oxidized at lower temperature is different from that of coal oxidized at 543 K.Oxidizing coal samples at higher temperatures for a short time or at lower temperatures for a longer time resulted in activated carbon samples that tended toward the same adsorption properties: Iodine number 1100 mg/g and Methylene blue value 252 mg/g.The yield of activated carbon obtained from the pre-oxidized coal is 10% higher than the yield from parent coal but the activated carbons have the same adsorption properties.

  15. Petrography and geochemistry of Oligocene bituminous coal from the Jiu Valley, Petrosani basin (southern Carpathian Mountains), Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Stucker, J.D. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); University of Kentucky Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Morehead, KY, 40351 (United States); Tatu, Calin A. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Immunology, Clinical Laboratory No. 1, Pta. E. Murgu No. 2, RO-1900 Timisoara (Romania); Buia, Grigore [University of Petrosani, Department of Geology, University St. 20, RO-2675 Petrosani (Romania)


    Belt samples of Oligocene (Chattian) bituminous coal from 10 underground mines located in the Jiu Valley, Hunedoara County, Petrosani basin, Romania, have been examined and analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, major-, minor- and trace-element chemistry, organic petrography, and vitrinite reflectance. The mineral chemistry and mode of occurrence of trace elements also have been investigated using SEM and electron microprobe techniques. Twenty coal beds occur in the Jiu Valley and most of the samples are from bed no. 3, the most productive bed of the Dilja-Uricani Formation of Oligocene age. The Petrosani basin, oriented SW-NE, is 48-km long, 10-km wide at the eastern part and 2-km wide at the western part. The coal mines are distributed along the center of the valley generally following the Jiu de Vest River. Reflectance measurements indicate that the rank of the coals ranges from high-volatile B to high-volatile A bituminous. Overall, rank decreases from the southwest to the northeast. In bed no. 3, R{sub max} varies from 0.75% in the northeast to 0.93% in the southwest. Although, most Oligocene coals in Romania and adjacent countries are lignite in rank, the Jiu Valley bituminous coals have been affected by regional metamorphism and attending hydrothermal fluids related to the Alpine orogenic event. The coals are all dominated by vitrinite; resinite and funginite are important minor macerals in most of the coals. Pyrite and carbonate generally dominate the mineral assemblages with carbonate more abundant in the northwest. Siderite occurs as nodules and masses within the macerals (generally vitrinite). Dolomite and calcite occur as fracture fillings, plant-cell fillings, and in other authigenic forms. Late-stage fracture fillings are siderite, dolomite, calcite, and ankerite. In one instance, two populations of siderite ({proportional_to} 35 and {proportional_to} 45 wt.% FeO) plus ankerite fill a large fracture. Late-stage pyrite framboid alteration is Ni

  16. Multispectral Coatings (United States)


    nanowires. 2.2 Project Objectives  This project used spin coating technology, new and commercial nanoparticle composites, and ODC’s patented...of this project. The spin coating method to deposit polymers has been widely studied and allows for simple, low cost depositions of thin films...Figure 5). Spin coating controls the layer thickness by balancing the centrifugal forces of a developing thin film to the viscous forces that increase

  17. Morbus Coats (United States)

    Förl, B.; Schmack, I.; Grossniklaus, H.E.; Rohrschneider, K.


    Der fortgeschrittene Morbus Coats stellt im Kleinkindalter eine der schwierigsten Differenzialdiagnosen zum Retinoblastom dar. Wir beschreiben die klinischen und histologischen Befunde zweier Jungen im Alter von 9 und 21 Monaten mit einseitiger Leukokorie. Trotz umfassender Diagnostik mittels Narkoseuntersuchung, MRT und Ultraschall konnte ein Retinoblastom nicht sicher ausgeschlossen werden, und es erfolgte eine Enukleation. Histologisch wurde die Diagnose eines Morbus Coats gesichert. Da eine differenzialdiagnostische Abgrenzung zwischen Morbus Coats und Retinoblastom schwierig sein kann, halten wir in zweifelhaften Fällen auch angesichts der eingeschränkten Visusprognose und potenzieller Sekundärkomplikationen beim fortgeschrittenen Morbus Coats eine Enukleation für indiziert. PMID:18299842

  18. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir


    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value.

  19. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 8. Gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.


    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eighth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The period of gasification test was July 28 to August 19, 1983. 6 refs., 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. Organic petrology and geochemistry of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl, north-central Afghanistan: Depositional environment and source rock potential (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Sanfilipo, John


    Organic geochemistry and petrology of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl outcrop samples from Madr village in north-central Afghanistan were characterized via an integrated analytical approach to evaluate depositional environment and source rock potential. Multiple proxies suggest the organic-rich (TOC ∼6 wt.%) bituminous marls are ‘immature’ for oil generation (e.g., vitrinite Ro rock sulfur content is ∼2.3 wt.% whereas sulfur content is ∼5.0–5.6 wt.% in whole rock extracts with high polar components, consistent with extraction from S-rich Type IIs organic matter which could generate hydrocarbons at low thermal maturity. Low Fe-sulfide mineral abundance and comparison of Pr/Ph ratios between saturate and whole extracts suggest limited Fe concentration resulted in sulfurization of organic matter during early diagenesis. From these observations, we infer that a Type IIs kerogen in ‘immature’ bituminous marl at Madr could be generating high sulfur viscous oil which is seeping from outcrop. However, oil-seep samples were not collected for correlation studies. Aluminum-normalized trace element concentrations indicate enrichment of redox sensitive trace elements Mo, U and V and suggest anoxic-euxinic conditions during sediment deposition. The bulk of organic matter observed via optical microscopy is strongly fluorescent amorphous bituminite grading to lamalginite, possibly representing microbial mat facies. Short chain n-alkanes peak at C14–C16 (n-C17/n-C29 > 1) indicating organic input from marine algae and/or bacterial biomass, and sterane/hopane ratios are low (0.12–0.14). Monoaromatic steroids are dominated by C28clearly indicating a marine setting. High gammacerane index values (∼0.9) are consistent with anoxia stratification and may indicate intermittent saline-hypersaline conditions. Stable C isotope ratios also suggest a marine depositional scenario for the Suzak samples, consistent with the presence of marine foraminifera including

  1. Study on co-pyrolysis characteristics of rice straw and Shenfu bituminous coal blends in a fixed bed reactor. (United States)

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Aibin; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangsuo


    Co-pyrolysis behaviors of rice straw and Shenfu bituminous coal were studied in a fixed bed reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. The pyrolysis temperatures were 700°C, 800°C and 900°C, respectively. Six different biomass ratios were used. Gas, tar components were analyzed by a gas chromatograph and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry respectively. Under co-pyrolysis conditions, the gas volume yields are higher than the calculated values. Co-pyrolysis tar contains more phenolics, less oxygenate compounds than calculated values. The addition of biomass changes the atmosphere during the pyrolysis process and promotes tar decomposition. The SEM results show that the differences between the blended char and their parents char are not significant. The results of char yields and ultimate analysis also show that no significant interactions exist between the two kinds of particles. The changes of gas yield and components are caused by the secondary reactions and tar decomposition.

  2. Evaluation of bituminous materials used in pavement recycling projects at Tyndall, MacDill, and Hurlburt Air Force Bases (United States)

    Kiggundu, B.; Martinez, R.; Humphrey, B.; Shuler, T.


    This report presents results of a study involving bituminous materials from Tyndall and MacDill Air Force Bases and Hurlburt Field. These materials included Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP), modifiers, virgin asphalts, and new aggregates. A tentative modifier selection criterion was used to judge the quality of materials used in the recycling efforts at the respective sites. The results showed that independent adequacy of physical properties from chemical properties in selection of modifiers could not be established. However, some of the results showed that physical properties were more sensitive indicators of changes in binders due to aging. In addition, this report includes the tentative modifier selection criteria and results of an interlaboratory study from which variability limits to parameters determined using modified Clay-Gel and Heithaus procedures are established. The modified Clay-Gel and Heithaus procedures are included.

  3. Structural characterization of vitrinite-rich and inertinite-rich Permian-aged South African bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Niekerk, Daniel; Mathews, Jonathan P. [Energy and Mineral Engineering and the EMS Energy Institute, Pennsylvania State University, Hosler Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Pugmire, Ronald J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Solum, Mark S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Painter, Paul C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 320 Steidle Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)


    Two South African coals of the same rank and age, but different in maceral composition were subjected to extensive structural analyses. Inertinite-rich Highveld coal (dominated by semifusinite) and vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal were studied to determine structural differences and similarities. The two coals had similar carbon content ({proportional_to} 84%, dmmf) and vitrinite reflectance (mean-maximum 0.71% for vitrinite-rich vs. 0.75% for inertinite-rich), but differed in hydrogen content (6.23% for vitrinite-rich and 4.53% for inertinite-rich). The inertinite-rich coal was more aromatic (86% for inertinite-rich and 76% for vitrinite-rich) and more polycondensed (indicated by a higher bridgehead carbon content). The inertinite-rich coal was structurally more ordered, with a higher degree of crystalline stacking. Both coals had similar average aromatic cluster sizes (16 carbons for vitrinite-rich and 18 carbons for inertinite-rich) and number of cluster attachments (6 attachments for vitrinite-rich and 5 attachments for inertinite-rich). Mass spectrometry showed that both coals consist of similar molecular weight distributions; ranging to approximately 1700 m/z with a maximum abundance of {proportional_to} 450 m/z for the vitrinite-rich coal and {proportional_to} 550 m/z for the inertinite-rich coal. Compared to the Argonne Premium coals the South African vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal was comparable to the coals in the high-volatile bituminous range and inertinite-rich Highveld was closer to the medium- to low-volatile bituminous range. Both coals were surprisingly similar in bulk characterization, although inertinite-rich Highveld coal was structurally more ordered, hydrogen deficient, and more aromatic. (author)

  4. Co-combustion characteristics and blending optimization of tobacco stem and high-sulfur bituminous coal based on thermogravimetric and mass spectrometry analyses. (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Kai; Cao, Yan; Pan, Wei-ping


    Despite much research on co-combustion of tobacco stem and high-sulfur coal, their blending optimization has not been effectively found. This study investigated the combustion profiles of tobacco stem, high-sulfur bituminous coal and their blends by thermogravimetric analysis. Ignition and burnout performances, heat release performances, and gaseous pollutant emissions were also studied by thermogravimetric and mass spectrometry analyses. The results indicated that combustion of tobacco stem was more complicated than that of high-sulfur bituminous coal, mainly shown as fixed carbon in it was divided into two portions with one early burning and the other delay burning. Ignition and burnout performances, heat release performances, and gaseous pollutant emissions of the blends present variable trends with the increase of tobacco stem content. Taking into account the above three factors, a blending ratio of 0–20% tobacco stem content is conservatively proposed as optimum amount for blending.

  5. Advances in Interlaboratory Testing and Evaluation of Bituminous Materials State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 206-ATB

    CERN Document Server

    Bahia, Hussain; Canestrari, Francesco; Roche, Chantal; Benedetto, Hervé; Piber, Herald; Sybilski, Dariusz


    This STAR on asphalt materials presents the achievements of RILEM TC 206 ATB, acquired over many years of interlaboratory tests and international knowledge exchange. It covers experimental aspects of bituminous binder fatigue testing; the background on compaction methods and imaging techniques for characterizing asphalt mixtures including validation of a new imaging software; it focuses on experimental questions and analysis tools regarding mechanical wheel tracking tests, comparing results from different labs and using finite element techniques. Furthermore, long-term rutting prediction and evaluation for an Austrian road are discussed, followed by an extensive analysis and test program on interlayer bond testing of three different test sections which were specifically constructed for this purpose. Finally, the key issue of manufacturing reclaimed hot mix asphalt in the laboratory is studied and recommendations for laboratory ageing of bituminous mixtures are given.

  6. Response to Comment on "Sphagnum Mosses from 21 Ombrotrophic Bogs in the Athabasca Bituminous Sands Region Show no Significant Atmospheric Contamination of “Heavy Metals”"


    SHOTYK W.; BELLAND Rene; Duke, John; KEMPTER Heike; KRACHLER MICHAEL; NOERNBERG Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Vile, Melanie; WIEDER Kelman; ZACCONE Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan


    Blais and Donahue (2015) draw attention to many contemporary environmental issues and concerns regarding the industrial development of the Athabasca Bituminous Sands (ABS), most of which are outside of the scope of our original study (Shotyk et al., 2014). Here we restrict our response to the remarks they made which actually apply to our paper. The focus of our paper was the abundance and spatial variation in concentrations of “heavy metals” (selected chalcophile elements namely Ag, Cd, Pb...

  7. Major, trace, and natural radioactive elements in bituminous coal from Australia, Romania, Russia, South Africa and Ukraine: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duliu, O.G.; Culicov, O.A.; Radulescu, I.; Cristea, C.; Vasiu, T. [University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania). Dept. of Atomic & Nuclear Physics


    Five samples of bituminous coal collected from different basins (Australia, Romania, Russia, South Africa and Ukraine) have been investigated by using different analytical techniques. Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sn, In, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Hg, Th and U have been determined by neutron activation analysis, K-40, U-238, U-235 and Th-232 have been measured radiometrically, H, C, O, N, and S have been dosed by dynamic flash combustion, while gravimetric methods have been used to measure moisture and ash content together with calorific value. Major mineralogical fractions have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction. The results have shown significant positive correlations between radiometric and activation analysis results, between calorific value and carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen concentrations and negative significant correlations between calorific value and ash content. According to the Romanian Regulations, only Cr and Ni for Romanian coal exceeded the minimum threshold to be considered unpolluting elements. The distribution of rare earth elements, La to Th ratio, as well as of Sc, La and Th together with Co, Hf and Th have confirmed that, irrespective of sample sources, the mineral part of coal has a composition close to that of the upper continental crust.

  8. Plasma-Augmented Fluidized Bed Gasification of Sub-bituminous Coal in CO2-O2 Atmospheres (United States)

    Lelievre, C.; Pickles, C. A.; Hultgren, S.


    The gasification of a sub-bituminous coal using CO2-O2 gas mixtures was studied in a plasma-augmented fluidized bed gasifier. Firstly, the coal was chemically characterized and the gasification process was examined using Thermogravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA/DTA) in CO2, O2 and at a CO2 to O2 ratio of 3 to 1. Secondly, the equilibrium gas compositions were obtained using the Gibbs free energy minimization method (HSC Chemistry®7). Thirdly, gasification tests were performed in a plasma-augmented fluidized bed and the off-gas temperatures and compositions were determined. Finally, for comparison purposes, control tests were conducted using a conventional fluidized bed coal gasifier and these results were compared to those achieved in the plasma-augmented fluidized bed gasifier. The effects of bed temperature and CO2 to O2 ratio were studied. For both gasifiers, at a given bed temperature, the off-gas compositions were in general agreement with the equilibrium values. Also, for both gasifiers, an experimental CO2 to O2 ratio of about 3 to 1 resulted in the highest syngas grade (%CO + %H2). Both higher off-gas temperatures and syngas grades could be achieved in the plasma-augmented gasifier, in comparison to the conventional gasifier. These differences were attributed to the higher bed temperatures in the plasma-augmented fluidized bed gasifier.

  9. Co-combustion of bituminous coal and biomass fuel blends: Thermochemical characterization, potential utilization and environmental advantage. (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui


    The thermochemical characteristics and gaseous trace pollutant behaviors during co-combustion medium-to-low ash bituminous coal with typical biomass residues (corn stalk and sawdust) were investigated. Lowering of ignition index, burnout temperature and activation energy in the major combustion stage are observed in the coal/biomass blends. The blending proportion of 20% and 30% are regarded as the optimum blends for corn stalk and sawdust, respectively, in according the limitations of heating value, activation energy, flame stability and base/acid ratio. The reductions of gaseous As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) were 4.5%, 7.8%, 6.3%, 9.8%, 9.4% and 17.4%, respectively, when co-combustion coal with 20% corn stalk. The elevated capture of trace elements were found in coal/corn stalk blend, while the coal/sawdust blend has the better PAHs control potential. The reduction mechanisms of gaseous trace pollutants were attributed to the fuel property, ash composition and relative residence time during combustion.

  10. Dye-adsorption capacity of bituminous fly ash and its pozzolanic property after used as dye-adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penpolcharoen, M.


    Full Text Available Bituminous fly ash, which is an industrial waste, was used as an adsorbent to remove dyestuff from the textile-dye wastewater. The batch kinetic and isotherm experiments of the synthetic wastewater were firstly conducted to determine the adsorption behavior and optimal conditions for adsorption. The optimal conditions were then applied to the actual textile-dye wastewater. Under the original conditions of fly ash and wastewater, the results indicated that the color could be removed up to 86.65% by 12 g of the fly ash /L of the wastewater within 30 min. Its adsorption was described by the Freundlich isotherm. The dye-adsorbed fly ash was further studied on its pozzolanic property in terms of compressive strength by using it as a partial substitute to Portland cement type I to produce mortar. The result revealed that the highest compressive strength was of the sample containing 10% by weight of the dye-adsorbed fly ash in replacement of cement. It possessed 215 kg/cm2 at 28 days, which is 92.67% of the sample containing 10% by weight of the original fly ash in replacement of cement, or 83.33 of the cement mortar. For the environmental concern, leachabilities of lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu and zinc (Zn from all mortars were also carried out. No leaching of the heavy metals from any samples could be detected. Hence, the dye-adsorbed fly ash can be used as an environmental friendly construction material.

  11. XPS study and physico-chemical properties of nitrogen-enriched microporous activated carbon from high volatile bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Pietrzak [Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland). Laboratory of Coal Chemistry and Technology


    N-enriched microporous active carbons of different physico-chemical parameters have been obtained from high volatile bituminous coal subjected to the processes of ammoxidation, carbonisation and activation in different sequences. Ammoxidation was performed by a mixture of ammonia and air at the ratio 1:3 (flow ratio 250 ml/min:750 ml/min) at 350{sup o}C, at each stage of production i.e. that of precursor, carbonisate and active carbon. Ammoxidation performed at the stage of demineralised coal or carbonisate has been shown to lead to a significant nitrogen enrichment and to have beneficial effect on the porous structure of the carbon during activation, allowing obtaining samples of the surface area of 2600-2800 m{sup 2}/g and pore volume 1.29-1.60 cm{sup 3}/g to be obtained with the yield of about 50%. The amount of nitrogen introduced into the carbon structure was found to depend on the sequence of the processes applied. The greatest amount of nitrogen was introduced for the processes in the sequence carbonisation {yields} activation {yields} ammoxidation. The introduction of nitrogen at the stage of active carbon leads to a reduction in the surface area and lowering of its sorption capacity. From the XPS study, ammoxidation introduces nitrogen mainly in the form of imines, amines, amides, N-5 and N-6, irrespective of the processing stage at which it is applied. 40 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: potential UCG products and markets. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) The US will continue to require new sources of energy fuels and substitutes for petrochemical feedstocks into the foreseeable future. Most of this requirement will be met using coal. However, the cost of mining, transporting, cleaning, and preparing coal, disposing of ash or slag and scrubbing stack gases continues to rise; particularly, in the Eastern US where the need is greatest. UCG avoids these pitfalls and, as such, should be considered a viable alternative to the mining of deeper coals. (2) Of the two possible product gases LBG and MBG, MBG is the most versatile. (3) The most logical use for UCG product in the Eastern US is to generate power on-site using a combined-cycle or co-generation system. Either low or medium Btu gas (LBG or MBG) can be used. (4) UCG should be an option whenever surface gasification is considered; particularly, in areas where deeper, higher sulfur coal is located. (5) There are environmental and social benefits to use of UCG over surface gasification in the Eastern US. (6) A site could be chosen almost anywhere in the Illinois and Ohio area where amenable UCG coal has been determined due to the existence of existing transportation or transmission systems. (7) The technology needs to be demonstrated and the potential economic viability determined at a site in the East-North-Central US which has commercial quantities of amenable bituminous coal before utilities will show significant interest.

  13. Protective Coatings (United States)


    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  14. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter


    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... that graphene can still be a relevant candidate for thin coatings....

  15. Effect of asphaltene and resin oils on the viscosity of bituminous petroleum materials to be used as asphalt primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencomo, M. R.


    Full Text Available The bituminous crude from the Machete, Venezuela, area, which has such a fluid consistency that it falls outside the normal scope of the A5TM D-5 (1 penetration test exceeding the 3D-mm ceiling specified in that standard and can be used as an asphalt primer: Like other asphalt products, these materials are -chemically speaking- a mix of numerous naphthenic, paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds containing sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen and so on. They have a dense and a malthene oil phase which, along with the natural hydrocarbons additives used in these products acts as a volatile fluidizer. The former is described as a mix of asphaltenes: complex high molecular weight substances that are insoluble in paraffinic hydrocarbons and soluble in aromatic compounds such as benzene. The malthene oil phase, in turn, consists in a mix of resins and hydrocarbons and together the two constitute a colloidal system. The experiments discussed in the present paper were conducted to determine the effect of the proportion of asphaltenes and resin oils on the viscosity of such bituminous crude emulsions/ with a view to their use as primers. These experiments were run in a Parr batch reactor in a nitrogen atmosphere using n-heptane as a solvent. The resins were separated after the asphaltenes precipitated from the samples and subsequently from the malthene fraction obtained. The results showed that the asphaltenes account for the structural characteristics and consistency of the medium and the resin oils for its cohesive properties/,the malthene oils act as solvents.Los crudos extrapesados procedentes del área Machete (Venezuela son materiales de consistencia blanda o fluida, por lo que se salen del campo en el que normalmente se aplica el ensayo de penetración a productos asfálticos según el método ASTM D-5 (1, cuyo límite máximo es 30 mm, y pueden ser utilizados como pinturas asfálticas de imprimación. Al igual que otros productos

  16. Influence of an igneous intrusion on the inorganic geochemistry of a bituminous coal from Pitkin County, Colorado (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.; Bostick, N.H.; Dulong, F.T.; Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.N.


    Although the effects of igneous dikes on the organic matter in coal have been observed at many localities there is virtually no information on the effects of the intrusions of the inorganic constituents in the coal. Such a study may help to elucidate the behavior of trace elements during in situ gasification of coal and may provide insights into the resources potential for coal and coke affected by the intrusion. To determine the effects of an igneous intrusion on the inorganic chemistry of a coal we used a series of 11 samples of coal and natural coke that had been collected at intervals from 3 to 106 cm from a dike that intruded the bituminous Dutch Creek coal in Pitkin, CO. The samples were chemically analyzed for 66 elements. SEM-EDX and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed on selected samples. Volatile elements such as F, Cl, Hg, and Se are not depleted in the samples (coke and coal) nearest the dike that were exposed to the highest temperatures. Their presence in these samples is likely due to secondary enrichment following volatilization of the elements inherent in the coal. Equilibration with ground water may account for the uniform distribution of Na, B, and Cl. High concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Sr, and CO2 in the coke region are attributed to the reaction of CO and CO2 generated during the coking of the coal with fluids from the intrusion, resulting in the precipitation of carbonates. Similarly, precipitation of sulfide minerals in the coke zone may account for the relatively high concentrations of Ag, Hg, Cu, Zn, and Fe. Most elements are concentrated at the juncture of the fluidized coke and the thermally metamorphosed coal. Many of the elements enriched in this region (for example, Ga, Ge, Mo, Rb, U, La, Ce, Al, K, and Si) may have been adsorbed on either the clays or the organic matter or on both.Although the effects of igneous dikes on the organic matter in coal have been observed at many localities there is virtually no information on the

  17. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.


    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  18. The advantages of S.B.S. modified bituminous membranes; Les avantages des membranes de bitume modifie S.B.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faucher, D.


    The development of the modified bituminous membrane has resulted in an asphalt that has excellent flexibility, elongation and good weatherliness. By the addition of a variety of polymers, the asphalt acquires rubber like properties, ideal for use in roofing membranes. Modified bitumen is composed of distilled bitumen, styrene- butadiene-styrene polymers and calcium carbonate filler. Fiberglass and non-woven polyester felts are used for support in the manufacturing of the membranes. The membranes offer several advantages over conventional roofing materials including increased longevity, applicability to a wide variety of roofing structures and slopes, reduced weight and easy maintenance. 9 figs.

  19. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State


    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  20. Sphagnum mosses from 21 ombrotrophic bogs in the Athabasca Bituminous Sands region show no significant atmospheric contamination of “heavy metals”


    SHOTYK W.; BELLAND Rene; DUKE John; KEMPTER Heike; KRACHLER MICHAEL; NOERNBERG Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; VILE Melanie; WIEDER Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan


    Sphagnum moss was collected from twenty-one ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding 39 open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca Bituminous Sands in Alberta (AB). 40 Compared with contemporary Sphagnum moss from four bogs in rural locations of southern 41 Germany (DE), the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb and Tl, 42 similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th and V. Except for V, 43 compared to the “cleanest”, ancient peat sa...

  1. Progressive oxidation of pyrite in five bituminous coal samples: An As XANES and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic study (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Huggins, Frank E.


    Naturally occurring pyrite commonly contains minor substituted metals and metalloids (As, Se, Hg, Cu, Ni, etc.) that can be released to the environment as a result of its weathering. Arsenic, often the most abundant minor constituent in pyrite, is a sensitive monitor of progressive pyrite oxidation in coal. To test the effect of pyrite composition and environmental parameters on the rate and extent of pyrite oxidation in coal, splits of five bituminous coal samples having differing amounts of pyrite and extents of As substitution in the pyrite, were exposed to a range of simulated weathering conditions over a period of 17 months. Samples investigated include a Springfield coal from Indiana (whole coal pyritic S = 2.13 wt.%; As in pyrite = detection limit (d.l.) to 0.06 wt.%), two Pittsburgh coal samples from West Virginia (pyritic S = 1.32–1.58 wt.%; As in pyrite = d.l. to 0.34 wt.%), and two samples from the Warrior Basin, Alabama (pyritic S = 0.26–0.27 wt.%; As in pyrite = d.l. to 2.72 wt.%). Samples were collected from active mine faces, and expected differences in the concentration of As in pyrite were confirmed by electron microprobe analysis. Experimental weathering conditions in test chambers were maintained as follows: (1) dry Ar atmosphere; (2) dry O2 atmosphere; (3) room atmosphere (relative humidity ∼20–60%); and (4) room atmosphere with samples wetted periodically with double-distilled water. Sample splits were removed after one month, nine months, and 17 months to monitor the extent of As and Fe oxidation using As X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, respectively. Arsenic XANES spectroscopy shows progressive oxidation of pyritic As to arsenate, with wetted samples showing the most rapid oxidation. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy also shows a much greater proportion of Fe3+ forms (jarosite, Fe3+ sulfate, FeOOH) for samples stored under wet conditions, but much less

  2. Controls on coalbed methane potential and gas sorption characteristics of high-volatile bituminous coals in Indiana (United States)

    Solano-Acosta, Wilfrido

    distribution, and adsorption experiments at high and low gas pressures are employed to estimate reservoir gas capacity and to characterize high volatile bituminous coals of Indiana for potential future CO2 sequestration. Understanding the mechanisms and geologic conditions that control the occurrence of gas in coal allows us to better characterize: (1) CBM reservoirs for their potential economic use, and (2) coal seams as future receptacles of anthropogenic carbon dioxide.

  3. Corrosion resistant coating (United States)

    Wrobleski, Debra A.; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Thompson, Karen G.; Bryan, Coleman J.


    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  4. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A study of the high-temperature soaking started in this quarter, following the installation of reactors in the previous quarter. Two high-volatile bituminous coals and three coal liquids, which were identified in the previous report, were used. A cross-linked, three-dimensional macromolecular model has been widely accepted f or the structure of coal, but there is no direct evidence to prove this model. The conventional coal structure model has been recently re-examined by this investigator because of the importance of relatively strong intra- and intermolecular interactions in bituminous coals. It was reasonable to deduce that significant portions were physically associated after a study of multistep extractions, associative equilibria, the irreversibility and the dependence of coal concentration on solvent swelling, and consideration of the monophase concept. Physical dissociation which may be significant above 300{degree}C should be utilized for the treatment before liquefaction. The high-temperature soaking in a recycle oil was proposed to dissociate coal complexes.

  5. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. [Effect of preconversion heat soak with coal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A study of the high-temperature soaking started in this quarter, following the installation of reactors in the previous quarter. Two high-volatile bituminous coals and three coal liquids, which were identified in the previous report, were used. A cross-linked, three-dimensional macromolecular model has been widely accepted f or the structure of coal, but there is no direct evidence to prove this model. The conventional coal structure model has been recently re-examined by this investigator because of the importance of relatively strong intra- and intermolecular interactions in bituminous coals. It was reasonable to deduce that significant portions were physically associated after a study of multistep extractions, associative equilibria, the irreversibility and the dependence of coal concentration on solvent swelling, and consideration of the monophase concept. Physical dissociation which may be significant above 300{degree}C should be utilized for the treatment before liquefaction. The high-temperature soaking in a recycle oil was proposed to dissociate coal complexes.

  6. Inhibiting effect of [HOEmim][BF4] and [Amim]Cl ionic liquids on the cross-linking reaction of bituminous coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lanyun; Xu Yongliang; Wang Shaokun; Song Zhipeng


    In order to reduce the hazard of coal spontaneous combustion, the cross-linking reaction between O-containing functional groups of coal should be inhibited. So the inhibitory effect of an ionic liquid (IL) on the cross-linking reaction was studied. The O-containing functional groups change the weight loss and H2O, CO2, CO yields of bituminous coal before and after [HOEmim][BF4] and [Amim]Cl pre-treatment and were detected by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermo Gravimetric (TG) anal-ysis. The results show that [Amim]Cl has a weaker ability to inhibit the cross-linking reaction of bitumi-nous coal compared to [HOEmim][BF4]. Besides, based on Quantum Chemistry calculation, it was found that the different inhibiting effects of [HOEmim][BF4] and [Amim]Cl are greatly related to their anions and the H linked with C2 atom on the imidazole ring. The H-donor ability of coal will be enhanced by [HOEmim][BF4] leading to a weaker cross-linking reaction of coal.

  7. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  8. Osmosis-induced water uptake by Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste and pressure development in constant volume conditions (United States)

    Mariën, A.; Mokni, N.; Valcke, E.; Olivella, S.; Smets, S.; Li, X.


    The chemo-hydro-mechanical (CHM) interaction between swelling Eurobitum radioactive bituminized waste (BW) and Boom Clay is investigated to assess the feasibility of geological disposal for the long-term management of this waste. These so-called compatibility studies include laboratory water uptake tests at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK•CEN, and the development of a coupled CHM formulation for Eurobitum by the International Center for Numerical Methods and Engineering (CIMNE, Polytechnical University of Cataluña, Spain). In the water uptake tests, the osmosis-induced swelling, pressure increase and NaNO3 leaching of small cylindrical BW samples (diameter 38 mm, height 10 mm) is studied under constant total stress conditions and nearly constant volume conditions; the actual geological disposal conditions should be intermediate between these extremes. Two nearly constant volume tests were stopped after 1036 and 1555 days to characterize the morphology of the hydrated BW samples and to visualize the hydrated part with microfocus X-ray Computer Tomography (μCT) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). In parallel, a coupled CHM formulation is developed that describes chemically and hydraulically coupled flow processes in porous materials with salt crystals, and that incorporates a porosity dependent membrane efficiency, permeability and diffusivity. When Eurobitum BW is hydrated in (nearly) constant volume conditions, the osmosis-induced water uptake results in an increasing pressure to values that can be (in theory) as high as 42.8 MPa, being the osmotic pressure of a saturated NaNO3 solution. After about four years of hydration in nearly constant volume water uptake tests, pressures up to 20 MPa are measured. During this hydration period only the outer layers with a thickness of 1-2 mm were hydrated (as derived from μCT and ESEM analyses), and only about 10-20% of the initial NaNO3 content was released by the samples. In the studied test

  9. Multi-layer coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.; Gonsalves, Peter R.


    Disclosed herein are coating materials and methods for applying a top-layer coating that is durable, abrasion resistant, highly transparent, hydrophobic, low-friction, moisture-sealing, anti-soiling, and self-cleaning to an existing conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating. The top coat imparts superior durability performance and new properties to the under-laying conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating without reducing the anti-reflectiveness of the coating. Methods and data for optimizing the relative thickness of the under-layer high temperature anti-reflective coating and the top-layer thickness for optimizing optical performance are also disclosed.

  10. Spanish Round Robin test on water sensitivity test of bituminous mixtures; Ejercicio espanol interlaboratorios sobre el ensayo de sensibilidad al gua de mezclas bituminosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Saez, R.; Enrique Gabeiras, L.; Miranda Perez, L.; Valor Hernandez, F.


    The amendment of Article 542 and 543 on the hot asphalt mixtures included in the Spanish Technical specifications for Road Construction (PG-3), by Circular Order 24/2008, introduced a new series of modification to adapt Spanish regulations to European standards series EN 13108. Among the various amendments, new tests methods and design criteria are considered, as UNE-EN 12697-12 for assessing the water sensitivity on compacted specimens, which is mandatory for every kind of bituminous mixture. In this paper, firstly a comparison between the European method and the old Spanish method described in the NLT-162 is made, explaining the experimental conditions selected. The results of an interlaboratory study or Round Robin Test conducted in ten Spanish laboratories are subsequently described and analyzed, in order to allow each laboratory to assess its technical performance, and also to determine quantitatively the precision of the new method in terms of repeatability and reproducibility. (Author) 15 refs.

  11. Coating of pumps; coating af pumper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Hans; Moritzen, J.; Thoegersen, Jeanette


    Coating of pumps is a quite new activity. For many years pipes and containers have been coated inside in order to avoid corrosion, but the technology has only been used inside pumps for the last ten years. The technology comes from USA and is originally developed in the space technology industry as an exceptionally durable and corrosion constant coating. The project is a further development of results found in a previous R and D project in which measurements were performed before and after coating two different installations. Both installations showed large efficiency improvements. This project supplements the theory behind losses in pumps with measurements on more pumps. (BA)

  12. Commercial Fastener Coatings Doerken (United States)


    Phosphating* *partly recommended Dip Spinning Dipping Spraying Spin coating Conveyor oven box oven Inductive drying Pretreatment Coating Preheating...Curing Cooling Application Techniques - Dip Spin Coating Gurtbnd Cross BarTranspo" Band beiCifteiE Vo12one Vent llated Pre .Zone Cros~ Bar T ransrt

  13. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  14. Surfaces, Coatings and Protection (United States)

    Ferguson, I. F.


    Plasma sprayed ceramics, sputter ion plating, and sol-gel ceramic protective coatings for nuclear reactors are discussed. The influence of such coatings on the behavior of reactor fuel elements is noted. The investigation of such coatings by diffraction methods is described. Laser and nuclear microprobes, scanning transmission electron microscopes, neutron scattering, and image analysis are summarized.

  15. Hard and superhard nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, J. [Univ. of West Bohemia, Plzen (Czech Republic). Dept. of Phys.


    This article reviews the development of hard coatings from a titanium nitride film through superlattice coatings to nanocomposite coatings. Significant attention is devoted to hard and superhard single layer nanocomposite coatings. A strong correlation between the hardness and structure of nanocomposite coatings is discussed in detail. Trends in development of hard nanocomposite coatings are also outlined. (orig.)

  16. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.


    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  17. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim


    The main objective of this review is to describe some of the important topics related to the use of marine and protective coatings for anticorrosive purposes. In this context, "protective" refers to coatings for containers, offshore constructions, wind turbines, storage tanks, bridges, rail cars......, and petrochemical plants while "marine" refers to coatings for ballast tanks, cargo holds and cargo tanks, decks, and engine rooms on ships. The review aims at providing a thorough picture of state-of-the-art in anticorrosive coatings systems. International and national legislation aiming at reducing the emission...... of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers...

