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Sample records for bituminous coals technical

  1. 30 CFR 716.4 - Special bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines. 716.4 Section... INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.4 Special bituminous coal mines. (a) Definition. Special bituminous coal surface mines as used in this section means those...

  2. Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uezuelmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m-3. It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration. (authors)

  3. Unexpectedly high uptake of palladium by bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J. [Research Lab. for Mining Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The uptake of palladium as a conversion catalyst onto coals of different rank was investigated. Palladium fixation occurs by a different mode to that for alkaline earth and first row transition metals. Therefore, the dispersion of relatively high concentration of palladium by an ion sorption process is even possible for bituminous coals. (orig.)

  4. Performance of PAHs emission from bituminous coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严建华; 尤孝方; 李晓东; 倪明江; 尹雪峰; 岑可法

    2004-01-01

    Carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated in coal combustion have caused great environmental health concern. Seventeen PAHs (16 high priority PAHs recommended by USEPA plus Benzo[e]pyrene) present in five raw bituminous coals and released during bituminous coal combustion were studied. The effects of combustion temperature, gas atmosphere, and chlorine content of raw coal on PAHs formation were investigated. Two additives (copper and cupric oxide) were added when the coal was burned. The results indicated that significant quantities of PAHs were produced from incomplete combustion of coal pyrolysis products at high temperature, and that temperature is an important causative factor of PAHs formation. PAHs concentrations decrease with the increase of chlorine content in oxygen or in nitrogen atmosphere. Copper and cupric oxide additives can promote PAHs formation (especially the multi-ring PAHs) during coal combustion.

  5. Amenability of Muzret bituminous coal to oil agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahinoglu, E.; Uslu, T. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mining Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    Laboratory scale agglomeration tests were undertaken to investigate the amenability of Muzret (Yusufeli-Artvin) bituminous coal to oil agglomeration. Kerosene was extensively used as oil in the tests. In addition, fuel oil, diesel oil, and hazelnut oil were also used in order to determine the effect of oil type. The effects of the parameters including coal content, kerosene content, agglomeration time, coal particle size, pH, oil type, and agitation rate, on the combustible matter recovery, ash reduction and pyritic sulphur reduction, were investigated. It was found that Muzret bituminous coal could be readily cleaned by oil agglomeration with substantial reductions in ash and pyritic sulphur content. Maximum combustible matter recovery, ash reduction and pyritic sulphur reduction were achieved to be 85.54%, 59.98%, and 85.17%, respectively. (author)

  6. Slagging behavior of upgraded brown coal and bituminous coal in 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Katsuya; Pak, Haeyang; Takubo, Yoji [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Kobe (Japan). Mechanical Engineering Research Lab.; Tada, Toshiya [Kobe Steel, Ltd, Takasago (Japan). Coal and Energy Technology Dept.; Ueki, Yasuaki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Energy Science Div.; Yoshiie, Ryo; Naruse, Ichiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate behaviors of ash deposition during combustion of Upgraded Brown Coal (UBC) and bituminous coal in a 145 MW practical coal combustion boiler. A blended coal consisting 20 wt% of the UBC and 80 wt% of the bituminous coal was burned for the combustion tests. Before the actual ash deposition tests, the molten slag fractions of ash calculated by chemical equilibrium calculations under the combustion condition was adopted as one of the indices to estimate the tendency of ash deposition. The calculation results showed that the molten slag fraction for UBC ash reached approximately 90% at 1,523 K. However, that for the blended coal ash became about 50%. These calculation results mean that blending the UBC with a bituminous coal played a role in decreasing the molten slag fraction. Next, the ash deposition tests were conducted, using a practical pulverized coal combustion boiler. A water-cooled stainless-steel tube was inserted in locations at 1,523 K in the boiler to measure the amount of ash deposits. The results showed that the mass of deposited ash for the blended coal increased and shape of the deposited ash particles on the tube became large and spherical. This is because the molten slag fraction in ash for the blended coal at 1,523 K increased and the surface of deposited ash became sticky. However, the mass of the deposited ash for the blended coal did not greatly increase and no slagging problems occurred for 8 days of boiler operation under the present blending conditions. Therefore, appropriate blending of the UBC with a bituminous coal enables the UBC to be used with a low ash melting point without any ash deposition problems in a practical boiler.

  7. Retardation of the spontaneous ignition of bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, X.; Drysdale, D. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Department of Civil Engineering and Building Science

    1995-12-31

    The effect of five retardants on a bituminous coal has been investigated in a temperature-controlled oven. The activation energy of oxidation in the coal inhibited by one of the retardants increases by up to 20kJ/mol, in comparison to that of the coal wetted with water. The factors affecting inhibition are considered. A kinetic interpretation of the retardation mechanism is proposed, and the possibility of using the most effective retarder in practice is discussed. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Sorption of aqueous phosphorus onto bituminous and lignitous coal ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at the development of a phosphorus removal technology for waste water, phosphate (PO43-) retention behavior of bituminous and lignitous coal ashes was investigated using a batch reactor. Ash samples, including fresh and weathered fly and bottom ashes, were studied for their sorption isotherms and reversibility. Fly ashes had a much higher phosphate retention capacity (4000-30,000 mg P/kg) than bottom ashes (15-600 mg P/kg). Lignitous coal ashes were more capable of retaining phosphate than bituminous coal ashes. The retention process was largely irreversible, and the irreversibility increased with the increase in the retention capacity. Weathering enlarged the retention capacity of the bituminous bottom ash, but substantially lowered that of the fly ash, likely due to the difference in the weather-induced changes between the fly and bottom ashes. Sorption isotherms of fly ashes were found to be adequately represented by the Langmuir model while those of bottom ashes fitted better to the Freundlich model. Concentrations of Ca2+ and PO43- in the aqueous phase were measured at the end of sorption and desorption experiments, and were compared with solubilities of three calcium phosphate minerals. The aqueous solutions were saturated or super-saturated with respect to tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) and hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH), and slightly under-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium phosphate. It is concluded that precipitation of calcium phosphate is the predominant mechanism for phosphate retention by coal ash under the conditions studied. There is a strong and positive correlation between alkalinity and phosphate sorption capacity. Consequently, acid neutralization capacity (ANC) can be used as an indicator of phosphate sorption capacity of coal ashes

  9. Sorption of aqueous phosphorus onto bituminous and lignitous coal ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Jinying; Kirk, Donald W. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada); Jia, Charles Q. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada)], E-mail: cqjia@chem-eng.toronto.edu; Liu Xinan [College of Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2007-09-05

    Aiming at the development of a phosphorus removal technology for waste water, phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) retention behavior of bituminous and lignitous coal ashes was investigated using a batch reactor. Ash samples, including fresh and weathered fly and bottom ashes, were studied for their sorption isotherms and reversibility. Fly ashes had a much higher phosphate retention capacity (4000-30,000 mg P/kg) than bottom ashes (15-600 mg P/kg). Lignitous coal ashes were more capable of retaining phosphate than bituminous coal ashes. The retention process was largely irreversible, and the irreversibility increased with the increase in the retention capacity. Weathering enlarged the retention capacity of the bituminous bottom ash, but substantially lowered that of the fly ash, likely due to the difference in the weather-induced changes between the fly and bottom ashes. Sorption isotherms of fly ashes were found to be adequately represented by the Langmuir model while those of bottom ashes fitted better to the Freundlich model. Concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} in the aqueous phase were measured at the end of sorption and desorption experiments, and were compared with solubilities of three calcium phosphate minerals. The aqueous solutions were saturated or super-saturated with respect to tricalcium phosphate (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}) and hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}OH), and slightly under-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium phosphate. It is concluded that precipitation of calcium phosphate is the predominant mechanism for phosphate retention by coal ash under the conditions studied. There is a strong and positive correlation between alkalinity and phosphate sorption capacity. Consequently, acid neutralization capacity (ANC) can be used as an indicator of phosphate sorption capacity of coal ashes.

  10. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  11. Fuel properties of bituminous coal and pyrolytic oil mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Hazlin; Sharuddin, Munawar Zaman; Daud, Ahmad Rafizan Mohamad; Syed-Hassan, Syed Shatir A.

    2014-10-01

    Investigation on the thermal decomposition kinetics of coal-biooil slurry (CBS) fuel prepared at different ratios (100:0,70:30,60:40,0:100) was conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The materials consisted of Clermont bituminous coal (Australia) and bio-oil (also known as pyrolytic oil) from the source of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) that was thermally converted by means of pyrolysis. Thermal decomposition of CBS fuel was performed in an inert atmosphere (50mL/min nitrogen) under non-isothermal conditions from room temperature to 1000°C at heating rate of 10°C/min. The apparent activation energy (Ea.) and pre-exponential factor (A) were calculated from the experimental results by using an Arrhenius-type kinetic model which first-order decomposition reaction was assumed. All kinetic parameters were tabulated based on the TG data obtained from the experiment. It was found that, the CBS fuel has higher reactivity than Clermont coal fuel during pyrolysis process, as the addition of pyrolytic oil will reduce the Ea values of the fuel. The thermal profiles of the mixtures showed potential trends that followed the characteristics of an ideal slurry fuel where high degradation rate is desirable. Among the mixture, the optimum fuel was found at the ratio of 60:40 of pyrolytic oil/coal mixtures with highest degradation rate. These findings may contribute to the development of a slurry fuel to be used in the vast existing conventional power plants.

  12. The hydrogasification of lignite and sub-bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, B.; Fallon, P. T.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-02-01

    A North Dakota lignite and a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogenated at up to 900°C and 2500 psi hydrogen pressure. Yields of gaseous hydrocarbons and aromatic liquids have been studied as a function of temperature, pressure, residence time, feed rates and H2/coal ratio. Coal feed rates in excess of 10 lb/hr have been achieved in the 1 in. I. D.×8 ft reactor and methane concentration as high as 55% have been observed. A four-step reaction model was developed for the production and decomposition of the hydrocarbon products. A single object function formulated from the weighted errors for the four dependent process, variables, CH4, C2H6, BTX, and oil yields, was minimized using a program containing three independent iterative techniques. The results of the nonlinear regression analysis for lignite show that a first-order chemical reaction model with respect to C conversion satisfactorily describes the dilute phase hydrogenation. The activation energy for the initial products formation was estimated to be 42,700 cal/gmole and the power of hydrogen partial pressure was found to be +0.14. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.83. The mechanism, the rate expressions, and the design curves developed can be used for scale-up and reactor design.

  13. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  14. Surface Properties of Photo-Oxidized Bituminous Coals: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Natural weathering has a detrimental effect on the hydrophobic nature of coal, which in turn can influence clean-coal recovery during flotation. Few techniques are available that can establish the quality of coal surfaces and that have a short analysis time to provide input for process control. Luminescence emissions which can be quantified with an optical microscope and photometer system, are measurably influenced by degree of weathering as well as by mild storage deterioration. In addition, it has been shown that when vitrinite is irradiated with a relatively high intensity flux of violet- or ultraviolet- light in the presence of air, photo-oxidation of the surface occurs. The combination of measuring the change in luminescence emission intensity with degree of surface oxidation provided the impetus for the current investigation. The principal aim of this research was to determine whether clear correlations could be established among surface oxygen functionality, hydrophobicity induced by photo-oxidation, and measurements of luminescence intensity and alteration. If successful, the project would result in quantitative luminescence techniques based on optical microscopy that would provide a measure of the changes in surface properties as a function of oxidation and relate them to coal cleanability. Two analytical techniques were designed to achieve these goals. Polished surfaces of vitrain bands or a narrow size fraction of powdered vitrain concentrates were photo-oxidized using violet or ultraviolet light fluxes and then changes in surface properties and chemistry were measured using a variety of near-surface analytical techniques. Results from this investigation demonstrate that quantitative luminescence intensity measurements can be performed on fracture surfaces of bituminous rank coals (vitrains) and that the data obtained do reveal significant variations depending upon the level of surface oxidation. Photo-oxidation induced by violet or ultraviolet light

  15. Effect of bituminous coal properties on carbon dioxide and methane high pressure sorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich; Sýkorová, Ivana; Machovič, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 139, JAN 1 (2015), s. 115-124. ISSN 0016-2361 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : bituminous coal * sorption capacity * maceral composition * Upper Silesian Coal Basin Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.520, year: 2014

  16. Application of laser microprobe (LAMMA 1000) to "fingerprinting" of coal constituents in bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Hercules, D.M.; Morelli, J.J.; Sellers, G.A.; Mattern, D.; Thompson-Rizer, C. L.; Brown, F.W.; Millay, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    A laser microprobe (LAMMA-1000) microchemical analysis of vitrinites of different morphologies but similar reflectances within the same bituminous coal bed indicates distinct "fingerprint" spectra. The banded form of vitrinite contains Li, Ti, Ba, Sr, F, and Cl which were not detected in the nonbanded vitrinite. These differences may indicate a different plant source or the introduction of these elements from fluids mobilized during diagenesis. The nonbanded vitrinite (called corpocollinite), which was contained in a pyrite coal-ball seed fern permineralization of Myeloxylon, may have been protected from influx of these elements due to entrapment by pyrite during an early peat stage. An ion at M/Z 65, which is characteristic of the banded vitrinite, may indicate C5H5+ and, perhaps a difference in the chemical structure of the two vitrinites. These results demonstrate that "fingerprint" spectra can be obtained from vitrinite macerals by LAMMA and that these "fingerprints" have genetic implications. ?? 1987.

  17. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  18. Physical properties of solid fuel briquettes from bituminous coal waste and biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZARRINGHALAM-MOGHADDAM A; GHOLIPOUR-ZANJANI N; DOROSTIS; VAEZ M

    2011-01-01

    Biomass and bituminous coal fines from four different coalfields were used to produce fuel briquettes.Two physical properties of briquettes,water resistance index and compressive strength were analyzed.The influence of type and quantity of biomass on physical properties was also studied.The results reveal that depending on the mineral content of the coal,the physical properties of the briquettes differ noticeably.The comparison of briquettes with and without biomass showed that the presence of the beet pulp increased CS in all types of coal samples.Samples containing beet pulp had better physical properties than sawdust.Mezino Ⅱ coal briquettes had highest CS and WRI than the other ones.Calorific value of biomass/Mezino Ⅱ coal briquettes was lessened in comparison with raw coal,but it remained in an acceptable range.

  19. Some thoughts on the organic structure of bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Our current operating hypothesis is that coal consists of a cross linked macromolecular network of high aromatic clusters held together by linkages which include ethers and methylene groups. These clusters are arranged like beads on a string with 3 to 5 beads between branch points. Coal can be liqufied most readily by cleaving the links between the clusters. Doing chemistry on the clusters in the whole coal is very difficult because of the problems of getting to the clusters by reagents. It is fortunate that the linkages between clusters are quite reactive. But even with this, it is clear that coal liquefaction is a formidable chemical problem. There is much wisdom is Sternberg's suggestion that the chemistry of the freed clusters (pre-asphaltenes) be developed. Our model indicates that the chemistry which results in freeing the clusters from the network also should be explored and broadened.

  20. Examination and comparision of structure: lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal. [10 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, R.E.; Hayatsu, R.; Scott, R.G.; Moore, L.P.; Studier, M.H.

    1976-01-01

    Coal can be described as an amorphous mixture of macromolecules each made up of a complex array of organic molecules chemically linked together. Methods for breaking up these macromolecules in order to characterize the aromatic structural types have been explored. Pyrolysis is a common method for depolymerizing coal, but under the conditions necessary for pyrolysis much structural rearrangement occurs making a comparison of the products to the initial structural groups in coal difficult if not impossible. One approach has been to use a variety of selective oxidation methods. Aqueous sodium dichromate, aqueous air oxidation with uv light, and hydrogen peroxide in acetic acid have been used. Initial results of some of these studies have been published. This work has been extended to include characterization and comparison of a lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite. Besides the oxidation products, the monomeric organic molecules trapped within the macromolecules are examined and the results interpreted in relation to coal structure and the coalification process.

  1. The projects of reducing environmental pollution at the collieries belonging to Petrosani Autonomous Bituminous Coal Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic development in the Jiu Valley, as practised in the mining and processing of bituminous coal, has had a dynamic character without taking into account, however, the harmful impact on the environment. The most severe problem of environmental pollution in the Jiu Valley is that of the pollution of the Jiu River due to the discharge of waste water from the technological processes of mining and processing coal. This paper presents some solutions for reducing this environmental pollution, especially the Jiu water pollution. 1 ref

  2. Distribution of inorganic and organic substances in the hydrocyclone separated Slovak sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton Zubrik; Slavomir Hredzak; Ludmila Turcaniova; Michal Lovas; Ingo Bergmann; Klaus Dieter Becker; Maria Lukcova; Vladimir Sepelak [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Institute of Geotechnics

    2010-08-15

    A low-rank Slovak sub-bituminous coal from the Handlova deposit was physically treated by washing in a water-only cyclone with the goal to find the separation effect for inorganic (mainly Fe-bearing minerals) and organic substances (humic acids, diterpanes). A high-quality coal product with the ash content in the dry matter of 9.02% and carbon content of C{sup d} = 68.12% at a mass yield of 29.51% was obtained using the water-only cyclone processing. At first, the physically treated coal samples were detailed characterized by XRD, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, FT-IR and HR-TEM. In addition to non-crystalline organic coal components, inorganic compounds belonging to silicate minerals (kaolinite, muscovite and quartz) as well as to Fe-bearing sulphide minerals (pyrite) were identified in the sub-bituminous coal by XRD. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy detected the presence of iron carbonate (siderite), iron-containing clay mineral and two sulphur-containing minerals (pyrite, jarosite) in the untreated coal. On the other hand, only one Fe-bearing mineral, (pyrite) was found in the washed coal. Effect of the physical separation is also demonstrated in FT-IR spectra, where the peak at 1040 cm{sup -1} representing the silicate component in the untreated sample is not detectable in the washed coal sample. Presence of extractive organic substances, i.e. humic acids and tetracyclic diterpane (16a(H)-phyllocladane), in the hydrocyclone products is also evidenced. It was confirmed that the isolated diterpenoic compound is attendant in the washed product with the lowest ash content and it is assimilated with the organic part of coal. Surprisingly, humic acids were found in the highest concentration in the slurry that has the highest content of ash (63.14%). 54 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Organic geochemistry of Upper Carboniferous bituminous coals and clastic sediments from the Lublin Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Marek R.; Karger, Michał; Gazda, Lucjan; Grafka, Oliwia

    2013-09-01

    Bituminous coals and clastic rocks from the Lublin Formation (Pennsylvanian, Westphalian B) were subjected to detailed biomarker and Rock-Eval analyses. The investigation of aliphatic and aromatic fractions and Rock-Eval Tmax suggests that the Carboniferous deposits attained relatively low levels of thermal maturity, at the end of the microbial processes/initial phase of the oil window. Somewhat higher values of maturity in the clastic sediments were caused by postdiagenetic biodegradation of organic matter. The dominance of the odd carbon-numbered n-alkanes in the range n-C25 to n-C31 , high concentrations of moretanes and a predominance of C 28 and C29 steranes are indicative of a terrigenous origin of the organic matter in the study material. This is supported by the presence of eudesmane, bisabolane, dihydro-ar-curcumene and cadalene, found mainly in the coal samples. In addition, tri- and tetracyclic diterpanes, e. g. 16β(H)-kaurane, 16β(H)-phyllocladane, 16α(H)-kaurane and norisopimarane, were identified, suggesting an admixture of conifer ancestors among the deposited higher plants. Parameters Pr/n-C17 and Rdit in the coal samples show deposition of organic matter from peat swamp environments, with the water levels varying from high (water-logged swamp) to very low (ephemeral swamp). Clastic deposits were accumulated in a flood plain environment with local small ponds/lakes. In pond/lake sediments, apart from the dominant terrigenous organic matter, research also revealed a certain quantity of algal matter, indicated, i.a., by the presence of tricyclic triterpanes C28 and C29 and elevated concentrations of steranes. The Paq parameter can prove to be a useful tool in the identification of organic matter, but the processes of organic matter biodegradation observed in clastic rocks most likely influence the value of the parameter, at the same time lowering the interpretation potential of these compounds. The value of Pr/Ph varies from 0.93 to 5.24 and from 3

  4. Testing of the possibility for the use of BEWAG-coal cinder in bituminous supporting layers of asphalt fastening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueckert, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    In order to develop further use of coal cinder granulate the suitability of that granulate has been tested for use as an additional material for bituminous supporting layers. Results: (1) The granulate can be used for asphalt supporting layers Type B according TVT 72. (2) The granulation scope 0/5 mm is recommended. (3) The granular share of the mineral mixture can amount up to 30% of weight. (4) Standard-Bitumen B 65 can be used as bituminous binders. (5) The optimum consistence of the bituminous materials has to be found according of an aptitude test.

  5. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2005-11-01

    Prolonged exposure to airborne respirable coal dust is responsible for coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), commonly called black lung. Health research studies have identified that the prevalence and severity of CWP are directly related to both the amount of dust exposure and the coal rank. The amount of airborne respirable dust (ARD) smaller than 10 micrometers generated from breakage of different coals varies widely. To investigate the cause, researchers for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have conducted experiments to identify the causes of airborne respirable dust liberation. Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals from eight mines. The results indicate that the proximate analysis of a coal sample can provide a very good indicator of the potential for a dust problem. For application to the coal mining, processing, and utilization industries, data from 977 US coal seams compiled by the Department of Energy (DoE) has been used to calculate this dust generation potential from an equation based on the NIOSH measured data. A simple procedure for this calculation is provided. 1 fig.

  6. Combustion characteristics and arsenic retention during co-combustion of agricultural biomass and bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui; Hu, Yunhu

    2016-08-01

    A combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and laboratory-scale circulated fluidized bed combustion experiment was conducted to investigate the thermochemical, kinetic and arsenic retention behavior during co-combustion bituminous coal with typical agricultural biomass. Results shown that ignition performance and thermal reactivity of coal could be enhanced by adding biomass in suitable proportion. Arsenic was enriched in fly ash and associated with fine particles during combustion of coal/biomass blends. The emission of arsenic decreased with increasing proportion of biomass in blends. The retention of arsenic may be attributed to the interaction between arsenic and fly ash components. The positive correlation between calcium content and arsenic concentration in ash suggesting that the arsenic-calcium interaction may be regarded as the primary mechanism for arsenic retention. PMID:27136608

  7. Petrographic and Vitrinite Reflectance Analyses of a Suite of High Volatile Bituminous Coal Samples from the United States and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents vitrinite reflectance and detailed organic composition data for nine high volatile bituminous coal samples. These samples were selected to provide a single, internally consistent set of reflectance and composition analyses to facilitate the study of linkages among coal composition, bitumen generation during thermal maturation, and geochemical characteristics of generated hydrocarbons. Understanding these linkages is important for addressing several issues, including: the role of coal as a source rock within a petroleum system, the potential for conversion of coal resources to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and the interactions between coal and carbon dioxide during enhanced coalbed methane recovery and(or) carbon dioxide sequestration in coal beds.

  8. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates

  9. Inoculum density of Glomus mosseae and growth of onion plants in unsterilized bituminous coal spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of inoculum, density (number of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) propagules g/sup -1/ of inoculum) on the growth of onions (Allium cepa L.) infected by Glomus mosseae (Nicol and Gerd). Gerdemann and Trappe, Comb nov in unsterilized coal spoil containing indigenous VAM fungi, including G. mosseae, was investigated. The amount of onion roots converted to mycorrhizas by inoculant fungus, estimated by a gridline intersect method, increased with inoculum density (..gamma..0.62, P0.05) until a plateau was reached. Onion growth responses also increased significantly (P<0.05) with the amount of VAM inoculum present in the coal spoil. The initial linear relationship between inoculum propagules (MPN estimates), percent colonization of onion roots and onion shoot dry weight became quadratic as the number of infection propagules increased. VAM infection had no significant effect on root:shoot ratios. Similarly there was no significant interaction (P>0.05) between the inoculum density, VAM-colonized root mass and the onion root:shoot fresh weight ratios. The amount of the windswept bituminous coal spoil bound to VAM (presumably because of VAM external hyphae) also increased as inoculum density increased (..gamma..0.63, P<0.05). There was a stronger correlation (ga0.85, P<0.05) between the amount of spoil adhered per plant and the root fresh wt plant/sup -1/ indicating that root effects were primarily responsible for increasing spoil adherence. There were negative correlations (P<0.05) between root fresh wt plant/sup -1/ (..gamma..-0.68), inoculum density (..gamma..-0.589), percent root elngth infected (..gamma..-0.73) and the amount of spoil adhered g/sup -1/ root fresh wt. The possible exploitation of VAM in revegetation of bituminous coal spoil is discussed. 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Burnout behaviour of bituminous coals in air-staged combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluger, F.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Process Engineering and Power Plant (IVD)

    2001-07-01

    In order to determine the influence on burnout by the combustion conditions and the coal preparation, three bituminous coals sold on the world market, from three different locations in Poland, South Africa, and Australia, were studied more closely. For this purpose, the coals were ground in two different particle size ranges, which, besides the influence of the combustion conditions, such a temperature, residence time, and stoichiometry, made it possible to also investigate the impact on burnout by the coal preparation. The experiments were carried out in an electrically heated entrained-flow reactor with a thermal input of 8.5 kW. The parameters for the experiments are wall temperature (1000-1350{degree}C), air ratio (0.6-1.15) and two particle sizes (70% {lt} 75 {mu}m, 90% {lt} 75 {mu}m). The results show that in general, for increasing temperatures, the burnout quality will improve. For the Australian Illawara coal, another outcome is increased NOx emissions. Lowering the air ratio in the reduction zone leads to less NOx emission but to increased unburnt matter in ash. For the smaller particle size fraction, the analysis of the different particle sizes shows an improvement of the burnout without a change in NOx emissions. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Comparative study of thermal properties of bio-coal from aromatic spent with low rank sub-bituminous coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vineet; Baruah, B P; Khare, Puja

    2013-06-01

    In present investigation, biocoal samples were prepared from aromatic plant waste of two perennial grasses, i.e. Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemongrass) and Vetiveria zizanioides (khus) after oil extraction, root of Rosa damascene (rose), bark of Eucalyptus citriodora. These biocoals were characterized by proximate, ultimate, metal, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and ash analyses. Activation energies, initial temperature of devolatilization, maximum rate of weight loss (Rmax), fouling, slagging and alkali index were determined on the basis of TGA and ash analysis. These biocoals have good calorific values. There is possibility of slagging and fouling in combustion system but it is not severe. Owing to their similar fuel properties as high sulphur sub-bituminous coal, they can be good candidates for co-firing. Blending of these biocoals with high sulphur coals will serve dual purpose as (i) alternate fuel, and (ii) reduction in SO2 emission. PMID:23603187

  12. Elemental analysis of Indonesian and Australian bituminous coal used at Kapar Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumental neutron activation analytical (INAA) technique is used for the determination of thirty elements in five coal samples collected from Kapar power station, imported from Indonesia and Australia. Analyses of the samples are being associated with standards. All irradiation were performed in the nuclear reactor of Malaysia Nuclear Agency (MNA). samples were counted by Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector for short period irradiations at MNA, while for the long period irradiations the samples were counted at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The concentrations of thirty elements have been determined: The major components are Cl, Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Ti, and Na with the mean concentrations in the range between 70±69 ppm-6100±1639 ppm; and the trace elements are Zr, V, Mn, Sc, Cr, Co, As, Br, Rb, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Th, U and Ta with the mean concentrations in the range between 0.1381±0.0202 - 69.0±2.8 ppm. The results have been compared to the reported data of eight coal samples from the United States and the reported data of Australian bituminous coal. (Author)

  13. Mapping and prediction of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis with bioavailable iron content in the bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Li, W.; Attfield, M.D.; Nadas, A.; Frenkel, K.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the first National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (CWP) and the U.S. Geological Survey database of coal quality, we show that the prevalence of CWP in seven coal mine regions correlates with levels of bioavailable iron (BAI) in the coals from that particular region (correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p < 0.0015). CWP prevalence is also correlated with contents of pyritic sulfur (r = 0.91, p < 0.0048) or total iron (r = 0.85, p < 0.016) but not with coal rank (r = 0.59, p < 0.16) or silica (r = 0.28, p < 0.54). BAI was calculated using our model, taking into account chemical interactions of pyrite, sulfuric acid, calcite, and total iron. That is, iron present in coals can become bioavailable by pyrite oxidation, which produces ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid. Calcite is the major component in coals that neutralizes the available acid and inhibits iron's bioavailabiity. Therefore, levels of BAI in the coals are determined by the available amounts of acid after neutralization of calcite and the amount of total iron in the coals. Using the linear fit of CWP prevalence and the calculated BAI in the seven coal mine regions, we have derived and mapped the pneumoconiotic potencies of 7,000 coal samples. Our studies indicate that levels of BAI in the coals may be used to predict coal's toxicity, even before large-scalen mining.

  14. Effect of organic calcium compounds on combustion characteristics of rice husk, sewage sludge, and bituminous coal: thermogravimetric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihui; Duan, Feng; Huang, Yaji

    2015-04-01

    Experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer to assess the enhancement of combustion characteristics of different solid fuels blended with organic calcium compounds (OCCs). Rice husk, sewage sludge, and bituminous coal, and two OCC were used in this study. Effect of different mole ratios of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S ratio) on the combustion characteristics were also investigated. Results indicated that combustion performance indexes for bituminous coal impregnated by OCC were improved, however, an inverse trend was found for sewage sludge because sewage sludge has lower ignition temperature and higher volatile matter content compared to those of OCC. For rice husk, effect of added OCC on the combustion characteristics is not obvious. Different solid fuels show different combustion characteristics with increases of Ca/S ratio. The maximum combustion performance indexes appear at Ca/S ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 for OCC blended with Shenhua coal, rice husk, and sewage sludge, respectively. PMID:25638405

  15. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. PMID:22944493

  16. Mechanical, sorption and transport experiments on a German high volatile bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensterblum, Y.; Krooss, B.M. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal; Massarotto, Paul [Queensland Univ., Brisbane, St Lucia, QLD (Australia). School of Engineering

    2013-08-01

    A high volatile bituminous coal (vitrinite reflectance: 0.93%, carbon content: 83%) from the Prosper-Haniel mine, North Rhine-Westphalia has been studied using a comprehensive set of measurements and experimental procedures at RWTH Aachen University and the University of Queensland. Using the True Triaxial Stress Coal Permeameter (TTSCP) (Massarotto 2003) of the University of Queensland, permeability and gas displacement tests were performed on an 80 mm cube of the Prosper-Haniel coal. Extensive data sets were recorded to assess the effects of stress changes on gas transport and the impact of nitrogen, methane and CO{sub 2} sorption on the mechanical properties. We investigate the permeability coefficients for helium, nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide measured on this sample as a function of net stress. As expected, permeability values decrease with increasing stress. Methane and nitrogen have nearly identical permeability coefficients throughout the entire net stress range, while permeability coefficients measured with helium are higher and those measured with CO{sub 2} significantly lower. During the permeability measurements with CO{sub 2} an anisotropic swelling of the coal cube by about 0.19% to 0.23% was observed. The volumetric effect (swelling) is 100 times slower than gas displacement. Simultaneous mechanical tests indicated a softening of the coal block upon exposure to CO{sub 2}. Thus, a decrease of Young's modulus (YM) of the coal cube during the CO{sub 2} flow test was observed as compared to the methane and nitrogen tests. High-pressure sorption isotherms with CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} were determined on different grain-size fractions of the Prosper-Haniel coal at 318K and different moisture contents. Methane sorption capacity decreases by 29% with increasing moisture content. Also, a decrease of sorption rate was observed with increasing moisture content. While sorption rates are generally faster for CO{sub 2} than for CH{sub 4}, the sorption

  17. Effect of oxidation on the chemical nature and distribution of low-temperature pyrolysis products from bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; MacPhee, J.A.; Vancea, L.; Ciavaglia, L.A.; Nandi, B.N.

    1983-04-01

    Two bituminous coals, a high volatile Eastern Canadian and a medium volatile Western Canadian, were used to investigate the effect of oxidation on yields and chemical composition of gases, liquids and chars produced during coal pyrolysis. Pyrolysis experiments were performed at 500 C using the Fischer assay method. Mild oxidation of coals resulted in a decrease of liquid hydrocarbon yields. Further coal oxidation increased the proportion of aromatic carbon in liquid products as determined by N.M.R. and also increased the content of oxygen in liquid products. The content of oxygen in chars was markedly lower than in corresponding coals. An attempt is made to explain reactions occurring during oxidation and subsequent pyrolysis of coal on the basis of differences in chemical composition of gases, liquids and chars. (19 refs.)

  18. Effect of oxidation on the chemical nature and distribution of low-temperature pyrolysis products from bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Ciavaglia, L.A.; MacPhee, J.A.; Nandi, B.N.; Vancea, L.

    1983-04-01

    Two bituminous coals, a high volatile Eastern Canadian and a medium volatile Western Canadian, were used to investigate the effect of oxidation on yields and chemical composition of gases, liquids and chars produced during coal pyrolysis. Pyrolysis experiments were performed at 500/sup 0/C using the Fischer assay method. Mild oxidation of coals resulted in a decrease of liquid hydrocarbon yields. Further coal oxidation increased the proportion of aromatic carbon in liquid products as determined by n.m.r., and also increased the content of oxygen in liquid products. The content of oxygen in chars was markedly lower than in corresponding coals. An attempt is made to explain reactions occurring during oxidation and subsequent pyrolysis of coal on the basis of differences in chemical composition of gases, liquids and chars.