  18. Thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous mixtures at low temperatures. Links between the binder characteristics and the mix properties; Comportement thermomecanique des enrobes bitumeux a basses temperatures: relations entre les proprietes du liant et de l'enrobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olard, F.


    This thesis has been realized within the framework of a partnership between the Ecole Nationale des TPE, APPIA and EUROVIA. The company Total has also been associated to this project. The study deals with the thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous materials at low temperatures. The aim is to establish the links between the characteristics of the binder and the properties of bituminous mixes at low temperatures, and to better understand the existing low-temperature parameters and criteria for binders (or to propose new ones), related to the in-situ behavior of bituminous mixtures. A large experimental campaign has been carried out so as to fulfill this goal. After a bibliographical study on the rheology and the thermo-mechanical properties of (pure or modified) binders, putties and mixes, the experimental campaign carried out both in the small strain domain and in the large strain domain, is presented. The low temperature behavior of binders has been evaluated with three common fundamental tests: i)the complex modulus determination, ii)the Bending Beam Rheometer and iii)the tensile strength at a constant strain rate and constant temperatures. A new three point bending test on pre-notched bitumen beams has also been developed at the ENTPE. The low-temperature fracture properties of bitumens were studied at constant temperatures and cross-head speeds considering the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) assumptions. The thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous mixtures has been studied by performing i)complex modulus tests, ii)measurements of the coefficient of thermal dilatation and contraction, iii)tensile tests at constant temperatures and strain rates, and iv)Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Tests. Apart from the determination of some pertinent links between binder and mix properties and discriminating characteristics with regard to the thermal cracking of bituminous mixes at low temperatures, the analysis has also consisted in modeling the behavior of

  19. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  20. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Final report, September 20, 1991--September 19, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    One of the main goals for competitive coal liquefaction is to decrease gas yields to reduce hydrogen consumption. Complexing this element as methane and ethane decreases process efficiently and is less cost effective. To decrease the gas yield and increase the liquid yield, an effective preconversion process has been explored on the basis of the physically associated molecular nature of coal. Activities have been focused on two issues: (1) maximizing the dissolution of associated coal and (2) defining the different reactivity associated with a wide molecular weight distribution. Two-step soaking at 350{degrees}C and 400{degrees}C in a recycle oil was found to be very effective for coal solubilization. No additional chemicals, catalysts, and hydrogen are required for this preconversion process. High-volatile bituminous coals tested before liquefaction showed 80--90% conversion with 50--55% oil yields. New preconversion steps suggested are as follows: (1) dissolution of coal with two-step high-temperature soaking, (2) separation into oil and heavy fractions of dissolved coal with vacuum distillation, and (3) selective liquefaction of the separated heavy fractions under relatively mild conditions. Laboratory scale tests of the proposed procedure mode using a small autoclave showed a 30% increase in the oil yield with a 15--20% decrease in the gas yield. This batch operation projects a substantial reduction in the ultimate cost of coal liquefaction.

  1. Size-resolved Pb distribution in the Athabasca River shows snowmelt in the bituminous sands region an insignificant source of dissolved Pb (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Babar; Cuss, Chad W.; Grant-Weaver, Iain; Shotyk, William


    Lead (Pb) is a metal of special importance because of its long history of commercial and industrial use, global atmospheric contamination accelerated by the use of gasoline additives, and health effects, with children being especially vulnerable. Global atmospheric Pb pollution reached its zenith in the 1970’s, but subsequent impacts on freshwater aquatic systems are poorly understood. Employing metal-free sampling and handling protocols, we show that snowmelt from the Athabasca bituminous sands region is an insignificant source of dissolved Pb to the Athabasca River (AR). Total Pb in the AR is low, and almost entirely in particulate form. Lead in the suspended solids in the AR exactly follows thorium (Th), a conservative lithophile element, and a linear regression of Pb against Th (Pb = 1.6 × Th + 0.0; R2 = 0.99) yields a slope identical to the Pb/Th ratio in the Upper Continental Crust. In the “dissolved” fraction, the Pb/Th ratio is equivalent to that of deep, open ocean seawater; and dominated by colloidal forms. Taken together, these results show that the efforts of recent decades to reduce anthropogenic Pb to the environment have been successful: Pb loading to the river can now be explained predominantly by natural processes, namely erosion plus chemical weathering. PMID:28262714

  2. The use of μCT and ESEM in the study of the osmosis-induced water uptake by Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste. (United States)

    Mariën, An; Valcke, Elie; Bleyen, Nele; Van Geet, Maarten; Wevers, Martine


    Laboratory water uptake tests are performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK•CEN to obtain insight into the hydromechanical behavior of Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste under geological disposal conditions. Small nonradioactive and radioactive Eurobitum samples are hydrated in restricted swelling conditions (i.e., nearly constant volume conditions and constant stress conditions). Microfocus X-ray computer tomography (μCT) proves to be a very suitable technique to follow up the ingress of water in the samples. μCT analyses demonstrate that, under the studied hydration conditions, the water uptake by Eurobitum samples is a diffusion controlled process. A characterization of the partially leached samples with environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) shows that the hydration of salt crystals and the subsequent dilution of the salt solution result in an increase in pore size that is limited to a few tens of μm in restricted swelling conditions. The μCT and ESEM analyses allow improvement in the understanding of water uptake by Eurobitum in restricted swelling conditions. In this article we discuss the μCT and ESEM analyses of nonradioactive Eurobitum samples that were hydrated for 2 to 4 years at a constant stress of 1, 22, 33, and 44 bar or in nearly constant volume conditions.

  3. Development of a method to determine the nuclide inventory in bituminized waste packages; Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Bestimmung des Nuklidinventars in bituminierten Abfallgebinden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesalic, E.; Kortman, F.; Lierse von Gostomski, C. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Zentrale Technisch-Wissenschaftliche Betriebseinheit Radiochemie Muenchen (RCM)


    Until the 1980s, bitumen was used as a conditioning agent for weak to medium radioactive liquid waste. Its use can be ascribed mainly to the properties that indicated that the matrix was optimal. However, fires broke out repeatedly during the conditioning process, so that the method is meanwhile no longer permitted in Germany. There are an estimated 100 waste packages held by the public authorities in Germany that require a supplementary declaration. In contrast to the common matrices, such as for example resins or sludges, there is still no standardized technology for taking samples and subsequently determining the radio-nuclide for bitumen. Aspects, such as the thermoplastic behaviour, make determining the nuclide inventory more difficult in bituminized waste packages. The development of a standardized technology to take samples with a subsequent determination of the radio-nuclide analysis is the objective of a project funded by the BMBF. Known, new methods, specially developed for the project, are examined on inactive bitumen samples and then transferred to active samples. At first non-destructive methods are used. The resulting information forms an important basis to work out and apply destructive strategy for sampling and analysis. Since the project is on-going, this report can only address the development of the sampling process. By developing a sampling system, it will be possible to take samples from an arbitrary selected location of the package across the entire matrix level and thus gain representative analysis material. The process is currently being optimized. (orig.)

  4. Size-resolved Pb distribution in the Athabasca River shows snowmelt in the bituminous sands region an insignificant source of dissolved Pb. (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Babar; Cuss, Chad W; Grant-Weaver, Iain; Shotyk, William


    Lead (Pb) is a metal of special importance because of its long history of commercial and industrial use, global atmospheric contamination accelerated by the use of gasoline additives, and health effects, with children being especially vulnerable. Global atmospheric Pb pollution reached its zenith in the 1970's, but subsequent impacts on freshwater aquatic systems are poorly understood. Employing metal-free sampling and handling protocols, we show that snowmelt from the Athabasca bituminous sands region is an insignificant source of dissolved Pb to the Athabasca River (AR). Total Pb in the AR is low, and almost entirely in particulate form. Lead in the suspended solids in the AR exactly follows thorium (Th), a conservative lithophile element, and a linear regression of Pb against Th (Pb = 1.6 × Th + 0.0; R(2) = 0.99) yields a slope identical to the Pb/Th ratio in the Upper Continental Crust. In the "dissolved" fraction, the Pb/Th ratio is equivalent to that of deep, open ocean seawater; and dominated by colloidal forms. Taken together, these results show that the efforts of recent decades to reduce anthropogenic Pb to the environment have been successful: Pb loading to the river can now be explained predominantly by natural processes, namely erosion plus chemical weathering.

  5. Electrospark deposition coatings (United States)

    Sheely, W. F.


    Hard surfacing for wear resistant and low-friction coatings has been improved by means of advances in the computer controls in electronic circuitry of the electrospark deposition (ESD) process. coatings of nearly any electrically conductive metal alloy or cermet can be deposited on conductive materials. Thickness is usually two mils or less, but can be as high as 10 mils. ESD coatings can quadrupole cutting tool life.

  6. Oxide coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.


    Monolithic SiC heat exchangers and fiber-reinforced SiC-matrix composite heat exchangers and filters are susceptible to corrosion by alkali metals at elevated temperatures. Protective coatings are currently being developed to isolate the SiC materials from the corrodants. Unfortunately, these coatings typically crack and spall when applied to SiC substrates. The purpose of this task is to determine the feasibility of using a compliant material between the protective coating and the substrate. The low-modulus compliant layer could absorb stresses and eliminate cracking and spalling of the protective coatings.

  7. Superhard Nanocomposite Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The recent development in the field of nanocomposite coatings with good mechanical properties is critically reviewed in this paper. The design principle and materials selection for the nanocomposite coatings are introduced. Different methods for the preparation of superhard nanocomposite coatings are described with emphasis on the magnetron sputtering. Based on recent theoretical and experimental results regarding the appearance of superhardness in nanocomposite coating, lattice parameter changes, crystallite size, microstructure and morphology are reviewed in detail. Also emphasized are the mechanical properties (especially on hardness) and the ways by which the properties are derived.

  8. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering


    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  9. Coated electroactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali


    A process includes suspending an electroactive material in a solvent, suspending or dissolving a carbon precursor in the solvent; and depositing the carbon precursor on the electroactive material to form a carbon-coated electroactive material. Compositions include a graphene-coated electroactive material prepared from a solution phase mixture or suspension of an electroactive material and graphene, graphene oxide, or a mixture thereof.

  10. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.


    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has sign

  11. Coating of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, G.F.; Dekker, C.


    The present invention is in the field of highly crystalline graphene and coating said graphene with a layer. Said graphene may have further structures, such as nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons. The coated graphene can be used for biomolecular analysis and modification, such as DNA-sequencing, as

  12. Mechanically Invisible Polymer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    phase comprises particles, said particles comprising a filler material and an encapsulating coating of a second polymeric material, wherein the backbones of the first and second polymeric materials are the same. The composition may be used in electroactive polymers (EAPs) in order to obtain mechanically...... invisible polymer coatings....

  13. Chinese Decorative Coatings Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Growth prospects The Chinese market for decorative coatings, excluding non-architectural products such as industrial varnishes,marine paint and other industrially applied coatings, has been growing byaround 10% annually and was estimated to be worth Eurol.3 billion a year, with an annual per capita consumption of just less than 1 liter ofpaint.

  14. Nanostructured Protective Coatings (United States)


    stresses induce strain fatigue with subsequent formation of cracks. Cracking in coatings leads to materials failure observed physically as spallation or...elevated temperatures. In this test a hole is drilled into the substrate before coating it. This allows a fixed amount of air to be trapped at the

  15. Recovery bituminous coal fines: a discussion on the production of coal-water slurry fuels and its relationship to fine coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Scaroni, A.W.; Battista, J.J. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)


    The recovery of bituminous coal fines from slurry impoundments and fine coal cleaning circuits has received considerable attention over the last decade from both coal suppliers and coal-fired utilities. Several coal-fired utilities are presently determining whether a low-solids, low viscosity coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) produced from fine coal can be co-fired with their normal coal feedstock in order to lower their fuel cost and reduce their NO{sub x} emissions. One of the most visible CWSF demonstration programs in the United States is being conducted by GPU Generating, Inc. (GPU Genco). GPU Genco has conducted intermittent demonstration co-fire testing at their 218 MWe-Seward Station since 1993. These tests successfully demonstrate that a low-solids CWSF can be co-fired with pulverized coal in wall-and tangentially-fired boilers. The majority of the CWSF tested at Seward has been prepared from impounded coal fines cleaned via froth flotation and, on a more limited basis, a CWSF prepared from coal fines concentrated from a screen-bowl centrifuge effluent. The production of alow-solids CWSF from wet, fine coal provides an alternative to dewatering. This paper summarizes several fine coal recovery and utilization programs conducted by Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) and GPU Genco during the last five years. These programs range from performing bench-to-pilot-scale cleanability and pilot-scale combustion testing to full-scale utility demonstration tests. All of these successful programs have a common thread of integrating and addressing the issues of fine coal characterization, cleaning handling, and the combustion performance of the CWSF. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal. (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Gao, Zhengyang; Zhu, Jiashun; Wang, Quanhai; Huang, Yaji; Chiu, Chengchung; Parker, Bruce; Chu, Paul; Pant, Wei-Ping


    This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0)concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH3 addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH3 reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation.

  17. Development of new non destructive methods for bituminized radioactive waste drums characterization; Developpement de nouvelles methodes de caracterisation non destructive pour des dechets radioactifs enrobes dans du bitume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, P


    Radioactive waste constitute a major issue for the nuclear industry. One of the key points is their characterization to optimize their management: treatment and packaging, orientation towards the suited disposal. This thesis proposes an evaluation method of the low-energy photon attenuation, based on the gamma-ray spectra Compton continuum. Effectively, the {sup 241}Am measurement by gamma-ray spectrometry is difficult due to the low energy of its main gamma-ray (59.5 keV). The photon attenuation strongly depends on the bituminous mix composition, which includes very absorbing elements. As the Compton continuum also depends on this absorption, it is possible to link the 59.5 keV line attenuation to the Compton level. Another technique is proposed to characterize uranium thanks to its fluorescence X-rays induced by the gamma emitters already present in the waste. The uranium present in the drums disturbs the neutron measurements and its measurement by self-induced X-ray fluorescence allows to correct this interference. Due to various causes of error, the total uncertainty is around 50 % on the activity of the radioisotope {sup 241}Am, corrected by the peak to Compton technique. The same uncertainty is announced on the uranium mass measured by self induced X-ray fluorescence. As a consequence of these promising results, the two methods were included in the industrial project of the 'Marcoule Sorting Unit'. One major advantage is that they do not imply any additional material because they use information already present in the gamma-ray spectra. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Campbell


    This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

  19. Phenol-formaldehyde intumescent coating composition and coating prepared therefrom (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O. (Inventor); Fox, Bernard L. (Inventor)


    Intumescent coatings which form a thick, uniform, fine celled, low density foam upon exposure to a high intensity heat flux or flame are disclosed, the invention coatings comprise phenolic resin prepolymer containing a blowing agent and a nucleating agent; in the preferred embodiments the coatings also contains a silicone surfactant, the coatings are useful in thermal and fire protection systems.

  20. Fluorine Based Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Denis Brassard


    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic coatings, inspired by nature, are an emerging technology. These water repellent coatings can be used as solutions for corrosion, biofouling and even water and air drag reduction applications. In this work, synthesis of monodispersive silica nanoparticles of ~120 nm diameter has been realized via Stöber process and further functionalized using fluoroalkylsilane (FAS-17 molecules to incorporate the fluorinated groups with the silica nanoparticles in an ethanolic solution. The synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles have been spin coated on flat aluminum alloy, silicon and glass substrates. Functionalization of silica nanoparticles with fluorinated groups has been confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR by showing the presence of C-F and Si-O-Si bonds. The water contact angles and surface roughness increase with the number of spin-coated thin films layers. The critical size of ~119 nm renders aluminum surface superhydrophobic with three layers of coating using as-prepared nanoparticle suspended solution. On the other hand, seven layers are required for a 50 vol.% diluted solution to achieve superhydrophobicity. In both the cases, water contact angles were more than 150°, contact angle hysteresis was less than 2° having a critical roughness value of ~0.700 µm. The fluorinated silica nanoparticle coated surfaces are also transparent and can be used as paint additives to obtain transparent coatings.

  1. Advanced thermal barrier coating systems (United States)

    Dorfman, M. R.; Reardon, J. D.


    Current state-of-the-art thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of partially stabilized zirconia coatings plasma sprayed over a MCrAlY bond coat. Although these systems have excellent thermal shock properties, they have shown themselves to be deficient for a number of diesel and aircraft applications. Two ternary ceramic plasma coatings are discussed with respect to their possible use in TBC systems. Zirconia-ceria-yttria (ZCY) coatings were developed with low thermal conductivities, good thermal shock resistance and improved resistance to vanadium containing environments, when compared to the baseline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings. In addition, dense zirconia-titania-yttria (ZTY) coatings were developed with particle erosion resistance exceeding conventional stabilized zirconia coatings. Both coatings were evaluated in conjunction with a NiCr-Al-Co-Y2O3 bond coat. Also, multilayer or hybrid coatings consisting of the bond coat with subsequent coatings of zirconia-ceria-yttria and zirconia-titania-yttria were evaluated. These coatings combine the enhanced performance characteristics of ZCY with the improved erosion resistance of ZTY coatings. Improvement in the erosion resistance of the TBC system should result in a more consistent delta T gradient during service. Economically, this may also translate into increased component life simply because the coating lasts longer.

  2. Comparative Studies on the Combustion Kinetics of Chars Prepared from Brown and Bituminous Coals under Air (O_2/N_2) and Oxy-fuel (O_2/CO_2) Conditions


    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Wada, Nozomi; Nozawa, Sohey; Matsushita, Yohsuke; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Oomori, Motohira; Harada, Tatsuro; Miyawaki, Jin; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao


    This paper deals with the application of a solid-gas reaction model which can describe the combustion and gasification mechanism for air (O_2/N_2) and oxy-fuel (O_2/CO_2) conditions. Loy Yang brown coal was used as a sample after pyrolysis, together with Newlands coal as bituminous coal for comparison of coal ranks. By carrying out the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) run under non-isothermal conditions, chemical reaction rates of partial oxidation reaction and gasification reaction were esti...

  3. Aluminum phosphate coatings (United States)

    Sambasivan, Sankar; Steiner, Kimberly A.; Rangan, Krishnaswamy K.


    Aluminophosphate compounds and compositions as can be used for substrate or composite films and coating to provide or enhance, without limitation, planarization, anti-biofouling and/or anti-microbial properties.

  4. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  5. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Rafi, H. Khalid, E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ram, G.D. Janaki [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nagalakshmi, R. [Welding Research Institute, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli 620 014 (India)


    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  6. Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This factsheet describes a research project that deals with the nanostructured superhydrophobic (SH) powders developed at ORNL. This project seeks to (1) improve powder quality; (2) identify binders for plastics, fiberglass, metal (steel being the first priority), wood, and other products such as rubber and shingles; (3) test the coated product for coating quality and durability under operating conditions; and (4) application testing and production of powders in quantity.

  7. Spin coating apparatus (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.


    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  8. Coated 4340 Steel (United States)


    alternative coatings qualified to MIL-PRE-23377 Class N and an electroplated zinc - nickel alloy passivated with a trivalent chromium solution which is...effect of a non-chromate primer and zinc - nickel plating with non-chromate passivation as alternatives to the chromate primer and cadmium plating with...NAWCADPAX/TR-2013/252 COATED 4340 STEEL by E. U. Lee C. Lei M. Stanley B. Pregger C. Matzdorf 26 August 2013

  9. Residual stresses within sprayed coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yi; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou


    Some important developments of residual stress researches for coating-based systems were studied. The following topics were included the sources of residual stresses in coatings: error analysis of Stoney's equation in the curvature method used for the measurement of coating residual stress, the modeling of residual stress and some analytical models for predicting the residual stresses in coatings. These topics should provide some important insights for the fail-safe design of the coating-based systems.

  10. Hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam


    Hydroxyapatite coatings are of great importance in the biological and biomedical coatings fields, especially in the current era of nanotechnology and bioapplications. With a bonelike structure that promotes osseointegration, hydroxyapatite coating can be applied to otherwise bioinactive implants to make their surface bioactive, thus achieving faster healing and recovery. In addition to applications in orthopedic and dental implants, this coating can also be used in drug delivery. Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Applications explores developments in the processing and property characteri

  11. Biocompatibility of Niobium Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Olivares-Navarrete


    Full Text Available Niobium coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering were evaluated as a possible surface modification for stainless steel (SS substrates in biomedical implants. The Nb coatings were deposited on 15 mm diameter stainless steel substrates having an average surface roughness of 2 mm. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the coatings three different in vitro tests, using human alveolar bone derived cells, were performed: cellular adhesion, proliferation and viability. Stainless steel substrates and tissue culture plastic were also studied, in order to give comparative information. No toxic response was observed for any of the surfaces, indicating that the Nb coatings act as a biocompatible, bioinert material. Cell morphology was also studied by immune-fluorescence and the results confirmed the healthy state of the cells on the Nb surface. X-ray diffraction analysis of the coating shows that the film is polycrystalline with a body centered cubic structure. The surface composition and corrosion resistance of both the substrate and the Nb coating were also studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and potentiodynamic tests. Water contact angle measurements showed that the Nb surface is more hydrophobic than the SS substrate.

  12. Structural features of a bituminous coal and their changes during low-temperature oxidation and loss of volatiles investigated by advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy (United States)

    Mao, J.-D.; Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Hatcher, P.G.; Li, Y.


    Quantitative and advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques were employed to investigate (i) the chemical structure of a high volatile bituminous coal, as well as (ii) chemical structural changes of this coal after evacuation of adsorbed gases, (iii) during oxidative air exposure at room temperature, and (iv) after oxidative heating in air at 75 ??C. The solid-state NMR techniques employed in this study included quantitative direct polarization/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS) at a high spinning speed of 14 kHz, cross polarization/total sideband suppression (CP/TOSS), dipolar dephasing, CH, CH2, and CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) filtering, two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13C heteronuclear correlation NMR (HETCOR), and 2D HETCOR with 1H spin diffusion. With spectral editing techniques, we identified methyl CCH 3, rigid and mobile methylene CCH2C, methine CCH, quaternary Cq, aromatic CH, aromatic carbons bonded to alkyls, small-sized condensed aromatic moieties, and aromatic C-O groups. With direct polarization combined with spectral-editing techniques, we quantified 11 different types of functional groups. 1H-13C 2D HETCOR NMR experiments indicated spatial proximity of aromatic and alkyl moieties in cross-linked structures. The proton spin diffusion experiments indicated that the magnetization was not equilibrated at a 1H spin diffusion time of 5 ms. Therefore, the heterogeneity in spatial distribution of different functional groups should be above 2 nm. Recoupled C-H long-range dipolar dephasing showed that the fraction of large charcoal-like clusters of polycondensed aromatic rings was relatively small. The exposure of this coal to atmospheric oxygen at room temperature for 6 months did not result in obvious chemical structural changes of the coal, whereas heating at 75 ??C in air for 10 days led to oxidation of coal and generated some COO groups. Evacuation removed most volatiles and caused a significant reduction in aliphatic signals in its DP

  13. Controlled Thermal Expansion Coat for Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Brindley, William J. (Inventor); Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Aikin, Beverly J. M. (Inventor)


    A improved thermal barrier coating and method for producing and applying such is disclosed herein. The thermal barrier coating includes a high temperature substrate, a first bond coat layer applied to the substrate of MCrAlX, and a second bond coat layer of MCrAlX with particles of a particulate dispersed throughout the MCrAlX and the preferred particulate is Al2O3. The particles of the particulate dispersed throughout the second bond coat layer preferably have a diameter of less then the height of the peaks of the second bond coat layer, or a diameter of less than 5 microns. The method of producing the second bond coat layer may either include the steps of mechanical alloying of particles throughout the second bond coat layer, attrition milling the particles of the particulate throughout the second bond coat layer, or using electrophoresis to disperse the particles throughout the second bond coat layer. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the first bond coat layer is applied to the substrate, and then the second bond coat layer is thermally sprayed onto the first bond coat layer. Further, in a preferred embodiment of die invention, a ceramic insulating layer covers the second bond coat layer.

  14. Effect of Coated PHB on Properties of Abradable Seal Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xudong; XIANG Hongyu; YE Weiping; MENG Xiaoming; MIN Jie; LIU Minzhi; ZHANG Pu; LU Wei


    As pore-forming materials, the coated poly-p-hydroxybenzoate(short for PHB) and h-BN can be applied in the preparation of abradable seal coatings at high temperature. The characteristics of coating such as morphology, thermal stability and composition were studied by SEM, EDS and FTIR. The results show that the modified PHB will change the remained carbon amount, porosity and pore morphology of the coating, which can affect the properties of coatings. If the pore is small enough in uniform distribution, the coating with 5 MPa bond strength, 30-55 HR45Y superficial hardness and certain of carbon can be suitable to well abradability.

  15. Thermal relaxation of bituminous coal to improve donation ability of hydrogen radicals in flash pyrolysis; Sekitan kozo kanwa ni yoru suiso radical kyoyo noryoku no kojo wo mezashita netsubunkai mae shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology


    In terms of coal conversion reaction, the behavior of bituminous coal heated beyond a glass transition point was examined on the basis of pyrolyzed products, and the effect of an increase in proton mobility on promotion of coal decomposition was evaluated. In experiment, after Illinois bituminous coal specimen was heated up to a specific temperature in N2 or He gas flow at a rate of 5K/min, the specimen was directly transferred to a pyrolyzer for instantaneous pyrolysis. As the experimental result, the glass transition temperature of the Illinois coal specimen was calculated to be 589K from a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profile. From the pyrolysis result of the Illinois coal specimen heated up to 623K, the char yield decreased by 3kg as compared with that of the original coal, while the tar yield increased by 4kg up to 27kg per 100kg of the original coal. This tar increase was larger than that of cooled coal. These results suggested that the donation of hydrogen radicals to coal fragments is improved with an increase in proton mobility. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Study of stabilization/solidification processes (of solid porous wastes) based on hydraulic or bituminous binders; Etude des procedes de stabilisation/solidification (des dechets solides poreux) a base de liants hydrauliques ou de liants bitumineux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sing-Teniere, Ch.


    The first part of this thesis presents the regulatory framework and the technical context linked with the study of stabilized/solidified wastes and with the evaluation of stabilization/solidification processes. A presentation of the two type of ultimate wastes under study (a used catalyst and an activated charcoal) and an analysis of the processes is given. The second part is devoted to the experimental characterization of both types of porous wastes. The third part deals with the processing of such wastes using an hydraulic binder. The study stresses on both on the stabilization/solidification efficiency of the process and on the conditions of its implementation. The same work is made for a process that uses a bituminous binder. Some choice criteria for the selection of the better process are deduced from the examination of the overall data collected. The waste characterization methodology is applied six times: two times for the raw wastes, two times for the same wastes processed with an hydraulic binder, and two times for the same wastes processed with a bituminous binder. (J.S.)

  17. Coatings for directional eutectics (United States)

    Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.


    Coatings developed to provide oxidation protection for the directionally-solidified eutectic alloy NiTaC-B (4.4 weight percent Cr) were evaluated. Of seven Co-, Fe- and Ni-base coatings that were initially investigated, best resistance to cyclic oxidation was demonstrated by duplex coatings fabricated by depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam source followed by deposition of an Al overlayer using the pack cementation process. It was found that addition of carbon to the coating alloy substantially eliminated the problem of fiber denudation in TaC-type eutectic alloys. Burner rig cycled NiTaC-B samples coated with Ni-20Cr-5Al-0.1C-0.1Y+Al and rupture-tested at 1100 deg C performed as well as or better than uncoated, vacuum cycled and air-tested NiTaC-13; however, a slight degradation with respect to uncoated material was noted in air-stress rupture tests at 870 deg C for both cycled and uncycled samples.

  18. Based Adaptive Nanocomposite Coatings (United States)

    Ramazani, M.; Ashrafizadeh, F.; Mozaffarinia, R.


    A promising Ni(Al)-Cr2O3-Ag-CNT-WS2 self-lubricating wear-resistant coating was deposited via atmospheric plasma spray of Ni(Al), nano Cr2O3, nano silver and nano WS2 powders, and CNTs. Feedstock powders with various compositions prepared by spray drying were plasma sprayed onto carbon steel substrates. The tribological properties of coatings were tested by a high temperature tribometer in a dry environment from room temperature to 400 °C, and in a natural humid environment at room temperature. It was found that all nanocomposite coatings have better frictional behavior compared with pure Ni(Al) and Ni(Al)-Cr2O3 coatings; the specimen containing aproximately 7 vol.% Ag, CNT, and WS2 had the best frictional performance. The average room temperature friction coefficient of this coating was 0.36 in humid atmosphere, 0.32 in dry atmosphere, and about 0.3 at high temperature.

  19. Tribology and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The future use of fuel-efficient, low-emission, advanced transportation systems (for example, those using low-heat-rejection diesel engines or advanced gas turbines) presents new challenges to tribologists and materials scientists. High service temperatures, corrosive environments, and extreme contact pressures are among the concerns that make necessary new tribological designs, novel materials, and effective lubrication concepts. Argonne is working on methods to reduce friction, wear and corrosion, such as soft metal coatings on ceramics, layered compounds, diamond coatings, and hard surfaces.

  20. HA-Coated Implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Bechtold, Joan E


    The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable and long lasting fixation between living bone and the implant surface. In total joint replacements of cementless designs, coatings of calcium phosphates were introduced as a means...... of improving the fixation of implants. Of these, hydroxyapatite (HA) is the most widely used and most extensively investigated. HA is highly osseoconductive, and the positive effect is well documented in both basic and long-term clinical research [1–6]. This chapter describes experimental and clinical studies...... evaluating bone-implant fixation with HA coatings....

  1. Bioceramics for implant coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison A Campbell


    Early research in this field focused on understanding the biomechanical properties of metal implants, but recent work has turned toward improving the biological properties of these devices. This has led to the introduction of calcium phosphate (CaP bioceramics as a bioactive interface between the bulk metal impart and the surrounding tissue. The first CaP coatings were produced via vapor phase processes, but more recently solution-based and biomimetic methods have emerged. While each approach has its own intrinsic materials and biological properties, in general CaP coatings promise to improve implant biocompatibility and ultimately implant longevity.

  2. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques (United States)

    Seibert, Jon


    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  3. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea


    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  4. Preparation of hydrophobic coatings (United States)

    Branson, Eric D.; Shah, Pratik B.; Singh, Seema; Brinker, C. Jeffrey


    A method for preparing a hydrophobic coating by preparing a precursor sol comprising a metal alkoxide, a solvent, a basic catalyst, a fluoroalkyl compound and water, depositing the precursor sol as a film onto a surface, such as a substrate or a pipe, heating, the film and exposing the film to a hydrophobic silane compound to form a hydrophobic coating with a contact angle greater than approximately The contact angle of the film can be controlled by exposure to ultraviolet radiation to reduce the contact angle and subsequent exposure to a hydrophobic silane compound to increase the contact angle.

  5. Methods and means for coating paper by film coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, Marc; Ter Veer, Arend Berend Cornelis; Vrieling-Smit, Annet; Delnoye, Pierre


    This invention relates to the field of paper coating, more in particular to means and methods for providing paper with at least one layer of pigment using film coating to obtain a well printable surface. Provided is a method for preparing coated paper comprising the steps of: a) providing a pigmente

  6. Optical coatings for fiber lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Dong-mei; ZHU Zhen; YUE Wei


    Fiber laser is the future development direction for the high energy lasers. This paper describs two kinds of optical coatings for fiber laser, including long and short wave pass filters. The one characteristic of fiber laser coatings lies in that coatings should separate two closely wavelength light including laser pump wavelength (980 nm) and laser irradiation wavelength(1 050~1 100 nm). At the same time, the coatings should have high laser damage threshold.

  7. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses


    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız


    Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic) materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1) Anti-reflection coatings, 2) Hard coatings, 3) Clean coat, 4) Mirror coatings, 5) Color tint coating (one of coloring processes), 6) Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes), and 7) Anti-fog...

  8. Tribological characterization of selected hard coatings


    Karlsson, Patrik


    Hard coatings are often used for protection of tool surfaces due to coating properties like low friction and high wear resistance. Even though many of the hard coatings have been tested for wear, it is important to try new wear test setups to fully understand tribological mechanisms and the potential of hard coatings. Few experiments have been performed with dual-coated systems where the sliding contact surfaces are coated with the same, or different, hard coating. The dual-coated system coul...

  9. Chitin-based coatings



    A chitosan starting material is combined with a dilute organic acid to produce a chitosonium ion complex. The chitosonium ion complex is then cast, sprayed, extruded, or otherwise processed to produce filaments, coatings, fibers, or the like. Heat is then used to convert the chitosonium ion complex into a N-(C.sub.1-30)acyl glucose amine polymer.

  10. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen


    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed in ...

  11. Thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers (United States)

    Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.; Drews, M. J.; Ellison, M. S.; Gantt, B. W.


    A process is being developed which evenly coats individual carbon fibers with thermoplastic polymers. In this novel, continuous coating process, the fiber tow bundle is first spread cover a series of convex rollers and then evenly coated with a fine powder of thermoplastic matrix polymer. Next, the fiber is heated internally by passing direct current through the powder coated fiber. The direct current is controlled to allow the carbon fiber temperature to slightly exceed the flow temperature of the matrix polymer. Analysis of the thermoplastic coated carbon fiber tows produced using this continuous process indicates that 30 to 70 vol pct fiber prepregs can be obtained.

  12. Coatings for improved corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.


    Several coating approaches are being developed to resist attack in coal-fired environments and thereby minimize corrosion of underlying substrate alloys and extend the time for onset of breakaway corrosion. In general, coating systems can be classified as either diffusion or overlay type, which are distinguished principally by the method of deposition and the structure of the resultant coating-substrate bond. The coating techniques examined are pack cementation, electrospark deposition, physical and chemical vapor deposition, plasma spray, and ion implantation. In addition, ceramic coatings are used in some applications.

  13. Infrared optical coatings in SITP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ding-quan; ZHANG Feng-shan


    Infrared optical coatings in SITP (Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics) mainly cover the spectrum range from 0.7 μm to 15 μm, and visible and near-UV range are also been included. The coatings are mainly used for metal-reflectance mirrors, Anti-reflection(AR) lens and windows, filters, and dichroic beam splitters. Coatings passed some dependability tests. These optical coated devices usually consist in a remote observing instrument. Most coating materials are commercial products. And one kind of special material PbTe is made by ourselves. Some main results of our research department are reported.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The adhesive property of copal makes it as a potential coating onto aluminum foil to replace polyethylene. This research aimed to develop copal-based coating. The coating was prepared by extracting the copal in ethyl acetate and dipping the aluminium foil in ethyl acetate soluble extract of copal. The characterization of coating included its thickness, weight, thermal and chemical resistance, and biodegradation. The results showed that the coating thickness and weight increased as the copal concentration and dipping frequency increased. Thermal resistance test showed that the coating melted after being heated at 110°C for 30 min. Copal-based coating wasresistant to acidic solution (pH 4.0, water, and coconut oil, but was deteriorated in detergent 1% (w/v and basic solution (pH 10.0. Biodegradability test using Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed weight reduction of 76.82% in 30 days.