  19. The effect of petrographical composition of coals and bituminous sediments on the material and isotopic composition of dry natural gases from artificial recoalification reactions. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results indicate that on the basis of the material and isotopic composition of natural gases conclusions can be drawn with regard to the character (humic or bituminous) of the parent rock. Thus, genetic relations assumed to exist between humic sediments (e.g. coal seams) and dry natural gases as well as bituminous rocks and wet natural gases are experimentally confirmed. In addition, from analyses of the materials approximate data can be derived on the degree of carbonization of coal or bituminous sediments in the main phase of gas separation. Furthermore, these analyses were used to elucidate the question whether authochthonous or allochthonous deposits are present. It could be shown that the maceral composition of coals and of the organo-petrographical inclusions in bituminous sediments determines the isotopic composition of methane in recoalification gases to a considerable degree. (author)

  20. Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-megawatt utility boiler in Taiwan firing bituminous coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Lee, Hsiu-Hsia; Hwang, Jyh-Feng; Chen, Wang

    2010-05-01

    Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-MW tangential-fired utility boiler in Taiwan burning Australian and Chinese bituminous coal blends was investigated. Flue gases were simultaneously sampled at the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) inlet, the SCR outlet, the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, and the stack. Samplings of coal, lime, bottom ash/slag, fly ash, and gypsum slurry were also conducted. Results indicated that flue gases at the inlet to SCR contained a great potion of particle-bound mercury (Hg(p)), 59-92% of the total mercury. Removal of mercury was not observed for the SCR system. However, repartitioning of mercury species across the SCR occurred that significantly increased the portion of elemental mercury (Hg0) to up to 29% and oxidized mercury (Hg2+) to up to 33% in the SCR outlet gas. Overreporting of Hg(p) at the inlet of SCR may cause the observed repartitioning; the high ammonia/nitric oxide circumstance in the SCR unit was also speculated to cause the mercury desorption from ash particles and subsequent reentrance into the gas phase. ESP can remove up to 99% of Hg(p), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) can remove up to 84% of Hg2+. Mercury mass balances were calculated to range between 81 and 127.4%, with an average of 95.7% wherein 56-82% was in ESP fly ash, 8.7-18.6% was retained in the FGD gypsum, and 6.2-26.1% was emitted from the stack. Data presented here suggest that mercury removal can be largely enhanced by increasing the conversion of Hg0 into Hg(p) and Hg2+. PMID:20480850

  1. Study on the submicron and micron morphology and the properties of poor bituminous coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei-Fang Fu; Huai-Chun Zhou; Qing-Yan Fang; Hai Yao; Jianrong Qiu; Minghou Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2007-05-15

    Carbon burnout and its reaction mechanism have been widely focused on in the past decades. The properties of burnout, submicron and micron morphology and the reaction mechanism of poor bituminous coal/char (PBC) in a W-shaped power plant boiler was studied and was compared with those in DTF and in TGA, which showed that the degree of PBC burnout in TGA at 1450{sup o}C was greater than or approximately equal to that in a W-shaped boiler, and that the complexity of the reactions among residual char, oxygen and SiO{sub 2} did not seem to result in mass loss in TGA, although the weight percentage of the residual char in ash decreased from 33% ad (air dry basis) at 900{sup o}C to 9% and at 1450{sup o}C. According to the distribution of pores and the properties of the char burnout, the char can be simply categorized into three classes: char burnout easy, char burnout difficult and char burnout very difficult. The differences of the reaction mechanism must be considered while predicting the burning rate and degree of char burnout in a full-scale boiler by making use of experimental results from TGA and DTF. A different char particle contains markedly different amount of carbons, but for a special char particle, the ratio of carbon to ash is generally constant, and an ash shell does not exist on the char surface. The fusion mineral matter composing of C-O-Si-Al is amorphous, not in the form of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} above 1450{sup o}C.

  2. Effect of structural alteration on the macromolecular properties of brown and bituminous coals, quantitative relationships to the hydrogenation reactivity with tetralin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Kuznetsova, L.I. [Inst. of Chemistry and Chemico-Metallurgical Processes, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Bimer, J.; Salbut, P.D. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Warszawa (Poland); Gruber, R. [Univ. de Metz (France)

    1996-12-31

    The mobility of macromolecular network has been found to be the fundamental property of both brown and bituminous coals governing the reactivity for hydrogenation with tetralin. In Kansk-Achinsk brown coal, this was primarily affected by carboxylate cross-linking via polyvalent cations like Ca.

  3. Petrography and geochemistry of Oligocene bituminous coal from the Jiu Valley, Petrosani basin (southern Carpathian Mountains), Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Stucker, J.D. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); University of Kentucky Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Morehead, KY, 40351 (United States); Tatu, Calin A. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Immunology, Clinical Laboratory No. 1, Pta. E. Murgu No. 2, RO-1900 Timisoara (Romania); Buia, Grigore [University of Petrosani, Department of Geology, University St. 20, RO-2675 Petrosani (Romania)

    2010-05-01

    Belt samples of Oligocene (Chattian) bituminous coal from 10 underground mines located in the Jiu Valley, Hunedoara County, Petrosani basin, Romania, have been examined and analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, major-, minor- and trace-element chemistry, organic petrography, and vitrinite reflectance. The mineral chemistry and mode of occurrence of trace elements also have been investigated using SEM and electron microprobe techniques. Twenty coal beds occur in the Jiu Valley and most of the samples are from bed no. 3, the most productive bed of the Dilja-Uricani Formation of Oligocene age. The Petrosani basin, oriented SW-NE, is 48-km long, 10-km wide at the eastern part and 2-km wide at the western part. The coal mines are distributed along the center of the valley generally following the Jiu de Vest River. Reflectance measurements indicate that the rank of the coals ranges from high-volatile B to high-volatile A bituminous. Overall, rank decreases from the southwest to the northeast. In bed no. 3, R{sub max} varies from 0.75% in the northeast to 0.93% in the southwest. Although, most Oligocene coals in Romania and adjacent countries are lignite in rank, the Jiu Valley bituminous coals have been affected by regional metamorphism and attending hydrothermal fluids related to the Alpine orogenic event. The coals are all dominated by vitrinite; resinite and funginite are important minor macerals in most of the coals. Pyrite and carbonate generally dominate the mineral assemblages with carbonate more abundant in the northwest. Siderite occurs as nodules and masses within the macerals (generally vitrinite). Dolomite and calcite occur as fracture fillings, plant-cell fillings, and in other authigenic forms. Late-stage fracture fillings are siderite, dolomite, calcite, and ankerite. In one instance, two populations of siderite ({proportional_to} 35 and {proportional_to} 45 wt.% FeO) plus ankerite fill a large fracture. Late-stage pyrite framboid alteration is Ni

  4. Single particle ignition and combustion of anthracite, semi-anthracite and bituminous coals in air and simulated oxy-fuel conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Riaza Benito, Juan; Khatami, Reza; Levendis, Yiannis A.; Álvarez González, Lucía; Gil Matellanes, María Victoria; Pevida García, Covadonga; Rubiera González, Fernando; Pis Martínez, José Juan

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental investigation has been conducted on the combustion behavior of single particles (75–150 μm) of four coals of different ranks: anthracite, semi-anthracite, medium-volatile bituminous and high-volatile bituminous. A laboratory-scale transparent laminar-flow drop-tube furnace, electrically-heated to 1400 K, was used to burn the coals. The experiments were performed in different combustion atmospheres: air (21%O2/79%N2) and four simulated dry oxy-fuel conditions: 21%O2/79%CO2, 30%O2...

  5. Characterization of burning and CO2 gasification of chars from mixtures of Zonguldak (Turkey) and Australian bituminous coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, different mixtures (30 wt.% + 70 wt.% and 50 wt.% + 50 wt.%, respectively) of Zonguldak bituminous coal (Turkey) and an Australian bituminous coal are carbonized to obtain char samples. The ignition temperatures of the samples are determined by sending O2 onto the samples in a system designed for determining the ignition temperature. The gasification reactivity of the chars in a CO2 atmosphere is also measured at temperatures between 800 deg. C and 1050 deg. C. The relationship between the ignition temperature and the burning character of the same samples is investigated thermogravimetrically. The moisture, ash and volatile matter analyses are also performed. An increase in carbonization temperature leads to a decrease in the amount of volatile matter. The differences between the effects of volatile matter on the ignition temperature and the gasification reactivity of the samples with CO2 might be explained by the change in pore structure and the varying catalytic effect of mineral components in the structure. It is also seen that there is a good correlation between the thermal analysis and the complete analysis results of the samples

  6. Co-combustion of bituminous coal and biomass fuel blends: Thermochemical characterization, potential utilization and environmental advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui

    2016-10-01

    The thermochemical characteristics and gaseous trace pollutant behaviors during co-combustion medium-to-low ash bituminous coal with typical biomass residues (corn stalk and sawdust) were investigated. Lowering of ignition index, burnout temperature and activation energy in the major combustion stage are observed in the coal/biomass blends. The blending proportion of 20% and 30% are regarded as the optimum blends for corn stalk and sawdust, respectively, in according the limitations of heating value, activation energy, flame stability and base/acid ratio. The reductions of gaseous As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) were 4.5%, 7.8%, 6.3%, 9.8%, 9.4% and 17.4%, respectively, when co-combustion coal with 20% corn stalk. The elevated capture of trace elements were found in coal/corn stalk blend, while the coal/sawdust blend has the better PAHs control potential. The reduction mechanisms of gaseous trace pollutants were attributed to the fuel property, ash composition and relative residence time during combustion. PMID:27393832

  7. Functional group and individual maceral chemistry of high volatile bituminous coals from southern Indiana: Controls on coking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The individual maceral chemistries of two Pennsylvanian, high volatile bituminous coals, the Danville Coal Member (Dugger Formation, R o=0.55%) and the Lower Block Coal Member (Brazil Formation, R o=0.56%) of Indiana, were investigated using electron microprobe and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) techniques, with the purpose of understanding differences in their coking behavior. Microprobe results reveal that carbon contents are highest in inertinite and sporinite, followed by desmocollinite and telocollinite. Oxygen and organic nitrogen are most abundant in telocollinite and desmocollinite; sporinite and inertinite contain lesser amounts of these two elements. Organic sulfur contents are highest in sporinite, lowest in inertinite, and intermediate in desmocollinite and telocollinite. Vitrinites within the Danville and Lower Block coals are very similar in elemental composition, while Lower Block inertinites and sporinites have higher carbon, lower oxygen, and sulfur contents which, when combined with the inertinite-and sporinite-rich composition of the Lower Block seam, strongly influences its whole coal chemistry. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry revealed greater aromatic hydrogen in the Lower Block coal, along with higher CH2/CH3 ratios, which suggest that liptinites contribute considerable amounts of long-chain, unbranched aliphatics to the overall kerogen composition of the Lower Block coal. Long-chain, unbranched aliphatics crack at higher temperatures, producing tar and oily byproducts during coking; these may help increase Lower Block plasticity. Electron microprobe and FTIR results indicate that individual maceral chemistries, combined with the maceral composition of the seam, are the primary control of better coking properties of the Lower Block coal. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dependence of carbon dioxide sorption on the petrographic composition of bituminous coals from the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Sýkorová, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2011), s. 312-323. ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1146; GA AV ČR IAA300460804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : bituminous coal * sorption capacity * maceral composition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.248, year: 2011

  9. XRD and FT–IR investigations of sub-bituminous Assam coals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binoy K Saikia; R K Boruah; P K Gogoi

    2007-08-01

    Two coal samples collected from Makum coal field, Assam, India were studied by XRD and FT–IR techniques. The X-ray diffractogram shows the existence of some crystalline carbons in Assam coals as proven by the appearance of peaks. The radial distribution functional (RDF) method was applied for the determination of structural aspects of the coals. The study indicates that the coals are lignite in type and there is no evidence of graphite-like structures. The maximum in the () plots of function of radial distribution of atoms (FRDA) relates to different distances between carbon atoms of aliphatic chains. The first significant maximum relates to the C–C bond (type C–CH=CH–C), the second maximum relates to the distance between carbon atoms of aliphatic chains that are located across one carbon atom. The curve intensity profiles obtained from FRDA show quite regular molecular packets for this coal. The coals were found to be lignite in nature. FT–IR study shows the presence of aliphatic carbon, C=O and C–O stretching associated with –OH and –NH stretching vibrations. Kaolinite and quartz were also found to be major minerals in Assam coals by FTIR spectroscopy. The difference in intensities of carbonyl groups of the coal samples is likely to relate with the rank.

  10. Progressive oxidation of pyrite in five bituminous coal samples: An As XANES and 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring pyrite commonly contains minor substituted metals and metalloids (As, Se, Hg, Cu, Ni, etc.) that can be released to the environment as a result of its weathering. Arsenic, often the most abundant minor constituent in pyrite, is a sensitive monitor of progressive pyrite oxidation in coal. To test the effect of pyrite composition and environmental parameters on the rate and extent of pyrite oxidation in coal, splits of five bituminous coal samples having differing amounts of pyrite and extents of As substitution in the pyrite, were exposed to a range of simulated weathering conditions over a period of 17 months. Samples investigated include a Springfield coal from Indiana (whole coal pyritic S = 2.13 wt.%; As in pyrite = detection limit (d.l.) to 0.06 wt.%), two Pittsburgh coal samples from West Virginia (pyritic S = 1.32-1.58 wt.%; As in pyrite = d.l. to 0.34 wt.%), and two samples from the Warrior Basin, Alabama (pyritic S = 0.26-0.27 wt.%; As in pyrite = d.l. to 2.72 wt.%). Samples were collected from active mine faces, and expected differences in the concentration of As in pyrite were confirmed by electron microprobe analysis. Experimental weathering conditions in test chambers were maintained as follows: (1) dry Ar atmosphere; (2) dry O2 atmosphere; (3) room atmosphere (relative humidity ∼20-60%); and (4) room atmosphere with samples wetted periodically with double-distilled water. Sample splits were removed after one month, nine months, and 17 months to monitor the extent of As and Fe oxidation using As X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, respectively. Arsenic XANES spectroscopy shows progressive oxidation of pyritic As to arsenate, with wetted samples showing the most rapid oxidation. 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy also shows a much greater proportion of Fe3+ forms (jarosite, Fe3+ sulfate, FeOOH) for samples stored under wet conditions, but much less difference among samples stored

  11. Applied Technological Direction of Power Plant Ash and Slag Waste Management when Kuznetsk Bituminous Coal is Burned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihach Snejana A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently a lot of power plants have a problem with storage of coal combustion solid by-products (ash and slag. Holding capacity of existing power plants available ash dumps were enlarged and modernized repeatedly. Many plants have two or even three of them. Today new ash dump construction is economically inconvenient due to need to assign new plots of land and their inconveniently big distance from a plant, which increase ash and slag transportation expenses. The goal of our research work is to find promising directions for ash and slag waste mass utilization based on Kuznetsk bituminous coals experimental data on ultimate composition and properties. The experimental research of ash, slag and their mixture samples from ash dumps brought us to conclusion that the most promising direction for these materials application in large quantities is construction industry including road construction. Be-sides, we lined up some other directions for ash, slag, and ash and slag mixture possible application. These directions might not provide mass utilization but they are promising from a point of view of the researched waste properties.

  12. Suitability of UK bituminous and Spanish lignitious coals and their blends of two stage liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatman-Fairs, D.P.; Harrison, G. [Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom). School of Sciences

    1999-11-01

    Liquefaction experiments were carried out in spinning/falling basket autoclaves using samples of Kellingly (UK) and Samca (Spain) coals, and a process derived recycle solvent (PDRS). Hydrocracking experiments were carried out in a bomb type autoclave using sulphided NiMo catalyst. For the dissolution, experiments with the individual coals, the influence of temperature 380, 400 and 420{degree}C, and time 1 or 2 h was considered. For hydrocracking, preliminary experiments were carried out with a Kellingly coal liquid to establish appropriate reaction conditions for the hydrocracking of Kellingly and Samca coal liquid blends. There was some evidence of synergistic activity for conversion to dichloromethane (DCM) soluble material and antagonistic behaviour for conversion to tetrahydrofuran soluble/DCM insoluble material for dissolution of the coal blends, but hydrocracking of the coal liquid blends resulted in additive behaviour. For each of the coals, the extent of dissolution correlated with the extent of desulphurisation. The sulphur contents of the solid residues from dissolution tended to increase with the temperature of dissolution, but their H:C ratios decreased and their calorific values were independent. 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Dike intrusions into bituminous coal, Illinois Basin: H, C, N, O isotopic responses to rapid and brief heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Gao, L.; Sauer, P.E.; Topalov, K.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike long-term heating in subsiding sedimentary basins, the near-instantaneous thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter near magmatic intrusions is comparable to artificial thermal maturation in the laboratory in terms of short duration and limited extent. This study investigates chemical and H, C, N, O isotopic changes in high volatile bituminous coal near two Illinois dike contacts and compares observed patterns and trends with data from other published studies and from artificial maturation experiments. Our study pioneers in quantifying isotopically exchangeable hydrogen and measuring the D/H (i.e., 2H/1H) ratio of isotopically non-exchangeable organic hydrogen in kerogen near magmatic contacts. Thermal stress in coal caused a reduction of isotopically exchangeable hydrogen in kerogen from 5% to 6% in unaltered coal to 2-3% at contacts, mostly due to elimination of functional groups (e.g., {single bond}OH, {single bond}COOH, {single bond}NH2). In contrast to all previously published data on D/H in thermally matured organic matter, the more mature kerogen near the two dike contacts is D-depleted, which is attributed to (i) thermal elimination of D-enriched functional groups, and (ii) thermal drying of hydrologically isolated coal prior to the onset of cracking reactions, thereby precluding D-transfer from relatively D-enriched water into kerogen. Maxima in organic nitrogen concentration and in the atomic N/C ratio of kerogen at a distance of ???2.5 to ???3.5 m from the thicker dike indicate that reactive N-compounds had been pyrolytically liberated at high temperature closer to the contact, migrated through the coal seam, and recombined with coal kerogen in a zone of lower temperature. The same principle extends to organic carbon, because a strong ??13Ckerogen vs. ??15Nkerogen correlation across 5.5 m of coal adjacent to the thicker dike indicates that coal was functioning as a flow-through reactor along a dynamic thermal gradient facilitating back

  14. Dike intrusions into bituminous coal, Illinois Basin: H, C, N, O isotopic responses to rapid and brief heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Mastalerz, Maria; Gao, Ling; Sauer, Peter E.; Topalov, Katarina

    2009-10-01

    Unlike long-term heating in subsiding sedimentary basins, the near-instantaneous thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter near magmatic intrusions is comparable to artificial thermal maturation in the laboratory in terms of short duration and limited extent. This study investigates chemical and H, C, N, O isotopic changes in high volatile bituminous coal near two Illinois dike contacts and compares observed patterns and trends with data from other published studies and from artificial maturation experiments. Our study pioneers in quantifying isotopically exchangeable hydrogen and measuring the D/H (i.e., 2H/ 1H) ratio of isotopically non-exchangeable organic hydrogen in kerogen near magmatic contacts. Thermal stress in coal caused a reduction of isotopically exchangeable hydrogen in kerogen from 5% to 6% in unaltered coal to 2-3% at contacts, mostly due to elimination of functional groups (e.g., sbnd OH, sbnd COOH, sbnd NH 2). In contrast to all previously published data on D/H in thermally matured organic matter, the more mature kerogen near the two dike contacts is D-depleted, which is attributed to (i) thermal elimination of D-enriched functional groups, and (ii) thermal drying of hydrologically isolated coal prior to the onset of cracking reactions, thereby precluding D-transfer from relatively D-enriched water into kerogen. Maxima in organic nitrogen concentration and in the atomic N/C ratio of kerogen at a distance of ˜2.5 to ˜3.5 m from the thicker dike indicate that reactive N-compounds had been pyrolytically liberated at high temperature closer to the contact, migrated through the coal seam, and recombined with coal kerogen in a zone of lower temperature. The same principle extends to organic carbon, because a strong δ13C kerogen vs. δ15N kerogen correlation across 5.5 m of coal adjacent to the thicker dike indicates that coal was functioning as a flow-through reactor along a dynamic thermal gradient facilitating back-reactions between mobile

  15. Parametric and dynamic studies of an iron-based 25-kWth coal direct chemical looping unit using sub-bituminous coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Integrated, moving bed chemical looping reactor with iron-oxide based oxygen carrier. • Coal carbon conversion from 84.8% to 99.9%, thermal capacity 7.4 to 27.7 kWth, O2 demand less than 1.3%. • Dynamic temperature of moving bed reducer is established and tracked during coal injection. • CH4 and CO present at initial coal injection, eliminated after oxygen carrier activated. • Lower coal injection had higher volatiles residence time and conversion. - Abstract: The iron-based Coal-Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) combustion process is an alternative to conventional oxy-combustion technologies, where the oxygen used for fuel conversion in the CDCL process is provided by an iron-oxide based oxygen carrier instead of an air separation unit. The iron oxide is reduced using coal in the reducer reactor, producing highly-pure CO2 in the flue gas, and the reduced iron oxide is regenerated in a separate combustor reactor using air. The CDCL process at Ohio State has been developed and demonstrated in a 25 kWth sub-pilot unit, and it is the first chemical looping demonstration unit with a circulating moving bed reactor for solid fuel conversion. To date, the CDCL sub-pilot unit at OSU has been operated for more than 680 h, with a 200-h continuous operation, providing important data on long term operability as well as parametric optimization. This paper discusses recent parametric operational experience with sub-bituminous coal as the fuel, where dynamic changes in variables were performed to observe the effects on the unit itself. Measurements included temperature, pressure, and gas concentrations from the reducer and combustor. Furthermore, effects of different variables, such as flue gas recycle ratios (enhancer gas flow rates), feed port injection, and temperature, were observed. Tests confirmed high coal conversions with high purity of CO2 achieved in the flue gas. Overall, the moving bed design of the reducer results in nearly full coal conversion

  16. Contribution of Ash Content Related to Methane Adsorption Behaviors of Bituminous Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane adsorption isotherms on coals with varying ash contents were investigated. The textural properties were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K, and methane adsorption characteristics were measured at pressures up to 4.0 MPa at 298 K, 313 K, and 328 K, respectively. The Dubinin-Astakhov model and the Polanyi potential theory were employed to fit the experimental data. As a result, ash content correlated strongly to methane adsorption capacity. Over the ash range studied, 9.35% to 21.24%, the average increase in methane adsorption capacity was 0.021 mmol/g for each 1.0% rise in ash content. With the increasing ash content range of 21.24%~43.47%, a reduction in the maximum adsorption capacities of coals was observed. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the saturated adsorption capacity and the specific surface area and micropore volume of samples. Further, this study presented the heat of adsorption, the isosteric heat of adsorption, and the adsorbed phase specific heat capacity for methane adsorption on various coals. Employing the proposed thermodynamic approaches, the thermodynamic maps of the adsorption processes of coalbed methane were conducive to the understanding of the coal and gas simultaneous extraction.

  17. Adsorption of SO2 on bituminous coal char and activated carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBarr, J.A.; Lizzio, A.A.; Daley, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The SO2 adsorption behaviors of activated carbons produced from Illinois coal and of commercially prepared activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were compared. There was no relation between surface area of coal-based carbons and SO2 adsorption, whereas adsorption of SO2 on the series of ACFs was inversely proportional to N2 BET surface area. Higher surface area ACFs had wider pores and adsorbed less SO2; thus, pore size distribution is thought to play a significant role in SO2 adsorption for these materials. Oxidation with HNO3 and/or H2SO4, followed by heat treatment at 700-925 ??C to remove carbon-oxygen complexes, resulted in increased SO2 adsorption for both coal chars and ACFs. This behavior was explained by an increase in the available number of free sites, previously occupied by oxygen and now available for SO2 adsorption. The use of nitrogen-containing functional groups on ACFs of proper pore size shows promise for further increasing SO2 adsorption capacities. Knowledge of the relationship among the number of free sites, pore size, and surface chemistry on corresponding SO2 adsorption should lead to the development of more efficient adsorbents prepared from either coal or ACFs.

  18. JV Task-123 Determination of Trace Element Concentrations at an Eastern Bituminous Coal Plant Employing an SCR and Wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Laudal

    2008-05-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) and with funding from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducting tests to prove that a high level of mercury control (>90%) can be achieved at a power plant burning a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. With funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), DOE, and Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates Program, the EERC completed an additional sampling project to provide data as to the behavior of a number of trace elements across the various pollution control devices, with a special emphasis on the wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Results showed that the concentrations of almost all the elements of interest leaving the stack were very low, and a high percentage of the trace elements were captured in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (for most, >80%). Although, with a few exceptions, the overall mass balances were generally quite good, the mass balances across the wet FGD were more variable. This is most likely a result of some of the concentrations being very low and also the uncertainties in determining flows within a wet FGD.

  19. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  20. Behaviour of selected major elements during fixed-bed gasification of South African bituminous coal

    OpenAIRE

    Bunt, J.R.; F.B. Waanders; Schobert, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Sasol-Lurgi Fixed Bed Dry Bottom gasifier (S-L FBDB) treats a feed coal containing c.a. 30% ash forming minerals, which means that there are complex mineralogical processes occurring simultaneously with each other, and in the gasification reactions, within the reactor. To obtain an understanding of the mineral transformational behaviour, a quenched commercial-scale S-L FBDB gasifier was sampled and characterized mineralogically. Crystalline phases measured by XRD analyses show the ash exi...

  1. Hydrogen from the two-stage pyrolysis of bituminous coal/waste plastics mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, Vlastimil; Bičáková, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 15 (2011), s. 9014-9022. ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : hydrogen * two-stage pyrolysis * coal Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 4.054, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360319911007622

  2. Experimental Study on Minimum Ignition Temperature of Bituminous Coal Dust Cloud%烟煤煤尘云最低着火温度实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓军; 屈姣; 王秋红; 谢长春

    2014-01-01

    In this PaPer,study and measurement were carried out on the minimum ignition temPerature of three kinds of bituminous coal dust clouds by using the Godbert-Greenwald heating furnace,including the non-caking coal taken from Dafusi Mine in Binxian County,the gas coal from Kouzi East Mine in Anhui Province and the lean coal from 301 working face of Tianchi Mine in Shanxi Province. It was found out from the exPerimental results that the ash content of the gas coal,non-caking coal and lean coal increased in turn,their volatile content reduced in turn,their fixed carbon content increased in turn,and the water content of the lean coal,gas coal and non-caking coal increased in turn;the minimum ignition temPerature of the three kinds of bituminous coal dust clouds decreased with the reduction of their Particle sizes;based on their minimum ignition temPeratures,it was found out that the hardest ignited coal dust was the lean coal and the easiest ignited coal dust was gas coal. This study can Provide an exPerimental basic for the safe Production in coal mines.%为了研究彬县大佛寺矿不粘煤、安徽口孜东矿气煤、山西天池矿301工作面瘦煤等3种烟煤的煤尘云最低着火温度,实验采用Godbert-Greenwald加热炉对以上3种烟煤的煤尘云最低着火温度进行了测试。研究发现气煤、不粘煤、瘦煤的灰分依次增大,挥发分依次减小,固定碳依次增大,水分随瘦煤、气煤、不粘煤依次增大;这3种烟煤煤尘云的最低着火温度都随煤尘粒径的减小而降低;根据最低着火温度,得知煤尘云被引燃的难易程度依次为瘦煤、不粘煤、气煤。此基础研究可为煤矿的安全生产提供实验依据。

  3. Pneumoconiosis among underground bituminous coal miners in the United States: is silicosis becoming more frequent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Scott Laney; Edward L. Petsonk; Michael D. Attfield [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States). Division of Respiratory Disease Studies

    2010-10-15

    Epidemiologic reports since 2000 have documented increased prevalence and rapid progression of pneumoconiosis among underground coal miners in the United States. To investigate a possible role of silica exposure in the increase, we examined chest x-rays (CXRs) for specific abnormalities (r-type small opacities) known to be associated with silicosis lung pathology. Underground coal miners are offered CXRs every 5 years. Abnormalities consistent with pneumoconiosis are recorded by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) B Readers using the International Labour Office Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis. CXRs from 1980-2008 of 90,973 participating miners were studied, focusing on reporting of r-type opacities (small rounded opacities 3-10 mm in diameter). Log binomial regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios adjusted for miner age and profusion category. Among miners from Kentucky, Virginia, and West Virginia, the proportion of radiographs showing r-type opacities increased in the 1990s (PR=2.5; 95% CI=1.7-3.7) and after 1999 (PR=4.1; 95% CI=3.0-5.6), compared to the 1980s (adjusted for profusion category and miner age). The prevalence of progressive massive fibrosis in 2000-2008 was also elevated compared to the 1980's (PR=4.4; 95% CI=3.1-6.3) and 1990's (PR=3.8; 95% CI=2.1-6.8) in miners from Kentucky, Virginia, and West Virginia. The increasing prevalence of pneumoconiosis over the past decade and the change in the epidemiology and disease profile documented in this and other recent studies imply that U.S. coal miners are being exposed to excessive amounts of respirable crystalline silica.

  4. Solid superacid-catalyzed hydroconversion of an extraction residue from Lingwu bituminous coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming Yue; Xian-Yong Wei; Bing Sun; Ying-Hua Wang; Zhi-Min Zong; Zi-Wu Liu

    2012-01-01

    A solid superacid was prepared as a catalyst.The catalyst was characterized by ammonia temperatureprogrammed desorption,surface property measurement,and analyses with scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry.A extraction residue from Lingwu subbituminous coal was subject to non-catalytic and catalytic hydroconversion using cyclohexane as the solvent under pressurized hydrogen at 300 ℃ for 3h.The results show that the total yield of petroleum ether-extractable arenes from catalytic hydroconversion is much higher than that from non-catalytic hydroconversion.The cleavage of Car-Calk bonds in the residue could significantly proceed during catalytic hydroconversion.

  5. Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

    1980-10-01

    The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

  6. Formation of hydrogen cyanide and ammonia during the gasification of sewage sludge and bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Paterson; Y. Zhuo; D. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    HCN and NH{sub 3} released during the gasification of sewage sludge have been measured during a program of tests with a laboratory-scale spouted-bed gasifier. The data have been compared with results from gasification tests with coal. The effect of altering the bed temperature has been investigated, and the results have been related to reactions involving gaseous N species known to occur in the gasifier. The effect of steam addition on the HCN release has been examined. It has been found that the HCN concentrations in the exit gas increase with the operating temperature, which is thought to indicate increased formation as a primary product of the decomposition of the fuel-N compounds. Increasing the height of the char bed caused a significant reduction in the HCN concentration at the exit, as this promoted the decomposition of HCN to NH{sub 3}. Steam addition caused a rise in the HCN concentration during tests with sewage sludge and a similar effect had previously been reported on the NH{sub 3} concentration during tests with coal. The NH{sub 3} concentration decreased with increasing temperature, and this is thought to reflect the increased rate of the equilibration of NH{sub 3} in the gas phase to form N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. 18 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Coal conversion. 1977 technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The status and progress in US DOE's projects in coal gasification, liquefaction, and fluidized-bed combustion are reviewed with financing, flowsheets, history, progress and status of each (57 projects). (LTN)

  8. Technical and economic aspects of brown coal gasification and liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of gasification and liquefaction processes for Rhenish brown coal are investigated along with the technical and economic aspects of coal beneficiation. The status of coal beneficiation and the major R + D activities are reviewed. (orig.)

  9. Coal conversion. 1979 technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    Individual reports are made on research programs which are being conducted by various organizations and institutions for the commercial development of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for these derived from oil and natural gas. Gasification, liquefaction, and demonstration processes and plants are covered. (DLC)

  10. Changes in optical properties, chemistry, and micropore and mesopore characteristics of bituminous coal at the contact with dikes in the Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Schimmelmann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in high-volatile bituminous coal (Pennsylvanian) near contacts with two volcanic intrusions in Illinois were investigated with respect to optical properties, coal chemistry, and coal pore structure. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) increases from 0.62% to 5.03% within a distance of 5.5??m from the larger dike, and from 0.63% to 3.71% within 3.3??m from the small dike. Elemental chemistry of the coal shows distinct reductions in hydrogen and nitrogen content close to the intrusions. No trend was observed for total sulfur content, but decreases in sulfate content towards the dikes indicate thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Contact-metamorphism has a dramatic effect on coal porosity, and microporosity in particular. Around the large dike, the micropore volume, after a slight initial increase, progressively decreases from 0.0417??cm3/g in coal situated 4.7??m from the intrusive contact to 0.0126??cm3/g at the contact. Strongly decreasing mesopore and micropore volumes in the altered zone, together with frequent cleat and fracture filling by calcite, indicate deteriorating conditions for both coalbed gas sorption and gas transmissibility. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  12. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (USA). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

    2008-12-15

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

  13. Thermal relaxation of bituminous coal to improve donation ability of hydrogen radicals in flash pyrolysis; Sekitan kozo kanwa ni yoru suiso radical kyoyo noryoku no kojo wo mezashita netsubunkai mae shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    In terms of coal conversion reaction, the behavior of bituminous coal heated beyond a glass transition point was examined on the basis of pyrolyzed products, and the effect of an increase in proton mobility on promotion of coal decomposition was evaluated. In experiment, after Illinois bituminous coal specimen was heated up to a specific temperature in N2 or He gas flow at a rate of 5K/min, the specimen was directly transferred to a pyrolyzer for instantaneous pyrolysis. As the experimental result, the glass transition temperature of the Illinois coal specimen was calculated to be 589K from a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profile. From the pyrolysis result of the Illinois coal specimen heated up to 623K, the char yield decreased by 3kg as compared with that of the original coal, while the tar yield increased by 4kg up to 27kg per 100kg of the original coal. This tar increase was larger than that of cooled coal. These results suggested that the donation of hydrogen radicals to coal fragments is improved with an increase in proton mobility. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Cold bituminous mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Delak, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Asphalt mix (short also asphalt) can be obtained from nature (natural asphalt) or produced technically (artificial asphalt), i. e. as a mix of bituminous binder, stone grain, and other additives that improve the asphalt properties. The beginnings of the use of asphalt can be traced from 6,000 to 4,000 BC since people back then knew some materials that contained bitumen as a binder. A more frequent use of the natural asphalt, however, starts around 3,000 BC. Different peoples used it primar...

  15. Development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology. ; Study using a small device (study on synthetic iron sulfide catalyst). Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu. ; Kogata sochi ni yoru kenkyu (gosei ryukatetsu shokubai no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, S. (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    This paper reports the execution of device procurement and building construction of small equipment to manufacture synthetic iron sulfide for catalysts used in the NEDOL bituminous coal liquefaction process, carried out in the fiscal year 1992. To study synthetic iron sulfide catalysts manufactured by the dry manufacturing method, it has been planned to install small equipment with a catalyst manufacturing capacity of 10 kg/hr in a process supporting unit (PSU) plant. Major devices and electric measuring instruments have been procured. The construction work included civil engineering and building constructions for part of buildings to accommodate the whole equipment used in the sintering process and an electric room adjoining thereto. Because this small equipment serves also as a PSU exhaust gas treatment facility to treat exhaust gas containing SO2 produced as a sub-product in the sintering process, the PSU exhaust gas treatment process was modified, and the trial operation was carried out in September 1992. Technical standards and operation methods were discussed on each of the sintering process and the exhaust gas treatment process in the small equipment. A process instruction document, and an operation standard for steady operation, start-up and shutdown were prepared.

  16. Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Campbell

    2008-12-31

    This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

  17. Study of the contribution from gamma dose rate and radon concentration in civilian housing caused by the use of construction material having processing residues from uranium containing bituminous coal in Freital, Saxony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past, widerspread use of residues from processing uranium containing bituminous coal in the former mining region of Freital, Saxony, for construction led to increased concentrations of natural radionuclides in the building material of civilian housing. Measurement of the local dose levels in such housing, analytical characterization of the building material, and model calculations allow for the assessment of the contribution of the material to the total radioactive exposure of residents. (orig.)