  15. Methods for Coating Particulate Material (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)


    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  16. Flow accelerated organic coating degradation (United States)

    Zhou, Qixin

    Applying organic coatings is a common and the most cost effective way to protect metallic objects and structures from corrosion. Water entry into coating-metal interface is usually the main cause for the deterioration of organic coatings, which leads to coating delamination and underfilm corrosion. Recently, flowing fluids over sample surface have received attention due to their capability to accelerate material degradation. A plethora of works has focused on the flow induced metal corrosion, while few studies have investigated the flow accelerated organic coating degradation. Flowing fluids above coating surface affect corrosion by enhancing the water transport and abrading the surface due to fluid shear. Hence, it is of great importance to understand the influence of flowing fluids on the degradation of corrosion protective organic coatings. In this study, a pigmented marine coating and several clear coatings were exposed to the laminar flow and stationary immersion. The laminar flow was pressure driven and confined in a flow channel. A 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution and pure water was employed as the working fluid with a variety of flow rates. The corrosion protective properties of organic coatings were monitored inline by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement. Equivalent circuit models were employed to interpret the EIS spectra. The time evolution of coating resistance and capacitance obtained from the model was studied to demonstrate the coating degradation. Thickness, gloss, and other topography characterizations were conducted to facilitate the assessment of the corrosion. The working fluids were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and conductivity measurement. The influence of flow rate, fluid shear, fluid composition, and other effects in the coating degradation were investigated. We conclude that flowing fluid on the coating surface accelerates the transport of water, oxygen, and ions into the coating, as

  17. Photochromic mesoporous hybrid coatings (United States)

    Raboin, L.; Matheron, M.; Gacoin, T.; Boilot, J.-P.


    Spirooxazine (SO) photochromic molecules were trapped in sol-gel matrices. In order to increase the colourability and improve mechanical properties of sol-gel photochromic films, we present an original strategy in which SO photochromic molecules were dispersed in mesoporous organized films using the impregnation technique. Well-ordered organosilicate mesoporous coatings with the 3D-hexagonal symmetry were prepared by the sol-gel technique. These robust mesoporous films, which contain high amounts of hydrophobic methyl groups at the pore surface, offer optimized environments for photochromic dyes dispersed by impregnation technique. After impregnation by a spirooxazine solution, the photochromic response is only slightly slower when compared with mesostructured or soft sol-gel matrices, showing that mesoporous organized hybrid matrix are good host for photochromic dyes. Moreover, the molecular loading in films is easily adjustable in a large range using multi-impregnation procedure and increasing the film thickness leading to coatings for optical switching devices.

  18. Permeability of edible coatings. (United States)

    Mishra, B; Khatkar, B S; Garg, M K; Wilson, L A


    The permeabilities of water vapour, O2 and CO2 were determined for 18 coating formulations. Water vapour transmission rate ranged from 98.8 g/m(2).day (6% beeswax) to 758.0 g/m(2).day (1.5% carboxymethyl cellulose with glycerol). O2 permeability at 14 ± 1°C and 55 ± 5% RH ranged from 1.50 to 7.95 cm(3)cm cm(-2)s(-1)Pa(-1), with CO2 permeability 2 to 6 times as high. Permeability to noncondensable gases (O2 and CO2) was higher for hydrophobic (peanut oil followed by beeswax) coatings as compared to hydrophilic (whey protein concentrate and carboxymethyl cellulose).

  19. Permeability of edible coatings


    B Mishra; Khatkar, B. S.; Garg, M. K.; Wilson, L.A.


    The permeabilities of water vapour, O2 and CO2 were determined for 18 coating formulations. Water vapour transmission rate ranged from 98.8 g/ (6% beeswax) to 758.0 g/ (1.5% carboxymethyl cellulose with glycerol). O2 permeability at 14 ± 1°C and 55 ± 5% RH ranged from 1.50 to 7.95 cm3cm cm−2s−1Pa−1, with CO2 permeability 2 to 6 times as high. Permeability to noncondensable gases (O2 and CO2) was higher for hydrophobic (peanut oil followed by beeswax) coatings as compared to hydrop...

  20. Superelastic Orthopedic Implant Coatings (United States)

    Fournier, Eric; Devaney, Robert; Palmer, Matthew; Kramer, Joshua; El Khaja, Ragheb; Fonte, Matthew


    The demand for hip and knee replacement surgery is substantial and growing. Unfortunately, most joint replacement surgeries will fail within 10-25 years, thereby requiring an arduous, painful, and expensive revision surgery. To address this issue, a novel orthopedic implant coating material ("eXalt") has been developed. eXalt is comprised of super elastic nitinol wire that is knit into a three-dimensional spacer fabric structure. eXalt expands in vivo to conform to the implantation site and is porous to allow for bone ingrowth. The safety and efficacy of eXalt were evaluated through structural analysis, mechanical testing, and a rabbit implantation model. The results demonstrate that eXalt meets or exceeds the performance of current coating technologies with reduced micromotion, improved osseointegration, and stronger implant fixation in vivo.

  1. Design of optical coatings (United States)

    Gunkel, Claus W.


    A highly sophisticated antireflection coating and a cut-on-filter - designed by the Leitz program "RDP" - will be pointed out. The program runs on a VAX 8530 and allows to calculate reflectance, transmittance and phase of randomly polarized light which interacts with marginal surfaces. The number of layers is not limited. Some or even all layers are allowed to be anistropic. Up to four layers may be inhomogeneous both in refractive indices and absorption constants. At a time two thicknesses, two refractive indices and absorption constants as well as the angles of incidence may be varied independently in each run. The calculated values will be compared with the results of measurements. The antireflection coating is evaporated in a Balzers high vacuum evaporation plant, controlled by the process unit BPU 420, whereas the cut-on filter is evaporated in a Leybold box coater with Leycom III and two electron-beam guns.

  2. Thermal barrier coating materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Clarke


    Full Text Available Improved thermal barrier coatings (TBCs will enable future gas turbines to operate at higher gas temperatures. Considerable effort is being invested, therefore, in identifying new materials with even better performance than the current industry standard, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ. We review recent progress and suggest that an integrated strategy of experiment, intuitive arguments based on crystallography, and simulation may lead most rapidly to the development of new TBC materials.

  3. for zeolite coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Rambo


    Full Text Available Biotemplating is the processing of microcellular ceramics by reproduction of natural morphologies, where the microstructural features of the biotemplate are maintained in the biomorphic ceramic. Different biotemplates with distinct pore anatomies were used to produce biomorphic supports for the zeolite coating: wood, cardboard, sea-sponge and sisal. The biomorphic ceramics were produced by distinguished processing routes: Al-gas infiltration-reaction, liquid-metal infiltration, dip-coating and sol-gel synthesis, in order to produce nitrides, carbides and oxides, depending on the processing conditions. The zeolite coating was performed by hydrothermal growth of MFI-type (Silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 zeolite crystals onto the internal pore walls of the biomorphic templates. The final biomorphic ceramic-zeolite composites were physically characterized, evaluated in terms of their gas adsorption capabilities and correlated to their microstructure and specific pore anatomy. The combination of the properties of the biomorphic ceramics with the adsorption properties of zeolites results in materials with distinct properties as potential candidates for adsorption and catalytic applications due to their characteristic porosity, molecular sieving capabilities and high thermo-mechanical strength.

  4. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor L.; Gonsalves, Peter R.; Maghsoodi, Sina; Colson, Thomas E.; Yang, Yu S.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.


    Disclosed is a coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly, systems and methods for curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using high temperature air-knives, infrared emitters and direct heat applicators are disclosed.

  5. High-temperature protective coatings on superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培生; 梁开明; 周宏余


    Protective coatings are essential for superalloys to serve as blades of gas turb ines at high temperatures, and they primarily include aluminide coating, MCrAlY overlay coating, thermal barrier coating and microcrystalline coating. In this paper, all these high-temperature coatings are reviewed as well as their preparing techniques. Based on the most application and the main failure way, the importance is then presented for further deepgoing study on the high-temperature oxidation law of aluminide coatings.

  6. A New Coating Process for Production of Coated Magnesium Powders (United States)


    TGA data for magnesium hydroxide content. TGA analysis of the as-coated powders is a reproducible and accurate method for the determination of... TGA analysis of the as-coated powder, there is approximately 3wt% magnesium hydroxide present in the material due to the process variation compared...11: Magnesium hydroxide content as measured by TGA analysis for the 1-lb batches of as-coated ground powder Figure 12: Nitrometer analysis of

  7. Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposite Bond Coat or Coating (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.


    This innovation addresses the problem of coatings (meant to reduce gas permeation) applied to polymer matrix composites spalling off in service due to incompatibility with the polymer matrix. A bond coat/coating has been created that uses chemically functionalized nanoparticles (either clay or graphene) to create a barrier film that bonds well to the matrix resin, and provides an outstanding barrier to gas permeation. There is interest in applying clay nanoparticles as a coating/bond coat to a polymer matrix composite. Often, nanoclays are chemically functionalized with an organic compound intended to facilitate dispersion of the clay in a matrix. That organic modifier generally degrades at the processing temperature of many high-temperature polymers, rendering the clay useless as a nano-additive to high-temperature polymers. However, this innovation includes the use of organic compounds compatible with hightemperature polymer matrix, and is suitable for nanoclay functionalization, the preparation of that clay into a coating/bondcoat for high-temperature polymers, the use of the clay as a coating for composites that do not have a hightemperature requirement, and a comparable approach to the preparation of graphene coatings/bond coats for polymer matrix composites.

  8. Dense protective coatings, methods for their preparation and coated articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulyani, Sonia; Bhatia, Tania; Smeggil, John G.


    A method for depositing a protective coating on a complex shaped substrate includes the steps of: (1) dipping a complex shaped substrate into a slurry to form a base coat thereon, the slurry comprising an aqueous solution, at least one refractory metal oxide, and at least one transient fluid additive present in an amount of about 0.1 percent to 10 percent by weight of the slurry; (2) curing the dipped substrate; (3) dipping the substrate into a precursor solution to form a top barrier coat thereon; and (4) heat treating the dipped, cured substrate to form a protective coating.

  9. Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming


    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. In this presentation, thermal barrier coating development considerations and requirements will be discussed. An experimental approach is established to monitor in real time the thermal conductivity of the coating systems subjected to high-heat-flux, steady-state and cyclic temperature gradients. Advanced low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have also been developed using a multi-component defect clustering approach, and shown to have improved thermal stability. The durability and erosion resistance of low conductivity thermal barrier coatings have been improved utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, in conjunction with more sophisticated modeling and design tools.

  10. Pipeline integrity : control by coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, A.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India)


    This presentation provided background information on the history of cross-country pipelines in India. It discussed the major use of gas. The key users were described as being the power and fertilizer industries, followed by vehicles using compressed natural gas to replace liquid fuels and thereby reduce pollution. The presentation also addressed the integrity of pipelines in terms of high production, safety, and monitoring. Integrity issues of pipelines were discussed with reference to basic design, control of corrosion, and periodic health monitoring. Other topics that were outlined included integrity by corrosion control; integrity by health monitoring; coatings requirements; classification of UCC pipeline coatings; and how the pipeline integrity approach can help to achieve coatings which give design life without any failure. Surface cleanliness, coating conditions, and the relationship between temperature of Epoxy coating and the time of adhesive coating were also discussed. Last, the presentation provided the results of an audit of the HBJ pipeline conducted from 1999 to 2000. tabs., figs.

  11. Functional Coatings with Polymer Brushes


    König, Meike


    The scope of this work is to fathom different possibilities to create functional coatings with polymer brushes. The immobilization of nanoparticles and enzymes is investigated, as well as the affection of their properties by the stimuli-responsiveness of the brushes. Another aspect is the coating of 3D-nanostructures by polymer brushes and the investigation of the resulting functional properties of the hybrid material. The polymer brush coatings are characterized by a variety of microscopic a...

  12. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)


    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  13. Protective coatings on extensible biofibres (United States)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels; Fantner, Georg E.; Hohlbauch, Sophia; Waite, J. Herbert; Zok, Frank W.


    Formulating effective coatings for use in nano- and biotechnology poses considerable technical challenges. If they are to provide abrasion resistance, coatings must be hard and adhere well to the underlying substrate. High hardness, however, comes at the expense of extensibility. This property trade-off makes the design of coatings for even moderately compliant substrates problematic, because substrate deformation easily exceeds the strain limit of the coating. Although the highest strain capacity of synthetic fibre coatings is less than 10%, deformable coatings are ubiquitous in biological systems. With an eye to heeding the lessons of nature, the cuticular coatings of byssal threads from two species of marine mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Perna canaliculus, have been investigated. Consistent with their function to protect collagenous fibres in the byssal-thread core, these coatings show hardness and stiffness comparable to those of engineering plastics and yet are surprisingly extensible; the tensile failure strain of P. canaliculus cuticle is about 30% and that of M. galloprovincialis is a remarkable 70%. The difference in extensibility is attributable to the presence of deformable microphase-separated granules within the cuticle of M. galloprovincialis. The results have important implications in the design of bio-inspired extensible coatings.

  14. Corrosion behavior of duplex coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raghu Ram Mohan Reddy


    Full Text Available The titanium alloys are used in defense, aerospace, automobile, chemical plants and biomedical applications due to their very high strength and lightweight properties. However, corrosion is a life-limiting factor when Ti alloys are exposed to different chemical environments at high temperatures. In the present paper, duplex NiCrAlY/WC–Co coating is coated onto Ti6Al4V substrate to investigate the corrosion behavior of both coated samples and the substrate. The duplex coating was performed with NiCrAlY as the intermediate coat of 200 μm thickness deposited by HVOF process and WC–Co ceramic top coat with varying thicknesses of 250 μm, 350 μm and 450 μm deposited by DS process. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were employed to investigate the corrosion performance of duplex coated samples and substrate in Ringer’s solution at 37 °C and pH value was set to 5.7. Finally the results reveal that 350 μm thick coated samples showed highest corrosion resistance compared to 250 μm thick samples as well as bare substrate. However, the 450 μm thick coated sample showed poor corrosion resistance compared to the substrate. The scale formed on the samples upon corrosion was characterized by using SEM analysis to understand the degree of corrosion behavior.

  15. Coatings Technology Integration Office (CTIO) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CTIO serves as the Air Force's central resource for aircraft coating systems and their applications. CTIO's primary objectives are pollution prevention and improved...

  16. Electrochemically switchable polypyrrole coated membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, Claudia, E-mail: weidlich@dechema.d [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mangold, Klaus-Michael [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)


    A method for coating membranes with polypyrrole (PPy) has been developed. Different membranes, such as microfiltration as well as ion exchanger membranes have been coated with PPy to yield electrical conductivity of the membranes. The coated membranes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy and their permeability and permselectivity have been tested. The results show that PPy can be tailored as cation or anion exchanger and its porosity can be controlled to avoid any impairment of the membrane by the polymer layer. These PPy coated membranes can be applied as electrochemically switchable, functionalised membranes with controllabel and variable separation properties.

  17. Studies on Nanocomposite Conducting Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Bhattacharyya


    Full Text Available Nanocomposite conducting coatings can impart stable surface electrical conductivity on the substrate. In this paper, carbon nanofiber (CNF and nanographite (NG are dispersed in thermoplastic polyurethane matrix and coated on the surface of glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET film. The nanoparticles dispersion was studied under TEM. The coating thicknesses were estimated. Further, their resistance and impedance were measured. It has been observed that the 5 wt% CNF dispersed nanocomposite coatings show good conductivity. The use of NG can bring down the amount of CNF; however, NG alone has failed to show significant improvement in conductivity. The nanocomposite coating on PET film using 2.5 wt% of both CNF and NG gives frequency-independent impedance which indicates conducting network formation by the nanoparticles. The study was carried out at different test distances on nanocomposite coated PET films to observe the linearity and continuity of the conducting network, and the result shows reasonable linearity in impedance over total test length (from 0.5 cm to 4.5 cm. The impedance of nanocomposite coatings on glass is not frequency independent and also not following linear increase path with distance. This indicates that the dispersion uniformity is not maintained in the coating solution when it was coated on glass.

  18. Mold and Crucible Coatings (United States)


    34;" -"""-"’" " " ""’’ "" "" ’"" ’ j * AD I. AT)-E 9 7 W CONTRACTOR REPORT ARCCD-CR-86007 MOLD AND CRUCIBLE COATINGS Sylvia J. Canino Arthur L. Geary Nuclear...IFnlRpr April 1984_-_December 198, .. AUTNORfo) S. CONTRACT on CRAM? # "I MWef(e)I Sylvia J. Canino and Arthur L. Geary DAAK1O-84-C-0056 PERFORMING

  19. USAF Inorganic Coating Successes (United States)


    in2 (Marginal Fail) 7 or more pits were seen in a total of 30 in2 (Fail) Aluminum CFCC Screening Test Results Conversion Coating Alloy OC-ALC... 6061 168+ Hours 7075 168+ Hours 2024 48 Hours 5052 48-72 Hours 72-168+ Hours (5 pits on one panel at 48 hours, but then no more ) 6061 72...Dichromate Sealer Test Results Sealer Substrate Quality Thickness Corrosion Primer Dry Tape Adhesion Wet Tape Adhesion Baseline 1 Al 2024-T3 PASS

  20. Thermal Protective Coatings (United States)


    within 2 minutes for the No. 4. Sodiurn silicate was tested with alumnnunm hydroxide, nerlite, vermiculite and borax filler systems. None of the systems...1.27 cm) thick, 3/16 inch (0.48 cm) cell size, 5.5 lbs/ft 3 (88.1 kg/m 3 ) glass/phenolic honey - p comib set into the fire retardant maLerial. The sheets...COATING SPECIMEN PERCENT BY WEIGHT THICKNESS WEIGHT ANO. MATRIX FILLrR 1’fLS (CM) LBS/FT. (kg,’-), 26 50% Shell 828 Epoxy Resin Borax - 54 (.14) .39

  1. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun


    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  2. Dry coating, a novel coating technology for solid pharmaceutical dosage forms. (United States)

    Luo, Yanfeng; Zhu, Jesse; Ma, Yingliang; Zhang, Hui


    Dry coating is a coating technology for solid pharmaceutical dosage forms derived from powder coating of metals. In this technology, powdered coating materials are directly coated onto solid dosage forms without using any solvent, and then heated and cured to form a coat. As a result, this technology can overcome such disadvantages caused by solvents in conventional liquid coating as serious air pollution, high time- and energy-consumption and expensive operation cost encountered by liquid coating. Several dry coating technologies, including plasticizer-dry-coating, electrostatic-dry-coating, heat-dry-coating and plasticizer-electrostatic-heat-dry-coating have been developed and extensively reported. This mini-review summarized the fundamental principles and coating processes of various dry coating technologies, and thoroughly analyzed their advantages and disadvantages as well as commercialization potentials.

  3. Alternative HTS coated conductors (United States)

    Blaugher, R. D.; Bhattacharya, R. N.; Chen, J.; Padmanabhan, R.


    The availability of Bi-2223 high-temperature-superconductor (HTS) powder-in-tube (PIT) tape, with acceptable performance for long lengths, has provided the ability to construct a wide range of HTS electric power components. As a result, there are major worldwide projects in developing HTS electric power components for demonstration in a utility environment. Utility acceptance for superconducting power equipment will depend on several key factors: improved system performance, lower life-cycle costs, higher efficiency versus conventional technology, reliability and maintenance comparable to conventional power equipment, and a competitive installed cost. The latter is impacted by the current high cost of HTS conductors, which must be lowered to costs comparable to conventional Nb-Ti wire, i.e., $2-5/kAm. The present performance and cost of state-of-the-art Bi-2223 HTS tape, although acceptable for prototype construction, is viewed as a major deterrent that may compromise eventual commercialization for most of these electric power devices. The so-called second-generation coated conductor development, with emphasis on conductors employing HTS YBCO films, is viewed as the solution to this performance and cost issue. The potential for the Tl, Hg, and Bi-oxide superconductors for producing an HTS tape as alternatives to Bi-2223 PIT (and YBCO) will be discussed with some recent results on Bi-2212 “coated conductor” development.

  4. Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)


    Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

  5. Pack cementation coatings for alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi-Rong; Zheng, Minhui; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on a Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloy in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the composition of the pack and on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi{sub 2} and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. In cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air at 700 and 1050{degrees}C, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. The codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium into low alloy steel have been achieved using elemental Al and Cr powders and a two-step pack cementation process. Sequential process treatments at 925{degrees}C and 1150{degrees}C yield dense and uniform ferrite coatings, whose compositions are close to either Fe{sub 3}Al or else FeAl plus a lower Cr content, when processed under different conditions. The higher content of Al in the coatings was predicted by thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium in the gas phase. The effect of the particle size of the metal powders on the surface composition of the coating has been studied for various combinations of Al and Cr powders.


    In 1995, surface coatings accounted for nearly 2.55 million Mg of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions nationally, which is more than 12% of VOC emissions from all sources. In recent years, powder coatings have been steadily gaining popularity as an alternative to solvent-bo...

  7. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat


    is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach....

  8. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob


    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  9. Bright Prospects for Fluorine Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Fluorine coatings are a category of new coatings with fluorine-containing resins as the major film forming substances.They have excellent weather resistance,solvent resistance, acid/alkali resistance, no toxicity and no hazards,and they contribute to film stability.

  10. Intumescent coatings under fast heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Català, Pere


    Intumescent coatings are widely used to delay or minimise the destructive effects of fire. They are usually tested under conditions that simulate the relatively slow build-up of heat in a normal fire. Here, the effects of damage during a fire causing sudden heating of the coating were studied....

  11. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.


    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating material

  12. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.


    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture abso

  13. Coating of silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Ackermann, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland;


    For the International X-ray observatory (IXO), a mirror module with an effective area of 3 m2 at 1.25 keV and at least 0.65 m2 at 6 keV has to be realized. To achieve this goal, coated silicon pore optics has been developed over the last years. One of the challenges is to coat the Si plates...... and still to realize Si-Si bonding. It has been demonstrated that ribbed silicon plates can be produced and assembled into stacks. All previously work has been done using uncoated Si plates. In this paper we describe how to coat the ribbed Si plates with an Ir coating and a top C coating through a mask so...

  14. Dynamic residual stress in thermal sprayed coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhiping; Yang Yuanyuan


    With the modified Almen method, the forming and development process of residual stress in a thermal sprayed coating has been obtained. The test results identify that the residual stress in a coating is depend on coating material properties, technique and coating thickness. The paper pays much attention to the hysteresis between the coating temperature and residual stress in the coating or between the applied stress and the strain of the coating, and confirms that the fact is resulted from the"Gas Fix" character of a thermal sprayed coating.

  15. Tribological Performance of Coated Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth Holmberg; Anssi Laukkanen


    The fundamentals of coating tribology is presented in a generalised holistic approach to friction and wear mechanisms of coated surfaces in dry sliding contacts. It is based on a classification of the tribological contact process into macromechanical, micromechanical, tribochemical contact mechanisms and material transfer. The tribological contact process is dominated by the macromechanical mechanisms, which have been systematically analysed by using four main parameters: the coating-to-substrate hardness relationship, the film thickness, the surface roughness and the debris in the contact. In this paper special attention is given to the microlevel mechanisms, and in particular new techniques for modelling the elastic, plastic and brittle behaviour of the surface by finite element (FEM) computer simulations. The contact condition with a sphere sliding over a plate coated with a very thin hard coating is analysed. A three dimensional FEM model has been developed for calculating the first principal stress distribution in the scratch tester contact of a diamond spherical tip moving with increased load on a 2 μm thick titanium nitride (TiN) coated steel surface. The model is comprehensive in that sense that it considers elastic, plastic and fracture behaviour of the contact surfaces. By identifying from a scratch experiment the location of the first crack and using this as input data can the fracture toughness of the coating be determined.

  16. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor [Enki Technology Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)


    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs and a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.

  17. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants (United States)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.


    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  18. Inhomogeneous interface laser mirror coatings. (United States)

    Ledger, A M


    Methods of improving the durability of thin-film laser mirror coatings for 10.6 microm using thorium fluoride, zinc selenide, and zinc sulfide materials have been investigated. The largest improvement in film durability was obtained by using inhomogeneous interface fabrication for all the dielectric-dielectric interfaces and by incorporating cerium fluoride protective overcoating material into the film design. Experimental results are given for enhanced reflectors, polarization-selective coatings, and buried-grating aperture-sharing coatings designed for high-power laser applications.

  19. Laser-based coatings removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A. [F2 Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D&D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings.

  20. Bituminous coal production in the Appalachian basin: past, present, and future: Chapter D.3 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Polyak, Désirée E.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    Although small quantities of coal first were produced from the Appalachian basin in the early 1700s, the first production statistics of significance were gathered during the census of 1830 (Eavenson, 1942). Since then, about 35 billion short tons of bituminous coal have been produced from the Appalachian basin from an original potential coal reserve (PCR(o)) estimated to range from about 60 to 90 billion short tons. The term “reserve” refers to economically producible coal, and a “potential coal reserve” (PCR(n)) is an estimate of the amount of coal economically recoverable in a region (State, coal field) over a defined time period (n = number of years) and under a range of economic, societal, and technological conditions. Thus, the current cumulative production plus the PCR(n) equals an estimated cumulative production (ECP(n)). The maps in this report (oversized figures 1, 2, 3, and 4) were produced from a digital database of historical and current coal production records by county. Sources of the original data include various State geological surveys, the U.S. Geological Survey, the former U.S. Bureau of Mines, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Coal Resource Assessment Project.

  1. Study of the Changes on Tree Shrew Bronchial Epithelium Induced by Xuanwei Bituminous Coal Dust%宣威烟煤粉尘诱发树鼩支气管粘膜上皮改变的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小波; 贺猛; 李光剑; 周永春; 赵光强; 雷玉洁; 杨凯云; 田琳玮; 黄云超


    背景与目的肺癌在许多国家和地区已成为发病率和死亡率最高的恶性肿瘤,建立科学合适的肺癌动物模型,用以模拟出与人类肺癌的病因、发病机制、发展过程相似的动物模型是亟待解决的问题。通过宣威烟煤粉尘PM10(particulate matter with diameters of 10μm or less, PM10)对树鼩支气管上皮的影响,探索建立宣威烟煤粉尘致肺癌模型的可行性。方法健康成年树鼩,切开颈部皮肤,充分暴露甲状软骨,于甲状软骨上方薄弱处,采用特制灌注针行穿刺的方法进行气管内试剂灌注。定期行X线检查,观察肺部影像学改变,处死动物行肺组织病理检查,观察灌注后支气管上皮改变情况。结果烟尘处理组树鼩灌注药物后1周内开始死亡,空白对照组、溶剂对照组树鼩灌注后至实验结束无异常死亡。定期处死树鼩行肺组织HE染色切片病理检查,空白对照组及溶剂对照组无明显病理改变,烟尘处理组树鼩肺组织可见支气管粘膜上皮过度增生-鳞状化生-不典型增生-早期浸润癌的病理变化过程。结论宣威烟煤粉尘可以导致树鼩支气管上皮出现支气管粘膜上皮过度增生-鳞状化生-不典型增生-早期浸润癌的病理变化,应用宣威烟煤粉尘PM10行气管内灌注可以诱发树鼩肺癌。可以建立肺癌模型。%Background and objective Lung cancer is the type of cancer with the highest incidence and mortality in numerous countries and regions. Establishing an appropriate animal model that can be used to simulate lung cancer etiology, pathogenesis, and similar processes, is urgent. We explore the feasibility of establishing a lung cancer model induced by Xuan-wei bituminous coal dust PM10 (particulate matter with diameters of 10 μm or less), which affects bronchial epithelium of tree shrews.Methods hTe neck skin of adult tree shrews is dissected, and the thyroid cartilage is fully

  2. A novel trilayer antireflection coating using dip-coating technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Xu; Yi Yin; Haiming Ma; Hui Ye; Xu Liu


    We report a new structure for broadband antireflection coating by dip-coating technique,which has minimal cost and is compatible with large-scale manufacturing.The coatings are prepared by depositing SiO2 sol-gel film on a glass substrate,subsequently depositing SiO2 single-layer particle coating through electrostatic attraction,and depositing a final very thin Si02 sol-gel film to improve the mechanical strength of the whole coating structure.The refractive index of the structure changes gradually from the top to the substrate.The transmittance of a glass substrate has been experimentally found to be improved in the spectral range of 400-1400 nn and in the incidence angle range from 0° to at least 45°.The mechanical strength is immensely improved because of the additional thin Si02 sol-gel layer.The surface texture can be applied to the substrates of different materials and shapes as an add-on coating.

  3. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.


    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible i

  4. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Levine, S. R.; Glasgow, T. K. (Inventor)


    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.

  5. Protective coatings for commercial particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindl, B.; Teng, Y.H.; Liu, Y.L.


    SiC/Al composites are in large-scale production with Al-Si alloy matrices. The same composites with pure Al or low Si matrices need diffusion barriers on the SiC reinforcement to control the interfacial reaction. The present paper describes various approaches taken to obtain protective coatings...... of alumina and zirconia on SiC particulates by sol-gel techniques. Aqueous and organic precursors have been used. The extent of the reaction, i.e., the Si and Al4C3 content in the matrix, was determined by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The reaction rates of some coated particulates...... in liquid Al are decreased by as much as one order of magnitude during the first 15 min of immersion. Pretreatments of the SiC surface, the composition and thickness of the coating interphase and heat treatments of the coated materials have been studied, and are discussed in relation to their effect...

  6. DLC coatings for hydraulic applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Replacement of lubricating oils with water or low-viscosity fluids is highly desirable in many industrial fields, on account of the environmental and economical advantages. Low lubricity of water might be insufficient for proper operation of hydraulic components, and diamond-like carbon(DLC) coatings are very attractive as solid lubricant films. A remote-plasma PACVD process was utilized to deposit hydrogenated DLC coatings (a-C:H) on different substrates. Microindentation measurements show that the coating hardness is around 35 GPa. Tribological behavior was evaluated by block-on-ring tests performed in water and water with alumina. The wear rate was calculated after measuring the wear volume by a laser profilemeter. Morphological and compositional analysis of the wear tracks reveal that coating failure may occur by abrasive wear or delamination, depending on the substrate properties. Hard and smooth substrates give the best results and dispersed alumina particles increase the wear rate.

  7. Corrosion-resistant metallic coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Presuel-Moreno


    Full Text Available We describe recent computational and experimental studies on the corrosion properties of metallic coatings that can be tailored (tuned to deliver up to three corrosion-inhibiting functions to an underlying substrate. Attributes are tuned by a selection of alloy compositions and nanostructures, ideally in alloy systems that offer flexibility of choice to optimize the corrosion-resisting properties. An amorphous Al-based coating is tuned for corrosion protection by on-demand release of ionic inhibitors to protect defects in the coating, by formation of an optimized barrier to local corrosion in Cl− containing environments, as well as by sacrificial cathodic prevention. Further progress in this field could lead to the design of the next generation of adaptive or tunable coatings that inhibit corrosion of underlying substrates.

  8. Smart Coatings for Corrosion Protection (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Li, Wendy; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.


    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it.

  9. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Herrera


    Full Text Available More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA, calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality.

  10. Low Temperature Cure Powder Coatings (United States)


    within the JTP. These requirements included a final coating thickness range, a minimum product shelf life, and finished surface quality as measured...additional drawbacks of PC technology. Technology innovations such as Ultraviolet ( UV ) curable powders, which are not constrained by physical oven size due... Thickness Film thickness measurements were also taken from the same color measurement locations across each component’s coated surface. During field

  11. Hermetic Coating of Optical Fibers (United States)


    of 450A/min. A number of bulk samples were coated with a-C:H including microscope slides, NaCl plates, ZBLAN fluoride glass and sapphire blanks. IR...deposition were identified. Bulk NaCl, sapphire and glass samples coated with - 1 micron thick films were tested analytically. With the information gathered...1.0 INTRODUCTION: The surface of a freshly drawn glass fiber while seemingly smooth has many imperfections which when under stress, can grow and

  12. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA


    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  13. Corrosion-resistant metallic coatings


    F. Presuel-Moreno; M.A. Jakab; N. Tailleart; Goldman, M.; J. R. Scully


    We describe recent computational and experimental studies on the corrosion properties of metallic coatings that can be tailored (tuned) to deliver up to three corrosion-inhibiting functions to an underlying substrate. Attributes are tuned by a selection of alloy compositions and nanostructures, ideally in alloy systems that offer flexibility of choice to optimize the corrosion-resisting properties. An amorphous Al-based coating is tuned for corrosion protection by on-demand release of ionic i...

  14. Material Science Smart Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, A. I. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Sabirianov, R. F. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)


    The contribution of electrostatic interactions to the free energy of binding between model protein and a ceramic implant surface in the aqueous solvent, considered in the framework of the nonlocal electrostatic model, is calculated as a function of the implant low-frequency dielectric constant. We show that the existence of a dynamically ordered (low-dielectric) interfacial solvent layer at the protein-solvent and ceramic-solvent interface markedly increases charging energy of the protein and ceramic implant, and consequently makes the electrostatic contribution to the protein-ceramic binding energy more favorable (attractive). Our analysis shows that the corresponding electrostatic energy between protein and oxide ceramics depends nonmonotonically on the dielectric constant of ceramic, εC. Obtained results indicate that protein can attract electrostatically to the surface if ceramic material has a moderate εC below or about 35 (in particularly ZrO2 or Ta2O5). This is in contrast to classical (local) consideration of the solvent, which demonstrates an unfavorable electrostatic interaction of protein with typical metal oxide ceramic materials (εC>10). Thus, a solid implant coated by combining oxide ceramic with a reduced dielectric constant can be beneficial to strengthen the electrostatic binding of the protein-implant complex.

  15. Composite hydrophilic coating for conditioner aluminum fins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To solve the so-called "white rust" and 'water bridge" problems of the aluminum fins for heat exchanger of automobile air conditioner, aimed at nationalizing the art of hydrophilic coating technology, the choice of coating forming and curing materials was investigated. By measuring the water contact angle, SEM surface scanning and ingredients analysis of the coating, optimal parameters and composition are acquired. The coating forming mechanisms of the composition was also expatiated. The coating obtained has good hydrophilic and other properties.

  16. Switchable antifouling coatings and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Michele L. Baca; Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross Stefan


    The present invention relates to antifouling coatings capable of being switched by using heat or ultraviolet light. Prior to switching, the coating includes an onium cation component having antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. Upon switching, the coating is converted to a conjugated polymer state, and the cationic component is released with any adsorbed biofilm layer. Thus, the coatings herein have switchable and releasable properties. Methods of making and using such coatings are also described.

  17. Coating, Titanium Dioxide and Solar Cell


    Yang, Aohan


    The objective of this bachelor’s thesis is to get basic ideas about coating and a deep understanding of properties of titanium dioxide pigments as well as their application and performance in solar electricity energy technology. This thesis consists of three main parts, eight chapters. The first part is about basic knowledge of coating and tests of coated paper. Coating pigments are generally introduced in the part. In the second part, coating additives are introduced in details from ...

  18. Graphene: corrosion-inhibiting coating. (United States)

    Prasai, Dhiraj; Tuberquia, Juan Carlos; Harl, Robert R; Jennings, G Kane; Rogers, Bridget R; Bolotin, Kirill I


    We report the use of atomically thin layers of graphene as a protective coating that inhibits corrosion of underlying metals. Here, we employ electrochemical methods to study the corrosion inhibition of copper and nickel by either growing graphene on these metals, or by mechanically transferring multilayer graphene onto them. Cyclic voltammetry measurements reveal that the graphene coating effectively suppresses metal oxidation and oxygen reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that while graphene itself is not damaged, the metal under it is corroded at cracks in the graphene film. Finally, we use Tafel analysis to quantify the corrosion rates of samples with and without graphene coatings. These results indicate that copper films coated with graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition are corroded 7 times slower in an aerated Na(2)SO(4) solution as compared to the corrosion rate of bare copper. Tafel analysis reveals that nickel with a multilayer graphene film grown on it corrodes 20 times slower while nickel surfaces coated with four layers of mechanically transferred graphene corrode 4 times slower than bare nickel. These findings establish graphene as the thinnest known corrosion-protecting coating.