  18. Distribution and Fate of Mercury in Pulverized Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants in Coal Energy-Dominant Huainan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingyu; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu

    2016-05-01

    A better understanding on the partitioning behavior of mercury (Hg) during coal combustion in large-scale coal-fired power plants is fundamental for drafting Hg-emission control regulations. Two large coal-fired utility boilers, equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system, respectively, in coal energy-dominant Huainan City, China, were selected to investigate the distribution and fate of Hg during coal combustion. In three sampling campaigns, we found that Hg in bottom ash was severely depleted with a relative enrichment (RE) index coal. We estimated that Hg emissions in all Huainan coal-fired power plants varied from 1.8 Mg in 2003 to 7.3 Mg in 2010. PMID:26883032

  19. Down-scaling of bituminous coal mining, restructuring of steel works and heavy engineering in the Ostrava region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusáček, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2005), s. 3-12. ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS3086005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Ostrava region * restructuring * steemaking and heavy industry * downscaling of coal- mining Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  20. EFFECT OF COAL-SWELLING AND SYNCHRONOUSLY SUPPORTED CATALYSTS ON COPROCESSING OF BITUMINOUS COAL AND HEAVY OILS%同步溶胀-担载催化剂对烟煤-重油共炼的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈军; 石斌; 郭龙德; 郭智慧; 田华; 张建芳

    2011-01-01

    以Fe(NO3)3和Na2S分别作为催化剂前体和原位硫化剂,在20℃下分别用水、甲醇(M)、N-N二甲基甲酰胺(DMF)和二甲亚砜(DMSO)对神华烟煤溶胀12 h,同步溶胀-担载催化剂后的烟煤脱除溶剂后与轮古常渣(LGAR)和杜84超稠油(Du84)在2:1油煤质量比,8 MPa冷氢压,420℃,1h的条件下进行加氢共处理.结果表明,神华烟煤经过溶胀处理后与两种重油共处理的液化率都明显提高,煤的转化率明显增大;三种有机溶胀剂相比,DMF同步溶胀促进液化效果最好,其次为DMSO,甲醇最差.两种配油相比,Du84比LGAR更适合煤-重油共处理.XRD分析表明,同步溶胀-担载法制备的溶胀煤栽铁催化剂以非晶态和高分散的状态存在于溶胀煤表面,在共处理中催化剂最终转化为Fe1-xS.在煤-重油共处理中,经DMF同步溶胀-担载的催化剂失活,结晶相对不明显.%Fe(NO3)3 as catalytic precursor and Na2S as in-situ presulfurizer were impregnated on the Shenhua bituminous coals which were synchronously swollen with H2O, methanol, N-N dimethylformamide (DMF) or dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) at 20 'C for 12 h. Then the swollen coals were prepared by vacuum drying. The co-processing of swollen Shenhua coal and two heavy oils(LGAR and Du84) was carried on under the condition of the mass ratio of 2:1 oil to coal, 8 Mpa cold hydrogen pressure,420℃ and 1 h. The coprocessing of the swollen bituminous coal and LGAR or Du84 was significantly improved on the coal liquefaction. Among the three swelling solvents, the improvement of DMF was the highest, that of DMSO was the better and methanol were the lowest. Du84 was favor in the coprocessing than LGAR. By XRD analysis, the iron catalysts on the swollen coal with Fe(NO3)3 synchronously impregnated with the solvents were amorphous and highly dispersed on coal surface and could transform into Fe1-x S in the coprocessing. During the coprocessing, the deactivation of the catalyst synchronously impregnated on

  1. The Impact of the Bituminous Coal Combustion from the Thermoelectric Power Plant from Paroseni on the Environment of Jiu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Rebrisoreanu

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The Jiu Valley Basin is one of the most important coal mining areas in Romania. Other industries, including a power plant, are also well developed in this area. Therefore, pollution is very high. One of the most polluted environmental compounds is the air. High mountains surround the Jiu Valley, which makes difficult the air refreshing. For this reason, it is very important to discuss the air pollution and especially that produced by dust. Since the industrial companies are concentrated in a small area, it is very difficult to identify and prosecute the polluting one. The present paper aims to identify the sources of air pollution, especially among the mining companies, because the power plant is considered the most important polluting agent in this area.

  2. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  3. Healy clean coal project: Technical progress report. Quarterly report number 14, April--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The primary objective of the HCCP is to demonstrate a new power plant design integrating an advanced combustor and heat recovery system coupled with both high and low temperature emission control processes. Alaskan bituminous and subbituminous coals will be the fuels. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the plant will be controlled using a slagging coal combustor with limestone injection, in conjunction with a boiler. Further SO{sub 2} and particulate removal will be accomplished using an Activated Recycle Spray Absorber System. Environmental efforts during this quarter concentrated on supporting the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation`s (ADEC) insurance of the Final Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)/Permit to Operate, preparation of post-construction Air Quality Monitoring and Visibility Monitoring Plans, preparation of a General Wastewater Discharge Permit Application for disposal of wastewater from on-site excavations, review of a PreDraft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit and Fact Sheet and discussions with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and ADEC on NPDES Permit limitations, and preparation of a draft Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for HCCP construction. The final PSD/Permit to Operate No. 9431-AA001 and Technical Analysis Report (TAR) was issued on May 12, 1994. Finalization of engineering and design continued on the boiler, combustors, flue gas desulfurization (FGD), and turbine/generator systems and balance of plant.

  4. Pipe reactor gasification studies of a south african bituminous coal blend. Part 1 - Carbon and volatile matter behaviour as function of feed coal particle size reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Waanders, Frans

    2009-01-01

    The Sasol-Lurgi fixed-bed dry-bottom (FBDB) MKIV gasifiers are proven to be robust as far as acceptable coal properties are concerned, in particular its ability to accommodate a range of particle size distributions (PSD) fractions. Over the years, the findings from a number of studies conducted at Sasol have played a key role in the optimization of the Sasol-Lurgi gasifiers as far as the limited amount of coal preparation by crushing and screening is concerned. The continued optimization effo...

  5. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A new use for Illinois coal is as fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as first step in steel production. Because of cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. Purpose of this study is to evaluate combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a pilot plant test facility. (Limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high S and Cl contents are suitable for blast furnace injection.) This proposal is intended to complete the study under way with Armco and Inland and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for injection. Main feature of current work is testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s pilot plant coal combustion facility. During this quarter, two additional 300-pound samples of coal (IBCSP-110 Springfield No. 5 and an Appalachian coal) were delivered. Six Illinois Basin coals were analyzed with the CANMET model and compared with other bituminous coals from the Appalachians, France, Poland, South Africa, and Colombia. Based on computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in injection with a variety of other bituminous coals.

  6. Coal conversion. 1978 technical report. [US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    The United States has more energy available in coal than in petroleum, natural gas, oil shale, and tar sands combined. Nationwide energy shortages, together with the availability of abundant coal reserves, make commercial production of synthetic fuels from coal vital to the Nation's total supply of clean energy. In response to this need, the Division of Fossil Fuel Processing - US Department of Energy is conducting a research, development and demonstration program to provide technology that will permit rapid commercialization of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for those derived from oil and natural gas. These substitute fuels include crude oil, fuel oil and distillates; chemical feedstocks; pipeline quality and fuel gas; and other products such as char that may be useful in energy production.

  7. Bituminization plant Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this leaflet the principle of the bituminization plant for radioactive concentrate (the intermediate liquid radioactive waste generated during the NPP A1, V-1, V-2 operations) solidification used in the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) is presented

  8. 某600 MW机组烟煤锅炉低N0x改造及效果分析%Low NOx Retrofit for Certain 600 MW Bituminous Coal Boiler and Performance Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁鹏飞

    2013-01-01

    The retrofit effect of certain 600 MW bituminous coal boiler indicates that low NOx combustion technology can reduce the NOx production to 70%, but there are some problems, such as combustion economy and large spray water. Strong reduction atmosphere of burner zone may cause high temperature corrosion on water wall. Therefore, it is suggested to spray some anticorrosive material for prevention.%对某600 MW机组烟煤锅炉进行低NOx改造,改造后锅炉总体性能良好,NOx减排达到70%.但改造对锅炉燃烧经济性、减温水量产生负面影响,同时主燃烧器区形成的强还原性气氛还可能对水冷壁造成高温腐蚀,必须采取喷涂等防腐手段加以预防.

  9. Appalachian basin bituminous coal: sulfur content and potential sulfur dioxide emissions of coal mined for electrical power generation: Chapter G.5 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Milici, Robert C.; Freeman, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Data from 157 counties in the Appalachian basin of average sulfur content of coal mined for electrical power generation from 1983 through 2005 show a general decrease in the number of counties where coal mining has occurred and a decrease in the number of counties where higher sulfur coals (>2 percent sulfur) were mined. Calculated potential SO2 emissions (assuming no post-combustion SO2 removal) show a corresponding decrease over the same period of time.

  10. Investigation of pyrite as a contributor to slagging in eastern bituminous coals. Quarterly progress report 9, October 1-December 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryers, R.W.

    1984-06-01

    The objective of this program is to examine slags formed as a result of firing coals with varying concentration levels, size distribution, and orientation of pyrite with regard to mineral matter in the coal in a laboratory furnace. The program tasks are: (1) selection of eight candidate coals; (2) chemical characterization of the coal samples and identification of the pyrite size, distribution, and orientation with respect to other mineral matter and concentration levels; (3) testing of the candidate coals in a laboratory furnace; (4) chemical and physical characterization of the slag and fly ash samples created by the impurities in the coal sample; (5) influence of coal beneficiation on furnace slagging; and (6) analysis of data and identification of parameters influencing the contribution of pyrite to slagging problems. Washing of the Upper Freeport coal from Indiana County, Pennsylvania, was completed by the last quarter of 1983. The washed product was characterized for mineral content, and a combustion test was performed. Kentucky No. 9 from Henderson County, Kentucky, selected as the sixth coal to be investigated, was characterized using size and gravity fractionation techniques and was combusted in the laboratory furnace to evaluate its slagging and fouling potential. The remaining two coals to be characterized and combusted were identified as Illinois No. 5 and Lower Kittanning from Clarion County, Pennsylvania. 80 figures, 27 tables.

  11. Advances in Interlaboratory Testing and Evaluation of Bituminous Materials State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 206-ATB

    CERN Document Server

    Bahia, Hussain; Canestrari, Francesco; Roche, Chantal; Benedetto, Hervé; Piber, Herald; Sybilski, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    This STAR on asphalt materials presents the achievements of RILEM TC 206 ATB, acquired over many years of interlaboratory tests and international knowledge exchange. It covers experimental aspects of bituminous binder fatigue testing; the background on compaction methods and imaging techniques for characterizing asphalt mixtures including validation of a new imaging software; it focuses on experimental questions and analysis tools regarding mechanical wheel tracking tests, comparing results from different labs and using finite element techniques. Furthermore, long-term rutting prediction and evaluation for an Austrian road are discussed, followed by an extensive analysis and test program on interlayer bond testing of three different test sections which were specifically constructed for this purpose. Finally, the key issue of manufacturing reclaimed hot mix asphalt in the laboratory is studied and recommendations for laboratory ageing of bituminous mixtures are given.

  12. 基于热重分析法的烟煤掺烧褐煤特性研究%Combustion Characteristics of Bituminous Coal Blended with Lignite Using Thermo-gravimetric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志斌; 马莹; 戴新; 赵建军; 关彦军; 张锴

    2015-01-01

    针对电厂掺烧褐煤缺乏相关理论指导的技术需求,采用热重分析方法系统考察了包煤、准煤和褐煤的单独燃烧特性,并将两种烟煤分别以10%、30%、50%和70%的比例在相同条件下与褐煤混合燃烧,根据各燃料燃烧特征参数计算了单一煤种及其不同掺混比例的着火指数、燃尽指数和综合燃烧指数。结果表明,褐煤最易着火和燃尽;包煤着火特性较好,但在550~660℃范围内出现难燃峰致使燃尽特性变差;准煤的着火特性最差,燃尽特性略优于包煤;将包煤和准煤与褐煤掺混后燃烧特性有所改善,各燃烧特征温度降低,且综合燃烧指数随褐煤掺烧比例的增加而增加。建议在电厂实际应用时,褐煤的掺烧比例控制在30%-50%之间。%Based on the actual requirement for fundamental theory of blending lignite in coal-fired power stations, combustion characteristics of lignite, bituminous coal and their blends were investigated by using thermogravimetric method ( TGA) in this paper.Lignite was blended with two types of bituminous coals in proportions of 10%, 30%, 50%and 70%, respectively.The ignition index, burnout index and comprehensive combustion index of single and mixed fuels were calculated by means of combustion characteristic parameters.The results show that lig-nite displays the best ignition and burnout performace, Bao coal is easier to ignite but hard to burn out in the tem-perature range of 550 and 660℃.Compared to Bao coal, Zhun coal is the hardest to ignite but better to burn out. The performance of combustion can be improved after blending lignite, which is largely because the comprehensive combustion index of blended coals increases with the increasing ratio of lignite.Therefore, the blending ratio of lig-nite suggested lignite ration should be controlled between 30%and 50%.

  13. EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Final technical progress report, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-02-01

    All objectives in the EDS Cooperative Agreement for Phases III-B through V have been achieved for the RCLU pilot plants. EDS operations have been successfully demonstrated in both the once-through and bottoms recycle modes for coals of rank ranging from bituminous to lignitic. An extensive data base detailing the effects of process variable changes on yields, conversions and product qualities for each coal has been established. Continuous bottoms recycle operations demonstrated increased overall conversion and improved product slate flexibility over once-through operations. The hydrodynamics of the liquefaction reactor in RCLU were characterized through tests using radioactive tracers in the gas and slurry phases. RCLU was shown to have longer liquid residence times than ECLP. Support work during ECLP operations contributed to resolving differences between ECLP conversions and product yields and those of the small pilot plants. Solvent hydrogenation studies during Phases IIIB-V of the EDS program focused on long term activity maintenance of the Ni-MO-10 catalyst. Process variable studies for solvents from various coals (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignitic), catalyst screening evaluations, and support of ECLP solvent hydrogenation operations. Product quality studies indicate that highly cyclic EDS naphthas represent unique and outstanding catalytic reforming feedstocks. High volumes of high octane motor gasoline blendstock are produced while liberating a considerable quantity of high purity hydrogen.

  14. Model formulations for the mathematical-statistical evaluation of operation data as a planning assistance in the assessment of face operations in the bituminous coal mining. Modellansaetze fuer die mathematisch-statistische Auswertung von Betriebsdaten als Planungshilfsmittel bei der Einschaetzung von Strebbetrieben im Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griesenbrock, H.P.

    1982-06-14

    Regression models based on comprehensive operating data collections were developed and tested for a sure assessment of the haulage capacity of face conveyors in the Ruhr bituminous coal mining. Starting from a critical view of the previously developed models for the assessment of face operations a factorial model has been developed considering the data in the form of utilization coefficients the parameters of which are not directly but iteratively determinable.

  15. Explosion characteristics of pulverised torrefied and raw Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Southern pine (Pinus palustris) in comparison to bituminous coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-treatments, such as torrefaction, can improve biomass fuels properties. Dedicated and coal co-firing plants, in which pulverised biomass and torrefied biomass can be used, are exposed to explosion hazards during handling, storage and transport from the mills to the boiler. Data on the explosion characteristics of biomass and torrefied biomass are scarce. This study presents explosion characteristics (maximum explosion pressure, deflagration index and minimum explosible concentration) of two torrefied wood samples and compares their reactivity to that of their corresponding untreated biomass materials and to a sample of Kellingley coal. Torrefied biomass samples showed higher reactivity, overpressures were around 9 bar (0.9 MPa, 1 bar = 105 Pa) for all biomass samples irrespective of size or sample composition. Derived laminar burning velocities ranged between 0.1–0.12 m s−1, and were therefore similar to that of coal (0.12 m s−1). The differences in explosion reactivity influence the design of explosion protection measures and can be used to introduce suitable modifications for safe operations with torrefied biomass. - Highlights: • Explosion characteristics were measured for two torrefied biomass samples. • Properties were compared to those of coal and corresponding untreated biomass. • Maximum explosion overpressures were similar for all biomass at about 9 bar. • Torrefied biomass was more reactive than coal and untreated biomass. • Biomass explosion data can be used to design better safety systems

  16. Mineralogical and elemental composition of fly ash from pilot scale fluidised bed combustion of lignite, bituminous coal, wood chips and their blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaos Koukouzas; Jouni Hamalainen; Dimitra Papanikolaou; Antti Tourunen; Timo Jantti [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Ptolemais (Greece). Centre for Research and Technology Hellas

    2007-09-15

    The chemical and mineralogical composition of fly ash samples collected from different parts of a laboratory and a pilot scale CFB facility has been investigated. The fabric filter and the second cyclone of the two facilities were chosen as sampling points. The fuels used were Greek lignite (from the Florina basin), Polish coal and wood chips. Characterization of the fly ash samples was conducted by means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), particle size distribution (PSD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). According to the chemical analyses the produced fly ashes are rich in CaO. Moreover, SiO{sub 2} is the dominant oxide in fly ash with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} found in considerable quantities. Results obtained by XRD showed that the major mineral phase of fly ash is quartz, while other mineral phases that are occurred are maghemite, hematite, periclase, rutile, gehlenite and anhydrite. The ICP-OES analysis showed rather low levels of trace elements, especially for As and Cr, in many of the ashes included in this study compared to coal ash from fluidised bed combustion in general. 23 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Fluorine in Canadian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godbeer, W.G.; Swaine, D.J.; Goodarzi, F. (CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Division of Coal and Energy Technology)

    1994-08-01

    Fluorine was determined in 57 samples of coals from western Canada and the Yukon (47 bituminous, 4 subbituminous, 6 lignite) by a pyrohydrolysis method. The range of values is 31-930 ppmw F in dry coal, the lowest values being mainly for the low-rank coals. For bituminous coals most values are in the range 31-580 (mean 174) ppmw F. 23 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Advanced coal liquefaction research. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1983-September 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-04-01

    Work this quarter focused on staged liquefaction. The effect of residence time on conversion in single pass experiments was found to be quite different for the subbituminous Belle Ayr Mine and bituminous Illinois No. 6 coals studied. With bituminous coal, conversion to soluble material is quite high and the limit of conversion is approached in only a few minutes. With a subbituminous coal, however, conversion is much lower and the limit of conversion is approached much more slowly. Short contact time (SCT) dissolution of Belle Ayr coal was studied as a possible first stage in a two-stage process. Conversion, hydrocarbon gas yield and hydrogen consumption were increased as residence time or temperature were increased. Conversion was also significantly increased by partial slurry recycle. Pyrite was found to be the most effective slurry catalyst for increasing conversion, followed by ammonium molybdate emulsion and finally nickel-molybdenum on alumina. Illinois No. 6 coal was liquefied in two stages. Conditions in the first stage dissolution were varied to determine the effect on upgradability in the second stage. An SCT (6 minute) coal dissolution stage is preferred over one at 30 minutes because hydrocarbon gas yield was much lower while overall oil yields for the combined dissolution and upgrading stages were nearly the same. Use of a NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst in a trickle-bed second stage resulted in a higher oil yield and lower product heteroatom content than use of the same catalyst in the slurry phase. The total oil yield was lower with a pyrite slurry catalyst than with a NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ slurry catalyst. With Belle Ayr coal and added pyrite, there was no change in total oil yield, conversion or product quality brought about by adding an 8-minute first stage at 450/sup 0/C (842/sup 0/F) to a 2-hour second stage operated at 420/sup 0/C (788/sup 0/F). 39 figures, 12 tables.

  19. Evaluation of co-cokes from bituminous coal with vacuum resid or decant oil, and evaluation of anthracites, as precursors to graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyathi, Mhlwazi S.

    2011-12-01

    Graphite is utilized as a neutron moderator and structural component in some nuclear reactor designs. During the reactor operaction the structure of graphite is damaged by collision with fast neutrons. Graphite's resistance to this damage determines its lifetime in the reactor. On neutron irradiation, isotropic or near-isotropic graphite experiences less structural damage than anisotropic graphite. The degree of anisotropy in a graphite artifact is dependent on the structure of its precursor coke. Currently, there exist concerns over a short supply of traditional precursor coke, primarily due to a steadily increasing price of petroleum. The main goal of this study was to study the anisotropic and isotropic properties of graphitized co-cokes and anthracites as a way of investigating the possibility of synthesizing isotropic or near-isotropic graphite from co-cokes and anthracites. Demonstrating the ability to form isotropic or near-isotropic graphite would mean that co-cokes and anthracites have a potential use as filler material in the synthesis of nuclear graphite. The approach used to control the co-coke structure was to vary the reaction conditions. Co-cokes were produced by coking 4:1 blends of vacuum resid/coal and decant oil/coal at temperatures of 465 and 500 °C for reaction times of 12 and 18 hours under autogenous pressure. Co-cokes obtained were calcined at 1420 °C and graphitized at 3000 °C for 24 hours. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed oxidation and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the products. It was found that higher reaction temperature (500 °C) or shorter reaction time (12 hours) leads to an increase in co-coke structural disorder and an increase in the amount of mosaic carbon at the expense of textural components that are necessary for the formation of anisotropic structure, namely, domains and flow domains. Characterization of graphitized co-cokes showed that the quality, as expressed by the degree of

  20. VHF EPR analysis of organic sulfur in coal. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarkson, R.B.; Belford, R.L. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Ho, K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

    1993-05-01

    One important goal of this project is the development of methods to analyze the Very High Frequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (VHF EPR) spectra from Illinois coals in order to determine the concentration of organic sulfur in them. We have begun that development work, utilizing a two-species, axially symmetric model for the simulation of VHF EPR coal spectra. Such a model provides quantitative information on the concentration of sulfur species that can be directly related to the organic sulfur content as measured by more conventional chemical methods. The computer modeling technique which we are developing makes use of a multi-dimensional simplex strategy for optimization. Utilizing our newly developed method, we have analyzed the VHF EPR spectra from several sub-bituminous coals containing organic sulfur in the range from 2% to 12%. Excellent quantitative agreement is achieved between VHF EPR results and chemical analyses. In addition to providing information on the concentration of organic sulfur present in coal, the analysis of VHF EPR spectra also provides detailed spectral parameters. These parameters are related to the molecular structures giving rise to the EPR signals.

  1. Technical evaluation system of co-extraction of coal and gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang; Bing; Sun; Weiji; Qi; Qingxin; Li; Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    Coal and gas are two important resources in China,and it is an effective way to recycle them with the method of co-extraction of coal and gas.In view of actual situation of China's co-extraction of coal and gas,this research adopts the science evaluation of gas extraction of coal by the method of quantitative evaluation,and preliminarily establishes the technical evaluation system of co-extraction of coal and gas.Technical evaluation system of co-extraction of coal and gas includes safety evaluation,economic evaluation and resource recovery evaluation in the process of mining coal and gas.In addition,this paper results in the selected evaluation parameters and target functions that are used in the three evaluation methods.The establishment of evaluation system for co-extraction of coal and gas plays an important theoretical significance and guiding role in co-extraction of coal and gas for China's coal enterprises.

  2. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO2 emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  3. CO2 capture from power plants. Part I : A parametric study of the technical performance based on monoethanolamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Zahra, M. R. M.; Schneiders, L. H. J.; Niederer, J. P. M.; Feron, P. H. M.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2007-01-01

    Capture and storage of CO2 from fossil fuel fired power plants is drawing increasing interest as a potential method for the control of greenhouse gas emissions. An optimization and technical parameter study for a CO2 capture process from flue gas of a 600 MWe bituminous coal fired power plant, based

  4. Experimental study on the characteristics of NOx emissions from 600 MW supercritical bituminous coal fired boiler with swirl burner%600MW超临界旋流燃烧烟煤锅炉NOx排放特性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳峻峰; 秦鹏; 邹磊; 梁绍华; 张恩先; 黄磊

    2012-01-01

    针对某厂1台600MW超临界低NOx轴向旋流燃烧烟煤锅炉特点,通过变工况(氧量、不同层燃烧器风量分配方式、二次风比率、二次风旋流强度、三次风旋流强度、同层燃烧器风量分配方式和负荷等)试验,分析了锅炉NOx排放特性.试验结果表明:对于燃用烟煤的采用低NOx旋流燃烧器的锅炉,运行氧量燃尽风份额、锅炉负荷及同层燃烧器风量分配方式是NOx排放的主要影响因素.为控制NOx排放,保持锅炉原有热效率,燃烧调整的原则为:(1)在保证锅炉运行安全的前提下应尽量采用低氧燃烧;(2)采用大比例的燃尽风份额;(3)运行负荷不应过低;(4)同层燃烧器风量分配采用双峰方式.%NOx. emissions from a 600 MW supercritical boiler with swirl burner were investigated by performing a serial of tests such as changing O2 concentration, air-distribution of different level burners, secondary air ratio, secondary and tertiary air swirl strength, air-distribution of the burners in same level and boiler load. The test results show that for the bituminous coal fired boiler with swirl burner, the O2 concentration, over fire air (OFA) ratio, boiler load and air-distribution mode of the burners in same level are the main factors affecting NOx emissions. In order to reduce NOx emissions and keep higher boiler efficiency, the following principles about combustion adjustment should be obeyed: (1) the O2 concentration should be kept in the premise of ensuring safe operalion of boiler as lower as possible;{2) large proportion of OFA should be adopted; (3) boiler load should not be loo low; (4) two-peak air distribution mode should be taken among the same level burners.

  5. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 1991--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Saini, A.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the progress of our work during the first quarterly period. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of fresh and THF-extracted samples of two subbituminous coals and fresh samples of three bituminous coals using cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid state {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS techniques. CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS provided important information on carbon distribution/functionality and molecular components/structural units, respectively, for these coal samples. Pyrolysis-GC-MS revealed that there are remarkable structural differences in structural units between the subbituminous coals and the bituminous coals. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in the pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization of catalytically and thermally pretreated as well as physically treated Wyodak subbituminous coal, and temperature-staged and temperature-programmed thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous coal.

  6. Biochemical removal of HAP precursors from coal. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Shake flask tests were completed of microbial pyrite and HAP precursor removal from Rosebud subbituminous coal. Significant amounts of Ni, F, Mn, Cd, Co and Be were removed from this coal. Analyses in connection with leach column tests of Pittsburgh coal were completed and confirmed significant removal of Ni, F, Mn, Cd, Co and As from this coal. Although Hg was not removed from Pittsburgh coal by microbial attack, there was a correlation between HCl leaching of Hg from this coal and the extent of depyritization. Since HgS is soluble in HCl, the results suggest HgS is exposed by chemical and microbial dissolution of coal pyrite. Column tests with cleaned Indiana No. 5 coal are in progress and show significant early dissolution of Ni, Mn, Cd, Co and As. A final shake flask test with Kentucky No. 9 coal was begun. Pittsburgh coal with a low content of fines was shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in preparation for slurry column tests of HAP precursor removal. Project results were presented at the PETC contractor`s conference held in Pittsburgh. A project progress review meeting was also held with the PETC technical project monitor.

  7. Relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica in C1 bituminous coal in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China%云南省宣威地区非吸烟女性肺癌与C1烟煤中二氧化硅的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光剑; 黄云超; 田林玮; 刘拥军; 郭律; 肖义泽; 侯文俊; 杨堃; 陈颖

    2013-01-01

    二氧化硅颗粒物进入室内空气中随悬浮颗粒物吸入肺部”的迁移富集路线.%Objective To measure the content of silica in C1 bituminous coal and its combustion products in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei,Yunnan Province,China and to investigate the relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica produced naturally in C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei.Methods The C1 bituminous coal widely used in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei was selected as experiment group,while the C2+1,K7,and M30 bituminous coal that was mined and used in the low-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei for more than 10 years were selected as control group.Fourteen paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples from the non-smoking women with non-small cell lung cancer who were born in Xuanwei and were at least the 3rd generation of the family living there were collected from the department of pathology,the ahird affiliated hospital of kunming medical university (tumor hospital of yunnan province).Titrimetric potassium silicofluoride method was used to measure the content of silica in raw coal and its bottom ashes in 20 samples from the experimental group and control group.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in C1 bituminous coal and its bottom ashes,and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in the bottom ashes and coal soot of C1 bituminous coal as well as the lung cancer tissue from the non-smoking women in Xuanwei,and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.The silica particles were separated from the coal soot and bottom ashes and characterized by physical method

  8. Coking coal of Checua Lenguazaque area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report a summary of the main characteristics of the coal of the area of Checua-Samaca is presented. Using the main works carried out on this area, the most important geologic, physical-chemical, technological and petrographic aspects are compiled that are considered essential to carry out a technical evaluation of these coal and all the analyses they take to conclude that in this area, bituminous coal are presented with very good coking properties, on the other hand, it is demonstrated by the use that is given to the coal extracted by the small existent mining. However, keeping in mind the demands of the international market of the coking coal, it becomes necessary to improve the existent geologic information to be able to make reliable stratigraphic correlations

  9. Political and technical issues of coal fire extinction in the Kyoto framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    It is a highly desirable effort to extinguish as much coal fires as possible in short time to prevent large losses of energy resources and to minimise CO2 and other exhaust gas releases from such sources. Unfortunately, extinguishing coal fires needs massive financial investments, skilled man power, suited technology and a long time. Even mid to small scale coal fires need several months of extinguishing measures and of monitoring time after extinction resulting in expenditures of a minimum of several hundred thousand Euros. Large companies might be willing to spend money for coal fire extinction measures but smaller holdings or regional governments might not have the monetary resources for it. Since there is no law in China that demands coal fire extinction, measures under the Kyoto framework may be applied to sell CO2 certificates for prevented emissions from extinguished coal fires and thus used as a financial stimulus for coal fire extinction activities. The set-up for methodologies and project designs is especially complex for coal fire extinction measures and thus for necessary exploration, evaluation and monitoring using geophysical and remote sensing methods. A brief overview of most important formal and technical aspects is given to outline the conditions for a potentially successful CDM application on coal fires based on geophysical observations and numerical modelling.

  10. Technical project of complex fast cycle heat treatment of hydrogenous coal preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems of heat-treated milled hydrogenous coal preparation site creation in leading fast cycle heat treatment complex were considered. Conditions for effective use of electrostatic methods of heat-treated milled hydrogenous coal preparation were set. Technical project of heat treatment of milled hydrogenous coal preparation site was developed including coupling of working equipment complex on fast heat treatment and experimental samples of equipment being designed for manufacturing. It was stated that methods of electrical separation are used for heat-treated milled hydrogenous coal preparation with effective ways of organic and mineral components separation. Laboratory test for determination of optimal separation size sent into separators of heat-treated milled hydrogenous coal were made.

  11. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

  12. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lili Huang; Schobert, H.H.; Chunshan Song

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

  13. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, August 1992--November 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Saini, A.K.; Burgess, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    During this quarterly period progress has been made in the following three subjects related to the effects of low-temperature thermal and catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. First, the liquefaction behavior of three bituminous coals with a carbon content ranging from 77% to 85% was evaluated spectroscopically by {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to delineate the structural changes that occur in the coal during liquefaction. Complementary data includes ultimate and proximate analysis, along with optical microscopy for maceral determinations. Even though these are all bituminous coals they exhibit quite different physical and chemical characteristics. The coals vary in rank, ranging from HvC b to HvA b, in petrographic composition, different maceral percentages, and in chemical nature, percent of carbon and of volatiles. It is these variations that govern the products, their distribution, and conversion percentages. Some of the products formed can be traced to a specific maceral group. Second, pyrolysis-GC-MS and FTIR techniques were used to characterize Wyodak coal before and after drying in vacuum and in air and the residues from its thermal and catalytic liquefactions. The analysis of the air-dried coal shows a decrease in the phenolic type structures in the coal network and increase in the carbonyl structures as the oxidative drying proceeds. An enhanced decrease in the carbonyl structure is observed in the liquefaction residues from the raw coal as compared to that of the vacuum dried coal. The analyses of the liquefaction residues of the air-dried coal show an increase in the ether linkages which may have a negative impact on liquefaction. The extent of the solvent adduction also increases during liquefaction with the extent of oxidation of the coal. Finally, the effects of reaction conditions were investigated on conversion of low-rank coals using a Texas subbituminous coal.

  14. Linked-cone DEA profit ratios and technical efficiency with application to Illinois coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors develop a theory stating that Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) profit ratios and technical efficiency measures require separate treatment. This point is illustrated by analysis of an example problem; showing that DEA technical efficiency does not necessarily imply a DEA maximum profit ratio; and that a DEA maximum profit ratio does not necessarily imply DEA technical efficiency. The mathematical framework underlying this argument is provided. Application of the concepts to Illinois coal mining data lends support to the need for separate treatment of DEA technical efficiency and DEA profit ratios. 31 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-08-01

    In an effort to develop new disposable catalysts for direct coal liquefaction, several types of clay-supported pyrrhotite catalysts were prepared and tested. These included iron-pillared montmorillonite, mixed iron/alumina-pillared montmorillonite, iron-impregnated montmorillonite, and iron oxometallate-impregnated montmorillonite.

  16. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Technical progress report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boakye, E.; Vittal, M.; Osseo-Asare, K. [and others

    1993-10-01

    The objective of this project is to pursue the development of highly dispersed and inexpensive catalysts for improved coal solubilization and upgrading of coal liquids. A novel study of the synthesis of liquefaction catalysts of manometer size is being carried out. It is based on the molecular design of inverse micelles (microemulsions). These surfactant-stabilized, metal-bearing microdrops offer unique opportunities for synthesizing very small particles by providing a cage-like effect that limits particle nucleation, growth and agglomeration. The emphasis is on molybdenum- and iron-based catalysts, but the techniques being developed should also be generally applicable. The size of these very small and monodispersed particles will be accurately determined both separately and after in situ and ex situ coal impregnation. The as-prepared nanoparticles as well as the catalyst-impregnated coal matrix are characterized using a battery of techniques, including dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Catalytic activity tests are conducted under standardized coal liquefaction conditions. The effects of particle size of these unsupported catalysts on the product yield and distribution during conversion of a bituminous and a subbituminous coal are being determined.

  17. Technical progress in the development of zero emission coal technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, H. J. (Hans-Joachim); Anthony, E. J.; Brosha, E. L. (Eric L.); Garzon, F. H. (Fernando H.); Guthrie, G. D. (George D.); Johnson, A. A. (Alan A.); Kramer, A. (Andrew); Lackner, K. S. (Klaus S.); Lau, Francis,; Mukundan, R. (Rangachary); Robison, Thomas W.; Roop, B. J. (Bobbi J.); Ruby, J. D. (John D.); Smith, B. F. (Barbara F.); Wang, J. (Joseph)

    2002-01-01

    We present an update on the development of technologies required for the Zero Emission Carbon (ZEC) concept being pursued by ZECA Corporation. The concept has a highly integrated design involving hydrogasification, a calcium oxide driven reforming step that includes simultaneous C02 separation, coal compatible fuel cells for electricity production and heat recovery, and a closed loop gas system in which coal contaminants are removed either as liquids or solids. The process does not involve any combustion and as such has neither smokestack nor air emissions. An independent assessment of the concept by Nexant, a Bcchtel affiliated company, suggests a net efficiency of approximately 70% for conversion of the higher heat value fuel energy into electrical output. This is even after the penalties of carbon dioxide separation and pressurization to 1000 psi are taken into account. For carbon dioxide sequestration a variety of options are being considered, which include enhanced oil recovery in the near-term and mineral carbonation as a long-term approach. We report on our early results in the development of sulfur tolerant anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells; a critical analysis of the calcium oxide - calcium carbonate cycle; trace element removal; and the recent results of hydrogasification tests.

  18. Environmental problems caused by bituminous schist and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schist, as a disposal of mine, has harmful effects on environment. however, several manners can be utilized to prevent the environmental destruction as well as an economical benefit is gained. In this study, environmental problems caused by bituminous schist and other disposals have been investigated on a specific lignite coal mine where schist is disposed as waste material. Pollution and damage on land and in water sources around the coal district and the villages have been observed, recorded and several solutions to environmental problems have been proposed. Discussed proposals will not only solve the environmental pollution problem but also provide waste management facility. Industrial structure of the district enables such a disposal to be used as an economical raw material. Besides, general effects of the coal mine and the power plant nearby have been discussed from environmental point of view, too. 7 refs

  19. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  20. Mobile phase in coals: its nature and modes of release. Technical progress report, September-November 1985 and December 1985-February 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derbyshire, F.J.

    1986-04-01

    Studies have been continued in probing the molecular phase-network concept of coal structure through the catalytic hydrogenation of coals in the absence of solvent. Experiments have now been conducted using a Spanish lignite and a sample of Illinois No. 6, in addition to three coals examined previously. Earlier findings, that low-rank coals are more reactive than bituminous coals at 350/sup 0/C, have been confirmed. In an attempt to minimize the loss of volatile liquids during product work-up, the temperature used for solvent stripping was lowered from 110/sup 0/C to 50/sup 0/C. This expedient has not proved to be satisfactory as it results in excessive retention of solvent in the products. Two series of coal samples have been prepared by the catalytic hydrogenation of a bituminous and a subbituminous coal, for different times at 400 C and will be examined by Dr. Lynch (CSIRO, Australia) using /sup 1/H NMR. The principal aim of the study is to investigate the change in coal molecular phase content, as determined by pulsed /sup 1/H free induction decay, which is brought about by partial liquefaction. To address the question of whether the molecular phase plays an important role in the early stages of dry catalytic hydrogenation, a number of experiments were performed on coals which had first been extracted in chloroform. The removal of the chloroform-soluble liquids appeared to have little effect upon the initial rate of liquefaction. It is suggested that the MoS/sub 2/ catalyst may be mobile within the coal structure at the reaction temperatures used, which could explain the effectiveness of this catalyst at short reaction times. A preparative scale, high performance liquid chromatography system has been assembled to allow the separation of liquefaction products into different compound classes. The separated fraction will be examined in detail by GC-MS. 7 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Selection of an Appropriate Mechanized Mining Technical Process for Thin Coal Seam Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Wang; Shihao Tu

    2015-01-01

    Mechanized mining technical process (MMTP) related to the control method of the shearer is a vital process in thin coal seam mining operations. An appropriate MMTP is closely related to safety, productivity, labour intensity, and efficiency. Hence, the evaluation of alternative MMTP is an important part of the mining design. Several parameters should be considered in MMTP evaluation, so the evaluation is complex and must be compliant with a set of criteria. In this paper, two multiple criteri...

  2. Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report for the period July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the cola is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

  3. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boiler systems. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The LEBS plant design will be based on a high-sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal. This coal meets program selection requirements of extensive reserves and production, sulfur content, and representativeness. Two alternate test coals have been selected to examine fuel effects, and to broaden the range of application of the technology being developed. The alternate coals are a medium sulfur, Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous, and a Wyoming subbituminous coal. The efficiency goals for the LEBS are challenging, particularly with the demands environmental controls are likely to place on auxiliary power. Table 1 shows estimates of overall plant efficiencies for three steam cycles: (1) a 2400 psi subcritical single reheat cycle typical of current plants; (2) a 3500 psi supercritical single reheat cycle; and (3) an advanced 4500 psi double reheat cycle. The plant heat rates are based on maximum boiler efficiency and minimum auxiliary power requirements consistent with conventional plant design for the design and alternate coals. The aggressive efficiency goals clearly require advanced steam conditions, as well as careful management of any added auxiliary power requirements for environmental controls. The EPRI SOAPP (State-of-the-Art Power Plant) project has selected the 4500 psi cycle as maximizing plant efficiency while minimizing generating costs for a commercial plant to be constructed by the year 2000. This program will incorporate the SOAPP base case cycle. The LESS design will incorporate a high-efficiency, once-through boiler design known as the Benson. Significant improvements in availability and operating flexibility have made this boiler design the system of choice for European power generation over the last fifteen years.

  4. Coal Production 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  5. Fluorine in Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Tang, X.Y.; Li, S.H.; Wang, B.B.; Wang, M.S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2004-05-01

    Three hundred and five coal samples were taken from the main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of China. The method of pyrohydrolysis was applied to measure the fluorine content in the samples, which exhibit logarithmic normal frequency distributions. The range of fluorine content in dry coal varies from 26 to 1230 mg/kg with a geometric mean of 136 mg/kg. The fluorine content decreases gradually from sub-bituminous through bituminous coal to anthracite. However, such varying tendency of fluorine content is not due to the presence of organic fluorine in coal. The geological age also apparently has no effect on the fluorine content. Even though the fluorine content of most coals in China is not high, much more attention should be given to the fluoride pollution caused by improper (unvented) coal-burning and the widespread household use of high-fluoride coal-clay.

  6. Cooperative Research Program in coal liquefaction. Technical report, May 1, 1994--October 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts.

  7. Toxic substances from coal combustion -- a comprehensive assessment. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April 1996--30 June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bool, L.E. III; Senior, C.L. [PSI Technologies, Andover, MA (United States); Huggins, F.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Before electric utilities can plan or implement emissions minimization strategies for hazardous pollutants, they must have an accurate and site-specific means of predicting emissions in all effluent streams for the broad range of fuels and operating conditions commonly utilized. Development of a broadly applicable emissions model useful to utility planners first requires a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion (specifically in Phase I, As, Se, Cr, and possibly Hg). PSI Technologies (PSIT) and its team members will achieve this objective through the development of an {open_quotes}Engineering Model{close_quotes} that accurately predicts the formation and partitioning of toxic species as a result of coal combustion. The {open_quotes}Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model{close_quotes} (ToPEM) will be applicable to all conditions including new fuels or blends, low-NO{sub x} combustion systems, and new power systems being advanced by DOE in the Combustion 2000 program. This report describes the mineralogy and chemical analysis of bituminous coal samples.

  8. Effects of coal rank on the chemical composition and toxicological activity of coal liquefaction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Dauble, D.D.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and toxicological testing of coal liquefaction materials from the EDS and H-Coal processes operated using different ranks of coal. Samples of recycle solvent from the bottoms recycle mode of the EDS direct coal liquefaction process derived from bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals were analyzed. In addition, the H-Coal heavy fuel oils derived from bituminous and sub-bituminous coals were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsoprtion column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry. The toxicological activity of selected samples was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay, an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity, and a static bioassy with Daphnia magna for aquatic toxicity of the water-soluble fractions. 22 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Leachability of bituminized radioactive waste. Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bituminized radioactive waste that will be returned from COGEMA, France is planned to be disposed of in deep geologic repository in Japan. Data on leachability of radionuclides from bituminized waste are required for the performance assessment of the disposal. We made a literature survey on bitumen and bituminized radioactive waste, placing emphasis on leach tests and leach data in terms of geologic disposal. This survey revealed that reliable leach data on transuranium elements and data obtained under reducing conditions that is characteristic to deep underground are lacking. (author). 64 refs

  10. Technical measures and engineering management measures for radiation protection in underground uraniferous coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reserves of uraniferous coal resource account for a certain proportion of all uranium resources in China. China began to mine the uraniferous coal deposits in late 1960s. In the process of mining, much research was conducted on the control and reduction of the radiation hazards in underground uraniferous coal mine. However, such mining practice was stopped for many reasons in late 1980s. During recent years, electricity shortages have taken place from time to time. In order to alleviate the shortages, the Chinese government has decided to further develop nuclear electricity. Under such circumstances, underground mining of uraniferous coal deposits will be restarted. In order to make sure that the radiation protection will be stressed and the radiation hazards will be controlled effectively in the underground uraniferous mine, this paper gives the basic knowledge of radiation protection, describes the radiation hazards to the miners and our national dosage standards implemented in the underground mine, and, on the basis of summing-up of the past experience in mine radiation protection, presents the technical and management measures for controlling and reducing radiation hazards. (authors)

  11. Bituminous reference document: synthesis of knowledge on the long time behavior of bituminous packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a synthesis of the knowledge acquired at the CEA on the behavior of bituminous packages. In this framework, the CEA studied bituminous packages in generic conditions of a package lifetime. The main factors, the evolution mechanisms and influential parameters have been determined and quantitative s simulation have been developed. After a description of the main initial bituminous packages characterizations, the evolutions in saturated and un-saturated environment are exposed. (A.L.B.)

  12. Coal to SNG: Technical progress, modeling and system optimization through exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Technical progresses of coal to SNG technologies are reported. • The entire coal to SNG system is modeled. • Coupling between SNG production and power generation is investigated. • Breakthrough points for further energy saving are determined. • System performance is optimized based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. - Abstract: For both energy security and CO2 emission reduction, synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from coal is an important path to implement clean coal technologies in China. In this paper, an overview of the progress of coal to SNG technologies, including the development of catalysts, reactor designs, synthesis processes, and systems integration, is provided. The coal to SNG system is modeled, the coupling between SNG production and power generation is investigated, the breakthrough points for further energy savings are determined, and the system performance is optimized based on the first and the second laws of thermodynamics. From the viewpoint of the first law of thermodynamics, the energy conversion efficiency of coal to SNG system can reach 59.8%. To reduce the plant auxiliary power, the breakthrough points are the development of low-energy-consumption oxygen production technology and gas purification technology or seeking new oxidants for coal gasification instead of oxygen. From the viewpoint of the second law of thermodynamics, the major exergy destruction in a coal to SNG system occurs in the coal gasification unit, SNG synthesis unit and the raw syngas cooling process. How to reduce the exergy destruction in these units is the key to energy savings and system performance enhancement. The conversion ratio of the first SNG synthesis reactor and the split ratio of the recycle gas are key factors that determine the performance of both the SNG synthesis process and the whole plant. A “turning point” phenomenon is observed: when the split ratio is higher than 0.90, the exergy destruction of the SNG

  13. Feasibility study of producing lump fuel using oil-bituminous sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldybaev, A.B.; Ermagambetov, B.T.; Mamraeva, K.M.; Shin, R.G.; Bakirova, R.K. (Institut Organicheskogo Sinteza i Uglekhimii AN KazSSR (USSR))

    1991-04-01

    Describes production of lump fuel by briquetting and coking different mixtures of non-caking coal with coal preparation sludge and bitumen extracted from oil sands. The coal used was from the Shubarkol'sk coal deposit (USSR); the sludge was from the Saburkhanskaya preparation plant. Properties and composition of oil-bituminous sands and of bitumen to be used as binder are given. Technological details of the briquetting and coking processes are provided. Results show that briquets produced from mixtures of coal and oil-bituminous sands can only be used as a high-ash lump fuel, which cannot be further processed into semicoke. Experiments were carried out briquetting coal or coke, sludge and 6-8% bitumen extracted from the sands, varying coal or coke grain fractions and composition of the mixture. An increased briquet strength was found after using the vacuum-distilled 300-350 C bitumen fraction. Briquets from this non-caking coal with bitumen binder are regarded as ecologically clean fuel. 5 refs.

  14. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  15. Export market potential for Alaskan and Western US coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major utilization trends may create opportunity for dramatic expansion of Alaska's coal exports from a huge ultra-low sulfur coal resource base. Markets are expected to open up in the Pacific Basin for sub-bituminous and bituminous steam coals from Alaska to include not only run-of-mine coals but also product streams from beneficiation technologies. Market considerations aside, deficiencies in physical infrastructure and an unresolved resource ownership issue are the principal impediments at this time to property development

  16. Thermal stability of carboxylic acid functionality in coal; Sekitanchu ni sonzaisuru karubokishiruki no netsubunkai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Aida, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Carboxyl in coal was focused in discussing its pyrolytic behavior while tracking change of its absolute amount relative to the heating temperatures. A total of four kinds of coals, consisting of two kinds brown coals, sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were used. Change in the absolute amount of carboxyl due to heating varies with coalification degree. Decomposition starts in the bituminous coal from around 300{degree}C, and is rapidly accelerated when 400{degree}C is exceeded. Carboxyls in brown coals exist two to three times as much as those in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, of which 40% is decomposed at a temperature as low as about 300{degree}C. Their pyrolytic behavior at temperatures higher than 400{degree}C resembles that of the bituminous coal. Carboxyls consist of those easy to decompose and difficult to decompose. Aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with simple structure are stable at temperatures lower than 300{degree}C, and decompose abruptly from about 400{degree}C, hence their behavior resembles that of carboxyls in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Structure of low-temperature decomposing carboxyls in brown coals is not known, but it is assumed that humic acid originated from natural materials remains in the structure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Coal desulfurization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, G. C.; Gavalas, G. R.; Ganguli, P. S.; Kalfayan, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A method for chlorinolysis of coal is an organic solvent at a moderate temperautre and atmospheric pressure has been proven to be effective in removing sulfur, particularly the organic sulfur, from coal. Chlorine gas is bubbled through a slurry of moist coal in chlorinated solvent. The chlorinated coal is separated, hydrolyzed and the dechlorinated. Preliminary results of treating a high sulfutr (4.77%S) bituminous coal show that up to 70% organic sulfur, 90% hyritic sulfur and 76% total sulfur can be removed. The treated coal is dechlorinated by heating at 500 C. The presence of moisture helps to remove organic sulfur.

  18. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  19. Influence of properties of bituminous binders on the strength of formed coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ashok K.; Das, Bani P.; Tripathi, Prem S.M. [Central Fuel Research Institute, P.O. FRI-828108, Dhanbad (India)

    2002-03-20

    The role of different chemical characteristics (coking value, quinoline insolubles, elemental composition, {beta}-resin, toluene solubles) of various coal tar- and petroleum-based bituminous binders, such as heavy fraction of HTC tar, processed LTC tar, pitch and asphalt as also the mixed binder in controlling the strength of formed coke made from char prepared from non-coking Chirimiri coal and coke breeze (prepared after carbonising Jharia coal), respectively, has been studied in some detail. The objective was to investigate as to whether and how the properties of these bituminous binders govern the strength of formed coke. It is found that these properties of the binders do play significantly important role in controlling the strength of formed coke both during curing and carbonisation. These parameters of the binders are found to be closely related with their atomic C/H ratios. Notwithstanding the varying composition of the binders of different origin, be they coal tar or petroleum based, the atomic C/H ratio seems to be the most important characteristics of the bituminous binders, upon which the strength of formed coke depends predominantly. This also holds true when mixed binders were used. The results show that at a C/H ratio of about 1, the strength of the briquettes either on curing or on carbonising remains almost similar and that strong cured briquettes can be produced by using a bituminous binder with a C/H ratio less than 1, whilst for obtaining strong carbonised briquettes, binders with C/H ratio greater than 1 are preferable.

  20. Comprehensive Technical Support for High-Quality Anthracite Production: A Case Study in the Xinqiao Coal Mine, Yongxia Mining Area, China

    OpenAIRE

    , Wei Zhang; Dongsheng Zhang; Hongzhi Wang; Jixin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The effective production of high-quality anthracite has attracted increasing global attention. Based on the coal occurrence in Yongxia Mining Area and mining conditions of a coalface in Xinqiao Coal Mine, we proposed a systematic study on the technical support for the production of high-quality anthracite. Six key steps were explored, including coal falling at the coalface, transport, underground bunker storage, main shaft hoisting, coal preparation on the ground, and railway wagon loading. T...

  1. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  2. Merit Pila coal basin, Malaysia - geology and coal petrology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkorová, Ivana; Osvald, P.

    Bandung : Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, 2006. s. 16-17. [International Symposium on Lower Rank Coal. 07.09.2006-08.09.2006, Bandung] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : sub-bituminous coal * rank Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry

  3. Entrained-flow gasification at elevated pressure: Volume 1: Final technical report, March 1, 1985-April 30,1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

    1987-10-15

    The general purpose of this research program was to develop a basic understanding of the physical and chemical processes in entrained coal gasification and to use the results to improve and evaluate an entrained gasification computer model. The first task included the collection and analysis of in-situ gasifier data at elevated pressures with three coal types (North Dakota lignite, Wyoming subbituminous and Illinois bituminous), the design, construction, and testing of new coal/oxygen/steam injectors with a fourth coal type (Utah bituminous), the collection of supporting turbulent fluid dynamic (LDV) data from cold-flow studies, and the investigation of the feasibility of using laser-based (CARS) daignostic instruments to make measurements in coal flames. The second task included improvements to the two-dimensional gasifier submodels, tabulation and evaluation of new coal devolatilization and char oxidation data for predictions, fundamental studies of turbulent particle dispersion, the development of improved numerical methods, and validation of the comprehensive model through comparison of predictions with experimental results. The third task was to transfer technical advances to industry and to METC through technical seminars, production of a detailed data book, code placement, and publication of results. Research results for these three tasks are summarized briefly here and presented in detail in the body of the report and in supporting references. 202 refs., 73 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  5. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  6. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT`s. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT`s in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT`s introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT`s in a number of countries.

  7. Biochemical removal of HAP precursors from coal. Technical progress report, January--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Shake flask bioleaching tests were conducted with Pittsburgh NO. 8 and Indiana No. 5 coal. Bacteria removed pyritic sulfur from both coals at maximum rates of 5 to 9% per day, which was about 20 times the abiotic rate of pyrite oxidation. Concentrations of inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursor elements in starting coal, bioleached coal and in leach solutions were measured. Of the 13 HAP precursors, significant amounts of arsenic, cobalt, cadmium, manganese, and nickel were removed from both coals by bacterial activity and also by the acidic leach solutions in control flasks. Little or no mercury, lead, beryllium, chromium, antimony, fluorine or chlorine was removed from the coals. Selenium was bioleached from both coals as determined by analysis of Se in leach solutions. However, analyses of Se in starting coal and in coal residues remains problematic. With very few exceptions, mass balances for the HAP precursors ranged from 80 to 120%. Improved analytical methods were developed for measuring concentrations of Hg, Se, As, and Sb in coal. Shake flask tests with pyrite oxidizing bacteria were conducted on Pittsburgh No. 8 and Indiana No. 5 coal. Concentrations of HAP precursors in the starting coal, leach solutions, and final coal residues were measured. A column leaching-rotating biological contactor (RBC) unit was assembled and a column leach test with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal was begun.

  8. Investigation of sulfur-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in coal derived tars of pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Li, B.; Zhang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    1999-07-01

    A study was undertaken to characterize sulphur forms in coal derived tars from pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of bituminous coal and lignite. The pyrolysis tars were analyzed for content of polycyclic aromatic sulfur hydrocarbons (PASH). 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Majiagou Coal Preparation Plant Coal Slime Water Treatment System Water Treatment System Technical Transformation%马家沟矿选煤厂煤泥水处理系统技术改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边宇宏

    2011-01-01

    Coal slime is known as the blood of coal preparation plant.Coal slime treatment is closely linked with a coal preparation plant technical and economic indicators and environmental protection.This paper briefly describes Majiagou Coal Mine Coal Preparation Plant.From the actual situation,through technological innovation to solve problems caused by increased coal slime content.%煤泥水号称选煤厂的血液,煤泥水处理同选煤厂的技术经济指标和环境保护有着密切的联系。本文简单介绍了马家沟矿选煤厂从实际情况出发,通过技术改造解决煤泥含量增大,入洗量增大带来的问题。

  10. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Potential of Charqueadas Coal Field in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V [NETL

    2012-10-23

    The I2B coal seam in the Charqueadas coal field has been evaluated as a target for enhanced coal bed methane production and CO{sub 2} sequestration. The samples were low rank coals (high volatile bituminous and sub-bituminous) obtained from the I2B seam as �3� cores. Such properties as sorption capacity, internal structure of the samples, porosity and permeability were of primary interest in this characterization study.

  11. Indo-European seminar on clean coal technology and power plant upgrading. Technical papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A total of 25 papers were presented at the seminar in nine sessions with the following headings: future of coal based power generation and an overview of technologies; coal beneficiation/homogenisation; environment technologies/ash disposal/utilisation I, II and III; renovation/life extension I + II; and advanced coal fired plants I + II. All papers have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  12. Anaerobic biprocessing of low rank coals. Final technical report, September 12, 1990--August 10, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.

    1993-08-05

    Coal solubilization under aerobic conditions results in oxygenated coal product which, in turn, makes the coal poorer fuel than the starting material. A novel approach has been made in this project is to remove oxygen from coal by reductive decarboxylation. In Wyodak subbituminous coal the major oxygen functionality is carboxylic groups which exist predominantly as carboxylate anions strongly chelating metal cations like Ca{sup 2+} and forming strong macromolecular crosslinks which contribute in large measure to network polymer structure. Removal of the carboxylic groups at ambient temperature by anaerobic organisms would unravel the macromoleculer network, resulting in smaller coal macromolecules with increased H/C ratio which has better fuel value and better processing prospects. These studies described here sought to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal liquefaction. Efforts were made to establish anaerobic microbial consortia having decarboxylating ability, decarboxylate coal with the adapted microbial consortia, isolate the organisms, and characterize the biotreated coal products. Production of CO{sup 2} was used as the primary indicator for possible coal decarboxylation.

  13. An Industrial System Powered by Wind and Coal for Aluminum Production: A Case Study of Technical Demonstration and Economic Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Xun Dong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of an isolated industrial power system for aluminum production. The novel concept is that the cost of aluminum electrolysis can be significantly reduced by innovative application of hybrid systems incorporating wind energy and low-grade coal. In addition, the low-grade coal, which sale is not profitable in the market, can be locally consumed by the isolated power system. The power system thus fully utilizes the local resources in an effective and economic manner. However, several technical and economic issues are still of concern because the industrial system is isolated from the state grid. This paper hence discusses these issues and demonstrates the feasibility of such a hybrid power system from the technical and economic perspectives.

  14. Development and operation experience from pilot-plant for bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes (UBD-200)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are given for investigations of liquid radioactive wastes bituminization on the pilot-plant of continious operation. The bituminization process is divided into two stages. On the first stage salts with definite moisture content are obtained. On the second stage, wet salts are mixed with melted bitumen. In this process the salts are finally dryed and bitumen compound produced is transported towards the discharge assembly. Design of the dryer and mixer is described and their technical parameters are given. Salt-bitumen compound is discharged in moulding bogies with volume of 0.5 m3. After hardening, salt-bitumen compound blocks are removed for burial. Average composition of liquid radioactive wastes coming for solidification is given. Dependences of the salt-bitumen compound characteristics on the parameters of the technological process of bituminization are given as well as the results of analysis of filling of compound by salts at the block height of 0.3 m. It is shown that division of the bituminization process into two stages do not affect on the chemical stability of compound. (I.T.)

  15. Technical data. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This volume includes a description of the railway to transport the coal; possible unbalance in the electrical power supply is considered in detail, as well as communications, signalling, etc. The railway will also be used to transport ashes and sludges for waste disposal. Coal fines in the coal supply will be burned to generate power. A very brief description of the coal gasification plant and its components is accompanied by a printout of the dates final engineering is to be completed. Permit applications are listed and socio-economic factors are discussed. The financing plan is discussed in some detail: basically, a loan guarantee from the Synthetic Fuels Corporation; equity provided by investment tax credit, deferred taxes, AFUDC and the sponsors; price support; and gas purchase agreement (this whole section includes several legal details.). (LTN)

  16. CFBC evaluation of fuels processed from Illinois coals. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes

    1992-10-01

    The combustion and emissions properties of (a) flotation slurry fuel beneficiated from coal fines at various stages of the cleaning process and (b) coal-sorbent pellets made from the flotation concentrate of the same beneficiation process using corn starch as binder is being investigated in a 4-inch internal diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Combustion data such as SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} emissions, combustion efficiency and ash mineral matter analyses from these fuels are compared with similar parameters from a reference coal burnt in the same fluidized bed combustor. In the last quarter, the CFBC was brought on line and tests were performed on standard coal No. 3 from the Illinois Basin Coal Sample Program (IBCSP). During this quarter, it was decided, that a more meaningful comparison could be obtained if, instead of using the IBCSP No. 3 coal as a standard, the run-of-mine Illinois No. 5 coal from the Kerr-McGee Galatia plant could be used as the reference coal for purposes of comparing the combustion and emissions performance, since the slurry and pellet fuels mentioned in (a) and (b) above were processed from fines recovered form this same Illinois No. 5 seam coal. Accordingly, run-of-the mine Illinois No. 5 coal from the Galatia plant were obtained, riffled and sieved to {minus}14+18 size for the combustion tests. Preliminary combustion tests have been made in the CFBC with this new coal. In preparation for the slurry tests, the moisture content of the beneficiated slurry samples was determined. Proximate and ultimate analyses of all the coal samples were performed. Using a Leeds and Northrup Model 7995-10 Microtrek particle size analyzer, the size distributions of the coal in the three slurry samples were determined. The mineral matter content of the coal in the three slurry samples and the Illinois No. 5 seam coal were investigated using energy dispersive x-ray analysis.

  17. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalvani, S.B.

    1992-08-01

    Previous research has shown that addition of lignin and lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degrees}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. In this quarterly report, overall mass balances on experiments conducted with tetralin, coal, lignin and coal-lignin mixture are reported. Overall mass recoveries of 95--99% of the total mass charged to the reactor were obtained. A number of experiments were conducted on coal, lignin and coal-lignin depolymerization. A careful statistical analysis of the data shows that coal depolymerization is enhanced by 10.4%, due to the lignin addition. The liquids obtained are being examined for their elemental composition, and molecular weight determination by size exclusion chromatography. The stability of the liquid products is being examined in various environments. The gaseous product analyses show that the major gases produced during the course of depolymerization are CO, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2}. When coal and lignin are reacted together, the amount of CO and CH{sub 4}produced respectively 12% and 38% greater than the corresponding amount of gases calculated, based on the weighted average of values obtained for coal and lignin alone. The data obtained show that lignin addition to coal is synergistic in that not only is the extent of coal depolymerization increased, but the gas produced contains higher concentrations of more desirable gaseous products.

  18. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-10-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

  19. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This report discusses the effects on SRC yields of seven process variables (reactor temperature, SRT, hydrogen partial pressure, recycle ash and coal concentrations, gas velocity and coal type) predicted by second-order regression models developed from a data base containing pilot plant data with both Kentucky and Powhatan coals. The only effect of coal type in the model is a shift in each yield by a constant factor. Although some differences were found between the models developed from the Kentucky data base (1) (which we call Kentucky models) and the pooled coal models, the general conclusions of the previous report are confirmed by the new models and the assumption of similar behavior of the two coals appears to be justified. In some respects the dependence of the yields (MAF coal basis) on variables such as pressure and temperature are clearer than in the previous models. The principal trends which emerge are discussed.

  20. Process for the production of coal briquettes and installation for carrying out this process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, R.

    1989-01-25

    Coal briquettes are produced with the aid of a granular mixture of bituminous coal and inert coal by heating the bituminous coal above its softening point in contact with the inert coal previously heated to a higher temperature and mixed with the bituminous coal in a mixer to form a pasty substance through the softening of the bituminous coal. This pasty substance is extracted through the bottom of the mixer and guided into a briquette forming apparatus, the briquettes then being hardened and cooled. The gases produced in the mixer are delivered into a separator, at the bottom of which the solid constituents entrained by the gases are recovered and are recycled into the mixer at a point below the top level of the mixture.

  1. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  2. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1991-11-01

    Consol R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-field: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  3. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 2 - hydrogenative and hydrothermal pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization using pyrolysis-GC-MS, CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Hatcher, P.G.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    It has been indicated by DOE COLIRN panel that low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals. As the second volume of the final report, here we summarize our work on spectroscopic characterization of four raw coals including two subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-extracted but unreacted coals, the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been thermally pretreated. in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent, and the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been catalytically pretreated in the presence of a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent.

  4. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

  5. Biochemical removal of HAP precursors from coal. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Analytical methods were finalized and all analyses completed on shake flask tests with Indiana No. 5 and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. A column leaching-rotating biological contractor (RBC) unit was used to bioleach pyrite and hazardous air pollutant precursors from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Shake flask tests with Rosebud subbituminous coal were begun. In connection with upcoming slurry column reactor tests, coal was prepared and shipped to INEL, and a detailed work plan was developed for operation and sampling for the tests. A manuscript and poster was prepared for presentation at the PETC contractors conference.

  6. Evaluating Self Healing Capability of Bituminous Mastics

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, J.; Ven, M. van de; Wu, S.; Yu, J.; Molenaar, A.

    2012-01-01

    The self-healing capability of bituminous materials has been known for many years. Researches were mostly focused on the self healing behaviour during load repetitions. The tests are either time consuming and/or complex. In this paper, a simple self healing test procedure is presented combining the fracture-healing-re-fracture test (FHR) with morphological observations. A fast displacement speed loading was applied first to produce a flat open crack with a crack width of 100–200 μm. Then the ...

  7. For the acceleration of scientific and technical progress in coal mining a central authority is required for conception and realization of a single technical branch policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markov, L.

    1988-02-01

    Discusses scientific and technical developments in Bulgarian coal mining. Until 1988, research, investigations and design were largely carried out by the Minproekt and Minstroi institutes and by higher schools of mining, usually according to a national plan determined by the Energetika association, state power and mining associations and the Association of Engineers and Technicians. After 1. January, 1988, when self-management is planned to be introduced, individual enterprises will carry out their own research, together with research institutes and other organizations. Experience acquired by the FRG, UK and France may be evaluated and advantageously applied to Bulgarian conditions. Recommendations for the future include: importing equipment and technology from abroad; basing domestic research and design around local problems and requirements; forming a central commission and several working groups to evaluate and plan research work; using experienced technical personnel for experimental introduction of new technologies; establishing experimental laboratories and mine fields in large mines and associations. 2 refs.

  8. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States); Korkmaz, M. [Roberts and Schaefer Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m{mu} for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  9. Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high moisture, low rank coals to a high quality, low sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal process enhances low rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 Btu/lb, by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45 ton per hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train load out facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. During this report period the primary focus has been to continue the operation of the demonstration facility. Production has been going to area power plants. Modifications and maintenance work was also performed this quarter.

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F.J.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-11-04

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 48-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress made during the 4th quarter of the project from July 1 to September 30, 1993.

  11. Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-21

    The Mulled Coal process was developed as a means of overcoming the adverse handling characteristics of wet fine coal without thermal drying. The process involves the addition of a low cost, harmless reagent to wet fine coal using off-the-shelf mixing equipment. Based on laboratory- and bench-scale testing, Mulled Coal can be stored, shipped, and burned without causing any of the plugging, pasting, carryback and freezing problems normally associated with wet coal. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate that: the Mulled Coal process, which has been proven to work on a wide range of wet fine coals at bench scale, will work equally well on a continuous basis, producing consistent quality at a convincing rate of production in a commercial coal preparation plant; the wet product from a fine coal cleaning circuit can be converted to a solid fuel form for ease of handling and cost savings in storage and rail car transportation; and a wet fine coal product thus converted to a solid fuel form, can be stored, shipped, and burned with conventional fuel handling, transportation, and combustion systems. During this reporting period, virtually all of the technical activities and progress was made in the areas of circuit installation and startup operations. Work in these activity areas are described.

  12. MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN CHINESE UTILITY COAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of analyzing representative samples of 20 Chinese utility coals for mercury content, and proximate, ultimate, and heating values. The data for these bituminous coals, obtained from China with the cooperation of the Chinese University of Mining Technology,...

  13. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1979-March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. for the Department of Energy for the period January 1, 1979 to March 31, 1979. Activities included the operation and modification of the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant at Fort Lewis, Washington; the Process Development Unit P-99 at Harmarville, Pennsylvania; and research at Merriam Laboratory in Merriam, Kansas. The Pilot Plant processed Powhatan No. 5 Coal in the SRC-II mode of operation studying the effect of coal particle size and system temperature on coal slurry blending and the effect of carbon monoxide concentration in the reaction feed gas on process yields. January and February were spent completing installation of a fourth High Pressure Separator on Process Development Unit P-99 to better simulate operating conditions for the proposed Demonstration Plant. During March, one run was completed at P-99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam Coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. Merriam investigations included a study of the effect of iron containing additives on SRC-I operation, the addition of carbon monoxide to the feed gas, utilization of a hydrogenated solvent (Cresap process solvent) in the SRC-I mode under both normal and short residence time operating conditions, and development of a simulated distillation technique to determine the entire boiling range distribution of product oils.

  14. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992-93 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter samples of two feed coals and the IBCSP 112 (Herrin No. 6) were prepared for reactivity testing and compared to blast furnace coke, and char fines taken from an active blast furnace. As the initial part of a broad reactivity analysis program, these same samples were also analyzed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine their combustion and reactivity properties.

  15. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Final technical report, September 1990--February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.; Shams, K.G.

    1994-07-01

    Recent research efforts in direct coal liquefaction are focused on lowering the level of reaction severity, identification and determination of the causes of retrogressive reactions, and improving the economics of the process. Ambient pretreatment of coals using methanol and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid was extensively studied in connection with low severity coal liquefaction. Ambient pretreatment of eight Argonne coals using methanol/HCl improved THF-soluble conversions 24.5 wt % (maf basis) for Wyodak subbituminous coal and 28.4 wt % for Beulah-Zap lignite with an average increase of 14.9 wt % for the eight Argonne coals at 623 K (350{degrees}C) reaction temperature and 30 minutes reaction time. Optimal pretreatment conditions were determined using Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coals. Acid concentration was the most important pretreatment variable studied; liquefaction reactivity increased with increasing acid concentration up to 2 vol %. The FTIR spectra of treated and untreated Wyodak coal samples demonstrated formation of carboxylic functional groups during pretreatment, a result of divalent (Ca, Mg) cationic bridge destruction. The extent of liquefaction reactivity directly correlated with the amount of calcium removed during pretreatment, and results from calcium ``addback`` experiments supported the observation that calcium adversely affected coal reactivity at low severity reaction conditions. Model compound studies using benzyl phenyl ether demonstrated that calcium cations catalyzed retrogressive reactions, inhibited hydrogenation reactions at low severity reaction conditions, and were more active at higher reaction temperatures. Based on kinetic data, mechanisms for hydrogenation-based inhibition and base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are proposed. The base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are shown to occur via a hydrogen abstraction mechanism where hydrogenation inhibition reactions are shown to take place via a surface quenching mechanism.