  19. Polyester based hybrid organic coatings (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojiang

    Polyesters are a class of polymers widely used in organic coatings applications. In this work, four types of organic coatings based on polyester polyols were prepared: UV-curable polyester/poly(meth)acrylate coatings, thermal curable polyester polyurethane-urea coatings, thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings, and UV-curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings. Polyester/poly(meth)acrylate block copolymers are synthesized using a combination of polycondensation and Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). All block copolymers are characterized by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). In the case of unsaturated-polyester-based block copolymers the main chain double bond in the polyester backbone remains almost unaffected during ATRP. The unsaturated block copolymers are crosslinkable and can form networks upon photo-irradiation in the presence of a suitable photoinitiator. These copolymers might be interesting candidates for coatings with better overall properties than those based on neat polyesters. Thermal curable polyester polyol based Polyurethane-Urea (PUU) coatings were formulated using Partially Blocked HDI isocyanurate (PBH), Isophorone Diamine (IPDA), and polyester polyol. As a comparison, the polyurethane coatings (PU) without adding IPDA were also prepared. The mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the PUU and PU coating were investigated by using tensile test and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analyzer (DMTA). It was found that PUU coating exhibited higher crosslink density, Tg, tensile modulus and strength than the corresponding PU coating. Thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings were prepared by using polyamine and cyclic carbonate terminated polyester. Cyclic carbonate terminated polyester was synthesized from the reaction of the carbon dioxide and epoxidized polyester which was prepared from the polyester polyol. The properties of the epoxidized and cyclic carbonate

  20. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız


    Full Text Available Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1 Anti-reflection coatings, 2 Hard coatings, 3 Clean coat, 4 Mirror coatings, 5 Color tint coating (one of coloring processes, 6 Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes, and 7 Anti-fog coatings. Anti-reflection coatings reduce unwanted reflections from the lens surfaces and increase light transmission. Hard coatings are applied for preventing the plastic lens surface from scratches and abrasion. Hard coatings are not required for the mineral lenses due to their hardness. Clean coat makes the lens surface smooth and hydrophobic. Thus, it prevents the adherence of dust, tarnish, and dirt particles on the lens surface. Mirror coatings are applied onto the sunglasses for cosmetic purpose. Color tinted and photochromic lenses are used for sun protection and absorption of the harmful UV radiations. Anti-fog coatings make the lens surface hydrophilic and prevent the coalescence of tiny water droplets on the lens surface that reduces light transmission. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 359-69

  1. Coating Carbon Fibers With Platinum (United States)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Duncan, Peter; Coupland, Duncan; Rigali, Mark J.


    A process for coating carbon fibers with platinum has been developed. The process may also be adaptable to coating carbon fibers with other noble and refractory metals, including rhenium and iridium. The coated carbon fibers would be used as ingredients of matrix/fiber composite materials that would resist oxidation at high temperatures. The metal coats would contribute to oxidation resistance by keeping atmospheric oxygen away from fibers when cracks form in the matrices. Other processes that have been used to coat carbon fibers with metals have significant disadvantages: Metal-vapor deposition processes yield coats that are nonuniform along both the lengths and the circumferences of the fibers. The electrical resistivities of carbon fibers are too high to be compatible with electrolytic processes. Metal/organic vapor deposition entails the use of expensive starting materials, it may be necessary to use a furnace, and the starting materials and/or materials generated in the process may be hazardous. The present process does not have these disadvantages. It yields uniform, nonporous coats and is relatively inexpensive. The process can be summarized as one of pretreatment followed by electroless deposition. The process consists of the following steps: The surfaces of the fiber are activated by deposition of palladium crystallites from a solution. The surface-activated fibers are immersed in a solution that contains platinum. A reducing agent is used to supply electrons to effect a chemical reduction in situ. The chemical reduction displaces the platinum from the solution. The displaced platinum becomes deposited on the fibers. Each platinum atom that has been deposited acts as a catalytic site for the deposition of another platinum atom. Hence, the deposition process can also be characterized as autocatalytic. The thickness of the deposited metal can be tailored via the duration of immersion and the chemical activity of the solution.

  2. Kinetic regulation of coated vesicle secretion

    CERN Document Server

    Foret, Lionel


    The secretion of vesicles for intracellular transport often rely on the aggregation of specialized membrane-bound proteins into a coat able to curve cell membranes. The nucleation and growth of a protein coat is a kinetic process that competes with the energy-consuming turnover of coat components between the membrane and the cytosol. We propose a generic kinetic description of coat assembly and the formation of coated vesicles, and discuss its implication to the dynamics of COP vesicles that traffic within the Golgi and with the Endoplasmic Reticulum. We show that stationary coats of fixed area emerge from the competition between coat growth and the recycling of coat components, in a fashion resembling the treadmilling of cytoskeletal filaments. We further show that the turnover of coat components allows for a highly sensitive switching mechanism between a quiescent and a vesicle producing membrane, upon a slowing down of the exchange kinetics. We claim that the existence of this switching behaviour, also tri...

  3. Design of Polymer Coatings in Automotive Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Han-lin; ZHANG Ga; BORDES Jean-Michel; CHRISTIAN Coddet


    Driven by economical and ecological reasons, thermoplastics based coatings were more and more used in automotive engines. Two design concepts, flame spraying and serigraphy PEEK coatings on light metal substrate, were introduced in this paper. The friction and wear behavior of PEEK based coatings were investigated systematically. Coatings with different crystallinities can be obtained when cooling speed is controlled. Among three sprayed coatings considered with different crystallinities, the one with highest crystallinity exhibits best friction and wear behavior under dry sliding condition. Under lubricated sliding condition, however, the amorphous coating gives lower friction coefficient. The micron particles such as SiC,MoS2 and graphite in composite coatings can improve significantly the coating wear resistance and have a impact on coating friction behavior.

  4. Microstructure and Residual Stress of Shot Coating (United States)

    Itoh, Yoshiyasu; Suyama, Shoko; Fuse, Toshiaki

    A shot coating process for metalizing at the surface of ceramics has been newly developed as the shot peening treatment. However, microstructure and residual stress of shot coatings, which have an important effect on the adherent strength of coatings and the strength of ceramic substrates, have not always been clarified. An experimental investigation on the microstructure and residual stress was carried out for the shot coating of aluminum on zinc-oxide substrate by comparison with the atmospheric plasma sprayed aluminum coatings. As a result, low porosity, low oxide content and flat surface could be obtained from the aluminum coatings formed by shot coating process in comparison with the atmospheric plasma sprayed aluminum coatings. Also, it was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction technique that the residual stress of shot coated aluminum over zinc-oxide substrate was high compressive in comparison with the atmospheric plasma spraying process.

  5. Sputtering process and apparatus for coating powders (United States)

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Kerns, John A.; Alford, Craig S.; McKernan, Mark A.


    A process and apparatus for coating small particles and fibers. The process involves agitation by vibrating or tumbling the particles or fibers to promote coating uniformly, removing adsorbed gases and static charges from the particles or fibers by an initial plasma cleaning, and coating the particles or fibers with one or more coatings, a first coating being an adhesion coating, and with subsequent coatings being deposited in-situ to prevent contamination at layer interfaces. The first coating is of an adhesion forming element (i.e. W, Zr, Re, Cr, Ti) of a 100-10,000 .ANG. thickness and the second coating or final coating of a multiple (0.1-10 microns) being Cu or Ag, for example for brazing processes, or other desired materials that defines the new surface related properties of the particles. An essential feature of the coating process is the capability to deposit in-situ without interruption to prevent the formation of a contaminated interface that could adversely affect the coating adhesion. The process may include screening of the material to be coated and either continuous or intermittent vibration to prevent agglomeration of the material to be coated.

  6. Vertebrate extracellular preovulatory and postovulatory egg coats. (United States)

    Menkhorst, Ellen; Selwood, Lynne


    Extracellular egg coats deposited by maternal or embryonic tissues surround all vertebrate conceptuses during early development. In oviparous species, the time of hatching from extracellular coats can be considered equivalent to the time of birth in viviparous species. Extracellular coats must be lost during gestation for implantation and placentation to occur in some viviparous species. In the most recent classification of vertebrate extracellular coats, Boyd and Hamilton (Cleavage, early development and implantation of the egg. In: Parkes AS (ed.), Marshall's Physiology of Reproduction, vol. 2, 3rd ed. London: Longmans, Green & Co; 1961:1-126) defined the coat synthesized by the oocyte during oogenesis as primary and the coat deposited by follicle cells surrounding the oocyte as secondary. Tertiary egg coats are those synthesized and deposited around the primary or secondary coat by the maternal reproductive tract. This classification is difficult to reconcile with recent data collected using modern molecular biological techniques that can accurately establish the site of coat precursor synthesis and secretion. We propose that a modification to the classification by Boyd and Hamilton is required. Vertebrate egg coats should be classed as belonging to the following two broad groups: the preovulatory coat, which is deposited during oogenesis by the oocyte or follicle cells, and the postovulatory coats, which are deposited after fertilization by the reproductive tract or conceptus. This review discusses the origin and classification of vertebrate extracellular preovulatory and postovulatory coats and illustrates what is known about coat homology between the vertebrate groups.

  7. Coating Microstructure-Property-Performance Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry C. Totemeier; Richard N. Wright


    Results of studies on the relationships between spray parameters and performance of thermally-sprayed intermetallic coatings for high-temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance are presented. Coating performance is being assessed by corrosion testing of free-standing coatings, thermal cycling of coating substrates, and coating ductility measurement. Coating corrosion resistance was measured in a simulated coal combustion gas environment (N2-CO-CO2-H2O-H2S) at temperatures from 500 to 800°C using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA testing was also performed on a typical ferritic-martensitic steel, austenitic stainless steel, and a wrought Fe3Al-based alloy for direct comparison to coating behavior. FeAl and Fe3Al coatings showed corrosion rates slightly greater than that of wrought Fe3Al, but markedly lower than the steels at all temperatures. The corrosion rates of the coatings were relatively independent of temperature. Thermal cycling was performed on coated 316SS and nickel alloy 600 substrates from room temperature to 800°C to assess the relative effects of coating microstructure, residual stress, and thermal expansion mismatch on coating cracking by thermal fatigue. Measurement of coating ductility was made by acoustic emission monitoring of coated 316SS tensile specimens during loading.

  8. Diffusion Barrier Coating System and Oxidation Behavior of Coated Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 1 Introduction Research into the formation of Re-based alloys is in progress in our laboratory to provide a diffusion barrier layer between heat-resistant alloys and Al reservoir layers, which assist in the formation and maintenance a protective Al2O3 scale for long periods. Coatings with a two-layered structure comprised of inner Re-based alloy layer and outer β-NiAl layer with or without Pt addition were successfully formed on various heat resistant alloys such as Ni-based singlecrystal superalloys, Ni-based heat resistant alloys, NiMo based alloy, Ni-Cr based alloy, and Fe-based alloys. The duplex layer coating proposed is generally termed a diffusion barrier coating system; DBC system.

  9. Testing and Evaluation of Multifunctional Smart Coatings (United States)

    Buhrow, Jerry; Li, Wenyan; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz M.; Pearman, Benjamin; Zhang, Xuejun


    A smart coating system, based on pH sensitive microcontainers (microparticles and microcapsules) has been developed. Various corrosion inhibitors have been encapsulated and incorporated into commercial and formulated coatings to test the functionality imparted on the coating by the incorporation of the inhibitor microcontainers. Coated carbon steel and aluminum alloy panels were tested using salt immersion, salt fog, and coastal atmospheric exposure conditions. This paper provides the details on coating sample preparation, evaluation methods, as well as test results of the inhibiting function of smart coatings.

  10. Chromate conversion coatings and their current application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny


    Full Text Available This paper describes formation, composition and possible production technologies of application chromate coatings. Summation of common examples of applications of these coatings in corrosion protection of metals and alloys is provided. Individual chromate coatings are divided by their dominant anions either with CrVI or CrIII. Restrictions of chromate coatings with dominantly CrVI and related toxicity of hexavalent chromium is discussed in detail. In conclusion, examples of both chromium and other, alternative coatings are summed up. Application of these coatings as a protection for concrete hot-dip galvanized reinforcement is also reviewed.

  11. Mixed zirconia calcium phosphate coatings for dental implants: Tailoring coating stability and bioactivity potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardun, Karoline [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Treccani, Laura, E-mail: [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Volkmann, Eike [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Streckbein, Philipp [University Hospital, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Department of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Klinikstrasse 33, 35385 Giessen (Germany); Heiss, Christian [University Hospital of Giessen-Marburg, Department of Trauma Surgery, Rudolf-Buchheim-Strasse 7, 35385 Giessen, Germany, (Germany); Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Kerkraderstrasse 9, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Destri, Giovanni Li; Marletta, Giovanni [Laboratory for Molecular Surfaces and Nanotechnology (LAMSUN), Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and CSGI, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Rezwan, Kurosch [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics, Am Biologischen Garten 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany)


    Enhanced coating stability and adhesion are essential for long-term success of orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, the effect of coating composition on mechanical, physico-chemical and biological properties of coated zirconia specimens is investigated. Zirconia discs and dental screw implants are coated using the wet powder spraying (WPS) technique. The coatings are obtained by mixing yttria-stabilized zirconia (TZ) and hydroxyapatite (HA) in various ratios while a pure HA coating served as reference material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometer analysis confirm a similar coating morphology and roughness for all studied coatings, whereas the coating stability can be tailored with composition and is probed by insertion and dissections experiments in bovine bone with coated zirconia screw implants. An increasing content of calcium phosphate (CP) resulted in a decrease of mechanical and chemical stability, while the bioactivity increased in simulated body fluid (SBF). In vitro experiments with human osteoblast cells (HOB) revealed that the cells grew well on all samples but are affected by dissolution behavior of the studied coatings. This work demonstrates the overall good mechanical strength, the excellent interfacial bonding and the bioactivity potential of coatings with higher TZ contents, which provide a highly interesting coating for dental implants. - Highlights: • Different ratios of zirconia (TZ) and calcium phosphate (CP) were deposited on zirconia substrates. • Enhancement of TZ content in mixed coatings increased coating stability. • Enhancement of CP content in mixed coatings increased bioactivity. • All tested coating compositions were non-toxic.

  12. Dielectric Coatings for IACT Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Förster, A; Chadwick, P; Held, M


    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes for very-high energy gamma-ray astronomy need mirror with high reflectance roughly in the wavelength between 300 and 550 nm. The current standard reflective layer of such mirrors is aluminum. Being permanently exposed to the environment they show a constant degradation over the years. New and improved dielectric coatings have been developed to enhance their resistance to environmental impact and to extend their possible lifetime. In addition, these customized coatings have an increased reflectance of over 95% and are designed to significantly lower the night-sky background contribution. The development of such coatings for mirrors with areas up to 2 m2 and low application temperatures to suite the composite materials used for the new mirror susbtrates of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and the results of extensive durability tests are presented.

  13. Self-Healing anticorrosive coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesterova, Tatyana

    Self-healing anticorrosive coatings are multi-component so-called smart materials, which have been proposed as a way to long-lasting corrosion protection of steel structures. The presently most promising technology route is based on microcapsules, filled with active healing agents, and has been...... the focus of this work. The microcapsules consist of a solid polymeric shell and a liquid core material. When a microcrack, originating from internal stress or a physical damage, propagates through the coating, the microcapsules rupture and release healing agents, which flow to the fracture plane due...... to capillary forces. The healing agents then start to react, form a polymer network, and =glue‘ the crack. The approach has been applied to development of an epoxy-based self-healing anticorrosive coating for above water heavy duty corrosion protection. Emphasis has been on investigation of practical issues...

  14. Clean diffusion coatings by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnes, B.M.; Punola, D.C. [Howmet Thermatech Coatings, Whitehall, MI (United States)


    An experimental program was undertaken to identify diffusion coating impurities introduced by standard aluminizing processes and to evaluate the impact of those impurities on oxidation resistance of the resultant Pt aluminide coating. IN-738 tabs and foils were platinum-electroplated, and then aluminized using three different processes: high-activity pack cementation, high-activity CVD and low-activity CVD. The results suggest that aluminizing processes which involve aluminum bearing alloys in the coating retort with H{sub 2} or H{sub 2}/HCl gas at high temperature can contaminate the diffusion coating during deposition. CVD low-activity aluminizing (coating gas generated at low temperature outside the coating chamber from 99.999% Al) did not introduce any coating impurities. In addition, the data indicates that harmful impurities from the IN-738 substrate (sulfur, boron and tungsten) and the electroplating process (phosphorus) were removed from the coating during deposition. The CVD low-activity Pt aluminide coating was the `cleanest` in the study, and it exhibited the best high-temperature oxidation resistance of the coatings considered. It can be concluded that trace elements in diffusion coatings from the superalloy substrate and/or the aluminizing process can adversely effect the oxidation resistance of those coatings, and that CVD low-activity aluminizing yields cleaner coatings than other commercially available aluminizing techniques. (orig.) 10 refs.

  15. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics (United States)

    Cho, Junghyun


    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (nano-ceramic coatings (TiO2, ZnO) on plastic materials (silicone, Teflon, PET, etc.) that can possess both photocatalytic oxide properties and flexible plastic properties. Processing cost is low and it does not require any expensive equipment investment. Processing can be scalable to current manufacturing infrastructure.

  16. Matching Performance among Visible and near Infrared Coating, Low Infrared Emitting Coating and Microwave Absorbing Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guohua; ZHANG Zuoguang; WU Ruibin


    The matching performance among the visible and near infrared conting, the low infrared emitting coating and the microwave absorbing coating was investigated. Experimental results shaw that the resulting material is characteristic of wideband effect ranging from the visible, near infrared and 3-5μm, 8- 14 μm infrared portion of the spectrum, as well as the radar region from 8 to 18 GHz when these three materials form a layerstructure material system. The microwave absorbing ability of material is hardly changed. The resonance peak moves towards lower frequency as the thickness of the visible, near infrared coating and the low infrared emitting coating increases. This problem can be resolved by controlling the thickness of the material. On the other hand,the infrared emissivity ε of the material system increases as the thickness of the visible, near infrared coating increases. This can be resolved by increasing infrared transparency of the visible and near infrared topcoating or controlling its thickness. The experimental resulting material system has spectral reflection characteristics in visible and near infrared regions that are similar to those of the natural bnckground.

  17. Protective Coatings for Aluminum Torpedoes (United States)


    dhesion test, the entire coating sys- tea was removed, leaving the substrate exposed. During the impact tests, the 37 coating debonded within the...M tree ot detects in mawnai or dccrqva~e Weyesi aoicti cr Wi15 ryafsX-_ oa ifani w Aobgaon -rlefl CrS~ t1 hi~~~~~~~~ cadsoie.xrn a gab on srd... Eczema , rash Eye contact: Fodwith stemof water Inhalation Fresh Air Ingestion Call Physician for advice. DO NOT induce vomiting Skin contact Wash

  18. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi


    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  19. Thin Films for Coating Nanomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Mukhopadhyay; P.Joshi; R.V.Pulikollu


    For nano-structured solids (those with one or more dimensions in the 1-100 nm range), attempts of surface modification can pose significant and new challenges. In traditional materials, the surface coating could be several hundreds nanometers in thickness, or even microns and millimeters. In a nano-structured material, such as particle or nanofibers, the coating thickness has to be substantially smaller than the bulk dimensions (100 nm or less), yet be durable and effective. In this paper, some aspects of effective nanometer scale coatings have been discussed. These films have been deposited by a non-line of sight (plasma)techniques; and therefore, they are capable of modifying nanofibers, near net shape cellular foams, and other high porosity materials. Two types of coatings will be focused upon: (a) those that make the surface inert and (b) those designed to enhance surface reactivity and bonding. The former has been achieved by forming 1-2 nm layer of -CF2- (and/or CF3) groups on the surface, and the latter by creating a nanolayer of SiO2-type compound. Nucleation and growth studies of the plasma-generated film indicate that they start forming as 2-3 nm high islands that grow laterally, and eventually completely cover the surface with 2-3nm film. Contact angle measurements indicate that these nano-coatings are fully functional even before they have achieved complete coverage of 2-3 nm. They should therefore be applicable to nano-structural solids.This is corroborated by application of these films on vapor grown nanofibers of carbon, and on graphitic foams. Coated and uncoated materials are infiltrated with epoxy matrix to form composites and their microstructure, as well as mechanical behaviors are compared. The results show that the nano-oxide coating can significantly enhance bond formation between carbon and organic phases, thereby enhancing wettability,dispersion, and composite behavior. The fluorocarbon coating, as expected, reduces bond formation, and

  20. Corrosion-resistant coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.; Kupp, D.M.; Martin, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    SiC-based heat exchangers have been identified as the prime candidate material for use as heat exchangers in advanced combined cycle power plants. Unfortunately, hot corrosion of the SiC-based materials created by alkali metal salts present in the combustion gases dictates the need for corrosion-resistant coatings. The well-documented corrosion resistance of CS-50 combined with its low (and tailorable) coefficient of thermal expansion and low modulus makes CS-50 an ideal candidate for this application. Coatings produced by gelcasting and traditional particulate processing have been evaluated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital Dhuppe , S.S. Mitkare*, D.M. Sakarkar


    Full Text Available The coating of solid pharmaceutical dosage forms began in the 9th century B. C., with the Egyptians. Conventional coating techniques are based on solvents or water. Solventless coatings are alternative technique of coating. In solventless coating, the coating material is directly spread on the core and then it is cured by special method to form coat. Solventless coating avoids the use of water or it reduces to very small amounts with respect to the coating material hence it overcomes the limitations of conventional coating such as need for time, energy consuming, drying steps and the most important drug stability issues. A variety of solventless coating approaches are described in this review as powder coating, hot melt coating, supercritical fluid coating, magnetically assisted impaction coating, Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. This review summarizes basic principle and process of the coating techniques.

  2. Novel alginate based coatings on Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangeetha, K.; Roy, Abhijit [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Singh, Satish [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Lee, Boeun [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Kumta, Prashant N., E-mail: [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Craniofacial Regeneration, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)


    Coatings on yttrium doped magnesium (Mg4Y) alloy substrates were prepared using alginate hydrogels by dip coating method to improve the surface bioactive properties of the substrate. Furthermore, composite coatings containing nano-sized calcium phosphate corresponding to hydroxyapatite (HA) phase entrapped within alginate hydrogel were also synthesized on the Mg4Y substrates. Surface characteristics of these coated substrates have been investigated using FTIR-ATR, SEM and EDS. The results show that the coatings with alginate alone are not stable in vitro; however, incorporation of NanoCaPs slightly improves the stability of these coatings. In addition, these composite coatings showed cell attachments with fibronectin incorporation. These results indicate that alginate hydrogels have the potential to be used as bioactive coating materials for different biofunctional applications.

  3. Improving thermal barrier coatings by laser remelting. (United States)

    Múnez, C J; Gómez-García, J; Sevillano, F; Poza, P; Utrilla, M V


    Thermal barrier coatings are extensively used to protect metallic components in applications where the operating conditions include aggressive environment at high temperatures. These coatings are usually processed by thermal spraying techniques and the resulting microstructure includes thin and large splats, associated with the deposition of individual droplets, with porosity between splats. This porosity reduces the oxidation and corrosion resistance favouring the entrance of aggressive species during service. To overcome this limitation, the top coat could be modified by laser glazing reducing surface roughness and sealing open porosity. ZrO2(Y2O3) top coat and NiCrAlY bond coating were air plasma sprayed onto an Inconel 600 Ni base alloy. The top coat was laser remelted and a densified ceramic layer was induced in the top surface of the ceramic coating. This layer inhibited the ingress of aggressive species and delayed bond coat oxidation.

  4. Durable Dust Repellent Coating for Metals Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Durable Dust Repellent Coating (DDRC) consists of nano-phase silica, titania, or other oxide coatings to repel dust in a vacuum environment over a wide range of...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng Zhang; Kefu Chen; Rendang Yang


    The flow behavior of paper coating is critical to the coating operation. In this work, the influence of the added agents on the flow behavior and the viscoelastic behavior is investigated using rheometer in steady and dynamic oscillatory modes.

  6. Development of coatings for fusion power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L. E-mail:; Konys, J.; Muroga, T.; Evitkhin, V


    Coatings have been proposed as the solution to critical materials constraints for most of the blanket concepts under development for fusion power applications. However, the international programs on coating development are focused primarily on electrically insulating coatings to mitigate the magneto-hydrodynamic pressure drop in self-cooled lithium/vanadium blanket concepts, and on tritium permeation barriers to reduce tritium permeation from Pb-Li into the water coolant in water-cooled Pb-Li concepts. Emphasis of the insulator coating development is on CaO and AlN coatings formed on vanadium alloys either in situ in lithium or by vapor deposition processes. The tritium barrier coating development is focused on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed on aluminized martensitic steels by several processes. This paper presents an overview of the fundamental materials issues associated with the various coatings and the status of coating development for the various applications.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Coats plus syndrome (United States)

    ... Coats disease plus abnormalities of the brain, bones, gastrointestinal system, and other parts of the body. Coats disease ... life-threatening complications including abnormal bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, high blood pressure in the vein that supplies ...

  8. Stress and structure development in polymeric coatings (United States)

    Vaessen, Diane Melissa


    The main goal of this research is to measure the stress evolution in various polymer coating systems to establish the mechanisms responsible for stress development, stress relaxation, and defect formation. Investigated systems include ultraviolet (UV)-curable coatings, dense and porous coatings from polymer solutions, and latex coatings. Coating stress was measured using a controlled environment stress apparatus based on a cantilever deflection principle. For acrylate coatings, it was found that by cycling a UV-lamp on and off, keeping the total dose constant, coating stress was lowered by 60% by decreasing the cycle period. A stress minimum was also found to exist for a given dose of radiation. The lower stress is attributed to stress relaxation and/or slower reaction during dark periods. A viscoelastic stress model of this process was formulated and predicted stress values close to those observed experimentally. During drying of cellulose acetate (CA) coatings cast in acetone, final stress increased from 10 to 45 MPa as coating thickness decreased from 60 to 10 mum. This thickness dependent coating stress for a solvent-cast polymer coating is a new finding and is attributed to (1) less shrinkage in thicker coatings due to more trapped solvent (from skinning) and (2) greater amounts of polymer stress relaxation in thicker coatings. For porous CA coatings prepared by dry-cast phase separation, final in-plane stresses ranged from 20 MPa for coatings containing small pores (˜1 mum) to 5 MPa for coatings containing small pores and macrovoids (˜200 mum). For these coatings, a small amount of stress relaxation occurs due to capillary pressure relief. A stress plateau for the macrovoid-containing coating is likely caused by stress-induced rupture of the polymer-rich phase. Measured stress in pigment-free latex coatings was much lower (˜0.3 MPa) than UV-curable and solvent-cast polymer coatings and was found to increase with increasing latex glass transition

  9. Microneedle Coating Techniques for Transdermal Drug Delivery


    Rita Haj-Ahmad; Hashim Khan; Muhammad Sohail Arshad; Manoochehr Rasekh; Amjad Hussain; Susannah Walsh; Xiang Li; Ming-Wei Chang; Zeeshan Ahmad


    Drug administration via the transdermal route is an evolving field that provides an alternative to oral and parenteral routes of therapy. Several microneedle (MN) based approaches have been developed. Among these, coated MNs (typically where drug is deposited on MN tips) are a minimally invasive method to deliver drugs and vaccines through the skin. In this review, we describe several processes to coat MNs. These include dip coating, gas jet drying, spray coating, electrohydrodynamic atomisat...

  10. Cirrus Dopant Nano-Composite Coatings (United States)


    Inorganic Nano-particles • Ti • Zr • Al • Zn • Yr • Si Coatings • Au • Ag • Sn • Cu • Zn • Ni • NiB • NiCo • NiP cirrus Broadened...1000 1200 HARDNESS (HV) MICROHARDNESS - ELECTROLESS NIP STANDARD COATING TI DOPED COATING ZR DOPED COATING ↑74% Standard DC NiB Cirrus DC NiB 15

  11. Deposition and Coating Properties on CVD Tungsten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ji-hong; LI Zheng-xiang; LIU Gao-jian; ZHOU Hui-Huang; CHUN liang


    Surface characterization and microstructure studies are performed on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) tungsten coating. There is about 2 μm thickness diffusion layer of tungsten in the molybdenum substrate. The thermal shock test shows tungsten coating has good adhesion with molybdenum substrate, but the elements of oxygen and carbon in the tungsten coating have the bad affection to the adhesion. The result of high-temperature diffusion experiment is the diffusion rate from molybdenum substrate to tungsten coating is faster.



    Shital Dhuppe , S.S. Mitkare*, D.M. Sakarkar


    The coating of solid pharmaceutical dosage forms began in the 9th century B. C., with the Egyptians. Conventional coating techniques are based on solvents or water. Solventless coatings are alternative technique of coating. In solventless coating, the coating material is directly spread on the core and then it is cured by special method to form coat. Solventless coating avoids the use of water or it reduces to very small amounts with respect t...

  13. Pipeline coating comparison methods for northern pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, P. [Shaw Pipe Protection, Calgary, AB (Canada); Purves, G.A. [Cimarron Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Two high-quality pipe coatings designed for northern environments were compared for their relative costs and suitability for the conditions that will be encountered in the field. Coating selection should consider local conditions to achieve the optimum life-cycle costs for the system. Some of the key factors affecting the integrity of the protective coating on a pipe include the effects of cold temperature and soil types. In this study, both Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) and High Performance Composite Coatings (HPCC) were evaluated for an entire pipeline installation in a northern environment, from the coating plant to the pipe trench. The evaluation focused on the advantages of better abrasion resistance of the HPCC coating. This was compared against the incremental cost of HPCC coating over FBE on large diameter NPS 30 to NPS 48 pipelines. The following parameters influenced the choice of coating: storage, transportation and handling; bending ability under cold weather conditions; pipe installation and backfilling; weld joint coatings; coating repair and cathodic protection and pipeline integrity. Some of the construction costs that are indirectly affected by the choice of pipe coating include right-of-way preparation and restoration; trenching; supervision, service and downtime and specialist crossings. It was concluded that HPCC has better resistance to abrasion than FBE and is more flexible in extremely cold temperatures. Standard FBE is about 10 per cent less expensive than HPCC. In general HPCC will require less coating protection than FBE, depending on site conditions. 3 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs.

  14. Antireflective Coatings for Glass and Transparent Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskens, P.; Burghoorn, M.; Danho Mourad, M.C.; Vroon, Z.


    Antireflective coatings (ARCs) are applied to reduce surface reflections. We review coatings that reduce the reflection of the surface of the transparent substrates float glass, polyethylene terephthalate, poly(methyl methacrylate), and polycarbonate. Three main coating concepts exist to lower the r

  15. Latest Developments in PVD Coatings for Tooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Strnad


    Full Text Available The paper presents the recent developments in the field of PVD coating for manufacturing tools. A review of monoblock, multilayer, nanocomposite, DLC and oxinitride coatings is discussed, with the emphasis on coatings which enables the manufacturers to implement high productivity processes such as high speed cutting and dry speed machining.

  16. “m=1” coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, C.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Beaucour, J.

    chemical hazard after manufacture is Be dust if the sample is destroyed. We have a sample of 276 nm Be coated on a Si wafer for these tests. Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) coatings with 99% sp3 bindings (meaning it is very close to diamond) are made commercially using CVD techniques. In the coating...

  17. Absorptive coating for aluminum solar panels (United States)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.; Parr, A.


    Method for coating forming coating of copper oxide from copper component of sheet aluminum/copper alloy provides strong durable solar heat collector panels. Copper oxide coating has solar absorption characteristics similar to black chrome and is much simpler and less costly to produce.

  18. Deposition and Investigation of Hydrophobic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safonov Aleksey


    Full Text Available The fluoropolymer coatings of different morphologies are deposited by the HWCVD (Hot Wire CVD method. The effect of activator filament temperature on the structure of fluoropolymer coating is shown. The results of studying the hydrophobic fluoropolymer coatings with different structures, deposited by the HWCVD method, are presented.

  19. Supra-amphiphilic transparent mesoporous silica coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jin; YANG Zhenglong; QU Xiaozhong; YANG Zhenzhong


    Transparent mesoporous silica coatings were achieved by conventional sol-gel process. The obtained coatings display permanent supraamphiphilicity, transparent appearance and good wetting property with very fast spread rate. Incorporation of functional materials such as crystalline titania nanoparticles into the coatings was also carried out without affecting the transparency and supraamphiphilicity.

  20. Superhard nano-multilayers and nanocomposite coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Xiaoming; ZHENG Weitao; AN Tao


    This paper reviews the recent development of nano-multilayers and nanocomposite coatings. The hardening mechanisms and design of hard coating are discussed in details. Recent research on Ti/TiN and nitride/nitride multilayer, Ti-Si-N and Ti-Al-Si-N nanocomposite coatings is described, and the perspectives of the related research are proposed.

  1. Natural-oxide solar-collector coatings (United States)

    Krupnick, A. C.; Roberts, M. L.; Sharpe, M. H.


    Optically selective coatings for solar collectors are produced by thermally treating stainless steel in furnace after series of cleaning and soaking operations. Coatings have withstood 18-month exposure tests at 100 percent relative humidity and temperatures of 95 F. Room temperature coatings are valuable as they are inexpensive to produce, highly production oriented, and environmentally stable.

  2. Applicability of coatings to control metal dusting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermse, C.G.M.; Wortel, J.C. van


    We have performed a long term comparative study between five wrought and three centricast materials, both as-is, and in coated condition. Two commercially available coatings were applied to each different alloy. One coating was aluminum based with a chromium rich intermediate layer. The other coatin

  3. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings (United States)

    Sarin, Vinod; Mulpuri, Rao


    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  4. Moisture in organic coatings - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, G.K. van der; Adan, O.C.G.


    A review is given on transport and equilibrium sorption of moisture in polymer films and organic coatings. Polymeric material forms the continuous phase of a coating and is therefore important for transport properties. Besides polymer, coatings consist of pigments and fillers and various additives,

  5. Microstructure and properties of high emissivity coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Dan; Daqiang Cang; Huimin Zhou; Hao Bai; Yanbin Zong


    A new coating on lining in industrial furnace for energy saving has been developed. Properties and microstructure of the coatings were revealed by emissivity instrument, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The result indicates that the emissivity of coatings is higher than 0.90 and the thickness of coatings is about 200 μm. ZrO2, Cr2O3 and SiC in the coating benefit practical applications of coatings at high temperature with du-rable high emissivity and the continuous structure between the coatings and the substrate makes the coatings high cohesion and ex-cellent adhesion for both specimens with and without sintering at high temperature. Result fi'om laboratory experiment shows that the heating speed of specimen with coating is higher than that of controlled specimen and the temperature increases 30℃ during the heating. The average temperature drop of specimen with coatings has a 13.5% improvement in the cooling speed. The application of coatings on the checker brick in a blast furnace of 1750 m3 indicates that the coating causes the blast temperature to an average in-crease of 28℃, reduces the fluctuation of blast temperature before the blowing-in and leads to a fuel saving of 10% approximately.

  6. Moisture transport in coated plaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, E.L.J.; Van der Spoel, W.H.; Bancken, E.L.J.


    In the framework of the research project: 'Water balance of water-borne paint systems on plaster substrates in relation to fungal growth', a study is carried out to moisture transport mechanisms in coated gypsum plaster. In this contribution, the set-up of the study is described. Besides a descripti

  7. Polymer-coated quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomczak, Nikodem; Liu, Rongrong; Vancso, Julius G.


    Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with distinct photophysical properties finding applications in biology, biosensing, and optoelectronics. Polymeric coatings of QDs are used primarily to provide long-term colloidal stability to QDs dispersed in solutions and also as a source of addit

  8. Mechanically reliable scales and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Alexander, K.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    In many high-temperature fossil energy systems, corrosion and deleterious environmental effects arising from reactions with reactive gases and condensible products often compromise materials performance and, as a consequence, degrade operating efficiencies. Protection of materials from such reactions is best afforded by the formation of stable surface oxides (either as deposited coatings or thermally grown scales) that are slowly reacting, continuous, dense, and adherent to the substrate. However, the ability of normally brittle ceramic films and coatings to provide such protection has long been problematical, particularly for applications involving numerous or severe high-temperature thermal cycles or very aggressive (for example, sulfidizing) environments. A satisfactory understanding of how scale and coating integrity and adherence are improved by compositional, microstructural, and processing modifications is lacking. Therefore, to address this issue, the present work is intended to define the relationships between substrate characteristics (composition, microstructure, and mechanical behavior) and the structure and protective properties of deposited oxide coatings and/or thermally grown scales. Such information is crucial to the optimization of the chemical, interfacial, and mechanical properties of the protective oxides on high-temperature materials through control of processing and composition and directly supports the development of corrosion-resistant, high-temperature materials for improved energy and environmental control systems.