  16. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  17. Correlation between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on China's coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong-guan; YUAN Jian; SONG Ji-yong; LENG Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    It is highly important to investigate relationship between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on coal in the fields of coalbed methane recovery. Based on data examination of coal quality indexes collected from the literatures, regression equations for Langmuir adsorption constants, VL or VL/PL, and coal quality indexes for selected coal samples were developed with multiple linear regression of SPSS software according to the degree of coal metamorphosis. The regression equations built were tested with data collected from some literatures, and the influences of coal quality indexes on CH4 adsorption on coals were studied with investigation of regression equations, and the reasons of low accuracy to Langmuir constants calculated with regression equation for a few coal samples were investigated. The results show that the regression equations can be employed to predict Langmuir constants for methane adsorption isotherms on coals obtained using volumetric gas adsorption experiments, which are conducted at 30 ℃ on a wet or dried coal samples with less than 30% ash content in coal. The influence of same coal quality index with various coal rank or influence of various coal quality indexes for same coal rank on CH4 adsorption is not consistent. The regression equations have different accuracy to different coal rank, in which the VL equations supply better prediction accuracy for anthracite and higher prediction error for lower metamorphosis coal, and the PL prediction error with VL and VL/PL equations is lower to bituminous coal and higher to anthracite.

  18. Geochemistry of a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.; Heidari, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The highly alkaline residue from the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) of coal may be an environmentally acceptable material for use in neutralizing acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in coal slurry solids (CSS). Previous research indicated that FBC residues in mixtures with pyrite-rich CSS neutralized the acid produced by or attenuated the oxidation of pyrite in CSS. In the present research we intend to collect cores of unconsolidation material and sample pore gases from a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. The data gathered will provide background information necessary for the development of a predictive computer model of the generation and migration of acid in a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. The conceptual model for the oxidation of pyrite at near-neutral conditions has been revised. The model is being built around the method of Morel and Hering (1993) and Westall (1986).

  19. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  20. Superacid Catalyzed Coal Conversion Chemistry. Final Technical Report, September 1, 1983-September 1, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    This research project involved the study of a raw comparatively mild coal conversion process. The goal of the project was to study model systems to understand the basic chemistry involved and to provide a possible effective pretreatment of coal which significantly improves liquefaction-depolymerization under mild conditions. The conversion process operates at relatively low temperatures (170 degrees C) and pressures and uses an easily recyclable, stable superacid catalysts (HF-BF{sub 3}). It consequently offers an attractive alternative to currently available processes. From the present studies it appears that the modification of coal structure by electrophilic alkylation and subsequent reaction of alkylated coal with HF-BF{sub 3}-H{sub 2} system under mild conditions considerably improves the extractability of coal in pyridine and cyclohexane. On the other hand, nitration of coal and its subsequent reaction with HF-BF{sub 3}H{sub 2} decreases the pyridine and cyclohexane extractability. Study of model compounds under conditions identical with the superacidic HF/BF{sub 3}/H{sub 2} system provided significant information about the basic chemistry of the involved cleavage-hydrogenation reactions.

  1. Characterization of Some Nigerian Coals for Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwu, M.; Folayan, C. O.; Pam, G. Y.; D.O. Obada

    2016-01-01

    Five coal samples from Odagbo (Kogi State), Owukpa (Benue State), Ezimo (Enugu State), Amansiodo (Enugu State), and Inyi (Enugu State) of Nigerian coal deposits were subjected to proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, calorific value determination, and petrographic and thermogravimetric analysis to determine their suitability for power generation. Based on results of tests carried out, Amansiodo coal is a bituminous, low sulphur, and medium ash coal, while Owukpa coal is a subbituminous A, lo...

  2. Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondi, Giulio; Tataranni, Piergiorgio; Pettinari, Matteo;

    2014-01-01

    . Cold recycling is, among the recycling techniques, certainly the most studied and developed: it allows the recovering of bituminous material from an existing pavement without the addition of heat, whilst ensuring the creation of high quality bound base layers. A wide range of materials have been tested...... together with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and, consequently, there is a large number of variables that can be considered in the mix-design process of new eco-friendly Cold Recycled Mixes. In particular, the present research involves the use of Crumb Rubber within a mixture containing 100% Reclaimed...... Asphalt Pavement, cold recycled with bitumen emulsion and cement. Two different Crumb Rubbers were adopted: one from the ambient production method, and one produced with the cryogenic process. The goal of this research project was to analyze and evaluate the different physical and mechanical...

  3. Skid resistance of bituminous surfaces in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colony, D. C.

    1984-03-01

    Statistical studies of skid number (SN) on the state highway system in Ohio reveal apparently systematic variations in distributions of SN among the twelve districts in the state. These variations appear to be significantly related to traffic and to geological characteristics of a given district. Regression calculations using traffic index, a function of ADT and age of the pavement surface in months, show a high correlation with SN, although standard errors of estimate were too large to make the equations useful for predicting SN from traffic variables. Similar results were obtained by elating SN to physiographic features in the state. Pavement surface type (bituminous or pcc) and coarse aggregate type (limestone, gravel or slag) are significantly related to SN.

  4. Na/Ca catalyzation of Illinois coals for gasification. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; McCormick, R.L. [AMAX Research and Development Center, Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Gasification for power generation via IGCC processes is expected to become an important market for high sulfur Illinois Basin coals. Fluid-bed gasifiers have significant advantages over entrained flow processes. These advantages include ease of control, large turndown capacity, high thermal efficiency, and moderate oxygen and steam requirements. Three of the most pressing technical problems in fluid-bed gasification of Illinois coals are the caking tendency, high sulfur content, and low carbon conversion and consequent large char recycle required in most systems. This program explores the use of gasification catalysts to attack these three problems. The catalysts are sodium/calcium mixtures. Another advantage of using catalysts is that gasification temperature might be lowered, leading to less expensive materials of construction and a reduction in alkali vaporization. The results of this study indicate that these catalysts can reduce or eliminate the caking of Illinois coals. Loadings below 1 weight % were effective if the catalyst was added by impregnation at low pH (below about 5). An Na/Ca molar ratio of greater than 1 also leads to lower catalyst requirement.

  5. A New Agro/Forestry Residues Co-Firing Model in a Large Pulverized Coal Furnace: Technical and Economic Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shien Hui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the existing biomass co-firing technologies and the known innate drawbacks of dedicated biomass firing, including slagging, corrosion and the dependence on fuel, a new model of agro/forestry residue pellets/shreds and coal co-fired in a large Pulverized Coal (PC furnace was proposed, and the corresponding technical and economic assessments were performed by co-firing testing in a 300 MW PC furnace and discounted cash flow technique. The developed model is more dependent on injection co-firing and combined with co-milling co-firing. Co-firing not only reduces CO2 emission, but also does not significantly affect the fly ash use in cement industry, construction industry and agriculture. Moreover, economic assessments show that in comparison with dedicated firing in grate furnace, agro/forestry residues and coal co-firing in a large PC furnace is highly economic. Otherwise, when the co-firing ratio was below 5 wt%, the boiler co-firing efficiency was 0.05%–0.31% higher than that of dedicated PC combustion, and boiler efficiencies were about 0.2% higher with agro/forestry residues co-firing in the bottom and top burner systems than that in a middle burner system.

  6. Thermodynamic and rheological properties of solid-liquid systems in coal processing. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1995-06-30

    The work on this project was initiated on September 1, 1991. The project consisted of two different tasks: (1) Development of a model to compute viscosities of coal derived liquids, and (2) Investigate new models for estimation of thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid compounds of the type that exist in coal, or are encountered during coal processing. As for task 1, a model for viscosity computation of coal model compound liquids and coal derived liquids has been developed. The detailed model is presented in this report. Two papers, the first describing the pure liquid model and the second one discussing the application to coal derived liquids, are expected to be published in Energy & Fuels shortly. Marginal progress is reported on task 2. Literature review for this work included compilation of a number of data sets, critical investigation of data measurement techniques available in the literature, investigation of models for liquid and solid phase thermodynamic computations. During the preliminary stages it was discovered that for development of a liquid or solid state equation of state, accurate predictive models for a number of saturation properties, such as, liquid and solid vapor pressures, saturated liquid and solid volumes, heat capacities of liquids and solids at saturation, etc. Most the remaining time on this task was spent in developing predictive correlations for vapor pressures and saturated liquid volumes of organic liquids in general and coal model liquids in particular. All these developments are discussed in this report. Some recommendations for future direction of research in this area are also listed.

  7. Sequential solvent extraction for the modes of occurrence of selenium in coals of different ranks from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, L.; Kang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Forms of selenium in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite (natural coke) from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, have been determined by sequential solvent extraction. The selenium content in bulk samples is 4.0, 2.4, and 2.0 ??g/g in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite, respectively. The six forms of selenium determined by six-step solvent extraction are water-leachable, ion-exchangeable, organic matter-associated, carbonate-associated, silicate-associated, and sulfide-associated. The predominant forms of selenium in bituminous coal are organic matter-associated (39.0%), sulfide-associated (21.1%), and silicate bound (31.8%); these three forms account for 92% of the total. The organic matter bound-selenium decrease dramatically from bituminous coal (39.0%) to anthracite (11.6%) and to cokeite (0%), indicating that organic matter bound selenium is converted to other forms during metamorphism of the coal, most likely sulfide-form. The sulfide-associated form increased remarkably from bituminous coal (21.1%) to anthracite (50.4%) and cokeite (54.5%), indicating the formation of selenium sulfide, possibly in pyrite during the transformation of bituminous coal to anthracite and cokeite. The silicate-associated selenium in bituminous coal (31.8%) is much higher than that in anthracite (16.4%) and cokeite (15.8%), indicating that silicate-associated selenium is partly converted to sulfide during metamorphism. ?? 2007 Zhang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  8. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Company's Merriam Laboratory for the period April 1, 1979 through June 30, 1979. Experimental work included a number of short residence time runs, but discussion of that work has been delayed until a later report. Experimental work reported focuses on an investigation of the decline in solvent quality experienced by the Wilsonville Pilot Plant during runs in support of the SRC I Demonstration Plant. A four run series was initiated with Wilsonville solvent; both the coal used at Wilsonville (Kentucky 6/11 - Pyro Mine) and Kentucky 9/14 coal from the Colonial Mine were used. The effect of pyrite addition to the Pyro Mine coal was investigated. No solvent quality or coking problems were experienced in the Merriam runs. Significant changes in solvent composition were apparent and equilibrated solvent samples were returned to Wilsonville for solvent quality testing.

  9. Advanced development of fine coal desulfurization and recovery technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1976--December 31, 1976. [53 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.W.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1977-02-01

    The improvement and technical development of promising methods for desulfurizing and recovering fine coal underway includes froth flotation, selective oil agglomeration, pelletization, and a chemical desulfurization process which involves leaching fine coal with a hot dilute solution of sodium carbonate containing dissolved oxygen under pressure. A preliminary assessment of the state of the art and review of the technical literature has been made. Equipment and apparatus have been assembled for small-scale laboratory experiments in froth flotation, oil agglomeration and chemical desulfurization. Preliminary froth flotation tests have been carried out on an Iowa coal to establish baseline data. Quite unexpectedly these tests indicated that aluminum nitrate may be an activator for coal because it served to increase the recovery of coal. Several potential flotation depressants for pyrite have been screened by measurement at the zeta potential and floatability of pyrite or coal in aqueous suspensions containing the potential depressants. The following reagents show some promise as pyrite depressants: ferric chloride, sodium cyanide, ammonium thiocyanate, and the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Preliminary plans have been prepared for a continuous flow bench-scale system to demonstrate the process. This system will include equipment for grinding and pretreating the coal as well as equipment for demonstrating froth flotation, selective oil agglomeration and pelletization. An investigation of coal microstructure as it relates to coal beneficiation methods has also been initiated. The distribution of various forms of pyrite by size and crystal structure has been determined for two cannel samples of coal through application of scanning electron microscope techniques.

  10. 7th clean coal technology conference. Proceedings, volume II, technical papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The theme of the conference was '21st century coal utilization: prospects for economic viability, global prosperity and a cleaner environment'. The papers discussed, combustion systems - how CCTs can meet the needs; gasification systems - how CCTs can meet the needs; and beyond 2010 - technology opportunities and R & D needs. They include: Wabash River, Polk Power Station IGCC project, Pinon Pine project, LPMEOH process, Healy clean coal project, Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 circulating fluidized bed combustion cycle demonstration project, and JEA large-scale CFB combustion demonstration project.

  11. Comprehensive Technical Support for High-Quality Anthracite Production: A Case Study in the Xinqiao Coal Mine, Yongxia Mining Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective production of high-quality anthracite has attracted increasing global attention. Based on the coal occurrence in Yongxia Mining Area and mining conditions of a coalface in Xinqiao Coal Mine, we proposed a systematic study on the technical support for the production of high-quality anthracite. Six key steps were explored, including coal falling at the coalface, transport, underground bunker storage, main shaft hoisting, coal preparation on the ground, and railway wagon loading. The study resulted in optimized running parameters for the shearers, and the rotating patterns of the shearer drums was altered (one-way cutting was employed. Mining height and roof supporting intensity were reduced. Besides, loose presplitting millisecond blasting and mechanized mining were applied to upgrade the coal quantity and the lump coal production rate. Additionally, the coalface end transloading, coalface crush, transport systems, underground storage, and main shaft skip unloading processes were improved, and fragmentation-prevention techniques were used in the washing and railway wagon loading processes. As a result, the lump coal production rate was maintained at a high level and fragmentation was significantly reduced. Because of using the parameters and techniques determined in this research, high-quality coal production and increased profits were achieved. The research results could provide theoretical guidance and methodology for other anthracite production bases.

  12. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules. Final technical report, September 15, 1986--September 14, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.; Kim, S.; Hwang, D.; Chen, C.C.; Chiou, Z.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of our research was to obtain fundamental information regarding the functional dependence of the diffusion coefficient of coal molecules on the ratio of molecule to pore diameter. That is, the objective of our study was to examine the effect of molecule size and configuration on hindered diffusion of coal macromolecules through as porous medium. To best accomplish this task, we circumvented the complexities of an actual porous catalyst by using a well defined porous matrix with uniform capillaric pores, i.e., a track-etched membrane. In this way, useful information was obtained regarding the relationship of molecular size and configuration on the diffusion rate of coal derived macromolecules through a pore structure with known geometry. Similar studies were performed using a pellet formed of porous alumina, to provide a link between the idealized membranes and the actual complex pore structure of real catalyst extrudates. The fundamental information from our study will be useful toward the tailoring of catalysts to minimize diffusional influences and thereby increase coal conversion and selectivity for desirable products. (VC)

  13. Area 3, SRC-II coal slurry preheater studies report for the technical data analysis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    This report reviews the raw data gathered from the Preheater B test runs at Ft. Lewis, and also the Preheater B results presented in the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Final Report, Volumes 1 and 2 of Slurry Preheater Design, SRC-II Process and the Ft. Lewis Slurry Preheater Data Analysis, 1 1/2 Inch Coil by Gulf Science and Technology Corporation of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. attempts were made to correlate several variables not previously considered with slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity. Only partial success was realized. However, in the process of attempting to correlate these variables an understanding of why some variables could not be correlated was achieved. An attempt was also made, using multiple linear regression, to correlate coal slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity with several independent variables among which were temperature, coal concentration, total solids, coal type, slurry residence time, shear rate, and unit size. The final correlations included some, but not all, of these independent variables. This report is not a stand alone document and should be considered a supplement to work already done. It should be read in conjunction with the reports referenced above.

  14. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite. Final technical report, September 1990--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, D.

    1996-01-01

    This project is concerned with the physiochemical processes occuring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. The use of synthetic particles of pyrite as model electrodes to investigate the semiconductor electrochemistry of pyrite is employed.

  15. Effect of Colombian coal rank and its feeding technology on substitute natural gas production by entrained gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Pérez-Bayer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coal rank (from sub-bituminous to semi-anthracite and type of fuel feeding technology (slurry and dry on the production of substitute natural gas (SNG in entrained flow gasifiers is studied. Ten coals from important Colombian mines were selected. The process is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium using Aspen Plus, and its performance is evaluated in function of output parameters that include SNG heating value, Wobbe index, coal conversion efficiency, cold gas efficiency, process efficiency, global efficiency, and SNG production rate, among others. In descending order, the coal-to-SNG process improves energetically with the use of coals with: higher volatile-matter to fixed-carbon ratio, lower ash content, higher C+H/O ratio, and higher coal heating value. The overall energy efficiency of the slurry-feed technology (S-FT to produce SNG by gasification is 17% higher than the dry-feed technology (D-FT, possibly as a consequence of the higher CH4 concentration in the syngas (around 7 vol. % when the coal is fed as aqueous slurry. As the simulated SNG meets the natural gas (NG quality standards in Colombia, the substitute gaseous fuel could be directly transported through pipelines. Therefore, the coal-to-SNG process is a technically feasible and unconventional alternative for NG production.

  16. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1980-March 1980. [In process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Wahsington, and the Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania. After the remaining runs of the slurry preheater survey test program were completed January 14, the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down to inspect Slurry Preheater B and to insulate the coil for future testing at higher rates of heat flux. Radiographic inspection of the coil showed that the welds at the pressure taps and the immersion thermowells did not meet design specifications. Slurry Preheater A was used during the first 12 days of February while weld repairs and modifications to Slurry Preheater B were completed. Two attempts to complete a material balance run on Powhatan No. 6 Mine coal were attempted but neither was successful. Slurry Preheater B was in service the remainder of the quarter. The start of a series of runs at higher heat flux was delayed because of plugging in both the slurry and the hydrogen flow metering systems. Three baseline runs and three slurry runs of the high heat flux program were completed before the plant was shut down March 12 for repair of the Inert Gas Unit. Attempts to complete a fourth slurry run at high heat flux were unsuccessful because of problems with the coal feed handling and the vortex mix systems. Process Development Unit (P-99) completed three of the four runs designed to study the effect of dissolver L/D ratio. The fourth was under way at the end of the period. SRC yield correlations have been developed that include coal properties as independent variables. A preliminary ranking of coals according to their reactivity in PDU P-99 has been made. Techniques for studying coking phenomenona are now in place.

  17. Development of non-standard equipment of bituminization line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description is presented of some components of the bituminization line developed at the Research Institute of Chemical Installations in Brno. The film rotor evaporator has an evaporation area of 2 m2. The mixing tank is the main technological assembly for processing loose materials, i.e., sorbents and fly ash which it mixes with melted bitumen. The screw conveyor with a three-way valve is designed for batching the dried radioactive sorbent and fly ash into mixing tanks. Attention is also devoted to certain systems of measurement and control of the bituminization line, namely to measurement of the level of the bituminization product, the flow rate of bituminization emulsion and the water-sorbent mixture and to the diagnostics of failure and accident conditions of the film rotor evaporator. (Z.M.)

  18. Bituminous and asphaltic membranes for radioactive waste repositories on land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study has been to identify, within generic designs for waste facilities, areas where bituminous materials might be incorporated as a barrier. The report is presented in three sections: Part I - The properties of bitumen are described, with particular reference to the long-term behaviour of the material. The durability of bitumen is discussed, including aspects such as ageing, microbial degradation, chemical resistance and radiation resistance. Part II -The use of bituminous materials in hydraulic engineering is outlined. Much of this section of the report concentrates on the use of bituminous materials in embankment dams and reservoir construction. A review of material technology and construction techniques is presented and a detailed assessment made of the performance of the materials in service. Part III - Generic trench type radioactive waste repository designs incorporating bituminous materials are presented. Material and construction specifications for the designs are detailed, and a performance assessment presented. (author)

  19. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are ralated to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product. (author)

  20. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for the long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

  1. Effects of bituminous layer as backfill material on mechanical behavior in tunnel model

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyoshi, Akihiro; Takano, Shin-ei; Urata, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Takaki

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of bituminous material as a backfill material on mechanical behavior in model tunnel in laboratory. It is known that load spreading and relaxation of bituminous material are good properties. Then if we use bituminous material as a backfill material of tunnel, the tunnel will have waterproof, good load spreading property. We used new bituminous material (Aquaphalt) which can solidify in water. We conducted relaxation test in tension for new bituminous mat...

  2. Fire and explosion incident at bituminization demonstration facility of PNC Tokai works, on march 11, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 11, a fire and explosion incident occurred at the Bituminization Demonstration Facility (BDF) of Tokai Reprocessing Plant in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Soon after the incident, PNC (now reorganized to JNC) started to investigate the facility damage, operational records around the incident, technical notes including facility design and reviews of R and D results, operators witness and to perform several analysis, tests and calculations. This paper describes outline and cause of the incident which were concluded based on the results of continuous serious investigation, analysis and calculation. (author)

  3. The bituminous sands : a Canadian mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, D.R. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Nasr, G.J. [Lebanese Univ., Roumieh (Lebanon). Faculty of Engineering; Turcotte, S.F. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Etudes Internationales et Mondialisation; Salah, N.B. [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques De Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia). LMMP

    2009-07-01

    This paper examined the controversy about the potential role of a significant increase in Canadian oil sands production in order to bridge the upcoming gap between the world's increasing energy demand and the total recoverable oil supply. The paper presented the actual potential of different scenarios and considered the prediction cost forecasts. A brief overview of environmental impacts and the real return on investments were also provided. Environmental impacts that were considered included land degradation; water contamination; ecosystem damage; and air pollution. Nuclear energy was also presented as a possible solution. The paper demonstrated that even in a very optimistic scenario, Canada's oil sands accelerated production has a negligible effect on the aforementioned gap, has a considerable impact on environment that has yet to be accounted for. Energy ratios that were presented included energy return on energy investment; energy available on energy used; and energy payback. It was concluded that enhanced recovery techniques are clearly needed for future sustainable exploitation of these bituminous sands. 32 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Technical and Economic Aspects of Biomass Co-Firing in Coal-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikuć, M.; Łasiński, K.

    2014-11-01

    The article presents the analysis of the potential of using biomass and coal co-firing in the Polish electro energetic system and shows the benefits resulting from an increase of biomass amount in electricity production in one of the largest Polish power stations. The paper discusses the most often used technologies for biomass co-firing and the potential of using biomass in electricity production in Poland. It also emphasises the fact that biomass co-firing allows a reduction of greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere and helps decrease consumption of energy resources. The article also emphasises the economic meaning of increasing the share of renewable energy resources in energy balance, including biomass, due to costs related to greenhouse gases emissions charges. Finally, conclusions from using biomass and coal co-firing in electricity production are presented

  5. Technical and Economic Aspects of Biomass Co-Firing in Coal-Fired Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzikuć M.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the potential of using biomass and coal co-firing in the Polish electro energetic system and shows the benefits resulting from an increase of biomass amount in electricity production in one of the largest Polish power stations. The paper discusses the most often used technologies for biomass co-firing and the potential of using biomass in electricity production in Poland. It also emphasises the fact that biomass co-firing allows a reduction of greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere and helps decrease consumption of energy resources. The article also emphasises the economic meaning of increasing the share of renewable energy resources in energy balance, including biomass, due to costs related to greenhouse gases emissions charges. Finally, conclusions from using biomass and coal co-firing in electricity production are presented

  6. Microgas dispersion for fine-coal cleaning. Technical progress report, March 1, 1981-August 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Halsey, G.S.; Sebba, F.

    1981-01-01

    The results of the flotation tests conducted demonstrate that the use of fine colloidal gas aphrons (CGA) bubbles is beneficial for fine coal flotation. As demonstrated with the ultrafine coal sample, the froth products of CGA flotation are almost twice as clean as those of the conventional flotation tests at 70% yield. The kerosene consumption was considerably higher, however, both in conventional and in CGA flotation. Attempts were made to coat the CGA bubbles with a film of kerosene and use them for flotation, hoping that this would reduce the oil consumption. However, no positive results have yet been obtained with this process. Another problem associated with CGA flotation is that the ash content of the froth products is relatively high when using a stable CGA, such as that prepared with Dowfroth M150. On the other hand, when using an unstable CGA, as is the case with MIBC, low ash clean coal products can be obtained, but at the expense of the yield. Two approaches are being investigated to correct this problem. A considerable amount of effort has been made to determine the surface charge of the CGA.

  7. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    A set of statistically designed experiments was used to study the effects of several important operating variables on coal liquefaction product yield structures. These studies used a Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor to provide a hydrodynamically well-defined system from which kinetic data could be extracted. An analysis of the data shows that product yield structures can be adequately represented by a correlative model. It was shown that second-order effects (interaction and squared terms) are necessary to provide a good model fit of the data throughout the range studied. Three reports were issued covering the SRC-II database and yields as functions of operating variables. The results agree well with the generally-held concepts of the SRC reaction process, i.e., liquid phase hydrogenolysis of liquid coal which is time-dependent, thermally activated, catalyzed by recycle ash, and reaction rate-controlled. Four reports were issued summarizing the comprehensive SRC reactor thermal response models and reporting the results of several studies made with the models. Analytical equipment for measuring SRC off-gas composition and simulated distillation of coal liquids and appropriate procedures have been established.

  8. Fluorine in Asturian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Suarez-Fernandez, G.P.; Cardin, J.M. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain))

    1994-07-01

    Concentrations of fluorine in Asturian bituminous coals and anthracites have been determined. Fluorine analysis has been carried out by comparing oxygen bomb combustion and pyrohydrolysis methods. Pyrohydrolysis revealed higher values in samples whose ash contents were greater than 25 wt%, which in turn was related to fluorine contents higher than 100 ppm. Good correlation between fluorine and ash content suggests that fluorine is present in these coals in mineral species, and is not probably associated with organic matter. The association of fluorine with phosphorus is also discussed. An excess of fluorine concentration versus phosphorus, corresponding to fluorapatite, has been found. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of the Impact of Chlorine on Mercury Oxidation in a Pilot-Scale Coal Combustor--The Effect of Coal Blending

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study has been undertaken to investigate the effect of blending PRB coal with an Eastern bituminous coal on the speciation of Hg across an SCR catalyst. In this project, a pilot-scale (1.2 MWt) coal combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for NOx control was used for evaluating ...

  10. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  11. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  12. Nuclear power aspects in an oil and coal producing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the near future the Government of Indonesia will face a crucial problem, when it has to decide which kinds of energy resources would be reasonably feasible to replace the oil which is currently being used in the country as the main source of energy supply. A description is given of the presently known energy reserves and its potential in the Indonesian Archipelago and specifically on the island of Java. These resources comprise, next to oil, a significant amount of bituminous coal, natural gas, and some hydro and geothermal power. Previous indications of the existence of radioactive minerals have been confirmed lately. The possible use of solar and wind energy on the eastern Indonesian islands is being discussed. A number of studies and opinions expressed at national scientific meetings on the topic of energy have suggested the use of coal and nuclear power as the most economical resources to replace oil as of the beginning of the eighties. A number of constraints, for both coal and nuclear power, are being discussed. They mostly touch the technical, economical, financial and political aspects. A comparison study is made of coal versus nuclear power under the present local conditions. The prospects of nuclear power are reviewed, including the initial steps leading thereto, which have already been taken. In this connection the role of a domestic nuclear industry is being discussed, and also the accelerating effect it may have in the distant future on the growth of electricity from nuclear energy

  13. Technical parameters of drawing and coal-gangue field movements of a fully mechanized large mining height top coal caving working face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang-you Liu; Bing-xiang Huang; Feng-feng Wu [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Mines

    2009-09-15

    Under fully mechanized, large mining height top coal caving conditions, the shield beam slope angle of the support increases due to the enlargement of the top coal breaking and caving space. This results in a change of the caving window location and dimensions and, therefore, the granular coal-gangue movement and flows provide new characteristics during top coal caving. The main inferences we draw are as follows. Firstly, after shifting the supports, the caved top coal layer line and the coal gangue boundary line become steeper and are clearly larger than those under common mining heights. Secondly, during the top coal caving procedure, the speed of the coal-gangue flow increases and at the same drawing interval, the distance between the coal-gangue boundary line and the top beam end is reduced. Thirdly, affected by the drawing ratio, the slope angle of the shield beam and the dimensions of the caving window, it is easy to mix the gangue. A rational drawing interval will cause the coal-gangue boundary line to be slightly behind the down tail boom lower boundary. This rational drawing interval under conditions of large mining heights has been analyzed and determined. 5 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. THE HISTORY OF EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION OF BITUMINOUS AND KEROGENOUS DEPOSITS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed thal the first known sedimens of natural bitumen or asphalt in coastal Croatia were exploited as the early moddle ages. Yet authenticated written documents about Vinišće near Trogir derive from no earlier than 1628, about Vrgorac/Paklina from only 1753. By the end of the 18th century, many deposits were discovered in Dalmatia, but it was Škrip on the Island of Brač and Suhi Dolac that were important. The earliest known deposits and occurrences of kerogenous rocks, or bituminous or oil shales, are mentioned as stone or fossil coal in Sovinjak, in the upper course of the River Mirna, and in Rebići in Istria; near Sinj, Slivno not far from the River Neretva, Mirta and near Nerežišće on the Island uf Brač. All if these were well known and described in 1804, while Sovinjak was mentioned in the 16th century. In the article, some of new information derived from mining and geological research into bituminous and kerogenous sediments and deposits are provided (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. Performance prediction in advanced coal fired boilers - fluctuations in combustion systems - Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmgren, Alf; Nilsson, Torbjoern; Tao Lixin [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    Turbulence, unstable flow conditions or resonance phenomena can all cause fluctuations in combustion systems. The molecules of gas and fuel particles travel trough a combustion system along a large number of trajectories causing a residence time distribution characteristic for each configuration. The result of the fluctuations and residence time distribution is that the temperature, chemical composition of the gas, etc. in one point varies with time and can also be described by a distribution curve. Computer codes for the calculation of the residence time distribution curves, the dampening of fluctuations in combustion systems and the combustion of coal particles in a combustion chamber has been developed. The codes can be used to calculate the distribution curves for residence time, temperature and gas composition in different positions. The calculations are verified against measurements of residence time distributions and fluctuations of gas temperature in a coal flame in the IFRF furnace no 1. Measurements and calculations show good agreement. The frequency where the amplitude of fluctuations is halved during the passage of the investigated flame is calculated to 0.047 Hz (a period of 21 seconds) which agree with observations. The rapid dampening of fluctuations in this type of systems will not allow them to survive long enough to travel through the flame.

  16. Technical note: Vetiver can grow on coal fly ash without DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2011-02-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to open lands or ash ponds located near power plants and this has lain to waste thousands of hectares all over the world. Wind and leaching are often the causes of off-site contamination from fly ash dumpsites. Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) grown on fly ash for three months showed massive, mesh-like growth of roots which could have a phytostabilizing effect. The plant achieved this without any damage to its nuclear DNA as shown by comet assay done on the root nuclei, which implies the long-term survival of the plant on the remediation site. Also, when Vetiver is used for phytoremediation of coal fly ash, its shoots can be safely grazed by animals as very little of heavy metals in fly ash were found to be translocated to the shoots. These features make planting of Vetiver a practical and environmentally compatible method for restoration of fly ash dumpsites. Lack of DNA damage in Vetiver has been compared to that in a sensitive plant i.e. Allium cepa. Our results suggested that apart from traditional end-points viz. growth parameters like root length, shoot length and dry weight, comet assay could also be included in a battery of tests for initial, rapid and effective selection of plants for restoration and phytoremediation of polluted sites. PMID:21598787

  17. Novel technique for coal pyrolysis and hydrogenation product analysis. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, L.D.; Boyle, J.

    1993-03-15

    A microjet reactor coupled to a VUV photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been used to obtain species measurements during high temperature pyrolysis and oxidation of a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds ranging from allene and acetylene to cyclohexane, benzene and toluene. Initial work focused on calibration of the technique, optimization of ion collection and detection and characterization of limitations. Using the optimized technique with 118 nm photoionization, intermediate species profiles were obtained for analysis of the hydrocarbon pyrolysis and oxidation mechanisms. The ``soft`` ionization, yielding predominantly molecular ions, allowed the study of reaction pathways in these high temperature systems where both sampling and detection challenges are severe. Work has focused on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures representative of coal pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis products. The detailed mass spectra obtained during pyrolysis and oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures is especially important because of the complex nature of the product mixture even at short residence times and low primary reactant conversions. The combustion community has advanced detailed modeling of pyrolysis and oxidation to the C4 hydrocarbon level but in general above that size uncertainties in rate constant and thermodynamic data do not allow us to a priori predict products from mixed hydrocarbon pyrolyses using a detailed chemistry model. For pyrolysis of mixtures of coal-derived liquid fractions with a large range of compound structures and molecular weights in the hundreds of amu the modeling challenge is severe. Lumped models are possible from stable product data.

  18. DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility: fossil fuel processing technical/professional services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hefferan, J.K.; Lee, G.Y.; Boesch, L.P.; James, R.B.; Rode, R.R.; Walters, A.B.

    1979-07-13

    A conceptual design, including process descriptions, heat and material balances, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, schedule, capital and operating cost estimate, and alternative design considerations, is presented for the DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility (GMTF). The GMTF, an engineering scale facility, is to provide a complete plant into which different types of gasifiers and conversion/synthesis equipment can be readily integrated for testing in an operational environment at relatively low cost. The design allows for operation of several gasifiers simultaneously at a total coal throughput of 2500 tons/day; individual gasifiers operate at up to 1200 tons/day and 600 psig using air or oxygen. Ten different test gasifiers can be in place at the facility, but only three can be operated at one time. The GMTF can produce a spectrum of saleable products, including low Btu, synthesis and pipeline gases, hydrogen (for fuel cells or hydrogasification), methanol, gasoline, diesel and fuel oils, organic chemicals, and electrical power (potentially). In 1979 dollars, the base facility requires a $288 million capital investment for common-use units, $193 million for four gasification units and four synthesis units, and $305 million for six years of operation. Critical reviews of detailed vendor designs are appended for a methanol synthesis unit, three entrained flow gasifiers, a fluidized bed gasifier, and a hydrogasifier/slag-bath gasifier.

  19. Correlation of coal liquefaction reactivity with coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Durfee, S.L.; Voorhees, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A narrow suite of bituminous coals chosen from the DOE/Penn State sample bank has been hydrogenated in a batch stirred autoclave. Rates of conversion to THF-solubles have been measured, and the data modeled using a pseudo-second order rate expression. Extent of conversion and rate of conversion of the coals in the suite have been correlated to coal compositional parameters and structural features. Recent data on reactivity correlations with information from pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and C-NMR are presented. (2 tables, 5 figs., 17 refs.)

  20. Correlation of coal liquefaction reactivity with coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Durfee, S.L.; Voorhees, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A narrow suite of bituminous coals chosen from the DOE/Penn State sample bank has been hydrogenated in a batch stirred autoclave. Rates of conversion to THF solubles have been measured, and the data modeled using a pseudo-second order rate expression. Extent of conversion and rate of conversion of the coals in the suite have been correlated to coal compositional parameters and structural features. Recent data on reactivity correlations with information from pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and C-NMR are presented.

  1. Bituminization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results and experiences are summed up from the research and development of the technology of bituminization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive concentrates generated in the operation of nuclear power plants with WWER-440 reactors. The experiments took place on a pilot plant bituminization line with various model solutions at an evaporator capacity of 70, 100 and 140 litres per hour. The composition of the solutions changed in dependence on the knowledge of the composition of actual concentrates in the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The following factors were studied in the concentrate: the effect of its pH, its borate content and content of metal carbonates, the content of organic acid salts, the content of detergents, etc., on the process of bituminization. Physico-chemical conditions are described under which the operation of the evaporator was fail-safe and filling of the bituminization product with salts homogeneous. A low water content of up to 1% was achieved. The properties of the bituminization product were negatively affected by a high level of heavy metal oxides, surfactants, oxalates and citrates. In order to improve the properties of the product it will be necessary to replace bitumen emulsion Silembit-60 used as reinforcement matrix, by a different type of bitumen. (Z.M.)

  2. Operation experience of Suralaya coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saragi, M. [PT Indonesia Power (Indonesia). Suralaya Generation Business Unit

    2004-07-01

    Coal utilization for generating electricity at Suralaya coal-fired power plant has been increased from time to time. It has been driven by the growth of electricity demand from industry as well as consumption from the household sector. Generally, boilers for power plant were designed to burn the locally available coals with a limited specification range. Suralaya coal-fired power plant was built based on coal specifications from Bukit Asam (Sumatera Island), which categorized as sub-bituminous coal rank. Nowadays, supply of coal for Suralaya coal-fired power plant not only comes from Bukit Asam coal mine but also from Kalimantan coal mines. The utilization of coal from the other mines has brought other consequences on operating and equipment of the plant. It needs some effort to deal with the effect from different specifications of coal from the originated design of coal. 4 tabs.

  3. Production and screening of carbon products precursors from coal. Quarterly technical progress report and key personnel staffing report No. 6, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The main goal of this program is to demonstrate the utility of coal extracts from the West Virginia University (WVU) extraction process as suitable base raw materials for the carbon products encompassed by the Carbon Products Consortium (CPC) team. This quarterly report covers activities during the period from April 1, 1996 through June 30, 1996. The first year of the project ended in February, 1996; however, the WVU research effort has continued on a no-cost extension of the original contract. Samples have been supplied to CPC participants so they could conduct their portions of the project as contracted through ORNL. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: project planning and administration; consortium administration and reporting; coal extraction; technical/economic evaluation of WVU extraction process; and technology transfer. Previous work has shown that the WVU coal extraction process coupled with hydrotreatment, does have the potential for producing suitable base raw materials for carbon products. Current effort, therefore, involved the screening and evaluation of extracts produced by the WVU Group and recommending appropriate materials for scaleup for subsequent evaluation by Consortium Team members. As part of this program, the activation of the coal extraction residues was investigated for the purpose of producing a useful active carbon. A further task, which was started towards the end of the program, was to fabricate a small graphite artifact using Coke derived from coal extract as the filler and the coal extract itself as a binder. The results of these studies are summarized in this report.

  4. Exxon catalytic coal gasification process development program. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1-March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    This report covers the activites for the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification Development Program during the quarter January 1-March 31, 1979. Construction of a bench apparatus to study reactions of product and recycle gas in furnace and heat exchanger tubes was completed and checkout of the apparatus was begun. A Startup and Initial Operation Schedule, a Checkout Test Plan, and an Initial Startup Plan were developed for the Process Develoment Unit (PDU). The PDU will be started up in a sequential manner, with the gasification system being started up on a once-through basis first. The gas separation system will be started up next, followed by the catalyst recovery system. The programmable controller, which handles valve sequencing, alarming, and other miscellaneous functions on the PDU, was programmed and checkout was completed on the coal feed, gas feed, and filter systems. Work continued on defining the cause of the breakdown of char and lime during digestion in the prototype catalyst recovery unit. It was concluded that both the lime and char particles are fragile and will break down to fines if handled roughly. Removal of the potassium from the char by water washing does not cause the char particles to disintegrate. The perferred processing sequence for catalyst recovery in the PDU has been identified. Bench scale tests confirmed that the change in catalyst from K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to KOH was not responsible for the differences in fluidized bed densities between the present and the predevelopment operations of the FBG. Work was completed on a revised offsites facilities definition and cost estimate to update the CCG Commercial Plant Study Design prepared during the predevelopment program.

  5. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite. Final technical report, September 1990--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, Dawei

    1996-01-01

    This project seeks to advance the fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical processes occurring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, coal desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. Central to this research is the use of synthetic microsize particles of pyrite as model microelectrodes to investigate the semiconductor electrochemistry of pyrite. The research focuses on: (a) the synthesis of microsize particles of pyrite in aqueous solution at room temperature, (b) the formation of iron sulfide complex, the precursor of FeS or FeS{sub 2}, and (c) the relationship between the semiconductor properties of pyrite and its interfacial electrochemical behavior in the dissolution process. In Chapter 2, 3 and 4, a suitable protocol for preparing microsize particles of pyrite in aqueous solution is given, and the essential roles of the precursors elemental sulfur and ``FeS`` in pyrite formation are investigated. In Chapter 5, the formation of iron sulfide complex prior to the precipitation of FeS or FeS{sub 2} is investigated using a fast kinetics technique based on a stopped-flow spectrophotometer. The stoichiometry of the iron sulfide complex is determined, and the rate and formation constants are also evaluated. Chapter 6 provides a summary of the semiconductor properties of pyrite relevant to the present study. In Chapters 7 and 8, the effects of the semiconductor properties on pyrite dissolution are investigated experimentally and the mechanism of pyrite dissolution in acidic aqueous solution is examined. Finally, a summary of the conclusions from this study and suggestions for future research are presented in Chapter 9.

  6. The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.

    1992-08-01

    The present research project is designed to provide initial data on one possible use of FBC waste. FBC wastes from five different locations in Illinois are mixed with coal slurry solids (CSS) from two different coal preparation plants at Illinois coal mines. In mixtures of FBC waste and coal slurry solids, the alkaline components of the FBC waste are expected to react with acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in the coal slurry solid. An objective of this research is to determine the chemical composition of aqueous leachates from mixtures of FBC wastes, generated under various operating conditions, and the coal slurry solids.

  7. Characterization of the coal of the Cauca Valley in the Swallows sector, Cali Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the geologic, physical-chemical and petrography characteristics of the coal of the Cauca valley, are indispensable for the knowledge of the Colombian coal. For technical and logistical reasons the sector Cerro Golondrinas was chosen, near to the Cali city, where were taken samplings in many mines realizing analysis and interpretation of the results. The importance of the development of the pacific region in the industrial aspect it is excellent. Therefore, the best knowledge in its energy resources is basic for an appropriate use. It was possible to determine the presence of bituminous coal high volatile A, with a heating, dry power free of ashy (slcz), around 8.000 calories for gram, also, a content average of 6% of hydrogen with a relationship H/C (slcz) near to 8 x 102, that which gives to these coal the possibility of being used in gasification processes and liquefaction. The mill index shows an average of 46 corresponding to the range of coal of the area that which means that in the mill they should be kept in mind the conditions that require fairly hard coal. Even when there was not a mathematical correlation of the mill index with the ashes, the variability and the quantity of these last it is also an important parameter to keep in mind in the preparation of the coal. The same composition of the ashes is also variable in the whole area: of 75 samples of analyzed ashes, 56% is classified as bituminous and 44%, as lignite, in most of them was a deposition factor (slagging) low and an fouling factor, also low, that which indicates that these ashes don't present problems of accumulation of deposits in the combustion processes. The temperature of initial deformation in reducing atmosphere (itr) it reveals the presence of two populations, one with the maximum between 1.100 and 1.200 Celsius Degree and another with the maximum, superior to 1.500 Celsius Degree, fact that should be kept in mind for the correct use of the coal. One can say that the coal

  8. Non-covalent associative structure of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUI Heng-fu(水恒福)

    2004-01-01

    The recent progress of non-covalent associative structure of coal, and the mechanisms of the CS2/NMP (1:1 by volume) mixed solvent and the additive addition enhancing the extraction yield of coals were reviewed, and the aggregation behavior of coal in solid and solution states were presented, and the aggregation behavior of coal in solid and solution states were introduced in this paper. Coal extraction and swelling in organic solvents at room temperature were the most useful methods to understand the associative structure of coal. CS2/NMP (1:1 by volume) is a unique solvent to give high extraction yields for some bituminous coals. Some additives can dissociate the stronger interactions among coal molecules and enhance the extraction yields of coal in the mixed solvent.

  9. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Second quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-16

    This document contains the second quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTE{trademark} Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale testing circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). The project schedule timeline by task series for the twelve month project, as it was laid out in the initial Project Work Plan. At the present time, all tasks are progressing according to schedule with the exception of the Task 800 Circuit Testing and Sample Prep and Task 1000 Circuit Decommissioning, which have slipped approximately five weeks due to delays incurred within in the project.

  10. Rapid coal analysis. Part II: Slurry atomization DCP emission analysis of NBS coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, D.L.; Wichman, M.D.; Fry, R.C.

    1985-11-01

    A McCrone Micronising Mills is used to wet grind NBS bituminous coal to a median particle diameter of 5.7 m within 10 min. The finely divided coal slurry is immediately nebulized without sieving into a three-electrode DCP for accurate trace element determinations within 15 min overall lapsed time. Three important parameters contribute to near-quantitative elemental recovery without the use of wet or dry ashing, matrix matching, standard additions, as correction factors. These parameters are: (1) extremely small coal particle size, (2) spray chamber conditions favoring unusually efficient characteristic of the hot DCP. Near-unity response factors are observed for the rapid DCP emission determination of trace metals in finely divided coal slurry. Calibration may therefore be performed simply with aqueous standards. The slurry method gives near quantitative agreement between experimental and certified values for Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, and Pb in NBS bituminous coal.

  11. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 1, Technical report. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Hatcher, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1996-10-15

    This program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium for Coal Water Mixture Technology and the U.S. Department of Energy. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. Phase I is nearly completed. During this reporting period, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, engineering designs and economics for retrofitting the Crane, Indiana boiler to fire coal-based fuels, and a 1,000-hour demonstration of dry, micronized coal were completed. In addition, a demonstration-scale micronized-coal water mixture (MCWM) preparation circuit was constructed and a 1,000-hour demonstration firing MCWM began. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations involved literature surveys of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, trace metals, volatile organic compounds, and fine particulate matter capture. In addition, vendors and engineering firms were contacted to identify the appropriate emissions technologies for the installation of commercial NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removal systems on the demonstration boiler. Information from the literature surveys and engineering firms will be used to identify, design, and install a control system(s). Work continued on the refinement and optimization of coal grinding and MCWM preparation procedures, and on the development of advanced processes for beneficiating high ash, high sulfur coals. Work also continued on determining the basic cost estimation of boiler retrofits, and evaluating environmental, regulatory, and regional economic impacts. In addition, the feasibility of technology adoption, and the public`s perception of the benefits and costs of coal usage was studied. A coal market analysis was completed. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, emissions reductions and economic analyses of coal use.

  12. Third symposium on coal preparation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The third Symposium on Coal preparation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Fourteen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five additional papers had been entered previously from other sources. Topics covered involved chemical comminution and chemical desulfurization of coal (aimed at reducing sulfur sufficiently with some coals to meet air quality standards without flue gas desulfurization), coal cleaning concepts, removing coal fines and recycling wash water, comparative evaluation of coal preparation methods, coal refuse disposal without polluting the environment, spoil bank reprocessing, noise control in coal preparation plants, etc. (LTN)

  13. Low-rank coal research under the UND/DOE cooperative agreement. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1983-June 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, Jr., G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) gasification wastewater treatment and reuse; (2) fine coal cleaning; (3) coal-water slurry preparation; (4) low-rank coal liquefaction; (5) combined flue gas cleanup/simultaneous SO/sub x/-NO/sub x/ control; (6) particulate control and hydrocarbons and trace element emissions from low-rank coals; (7) waste characterization; (8) combustion research and ash fowling; (9) fluidized-bed combustion of low-rank coals; (10) ash and slag characterization; (11) organic structure of coal; (12) distribution of inorganics in low-rank coals; (13) physical properties and moisture of low-rank coals; (14) supercritical solvent extraction; and (15) pyrolysis and devolatilization.

  14. Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M.S.; Rodgers, B.R.; Brown, C.H.; Carlson, P.K.; Gambill, W.R.; Gilliam, T.M.; Holmes, J.M.; Krishnan, R.P.; Parsly, L.F.

    1980-12-01

    A program to demonstrate Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) technology has been initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with two industrial groups. Project management responsibility has been assigned to the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) of DOE. ORO requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory assess current research and development (R and D) activities and develop recommendations for those activities that might contribute to successful completion of the SRC demonstration plant projects. The objectives of this final report are to discuss in detail the problem areas in SRC; to discuss the current and planned R and D investigations relevant to the problems identified; and to suggest appropriate R and D activities in support of designs for the SRC demonstration plants. Four types of R and D activities are suggested: continuation of present and planned activities; coordination of activities and results, present and proposed; extension/redirection of activities not involving major equipment purchase or modifications; and new activities. Important examples of the first type of activity include continuation of fired heater, slurry rheology, and slurry mixing studies at Ft. Lewis. Among the second type of activity, coordination of data acquisition and interpretation is recommended in the areas of heat transfer, vapor/liquid equilibria, and physical properties. Principal examples of recommendations for extension/redirection include screening studies at laboratory scale on the use of carbonaceous precoat (e.g., anthracite) infiltration, and 15- to 30-day continuous tests of the Texaco gasifier at the Texaco Montebello facility (using SRC residues).

  15. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  16. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  17. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning. Quarterly technical progress report no. 6, May 1--July 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1989-12-31

    The fundamental chemistry for selective adsorption of magnetizing reagent on coal-associated minerals to enhance the magnetic susceptibility of minerals have been established in Phase I study. The application of the results on coal cleaning is in progress in the Phase II study. The task in Phase II study for coal selection, preparation, and characterization is completed in this reporting period. The optimization of adsorption conditions for {minus}48 mesh ROM coals and flotation concentrates is about completed. Experiments have shown that successful coal cleaning can be obtained with this magnetizing reagent approach. The task to adapt the approach to various processing schemes is just initiated.

  18. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Technical progress report No. 17, 18 and 19, September 30, 1991--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borio, R.W.; Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E. [and others

    1996-07-29

    The objective of this project is to retrofit a burner, capable of firing microfine coal, to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the last three quarters [seventeenth (October `95 through December `95), eighteenth (January `96 through March `96), and nineteenth (April `96 through June `96)] of the program.

  19. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Technical progress report, September 1995 - March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [and others

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. During this reporting period, the Phase I final report was completed. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included completing a study to identify appropriate SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies for coal-fired industrial boilers. In addition, work continued on the design of a ceramic filtering device for installation on the demonstration boiler. The ceramic filtering device will be used to demonstrate a smaller and more efficient filtering device for retrofit applications. Work related to coal preparation and utilization, and the economic analysis was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  20. Environmental and technical aspects of the utilization of SRC, AFBC, and low-Btu coal gasification in industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauzvardis, P.A.; Brown, C.D.; Hamilton, R.W.; Habegger, L.J.

    1978-10-01

    The decreasing availability of oil and natural gas has stimulated the search for industrial coal-utilization methods that are alternatives to conventional coal combustion. Three such alternative methods discussed in this report are solvent refined coal (SRC-I), atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC), and low-Btu coal gasification. Clean low-Btu gas and SRC may have several nonboiler industrial applications. In contrast to conventional coal combustion, use of these fuels has the potential for reduced environmental impact at the industrial plant site, although the impact of coal mining and transportation will be higher. The impact of coal gasification and liquefaction on occupational health and safety will cause the greatest concern.

  1. Measurement of heat generation from simulated bituminized product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fire and explosion incident occurred at Bituminization Demonstration Facility of PNC Tokai Works on March 11, 1997. In order to ascertain the cause of incident, the investigation has been pushed forward. For the investigation, we prepared simulated bituminized product of measurement of heat generation in low temperature region less than 200degC. We used calvet Calorimeter MS80 for the heat generation measurement. Result of measurement, we were able to catch the feeble heat generation from bituminized product. The maximum calorific value that was able to detect it in isothermal measurement was approximately 1 mW/g in 160degC. It was approximately 2 mW/g in 200degC. And, as the another measurement, the measurement condition went heat rate by 0.01degC/minute, the highest temperature 190degC. As a result, the maximum generation of heat value that was able to detect it was approximately 0.5 mW/g. I changed simulated bituminized products and measured these. A difference of condition is salt particle size, salt content rate (45%, 60%), addition of the simulated precipitate. But there was not a difference in the generation of heat characteristic detected. (author)

  2. Oxy-combustion of high rank coals

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Borrego, Ángeles; Álvarez Rodríguez, Diego; Fernández Domínguez, Isabel; Ballesteros, Juan Carlos; Menéndez López, Rosa M.ª

    2007-01-01

    One of the ways to face the abatement of CO2 emissions in power plants is the combustion of coal using oxy-fuel technology. In this case coal would be burned in a O2/CO2 atmosphere and the flue gas would consist mainly of CO2 which after condensation of water could be quasy-ready for storage. Most of the work related to oxy-fuel combustion has been applied to high volatile coals. In this study run of mine and single seam coals ranging in rank from low volatile bituminous to meta-anthracite ha...

  3. Effects of long-term coal supply contracts on technology adoption and improvements in the mining of coal. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D.R.; Hawkins, S.A.; Webb, P.F.; Kauffman, P.W.

    1979-08-01

    The relationship between long-term coal supply contracts and the adoption of new technology in the coal mining industry is a complex one. From this study certain conclusions can be drawn. New technologies and improvements in the mining of coal can be logically categorized into three areas: evolutionary technology, transitional technology, or innovative technology. Evolutionary improvements in technology can be categorized as improvements, or increased production capacities, in existing equipment. Transitional technology involves the adoption of existing or proven technologies into new conditions, or, proceeding from one technology type to a newer type for the same function. Innovative technology includes equipment, concepts, and systems not readily available, or untried, in the existing mining environment (seam conditions, etc.). Technology adoption is an economic decision. This point was repeatedly emphasized by industry representatives contacted during the study. The long-term coal supply contract influences the decision to adopt new technology and mining improvements in several ways depending on the technology type (i.e., evolutionary, transitional, or innovative), and also the coal supplier type (i.e., captive or independent producer). Several examples of the adoption of new technologies in mines under long-term coal supply contracts are discussed. (LTN)

  4. Mutagenicity of eluent by hot water extraction of various coals: Effect of chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunenori Nakajima; Hiroyuki Hasegawa; Satomi Nakamata; Hirokazu Takanashi; Akira Ohki [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Department of Bioengineering

    2008-10-15

    Six kinds of powdery coals (two bituminous coals, two sub-bituminous coals, and two lignites) were extracted by hot water, and the eluents obtained were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), absorbance at 260 nm (A260), and pH. The TOC in the eluents decreased in the order, lignites > sub-bituminous coals > bituminous coals. The eluents of lignite gave high A{sub 260}/TOC values and fairly low pH compared to other coals. Chemical structure of the organic matter eluted from coals was discussed with the aid of FTIR analysis. The coal eluents were analyzed by the Ames mutagenicity assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA98 strains, and no mutagenicity was observed for all of the six coals. However, especially for the lignites, chlorination of the eluents produced an appreciable mutagenicity, and the expression of mutagenicity was dependent upon the type of coal. The mutagenicity was extinguished when metabolic activation (rat liver homogenate, +S9) was applied. 26 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The experimental study of coal swelling ratios have been determined with a wide variety of solvents. Only marginal levels of coal swelling were observed for the hydrocarbon solvents, but high levels were found with solvents having heteroatom functionality. Blends were superior to pure solvents. The activity of various catalyst precursors for pyrene hydrogenation and coal conversion was measured. Higher coal conversions were observed for the S0{sub 2}-treated coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Coal conversions were highest for Molyvan-L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively. Bottoms processing consists of a combination of the ASCOT process coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking. Initial results indicate that a blend of butane and pentane used near the critical temperature of butane is the best solvent blend for producing a yield/temperature relationship of proper sensitivity and yet retaining an asphalt phase of reasonable viscosity. The literature concerning coal swelling, both alone and in combination with coal liquefaction, and the use of dispersed or unsupported catalysts in coal liquefaction has been updated.

  6. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  7. Superacid Catalyzed Depolymerization and Conversion of Coals. Final Technical Report. [HF:BF{sub 2}/H{sub 2}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, G.

    1980-01-01

    We were interested in applying superacid catalyzed cleavage-depolymerization and ionic hydrogenation low temperature conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbon, as well as obtaining information about the reactions involved and the structure of intermediates of the coal liquefaction process. In order to show the feasibility of our proposed research we have carried out preliminary investigation in these areas. Preceding our work there was no practical application of a superacid system to coal liquefaction. We carried out an extensive study of the potential of the HF:BF{sub 3}/H{sub 2} system for coal hydroliquefaction. Under varying conditions of reactant ratio, reaction time and temperature, we were able to obtain over 95% pyridine extractible product by treating coal in HF:BF{sub 3}:H{sub 2} system at approx. 100 degrees C for 4 hours. The coal to acid ratio was 1:5 and FB{sub 3} at 900 psi and H{sub 2} at 500 psi were used. These are extremely encouraging results in that the conditions used are drastically milder than those used in any known process, such as Exxon donor solvent and related processes. The cyclohexane extractibility of the treated coal was as high as 27% and the yield of liquid distillate at 400 degrees C/5 x 10{sup -3}/sup torr/ was approx. 30%. The infrared spectrum of product coal, extracts and distillates were distinctly different from the starting coal and show a significant increase in the amount of saturates. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of cyclohexane extract of the treated coal shows essentially all aliphatic photons. The spectra of other treated coal extracts show increased amounts and types of aliphatic protons as well as significant amounts of protons bound to unsaturated sites. This again indicates that the HF-BF{sub 3} system is depolymerizing the coal to small fragments which are soluble in non-polar solvents.

  8. Biochemically enhanced methane production from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Aleksandra

    For many years, biogas was connected mostly with the organic matter decomposition in shallow sediments (e.g., wetlands, landfill gas, etc.). Recently, it has been realized that biogenic methane production is ongoing in many hydrocarbon reservoirs. This research examined microbial methane and carbon dioxide generation from coal. As original contributions methane production from various coal materials was examined in classical and electro-biochemical bench-scale reactors using unique, developed facultative microbial consortia that generate methane under anaerobic conditions. Facultative methanogenic populations are important as all known methanogens are strict anaerobes and their application outside laboratory would be problematic. Additional testing examined the influence of environmental conditions, such as pH, salinity, and nutrient amendments on methane and carbon dioxide generation. In 44-day ex-situ bench-scale batch bioreactor tests, up to 300,000 and 250,000 ppm methane was generated from bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste respectively, a significant improvement over 20-40 ppm methane generated from control samples. Chemical degradation of complex hydrocarbons using environmentally benign reagents, prior to microbial biodegradation and methanogenesis, resulted in dissolution of up to 5% bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste and up to 25% lignite in samples tested. Research results confirm that coal waste may be a significant underutilized resource that could be converted to useful fuel. Rapid acidification of lignite samples resulted in low pH (below 4.0), regardless of chemical pretreatment applied, and did not generate significant methane amounts. These results confirmed the importance of monitoring and adjusting in situ and ex situ environmental conditions during methane production. A patented Electro-Biochemical Reactor technology was used to supply electrons and electron acceptor environments, but appeared to influence methane generation in a

  9. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 December 1993--28 February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1994-06-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter a sample of the feed coal that is being used for injection into the No. 7 Blast Furnace of Inland Steel has been analyzed petrographically and compared to both the Herrin No. 6 coal and Armco feed coal. Additional characterization is underway and an advanced program of pyrolysis and reactivity testing has been initiated.

  10. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities: Phase 1 final report. Volume 1: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Pisupati, S.V. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1997-01-31

    The first phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities has been completed. The objectives of the project are to: decrease DOD`s dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase 1 activities were focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. The specific objective in Phase 1 was to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or DMC. This was achieved through a project consisting of fundamental, pilot-sale, and demonstration-scale activities investigating coal beneficiation and preparation, and MCWM and DMC combustion performance. In addition, detailed engineering designs and an economic analysis were conducted for a boiler located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, near Crane, Indiana. Results are reported on MCWM and DMC combustion performance evaluation; engineering design; and cost/economic analysis.

  11. The release of iron during coal combustion. Milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

    1995-06-01

    Iron plays an important role in the formation of both fly ash and deposits in many pulverized-coal-fired boilers. Several authors indicate that iron content is a significant indicator of the slagging propensity of a majority of US bituminous coals, in particular eastern bituminous coals. The pyritic iron content of these coals is shown to be a particularly relevant consideration. A series of investigations of iron release during combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile bituminous coal under combustion conditions ranging from oxidizing to inert. Experimental measurements are described in which, under selected conditions, major fractions of the iron in the coal are released within a 25 ms period immediately following coal devolatilization. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that the iron is released as a consequence of oxygen attack on porous pyrrhotite particles. Experimental testing of the proposed mechanism reveals that the release is dependent on the presence of both pyrite in the raw coal and oxygen in the gas phase, that slow preoxidation (weathering) of the pyrite significantly inhibits the iron release, and that iron loss increases as oxygen penetration of the particle increases. Each observation is consistent with the postulated mechanism.

  12. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  13. In situ measurements of the spectral emittance of coal ash deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectral emittance of deposits left by bituminous and sub-bituminous coals under oxidizing conditions have been measured in situ. Pulverized coal is injected into a down-fired entrained-flow reactor. Ash accumulates on a probe in the reactor effluent and radiation emitted by the ash layer is recorded using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Values for the spectral emissive power emitted by the ash and the surface temperature of the ash are extracted from these data. These results are then used to calculate the spectral emittance of the deposit. The spectral emittances of ash deposits formed by burning Illinois no. 6 (bituminous) coal and Powder River Basin (sub-bituminous) coal were measured between 3000 and 500 wavenumbers. The spectral emittance of the deposit left by the bituminous coal has a constant value of approximately 0.46 between 3000 and 2400 wavenumbers. Between 2200 and 1200 wavenumbers, the spectral emittance of the deposit increases from approximately 0.47 to approximately 0.61. Between 1200 and 500 wavenumbers, the spectral emittance is relatively constant at 0.61. The spectral emittance of the deposit left by the sub-bituminous coal is also relatively constant between 3000 and 2400 wavenumbers at a value of 0.29. Between 2200 and 500 wavenumbers, the spectral emittance of deposits from the sub-bituminous coal increases from approximately 0.29 to 0.55. Differences between these spectral emittance measurements and those measured ex situ illustrate the importance of making in situ measurements. Band emittances were calculated using the measured spectral emittances, and band emittances of the deposits are reported as functions of temperature.

  14. Trends in technical developments in the coal mining industry of foreign countries. Napravieniya tekhnicheskogo progressa v ugol'noi promyshlennosti zarubezhnykh stran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krashkin, I.S.; Shumkov, S.I.

    1985-01-01

    This report reviews 54 papers presented by the delegates taking part in the International Scientific-Technical Symposium held between 8.31.1983 and 9.9.1983 in Donetsk. The symposium, organized by Minugleprom of the USSR, was attended by over 2000 delegates from eleven major coal producing countries. The report describes general trends in the development of techniques of coal extraction and discusses new approaches adopted by various countries. Surveys complex mechanization of coal mining processes (shearer loaders and coal plows manufactured by Eickhoff, Joy and Westfalia-Luenen, powered supports manufactured by Westfalia-Luenen, Kloeckner-Becorit, Hemscheidt, Gullick Dobson, Joy and Dowty, powered supports, face conveyors, control systems for powered supports and mining machines, heading machines manufactured by DOSCO and Mannesman Demag, drilling equipment manufactured by Wirth, Thyssen Schachtbau, equipment for support installation, etc.). Discusses automation of longwall extraction with the help of microcomputers and microprocessors, and mining safety. Surface mining equipment (bucket wheel excavators of Takraf, draglines) is briefly reviewed.

  15. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E.; Song, C.; Schobert, H.H.

    1994-01-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts can be superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. The primary objective of this research is to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from heterometallic molecular precursors, that can be used in low concentrations but exhibit high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. This quarterly report describes the preparation of two precursors. The first is a heterometallic complex consisting of two transition metals, Mo and Ni, and sulfur in a single molecule synthesized. The second is a thiocubane type cluster consisting of iron and sulfur.

  16. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  17. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Some of the contract activities for this quarter are: We completed many of the analyses on the 81 samples received from HTI bench-scale run CMSL-9, in which coal, coal/mixed plastics, and coal/high density polyethylene were fed; Liquid chromatographic separations of the 15 samples in the University of Delaware sample set were completed; and WRI completed CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR analyses on the Delaware sample set.

  18. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Farthing, William [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hoekman, S. Kent [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes. The specific objectives of the project include: • Demonstration of the continuous production of a uniform densified and formed feedstock from loblolly pine (a lignocellulosic, short rotation woody crop) in a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process development unit (PDU). • Demonstration that finely divided bituminous coal and HTC loblolly pine can be blended to form 90/10 and 70/30 weight-percent mixtures of coal and HTC biomass for further processing by pelletization and briquetting equipment to form robust weather resistant pellets and/or briquettes suitable for transportation and long term storage. • Characterization of the coal-biomass pellets and briquettes to quantify their physical properties (e.g. flow properties, homogeneity, moisture content, particle size and shape), bulk physical properties (e.g. compressibility, heat transfer and friability) and assess their suitability for use as fuels for commercially-available coal gasifiers. • Perform economic analyses using Aspen-based process simulations to determine the costs for deploying and operating HTC processing facilities for the production of robust coal/biomass fuels suitable for fueling commercially-available coal-fired gasifiers. This Final Project Scientific/Technical

  19. Identification of aggregates for Tennessee bituminous surface courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Heather Jean

    Tennessee road construction is a major venue for federal and state spending. Tax dollars each year go to the maintenance and construction of roads. One aspect of highway construction that affects the public is the safety of its state roads. There are many factors that affect the safety of a given road. One factor that was focused on in this research was the polish resistance capabilities of aggregates. Several pre-evaluation methods have been used in the laboratory to predict what will happen in a field situation. A new pre-evaluation method was invented that utilized AASHTO T 304 procedure upscaled to accommodate surface bituminous aggregates. This new method, called the Tennessee Terminal Textural Condition Method (T3CM), was approved by Tennessee Department of Transportation to be used as a pre-evaluation method on bituminous surface courses. It was proven to be operator insensitive, repeatable, and an accurate indication of particle shape and texture. Further research was needed to correlate pre-evaluation methods to the current field method, ASTM E 274-85 Locked Wheel Skid Trailer. In this research, twenty-five in-place bituminous projects and eight source evaluations were investigated. The information gathered would further validate the T3CM and find the pre-evaluation method that best predicted the field method. In addition, new sources of aggregates for bituminous surface courses were revealed. The results of this research have shown T3CM to be highly repeatable with an overall coefficient of variation of 0.26% for an eight sample repeatability test. It was the best correlated pre-evaluation method with the locked wheel skid trailer method giving an R2 value of 0.3946 and a Pearson coefficient of 0.710. Being able to predict field performance of aggregates prior to construction is a powerful tool capable of saving time, money, labor, and possibly lives.

  20. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Marc A. Rosen; Shoaib Mehmood; Bale V. Reddy

    2012-01-01

    The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel) and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite) are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combina...

  1. Distribution of trace elements in selected pulverized coals as a function of particle size and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, C.L.; Zeng, T.; Che, J.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.; Finkelman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in coal have diverse modes of occurrence that will greatly influence their behavior in many coal utilization processes. Mode of occurrence is important in determining the partitioning during coal cleaning by conventional processes, the susceptibility to oxidation upon exposure to air, as well as the changes in physical properties upon heating. In this study, three complementary methods were used to determine the concentrations and chemical states of trace elements in pulverized samples of four US coals: Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, Elkhorn and Hazard, and Wyodak coals. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the absolute concentration of elements in the parent coals and in the size- and density-fractionated samples. Chemical leaching and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to provide information on the form of occurrence of an element in the parent coals. The composition differences between size-segregated coal samples of different density mainly reflect the large density difference between minerals, especially pyrite, and the organic portion of the coal. The heavy density fractions are therefore enriched in pyrite and the elements associated with pyrite, as also shown by the leaching and XAFS methods. Nearly all the As is associated with pyrite in the three bituminous coals studied. The sub-bituminous coal has a very low content of pyrite and arsenic; in this coal arsenic appears to be primarily organically associated. Selenium is mainly associated with pyrite in the bituminous coal samples. In two bituminous coal samples, zinc is mostly in the form of ZnS or associated with pyrite, whereas it appears to be associated with other minerals in the other two coals. Zinc is also the only trace element studied that is significantly more concentrated in the smaller (45 to 63 ??m) coal particles.

  2. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, through March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Accomplishments for this quarter are described.

  3. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

  4. Washability of trace elements in product coals from Illinois mines. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, I.; Ruch, R.R.; Harvey, R.D.; Steele, J.D.; Khan, S.

    1994-09-01

    Existing washability data on trace elements in Illinois coals were generated using float-sink methods, which are not applicable to modern froth flotation or column flotation processes. Particularly, there is a lack of washability data on product (as-shipped) coals from modern preparation plants. The goal of this project is to provide the needed trace element washability (release analysis) data on as-shipped Illinois coals using a froth flotation/release analysis (FF/RA) procedure. The results generated by this project will promote industrial utilization of Illinois coals and help assess the effect of new environmental requirements on the use of these coals in utility steam generation. During the third quarter, preparation and submission of all samples for chemical analysis were completed. Analyses of the samples produced by cleaning 34 as-shipped coals using FF/RA were completed for ash, moisture, S, heating value (BTU), and F, and some for Mn and oxide composition. The rest of the analytical work is in progress. The analytical data are being used to evaluate removal of ash, S, and trace elements from the as-shipped coals at the chosen flotation conditions and particles sizes. Available data on the FF/RA of five as-shipped coals at {minus}100, {minus}200, {minus}400 mesh sizes indicate that ash and F rejections increase with decreasing particle size. For the {minus}400 mesh tests, 70--90% of the ash and 35--74% of F were rejected at a BTU or combustibles recovery of 80%. One of the as-shipped coals was previously subjected to FF/RA tests at {minus}100 and {minus}400 mesh sizes to investigate mass balances achievable for the procedure. Preliminary results on ash and F contents of complete set of flotation products from the two tests indicate a mass balance of 95 to 100%.