  9. Heparin-Coated Coronary Stents. (United States)

    van Der Giessen WJ; van Beusekom HM; Larsson; Serruys


    The development of the heparin-coated (HC)-stent should be viewed against the backdrop of the early unfavorable results with noncoated stents in the pre-intravascular ultrasound and pre-ticlopidine era. Notwithstanding, results of pilot and randomized trials show a surprisingly low incidence of (sub)acute stent thrombosis under challenging circumstances, such as acute coronary syndromes. Considering the quite low incidence of early complications with noncoated second-generation stents, it may require large trials to prove the clinical efficacy of the heparin- coating against noncoated devices. However, even if the "added value" of the heparin-coating will never be clinically proven, it has helped to enhance the penetration of stent therapy in interventional cardiology. Unlike the situation in 1992, very few cardiologists will now disagree with the statement that stents contribute to the state-of-the-art treatment of patients with angina pectoris or acute myocardial infarction. A preliminary comparison of available trials also suggests that the heparin-coated Palmaz-Schatz stent (Cordis Corp., Waterloo, Belgium) is as effective as the noncoated stent plus abciximab treatment.

  10. Optical trapping of coated microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bormuth, V.; Jannasch, A.; Ander, M.; van Kats, C.M.; van Blaaderen, A.; Howard, J.; Schäffer, E.


    In an optical trap, micron-sized dielectric particles are held by a tightly focused laser beam. The optical force on the particle is composed of an attractive gradient force and a destabilizing scattering force. We hypothesized that using anti-reflection-coated microspheres would reduce scattering a

  11. Optical trapping of coated microspheres. (United States)

    Bormuth, Volker; Jannasch, Anita; Ander, Marcel; van Kats, Carlos M; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Howard, Jonathon; Schäffer, Erik


    In an optical trap, micron-sized dielectric particles are held by a tightly focused laser beam. The optical force on the particle is composed of an attractive gradient force and a destabilizing scattering force. We hypothesized that using anti-reflection-coated microspheres would reduce scattering and lead to stronger trapping. We found that homogeneous silica and polystyrene microspheres had a sharp maximum trap stiffness at a diameter of around 800 nm--the trapping laser wavelength in water--and that a silica coating on a polystyrene microsphere was a substantial improvement for larger diameters. In addition, we noticed that homogeneous spheres of a correct size demonstrated anti-reflective properties. Our results quantitatively agreed with Mie scattering calculations and serve as a proof of principle. We used a DNA stretching experiment to confirm the large linear range in detection and force of the coated microspheres and performed a high-force motor protein assay. These measurements show that the surfaces of the coated microspheres are compatible with biophysical assays.

  12. Finite Element Analysis of Ceramic Coatings under Spherical Indentation with Metallic Interlayer: Part Ⅰ Uncracked Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minh-Quy LE; Seock-Sam KIM


    Spherical indentation of ceramic coatings with metallic interlayer was performed by means of axisymmetric finite element analysis (FEA). Two typical ceramic coatings with relatively high and low elastic modulus deposited on aluminum alloy and carbon steel were considered. Various combinations of indenter radius-coating thickness ratios and interlayer thickness-coating thickness ratios were used in the modeling. The effects of the interlayer, the coating and the substrate on the indentation behavior, such as the radial stress distribution along the coating surface as well as the coating interface, and the plastic deformation zone evolution in the substrate were investigated in connection with the above mentioned ratios. The coating cracking dominant modes were also discussed within the context of the peak tensile stresses on the coating surface and on the coating interface.

  13. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga [ORNL


    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  14. Nanocrystalline Ni-W coatings on copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, C.N., E-mail: [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780, Athens (Greece); Plainakis, G.D.; Lagaris, D.A. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780, Athens (Greece)


    Nanocrystalline Ni-W coatings were produced on copper substrates with the aid of electrodeposition technique. The morphology, chemical composition and structure of the produced coatings were examined with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The microhardness of alloy Ni-W coatings on copper substrate was also studied. The adhesion between the Ni-W coating, having W content 50 wt%, and the copper substrate, was also studied with a scratch testing apparatus. The scratch tests resulted in the coatings suffering an intensive brittle fracture and minor delamination.

  15. Development of the Fully Aulomated Coating Machine


    伊藤, 信孝; 立岩, 博之; Ito, Nobutaka; Tateiwa, Hiroyuki


    Direct sowing by use of coated rice has been gradually accpetcd in recent 20 years. Coating is the necessary key process to promote and irnprove the germination and sprouting percentage for the coated seed when sowed into the soil.In this paper,the development of the automated coating machine and its functional concept were introduced.The purpose of this studyis to automntc thc proccss of coating the chemi-cals uniformly around the rice seed and to improve the working environment under the u...

  16. Coating metals on micropowders by magnetron sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Magnetron sputtering was used to coat various metals on micropowder surfaces. By using this method, the fine particles are better dispersed and can therefore be coated more homogeneously. The micro-powders used include cenospheres from fly ash of coal-burning electric power plants (diameter 40-200 μm and particle density 0.7±0.1 g/cm3), as well as carborundum particles of different sizes. Aluminum, silver, copper, cobalt and nickel were used as the coating metals. Tests showed that the coated metal film was compact adhering tightly on the base powders, and the coated powders possess adequate flow properties.

  17. Nanostructured zirconia layers as thermal barrier coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Robert PITICESCU


    Full Text Available The coatings obtained by thermal spray are used both as antioxidant and connection materials (e.g. MCrAlY type alloys as well as thermal barrier coatings (e.g. partially stabilized zirconia oxide with yttria oxide. This paper studies the characteristics of the coatings obtained with nanostructured powders by thermal spraying and air plasma jet metallization. Testing of coatings is done against the most disturbing factor, thermal shock. Structural changes occurring after thermal shock tests are highlighted by investigations of optical and electronic microscopy. The results obtained after quick thermal shock show a good morphological and surface behavior of the developed coatings.



    Gupta Ankit; Bilandi Ajay; Kataria Mahesh Kumar; Khatri Neetu


    Tablet coating is a common pharmaceutical technique of applying a thin polymer-based film to a tablet or a granule containing active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Solid dosage forms are coated for a number of reasons, the most important of which is controlling the release profiles. The amount of coating on the surface of a tablet is critical to the effectiveness of the oral dosage form. Tablets are usually coated in horizontal rotating pans with the coating solution sprayed onto the free ...

  19. Method for making nanoporous hydrophobic coatings (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou; Sun, Zaicheng


    A simple coating method is used to form nanoporous hydrophobic films that can be used as optical coatings. The method uses evaporation-induced self-assembly of materials. The coating method starts with a homogeneous solution comprising a hydrophobic polymer and a surfactant polymer in a selective solvent. The solution is coated onto a substrate. The surfactant polymer forms micelles with the hydrophobic polymer residing in the particle core when the coating is dried. The surfactant polymer can be dissolved and selectively removed from the separated phases by washing with a polar solvent to form the nanoporous hydrophobic film.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄山秀; 马名杰


    选用煤焦油沥青、高黏结肥煤作为热黏结剂,分别以不同的掺入量和低阶烟煤粉煤及其他原料混合制取型煤.型煤样品热强度测定结果表明:以煤焦油沥青为热黏结剂的型煤热强度高于以高黏结肥煤为热黏结剂的型煤热强度,进一步对型煤微观结构电镜分析也证实了以煤焦油沥青为热黏结剂的型煤其黏结性能和防水性相对较好,电镜切片表明,煤焦油沥青热态下析出的挥发分经过胶质体时产生的气泡相互作用能使胶质体受压形成更坚固的整体网状结构;研究还发现煤焦油沥青的粒度对型煤热强度也有一定的影响.%Two different materials such as coal tar pitch, fat coal with high adhesion were chosen as the heat binder, which were mixed into the powder of low rank bituminous coals from Shenmu or Yuzhou and other raw materials to make coal briquette in different ration. The determination results show that the thermal strength of coal briquette with tar pitch is higher than that of coal briquette with fat coal. Further analysis of micro-structure of coal briquette by electron microscopic also verifies that the cohesion and water resistance of coal briquette with tar pitch is stronger, and it is because that interaction of air bubble poduced by volatile separated under hot state through colloid pressures the colloid and form the stronger net-structure on coal granules surface. Moreover, the particle size of tar pitch also have certain effect on thermal strength of coal briquette.

  1. 不同快速裂解气氛下的烟煤表面微观特性%Investigation into microscopic characteristics of bituminous surface under different fast pyrolysis conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亮; 齐永锋; 张冬冬; 李正明; 马丽; 常轩; 马强


    采用实验工况与电站煤粉锅炉相近的管式炉实验装置,分别制取了N2,(ψ)(N2)=83.4%∶(ψ)(CO2)=16.6%,(ψ)(N2)=81.6%∶(ψ)(CO2)=16.6%∶(ψ)(O2)=1.8%3种气氛下神木烟煤快速裂解的煤焦.结合扫描电子显微镜和烟气分析仪检测发现,与煤粉处于堆积态的慢速热解不同,3种气氛下煤快速热解时破碎的小颗粒较多,随着停留时间的增加,煤焦表面的小孔结构逐渐增多;与N2气氛下相比,加入CO2后煤焦表面变得更致密,再加入O2后,随着停留时间的增加,煤焦表面发生微弱燃烧.%In a drop tube furnace with the combustion conditions similar to those of actual pulverized coal furnace,ShenMu bituminous coal char of fast pyrolysis conditions are prepared under different reaction atmospheres of N2,(ψ)(N2) = 83.4% ∶ (ψ)(CO2) = 16.6%,(ψ)(N2) = 81.6% ∶ (ψ)(CO2) =16.6% ∶ (ψ)(O2)= 1.8%.By means of scanning electron microscopy and flue gas analyzer,the achieved experimental results are quite different from slow pyrolysis of packing pulverized coal.Under fast pyrolysis conditions,more small particles of coal crushing are found.With increasing residence time,the small holes on the surface of char gradually increase.Compared with N2 atmosphere,the surface of the char under (ψ)(N2) = 83.4 % ∶ (ψ)(CO2) = 16.6 % atmosphere becomes more densely.Finally,with increasing residence time,under (ψ)(N2) = 81.6% ∶ (ψ)(CO2) = 16.6% ∶ (ψ)(O2) =1.8% atmosphere,some weak fire is found on the surface of the coal char.

  2. Preliminary experimental study of bituminous coal gasification on dual fluidized beds%烟煤在双流化床中气化特性初步实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武小军; 范晓旭; 陈文义; 初雷哲


    利用一套高3m的双流化床煤气化实验系统,以烟煤为燃料进行了气化初步实验研究.烟煤在气化炉中进行热解气化,生成的半焦经下返料器送入燃烧炉进行燃烧,通过高温循环灰携带能量供给气化炉.通过调整气化炉内料层高度改变燃料在气化炉内的停留时间,从而影响气化效果,料层高度可以通过气化炉内压差进行监测.烟煤气化达到稳定工况时,燃烧炉和气化炉的温度和压差基本保持稳定.燃气热值为5.53 MJ/m3,尚未达到中热值标准,原因在于实验装置规模较小导致散热损失较大,同时返料器以空气为返料风降低了燃气品质.%Gasification experiments on bituminous coal were made in an experimental system of dual fluidized beds with 3 m in height. Gasifier was used for coal pyrolysis/gasification. Semicarbon was sent into burner for combustion by U-valve. Energy for gasification was carried by high temperature cycle ash. Status of gasification can be influenced by residence time of fuel which can be changed by adjusting the bed material level in gasifier. Differential pressures in gasifier were used for analyzed the bed material level. The temperature and differential pressure in gasifier and burner maintained stability when gasification condition operated steadily. The calorific value of gas was 5.53 MJ/Nm3 and didn't reach the standard of medium heat value. The cause is that the heat loss is bigger in small size and gas quality was decreased by the air which is used as return wind.

  3. Black Molecular Adsorber Coatings for Spaceflight Applications (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Hasegawa, Mark Makoto; Straka, Sharon A.


    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  4. A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.


    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

  5. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server


    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gubanova


    Full Text Available The design of anti-reflective coatings for metal surfaces of Al, Ti, N,i Cr is proposed. The coatings have the form of alternating layers of dielectric/metal/dielectric with the number of cells up to15. The method of calculation of such coatings is proposed. We have calculated the coatings of the type [HfO2/Cr/HfO2]15, [ZrO2/Ti/Al2O3]15, [ZrO2/Cr/ZrO2]15. It is shown that the proposed interference coatings provide reduction of the residual reflectance of the metal several times (from 3.5 to 6.0 in a wide spectral range (300-1000 nm. The proposed coatings can be recommended as anti-reflective coatings for energy saving solar systems and batteries, and photovoltaic cells.

  7. Properties of Plasma and HVOF Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Żórawski


    Full Text Available The work compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

  8. Status of NEG Coating at ESRF

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Michael


    The ESRF non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating facility is in operation since two years now. A large part of the insertion device straight sections of the electron storage ring has been equipped with in-house coated 5m long aluminum vacuum chambers with an inner vertical aperture of 8 mm. Operational experience with different coating parameters leading to different film thicknesses will be given and compared to bremsstrahlung data. The paper deals also with improvements of the coating production and chamber preparation, and describes some aspects of NEG coating data acquisition, visualization, and remote control. The R&D program leading to a more powerful DC solenoidal coating tool to further improve the NEG coating production throughput and quality aspects is also discussed.

  9. Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)


    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  10. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    comprising a chemically bonded monolayer of silane compounds on the at least one surface wherein the silane is a halogenated silane. The at least one surface coated with the anti-stiction coating may be configured to withstand an injection molding process at a pressure above 100 MPa. Furthermore, a mold......A method of preparing an aluminum mold for injection molding is provided, the method comprises the steps of providing an aluminum mold having a least one surface, subjecting the at least one surface to a gas or liquid phase silane to thereby form an anti-stiction coating, the anti-stiction coating...... having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding...

  11. Thermal Residual Stresses in Multilayered Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiancheng ZHANG; Binshi XU; Haidou WANG; Yixiong WU


    The mechanical integrity and reliability of coated devices are strongly affected by the residual stresses in thin films and coatings. However, due to the metallurgical complexity of materials, it is rather difficult to obtain a closed-form solution of residual stresses within multilayered coatings (e.g. functionally graded coatings, FGCs). In this paper,an analytical model is developed to predict the distribution of residual stresses within multilayered coatings. The advantage of this model is that the solution of residual stresses is independent of the number of layers. Specific results are obtained by calculating elastic thermal stresses in ZrO2/NiCoCrAIY FGCs, which consist of different material layers. Furthermore, the residual stress distribution near the edges and the stress-induced failure modes of coating are also analyzed. The topics discussed provide some insights into the development of a methodology for designing fail-safe coating systems.

  12. Wrinkling of solidifying polymeric coatings (United States)

    Basu, Soumendra Kumar


    In coatings, wrinkles are viewed as defects or as desired features for low gloss, and texture. In either case, discovering the origin of wrinkles and the conditions that lead to their formation is important. This research examines what wrinkling requires and proposes a mechanism to explain the observations. All curing wrinkling coatings contain multi-functional reactants. Upon curing, all develop a depth-wise gradient in solidification that result in a cross-linked elastic skin atop a viscous bottom layer. It is hypothesized that compressive stress develops in the skin when liquid below diffuses up into the skin. High enough compressive stress buckles the skin to produce wrinkles. The hypothesis is substantiated by experimental and theoretical evidences. Effects of various application and compositional parameters on wrinkle size in a liquid-applied acrylic coating and a powder-applied epoxy coating were examined. All three components, namely resin, cross-linker and catalyst blocked with at least equimolar volatile blocker, proved to be required for wrinkling. The wrinkling phenomenon was modeled with a theory that accounts for gradient generation, cross-linking reaction and skinning; predictions compared well with observations. Two-layer non-curing coatings that have a stiff elastic layer atop a complaint elastic bottom layer wrinkled when the top layer is compressed. The top layer was compressed by either moisture absorption or differential thermal expansion. Experimental observations compared well with predictions from a theory based on force balance in multilayer systems subjected to differential contraction or expansion. A model based on the Flory-Rehner free energy of a constrained cross-linked gel was constructed that predicts the compressive stress generated in a coating when it absorbs solvent. Linear stability analysis predicts that when a compressed elastic layer is attached atop a viscous layer, it is always unstable to buckles whose wavelength exceeds a

  13. High efficiency turbine blade coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallis, Michail A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600°C and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the

  14. High efficiency turbine blade coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Gallis, Michail A.


    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600 oC and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the production of layered

  15. Residual Stresses Modeled in Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Freborg, A. M.; Ferguson, B. L.; Petrus, G. J.; Brindley, W. J.


    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) applications continue to increase as the need for greater engine efficiency in aircraft and land-based gas turbines increases. However, durability and reliability issues limit the benefits that can be derived from TBC's. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms that cause TBC failure is a key to increasing, as well as predicting, TBC durability. Oxidation of the bond coat has been repeatedly identified as one of the major factors affecting the durability of the ceramic top coat during service. However, the mechanisms by which oxidation facilitates TBC failure are poorly understood and require further characterization. In addition, researchers have suspected that other bond coat and top coat factors might influence TBC thermal fatigue life, both separately and through interactions with the mechanism of oxidation. These other factors include the bond coat coefficient of thermal expansion, the bond coat roughness, and the creep behavior of both the ceramic and bond coat layers. Although it is difficult to design an experiment to examine these factors unambiguously, it is possible to design a computer modeling "experiment" to examine the action and interaction of these factors, as well as to determine failure drivers for TBC's. Previous computer models have examined some of these factors separately to determine their effect on coating residual stresses, but none have examined all the factors concurrently. The purpose of this research, which was performed at DCT, Inc., in contract with the NASA Lewis Research Center, was to develop an inclusive finite element model to characterize the effects of oxidation on the residual stresses within the TBC system during thermal cycling as well as to examine the interaction of oxidation with the other factors affecting TBC life. The plasma sprayed, two-layer thermal barrier coating that was modeled incorporated a superalloy substrate, a NiCrAlY bond coat, and a ZrO2-8 wt % Y2O3 ceramic top coat. We

  16. Method of Producing Controlled Thermal Expansion Coat for Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Brindley, William J. (Inventor); Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Aikin, Beverly J. M. (Inventor)


    An improved thermal barrier coating and method for producing and applying such is disclosed herein. The thermal barrier coatings includes a high temperature substrate, a first bond coat layer applied to the substrate of MCrAlX and a second bond coat layer of MCrAlX with particles of a particulate dispersed throughout the MCrAlX and the preferred particulate is Al2O3. The particles of the particulate dispersed throughout the second bond coat layer preferably have a diameter of less then the height of the peaks of the second bond coat layer or a diameter of less than 5 micron. The method of producing the second bond coat layer may either include the steps of mechanical alloying of particles throughout the second bond coat layer, attrition milling the particles of the particulate throughout the second bond coat layer, or using electrophoresis to disperse the particles throughout the second bond coat layer. In the preferred embodiment of the invention the first bond coat layer is applied to the substrate. and then the second bond coat layer is thermally sprayed onto the first bond coat layer. Further, in a preferred embodiment of the invention a ceramic insulating layer covers the second bond coat layer.

  17. Service life model for bituminous roofing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Erik; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy

    Paperet beskriver opbygningen af en levetidsmodel for tagpap. Desuden beskrives resultater af undersøgelser af en række tage der har været i brug 10-15 år og hvordan resultaterne af undersøgelser af disse indvirker på modellen....

  18. Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondi, Giulio; Tataranni, Piergiorgio; Pettinari, Matteo


    together with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and, consequently, there is a large number of variables that can be considered in the mix-design process of new eco-friendly Cold Recycled Mixes. In particular, the present research involves the use of Crumb Rubber within a mixture containing 100% Reclaimed...... Asphalt Pavement, cold recycled with bitumen emulsion and cement. Two different Crumb Rubbers were adopted: one from the ambient production method, and one produced with the cryogenic process. The goal of this research project was to analyze and evaluate the different physical and mechanical...... characteristics induced by the shared use of two different types of Crumb Rubber in the Cold Recycled Mixes....

  19. Development of New Bituminous Pavement Design Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    The report and work of COST Action 333 sets in place the foundation for a coherent, cost-effective and harmonised European pavement design method. In order to do this, the work programme focused on information gathering, identification of requirements and the selection of the necessary design...... elements for such a European design method. During the course of the Action, 20 countries signed the Memorandum of Understanding and participated in the work, thus showing a very high level of interest in the work programme and results.The document contains a very thorough review of the position in Europe...... at the present time and identifies the basic framework for a design method. It then clearly shows the necessary steps to be taken in the future in order to arrive at a method based on current best practice in the shorter term, and then to move to improved versions....

  20. Multilayer coating for high gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, Takayuki


    The multilayer coating for high gradients is reviewed. Not only the S-I-S structure, but also the S-S bilayer structure are also treated. This is an incomplete manuscript of an invited article which will be submitted to a journal. I have uploaded this version in order to help the understanding on my talk at the TESLA Technology Collaboration meeting at Saclay, France.

  1. Beryllium coating on Inconel tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailescu, V.; Burcea, G.; Lungu, C.P.; Mustata, I.; Lungu, A.M. [Association EURATOM-MEC Romania, National Institute of Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Rubel, M. [Alfven Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Coad, J.P. [Culham Science Centre, EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon, OX, Oxon (United Kingdom); Matthews, G.; Pedrick, L.; Handley, R. [UKAEA Fusion, Association Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science and Engineering Centre, OX 3DB ABINGDON, Oxon (United Kingdom)


    Full text of publication follows: The Joint European Torus (JET) is a large experimental nuclear fusion device. Its aim is to confine and study the behaviour of plasma in conditions and dimensions approaching those required for a fusion reactor. The plasma is created in the toroidal shaped vacuum vessel of the machine in which it is confined by magnetic fields. In preparation for ITER a new ITER-like Wall (ILW) will be installed on Joint European Torus (JET), a wall not having any carbon facing the plasma [1]. In places Inconel tiles are to be installed, these tiles shall be coated with Beryllium. MEdC represented by the National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest and in direct cooperation with Nuclear Fuel Plant Pitesti started to coat Inconel tiles with 8 {mu}m of Beryllium in accordance with the requirements of technical specification and fit for installation in the JET machine. This contribution provides an overview of the principles of manufacturing processes using thermal evaporation method in vacuum and the properties of the prepared coatings. The optimization of the manufacturing process (layer thickness, structure and purity) has been carried out on Inconel substrates (polished and sand blasted) The results of the optimization process and analysis (SEM, TEM, XRD, Auger, RBS, AFM) of the coatings will be presented. Reference [1] Takeshi Hirai, H. Maier, M. Rubel, Ph. Mertens, R. Neu, O. Neubauer, E. Gauthier, J. Likonen, C. Lungu, G. Maddaluno, G. F. Matthews, R. Mitteau, G. Piazza, V. Philipps, B. Riccardi, C. Ruset, I. Uytdenhouwen, R and D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET TIER-like Wall Project, 24. Symposium on Fusion Technology - 11-15 September 2006 -Warsaw, Poland. (authors)

  2. Standardization in optical coating characterisation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the rapid development course of laser technology and modern optics, optical metrology continuously gains importance for the quality management in the industrial production environment and also for research in optical coatings. Besides absorption and scatter losses, the spectral characteristics and laser induced damage thresholds are considered as common quality factors for coated optical components and often define the optimization targets for new products and applications. Also, these quality parameters are the basis for the comparison of commercial optics and can be found in the product catalogues of most manufacturers of optical components. As a consequence, standardization of characterisation procedures for these fundamental properties evolved to a crucial point for the optics industry. During the last decade, adapted standard measurement techniques have been elaborated and discussed by representatives from many industrial companies and research institutes within working groups of the International Organisation for Standardization (ISO). In this contribution, the current state of standardized characterisation techniques for optical coatings is summarised. Selected standards for the measurement of absorption (ISO 11551), scattering (ISO 13696) and laser induced damage thresholds (ISO 11254, Parts 1 and 2) will be described and discussed in view of their applicability and reproducibility. The report will be concluded by an outlook on the current projects and future tasks of standardization in optics characterisation.

  3. Measurement of surface crystallinity of PAA and PAANa coatings and its effect on hydrophilicity of coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘春跃; 刘清泉; 徐先华; 陈振华


    The solutions of poly(acrylic acid)(PAA), poly(acrylic acid sodium)(PAANa) were coated on aluminium fins by roll coating method. The coatings with different crystallinity were obtained by varying baking time and temperature. Their surface crystallinity and surface tension were measured, and their spreading speed constant and equilibrium contact angle were tested also. The correlation of surface crystallinity, surface tension, spreading speed constant and surface hydrophilicity was discussed. It is demonstrated that surface tension and spreading speed constant increase, while equilibrium contact angle declines with increasing surface crystallinity of coatings, that is to say, the hydrophilicity of coatings is improved with surface crystallinity of coatings increasing.

  4. A New Method to Prepare Hydroxylapatite Coating of Implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new method ( sintering method) to prepare hydroxylapatite coating of implants was developed. The coating was characterized by X- ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy with a Nicolet FTIR aparatus. The adhesion strength of coating to metal substrate were measured. The bone ingrowth of coated substrate was observed and clinical application of coated implants were reported in this paper. The comparison results of sintered coating and plasma sparied coating was discussed.

  5. Brush seal shaft wear resistant coatings (United States)

    Howe, Harold


    Brush seals suffer from high wear, which reduces their effectiveness. This work sought to reduce brush seal wear by identifying and testing several industry standard coatings. One of the coatings was developed for this work. It was a co-sprayed PSZ with boron-nitride added for a high temperature dry lubricant. Other coatings tested were a PSZ, chrome carbide and a bare rotor. Testing of these coatings included thermal shocking, tensile testing and wear/coefficient of friction testing. Wear testing consisted of applying a coating to a rotor and then running a sample tuft of SiC ceramic fiber against the coating. Surface speeds at point of contact were slightly over 1000 ft/sec. Rotor wear was noted, as well as coefficient of friction data. Results from the testing indicates that the oxide ceramic coatings cannot withstand the given set of conditions. Carbide coatings will not work because of the need for a metallic binder, which oxidizes in the high heat produced by friction. All work indicated a need for a coating that has a lubricant contained within itself and the coating must be resistant to an oxidizing environment.

  6. Microneedle Coating Techniques for Transdermal Drug Delivery. (United States)

    Haj-Ahmad, Rita; Khan, Hashim; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Rasekh, Manoochehr; Hussain, Amjad; Walsh, Susannah; Li, Xiang; Chang, Ming-Wei; Ahmad, Zeeshan


    Drug administration via the transdermal route is an evolving field that provides an alternative to oral and parenteral routes of therapy. Several microneedle (MN) based approaches have been developed. Among these, coated MNs (typically where drug is deposited on MN tips) are a minimally invasive method to deliver drugs and vaccines through the skin. In this review, we describe several processes to coat MNs. These include dip coating, gas jet drying, spray coating, electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA) based processes and piezoelectric inkjet printing. Examples of process mechanisms, conditions and tested formulations are provided. As these processes are independent techniques, modifications to facilitate MN coatings are elucidated. In summary, the outcomes and potential value for each technique provides opportunities to overcome formulation or dosage form limitations. While there are significant developments in solid degradable MNs, coated MNs (through the various techniques described) have potential to be utilized in personalized drug delivery via controlled deposition onto MN templates.

  7. Thermal barrier coatings for heat engine components (United States)

    Levine, S. R.; Miller, R. A.; Hodge, P. E.


    A comprehensive NASA-Lewis program of coating development for aircraft gas turbine blades and vanes is presented. Improved ceramic layer compositions are investigated, along the MCrAlY bond films and the methods of uniform deposition of the coatings; the thermomechanical and fuel impurity tolerance limits of the coatings are being studied. Materials include the ZrO2-Y2O3/NiCrAlY system; the effects of the bond coat and zirconia composition on coating life and Mach 1 burner rig test results are discussed. It is concluded that Diesel engines can also utilize thermal barrier coatings; they have been used successfully on piston crowns and exhaust valves of shipboard engines to combat lower grade fuel combustion corrosion.

  8. Protection of aluminium by duplex coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, J. [Ceska Akademie Ved, Prague (Czech Republic). Fyzikalni Ustav; Vlcek, J. [West Bohemia Univ., Plzen (Czech Republic). Dept. of Phys.; Jezek, V. [West Bohemia Univ., Plzen (Czech Republic). Dept. of Phys.; Benda, M. [West Bohemia Univ., Plzen (Czech Republic). Dept. of Phys.


    The paper reports on a new way of producing duplex coatings consisting of two steps. First, the substrate is coated by a physically vapour-deposited coating. Then, this precoated substrate is plasma nitrided or vacuum heat treated. This method was tested in the protection of substrates made of aluminium with a sputtered Ti coating about 5 {mu}m thick. The as-deposited and then plasma-nitrided or vacuum-heat-treated (Ti coating)/(Al substrate) couple was characterized by elemental depth profiles measured by glow discharge optical spectroscopy. It was shown that both the plasma nitriding and vacuum heat treatment process can stimulate a strong interdiffusion between Ti and the substrate elements. It results not only in the formation of a very broad interfacial region with a dramatic redistribution of the substrate elements in the Ti film but also in a formation of intermetallic Ti-Al compounds. This new duplex coating technique is described in detail. (orig.)

  9. Microneedle Coating Techniques for Transdermal Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Haj-Ahmad


    Full Text Available Drug administration via the transdermal route is an evolving field that provides an alternative to oral and parenteral routes of therapy. Several microneedle (MN based approaches have been developed. Among these, coated MNs (typically where drug is deposited on MN tips are a minimally invasive method to deliver drugs and vaccines through the skin. In this review, we describe several processes to coat MNs. These include dip coating, gas jet drying, spray coating, electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA based processes and piezoelectric inkjet printing. Examples of process mechanisms, conditions and tested formulations are provided. As these processes are independent techniques, modifications to facilitate MN coatings are elucidated. In summary, the outcomes and potential value for each technique provides opportunities to overcome formulation or dosage form limitations. While there are significant developments in solid degradable MNs, coated MNs (through the various techniques described have potential to be utilized in personalized drug delivery via controlled deposition onto MN templates.

  10. Development on Laser Cladding Ceramic Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The latest progress and research status of laser cladding ceramic coating was summarized. Technique characteristics and influence factors of laser cladding technique were introduced. Laser cladding technique includes the mixing method and laser irradiation. The mixing method can be classified as pre-coating method and synchronization method. The technique parameters include size of facula, scanning speed, cladding sector and times, adding quantity of powder, thickness of coating and quantity of joint coating. The results show that proper technique parameters can be controlled in order to acquire high quality laser cladding coating. Strengthened effect mechanism of rare earth additive is concluded, and the main effects of rare earth additive are micro-alloying, purifying boundary, fining crystal grains, improving crystal boundary, restraining columnar crystal growing. The development of laser cladding ceramic coating research was discussed.

  11. Crystallization of DNA-coated colloids. (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yufeng; Zheng, Xiaolong; Ducrot, Étienne; Yodh, Jeremy S; Weck, Marcus; Pine, David J


    DNA-coated colloids hold great promise for self-assembly of programmed heterogeneous microstructures, provided they not only bind when cooled below their melting temperature, but also rearrange so that aggregated particles can anneal into the structure that minimizes the free energy. Unfortunately, DNA-coated colloids generally collide and stick forming kinetically arrested random aggregates when the thickness of the DNA coating is much smaller than the particles. Here we report DNA-coated colloids that can rearrange and anneal, thus enabling the growth of large colloidal crystals from a wide range of micrometre-sized DNA-coated colloids for the first time. The kinetics of aggregation, crystallization and defect formation are followed in real time. The crystallization rate exhibits the familiar maximum for intermediate temperature quenches observed in metallic alloys, but over a temperature range smaller by two orders of magnitude, owing to the highly temperature-sensitive diffusion between aggregated DNA-coated colloids.

  12. Localized plasmons in graphene-coated nanospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Wubs, Martijn;


    We present an analytical derivation of the electromagnetic response of a spherical object coated by a conductive film, here exemplified by a graphene coating. Applying the framework of Mie-Lorenz theory augmented to account for a conductive boundary condition, we derive the multipole scattering c...... cross section and local density of states. Recent demonstrations of fabricated spherical graphene nanostructures make our study directly relevant to experiments.......We present an analytical derivation of the electromagnetic response of a spherical object coated by a conductive film, here exemplified by a graphene coating. Applying the framework of Mie-Lorenz theory augmented to account for a conductive boundary condition, we derive the multipole scattering...... for the localized plasmons. We consider graphene coatings of both dielectric and conducting spheres, where the graphene coating in the former case introduces the plasmons and in the latter case modifies in interesting ways the existing ones. Finally, we discuss our analytical results in the context of extinction...

  13. Smart self-repairing protective coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria V. Andreeva


    Full Text Available Nanocontainers with a shell possessing controlled release properties can be used to fabricate a new family of active coatings that can respond quickly to changes in the coating environment or the coating's integrity. The release of corrosion inhibitors encapsulated within nanocontainers is triggered by the corrosion process, which prevents the spontaneous leakage of the corrosion inhibitor out of the coating. Moreover, if different types of nanocontainers loaded with the corresponding active agents are incorporated simultaneously into a coating matrix, the coating can act in several different ways (e.g. antibacterial, anticorrosion and antistatic. This review presents methods for the fabrication of such nanocontainers, how they can encapsulate active material, and their permeability properties.

  14. Use of nanofillers in wood coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Lawther, John Mark; Sanadi, Anand Ramesh


    Wood has been used for thousands of years and remains an important material in the construction industry, most often protected with coatings. Development of nanotechnology allows further improvements or new performance properties to be achieved in wood coatings. Increased UV protection with nanom...... like a low level of loading, have already established nanoparticles in some areas of wood coatings. This article is a comprehensive scientific review of the published work in the use of nanofillers in wood coatings.......Wood has been used for thousands of years and remains an important material in the construction industry, most often protected with coatings. Development of nanotechnology allows further improvements or new performance properties to be achieved in wood coatings. Increased UV protection...

  15. Press-coating of immediate release powders onto coated controlled release tablets with adhesives. (United States)

    Waterman, Kenneth C; Fergione, Michael B


    A novel adhesive coating was developed that allows even small quantities of immediate-release (IR) powders to be press-coated onto controlled-release (CR), coated dosage forms without damaging the CR coating. The process was exemplified using a pseudoephedrine osmotic tablet (asymmetric membrane technology, AMT) where a powder weighing less than 25% of the core was pressed onto the osmotic tablet providing a final combination tablet with low friability. The dosage form with the adhesive plus the press-coated powder showed comparable sustained drug release rates to the untreated dosage form after an initial 2-h lag. The adhesive layer consisted of an approximately 100- microm coating of Eudragit RL, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and triethyl citrate (TEC) at a ratio of 5:3:1.2. This coating provides a practical balance between handleability before press-coating and good adhesion.

  16. Protection of alodine coatings from thermal aging by removable polymer coatings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagstaff, Brett R. (.); Bradshaw, Robert W.; Whinnery, LeRoy L., Jr. (.,; .)