  5. Sorption and chemical transformation of PAHs on coal fly ash. Technical progress report No. 1, [October--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamantov, G.; Wehry, E.L.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this research is to characterize the interactions of coal fly ash with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, and to understand the influence of the surface properties of coal ash (and other atmospheric particles) on the chemical transformations of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Studies to be carried out in this project include: (1) Fractionation of heterogeneous coal fly ash samples into different particle types varying in size and chemical composition (carbonaceous, mineral-magnetic, and mineral nonmagnetic); (2) Measurement of the rates of chemical transformation of PAHs and PAH derivatives (especially nitro-PAHs) and the manner in which the rates of such processes are influenced by the chemical and physical properties of coal fly ash particles; (3) Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies of the nature of the interactions of coal fly ash particles with PAHs and PAH derivatives; (4) Characterization of the fractal nature of fly ash particles (via surface area measurements) and the relationships of ``surface roughness`` of fly ash particles to the chemical behavior of PAHs sorbed on coal ash particles; (5) Identification of the major products of chemical transformation of PAHs on coal ash particles, and examination of any effects that may exist of the nature of the coal ash surface on the identities of PAH transformation products; and (6) Studies of the influence of other sorbed species on the chemical behavior of PAHs and PAH derivatives on fly ash surfaces. PAHs are deposited, under controlled laboratory conditions, onto coal ash surfaces from the vapor phase, in order to mimic the processes by which PAHs are deposited onto particulate matter in the atmosphere.

  6. Production and screening of carbon products precursors from coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, January 1,1996--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    Individual quarterly reports of four industrial participants of this project are included in this report. The technical emphasis continues to be the supply of coal-based feedstocks to the industrial participants. There have been several iterations of samples and feedback to meet feedstock characteristics for a wide variety of carbon products. Technology transfer and marketing of the Carbon Products Consortium (CPC) is a continual effort. Interest in the program and positive results from the research continue to grow. In several aspects, the program is ahead of schedule.

  7. Coal reverse flotation. Part 1. Adsorption of dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide and humic acids onto coal and silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek Pawlik; Janusz S. Laskowski [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Department of Mining Engineering

    2003-06-01

    Adsorption of dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) and humic acids (HA) on bituminous, oxidized bituminous, and subbituminous coals, as well as on silica, was studied through direct adsorption, electrokinetic, and contact angle measurements. It was concluded that the adsorption of DTAB and HA on a hydrophobic coal surface takes place through hydrophobic interactions between the hydrocarbon chains of these compounds and the hydrophobic coal surface. The adsorbed DTAB molecules cause a gradual decrease of coal hydrophobicity due to their tail-to-surface orientation. The adsorption density of DTAB on a hydrophilic/oxidized coal is much higher than on a bituminous coal. The results indicate that the adsorption mechanism involves some strong interactions between the cationic head group of the surfactant and the negatively charged oxygen groups on the coal surface. Despite the apparent head-to-surface orientation, the adsorbed DTAB molecules do not render the surfaces hydrophobic; this probably results from the fairly chaotic orientation of DTAB molecules on the surface of oxidized coal. The well-ordered conformation of the DTAB ions adsorbed onto the negatively charged silica surface, combined with significant adsorption of this surfactant at the solution/air interface makes the silica surface very hydrophobic.

  8. Analyses of coal product samples taken by the Division of Energy Technology, CSIR, during 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshoff, H.P.; Barnard, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    General chemical and physical properties of South African coal products, including the ash analysis, are reported on a series of samples taken during 1987. 370 product samples from 103 collieries were sampled and analyzed. Petrographic analyses were also carried out on a series of bituminous coal product samples from 88 collieries, and the results are given here.

  9. Co-combustion of coal and SRF in an entrained flow reactor: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sander, Bo

    2009-01-01

    Investigations on co-firing of SRF with two kinds of bituminous coal were carried out in an entrained flow reactor. The experimental results showed that co-combustion of coal and SRF increased the unburnt carbon in fly ashes. The emissions of NO and SO2 were reduced with an increasing share of SRF...

  10. Outlook for the Australian coal market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shortage of bituminous coal is now being witnessed on the world market, which stems from an increase in demand for it. The prices for bituminous coal, which have been increasing since 1988, will continue to rise in 1990. World coal production in 1989/1990 has been estimated by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources at 3,370 million tons, which is 50 million tons more than in the preceding year. Australian experts predict a doubling in world demand for coal by 2025. Many Australian coal mining companies, counting on the increased demand in the future, are taking measures to consolidate production and strengthen their financial base in order to accelerate development of new fields or expand production at existing mines. It is expected that the highest rates of growth in demand will be for power coal. Because of increased world production of steel the demand for coking coal will also rise, but the rates of growth will be much lower than for power coal

  11. Solar coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, D. W.; Aiman, W. R.; Otsuki, H. H.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of solar coal gasification has been performed. The analysis indicates that the medium-Btu product gas from a solar coal-gasification plant would not only be less expensive than that from a Lurgi coal-gasification plant but also would need considerably less coal to produce the same amount of gas. A number of possible designs for solar coal-gasification reactors are presented. These designs allow solar energy to be chemically stored while at the same time coal is converted to a clean-burning medium-Btu gas.

  12. Development of coal petrography applied in technical processes at the Bergbau-Forschung/DMT during the last 50 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steller, Monika; Arendt, Paul; Kuehl, Helmut [Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH ? Mining Service Division?Essen (Germany)

    2006-06-06

    The paper deals with the activities of the Bergbau-Forschung Coal Petrography Laboratory in Essen (Germany), which, under the influence of Marie-Therese Mackowsky, developed into a stronghold of the industrial application of coal petrology. In 1979, the formerly independent Section for Mineralogy and Petrology was merged with the Chemistry Section. This synergy has widened the research limits and resulted in higher efficiency of projects being carried out within both units. Since 1990, after transforming Bergbau-Forschung into DMT GmbH, a worldwide competition within hard coal and hard coal-based coke markets, together with the switch of the industry towards alternative energy sources, have significantly lowered the importance of the domestic coal mining industry. This in turn resulted in reduction of coal research programs. However, it is stressed that, in spite of transformations of the applied coal petrology experienced during the past 50 years, some achievements are still as applicable as ever. Among them, the method of predicting coke strength using maceral analysis and coal types, published by Mackowsky and Simonis [Mackowsky, M.-Th., Simonis, W., 1969. Die Kennzeichnung von Kokskohlen fur die mathematische Beschreibung der Hochtemperaturverkokung im Horizontalkammerofen bei Schuttbetrieb durch Ergebnisse mikroskopischer Analysen. Gluckauf-Forschungshefte 30, 25-27], is still in use today. The second part of this paper presents some examples of coal petrography applications, which are still important in carbonization processes. Mackowsky discovered that the pyrolytic components were influencing the coke homogeneity in coke ovens and affected coke quality parameters such as CRI and CSR. These highly graphitic layers and lenses prevent gasification of the inner zones of coke lumps, thus lowering the reactivity of metallurgical coke. Moreover, it also seems possible to predict wall load and maximum internal gas pressure as to prevent coke ovens from damage

  13. Development of coal petrography applied in technical processes at the Bergbau-Forschung/DMT during the last 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the activities of the Bergbau-Forschung Coal Petrography Laboratory in Essen (Germany), which, under the influence of Marie-Therese Mackowsky, developed into a stronghold of the industrial application of coal petrology. In 1979, the formerly independent Section for Mineralogy and Petrology was merged with the Chemistry Section. This synergy has widened the research limits and resulted in higher efficiency of projects being carried out within both units. Since 1990, after transforming Bergbau-Forschung into DMT GmbH, a worldwide competition within hard coal and hard coal-based coke markets, together with the switch of the industry towards alternative energy sources, have significantly lowered the importance of the domestic coal mining industry. This in turn resulted in reduction of coal research programs. However, it is stressed that, in spite of transformations of the applied coal petrology experienced during the past 50 years, some achievements are still as applicable as ever. Among them, the method of predicting coke strength using maceral analysis and coal types, published by Mackowsky and Simonis [Mackowsky, M.-Th., Simonis, W., 1969. Die Kennzeichnung von Kokskohlen fur die mathematische Beschreibung der Hochtemperaturverkokung im Horizontalkammerofen bei Schuttbetrieb durch Ergebnisse mikroskopischer Analysen. Gluckauf-Forschungshefte 30, 25-27], is still in use today. The second part of this paper presents some examples of coal petrography applications, which are still important in carbonization processes. Mackowsky discovered that the pyrolytic components were influencing the coke homogeneity in coke ovens and affected coke quality parameters such as CRI and CSR. These highly graphitic layers and lenses prevent gasification of the inner zones of coke lumps, thus lowering the reactivity of metallurgical coke. Moreover, it also seems possible to predict wall load and maximum internal gas pressure as to prevent coke ovens from damage

  14. Concentration, Distribution, and Occurrence of REEs in Coals from Chongqing, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The concentration, distribution, and occurrence of rare earth elements (REEs) in coals as well as stone coals in different geological periods from Chongqing were studied. The results show that the REE content in coals from Chongqing is much higher than that of the ordinary Chinese coals, the Late Paleozoic coals from North China, US coals, and the world coals. Although the concentration of light rare earth elements (LREE) is higher than that of heavy rare earth elements (HREE), the ratio of LREE to HREE is as low as 5.11. The REE content decreases with the coal-formation periods from old to new. The REE content in the Sinian stone coal is the highest, but it is the lowest in Early Jurassic coals. The similar REE contents in bituminous coals and anthracite show that the metamorphism has a little influence on REE content in coal. In addition, silicate association dominates the occurrence mode of REEs in coals from Chongqing.

  15. Iodine in Chinese coals and its geochemistry during coalification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D.S.; Deng, H.W.; Zheng, B.S.; Wang, W.Y.; Tang, X.Y.; Xiao, H.Y. [Nanchang University, Nanchang (China)

    2008-08-15

    To determine the I distribution in Chinese coals, a nationwide survey was undertaken based on the distribution, periods of formation, rank and production yields of various coal deposits. A total of 305 coal samples were collected and their I contents were determined by catalytic spectrophotometry with pyrohydrolysis. The geochemistry of I during coalification (including both peat diagenesis and coal metamorphism) was assessed. It was found that the I contents of Chinese coals range from 0.04 mg kg{sup -1} to 39.5 mg kg{sup -1} and exhibit a lognormal distribution, with a geometric mean of 1.27 mg kg{sup -1} Statistical correlation analysis and the observation that I contents increase with coal rank indicate that coal 1 is chalcophile in nature, and not generally organically bound. When peat developed into lignite through diagenesis, 95-99.9% of the original I was lost. The composition and structure of clay minerals present in the coal were controlled by the original depositional environment. The higher the I content of coals, the more likely the original sediments were affected by a marine environment. Iodine contents increased front lignite through sub-bituminous and bituminous coals to anthracite. This indicates that coal absorbed excess I from hydrothermal fluids during metamorphism (including geothermal metamorphism and telemagmatic metamorphism). The telemagmatic metamorphism was caused by magmatic activities that depended on the specific geological structure of the region. In China, most high-rank coals were formed by telemagmatic metamorphism.

  16. Iodine in Chinese coals and its geochemistry during coalification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Daishe [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Honggutan New Zone, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330031 (China); Institute of Geographic Sciences and Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail: dswu@ncu.edu.cn; Deng Haiwen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Honggutan New Zone, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330031 (China); Zheng Baoshan [State Key Lab of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS, Guiyang 550002 (China); Wang Wuyi [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Tang Xiuyi [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China); Xiao Huayun [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Honggutan New Zone, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330031 (China)

    2008-08-15

    To determine the I distribution in Chinese coals, a nationwide survey was undertaken based on the distribution, periods of formation, rank and production yields of various coal deposits. A total of 305 coal samples were collected and their I contents were determined by catalytic spectrophotometry with pyrohydrolysis. The geochemistry of I during coalification (including both peat diagenesis and coal metamorphism) was assessed. It was found that the I contents of Chinese coals range from 0.04 mg kg{sup -1} to 39.5 mg kg{sup -1} and exhibit a lognormal distribution, with a geometric mean of 1.27 mg kg{sup -1}. Statistical correlation analysis and the observation that I contents increase with coal rank indicate that coal I is chalcophile in nature, and not generally organically bound. When peat developed into lignite through diagenesis, 95-99.9% of the original I was lost. The composition and structure of clay minerals present in the coal were controlled by the original depositional environment. The higher the I content of coals, the more likely the original sediments were affected by a marine environment. Iodine contents increased from lignite through sub-bituminous and bituminous coals to anthracite. This indicates that coal absorbed excess I from hydrothermal fluids during metamorphism (including geothermal metamorphism and telemagmatic metamorphism). The telemagmatic metamorphism was caused by magmatic activities that depended on the specific geological structure of the region. In China, most high-rank coals were formed by telemagmatic metamorphism.

  17. Consortium for coal log pipeline research and development. Final technical progress report, August 10, 1993--August 9, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, T.R.

    1996-10-01

    The main objective of this project was to conduct intensive research and development of the Coal Log Pipeline (CLP). Specifically, the R & D was to concentrate on previously neglected and insufficiently studied aspects of CLP which were deemed significant. With improvements in these areas, CLP could be implemented for commercial use within five years. CLP technology is capable of transporting coal logs for long distances. The many potential advantages of CLP over truck and railroad transportation include: lower freight costs, less energy consumption, less air pollution, decreased environmental problems, increased safety, and improved reliability. Previous studies have shown that CLP is advantageous over slurry pipeline technology. First, CLP uses one-third the water required by a coal slurry pipeline. Second, CLP provides easier coal dewatering. Third, the CLP conveying capacity of coal is twice as much as a slurry transport line of equal diameter. In many situations, the cost for transporting each ton of coal is expected to be less expensive by CLP as compared to other competing modes of transportation such as: truck, unit train and slurry pipeline.

  18. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  19. Mechanical properties of hot bituminous mixes manufactured with recycled aggregate of Silestone® waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, M. C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research project which analyzes the viability of incorporating waste material from decorative quartz solid surfacing in the manufacture of hot bituminous mixes. For this purpose, various bituminous mixes were manufactured with waste aggregate in different percentage. A set of tests were carried out that permitted the characterization of the mechanical behavior of these mixes. The results of these tests were similar to the results obtained when conventional mixes made from virgin quarry aggregate were tested. The results for moisture sensitivity as well as for wheel track rutting on mixes showed the optimal performance of this waste material even under very demanding traffic conditions. Laboratory studies showed that the use of this waste material in the manufacture of bituminous mixes is technically viable and can provide high-quality recycled aggregates at a very low cost, which can be used in the pavement of road.

    Este artículo muestra los resultados de un proyecto de investigación que tiene por objeto analizar la viabilidad de incorporación de residuos procedentes de piedra decorativa en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas en caliente. Para ello se fabricaron mezclas con áridos reciclados de residuos procedentes de piedra decorativa en distintos porcentajes, realizando un conjunto de ensayos que posibilitaron caracterizar el comportamiento mecánico de dichas mezclas. Los resultados obtenidos fueron similares a los de las mezclas convencionales fabricadas con áridos vírgenes procedentes de cantera. Los valores de resistencia conservada ante la acción del agua y deformación en pista, pusieron de manifiesto la aptitud del residuo incluso ante las condiciones de tráfico más exigentes. Los trabajos realizados en el laboratorio indican que la utilización del residuo en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas es técnicamente viable, pudiendo obtenerse áridos reciclados de gran calidad y

  20. Detection of reactive free radicals in fresh coal mine dust and their implication for pulmonary injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, N S; Suryan, M M; Vallyathan, V; Green, F H; Jafari, B; Wheeler, R

    1989-01-01

    Freshly ground and aged anthracite and bituminous coal samples were investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to detect the presence, concentration and reactivity of free radicals. Freshly ground anthracite coal produced greater concentration of free radicals than the bituminous coal, and the radical reactivity was also greater for the anthracite. The reactivity of the newly produced free radicals in the anthracite dust correlated with the dust's toxicity. Furthermore, similar coal-based free radicals were detected in the lung tissue of autopsied coal miners, suggestive of persistent reactivity by the embedded coal dust leading to the progressive disease process. Results of the studies on the severity of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and free radical concentration in lung tissue support this hypothesis. PMID:2705696

  1. Rate of coal hydroliquefaction: correlation to coal structure. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Voorhees, K.J.; Durfee, S.L.

    1985-05-01

    This report summarizes the research carried out on DOE grant No. FG22-83PC60784. The work was divided into two phases. The first phase consisted of a series of coal liquefaction rate measurements on seven different coals from the Exxon sample bank, followed by correlation with parent coal properties. The second phase involved characterization of the coals by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and subsequent correlations of the Py/MS patterns with various liquefaction reactivity parameters. The hydroliquefaction reactivities for a suite of 7 bituminous and subbituminous coals were determined on a kinetic basis. These reactivities were correlated fairly successfully with the following parent coal properties: volatile matter, H/C and O/C ratios, vitrinite reflectance, and calorific value. The total surface areas of the coals were experimentally determined. Reactivity was shown to be independent of surface area. Following completion of the batch reactor experiments, the seven coals investigated were analyzed by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry. The pyrolysis spectra were then submitted to factor analysis in order to extract significant features of the coal for use in correlational efforts. These factors were then related to a variety of liquefaction reactivity definitions, including both rate and extent of liquefaction to solvent solubility classifications (oils, asphaltenes, preasphaltenes, etc.). In general, extent of reaction was found to correlate best with the Py/MS data. 37 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Investigation of relationship between barometric pressure and coal and gas outburst events in underground coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yönet, Sinem; Esen, Olgun; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outburst is a serious risk which occurs during the mine production. This accident results both ejection of high volumes of gas and high amount of coal into the mine production area, and death of mining workers for many years in Turkey. Outburst of gas, coal and rock can be defined as sudden release of coal and rock accompanied by large quantities of gas into the working face or other mine workings. It is a phenomena that influenced by geological structure such as folds, joints of rocks or coal seams, is also still investigated for many years. Zonguldak Coal Basin is the main part of the Upper Carboniferous bituminous coal basin of Turkey. Much of the bituminous coal mining has thus been concentrated in the Zonguldak Basin which is located on the Black Sea coast. The coal field has been disturbed by tectonic activity, first by Hercynian and later by Alpine orogenesis resulting in folding and faulting of strata. This formation has a complex structural geology which consists mostly fault zones, anticlinal and syncline strata and because of this a large amount of methane gases are adsorbed or accumulated in strata or in coal fractures, pores and micropores. There are 5 Collieries exists in Zonguldak Coalfield and coal and gas outbursts were occurred only in two collieries such as Karadon and Kozlu Mines. In addition at a number of 90 coal and gas outburst events were experienced in these collieries. Based on the analysis of data, oscillation at barometric pressure and temperature values at the location of Kozlu and Karadon Mines were seen when coal and gas outburst events were occurred. In this study, barometric pressure and temperature changes are investigated at Kozlu and Karadon Mines. Also the relationship between the variation at temperature with barometric pressure and coal and gas outbursts are evaluated. It can be understand that this investigation depends to field observations and macroscopic considerations and on the purpose of predicting the

  3. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ particle generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The research conducted by Textron Defense Systems (TDS) represents a potential new and innovative concept for dispersed coal liquefaction. The technical approach is generation of ultra-fine catalyst particles from supercritical solutions by rapid expansion of either catalyst only, or mixtures of catalyst and coal material in supersaturated solvents. The process of rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions was developed at Battelle`s Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the intended purpose of providing a new analytical technique for characterizing supercritical fluids. The concept forming the basis of this research is that ultra-fine particles can be generated from supercritical solutions by rapid expansion of either catalyst or catalyst/coal-material mixtures in supersaturated solvents, such as carbon dioxide or water. The focal point of this technique is the rapid transfer of low vapor pressure solute (i.e., catalyst), dissolved in the supercritical fluid solvent, to the gas phase as the solution is expanded through an orifice. The expansion process is characterized by highly nonequilibrium conditions which cause the solute to undergo extremely rapid supersaturation with respect to the solvent, leading to nucleation and particle growth resulting in nanometer size catalyst particles. A supercritical expansion system was designed and built by TDS at their Haverhill facility.

  4. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The

  5. Electrical properties of coal at microwave frequencies for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanis, Constantine A.

    1981-02-01

    The development of electromagnetic systems to detect and monitor coal-related processes requires a thorough knowledge of the electrical properties (dielectric constant and conductivity) of coal. Using a two-path interferometer at microwave frequencies (?9 GHz), samples of solid eastern bituminous and eastern anthracite coals were tested as a function of polarization and direction of travel of the electromagnetic wave. Temperature moisture, and pyrite distribution tests were performed on eastern bituminous coal samples. In general there were slight decreases in the values of the dielectric constant and conductivity as a function of temperature, from ambient to 700° F, and as the moisture content decreased through drying. Pyrite layers along the bedding planes cause a general increase in the conductivity. The anthracites (higher rank coals) have larger values of conductivity (about a factor of 10) and permittivity (about a layer of 2 and 3) than bituminous (lower rank) coals. No distinct relationship was found between the direction of propagation and the electrical properties. Recommendations are made for orienting electromagnetic radiators to improve efficiencies of systems which are designed for coal-related detection, monitoring and mapping applications.

  6. Superacid Catalyzed Coal Conversion Chemistry. 1st and 2nd Quarterly Technical Progress Reports, September 1, 1983-March 30, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    In our laboratories we have previously developed a mild coal conversion process. This involves the use of a superacid system consisting of HF and BF{sub 3} in presence of hydrogen and/or a hydrogen donor solvent. In order to understand the chemistry involved in the process of depolymerization of coal by the HF:BF{sub 3}:H{sub 2} system we are carrying out a systematic study of a number of coal model compounds. The model compounds selected for present study have two benzene rings connected with various bridging units such as alkylidene, ether, sulfide etc. From studies so far carried out it appears that high pyridine extractibilities achieved by treating coal at temperature below 100 degrees C results from the cleavage of bridges such as present in bibenzyl, diphenyl methane, dibenzyl ether, dibenzyl sulfide etc. On the other hand the increased cyclohexane extractibility and distillability observed at relatively higher temperatures and hydrogen pressures reflects the hydrogenation and cleavage of the aromatic backbone in coal structure similar to what is seen in the conversion of model compounds such as biphenyl, diphenyl ether, diphenyl sulfide, anthracene, etc.

  7. Illinois coal/RDF coprocessing to produce high quality solids and liquids. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippo, E.J.; Palmer, S.R.; Blankenship, M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    It is the aim of this study to provide information pertinent to the development of a coal/RDF pyrolysis process capable of economically creating valuable products from high sulfur Illinois coal. This project will be carried out in a systematic manner. First, samples will be properly selected prepared, preserved and characterized. Then coals, various plastics, cellulose, and a high quality RDF will be pyrolyzed, steam pyrolyzed, hydro-pyrolyzed, and liquefied at various conditions. Next, blends of coal with various RDF components will be reacted under the same conditions. From this work, synergistic effects will be identified and process parametric studies will be conducted on the appropriate mixtures and single components. Product quality and mass balances will be obtained on systems showing promise. Preliminary pyrolysis work will be conducted on a TGA. The majority of reactions will be conducted in microautoclaves. If this research is successful, a new market for high sulfur, high mineral Illinois coal would emerge. Samples needed for this project have been obtained and sample preparation have been completed. A Perkin Elmer TGA-7 was employed to study pyrolysis. significant interactions have been observed. About 200 microreactor experiments have been performed and the acquisition of products for analysis has been achieved. Interactions occur between 400-450{degrees}C. Synergism occurs at short reaction time. High temperature and long reaction times result in higher residue yields and a loss of synergisms. Reactive species may be required to stabilize intermediate products.

  8. Wetting of bituminized ion-exchangers under simulated repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the present plans the spent nuclear fuel from four Finnish nuclear power units will be transferred after interim storage to the final disposal site where it will be encapsulated and disposed of in a final repository constructed into the bedrock at a depth of 500 meters. Low and medium level waste generated at nuclear power plants will be finally disposed of in caverns constructed in the bedrock at the power plant site. The safety of the final disposal is based on a multibarrier concept and the degree of safety is estimated by using predictive models. The properties of the waste form are taken into account in the design of the repository construction. Bitumen has been chosen as an immobilisation agent for the wet wastes at Olkiluoto Power Plant, where two BWR units, TVO 1 and TVO 2, have separate bituminization facilities designed by Asea-Atom. Properties of bituminized spent ion-exchange resins from Olkiluoto power plant have been studied by VTT Chemical Technology since the late 70's. These studies have concentrated mainly on determining the long-term behaviour of the bituminization product under the repository conditions. Current interest lies on wetted product as a diffusion barrier. For this purpose a microscopic method for the visualisation of the structure of the wetted product has been developed. The equilibration of the samples in simulated concrete groundwater is currently going on at a temperature of 5-8 deg. C. Preliminary results are presented in this paper. Diffusion experiments have been planned for the further characterising of the wetted product as a release barrier for radionuclides including modelling. (author)

  9. NO Reduction over Biomass and Coal Char during Simultaneous Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ke; Glarborg, Peter; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental study of NO reduction over chars of straw, bark, bituminous coal, and lignite. The experiments were performed in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 850–1150 °C. The chars were generated by in situ pyrolysis at the reaction temperature to minimize further...

  10. Low-level radioactive wastes bituminization - ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes the research and development of low level radioactive waste treatment by bituminization process in Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN). Low level radioactive solid waste was simulated by mixed ion exchange resin. Cation exchange and anion resin were loaded with lithium and boric acid respectively and were incorporated in bitumen of suitable rheological properties. The simulated solid wastes incorporated in bitumen were 30 to 46 weight %. The rheological properties of waste product bitumen-mixed resin have been reported. The waste product with bitumen V-65 showed best physical and rheological properties and grave lowest leaching rates of boron and lithium. (author)

  11. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) has initiated research on the disposal of solid wastes from advanced coal processes. The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. To accomplish this objective, DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct, and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. This report describes leach tests and groundwater monitoring.

  12. Radiation/turbulence interactions in pulverized-coal flames. Second year technical progress report, September 30, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menguec, M.P.; McDonough, J.M.; Manickavsagam, S.; Mukerji, S.; Wang, D.; Ghosal, S.; Swabb, S.

    1995-12-31

    Our goal in this project is to investigate the interaction of radiation and turbulence in coalfired laboratory scale flames and attempt to determine the boundaries of the ``uncertainty domain`` in Figure 3 more rigorously. We have three distinct objectives: (1) To determine from experiments the effect of turbulent fluctuations on the devolatilization/pyrolysis of coal particles and soot yield, and to measure the change in the ``effective`` radiative properties of particulates due to turbulence interactions; (2) To perform local small-scale simulations to investigate the radiation-turbulence interactions in coal-fired flames starting from first principles; and (3) To develop a thorough and rigorous, but computationally practical, turbulence model for coal flames, starting from the experimental observations and small scale simulations.

  13. Geochemistry of beryllium in Bulgarian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazy, Greta M. [Geology Department, University of Sofia ' St. Kl. Ohridski' , Tzar Osvoboditel 15, Sofia 1504 (Bulgaria)

    2006-04-03

    The beryllium content of about 3000 samples (coal, coaly shales, partings, coal lithotypes, and isolated coalified woods) from 16 Bulgarian coal deposits was determined by atomic emission spectrography. Mean Be concentrations in coal show great variability: from 0.9 to 35 ppm for the deposits studied. There was no clear-cut relationship between Be content and rank. The following mean and confidence interval Be values were measured: lignites, 2.6+/-0.8 ppm; sub-bituminous coals, 8.2+/-3.3 ppm; bituminous coals, 3.0+/-1.2 ppm; and anthracites, 19+/-9.0 ppm. The Be contents in coal and coaly shales for all deposits correlated positively suggesting a common source of the element. Many samples of the coal lithotypes vitrain and xylain proved to be richer in Be than the hosting whole coal samples as compared on ash basis. Up to tenfold increase in Be levels was routinely recorded in fusain. The ash of all isolated coalified woods was found to contain 1.1 to 50 times higher Be content relative to its global median value for coal inclusions. Indirect evidence shows that Be occurs in both organic and inorganic forms. Beryllium is predominantly organically bound in deposits with enhanced Be content, whereas the inorganic form prevails in deposits whose Be concentration approximates Clarke values. The enrichment in Be exceeding the coal Clarke value 2.4 to 14.5 times in some of the Bulgarian deposits is attributed to subsynchronous at the time of coal deposition hydrothermal and volcanic activity. (author)

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

    2002-10-26

    This is the eighth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. The final biomass co-firing test burn was conducted during this quarter. In this test (Test 14), up to 20% by weight dry switchgrass was comilled with Jim Walters No.7 mine coal and injected through the single-register burner. Jim Walters No.7 coal is a low-volatility, low-sulfur ({approx}0.7% S) Eastern bituminous coal. The results of this test are presented in this quarterly report. Progress has continued to be made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. The REI Configurable Fireside Simulator (CFS) is now in regular use. Presently, the CFS is being used to generate CFD calculations for completed tests with Powder River Basin coal and low-volatility (Jim Walters No.7 Mine) coal. Niksa Energy Associates will use the results of these CFD simulations to complete their validation of the NOx/LOI predictive model. Work has started on the project final report.

  15. Illinois coal/RDF coprocessing to produce high quality solids and liquids; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippo, E.J.; Palmer, S.R.

    1994-03-01

    It is the aim of this study to provide information pertinent to the development of a coal/RDF pyrolysis process capable of economically creating valuable products from high sulfur Illinois coal. This project will be carried out in a systematic manner. First, samples will be properly selected prepared, preserved and characterized. Then coals, various plastics, cellulose, and a high quality RDF will be pyrolyzed, steam pyrolyzed, hydro-pyrolyzed, and liquefied at various conditions. Next, blends of coal with various RDF components will be reacted under the same conditions. From this work synergistic effects will be identified and process parametric studies will be conducted on the appropriate mixtures and single components. Product quality and mass balances will be obtained on systems showing promise. Preliminary pyrolysis work will be conducted on a TGA. A Perkin Elmer TGA-7 Thermogravimetric Analyzer was employed to study pyrolysis. Significant interactions have been observed. Very preliminary microreactor experiments have been performed and the acquisition of some products for analysis has been achieved. Although, these results are preliminary they are also very encouraging.

  16. Utilisation of a low power reactor for instrumental neutron activation analysis of 40 elements in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is mostly used as an energy source for power generation and in local brick kilns in Pakistan, which causes environmental pollution problems due to the release of toxic constituents. Elemental characterisation provides useful information regarding the nature of environmental pollutants to which coal workers and adjacent terrain are exposed and circumscribes different elements as they exist in the coal. Instrumental neutron activation analysis employing a low power miniature neutron source reactor has been used for the determination of 40 major, minor, and trace elements in coal. Bituminous, sub-bituminous and lignite coal varieties of Pakistan were analysed which show that bituminous coal from Salt Range contains lower amount of toxic elements. The quality of the analysed data has been assured by a simultaneous analysis of the IAEA and NBS/NIST certified reference materials. The data will be useful for extrapolating the extent of elemental emission through the combustion of these coals. Enrichment factors calculated for these elements in coal show high values for As, Br, Cl, Dy, Hg, Mo, Sb, and Se, indicating difference in geochemistry and growth environment of the coal deposits. Elemental concentrations of our coal varieties have been compared with those of other countries. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons in overburden from coal mines: Assessment of the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bituminous coals are known to contain significant amounts of petroleum-like hydrocarbons trapped in the pore system of the macromolecular network. With increasing thermal stress acting upon coals under the particular conditions in their deposits, the relative amount of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons within the trapped bitumen increases until the coal reaches the rank of medium-volatile bituminous coals. Coking coals particularly are rich in compounds such as benzene, biphenyl, naphthalene, and their alkylated derivatives. Potential hazardous environmental impact of these hydrocarbons has to be considered when mining or reclaiming overburden because approximately 10% overburden material related to coal mining is coal. Exposure to long-term weathering destroys the pore system of coals, which might result in a release of highly volatile bituminous coal constituents into the atmosphere. This view is supported by analyses of coals present in overburden material. In the present study, the on-line combination of thermodesorption coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry is shown to be an appropriate tool for the detection and quantitation of hydrocarbons of a wide boiling temperature range present in solid sample material. The method is preferentially suitable for the analysis of highly volatile constituents such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, which are not quantitatively analyzed using conventional solvent-extraction methods

  18. Heavy recycle solvent studies in two-stage coal liquefaction. Final technical report, September 1, 1982-December 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longanbach, J. R.

    1984-01-10

    The objective of this program has been to study the chemistry of the components with high boiling points in a direct coal liquefaction recycle solvent and to identify those components which lead to higher overall yields and improved product stability in the initial coal dissolution step of direct coal liquefaction processes. The major conclusions are: -454 C recycle solvent is primarily aromatic hydrocarbons (73%) and contains almost no asphaltenes; +454 C recycle solvent is primarily asphaltenes and aromatic hydrocarbons; recycle solvent also contains aliphatic hydrocarbons, N-containing aromatics and O-containing aromatics; heteroatoms in coal derived materials seem to be grouped by type, i.e. acidic O and basic N and sulfur occur together; under helium a small net amount of hydrogen and more CO and CO/sub 2/ are produced than under hydrogen; under hydrogen the amounts of H/sub 2/S and hydrocarbon gases are increased and a small amount of hydrogen gas is usually consumed; overall coal conversions to THF solubles are improved by adding more -454 C solvent but decreased by adding +454 C solvent; for added fractions of -454 C solvent the pecent conversion to THF solubles increases in the order aromatic hydrocarbons (+7.2) > aliphatic hydrocarbons (+0.8) > no added solvent (0.0) > N-containing aromatics (-0.9) > O-containing aromatics (-22.1); percent conversion to THF solubles using -454 C solvent with +454 C solvent fractions added decrease in the order aliphatics (+3.7) > aromatic hydrocarbons (+3.0) > no added solvent (0.0) > O-containing aromatics (-9.3) > N-containing aromatics (-13.3); of the +454 C solvent components, aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons are beneficial but total only approx. 25% of the +454 C recycle solvent; and steric effects may be important in determining the effectiveness of the heavier solvent components as liquefaction solvents. 28 references, 25 figures, 31 tables.