    Removable polymer coatings were evaluated as a means to suppress dehydration of Alodine chromate conversion coatings during thermal aging and thereby retain the corrosion protection afforded by Alodine. Two types of polymer coatings were applied to Alodine-treated panels of aluminum alloys 7075-T73 and 6061-T6 that were subsequently aged for 15 to 50 hours at temperatures between 135 F to 200 F. The corrosion resistance of the thermally aged panels was evaluated, after stripping the polymer coatings, by exposure to a standard salt-fog corrosion test and the extent of pitting of the polymer-coated and untreated panels compared. Removable polymer coatings mitigated the loss of corrosion resistance due to thermal aging experienced by the untreated alloys. An epoxide coating was more effective than a fluorosilicone coating as a dehydration barrier.

  17. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553 (United States)

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  18. In situ polymerization coating and characteristics of coated NPK compound fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhenghui; ZHU Homing


    Controlled release NPK compound fertilizers were prepared by means of in situ polymerization of monomers on the surface of fertilizer granules at room temperature. Methacrylate, α-methyl acrylic acid, and ethylene dimethylacrylate were used as monomers, Dibenzoyl peroxide as initiator, and cobalt naphthenate, and triethyl amine as promoters. The structures of coating materials were characterized by IR spectra. The thermogravimetric analysis result indicated that the coating materials were of good thermal stability. The mean thickness of single coating measured with screw gauge was ca. 140 μm. The morphologies of uncoated and coated fertilizer granules analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy were changed from porosities and gullies to hills and plain. The release rate of coated compound fertilizers in water could be controlled by the hydrophicity and thickness of coating. The increase in coating hydrophicity caused the increase in release rate of fertilizer. The increase in thickness of coating slowed the release rate.

  19. Standard practice for characterization of coatings using conformable Eddy-Current sensors without coating reference standards

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice covers the use of conformable eddy-current sensors for nondestructive characterization of coatings without standardization on coated reference parts. It includes the following: (1) thickness measurement of a conductive coating on a conductive substrate, (2) detection and characterization of local regions of increased porosity of a conductive coating, and (3) measurement of thickness for nonconductive coatings on a conductive substrate or on a conductive coating. This practice includes only nonmagnetic coatings on either magnetic (μ ≠ μ0) or nonmagnetic (μ = μ0) substrates. This practice can also be used to measure the effective thickness of a process-affected zone (for example, shot peened layer for aluminum alloys, alpha case for titanium alloys). For specific types of coated parts, the user may need a more specific procedure tailored to a specific application.

  20. Advanced optical coatings for astronomical instrumentation (United States)

    Pradal, Fabien; Leplan, Hervé; Vayssade, Hervé; Geyl, Roland


    Recently Safran Reosc worked and progressed on various thin film technology for: Large mirrors with low stress and stable coatings. Large lens elements with strong curvature and precise layer specifications. Large filters with high spectral response uniformity specifications. IR coatings with low stress and excellent resistance to cryogenic environment for NIR to LWIR domains. Pixelated coatings. Results will be presented and discussed on the basis of several examples.

  1. Effects of High Temperature on Collector Coatings (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.


    Report reveals electroplated black chrome is good coating for concentrating collectors in which temperatures are in the 650 degrees-800 degrees F (340 degrees - 430 degrees C) range. Black chrome thermal emittance is low and solar-absorption properties are not seriously degraded at high temperatures. Black coatings are used to increase absorption of solar energy by base metal while decreasing emission of infrared energy. Coatings are intended to improve efficiency of solar collectors.

  2. Surface and Mechanical studies of Bismaleimide coatings


    Bhattacharyya, A. S.; Paul, D; Dutta, P. P.; Bhattacharjee, G.


    Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are a new breed of thermosetting resins used mainly for high temperature applications and have major usage in aerospace. BMI polymer coatings were deposited on aluminum and mild steel substrates. The effect of corrosion on mild steel and aluminum by Ringers Solution and there protection using BMI coatings were observed. X-ray diffraction studies showed crystalline nature of the BMI coatings. Surface contact angle measurements were carried out using goniometer.

  3. Durable Hybrid Coatings Annual Performance Report (2009) (United States)


    York, 2002. 13. F. Massines, N. Gherardi, A. Fornelli, S. Martin , “Atmospheric pressure plasma deposition of thin films by Townsend dielectric...evaluating protective merit of coatings on metals,” Ind. Eng. Chem., vol. 40, p. 161, Jan. 1948. [7] B. L. Grisso, L. A. Martin , and D. J. Inman, “A...ASTM D5894 and the Development of Corrosion Resistant Coatings,” Paint & Coatings Industry, May, 1997, 76. 8. N. D. Cremer , Polymers Paint Colour

  4. Improving YBCO Coated Conductors for Applications (Postprint) (United States)


    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0123 IMPROVING YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS FOR APPLICATIONS (POSTPRINT) P.N. Barnes, B.C. Harrison, J.W. Kell, and G.A...SUBTITLE IMPROVING YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS FOR APPLICATIONS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...are lighter in weight and smaller in size than their conventional counterparts. The YBCO coated conductor is expected to be the premiere HTS conductor

  5. Powder coating now available for battery manufacturing


    Landwehr, Inga; Cudazzo, Markus


    A space-saving, cost-efficient and eco-friendly new electrostatic powder coatings for electrode manufacturing: Manufacturing electrodes for electrochemical energy storage is an important and costly process. The disadvantages of so far used liquid-coatings are the high energy and floor space demand of drying-process as well as the application of harmful solvents. A new powder-based coating process eliminates potential hazards and offers numerous advantages.

  6. Cr-Free Metallic-Ceramic Coatings (United States)


    Cr-FREE METALLIC- CERAMIC COATINGS ASETS Defense 2014 Fort Myer, VA, November 18-20, 2014 Bruce McMordie Coatings for Industry 319... Ceramic Coatings 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Surface Engineering for Aerospace and Defense, 18-20 Nov 2014, Fort Myer, VA. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  7. Loss/gain-induced ultrathin antireflection coatings


    Jie Luo; Sucheng Li; Bo Hou; Yun Lai


    Tradional antireflection coatings composed of dielectric layers usually require the thickness to be larger than quarter wavelength. Here, we demonstrate that materials with permittivity or permeability dominated by imaginary parts, i.e. lossy or gain media, can realize non-resonant antireflection coatings in deep sub-wavelength scale. Interestingly, while the reflected waves are eliminated as in traditional dielectric antireflection coatings, the transmitted waves can be enhanced or reduced, ...

  8. Effects of coating spherical iron oxide nanoparticles



    International audience; We investigate the effect of several coatings applied in biomedical applications to iron oxide nanoparticles on the size, structure and composition of the particles. The four structural techniques employed – TEM, DLS, VSM, SAXS and EXAFS – show no significant effects of the coatings on the spherical shape of the bare nanoparticles, the average sizes or the local order around the Fe atoms. The NPs coated with hydroxylmethylene bisphosphonate or catechol have a lower pro...

  9. Advancements in application of thermoplastic powder coatings for railcar linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, D.; Loustaunau, P.J. [PFS Thermoplastic Powder Coatings and Equipment, Big Spring, TX (United States)


    Powder coatings offer many benefits for coating applications. These products offer zero VOC emissions and improved performance. Railcars have been largely excluded from these applications due to their physical size. With innovative coating materials and coating techniques, these parts may be economically lined with high performance polymer coatings.

  10. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate ester copolymer coating. 175.210 Section... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.210 Acrylate ester copolymer coating. Acrylate ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for...

  11. Optical coatings for laser fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.; Rainer, F.


    Lasers for fusion experiments use thin-film dielectric coatings for reflecting, antireflecting and polarizing surface elements. Coatings are most important to the Nd:glass laser application. The most important requirements of these coatings are accuracy of the average value of reflectance and transmission, uniformity of amplitude and phase front of the reflected or transmitted light, and laser damage threshold. Damage resistance strongly affects the laser's design and performance. The success of advanced lasers for future experiments and for reactor applications requires significant developments in damage resistant coatings for ultraviolet laser radiation.

  12. Heat Generation by Polypyrrole Coated Glass Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Rehan Abbasi


    Full Text Available Vapor deposition technique was employed to coat polypyrrole (PPy on glass substrate using FeCl3 as oxidant and p-toluenesulfonic acid (−OTs as doping agent. The Joule heating effect of PPy coated E-glass fabric was studied by supplying various DC electric fields. The coated fabric exhibited reasonable electrical stability, possessed medium electrical conductivity and was effective in heat generation. An increase in temperature of conductive fabric subjected to constant voltage was observed whereas decrease in power consumption was recorded. Thickness of PPy coating on glass fibers was analyzed by Laser confocal microscope and scanning electron microscope.

  13. Stresses and Cracks in Surface Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsewell, Andy


    This extended abstract of the talk to be given at the Danish Metallurgical Society, Winter Meeting 1999, gives an outline of the areas of interest in current projects in wear and corrosion resistant coatings at Materials Technology, Technical University of Denmark (IPT, Materialeteknologi, DTU......). It also briefly describes our method of approach in analysing new coating / substrate combinations or new materials processing techniques for producing a given coating. We strive to combine, often in collaboration with others, a fundamental understanding of microstructure, mechanical properties...... and fracture mechanics in order to determine the mechanical stability of engineering coatings for various critical applications....

  14. Method for partially coating laser diode facets (United States)

    Dholakia, Anil R. (Inventor)


    Bars of integral laser diode devices cleaved from a wafer are placed with their p regions abutting and n regions abutting. A thin BeCu mask having alternate openings and strips of the same width as the end facets is used to mask the n region interfaces so that multiple bars can be partially coated over their exposed p regions with a reflective or partial reflective coating. The partial coating permits identification of the emitting facet from the fully coated back facet during a later device mounting procedure.

  15. An overview on novel thermal barrier coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) offer the potential to significantly improve efficiencies of aero engines as well as stationary gas turbines for power generation. On internally cooled turbine parts, temperature gradients of the order of 100-150℃ can be achieved. TBCs, typically consisting of an yttrium stabilized zirconia top coat and a metallic bond coat deposited onto a superalloy substrate, are mainly used to extend lifetime. Further efficiency improvements require TBCs being an integral part of the component which requires reliable and predictable TBC performance. TBCs produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EbPVD) or plasma spray (PS) deposition are favored for high performance applications. The paper highlights critical R&D needs for advanced TBC systems with a special focus on reduced thermal conductivity and life prediction needs. To further enhance the efficiency of gas turbines, higher temperature and a longer lifetime of the coating are needed for the next generation of TBCs. This paper presents the development of new materials, new deposition technologies, and new concept for application as novel TBCs. This paper summarizes the basic properties of conventional thermal barrier coatings. Based on our own investigation, we reviewed the progress on materials and technologies of novel thermal barrier coatings. Except yttria stabilized zirconia, other materials such as lanthanum zirconate and rare earth oxides are also promising materials for thermal barrier coatings. Nanostructure thermal barrier coating is presented as a new concept. This paper also summarizes the technologies for depositing the thermal barrier coatings.

  16. UV curable hard coatings on polyesters (United States)

    Datashvili, Tea; Brostow, Witold; Kao, David


    UV curable, hard and transparent hybrid inorganic-organic coatings with covalent links between the inorganic and the organic networks were prepared using organically crosslinked heteropolysiloxanes based on the sol-gel process. The materials were applied onto polyester sheets and UV cured. The deposition was followed by a thermal treatment to improve mechanical properties of the coatings. High light transmission and the resulting thermophysical properties indicate the presence of a nanoscale hybrid composition. The coatings show excellent adhesion to polyesters even without using primers. Further mechanical characterization shows that the coatings provide high hardness and good abrasion resistance.

  17. Nanostructured diamond coatings for orthopaedic applications. (United States)

    Catledge, S A; Thomas, V; Vohra, Y K


    With increasing numbers of orthopaedic devices being implanted, greater emphasis is being placed on ceramic coating technology to reduce friction and wear in mating total joint replacement components, in order to improve implant function and increase device lifespan. In this chapter, we consider ultra-hard carbon coatings, with emphasis on nanostructured diamond, as alternative bearing surfaces for metallic components. Such coatings have great potential for use in biomedical implants as a result of their extreme hardness, wear resistance, low friction and biocompatibility. These ultra-hard carbon coatings can be deposited by several techniques resulting in a wide variety of structures and properties.

  18. Very High Temperature Sound Absorption Coating Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I demonstrated experimentally a very high temperature acoustically absorbing coating for ducted acoustics applications. High temperature survivability at 3500...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, B.A.; Zhang, Y.; Haynes, J.A.; Wright, I.G.


    In order to determine the potential benefits and limitations of aluminide coatings, coatings made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Fe- and Ni-base alloy substrates are being evaluated in various high-temperature environments. Testing of coatings on representative ferritic (Fe-9Cr-1Mo) and austenitic (type 304L stainless steel) alloys has found that high frequency thermal cycling (1h cycle time) can significantly degrade the coating. Based on comparison with similar specimens with no thermal cycling or a longer cycle time (100h), this degradation was not due to Al loss from the coating but most likely because of the thermal expansion mismatch between the coating and the substrate. Several coated Ni-base alloys were tested in a high pressure (20atm) steam-CO2 environment for the ZEST (zero-emission steam turbine) program. Coated specimens showed less mass loss than the uncoated specimens after 1000h at 900 C and preliminary characterization examined the post-test coating structure and extent of attack.

  20. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Conductive Polymer Coatings (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; MacDowell, Louis G.


    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the corrosion protection performance of twenty nine proprietary conductive polymer coatings for cold rolled steel under immersion in 3.55 percent NaCl. Corrosion potential as well as Bode plots of the data were obtained for each coating after one hour immersion, All coatings, with the exception of one, have a corrosion potential that is higher in the positive direction than the corrosion potential of bare steel under the same conditions. Group A consisted of twenty one coatings with Bode plots indicative of the capacitive behavior characteristic of barrier coatings. An equivalent circuit consisting of a capacitor in series with a resistor simulated the experimental EIS data for these coatings very well. Group B consisted of eight coatings that exhibited EIS spectra showing an inflection point which indicates that two time constants are present. This may be caused by an electrochemical process taking place which could be indicitive of coating failing. These coatings have a lower impedance that those in Group A.

  1. "m=1" coatings for neutron guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, C.P.; Vorobiev, A.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt;


    A substantial part of the price for a neutron guide is the shielding needed because of the gamma ray produced when neutrons are absorbed. This absorption occurs in the coating and the substrate of the neutron guides. Traditional m=1 coatings have been made of Ni and if reflectivity over the criti......A substantial part of the price for a neutron guide is the shielding needed because of the gamma ray produced when neutrons are absorbed. This absorption occurs in the coating and the substrate of the neutron guides. Traditional m=1 coatings have been made of Ni and if reflectivity over...

  2. Silica-Coated Liposomes for Insulin Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Dwivedi


    Full Text Available Liposomes coated with silica were explored as protein delivery vehicles for their enhanced stability and improved encapsulation efficiency. Insulin was encapsulated within the fluidic phosphatidylcholine lipid vesicles by thin film hydration at pH 2.5, and layer of silica was formed above lipid bilayer by acid catalysis. The presence of silica coating and encapsulated insulin was identified using confocal and electron microscopy. The native state of insulin present in the formulation was evident from Confocal Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Silica coat enhances the stability of insulin-loaded delivery vehicles. In vivo study shows that these silica coated formulations were biologically active in reducing glucose levels.

  3. Method of identifying defective particle coatings (United States)

    Cohen, Mark E.; Whiting, Carlton D.


    A method for identifying coated particles having defective coatings desig to retain therewithin a build-up of gaseous materials including: (a) Pulling a vacuum on the particles; (b) Backfilling the particles at atmospheric pressure with a liquid capable of wetting the exterior surface of the coated particles, said liquid being a compound which includes an element having an atomic number higher than the highest atomic number of any element in the composition which forms the exterior surface of the particle coating; (c) Drying the particles; and (d) Radiographing the particles. By television monitoring, examination of the radiographs is substantially enhanced.

  4. Electroless alloy/composite coatings: A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R C Agarwala; Vijaya Agarwala


    Since the inception of electroless coating by Brenner & Riddell in 1946, it has been the subject of research interest and, in the past two decades, emphasis has shifted to the studies of its properties and applications. The co-deposition of particulate matter or substance within the growing film has led to a new generation of electroless composite coatings, many of which possess excellent wear and corrosion resistance. This valuable process can coat not only electrically conductive materials including graphite but also fabrics, insulators like plastics, rubber etc. The low coating rates with these can provide better reflectivity of plated surfaces and many more applications. Coatings can be tailored for desired properties by selecting the composition of the coating alloy/composite/metallic to suit specific requirements. The market for these coatings is expanding fast as the potential applications are on the rise. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review different electroless alloy/composite coatings with respect to bath types and their composition, properties and applications. Different characterisation studies have been conducted on various electroless nickel-based coatings with emphasis on wear and corrosion properties.

  5. Hybrid Calcium Phosphate Coatings for Titanium Implants (United States)

    Kharapudchenko, E.; Ignatov, V.; Ivanov, V.; Tverdokhlebov, S.


    Hybrid multilayer coatings were obtained on titanium substrates by the combination of two methods: the micro-arc oxidation in phosphoric acid solution with the addition of calcium compounds to high supersaturated state and RF magnetron sputtering of the target made of synthetic hydroxyapatite. 16 different groups of coatings were formed on titanium substrates and in vitro studies were conducted in accordance with ISO 23317 in the solution simulating body fluid. The studies using SEM, XRD of the coatings of the samples before and after exposure to SBF were performed. The features of morphology, chemical and phase composition of the studied coatings are shown.

  6. Quantitative Image Analysis for Evaluating the Coating Thickness and Pore Distribution in Coated Small Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laksmana, F L; Van Vliet, L J; Hartman Kok, P J A; Vromans, H; Frijlink, H W; Van der Voort Maarschalk, K


    This study aims to develop a characterization method for coating structure based on image analysis, which is particularly promising for the rational design of coated particles in the pharmaceutical industry. The method applies the MATLAB image processing toolbox to images of coated particles taken w

  7. Hydroxyapatite/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) double coating on magnesium for enhanced corrosion resistance and coating flexibility. (United States)

    Jo, Ji-Hoon; Li, Yuanlong; Kim, Sae-Mi; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Koh, Young-Hag


    Hydroxyapatite was deposited on pure magnesium (Mg) with a flexible poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer to reduce the corrosion rate of Mg and enhance coating flexibility. The poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer was uniformly coated on Mg by a spraying method, followed by hydroxyapatite deposition on the poly(ε-caprolactone) using an aerosol deposition method. In scanning electron microscopy observations, inorganic/organic composite-like structure was observed between the hydroxyapatite and poly(ε-caprolactone) layers, resulting from the collisions of hydroxyapatite particles into the poly(ε-caprolactone) matrix at the initial stage of the aerosol deposition. The corrosion resistance of the coated Mg was examined using potentiodynamic polarization tests. The hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating remarkably improved the corrosion resistance of Mg in Hank's solution. In the in vitro cell tests, the coated Mg showed better cell adhesion compared with the bare Mg due to the reduced corrosion rate and enhanced biocompatibility. The stability and flexibility of hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating was investigated by scanning electron microscopy inspections after the coated Mg was deformed. The hydroxyapatite coating on the poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer revealed enhanced coating stability and flexibility without cracking or delamination during bending and stretching compared with the hydroxyapatite single coating. These results demonstrated that the hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating significantly improved the surface corrosion resistance of Mg and enhanced coating flexibility for use of Mg as a biodegradable implant.

  8. Crop protection by seed coating. (United States)

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M


    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  9. Topology optimization for coated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Andreassen, Erik; Sigmund, Ole


    This paper presents new results within the design of three-dimensional (3D) coated structures using topology optimization.The work is an extension of a recently published two-dimensional (2D) method for including coatedstructures into the minimum compliance topology optimization problem. The high...... level of control over key parameters demonstrated for the 2D model can likewise be achieved in 3D. The effectiveness of the approach isdemonstrated with numerical examples, which for the 3D problems have been solved using a parallel topology optimization implementation based on the PETSc toolkit....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available El desempeño anticorrosivo de un recubrimiento orgánico tipo Epoxy-Mastic fue evaluado en condiciones de inmersión continua en solución salina usando espectroscopía de impedancia electroquímica (EIS. Se determinaron los parámetros típicos como la resistencia de poro y resistencia a la transferencia de carga usando un circuito eléctrico equivalente. Se usaron elementos de fase constante (CPE para determinar la fracción de agua absorbida, coeficientes de difusión de masa, solubilidad y coeficientes de hinchamiento, así como también para predecir los tiempos de falla de dicho recubrimiento. Los resultados hallados por medio de medidas EIS concuerdan con la alta resistencia al deterioro que exhibe el recubrimiento. El excelente desempeño protector es debido principalmente a la baja solubilidad y permeabilidad de agua.

  11. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion (United States)

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  12. Investigation of metallurgical coatings for automotive applications (United States)

    Su, Jun Feng

    Metallurgical coatings have been widely used in the automotive industry from component machining, engine daily running to body decoration due to their high hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance and low friction coefficient. With high demands in energy saving, weight reduction and limiting environmental impact, the use of new materials such as light Aluminum/magnesium alloys with high strength-weight ratio for engine block and advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) with better performance in crash energy management for die stamping, are increasing. However, challenges are emerging when these new materials are applied such as the wear of the relative soft light alloys and machining tools for hard AHSS. The protective metallurgical coatings are the best option to profit from these new materials' advantages without altering largely in mass production equipments, machinery, tools and human labor. In this dissertation, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating processing on aluminum alloys was introduced in engine cylinder bores to resist wear and corrosion. The tribological behavior of the PEO coatings under boundary and starve lubrication conditions was studied experimentally and numerically for the first time. Experimental results of the PEO coating demonstrated prominent wear resistance and low friction, taking into account the extreme working conditions. The numerical elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and asperity contact based tribological study also showed a promising approach on designing low friction and high wear resistant PEO coatings. Other than the fabrication of the new coatings, a novel coating evaluation methodology, namely, inclined impact sliding tester was presented in the second part of this dissertation. This methodology has been developed and applied in testing and analyzing physical vapor deposition (PVD)/ chemical vapor deposition (CVD)/PEO coatings. Failure mechanisms of these common metallurgical hard coatings were systematically

  13. Antibacterial coating on polymer for space application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagna, Cristina, E-mail: [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Perero, Sergio; Ferraris, Sara; Miola, Marta [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Fucale, Giacomo [Chemical, Clinical and Microbiological Analyses Department C.T.O., Via G. Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Manfredotti, Chiara; Battiato, Alfio [Physics Department, Centre of Excellence ' Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces' and CNISM, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Santella, Daniela [Thales Alenia Space - Italia, Space Infrastructures and Transportation, Engineering - Advanced Projects Unit, Strada Antica di Collegno 253, 10146 Torino (Italy); Verne, Enrica [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Vittone, Ettore [Physics Department, Centre of Excellence ' Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces' and CNISM, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Ferraris, Monica [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)


    The microbiological contamination on board of spacecraft and orbital stations is a relevant problem in prolonged space exploration. For this purpose, an antibacterial silver nanocluster silica composite coating was deposited on a commercial polymer Combitherm{sup Registered-Sign }, suitable for aerospace application, using the radio frequency (RF) co-sputtering technique. The presence of metallic silver nanoclusters and silica was confirmed by energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) detected through UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry (UV-Vis). The atomic force microscope (AFM) evidenced the coating morphology. The slight hydrophobicity of both coated and uncoated samples was revealed through the contact angle measurement. The antimicrobial behavior was verified through evaluation of the inhibition halo against several bacterial and fungal species. The coating enhanced the Combitherm{sup Registered-Sign} nano-hardness and its resistance to tensile and perforation tests; the coating wear resistance was measured by abrasion test against Kevlar. A folding procedure on the coated Combitherm{sup Registered-Sign} and storage in air for three months was also carried out without deterioration of the measured properties. The coating deposition did not influence the air permeability of Combitherm{sup Registered-Sign }. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A silver nanocluster silica composite coating was deposited on a polymeric film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A co-sputtering technique was used for the coating deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating induced an antibacterial effect on the polymer film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating improved the nano-hardness and the resistance to tensile and perforation.

  14. Functionally graded mullite coatings for gas turbines (United States)

    Kulkarni, Tushar

    The next generation of heat exchangers and gas turbines require high performance materials as they need to operate at higher temperatures for higher efficiency. SiC and Si3N4 are promising candidates as they have excellent high temperature properties. However, when used in complex combustion environments found in gas-turbine applications, these materials have two major concerns; namely hot-corrosion and recession. It is well established that environmental barrier coatings (EBC) can be utilized to overcome these limitations. Although chemical vapor deposited (CVD) mullite (3Al2O 3.2SiO2) coatings developed before this study have shown promise in protecting Si-based substrates, there is concern that the silica content within the mullite coating itself might be susceptible to hot-corrosion and recession during long term exposure to corrosive atmospheres containing Na/V salts and water vapor. There is thus strong motivation to substantially reduce or even virtually eliminate the silica component from the surfaces of mullite coatings that are in direct contact with atmospheres containing corrosive oxides and steam. In this study, CVD has been used to deposit mullite coatings with potential promise to protect Si-based ceramics for high temperature applications. The composition of these functionally graded mullite coatings was varied from silica-rich close to the coating/substrate (SiC) interface for coefficient of thermal expansion match to alumina-rich towards the outer surface of the coating. In the process, the highest alumina-rich mullite ever reported has been deposited. The phase transformation and hot-corrosion behavior of the coatings was also investigated in this work. The coatings show immense potential to protect Si-based ceramics. It is expected that these coatings will have very broad impact by enabling gas turbines to operate at higher temperatures leading to improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions.

  15. Method for non-destructive evaluation of ceramic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Kristen A.; Rosen, Elias P.; Jordan, Eric H.; Shahbazmohamadi, Sina; Vakhtin, Andrei B.


    A method for evaluating the condition of a ceramic coating deposited on a substrate comprising illuminating the ceramic coating with light, measuring the intensity of light returned from the ceramic coating as function of depth in the coating and transverse position on the coating, and analyzing the measured light intensities to obtain one or more of intensity of the light returned from the exposed coating surface relative to the intensity of light returned from the coating/substrate interface, intensity of the light returned from the coating/substrate interface relative to the intensity of light returned from the bulk of the ceramic coating, determination of roughness at the exposed surface of the ceramic coating, and determination of roughness of the interface between the ceramic coating and underlying bond coat or substrate.

  16. Broadband Reflective Coating Process for Large FUVOIR Mirrors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZeCoat Corporation will develop and demonstrate a set of revolutionary coating processes for making broadband reflective coatings suitable for very large mirrors (4+...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Musil


    The article reviews the present state of the art in the magnetron sputtering of hart and superhard nanocomposite coatings. It is shown that there are (1) two groups of hard and superhard nanocomposites: (i) nc-MN/hard phase and (ii) nc-MN/soft phase, (2) three possible origins of the enhanced hardness: (i) dislocation-dominated plastic deformation, (ii) cohesive forces between atoms and (iii) nanostructure of materials, and (3) huge differences in the microstructure of single- and two-phase films. A main attention is devoted to the formation of nanocrystalline and/or X-ray amorphous films. Such films are created in a vicinity of transitions between (i)crystalline and amorphous phases, (ii) two crystalline phases of different chemical composition or (iii) two different preferred orientations of grains of the sane material from which the coating is composed. The existence of the last transition makes it possible to explain the enhanced hardness in single-phase films. The thermal stability and oxidation resistance of hard nanocomposite films is also shortly discussed.

  18. Nanocapsules: coating for living cells. (United States)

    Krol, Silke; Diaspro, Alberto; Magrassi, Raffaella; Ballario, Paola; Grimaldi, Benedetto; Filetici, Patrizia; Ornaghi, Prisca; Ramoino, Paola; Gliozzi, Alessandra


    One of the most promising tools for future applications in science and medicine is the use of nanotechnologies. Especially self-assembly systems, e.g., polyelectrolyte (PE) capsules prepared by means of the layer-by-layer technique with tailored properties, fulfill the requirements for nano-organized systems in a satisfactory manner. The nano-organized shells are suitable as coating for living cells or artificial tissue to prevent immune response. With these shells, material can be delivered to predefined organs. In this paper, some preliminary results are presented, giving a broad overview over the possibilities to use nano-organized capsules. Based on the observations that the cells while duplicating break the capsule a mutant yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which express GFP-tubulin under galactose promotion, was investigated by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy. The measurements reveal an increased surface charge in the region of buds developed prior encapsulation. In order to test the used PE pair for cytotoxicity, germinating conidia of the fungi Neurospora crassa were coated. The investigation with fluorescence microscopy shows a variation in the surface charge for the growing region and the conidium poles. The capsules exhibit interesting properties as valuable tool in science and a promising candidate for application in the field of medicine.

  19. Bioceramic Coatings for Orthopaedic Implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Allison A.


    During the past century, man-made materials and devices have been developed to the point at which they have been used successfully to replace and/or restore function to diseased or damaged tissues. In the field of orthopaedics, the use of metal implants has significantly improved the quality of life for countless individuals. Critical factors for implant success include proper design, material selection, and biocompatibility. While early research focused on the understanding biomechanical properties of the metal device, recent work has turned toward improving the biological properties of these devices. This has lead to the introduction of calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramics as a bioactive interface between the bulk metal impart and the surrounding tissue. The first calcium phosphate coatings where produced via vapor phase routes but more recently, there has been the emergence of solution based and biomimetic methods. While each approach has its own intrinsic materials and biological properties, in general CaP coatings have the promise to improve implant biocompatibility and ultimately implant longevity.

  20. Measure Guideline. Transitioning From Three-Coat Stucco to One-Coat Stucco With EPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Davis, G. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rapport, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    This measure guideline has been developed to help builders transition from using a traditional three-coat stucco wall-cladding system to a one-coat stucco wall-cladding system with expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulated sheathing. The one-coat system maintains the look of a traditional stucco system but uses only a base layer and a finish coat over EPS insulation that achieves higher levels of energy efficiency. Potential risks associated with the installation of a one-coat stucco system are addressed in terms of design, installation, and warranty concerns such as cracking and delamination, along with mitigation strategies to reduce these risks.

  1. Quantification of coating aging using impedance measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westing, E.P.M. van; Weijde, D.H. van der; Vreijling, M.P.W.; Ferrari, G.M.; Wit, J.H.W. de


    This chapter shows the application results of a novel approach to quantify the ageing of organic coatings using impedance measurements. The ageing quantification is based on the typical impedance behaviour of barrier coatings in immersion. This immersion behaviour is used to determine the limiting c

  2. Selective optical coatings for solar collectors (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.


    For best performance, energy-absorbing surface of solar collector should be characterized by high ratio of solar absorptance to thermal emitance. Report on optical characteristics of several chemical treatments and electrodeposited coatings for metal solar-absorbing surfaces should interest designers and users of solar-energy systems. Moisture resistance of some coatings is also reported.

  3. Coatings Preserve Metal, Stone, Tile, and Concrete (United States)


    John B. Schutt, a chemist at Goddard Space Flight Center, created a coating for spacecraft that could resist corrosion and withstand high heat. After retiring from NASA, Schutt used his expertise to create new formulations for Daytona Beach, Florida-based Adsil Corporation, which now manufactures a family of coatings to preserve various surfaces. Adsil has created 150 jobs due to the products.

  4. Electrospraying for efficient coating of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.K.I.


    There is a continuous need for thinner edible coatings with excellent barrier properties, and this requires new application methods. Electrospraying is known to yield fine droplets of size down to 20 μm, giving the potential of very thin and even coatings. The droplets size was influenced by flow

  5. Innovative Coatings Potentially Lower Facility Maintenance Costs (United States)


    Through extensive testing at Stennis Space Center, Nanocepts Inc. of Lexington, Kentucky, received key validation of the effectiveness of its photocatalytic coatings. Now a NASA Dual Use Technology partner, the company s commercial coatings offer unique environmental and medical benefits, and their self-cleaning properties help limit grime buildup on buildings.

  6. Fracture mechanism of a thermal barrier coating (United States)

    Samoilenko, V. M.; Ravilov, R. G.; Drevnyak, V. V.; Petrova, M. A.


    The fracture mechanism of the thermal barrier coating of gas turbine blades is studied. The causes of the fracture of the ceramic layer are discussed and the possible ways to increase the fatigue life of the thermal barrier coating are considered.

  7. Micro-thermal analysis of polyester coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.


    The application and suitability of micro-thermal analysis to detect changes in the chemical and physical properties of coating due to ageing and especially photo-degradation is demonstrated using a model polyester coating based on neopentyl glycol isophthalic acid. The changes in chemical structure

  8. Transport processes in pea seed coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, Joost Thomas van


    The research described in this thesis concerns transport processes in coats of developing pea seeds. The scope of the investigation ranges from seed coat anatomy, via transport studies to the cloning of cDNA encoding proteinaceous membrane pores, and the heterologous expression of these protei

  9. Optical enhancing durable anti-reflective coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Varadarajan, Aravamuthan; Movassat, Meisam


    Disclosed herein are polysilsesquioxane based anti-reflective coating (ARC) compositions, methods of preparation, and methods of deposition on a substrate. In embodiments, the polysilsesquioxane of this disclosure is prepared in a two-step process of acid catalyzed hydrolysis of organoalkoxysilane followed by addition of tetralkoxysilane that generates silicone polymers with >40 mol % silanol based on Si-NMR. These high silanol siloxane polymers are stable and have a long shelf-life in the polar organic solvents at room temperature. Also disclosed are low refractive index ARC made from these compositions with and without additives such as porogens, templates, Si--OH condensation catalyst and/or nanofillers. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for applying coatings to flat substrates including substrate pre-treatment processes, coating processes including flow coating and roll coating, and coating curing processes including skin-curing using hot-air knives. Also disclosed are coating compositions and formulations for highly tunable, durable, highly abrasion-resistant functionalized anti-reflective coatings.

  10. Coating optimization for the ATHENA+ mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen;


    that further coating developments can improve on the baseline specifications and present here preliminary results on the optimization of coating design based on the new specifications of the ATHENA+ mission. The performances of several material combinations are investigated with the goal of maximizing...

  11. Low absorptance porcelain-on-aluminum coating (United States)

    Leggett, H.


    Porcelain thermal-control coating for aluminum sheet and foil has solar absorptance of 0.22. Specially formulated coating absorptance is highly stable, changing only 0.03 after 1,000 hours of exposure to simulated sunlight and can be applied by standard commercial methods.

  12. Improved metallic and thermal barrier coatings (United States)

    Stecura, S.


    Low thermal conductivity two layer ceramic coatings are efficient thermal barriers between cooled matallic components and high temperature combustion gases. Potential components are combustors, blades, and vanes in aircraft engines of power-generating turbines. Presence of two layer coatings greatly reduces temperature and coolant requirements.

  13. Sol-Gel Derived Hafnia Coatings (United States)

    Feldman, Jay D.; Stackpoole, Mairead; Blum, Yigal; Sacks, Michael; Ellerby, Don; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)


    Sol-gel derived hafnia coatings are being developed to provide an oxidation protection layer on ultra-high temperature ceramics for potential use in turbine engines (ultra-efficient engine technology being developed by NASA). Coatings using hafnia sol hafnia filler particles will be discussed along with sol synthesis and characterization.

  14. Evaluation of abradable seal coating mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Xiao; Matthews, Allan


    Three proprietary plasma-sprayed coatings, based on Ni–graphite, Al–Si–graphite and Al–Si–polyester, were chosen for evaluation by the use of a (low speed) scratch tester, as a means of assessing the performance of abradable coatings. The scratch test behaviour was also correlated with the mechanica

  15. Electrosprayed calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, Sander Cornelis Gerardus


    In this thesis, the suitability of the Electrostatic Spray Deposition (ESD) technique was studied for biomedical purposes, i.e., deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings onto titanium substrates. Using ESD, which is a simple and cheap deposition method for inorganic and organic coatings, it wa

  16. Thick tool steel coatings with laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; de Oliveira, U.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI


    This paper concentrates on thick and crack-free laser clad coatings (up to 3 mm). The coating material is a chromium-molybdenum-tungsten-vanadium alloyed high-speed steel that shows high wear resistance, high compressive strength, good toughness, very good dimensional stability on heat treatment and

  17. Overlay coating degradation by simultaneous oxidation and coating/substrate interdiffusion. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Nesbitt, J. A.


    Degradation of NiCrAlZr overlay coatings on various NiCrAl substrates was examined after cyclic oxidation. Concentration/distance profiles were measured in the coating and substrate after various oxidation exposures at 1150 C. For each stubstrate, the Al content in the coating decreased rapidly. The concentration/distance profiles, and particularly that for Al, reflected the oxide spalling resistance of each coated substrate. A numerical model was developed to simulate diffusion associated with overlay-coating degradation by oxidation and coating/substrate interdiffusion. Input to the numerical model consisted of the Cr and Al content of the coating and substrate, ternary diffusivities, and various oxide spalling parameters. The model predicts the Cr and Al concentrations in the coating and substrate after any number of oxidation/thermal cycles. The numerical model also predicts coating failure based on the ability of the coating to supply sufficient Al to the oxide scale. The validity of the model was confirmed by comparison of the predicted and measured concentration/distance profiles. The model was subsequently used to identify the most critical system parameters affecting coating life.

  18. Droplet transfer behavior of the stainless steel coated electrode with double-layer coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙咸; 马成勇; 王宝; 张汉谦


    In this paper, the droplet transfer behavior of the stainless steel coated electrode with double-layer coating is researched by means of those experimental methods, such as high speed camera, collecting droplet in water, surfacing on the steel plate et al. The results show that the droplet transfer indexes of coated electrode are mainly controlled by the size of droplet, which affects the transfer behavior of droplet. The distribution characteristic of the droplet size of the electrode affects the numerical relationship among droplet transfer indexes. The metallurgical process of the coated electrode with double-layer coating is carried out continuously in different zones. The main reason for the coated electrode with double-layer coating gaining excellent usability quality is that the droplets realize the "quasi flux wall guided transfer pattern".

  19. Laser Treatment of HVOF Coating: Modeling and Measurement of Residual Stress in Coating (United States)

    Arif, A. F. M.; Yilbas, B. S.


    High-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coating of diamalloy 1005 (similar to Inconel 625 alloy) onto the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is considered and laser-controlled melting of the coating is examined. The residual stress developed after the laser treatment process is modeled using the finite element method (FEM). The experiment is conducted to melt the coating using a laser beam. The residual stress measurement in the coating after the laser treatment process is realized using the XRD technique. The morphological and metallurgical changes in the coating are examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It is found that the residual stress reduces at the coating-base material interface and the residual stress predicted agrees with the XRD measurements. A compact and crack-free coating is resulted after the laser treatment process.

  20. Nanoscale Reinforced, Polymer Derived Ceramic Matrix Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendra Bordia


    The goal of this project was to explore and develop a novel class of nanoscale reinforced ceramic coatings for high temperature (600-1000 C) corrosion protection of metallic components in a coal-fired environment. It was focused on developing coatings that are easy to process and low cost. The approach was to use high-yield preceramic polymers loaded with nano-size fillers. The complex interplay of the particles in the polymer, their role in controlling shrinkage and phase evolution during thermal treatment, resulting densification and microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and effectiveness as corrosion protection coatings were investigated. Fe-and Ni-based alloys currently used in coal-fired environments do not possess the requisite corrosion and oxidation resistance for next generation of advanced power systems. One example of this is the power plants that use ultra supercritical steam as the working fluid. The increase in thermal efficiency of the plant and decrease in pollutant emissions are only possible by changing the properties of steam from supercritical to ultra supercritical. However, the conditions, 650 C and 34.5 MPa, are too severe and result in higher rate of corrosion due to higher metal temperatures. Coating the metallic components with ceramics that are resistant to corrosion, oxidation and erosion, is an economical and immediate solution to this problem. Good high temperature corrosion protection ceramic coatings for metallic structures must have a set of properties that are difficult to achieve using established processing techniques. The required properties include ease of coating complex shapes, low processing temperatures, thermal expansion match with metallic structures and good mechanical and chemical properties. Nanoscale reinforced composite coatings in which the matrix is derived from preceramic polymers have the potential to meet these requirements. The research was focused on developing suitable material systems and



    L. A. Gubanova


    The design of anti-reflective coatings for metal surfaces of Al, Ti, N,i Cr is proposed. The coatings have the form of alternating layers of dielectric/metal/dielectric with the number of cells up to15. The method of calculation of such coatings is proposed. We have calculated the coatings of the type [HfO2/Cr/HfO2]15, [ZrO2/Ti/Al2O3]15, [ZrO2/Cr/ZrO2]15. It is shown that the proposed interference coatings provide reduction of the residual reflectance of the metal several times (from 3.5 to 6...

  2. Doctor Blade-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul


    In this work, we report polymer solar cells based on blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM and PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM bulk heterojunction photoactive layers. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 2.75 (conventional structure) and 3.03% (inverted structure) with improved reproducibility was obtained from blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM solar cells, compared to spin-coated ones. Furthermore, by demonstrating 3.10% efficiency flexible solar cells using blade-coated PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM films on the plastic substrates, we suggest the potential applicability of blade coating technique to the high throughput roll-to-roll fabrication systems.

  3. Coating of fertilizers by degradable polymers. (United States)

    Devassine, M; Henry, F; Guerin, P; Briand, X


    The conventional agriculture leads to some important pollution of ground water (particularly, by nitrates). The solution is the coating of fertilizers by degradable polymers. In this work, we have studied the water vapour and liquid diffusion through polymer films detached from their support. Therefore, we may classify polymers as a function of their properties like water vapour and liquid barrier. We may choose the best polymer(s) for coating.coated fertilizers by chosen polymer(s) with mechanical techniques such as fluidised bed and pan coating. Moreover, the electron microscopy used to see the quality of the wall has showed the presence of pores due to the rapid evaporation of solvent. A drying in air current and an annealing could be done to avoid this problem.followed the ions release of fertilizers immersed in distilled water by conductimetry. The more interesting result was obtained with fertilizers coated by polylactic acid. In effect, the total release reached three weeks.

  4. Low Energy Atomic Photodesorption from Organic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Lucchesini


    Full Text Available Organic coatings have been widely used in atomic physics during the last 50 years because of their mechanical properties, allowing preservation of atomic spins after collisions. Nevertheless, this did not produce detailed insight into the characteristics of the coatings and their dynamical interaction with atomic vapors. This has changed since the 1990s, when their adsorption and desorption properties triggered a renewed interest in organic coatings. In particular, a novel class of phenomena produced by non-destructive light-induced desorption of atoms embedded in the coating surface was observed and later applied in different fields. Nowadays, low energy non-resonant atomic photodesorption from organic coatings can be considered an almost standard technique whenever large densities of atomic vapors or fast modulation of their concentration are required. In this paper, we review the steps that led to this widespread diffusion, from the preliminary observations to some of the most recent applications in fundamental and applied physics.

  5. Simulation of magnetic coatings on textile fibers (United States)

    Blachowicz, T.; Ehrmann, A.


    While the properties of conductive fibres and coatings on textiles can easily be measured and calculated, magnetic coatings of fibres, yarns and fabrics still lack descriptions of their physical properties. Since magnetic textiles can be used for a variety of applications, from magnetic filters to invisible water-marks to magnetic coils and sensors, simulations would be supportive to understand and utilize their properties. The article gives an overview of different coatings on textile fibres, varying the magnetic materials as well as the fibre composition, giving rise to the interactions between neighbouring coated fibres. In this way, it is possible to understand the strong shape anisotropy which must be taken into account when the magnetic properties of textiles are to be tailored. Additionally, the differences between several possible magnetic coating materials become visible. This study can help adjusting the magnetic properties of textile fabrics to a desired application.

  6. Photocathode device that replenishes photoemissive coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, Nathan A.; Lizon, David C.


    A photocathode device may replenish its photoemissive coating to replace coating material that desorbs/evaporates during photoemission. A linear actuator system may regulate the release of a replenishment material vapor, such as an alkali metal, from a chamber inside the photocathode device to a porous cathode substrate. The replenishment material deposits on the inner surface of a porous membrane and effuses through the membrane to the outer surface, where it replenishes the photoemissive coating. The rate of replenishment of the photoemissive coating may be adjusted using the linear actuator system to regulate performance of the photocathode device during photoemission. Alternatively, the linear actuator system may adjust a plasma discharge gap between a cartridge containing replenishment material and a metal grid. A potential is applied between the cartridge and the grid, resulting in ejection of metal ions from the cartridge that similarly replenish the photoemissive coating.

  7. Coatings on Atacama Desert Basalt: A Possible Analog for Coatings on Gusev Plains Basalt (United States)

    Sutter, B.; Golden, D. C.; Amundson, R.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Ming, D. W.


    Surface coatings on Gusev Plains basalt have been observed and may contain hematite and nanophase Fe-oxides along with enrichments in P, S, Cl, and K relative to the underlying rock. The Gusev coatings may be derived from the dissolution of adhering soil and/or parent rock along with the addition of S and Cl from outside sources. Transient water for dissolution could be sourced from melting snow during periods of high obliquity, acid fog, and/or ground water (Haskin et al., 2005). Coatings on basalt in the hyper-arid (less than 2mm y(sup -1)) Atacama Desert may assist in understanding the chemistry, mineralogy and formation mechanisms of the Gusev basalt coatings. The Atacama Desert climate is proposed to be analogous to a paleo-Mars climate that was characterized by limited aqueous activity when the Gusev coatings could have formed. The objectives of this work are to (i) determine the chemical nature and extent of surface coatings on Atacama Desert basalt, and (ii) assess coating formation mechanisms in the Atacama Desert. Preliminary backscattered electron imaging of Atacama basalt thin-sections indicated that the coatings are as thick as 20 m. The boundary between the coating and the basalt labradorite, ilmenite, and augite grains was abrupt indicating that the basalt minerals underwent no chemical dissolution. The Atacama coatings have been added to the basalt instead of being derived from basalt chemical weathering. Semi-quantitative energy dispersive spectroscopy shows the coatings to be chemically homogeneous. The coating is depleted in Ca (0.9 wt% CaO) and enriched in K (1.3 wt.% K2O) and Si (69.1 wt.% SiO2) relative to the augite and labradorite grains. A dust source enriched in Si (e.g., poorly crystalline silica) and K and depleted in Ca appears to have been added to the basalt surface. Unlike the Gusev coatings, no P, S, and Cl enrichment was observed. However, Fe (3.2 wt.% FeO) was present in the Atacama coatings suggesting the present of Fe

  8. Characterization of multilayer anti-fog coatings. (United States)

    Chevallier, Pascale; Turgeon, Stéphane; Sarra-Bournet, Christian; Turcotte, Raphaël; Laroche, Gaétan


    Fog formation on transparent substrates constitutes a major challenge in several optical applications requiring excellent light transmission characteristics. Anti-fog coatings are hydrophilic, enabling water to spread uniformly on the surface rather than form dispersed droplets. Despite the development of several anti-fog coating strategies, the long-term stability, adherence to the underlying substrate, and resistance to cleaning procedures are not yet optimal. We report on a polymer-based anti-fog coating covalently grafted onto glass surfaces by means of a multistep process. Glass substrates were first activated by plasma functionalization to provide amino groups on the surface, resulting in the subsequent covalent bonding of the polymeric layers. The anti-fog coating was then created by the successive spin coating of (poly(ethylene-maleic anhydride) (PEMA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) layers. PEMA acted as an interface by covalently reacting with both the glass surface amino functionalities and the PVA hydroxyl groups, while PVA added the necessary surface hydrophilicity to provide anti-fog properties. Each step of the procedure was monitored by XPS, which confirmed the successful grafting of the coating. Coating thickness was evaluated by profilometry, nanoindentation, and UV visible light transmission. The hydrophilic nature of the anti-fog coating was assessed by water contact angle (CA), and its anti-fog efficiency was determined visually and tested quantitatively for the first time using an ASTM standard protocol. Results show that the PEMA/PVA coating not only delayed the initial period required for fog formation but also decreased the rate of light transmission decay. Finally, following a 24 hour immersion in water, these PEMA/PVA coatings remained stable and preserved their anti-fog properties.

  9. Nanosilica coating for bonding improvements to zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen C


    Full Text Available Chen Chen, Gang Chen, Haifeng Xie, Wenyong Dai, Feimin Zhang Institute of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China Abstract: Resin bonding to zirconia cannot be established from standard methods that are currently utilized in conventional silica-based dental ceramics. The solution–gelatin (sol–gel process is a well developed silica-coating technique used to modify the surface of nonsilica-based ceramics. Here, we use this technique to improve resin bonding to zirconia, which we compared to zirconia surfaces treated with alumina sandblasting and tribochemical silica coating. We used the shear bond strength test to examine the effect of the various coatings on the short-term resin bonding of zirconia. Furthermore, we employed field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to characterize the zirconia surfaces. Water–mist spraying was used to evaluate the durability of the coatings. To evaluate the biological safety of the experimental sol–gel silica coating, we conducted an in vitro Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames mutagenicity test, cytotoxicity tests, and in vivo oral mucous membrane irritation tests. When compared to the conventional tribochemical silica coating, the experimental sol–gel silica coating provided the same shear bond strength, higher silicon contents, and better durability. Moreover, we observed no apparent mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, or irritation in this study. Therefore, the sol–gel technique represents a promising method for producing silica coatings on zirconia. Keywords: zirconia, bond, silica coating, tribochemical silica coating, biocompatibility

  10. Cellulose nanofibers use in coated paper (United States)

    Richmond, Finley

    Cellulose Nanofibers (CNF) are materials that can be obtained by the mechanical breakdown of natural fibers. CNF have the potential to be produced at low cost in a paper mill and may provide novel properties to paper, paper coatings, paints, or other products. However, suspensions have a complex rheology even at low solid contents. To be able to coat, pump, or mix CNF at moderate solids, it is critical to understand the rheology of these suspensions and how they flow in process equipment; current papers only report the rheology up to 6% solids. Few publications are available that describe the coating of CNF onto paper or the use of CNF as an additive into a paper coating. The rheology of CNF suspensions and coatings that contain CNF were characterized with parallel-disk geometry in a controlled stress rheometer. The steady shear viscosity, the complex viscosity, the storage modulus, and the yield stress were determined for the range of solids or concentrations (2.5-10.5%). CNF were coated onto paper with a laboratory rod coater, a size press and a high speed cylindrical laboratory coater (CLC). For each case, the coat weights were measures and the properties of the papers were characterized. CNF water base suspension was found to be a shear thinning with a power law index of around 0.1. Oscillatory tests showed a linear viscoelastic region at low strains and significant storage and loss moduli even at low solids. The Cox Merz rule does not hold for CNF suspensions or coating formulations that contain CNF with complex viscosities that are about 100 times larger than the steady shear viscosities. Paper coating formulations that contain CNF were found to have viscosities and storage and loss moduli that are over ten times larger than coatings that contain starch at similar solids. CNF suspensions were coated on papers with low amount transferred on paper either at high solids or high nip loadings. The amount transferred appears to be controlled by an interaction of

  11. Pratt & Whitney thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornstein, N. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Marcin, J. [Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Co., East Hartford, CT (United States)


    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is to develop ultra-high efficient, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems. The operating profiles of these industrial gas turbines are long, less cyclic with fewer transients-compared with those for aircraft gas turbine engines. Therefore, creep rather than thermal fatigue, becomes primary life-limiting for hot section components. Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) will be used to achieve the objectives of the program. TBCs allow surface temperatures to increase without compromising the structural properties of the alloy. TBCs typically consist of a ceramic insulating layer, deposited onto the substrate with an intervening metallic layer, which imparts oxidation protection to the substrate and provides a surface to which the ceramic layer can adhere.

  12. Studies on nanocrystalline zinc coating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H B Muralidhara; Y Arthoba Naik


    Nano zinc coatings were deposited on mild steel by electrodeposition. The effect of additive on the morphology of crystal size on zinc deposit surface and corrosion properties were investigated. Corrosion tests were performed for dull zinc deposits and bright zinc deposits in aqueous NaCl solution (3.5 wt.%) using electrochemical measurements. The results showed that addition of additive in the deposition process of zinc significantly increased the corrosion resistance. The surface morphology of the zinc deposits was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The preferred orientation and average size of the zinc electrodeposited particles were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. The particles size was also characterized by TEM analysis.

  13. Anticorrosive organic/inorganic hybrid coatings (United States)

    Gao, Tongzhai

    Organic/inorganic hybrid coating system was developed for anticorrosion applications using polyurea, polyurethane or epoxide as the organic phase and polysiloxane, formed by sol-gel process, as the inorganic phase. Polyurea/polysiloxane hybrid coatings were formulated and moisture cured using HDI isocyanurate, alkoxysilane-functionalized HDI isocyanurate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) oligomers. Two urethanes were prepared using the same components as abovementioned in addition to the oligoesters derived from either cyclohexane diacids (CHDA) and 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) or adipic acid (AA), isophthalic acid (IPA), 1,6-hexanediol (HD), and trimethylol propane (TMP). Accelerated weathering and outdoor exposure were performed to study the weatherability of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coating system. FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR revealed that the degradation of the hybrid coatings occurred at the urethane and ester functionalities of the organic phase. DMA and DSC analyses showed the glass transition temperature increased and broadened after weathering. SEM was employed to observe the change of morphology of the hybrid coatings and correlated with the gloss variation after weathering. Rutile TiO2 was formulated into polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings in order to investigate the effect of pigmentation on the coating properties and the sol-gel precursor. Chemical interaction between the TiO2 and the sol-gel precursor was investigated using solid-state 29Si NMR and XPS. The morphology, mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal properties of the pigmented coatings were evaluated as a function of pigmentation volume concentration (PVC). Using AFM and SEM, the pigment were observed to be well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The thermal stability, the tensile modulus and strength of the coatings were enhanced with increasing PVC, whereas the pull-off adhesion and flexibility were reduced with increasing PVC. Finally, the pigmented coatings were

  14. Structure and corrosion properties of PVD Cr-N coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C; Ziegele, H; Leyland, A; Matthews, A


    PVD Cr-N coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are increasingly used for mechanical and tribological applications in various industrial sectors. These coatings are particularly attractive for their excellent corrosion resistance, which further enhances the lifetime and service quality of coated components. PVD Cr-N coated steels in an aqueous solution are usually corroded by galvanic attack via through-coating 'permeable' defects (e.g., pores). Therefore, the corrosion performance of Cr-N coated steel is determined by a number of variables of the coating properties and corrosive environment. These variables include: (i) surface continuity and uniformity; (ii) through-coating porosity; (iii) film density and chemical stability; (iv) growth stresses; (v) interfacial and intermediate layers; (vi) coating thickness; (vii) coating composition; and (viii) substrate properties. In this article, PVD Cr-N coatings were prepared, by electron-beam PVD and sputter deposition, with different compositions, t...

  15. Residual stress characteristics of gradation coating components. Keisha sosei coating buzai no zanryu oryoku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Miyazaki, M.; Kashiwaya, H. (Toshiba Corp. (Japan). Heavy Apparatus Engineering Lab.)


    Effect of the material characteristics and the coating layer thickness on residual stress was studied by using nondimensional thermal stress parameters. As for two layer composites, stress singularities at the edge of the interface of the direct bonding composites has decreased with the gradation composition. It is revealed that a residual stress, with bigger absolute value than two layer composites, has been working along the inner direction of the disk in gradation coating composite's layer surface. Dimensionless residual stress [delta], which works on the coating layer surface of the central part of gradation coating composite, has decreased with the increase of coating thickness ratio t/T(t; coating thickness, T; substrate thickness), and has been significant with the increase of Young's modulus ratio. The maximum residual stress that works on the coating surface in the central part of the gradation coating composite has been higher than the residual stress that works on the direct bonding surface of two layer composite. The dimensionless residual stress deformation in case of gradation coating composites has increased with the increase of coating thickness ratio and Young's modulus ratio. 7 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Optical coatings for metamaterials (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Jen, Yi-Jun


    Optical coatings have been referred as thin films that create interference effect to change optical properties of substrates. The most common applications of optical thin films are anti-reflection coatings, high reflective coatings, beamsplitter coatings, and bandpass filter coatings. In the recent development of metamaterials, the optical coatings also play a critical role in design, fabrication and measurement. In fabrication, glancing angle deposition has been applied to grow slanted metal nanorod arrays. The associated longitudinal plasmon and transverse plasmon modes under linear polarized illuminations are induced and generate anisotropic refractive index and extinction coefficient. Strong birefringence of a silver nanorod array reveals positive and negative real refractive indices exist for two orthogonal linear polarization states. Recently, negative index materials and hyperbolic metamaterials are realized as multilayers comprising subwavelength-scale metal and dielectric films alternatively. From the view of optical coatings, the design of optical edge filters can be applied to arrange the metal-dielectric multilayer as a symmetrical film sack to perform equivalent complex admittance and refractive index. On the other hand, the traditional admittance diagram used in design of antireflection and bandpass filters can be applied to induce the transmission of a negative index multilayer. The admittance loci of metal films are designed to be huge contours in the admittance diagram to reduce the energy loss in metal films. Five-layered symmetrical film stack and seven-layered symmetrical film stack are shown here to present as new bandpass filters with negative real refractive indices.

  17. On the symbolism of the white coat. (United States)

    Nash, David A


    The white coat ceremony has become an academic ritual in the health professions: a ceremony that signals a transformation of status from ordinary student to that of one studying to become a health professional. While donning the white coat is a sign of a changed role, the white coat is also a powerful symbol of transformation. White is a symbol of purity, and the white coat symbolizes the purity of purpose being affirmed in becoming a health professional. Dentistry is afforded the status of a learned profession as a result of the power dentists possess over patients seeking care; this power is based in sophisticated knowledge. Patients must trust that the dentist's knowledge and skills will be used in their best interest-always to benefit, never to exploit. The white coat symbolizes an affirmation on the part of aspiring dentists that their purpose will be pure and that they can be trusted to honor the tradition of the learned professions in placing the interest of patients above self. Absent an emphasis on the symbolic nature of the white coat ceremony, it can simply become an opportunity to publicly congratulate individuals for their success in gaining entrance to the study of dentistry. By understanding its significance, however, the white coat ceremony can serve as a powerful, meaningful ritual emphasizing the transformation occurring within an individual who is entering the profession of dentistry.

  18. Tribological performance of DLC coatings on UHMWPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Nogues, V; Medel, F J; Mariscal, M D; Endrino, J L; Krzanowski, J; Yubero, F; Puertolas, J A, E-mail:


    Diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings were deposited by several methods (ion beam assisted evaporation, magnetron sputtering, filter cathodic arc, and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition) onto medical grade ultra-high-molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) discs. The chemical characteristics and mechanical properties of the deposited DLC coatings were studied by Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation, respectively. In addition, a set of tribological tests was conducted at human body temperature and under bovine serum lubrication against alumina balls. After testing, wear tracks were both visually inspected and documented using confocal microscopy. Visual inspection of the wear tracks confirmed that the DLC coatings were completely removed in all cases, the only exception being the DLC coating prepared by magnetron sputtering with thickness about 0.5 microns. Although this type of DLC coating exhibited the highest friction coefficient, and therefore it suggested a somewhat lower resistance to abrasive/adhesive wear conditions, no evidence of cracking or delamination was observed after the high contact pressure wear testing. This fact points out a good substrate-coating adhesion, and confirms magnetron sputtered DLC as a potential coating for orthopaedic applications.

  19. Aluminide Coatings for Power-Generation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y


    Aluminide coatings are of interest for many high temperature applications because of the possibility of improving the oxidation of structural alloys by forming a protective external alumina scale. In order to develop a comprehensive lifetime evaluation approach for aluminide coatings used in fossil energy systems, some of the important issues have been addressed in this report for aluminide coatings on Fe-based alloys (Task I) and on Ni-based alloys (Task II). In Task I, the oxidation behavior of iron aluminide coatings synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was studied in air + 10vol.% H{sub 2}O in the temperature range of 700-800 C and the interdiffusion behavior between the coating and substrate was investigated in air at 500-800 C. Commercial ferritic (Fe-9Cr-1Mo) and type 304L (Fe-18Cr-9Ni, nominally) austenitic stainless steels were used as the substrates. For the oxidation study, the as-deposited coating consisted of a thin (<5 {micro}m), Al-rich outer layer above a thicker (30-50 {micro}m), lower Al inner layer. The specimens were cycled to 1000 1-h cycles at 700 C and 500 1-h cycles at 800 C, respectively. The CVD coating specimens showed excellent performance in the water vapor environment at both temperatures, while the uncoated alloys were severely attacked. These results suggest that an aluminide coating can substantially improve resistance to water vapor attack under these conditions. For the interdiffusion study, the ferritic and austenitic steels were coated with relatively thicker aluminide coatings consisting of a 20-25 {micro}m outer layer and a 150-250 {micro}m inner layer. The composition profiles before and after interdiffusion testing (up to 5,000h) were measured by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The decrease of the Al content at the coating surface was not significant after extended diffusion times ({le} 5,000h) at temperatures {le} 700 C. More interdiffusion occurred at 800 C in coatings on both Fe- 9Cr-1Mo and 304L alloys; a

  20. Electrodeposited silk coatings for bone implants. (United States)

    Elia, Roberto; Michelson, Courtney D; Perera, Austin L; Brunner, Teresa F; Harsono, Masly; Leisk, Gray G; Kugel, Gerard; Kaplan, David L


    The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanical properties and drug elution features of silk protein-based electrodeposited dental implant coatings. Silk processing conditions were modified to obtain coatings with a range of mechanical properties on titanium studs. These coatings were assessed for adhesive strength and dissolution, with properties tuned using water vapor annealing or glycerol incorporation to modulate crystalline content. Coating reproducibility was demonstrated over a range of silk concentrations from 1% to 10%. Surface roughness of titanium substrates was altered using industry relevant acid etching and grit blasting, and the effect of surface topography on silk coating adhesion was assessed. Florescent compounds were incorporated into the silk coatings, which were modulated for crystalline content, to achieve four days of sustained release of the compounds. This silk electrogelation technique offers a safe and relatively simple approach to generate mechanically robust, biocompatible, and degradable implant coatings that can also be functionalized with bioactive compounds to modulate the local regenerative tissue environment.

  1. Loss/gain-induced ultrathin antireflection coatings. (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Li, Sucheng; Hou, Bo; Lai, Yun


    Tradional antireflection coatings composed of dielectric layers usually require the thickness to be larger than quarter wavelength. Here, we demonstrate that materials with permittivity or permeability dominated by imaginary parts, i.e. lossy or gain media, can realize non-resonant antireflection coatings in deep sub-wavelength scale. Interestingly, while the reflected waves are eliminated as in traditional dielectric antireflection coatings, the transmitted waves can be enhanced or reduced, depending on whether gain or lossy media are applied, respectively. We provide a unified theory for the design of such ultrathin antireflection coatings, showing that under different polarizations and incident angles, different types of ultrathin coatings should be applied. Especially, under transverse magnetic polarization, the requirement shows a switch between gain and lossy media at Brewster angle. As a proof of principle, by using conductive films as a special type of lossy antireflection coatings, we experimentally demonstrate the suppression of Fabry-Pérot resonances in a broad frequency range for microwaves. This valuable functionality can be applied to remove undesired resonant effects, such as the frequency-dependent side lobes induced by resonances in dielectric coverings of antennas. Our work provides a guide for the design of ultrathin antireflection coatings as well as their applications in broadband reflectionless devices.

  2. Coatings for gear wheels; Beschichtungen fuer Zahnraeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrik, M.; Wittorf, R.; Thomsen, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Schicht- und Oberflaechentechnik, IST, Braunschweig (Germany). Transferzentrum Tribologie; Kaestner, P. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oberflaechentechnik; Kropp, J.P. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Konstruktionstechnik


    In order to optimize the goal, steel gear wheels regarding load-carrying capacity and wear, thin film coatings were tested. Different coating systems were examined numerically with the software ELASTICA {sup registered} for their suitability. The characteristics of the coating systems were determined dependent on the material, its surface treatment as well as the diameters of relevant rolling partners. Differences were made between macroscopic rolling contacts between the teeth profiles and microscopic contacts with surface roughness and abrasion particles. First the four best suitable coating systems were deposited on simplified rollers and examined under different conditions. Two coating systems were determined, which show special suitability for the coating of the gear wheels. The first system is an a:C-H coating with an CrN interlayer. The second system is an a:C-H coating with an CrN interlayer on a plasma-nitrided substrat (Duplex-process). In order to protect the coatings on the teeth, their involute profile was provided with a tip relief. As gear wheel materials 16MnCr5, 42CrMo4 as well as the special steel ETG {sup registered} 88 were used. Two kinds of flow fats were used as lubricants and additional the unlubricated operation was examined. The gear wheels were tested at three different speeds on a test machine especially built for it. The testing routine was carried out in so-called power-stages. Each stage means a defined number of contacts and a certain Hertzian stress on the teeth profiles. With each stage the Hertzian stress was increased. The end of operation time is the beginning of cavitation pitting. The test results showed that in particular with the steel 16MnCr5 and 42CrMo4 the used Duplex-systems leads to considerable increases of the load-carrying capacity of the tooth flanks and the wear resistance. (orig.)

  3. Electrodeposited silk coatings for functionalized implant applications (United States)

    Elia, Roberto

    The mechanical and morphological properties of titanium as well as its biocompatibility and osteoinductive characteristics have made it the material of choice for dental implant systems. Although the success rate of titanium implants exceeds 90% in healthy individuals, a large subset of the population has one or more risk factors that inhibit implant integration. Treatments and coatings have been developed to improve clinical outcomes via introduction of appropriate surface topography, texture and roughness or incorporation of bioactive molecules. It is essential that the coatings and associated deposition techniques are controllable and reproducible. Currently, methods of depositing functional coatings are dictated by numerous parameters (temperature, particle size distribution, pH and voltage), which result in variable coating thickness, strength, porosity and weight, and hinder or preclude biomolecule incorporation. Silk is a highly versatile protein with a unique combination of mechanical and physical properties, including tunable degradation, biocompatibility, drug stabilizing capabilities and mechanical properties. Most recently an electrogelation technique was developed which allows for the deposition of gels which dry seamlessly over the contoured topography of the conductive substrate. In this work we examine the potential use of silk electrogels as mechanically robust implant coatings capable of sequestering and releasing therapeutic agents. Electrodeposition of silk electrogels formed in uniform electric fields was characterized with respect to field intensity and deposition time. Gel formation kinetics were used to derive functions which allowed for the prediction of coating deposition over a range of process and solution parameters. Silk electrogel growth orientation was shown to be influenced by the applied electric field. Coatings were reproducible and tunable via intrinsic silk solution properties and extrinsic process parameters. Adhesion was

  4. Quantitative analysis of thermal insulation coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren


    This work concerns the development of simulation tools for mapping of insulation properties of thermal insulation coatings based on selected functional filler materials. A mathematical model, which includes the underlying physics (i.e. thermal conductivity of a heterogeneous two-component coating...... and porosity and thermal conductivity of selected fillers) was recently developed. The model has been validated against data from a previous experimental investigation with hollow glass sphere-based epoxy and acrylic coatings. In this presentation, a concise introduction to the model and some of the simulation...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar


    Full Text Available The validation is fundamental segment that supports to a commitment of company towards quality assurance. It also assures that product meets its predetermined quality specification and quality. Validation of each steps of manufacturing during multivitamin tablet formulation is called process validation of multivitamin tablets. During past film coating is not much favorable but now for multivitamin tablets film coating is used. The objective is to present a review and to discuss aspects of validation of film coated multivitamin tablets in terms of unit operations; that is, those individual technical operations that comprise the various steps involved in product design and evaluation.

  6. Advanced Fuels Campaign Cladding & Coatings Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed


    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) organized a Cladding and Coatings operational meeting February 12-13, 2013, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), national laboratories, industry, and universities attended the two-day meeting. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss advanced cladding and cladding coating research and development (R&D); review experimental testing capabilities for assessing accident tolerant fuels; and review industry/university plans and experience in light water reactor (LWR) cladding and coating R&D.

  7. Antimicrobial coatings — obtaining and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cornelia Guran; Alexandra Pica; Denisa Ficai; Anton Ficai; Cezar Comanescu


    In this paper, we present inorganic–organic hybrid coatings with polymer matrix (water soluble) that contain silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The structure and morphology of coating materials were determined by infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Therefore, the antimicrobial activities and mechanisms of coatings for several pathogenic bacteria (Bacilius cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) were investigated. It was demonstrated that the obtained material with silver nanoparticles keep their antimicrobial effect even if they are subjected to several cycles of washing with water and detergent.

  8. Aluminide Coatings for Power-Generation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y


    Aluminide coatings are of interest for many high temperature applications because of the possibility of improving the oxidation of structural alloys by forming a protective external alumina scale. In order to develop a comprehensive lifetime evaluation approach for aluminide coatings used in fossil energy systems, some of the important issues have been addressed in this report for aluminide coatings on Fe-based alloys (Task I) and on Ni-based alloys (Task II). In Task I, the oxidation behavior of iron aluminide coatings synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was studied in air + 10vol.% H{sub 2}O in the temperature range of 700-800 C and the interdiffusion behavior between the coating and substrate was investigated in air at 500-800 C. Commercial ferritic (Fe-9Cr-1Mo) and type 304L (Fe-18Cr-9Ni, nominally) austenitic stainless steels were used as the substrates. For the oxidation study, the as-deposited coating consisted of a thin (<5 {micro}m), Al-rich outer layer above a thicker (30-50 {micro}m), lower Al inner layer. The specimens were cycled to 1000 1-h cycles at 700 C and 500 1-h cycles at 800 C, respectively. The CVD coating specimens showed excellent performance in the water vapor environment at both temperatures, while the uncoated alloys were severely attacked. These results suggest that an aluminide coating can substantially improve resistance to water vapor attack under these conditions. For the interdiffusion study, the ferritic and austenitic steels were coated with relatively thicker aluminide coatings consisting of a 20-25 {micro}m outer layer and a 150-250 {micro}m inner layer. The composition profiles before and after interdiffusion testing (up to 5,000h) were measured by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The decrease of the Al content at the coating surface was not significant after extended diffusion times ({le} 5,000h) at temperatures {le} 700 C. More interdiffusion occurred at 800 C in coatings on both Fe- 9Cr-1Mo and 304L alloys; a

  9. Coating for gasifiable carbon-graphite fibers (United States)

    Harper-Tervet, Jan (Inventor); Dowler, Warren L. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)


    A thin, uniform, firmly adherent coating of metal gasification catalyst is applied to a carbon-graphite fiber by first coating the fiber with a film-forming polymer containing functional moieties capable of reaction with the catalytic metal ions. Multivalent metal cations such as calcium cross-link the polymer such as a polyacrylic acid to insolubilize the film by forming catalytic metal macro-salt links between adjacent polymer chains. The coated fibers are used as reinforcement for resin composites and will gasify upon combustion without evolving conductive airborne fragments.

  10. The Durability of Epoxy Resin Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Fujun; BA Hengjing; GAO Xiaojian


    The durability of epoxy resin coating was studied under environments with relative humidity(RH) of 98%-100%, at 55 ℃ for 900 h, at 65℃ for 700 h and at 75 ℃ for 400 h, respectively. Peel strength test, dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were employed for measurements. Peel strength indicated the development of adhesive property of the coating, DMTA indicated the development of physical property, IR revealed the development of chemical structure, and EDX showed surface element change of the coating. All these results show a good time-temperature equivalence characteristic between humidity aging time and temperature.

  11. Ion sequestration particles for naval anticorrosion coatings (United States)

    Zguris, Zachary Z.

    Corrosion is the electrochemical process of a metal returning to its lower energy state, the metal oxide. The cost of corrosion is difficult to estimate. One area particularly susceptible to corrosion problems with high maintenance costs is that of the 20,000 tanks existent in the US Naval Fleet. The Navy is sponsoring the development of novel coatings and additives that can be used to decrease the rising corrosion related costs. This dissertation describes in detail the synthesis of Ion Sequestration Particles (ISP) that when added to the standard MIL-DTL-24441 or potentially another coating system act to enhance the anticorrosion properties of the coating. A solid ion sequestration core material (SISCM) is first produced. The core is then encapsulated in a second stage forming a shell that protects the SISCM sufficiently from the harmful interactions with uncured epoxy based coatings. ISPs were designed to sequester harmful ions while releasing passivating ions in their place. The passivating ions then migrate to defect sites at the coating interface where they act to inhibit corrosion. The anticorrosion performance of ISPs in epoxy coatings has been demonstrated by both 500 hrs of hot deionized water immersion and 1000 hrs of salt spray exposure (ASTM B117). The best improvements in coating performance are attained with ISP content ranging from 5-10 wt % loading in a coating. ISPs were designed to limit the transport of harmful ions through the coating. However this work has determined high diffusion coefficients for ions (CI- and PO42-) through the epoxy matrix. Without ISPs, the diffusion coefficient through the MIL-DTL-24441 coating was determined for phosphate to be 1.16x10-7 cm2/s and for chloride to be in the range of 2.7x10-9 to 5.6x10-10 cm2/s. The addition of 5 wt % ISPs to the coating had the effect of decreasing the diffusion coefficient by an average of 25.5%. These results yield the conclusion that the enhanced anticorrosion properties of coatings

  12. Porcelain enamel passive thermal control coatings (United States)

    Leggett, H.; King, H. M.


    This paper discusses the development and evaluation of a highly adherent, low solar absorptance, porcelain enamel thermal control coating applied to 6061 and 1100 aluminum for space vehicle use. The coating consists of a low index of refraction, transparent host frit and a high volume fraction of titania as rutile, crystallized in-situ, as the scattering medium. Solar absorptance is 0.21 at a coating thickness of 0.013 cm. Hemispherical emittance is 0.88. The change in solar absorptance is 0.03, as measured in-situ, after an exposure of 1000 equivalent sun hours in vacuum.

  13. High vacuum tribology of polycrystalline diamond coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Awadesh K Mallik; S A Shivashankar; S K Biswas


    Polycrystalline diamond coatings have been grown on unpolished side of Si(100) wafers by hot filament chemical vapour deposition process. The morphology of the grown coatings has been varied from cauliflower morphology to faceted morphology by manipulation of the growth temperature from 700°C to 900°C and methane gas concentration from 3% to 1·5%. It is found that the coefficient of friction of the coatings under high vacuum of 133·32 × 10-7 Pa (10-7 torr) with nanocrystalline grains can be manipulated to 0·35 to enhance tribological behaviour of bare Si substrates.

  14. Polyurethane coating for ductile iron pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG En-qing


    Full Text Available A special polyurethane coating designed for ductile iron pipe was developed. The effects of the ingredients on properties, such as viscosity, flow leveling, solidification-rate, adhesion and hardness, were researched. It was then analyzed in what ways the technical parameters, such as temperature and pressure, influence the coat quality. The results showed that the molar ratio and synthesizing conditions must be strictly controlled to obtain suitable pre-polymer viscosity by adjusting the formula ratio of the B component, satisfactory mechanical properties and cure rate can be obtained and bubbles in the coat can be avoided.

  15. Applications of sol gel ceramic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, D. [Datec Coating Corp., Kingston, Ont. (Canada)


    The sol gel method is a chemical technique in which polycrystalline ceramic films are fabricated from a solution of organometallic precursors. The technique is attractive for many industrial applications because it is a simple (films are processed in air), flexible (can be used to coat complex geometries) and cost effective (does not require expensive equipment) process. In addition, dense, high quality coatings can be achieved at much lower temperatures than is generally required for sintering bulk ceramics. In this paper the conventional sol gel method and the new datec process are reviewed and potential applications of sol gel coatings in automotive, aerospace, petrochemical, nuclear and electronic industries are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Self-assembled nanolaminate coatings (SV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, H.


    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) are collaborating to develop affordable, self-assembled, nanocomposite coatings and associated fabrication processes that will be tailored to Lockheed Martin product requirements. The purpose of this project is to develop a family of self-assembled coatings with properties tailored to specific performance requirements, such as antireflective (AR) optics, using Sandia-developed self-assembled techniques. The project met its objectives by development of a simple and economic self-assembly processes to fabricate multifunctional coatings. Specifically, materials, functionalization methods, and associated coating processes for single layer and multiple layers coatings have been developed to accomplish high reflective coatings, hydrophobic coatings, and anti-reflective coatings. Associated modeling and simulations have been developed to guide the coating designs for optimum optical performance. The accomplishments result in significant advantages of reduced costs, increased manufacturing freedom/producibility, improved logistics, and the incorporation of new technology solutions not possible with conventional technologies. These self-assembled coatings with tailored properties will significantly address LMC's needs and give LMC a significant competitive lead in new engineered materials. This work complements SNL's LDRD and BES programs aimed at developing multifunctional nanomaterials for microelectronics and optics as well as structure/property investigations of self-assembled nanomaterials. In addition, this project will provide SNL with new opportunities to develop and apply self-assembled nanocomposite optical coatings for use in the wavelength ranges of 3-5 and 8-12 micrometers, ranges of vital importance to military-based sensors and weapons. The SANC technologies will be applied to multiple programs within the LM Company including the F-35, F-22, ADP (Future Strike Bomber

  17. "m=1" coatings for neutron guides


    Cooper-Jensen, C.P.; Vorobiev, A.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Kapaklis, V.; Wilkens, H.; Rats, D.; Hjörvarsson, B.; Kirstein, O.; Bentley, Philip


    A substantial part of the price for a neutron guide is the shielding needed because of the gamma ray produced when neutrons are absorbed. This absorption occurs in the coating and the substrate of the neutron guides. Traditional m=1 coatings have been made of Ni and if reflectivity over the critical angle of Ni is needed one has used Ni58 or Ni/Ti multilayer coatings. Ni has one of the highest neutron scattering density but it also has a fairly high absorption cross section for cold and therm...

  18. Antimicrobial food equipment coatings: applications and challenges. (United States)

    Bastarrachea, Luis J; Denis-Rohr, Anna; Goddard, Julie M


    Emerging technologies in antimicrobial coatings can help improve the quality and safety of our food supply. The goal of this review is to survey the major classes of antimicrobial agents explored for use in coatings and to describe the principles behind coating processes. Technologies from a range of fields, including biomedical and textiles research, as well as current applications in food contact materials, are addressed, and the technical hurdles that must be overcome to enable commercial adaptation to food processing equipment are critically evaluated.

  19. Magnetism in nanoparticles: tuning properties with coatings. (United States)

    Crespo, Patricia; de la Presa, Patricia; Marín, Pilar; Multigner, Marta; Alonso, José María; Rivero, Guillermo; Yndurain, Félix; González-Calbet, José María; Hernando, Antonio


    This paper reviews the effect of organic and inorganic coatings on magnetic nanoparticles. The ferromagnetic-like behaviour observed in nanoparticles constituted by materials which are non-magnetic in bulk is analysed for two cases: (a) Pd and Pt nanoparticles, formed by substances close to the onset of ferromagnetism, and (b) Au and ZnO nanoparticles, which were found to be surprisingly magnetic at the nanoscale when coated by organic surfactants. An overview of theories accounting for this unexpected magnetism, induced by the nanosize influence, is presented. In addition, the effect of coating magnetic nanoparticles with biocompatible metals, oxides or organic molecules is also reviewed, focusing on their applications.

  20. Measure Guideline: Transitioning from Three-Coat Stucco to One-Coat Stucco with EPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K.; Davis, G.; Rapport, A.


    This Measure Guideline has been developed to help builders transition from using a traditional three-coat stucco wall-cladding system to a one-coat stucco wall-cladding system with expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulated sheathing. The three-coat system uses a base layer, a fill layer, and a finish layer. The one-coat system maintains the look of a traditional stucco system but uses only a base layer and a finish coat over EPS insulation that achieves higher levels of energy efficiency. Potential risks associated with the installation of a one-coat stucco system are addressed in terms of design, installation, and warranty concerns such as cracking and delamination, along with mitigation strategies to reduce these risks.

  1. Release Kinetics of Urea from Polymer Coated Urea and Its Relationship with Coating Penetrability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-jun; WU Zhi-jie; CHEN Li-jun; LIANG Wen-ju


    Four kinds of polymer coated urea (PCU) were put in distilled water at 30C to determine the variation of coating penetrability and give a precise description of the urea release kinetics. The urea release from PCU could be divided into four stages: lag stage, swell stage, steady stage and decay stage. The release rate coefficient K, a measure of coating penetrability, was linearly increased at swell stage, but almost not variable at steady stage. At decay stage, the relation of K to time t could be described by the equation K= mtn-1(where m and n are the coefficients). When n>1, the coating penetrability was gradually increased, and the urea release from PCU was accelerated; when n=1, the coating penetrability was steady, and the urea release from PCU obeyed the first-order kinetics; and when n<1, the coating penetrability was gradually decreased,and the urea release from PCU was delayed, resulting in a significant "tailing effect".

  2. Study of the recrystallization in coated pellets - effect of coating on API crystallinity. (United States)

    Nikowitz, Krisztina; Pintye-Hódi, Klára; Regdon, Géza


    Coated diltiazem hydrochloride-containing pellets were prepared using the solution layering technique. Unusual thermal behavior was detected with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and its source was determined using thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and hot-stage microscopy. The coated pellets contained diltiazem hydrochloride both in crystalline and amorphous form. Crystallization occurs on heat treatment causing an exothermic peak on the DSC curves that only appears in pellets containing both diltiazem hydrochloride and the coating. Results indicate that the amorphous fraction is situated in the coating layer. The migration of drugs into the coating layer can cause changes in its degree of crystallinity. Polymeric coating materials should therefore be investigated as possible crystallization inhibitors.

  3. Mathematical modeling of photoinitiated coating degradation: Effects of coating glass transition temperature and light stabilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; With, R.A.T.M.Van Benthem


    A mathematical model, describing coating degradation mechanisms of thermoset coatings exposed to ultraviolet radiation and humidity at constant temperature, was extended to simulate the behavior of a coating with a low glass transition temperature. The effects of adding light stabilizers (a UV...... absorber and a radical scavenger) to the coating were also explored. The extended model includes photoinitiated oxidation reactions, intrafilm oxygen permeability, water absorption and diffusion, reduction of crosslink density, absorption of ultraviolet radiation, a radical scavenger reaction......, and simulates the transient development of an oxidation zone. Simulations are in good agreement with experimental data for a fast degrading epoxy-amine coating with a glass transition temperature of −50°C. It was found that the degradation rate of the non-stabilized coating was influenced significantly...

  4. Polystyrene/octadecyltrichlorosilane superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical morphology


    Demirel, A. Levent; Latthe, Sanjay S.


    A simple, one pot dip-coating process for the fabrication of super-hydrophobic coatings using polystyrene (PS) and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) is introduced. The hierarchical coating morphology and the resulting surface wettability were controlled by OTS concentration and by the number of dipping cycles. The coatings showed good durability for applications.

  5. Controlled reactions between chromia and coating on alloy surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren


    An electrically conducting Sr-doped lanthanum chromite (LSC) coating has been produced by reacting a coating of fine particles of La oxide and Sr oxide with chromia formed as an external scale on a metallic alloy. In addition to the formation of LSC the coating also resulted in much reduced...... buckling of the underlying chromia layer compared with a non-coated alloy....

  6. Achieving Control of Coating Process in your Foundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Muoio, G. L.; Tiedje, N. S.


    Achieving control of coating thickness in foundry moulds is needed in order to guarantee uniform properties of the mould but also to achieve control of drying time. Since drying time of water based coatings is heavily dependent on the amount of water present in the coating layer, a stable coating...

  7. Coating based Fiber Bragg Grating humidity sensor array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Boersma, A.; Jansen, T.H.


    A coating based FBG humidity sensor is developed for distributed humidity sensing. The sensitivity of the coated FBG is optimized by varying the chemical composition and the thickness of the coating. A sensitivity of ~2 pm/%RH and a rapid response are demonstrated. The composition of the coating can

  8. AlPO4-C Composite Coating on Ni-based Super Alloy Substrates for High Emissivity Applications : Experimentation on Dip Coating and Spray Coating


    Subir Roy; S. Rangaswamy Reddy; Sindhuja, P; Dipak Das; V.V. Bhauprasad


    High emissivity coating was developed on Ni-based super alloy substrates by dip coating and spray coating technique using a chemical precursor sol. The coating material was characterised thoroughly by XRD, SEM, TEM and XPS analyses. Characterisation results showed the presence of nano carbon in the AlPO4 matrix which imparted high emissivity to the coating. Emissivity of the coating varied from 0.6 to 0.9 in the wave length range : 2 µm - 25 µm depending on the thickness of the multilayered c...

  9. Boron coating on boron nitride coated nuclear fuels by chemical vapor deposition (United States)

    Durmazuçar, Hasan H.; Gündüz, Güngör


    Uranium dioxide-only and uranium dioxide-gadolinium oxide (5% and 10%) ceramic nuclear fuel pellets which were already coated with boron nitride were coated with thin boron layer by chemical vapor deposition to increase the burn-up efficiency of the fuel during reactor operation. Coating was accomplished from the reaction of boron trichloride with hydrogen at 1250 K in a tube furnace, and then sintering at 1400 and 1525 K. The deposited boron was identified by infrared spectrum. The morphology of the coating was studied by using scanning electron microscope. The plate, grainy and string (fiber)-like boron structures were observed.

  10. Comparison of additive amount used in spin-coated and roll-coated organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Pei; Lin, Yuze; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia


    All-polymer and polymer/fullerene inverted solar cells were fabricated by spin-coating and roll-coating processes. The spin-coated small-area (0.04 cm(2)) devices were fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates in nitrogen. The roll-coated large-area (1.0 cm(2)) devices were...... prepared on ITO-free flexible substrates under ambient conditions. The use of a solvent additive, 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), facilitated phase separation and enhanced power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). The PCE of polymer/fullerene solar cells increased from 4.58% to 8.12% with 2.5% (v/v) DIO when using...... the spin-coating process, and increased from 1.37% to 2.09% with 5% (v/v) DIO in the roll-coating process. The PCE of all-polymer solar cells increased from 1.44% to 3.51% with 4% (v/v) DIO when employing the spin-coating process. For the roll-coated large area devices the PCE increased from 0.15% to 0...

  11. Microstructure and Behaviors of Nano Composite Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xi-ying; QIAN Shi-qiang; LI Wei-hong; LI Pei-yao; LI Man-ping


    Nano composite coatings are fabricated by electro brush plating containing various nano particles (Al2O3, SiO2and ZrO2). Its surface morphology and microstructure are observed by means of S-2700 scanning electron microscopy (SEM). And the mechanical behaviors of nano composite coating are analyzed. The results show that microstructure of nano composite coating is obviously fine because of nano particles. Micro hardness at room temperature increases with the increase of nano particles content. The wear resistance and hardness at high temperature are also improved. The strengthening effect is differentiated by the type and content of nano particles. This is due to the combination of dispersion strengthening and grain size strengthening.Key Words: Nano particles, composite coating, electro brush plating, behaviors

  12. Processing on high efficiency solar collector coatings (United States)

    Roberts, M.


    Wavelength selective coatings for solar collectors are considered. Substrates with good infrared reflectivity were examined along with their susceptibility to physical and environmental damage. Improvements of reflective surfaces were accomplished through buffing, chemical polishing and other surface processing methods.

  13. Localized Corrosion of Chromium Coated Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Beentjes, P.; Mol, A.; Terryn, H.


    In this paper, we report on the studies of the local corrosion behaviour of chromium-coated ultra low carbon steel in NaCl solution using polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and SVET.

  14. Performance of multilayer coated silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackermann, M. D.; Collon, M. J.; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.;


    simultaneously requirements for effective area of 2.5 m2 at 1.25 keV, 0.65 m2 at 6 keV and 150 cm2 at 30 keV. The reflectivity of the bare mirror substrate materials does not allow these requirements to be met. As such the IXO baseline design contains a coating layout that varies as a function of mirror radius...... and in accordance with the variation in grazing incidence angle. The higher energy photon response is enhanced through the use of depth-graded multilayer coatings on the inner radii mirror modules. In this paper we report on the first reflectivity measurements of wedged ribbed silicon pore optics mirror plates...... coated with a depth graded W/Si multilayer. The measurements demonstrate that the deposition and performance of the multilayer coatings is compatible with the SPO production process....

  15. Examining properties of arc sprayed nanostructured coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czupryński


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of examining properties of arc sprayed coating obtained with nano-alloy on the iron matrix with a high amount of fine carbide precipitates sprayed on non-alloyed steel plates intended for high temperature operation. Powder metal cored wire EnDOtec DO*390N 1,6 mm diameter, was used to produce, dense, very high abrasion and erosion resistant coatings approx. 1,0 mm thick. Nano-material coatings characterization was done to determine abrasion resistance, erosion resistance, adhesion strength, hardness as well as metallographic examinations. Results have proved high properties of arc sprayed nano-material coatings and have shown promising industrial applications.

  16. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Kessler, Olaf; Hoffmann, Franz


    -process is the high deposition temperature, consequently the properties of steel substrates are negatively influenced. Therefore, a subsequent heat treatment of the coated steels is necessary to restore the properties of steels ready for operation. Induction surface hardening is used as a method of heat treatment....... The effect of induction surface hardening on the properties of the coating-substrate-systems is mainly characterized using investigations of microstructure and chemical composition as well as measurements of hardness and residual stresses in dependence on the distance from the surface. Furthermore......, the scratch test is used to estimate critical loads for cohesive and adhesive failure of the coatings. Additionally, distortion measurements are carried out. The results emphasize the advantage of induction surface hardening as a method of subsequent heat treatment of CVD-coated steels....

  17. Substrate Strengthening of CVD Coated Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.Kessler; M.Heidkamp; F.Hoffmann; P.Mayr


    Properties of components and tools can be improved by the combination of coating and heat treatment processes due to the addition of single process advantages and due to the utilization of process interactions. Several low and high alloyed, structural and tool steels (AISI 4140, 52100, H13, A2, D2, etc.) have been treated by CVD-TiN-coating plus laser beam hardening respectively carburizing plus CVD-TiN-coating. Homogeneous, dense TiN-coatings with high hardness,high compressive residual stresses and good adhesion were supported by high strength substrate surfaces. Especially CVD plus laser beam hardening offers the possibility to reduce distortion due to the small heated surface volume.

  18. Black Sprayable Molecular Adsorber Coating Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This novel molecular adsorber coating would alleviate the size, weight, and complexity issues of traditional molecular adsorber puck.  A flexible tape version...

  19. Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin coating for capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Shah, Roopa S; Wang, Qinggang; Lee, Milton L


    Coating the interior surface of a fused-silica capillary with a polymeric material has long been used in capillary electrophoresis (CE) to reduce or eliminate electroosmotic flow and suppress adsorption. A cycloaliphatic epoxide-based resin was bonded to silane treated capillaries and crosslinked with a curing agent. The epoxy resin coating significantly reduced electroosmotic flow over a pH range of 3-10. This coating was sufficiently hydrophilic to suppress protein adsorption. The epoxy resin coated capillary was used to separate several acidic and basic proteins and peptides. Separation efficiencies greater than 400,000 theoretical plates were achieved. The relative standard deviations in migration times for proteins were methods.

  20. Spin-Coated Polyelectrolyte Coacervate Films. (United States)

    Kelly, Kristopher D; Schlenoff, Joseph B


    Thin films of complexes made from oppositely charged polyelectrolytes have applications as supported membranes for separations, cell growth substrates, anticorrosion coatings, biocompatible coatings, and drug release media, among others. The relatively recent technique of layer-by-layer assembly reliably yields conformal coatings on substrates but is impractically slow for films with thickness greater than about 1 μm, even when accelerated many fold by spraying and/or spin assembly. In the present work, thin, uniform, smooth films of a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) are rapidly made by spin-coating a polyelectrolyte coacervate, a strongly hydrated viscoelastic liquidlike form of PEC, on a substrate. While the apparatus used to deposit the PEC film is conventional, the behavior of the coacervate, especially the response to salt concentration, is highly nontraditional. After glassification by immersion in water, spun-on films may be released from their substrates to yield free-standing membranes of thickness in the micrometer range.

  1. Microencapsulation of Corrosion Indicators for Smart Coatings (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott T.; Calle, Luz M.; Hanna,Joshua S.; Rawlins, James W.


    A multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous detection, indication, and control of corrosion is been developed based on microencapsulation technology. This paper summarizes the development, optimization, and testing of microcapsules specifically designed for early detection and indication of corrosion when incorporated into a smart coating. Results from experiments designed to test the ability of the microcapsules to detect and indicate corrosion, when blended into several paint systems, show that these experimental coatings generate a color change, indicative of spot specific corrosion events, that can be observed with the naked eye within hours rather than the hundreds of hours or months typical of the standard accelerated corrosion test protocols.. Key words: smart coating, corrosion detection, microencapsulation, microcapsule, pH-sensitive microcapsule, corrosion indicator, corrosion sensing paint

  2. Investigation of Coating Capability of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Akçin


    Full Text Available Nowadays, composite materials are widely used in the sectors that are overrated high strength / density and high elasticity modulus / density ratios such as defense industry, marine transportation, automotive and aerospace industry. However, because of the surface properties such as tribological behavior and low wear resistance their application areas are limited. Coating is the prominent process in order to improve these properties of the materials. In this study, hard ceramic powders (Al2O3 + TiO2 and CrO3 are coated to surface of glass fiber and carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composite materials with plasma spray coating method started to be widely used todays and physical, mechanical and metallographic properties of obtained coatings were examined.

  3. Photochromic lens mirror-coated with Cr (United States)

    Shin, Sungho; Lee, Myeongkyu


    We have designed and fabricated mirror-coated photochromic lenses for use in sunglasses. These lenses consisted of a Cr thin film sandwiched between two SiO2 layers on the front surface and an anti-reflection (AR) coating on the backside. The SiO2 films above and below the Cr layer were introduced as the protection and buffer layers, respectively. The AR coating was to suppress back-reflection from the lens surface. Deposition of all coating layers were carried out by an e-beam evaporator under Ar atmosphere at P = 10-5 Torr and T = 70 °C. As expected, the overall transmittance decreased with increasing Cr thickness. For a Cr layer of 5 nm thickness, it changed from about 45% in the bleached state down to 25% after exposure to sunlight. This is consistent with the transmission range typically required for sunglasses.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HengZhang; KefuChen; RendangYang


    The flow behavior of paper coating is critical to thecoating operation. In this work, the influence of theadded agents on the flow behavior and theviscoelastic behavior is investigated using rheometerin steady and dynamic oscillatory modes.

  5. Removal Of Optical Coatings Without Polishing (United States)

    Gourley, Helen


    A process for removing antireflection, mirror and polarizer coatings has been developed at ILC, based on work begun by LLL (Applied Optics Vol. 17, No. 12, 15 June 1978 - "Notes on Optical Coating Removal", N.J. Brown). Because of the danger (personnel hazard) involved in the hydrofluoric acid process, we employed an ammonium bifluoride solution, combined with various polishing components. The substrates, generally BK7, are fairly soft and also sensitive to chemical action. Therefore we have limited our polishing materials to aluminum oxide powder graded at 0.1 pm or smaller. For some coatings, no polishing material is used, as the ammonium bifluoride solution is adequate to remove the coating. The resulting clean surface is washed and neutralized, and is then ready for recoating.

  6. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics (United States)

    Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.


    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  7. Using selective withdrawal to coat microparticles. (United States)

    Cohen, I; Li, H; Hougland, J L; Mrksich, M; Nagel, S R


    We report a method that uses the process of selective withdrawal of one fluid through a second immiscible fluid to coat small particles with polymer films. Fluid is withdrawn through a tube with its orifice slightly above a water-oil interface. Upon increasing the flow rate, there is a transition from a state where only oil is withdrawn to a state where the water, containing the particles to be coated and appropriate prepolymer reagents, is entrained in a thin spout along with the oil. The entrained particles eventually cause the spout interface to break, producing a thin coat of controllable thickness around each particle, which can be subsequently polymerized using chemical reagents, light, or heat. This method allows flexibility in the chemical composition and thickness of the conformal coatings.

  8. Amphiphilic copolymers for fouling-release coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Hvilsted, Søren

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) resins are extensively used as binder in fouling-release coatings due to the low critical surface energy and low elastic modulus of PDMS. These properties result in poor adhesion of the fouling organisms, which are therefore detached by hydrodynamic forces during...... navigation [1,2,3]. Other compounds are usually mixed together with the binder (e.g. silica and pigments) in order to improve the mechanical, thixotropic and visual properties of the coatings. It has ben shown, however, that these ingredients have a negative effect on the fouling-release properties...... of the coatings [1,2,4]. Together with the PDMS-system, non-reactive polymers have been used to improve the fouling-release properties of the coatings. Initially, hydrophobic siloxane-based polymers were used, which aimed to increase the hydrophobicity of the PDMS surface [5,6]. However, copolymers comprising...

  9. Enzyme-based antifouling coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stefan Møller; Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Laursen, M.H.


    for successful development of enzymatic AF coatings. The approaches described in the literature are divided into direct and indirect enzymatic AF, depending on the intended action of the enzymes. Direct antifouling is used when the enzymes themselves are active antifoulants. Indirect antifouling refers...... to the use of enzymes to release an active biocide with AF activity. For direct AF, several patents have been granted, and a commercial product has been launched. However, the achievement of an efficient broad-spectrum AF coating based on a single or a few enzymes has not yet been achieved. An indirect AF...... coating is not yet available commercially. The technology is mainly limited by the instability of substrate supply, whether the substrates are found in the surrounding seawater or in the coating itself. Legislative issues regarding which part(s) of an enzyme system should be regarded as biocidal...

  10. Quantitative analysis of thermal insulation coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren


    This work concerns the development of simulation tools for mapping of insulation properties of thermal insulation coatings based on selected functional filler materials. A mathematical model, which includes the underlying physics (i.e. thermal conductivity of a heterogeneous two-component coating...... and porosity and thermal conductivity of selected fillers) was recently developed. The model has been validated against data from a previous experimental investigation with hollow glass sphere-based epoxy and acrylic coatings. In this presentation, a concise introduction to the model and some of the simulation...... results are provided. A practical case story with an insulation coating applied to a hot water pipe is included. Further development of the simulation tool to other types of fillers will be shortly discussed....


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Guo; Guangsheng Luo; Yujun Wang


    1,3,5-trimethyl benzene (TMB) was used as organic swelling agent in O/W emulsions to template ultra-large mesoporous materials using the hydrothermal method. The silicas with well-defined mesopores and hydrothermally robust framework were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and BET surface area analysis. The influence of the quantity of TMB during preparation was studied. It has been found that the TMB/CTAB ratio must be controlled for producing high pore volume materials. Polysulfone (PSU), as the usual extraction agent, was coated on the silicas with the solvent evaporation method to produce a solid separation medium. The adsorptivity and the surface area of the coated MCM were determined: 10% PSU coated MCM adsorbed twice as much phenol as the uncoated material, reaching 0.5 mg/g silica. It was found that the surface area of the coated material decreased rapidly with an increase of the PSU loading.

  12. Inorganic precursor peroxides for antifouling coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.M.; Pedersen, L.T.; Hermann, M.H.


    Modern antifouling coatings are generally based on cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and organic biocides as active ingredients. Cu2O is prone to bioaccumulation, and should therefore be replaced by more environmentally benign compounds when technically possible. However, cuprous oxide does not only provide...... antifouling properties, it is also a vital ingredient for the antifouling coating to obtain its polishing and leaching mechanism. In this paper, peroxides of strontium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc are tested as pigments in antifouling coatings. The peroxides react with seawater to create hydrogen peroxide...... and highly seawater-soluble ions of the metal. The goals have been to establish the antifouling potency of an antifouling coating that releases hydrogen peroxide as biocide, and to investigate the potential use of peroxides as water-soluble polishing and leaching pigments. The investigations have shown...

  13. Optical resonance of metal-coated nanoshell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diao Jia-Jie(刁佳杰); Chen Guang-De(陈光德); Xi Cong(席聪); Z Y Fan; Yuan Jin-She(苑进社)


    Metal-coated nanoshell, the nanoparticle consisting of a nanometre-scale dielectric core coated with a thin metallic shell, exhibits three distinct optical resonant forms, the sphere cavity resonance (SCR), plasmon resonance (PR), and concentric dielectric sphere resonance (CDSR). The SCR, PR and CDSR of the metal-coated nanoshell reveal a geometric tunability controlled by the core radius and by the ratio of the core radius to the total radius. Classical electrodynamics and Mie scattering theory are used to treat the resonant forms and the transition state between the resonant forms. Based on previous experimental research, we present a group of resonant equations for all the resonant forms, which depend on the geometric structure of the metal-coated nanoshell.

  14. Effect of Surface Coatings on Cylinders Exposed to Underwater Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.W. Kwon


    Full Text Available The response of a coated cylinder (metallic cylinder coated with a rubber material subjected to an underwater explosion is analyzed numerically. The dynamic response of the coated cylinder appears to be adversely affected when impacted by an underwater shock wave under certain conditions of geometry and material properties of the coating. When adversely affected, significant deviations in values of axial stress, hoop stress, and strain are observed. The coated cylinder exhibits a larger deformation and higher internal energy in the metallic material. Rubber coatings appeared to inhibit energy dissipation from the metallic material to the surrounding water medium. A parametric study of various coatings was performed on both aluminum and steel cylinders. The adverse effect of the coating decreased when the stiffness of the rubber layer increased, indicating the existence of a threshold value. The results of this study indicate that the stiffness of the coating is a critical factor to the shock hardening of the coated cylinder.

  15. Cathodic phosphate coating containing nano zinc particles on magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A technology for preparation of a cathodic phosphate coating mainly containing nano metallic zinc particles and phosphate compounds on magnesium alloy was developed.The influence of cathodic current density on the microstructure of the cathodic phosphate coating Was investigated.The results show that the crystals of the coating are finer and the microstructures of the outer surface of the coatings are zigzag at the cathodic density of 0.2-0.5 A/dm2.The content of nano metallic zinc particles in the coating decreases with the increase of the thickness of the coatings and tends to be zero when the coating thickness is 4.14 μm.The cathodic phosphate coating was applied to be a transition coating for improving the adhesion between the paints and the magnesium alloys.The formation mechanism of the cathodic phosphate coating was investigated as well.

  16. Failure behavior of protective organic coatings under corrosive conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-cheng; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou; WU Yi-xiong


    Recent research activities on the formation of micro-defects and porosity in organic coatings were reviewed. The mechanisms of aggressive ionic conduction through organic coatings were analyzed. The micro-mechanisms for the failure behavior of coatings under corrosive environments were discussed in detail. These mechanisms included blistering (i. e. osmotic blistering, anodic blistering and cathodic blistering) in the coating, wet-adhesion loss at the substrate/coating interface, cathodic delamination of coating from the substrate. Based on these researches, it was found that the failure behavior of organic coatings is closely related to the micro-defects in coatings, regardless of the failure mode. Additionally, the general failure mode of a coating system was proposed to interpret the failure behavior of organic in corrosion environments. The topics discussed can provide some insights into the development of a methodology for designing fail-safe coating systems.

  17. Relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica in C1 bituminous coal in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China%云南省宣威地区非吸烟女性肺癌与C1烟煤中二氧化硅的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光剑; 黄云超; 田林玮; 刘拥军; 郭律; 肖义泽; 侯文俊; 杨堃; 陈颖


    二氧化硅颗粒物进入室内空气中随悬浮颗粒物吸入肺部”的迁移富集路线.%Objective To measure the content of silica in C1 bituminous coal and its combustion products in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei,Yunnan Province,China and to investigate the relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica produced naturally in C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei.Methods The C1 bituminous coal widely used in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei was selected as experiment group,while the C2+1,K7,and M30 bituminous coal that was mined and used in the low-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei for more than 10 years were selected as control group.Fourteen paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples from the non-smoking women with non-small cell lung cancer who were born in Xuanwei and were at least the 3rd generation of the family living there were collected from the department of pathology,the ahird affiliated hospital of kunming medical university (tumor hospital of yunnan province).Titrimetric potassium silicofluoride method was used to measure the content of silica in raw coal and its bottom ashes in 20 samples from the experimental group and control group.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in C1 bituminous coal and its bottom ashes,and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in the bottom ashes and coal soot of C1 bituminous coal as well as the lung cancer tissue from the non-smoking women in Xuanwei,and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.The silica particles were separated from the coal soot and bottom ashes and characterized by physical method

  18. Curing mechanism of flexible aqueous polymeric coatings. (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Ahmed, Abid Riaz; Dashevskiy, Andriy; Kolter, Karl; Bodmeier, Roland


    The objective of this study was to explain curing phenomena for pellets coated with a flexible polymeric coating based on poly(vinyl acetate) (Kollicoat(®) SR 30D) with regard to the effect of starter cores, thickness of drug layer, adhesion of coating to drug-layered-cores as well as coating properties. In addition, appropriate approaches to eliminate the curing effect were identified. Sugar or MCC cores were layered with the model drugs carbamazepine, theophylline, propranolol HCl, tramadol HCl and metoprolol HCl using HPMC (5 or 25% w/w, based on drug) as a binder. Drug-layered pellets were coated with Kollicoat(®) SR 30D in a fluidized bed coater using TEC (10% w/w) as plasticizer and talc (35-100% w/w) as anti-tacking agent. Drug release, pellet properties (morphology, water uptake-weight loss and osmolality) and adhesion of the coating to the drug layer were investigated as a function of curing at 60 °C or 60 °C/75% RH for 24 h. The film formation of the aqueous dispersion of Kollicoat(®) SR 30D was complete, and therefore, a strong curing effect (decrease in drug release) at elevated temperature and humidity (60 °C/75% RH) could not be explained by the well-known hydroplasticization and the further gradual coalescence of the colloidal polymer particles. According to the provided mechanistic explanation, the observed curing effect was associated with 1) high flexibility of coating, 2) adhesion between coating and drug layer, 3) water retaining properties of the drug layer, and 4) osmotically active cores. Unwanted curing effects could be minimized/eliminated by the addition of talc or/and pore-forming water soluble polymers in the coating, increasing binder amount or applying an intermediate coating, by increasing the thickness of drug layer or using non-osmotic cores. A new insight into curing phenomena mainly associated with the adhesion between drug layer and coating was provided. Appropriate approaches to avoid unwanted curing effect were identified.

  19. Smart Coatings for Launch Site Corrosion Protection (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.


    Smart, environmentally friendly paint system for early corrosion detection, mitigation, and healing that will enable supportability in KSC launch facilities and ground systems through their operational life cycles. KSC's Corrosion Technology Laboratory is developing a smart, self-healing coating that can detect and repair corrosion at an early stage. This coating is being developed using microcapsules specifically designed to deliver the contents of their core when corrosion starts.

  20. Modern approaches to marine antifouling coatings


    Chambers, Lily D.; Stokes, Keith R.; Walsh, Frank C.; Wood, Robert J.K.


    Marine structures such as platforms, jetties and ship hulls are subject to diverse and severe biofouling. Methods for inhibiting both organic and inorganic growth on wetted substrates are varied but most antifouling systems take the form of protective coatings. Biofouling can negatively affect the hydrodynamics of a hull by increasing the required propulsive power and the fuel consumption. This paper reviews the development of antifouling coatings for the prevention of marine biological fouli...