  19. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-21

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  20. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Technical, economic and environmental potential of co-firing of biomass in coal and natural gas fired power plants in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the technical, economic, and environmental potential of co-firing of biomass in existing Dutch coal and natural gas fired power plants, and industrial combined-cycles (CC), is addressed. Main criteria that are considered are: the availability and contractibility of biomass for energy purposes; the (technical) operation of the conventional fossil fuel based processes may not be disturbed; the gaseous and liquid plant emissions have to comply to those applicable for power plants/CCs, the commercial applicability of the solid residues may not be negatively influenced; applicable additional biomass conversion technologies must be commercially available; the necessary additional investment costs must be acceptable from an economic point of view, and the co-firing option must result in a substantial CO2-emission reduction. The main result of the study described in the paper is the presentation of a clear and founded indication of the total co-firing potential of biomass in existing power plants and industrial CCs in the Netherlands. This potential is determined by considering both technical, economic, and environmental criteria. In spite of the fact that the co-firing potential for the specific Dutch situation is presented, the results of the criteria considered are more generally applicable, and therefore are also very interesting for potential co-firing initiatives outside of the Netherlands

  2. STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF WETTING HEAT ON COAL SLURRYABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱书全; 付晓恒; 刘昀; 王祖讷; 李颖

    1997-01-01

    Wetting Heat of various ranks of coals in water was measured by using SETARAM C80D Calorimeter. The data were correlated to coals' slurryability which is characterized by the solid load at the viscosity of 1 Pa·s and 25℃. The results showed that the heat of wetting by water decreases as coal rank increases in the range of brawn coal to bituminous coal with carbon content of 89%~90% (daf), and then, increases a little for anthracite. This trend fitted well to the relationship of slurryability to coal rank. The heat of wetting was also correlated to the inherent moisture content and the oxygen content of coal, which are commonly considered as slurryability indication parameters. Hence, the wetting heat is another measure of coal's slurryability.

  3. Isotopic and chemical characterization of coal in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (delta/sup 13/C PDB) and toxic/trace element concentration levels are determined for Tertiary coal samples collected from seven coal fields in Pakistan. No systematic isotope effects are found in the process of coal liquefaction from peat to Tertiary lignites and sub bituminous coal. Similarly, no age effects are observed during the Tertiary regime. The observed variations in the carbon isotopic composition of coal obtained from 'Sharigh coal field' and the 'Sor-Range/Degari coal field' in Baluchistan are attributed to the depositional environments. More sampling of stable carbon isotope analysis are required to validate these observations. Significant concentrations of toxic elements such as S, Cr, Cd and Pb in Makarwal coal may pose environmental and engineering/operational problems for thermal power plants. (author)

  4. Alginite in humus coal of the carbonic period and its influence on the optical properties of accompanying vitrinite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, M.; Wolff-Fischer, E.

    1984-10-01

    By means of comparative investigations on the composition of macerals of coal from the Saar and the Ruhr regions, the former is proved to possess a higher content of alginite. This fact is apt to explain the higher degree of bituminization of the Saar coal vitrinites and the related influence on their optical properties.

  5. Emissions and Furnace Gas Temperature for Electricity Generation Via Co-Firing of Coal and Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Shoaib Mehmood; Bale Reddy; Marc Rosen

    2015-01-01

    The emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen and sulphur oxides for electricity generation with coal and biomass co-firing are investigated and the furnace gas temperature assessed. The study uses simulation and considers fuel combinations based on two coals (bituminous coal, lignite) and four types of biomass (rice husk, sawdust, chicken litter, refused derived fuel). With increasing biomass, net CO2 emissions are seen to decline significantly for all types of selected biomass, while gross c...

  6. Comprehensive report to Congress, Clean Coal Technology program: Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funding has been requested from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a nominal 2544 ton-per-day (TPD) (265 MWe) two-stage, oxygen-blown, coal gasification combined-cycle (CGCC) repowering demonstration project, to be named the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. The CGCC system will consist of an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, Two-stage coal gasifier, which is capable of utilizing high sulfur bituminous coal; a gas conditioning system for removing sulfur compounds and particulates; systems or mechanical devices for improved coal feed; a combined-cycle power generation system wherein the conditioned fuel gas is combusted in a combustion turbine generator; a heat recovery steam generator; a gas cleanup system; and all necessary coal handling equipment

  7. VHF EPR analysis of organic sulfur in coal. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarkson, R.B.; Belford, R.L. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    One important goal of this project is the development of methods to analyze the Very High Frequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (VHF EPR) spectra from Illinois coals in order to determine the concentration of organic sulfur in them. In this third Quarter, the axially symmetric model for the simulation of VHF EPR coal spectra was refined for routine quantitative percent sulfur determination. The computer modeling technique which we have developed makes use of a sophisticated multi-dimensional simplex strategy for optimization. The percent sulfur determined from VHF-EPR of sporinite, vitrinite, and two blends of these macerals (from Illinois Herrin No. 6) show excellent linear correlation with far less reliable, time consuming, and difficult techniques.

  8. Atlas of the Colombian coal, Potential map and rank: Map 5-09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the presentation of the Atlas of Coal to scale 1:500.000, it is sought to show to big features the location of the different areas with coal in Colombia, associating with the geologic units, the potential and the range. In the Map 5-09, the formations that include the coal are defined as Umir, Guaduas, Limbo, (Los Cuervos), San Fernando, (Carbonera), defined as Kst, Ksgt and Pgt. For the potential an arbitrary scale settled down, in the following way: in the first place bigger to 1000 million tons; between 1000 and 100; between 100 and 10 and lastly smaller to 10 million tons. These figures are represented in the map by triangles with colors that they are equal before to the figures mentioned. Keeping in mind the scale, it was opted to report the potential in the category of the hypothetical resources; when the resources or reserves are established, they are also reported. As for the range, in the map it is indicated by means of symbols that should be taken as a domain or tendency of the coal in each area in general. The the coal rank understood as the transformation that has reached along the geologic evolution is what is mentioned as anthracitic coal, semi-anthracitic, bituminous low in volatile, bituminous middle in volatile, bituminous high in volatile A, B and C, sub-bituminous and lastly the lignite. For each map are mentioned that there are determined

  9. Refining and end use study of coal liquids. Second quarter 1995 technical progress report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Bechtel, with Southwest Research Institute, Amoco Oil R&D, and the M.W. Kellogg Co. as subcontractors, initiated a study on November 1, 1993, for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to determine the most cost effective and suitable combination of existing petroleum refinery processes needed to make specification transportation fuels or blending stocks, from direct and indirect coal liquefaction product liquids. This 47-month study, with an approved budget of $4.4 million dollars, is being performed under DOE Contract Number DE-AC22-93PC91029. A key objective is to determine the most desirable ways of integrating coal liquefaction liquids into existing petroleum refineries to produce transportation fuels meeting current and future, e.g. year 2000, Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) standards. An integral part of the above objectives is to test the fuels or blends produced and compare them with established ASTM fuels. The comparison will include engine tests to ascertain compliance of the fuels produced with CAAA and other applicable fuel quality and performance standards. The final part of the project includes a detailed economic evaluation of the cost of processing the coal liquids to their optimum products.

  10. Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.

    1991-12-31

    The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  11. Diffusion of gases in coals and chars. Technical progress report: quarterly report No. 1, September 15-December 14, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Several questions exist concerning the measurement of carbon dioxide surface areas for coal. The appropriate temperature and coal particle size need to be identified for CO/sub 2/ adsorption measurements using our Quantasorb ''flow type'' surface area analyzer. Preliminary CO/sub 2/ adsorption experiments have been conducted using a PSOC-26 coal sample. Measurements have been made at both 196 K and 273 K for three different particle sizes. The results of these measurements are presented in Table 1. The small effect of particle size on surface area at high temperature 273 K, indicates that our measurements are essentially independent of diffusional resistance. The small differences in surface area which we note as the particle size is decreased may be a function of opening closed pores which are not normally accessable to CO/sub 2/, the creation of more surface area during the size reduction process and/or very small diffusional resistance effects. In comparison to the 273 K results, our measurements at 196 K clearly indicate that the uptake of CO/sub 2/ is controlled by diffusion. Therefore, all subsequent CO/sub 2/ surface area determinations during this project will be conducted at 273 K using 325 mesh particles. In order to demonstrate the suitability of pore size analysis via NMR measurements, preliminary experimental work has been conducted using porous solids with well-defined pore size and pore shape. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Evaluation of AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes. Technical report, January 1989--August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this program is to expand the use of coal by utilizing CFB (circulating fluidized bed) technology to provide an environmentally safe method for disposing of waste materials. Hospitals are currently experiencing a waste management crisis. In many instances, they are no longer permitted to burn pathological and infectious wastes in incinerators. Older hospital incinerators are not capable of maintaining the stable temperatures and residence times necessary in order to completely destroy toxic substances before release into the atmosphere. In addition, the number of available landfills which can safely handle these substances is decreasing each year. The purpose of this project is to conduct necessary research investigating whether the combustion of the hospital wastes in a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler will effectively destroy dioxins and other hazardous substances before release into the atmosphere. If this is proven feasible, in light of the quantity of hospital wastes generated each year, it would create a new market for coal -- possibly 50 million tons/year.

  13. Behaviour of bituminized ion-exchangers under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a final report containing all the research activities and results from the period 13 July 1997-28 February 2001. The purpose of the research was to study the ageing behaviour of bituminized ion-exchanger product under simulated repository conditions. The chosen temperature in this study was 5-8 deg. C and the equilibration solution used was artificial concrete water to simulate the conditions in the final disposal. The aim was to study the properties of wetted product as a release barrier for such important waste nuclides as Sr-90 and Cs-137, which are normal constituents of the bituminized ion-exchangers. All the nine exchanged waters were analysed by ion chromatography (IC) including the follow-up of the water absorption of the samples. All the samples, which were picked up for microscopic examination, have also been analysed. A saturation-elution test was performed with one diffusion sample using tritium (H-3) as a tracer. The results have been presented and further modelling will be performed later. Further two diffusion samples were tested using H-3, Na-22 and Cl-36 as radioactive tracers. The equilibration solution was artificial concrete ground water spiked with H-3 and Na-22 and in the other case with H-3 and Cl-36. Tritium was an internal reference when comparing the results of the equilibration behaviour of Na-22 and Cl-36. From the radioactive input cells samples were taken as a function of time to monitor the equilibration process. Elution of the samples and modelling of the results will be performed later. Na-22 and Cl-36 were chosen to demonstrate the behaviour of a simple anion and cation. Diffusion tests with important waste nuclides Sr-90 and Cs-137 have been scheduled to years 2001-2002. The aim of the performed research project was to study the barrier properties of the bituminized product. The measured parameters and modelling of the results will reflect the behaviour of the wetted product as a part of the multibarrier system providing

  14. Management of coal waste by energy recovery: mild gasification/flash pyrolysis of coal preparation wastes. Quarterly report, October-December 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, B.L.

    1986-02-01

    Feedstock characterization is now complete. Two of the refuse feedstocks, the bituminous coal feedstock and the subbituminous coal feedstock, were obtained and prepared for use in the mild gasification unit (MGU). Construction continued on the mild gasification unit and is estimated to be 95% complete. Most of the major equipment for the MGU is in place and operational. The vacuum pump and hydraulic limit switches are the remaining items to be installed on the unit. The final test plan was prepared. The test plan includes 24 tests, six with subbituminous coal, seven with coal preparation waste, and eleven with bituminous coal. The tests are designed to measure the effects of feedstock, particle size, temperature, residence time, sweep gas, and solid additives on unit performance, product quantity, and product quality. The MGU has performed well during five tests with only minor problems dealing with condensation of the hydrocarbon gases.

  15. Clean coal technology III (CCT III): 10 MW demonstration of gas suspension absorption. Technical progress report, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This project will be the first North American demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) System in its application for flue gas desulfurization. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency as well as the cost effectiveness of the GSA system. GSA is a novel concept for flue gas desulfurization developed by F.L. Smidth miljo (FLS miljo). The GSA system is distinguished in the European market by its low capital cost, high SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and low operating cost. The specific technical objectives of the GSA demonstration project are to: effectively demonstrate SO{sub 2} removal in excess of 90% using high sulfur US coal. Optimize recycle and design parameters to increase efficiencies of lime reagent utilization and SO{sub 2} removal. Compare removal efficiency and cost with existing Spray Dryer/Electrostatic Precipitator technology.

  16. Study of thermal reactivity during bituminization of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the study of chemical reactions and phases transitions which can occur between magnesium nitrate, sodium nitrate, cobalt sulphur product, and nickel potassium ferrocyanide, when they are heated together during bituminization process of nuclear waste. The applied methodology associates a few techniques: temperature, enthalpy, and kinetics of reaction are determined by calorimetry, reaction products are characterised by chemical analyses, mass spectrometry and XRD analysis. Three fields of temperature and energy are observed in function of composition (one compound or a mixture of compounds). The study of reactions between NaNO3 and cobalt sulphur product shows that the presence of water has got an effect on reaction temperature. The study of Mg(NO3)2, 6 H2O and CoS shows an overlapping of different signals, and that the reaction rate is very slow (a few hours). (author)

  17. Peru: coal over the past three years: future trends. El desarrollo de la situacion del carbon en el Peru durante los ultimos tres anos y su evolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunin Borkoroski, E.; Goluchoweska, K.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, annual coal production in Peru reached 150 to 200 mt and has since remained at roughly the same level. The coal comes from between 50 and 100 small and sometimes rather antiquated mining units which are run by small firms or individuals. Only a handful of coal mining operations are run by large companies and these too are small units. 85% of production is anthracite and the remainder bituminous coal. Only in rare cases is lignite or graphite mined and this only in very small quantities. Anthracite is mined in the Libertad, Ancash and Cajamarca departments, bituminous coal in Pasco and Junin and both types of coal in Lima and Arequipa. Current production patterns do not reflect the distribution and abundance of the coal. Coal has been found nearly everywhere in Peru and appears to have great potential whereas measured reserves are minimal and scattered across the country.

  18. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for

  19. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 οC and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  20. Refining and end use study of coal liquids. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, December 19, 1994--March 26, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Bechtel, with Southwest Research Institute, Amoco Oil R&D, and the M.W. Kellogg Co. as subcontractors, initiated a study on November 1, 1993, for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to determine the most cost effective and suitable combination of existing petroleum refinery processes needed to make specification transportation fuels or blending stocks, from direct and indirect coal liquefaction product liquids. This 47-month study, with an approved budget of $4.4 million dollars, is being performed under DOE Contract Number DE-AC22-93PC91029. A key objective is to determine the most desirable ways of integrating coal liquefaction liquids into existing petroleum refineries to produce transportation fuels meeting current and future, e.g. year 2000, Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) standards. An integral part of the above objectives is to test the fuels or blends produced and compare them with established ASTM fuels. The comparison will include engine tests to ascertain compliance of the fuels produced with CAAA and other applicable fuel quality and performance standards. The final part of the project includes a detailed economic evaluation of the cost of processing the coal liquids to their optimum products. The cost analyses is for the incremental processing cost; in other words, the feed is priced at zero dollars. The study reflects costs for operations using state of the art refinery technology; no capital costs for building new refineries is considered. Some modifications to the existing refinery may be required. Economy of scale dictates the minimum amount of feedstock that should be processed.

  1. Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for use in gas separation and recovery processes. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois Basin coals are a suitable feedstock for the production of CMS and to evaluate the potential application of these products in commercial gas separation processes. In Phase 1 of this project, gram quantities of char were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of pyrolysis and activation conditions. Chars having surface areas of 1,500--2,100 m{sup 2}/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the chemical activant. These high surface area (HSA) chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}, on these chars at 25 C was determined. Several chars showed good potential for efficient O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} separation. In Phase 2 of this project, larger quantities of char are being prepared from Illinois coal in a batch fluidized-bed reactor and in a continuous rotary tube kiln. The ability of these chars to separate binary gas mixtures is tested in an adsorption column/gas chromatography system. Oxygen and nitrogen breakthrough curves obtained for selected chars were compared to those of a commercial zeolite. Selected chars were subjected to a nitric acid oxidation treatment. The air separation capability of nitric acid treated char was strongly dependent on the outgassing conditions used prior to an O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} adsorption experiment. An outgassing temperature of 130--160 C produced chars with the most favorable air separation properties. 61 refs.

  2. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  3. Effective Diffusion Coefficients in Coal Chars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Jensen, Anker

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of effective diffusion coefficients in char particles is important when interpreting experimental reactivity measurements and modeling char combustion or NO and N2O reduction. In this work, NO and N2O reaction with a bituminous coal char was studied in a fixed-bed quartz glass reactor....... In the case of strong pore diffusion limitations, the error in the interpretation of experimental results using the mean pore radius could be a factor of 5 on the intrinsic rate constant. For an average coal char reacting with oxygen at 1300 K, this would be the case for particle sizes larger than...

  4. Operation of the solvent-refined-coal pilot plant, Wilsonville, Alabama. Annual technical report, January-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, H.E.

    1981-08-01

    The plant was in operation for the equivalent of 247 days, an on-stream factor of 67.7%. Kentucky 9 coals from the Lafayette, Dotiki and Fies mines were processed. During 1980, the operating conditions and equipment were adjusted to evaluate potential process improvements. These experiments produced significant results in the following areas: Operating V103 High Pressure Separator in the hot mode; varying T102 Vacuum Column operating temperature; adding light SRC (LSRC), a product of the third stage of the Critical Solvent Deashing (CSD) unit, to the process solvent; investigating the effects of the chlorine content of the feed coal on corrosion in the process vessels; evaluating the effects of adding sodium carbonate on corrosion rates; operating under conditions of low severity; i.e., low reactor temperature and long residence time; and testing an alternate CSD deashing solvent. A series of simulation runs investigating the design operating conditions for a planned 6000 ton per day SRC-I demonstation plant were also completed. Numerous improvements were made in the CSD processing area, and the components for a hydrotreating unit were installed.

  5. Coal liquefaction process solvent characterization and evaluation: Technical progress report, July 1, 1986 through September 30, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1987-03-01

    Conoco Coal Research Division is characterizing samples of direct coal liquefaction process oils based on a variety of analytical techniques to provide a detailed description of the chemical composition of the oils, to more fully understand the interrelationship of process oil composition and process operations, to aid in plant operation, and to lead to process improvements. The approach taken is to obtain analyses of a large number of well-defined process oils taken during periods of known operating conditions and known process performance. Close cooperation is maintained with the process developers and with DOE in order to maximize the benefits of the work. Analytical methods used are based on their ability to provide quantitatively valid measures of process oil composition. Particular use is made of methods which provide chemical/molecular information of proven relevance to process performance. In addition, all samples are treated using conventional methods of analysis and preparation so that unit performance parameters, such as conversions and yields, can be independently determined to assure sample validity and correlation of analytical results among various plant operations. 10 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.

  6. An assessment of chemical properties and hardgrove grindability index of punjab coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the delamination of chemical properties and hardgrove grindability index (HGI) of coal samples collected from three different coal fields of Punjab; Eastern Salt Range, Central Salt Range and Makerwal coal fields. The chemical properties of Punjab coal reveal that most of the Punjab coal belongs to sub-bituminous category except coal of Tunnel C section of Makerwal Collieries and Iqbal Mineral coal mine of Dalwal, which are high volatile bituminous and lignite, respectively. The results of the research show that the HGI values of Punjab coal vary from 57 to 92. The eastern salt range coals are found to be the softest coals among that of three coal fields. It was further observed that the HGI values of the Punjab coal decrease with increasing moisture content, fixed carbon and sulphur contents, while it has a positive relation with volatile matter, ash content and gross calorific value. It was concluded that moisture content at its lower range has negligible effect on HGI of the Punjab coal. (author)

  7. Coking coals of Mongolia: Distribution and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Jargal, Luvsanchultem

    2016-04-01

    The coal deposits of Mongolia tend to become younger from west to east and can be subdivided into two provinces, twelve basins, and three areas. Main controlling factor of coal rank is the age of coal bearing sequences. Western Mongolian coal-bearing province contains mostly high rank bituminous coal in strata from Late Carboniferous. The basins in southern Mongolia and the western part of central Mongolia have low rank bituminous coal in strata from the Permian. The northern and central Mongolian basins contain mainly Jurassic subbituminous coal, whereas the Eastern Mongolian province has Lower Cretaceous lignite. Mongolian known coking coal reserves are located in western, southern and northern Mongolia and related to Carboniferous, Permian and Jurassic sequences, respectively. Pennsylvanian Nuurstkhotgor coal deposit is located in northwestern Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). The coals have 1-7.5 crucible swelling number (CSN) and 0-86 G-index. Vitrinite reflectance value (Rmax in oil) varies from 0.7% to 1.2% and sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.3% to 0.6% with an average of 0.4%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 1.0 billion ton, of which half is coking coal. Upper Permian Khurengol deposit is situated in western Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). CSN and G-index of coal are 8-9 and 54-99, respectively. The coals have Rmax of 1.1 to 1.7% (average 1.4%) and sulfur content of 0.2 to 0.6% (average 0.4%). Coking coal reserve of the deposit is estimated to be 340 million ton. Upper Permian Tavantolgoi, the largest coking coal deposit, lies in southern Mongolia (in South Gobi coal-bearing basin). The coals have CSN of 1 to 7.5 and Rmax of 0.7% to 1.2%. Sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.5% to 0.9%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 6.0 billion ton, of which 2.0 billion ton is accounted as coking coal. Lower-Middle Jurassic Ovoot coal is located in northern Mongolia (in Orkhon-Selenge coal-bearing area). This is one of

  8. Characterization of Some Nigerian Coals for Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chukwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five coal samples from Odagbo (Kogi State, Owukpa (Benue State, Ezimo (Enugu State, Amansiodo (Enugu State, and Inyi (Enugu State of Nigerian coal deposits were subjected to proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, calorific value determination, and petrographic and thermogravimetric analysis to determine their suitability for power generation. Based on results of tests carried out, Amansiodo coal is a bituminous, low sulphur, and medium ash coal, while Owukpa coal is a subbituminous A, low sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Odagbo coal is a subbituminous B, medium sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Ezimo coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal, and Inyi coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal. Between Odagbo and Owukpa subbituminous coals, Owukpa has a lower ignition temperature (283.63°C due to its higher volatile matter content (39.1%. However, Ezimo subbituminous coal, which has a lower volatile matter (31.1%, unexpectedly has the same ignition temperature as Owukpa (283.63°C due to its higher liptinite content (7.2% when compared with that of Owukpa (2.9%. The ease of combustion of the coal samples in decreasing order is Odagbo < Owukpa < Inyi < Ezimo < Amansiodo.

  9. Determination of Sectional Constancy of Organic Coal-Water Fuel Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A.; Nyashina, Galina S.; Strizhak, Pavel A.

    2016-02-01

    To use widespreadly the waste of coals and oils processing in the great and the small-scale power generation, the key parameter, which is sectional constancy of promising organic coal-water fuels (OCWF), was studied. The compo-sitions of OCWF from brown and bituminous coals, filter cakes, used motor, turbine and dielectrical oils, water-oil emul-sion and special wetting agent (plasticizer) were investigated. Two modes of preparation were considered. They are with homogenizer and cavitator. It was established that the constancy did not exceed 5-7 days for the compositions of OCWF with brown coals, and 12-15 days for that compositions with bituminous coals and filter cakes. The injection of used oils in a composition of OCWF led to increase in viscosity of fuel compositions and their sectional constancy.

  10. Economy, environmental issues and market requirements. The example of coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domestic coal mining is in a recession stage now. The cost of mining increases and the European market is saturated. The projection of the needs for solid fuels till 2000 was analyzed based on an investigation made among 80 large-scale customers and in the municipal and household sphere. Demands for bituminous coal for power plants exhibit an increasing trend. From the environmental point of view it is unfavourable that, as the district authorities suppose, brown coal and bituminous coal sludges will continue to be used by the households and communities after 2000. The problem of the mining and processing costs and of the related coal prices is a crucial issue in the future development of fuel mining in the Czech Republic. (M.D.). 3 refs

  11. An assessment of cleaning amenability of salt range coal through physical cleaning methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representative coal samples from the eastern salt range (Modern Engineering and Kishor coal mines, Pakistan) and the central salt range (Punjmin coal mine, Pakistan) were collected and examined for their chemical composition. The chemical characteristics indicate that the salt range coal belongs to sub-bituminous category. Washability analysis on selected coal samples (6.70 , 0.212 mm) using zinc chloride solution with a specific gravity from 1.3 to 1.7 were executed. The results classify the central salt range coal as easily washable while, the Eastern salt range coal as moderately difficult to wash. Jigging, shaking table and spiral techniques were applied to check the cleaning amenability of the salt range coal through these techniques. Among these techniques, shaking table revealed the most promising results for all the three coals. Punjmin coal showed the maximum rejection of ash of 55% and that of total sulphur of 74% with a recovery of 46%. (author)

  12. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruya, P.

    2009-06-15

    Indonesia has become the largest exporter of steam coal in the world, but the long-term future of coal exports is being brought into question as domestic demand is projected to grow by a significant amount, from 40-50 Mt/y in 2007 to more than 100 Mt/y by 2013, and even higher beyond 2013. Exports reached 200-210 Mt in 2008, and is set to rise in the future. Import volumes are negligible, while indigenous production was estimated to be around 240-260 Mt in 2008. Illegal mining is being addressed and in the past could have accounted for at least 20 Mt/y of production, but obtaining reliable export and production figures as a result is therefore not straight forward. Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world. This fact coupled with robust GDP growth means there is more pressure on the state-controlled electricity industry to invest and build an adequate infrastructure to meet the rising demand for power. Part of this investment is being driven by government policy to build 10 GWe of coal-fired power by 2010 and a second tranche by 2013. However, the investment programme, commonly known as the 'crash programme' is more likely to be delayed by 2-3 years. Nevertheless, the likely 20-30 Mt/y or so of additional coal demand from the first tranche alone will put pressure on domestic coal producers to meet expanding demand both at home and abroad for low rank and exportable bituminous coals. This report covers four main topics, the Indonesian coal industry, the power generating sector and its use of clean coal technology, changes in coal demand and its impact on international trade, and finally a brief look at upgrading low rank coals within the country. 80 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Effect of intermolecular cohesion on coal liquefaction. 3. Reactivity of oxygen methylated coal; Sekitan teibunshika hanno ni okeru bunshikan gyoshuryoku no koka. 3. O-methyl ka tan no hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Nagaishi, H.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The reactivity of oxygen methylated coal was studied to control hydrogen bond in bituminous coal liquefaction and intermolecular cohesion such as van der Waals force. In experiment, crushed and dried Illinois coal of 100mesh or less was used as specimen, and oxygen methylated coal was prepared by Liotta`s method using tetrabutylammonium halide. Coal liquefaction was conducted in an electromagnetic agitation autoclave using tetralin solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 100kg/cm{sup 2} while heating. The molecular weight distribution of the products obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. The experimental results are as follows. The effect of intermolecular cohesion in bituminous coal on the reactivity is mainly derived from decomposing reaction from preasphaltene to oil. Yields of oil fraction by methylation increase corresponding to release of intermolecular cohesion. Since the thermal release is promoted with temperature rise, the difference in yield due to different treatments decreases. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Air-steam gasification of different types of coals using fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, N.F. [TNB Research Sdn. Bhd., Kawasan Inst. Penyelidikan, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Bosrooh, M.H.; Majid, K.A. [Tenaga National Univ., Selangor (Malaysia)

    2008-07-01

    Coal gasification has been touted as being the cleanest technology for producing energy from coal. The coal reserve in Malaysia is 1712 million tonnes of coal ranging from lignite to anthracite. Lignite and sub-bituminous coals have shown potential to be easily gasified and suitable for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation. This laboratory study investigated the gasification of Adaro, DEJ, Hunter Valley, Merit Pila and Mukah Balingian coals. The study made use of an atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier using air and air-steam as the fluidizing media. Gas chromatography was used to determination the producer gas compositions. The gasification experiments were conducted at a bed temperature of 600 degrees C. The influence of air and steam as the gasifying agents in the gasification process was studied, and the producer gas compositions were compared according to the type of gasifying agent. Air-steam gasification revealed a significant increase in carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen content in the producer gas compared with the air gasification. The study also showed that hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane were significantly higher in the sub-bituminous coal than in the bituminous coal. The quality of the producer gas improved, as steam was introduced as the gasifying agent. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. STUDY ON REGULATIONS OF.SULFUR OCCURRENCE AND PYRITE MAGNETISM OF LATE PERMIAN COALS IN SOUTHWEST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任德贻; 唐跃刚; 雷加锦

    1994-01-01

    The Permian coal In southwest China contains highest sulfur among the Chinese coal. Compositional variations of sulfur in coal are mainly controlled by paiaogeographicai environments during peat accumulation. High organic sulfur coal is formed in peat swamp developing in tidal flat of limited carbonate platform, and it is provided with especial petrological and geochemical characteristics, and its organosuLfur-containing compounds are mainly thiophene series. The macroscopical and microscopical shapes or types of pyrites in Late Permian coal are diversified. Bituminous coal and anthracite are diamagnetic, but the pyrites are paramagnetic. The magnetic susceptibility of the pyrites is depended on the content of paramagnatic elements associated with pyrites.

  16. Laser induced coal fluorescence. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, April 1-June 30, 1984. [Fluorescence microscopy; resinite and alginite macerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borst, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    A systematic study of Hiawatha resinite concentrates and alginite macerals in source rocks was performed with the new pulsed laser fluorescence microscopy technique. The Hiawatha coal samples were obtained from J. Crelling's Laboratory at Southern Illinois University and the source rocks from J. Castano, Shell Oil Development Corporation, Houston. The reliability of the fluorescence decay time method was further ascertained with the use of synthesized model fluorescence pulses having known multi-exponential decay times. The experimental uncertainties sigma/sup 2/ were assessed by separately studying the time jitter (approx. 50 ps) in the digitized pulses, the statistical fluctuations in the pulses, and the interpolation of data between digitizer channels. 15 figures, 2 tables.

  17. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  18. Seventh symposium on coal mine drainage research. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Seventh Symposium on Coal Mine Drainage Research, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Seventeen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include chemical reactions of pyrite oxidation and acid formation in spoil banks, abandoned mines, etc., formation of small acid lakes from the drainage and their neutralization by natural and other neutralization measures, trace elements in acid mine drainage, ground water contamination, limnology, effects of surface mined ground reclamation and neutralization, water purification and treatment, mining and coal preparation plant waste disposal, ash and fly ash disposal (to minimize leaching from the wastes), runoff from large coal storage stockpiles during storms (prevention of environmental effects by collection and neutralization by passing through an ash pond). (LTN)

  19. Application of coal petrography to the evaluation of magnetically separated dry crushed coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, L.A.; Hise, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    In the present study the open gradient magnetic separation method has been used to beneficiate the -30 + 100 mesh fraction of two high volatile bituminous coals. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the magnetic separation for cleaning these coals is the subject of this paper. Coal petrography in combination with scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry were used to characterize the magnetically separated coal fractions. These analyses revealed that the majority of the pyrite and non-pyrite minerals were concentrated in the positive magnetic susceptibility fractions. The bulk of the starting samples (approx. 80 weight percent) were located in the negative magnetic susceptibility fractions and showed significant reductions in pyrite and non-pyritic minerals. The magnetic separation appears to effectively split the samples into relatively clean coal and refuse.

  20. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  1. The Shell coal gasification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Future Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and unmatched efficiency. Efficiency depends on many factors including the type of coal, the gasification process, the gas turbine, the steam cycle. NOx reduction measures and the degree and manner of integration. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an IGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for feeds ranging from bituminous coals to lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is ideally suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV). The excellent environmental capabilities of IGCC systems are based on well established treating processes for removing sulphur and nitrogen species form the syngas. IGCC processes produce modest volumes of environmentally acceptable effluents. Gas turbine burner developments imply lower NOx emissions. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology is being built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The plant is scheduled to start up in 1993

  2. STUDY ON CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR CHINESE COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏

    1998-01-01

    An integrated coal classification system-technical/commercial and scientific/geneticclassification in China is discussed in this paper. This system shall enable producers, sellers andpurchasers to communicate unambiguously with regard to the quality of coal complying with therequirements of the respective application. The determination of perfect coal classification systemis an important measure for rational utilization of coal resources.

  3. Coal supply and transportation model (CSTM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coal Supply and Transportation Model (CSTM) forecasts annual coal supply and distribution to domestic and foreign markets. The model describes US coal production, national and international coal transportation industries. The objective of this work is to provide a technical description of the current version of the model

  4. Mercury concentration in coal - Unraveling the puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole-O'Neil, B.; Tewalt, S.J.; Finkelman, R.B.; Akers, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Based on data from the US Geological Survey's COALQUAL database, the mean concentration of mercury in coal is approximately 0.2 ??gg-1. Assuming the database reflects in-ground US coal resources, values for conterminous US coal areas range from 0.08 ??gg-1 for coal in the San Juan and Uinta regions to 0.22 ??gg-1 for the Gulf Coast lignites. Recalculating the COALQUAL data to an equal energy basis unadjusted for moisture differences, the Gulf Coast lignites have the highest values (36.4 lb of Hg/1012 Btu) and the Hams Fork region coal has the lowest value (4.8 lb of Hg/1012Btu). Strong indirect geochemical evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of the mercury in coal is associated with pyrite occurrence. This association of mercury and pyrite probably accounts for the removal of mercury with the pyrite by physical coal cleaning procedures. Data from the literature indicate that conventional coal cleaning removes approximately 37% of the mercury on an equal energy basis, with a range of 0% to 78%. When the average mercury reduction value is applied to in-ground mercury values from the COALQUAL database, the resulting 'cleaned' mercury values are very close to mercury in 'as-shipped' coal from the same coal bed in the same county. Applying the reduction fact or for coal cleaning to eastern US bituminous coal, reduces the mercury input load compared to lower-rank non-deaned western US coal. In the absence of analytical data on as-shipped coal, the mercury data in the COALQUAL database, adjusted for deanability where appropriate, may be used as an estimator of mercury contents of as-shipped coal. ?? 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mercury concentration in coal - unraveling the puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toole-O`Neil, B.; Tewalt, S.J.; Finkelman, R.B.; Akers, D.J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Based on data from the US Geological Surveys COALQUAL database, the mean concentration of mercury in coal is approximately 0.2 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Assuming the database reflects in-ground US coal resources, values for conterminous US coal areas range from 0.08 {mu}g g{sup -1} for coal in the San Juan and Uinta regions to 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} for the Gulf Coast lignites. Recalculating the COALQUAL data to an equal energy basis unadjusted for moisture differences, the Gulf Coast lignites have the highest values (36.4 lb of Hg/10{sup 12} Btu) and the Hams Fork region coal has the lowest value (4.8 lb of Hg/10{sup 12} Btu). Strong indirect geochemical evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of the mercury in coal is associated with pyrite occurrence. This association of mercury and pyrite probably accounts for the removal of mercury with the pyrite by physical coal cleaning procedures. Data from the literature indicate that conventional coal cleaning removes approximately 37% of the mercury on an equal energy basis, with a range of 0% to 78%. When the average mercury reduction value is applied to in-ground mercury values from the COALQUAL database, the resulting `cleaned` mercury values are very close to mercury in `as-shipped` coal from the same coal bed in the same county. Applying the reduction factor for coal cleaning to eastern US bituminous coal, reduces the mercury input load compared to lower-rank non-cleaned western US coal. In the absence of analytical data on as-shipped coal, the mercury data in the COALQUAL database, adjusted for cleanability where appropriate, may be used as an estimator of mercury contents of as-shipped coal. 28 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  6. State of the art report on bituminized waste forms of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, research and development results on the bituminization of radioactive wastes are closely reviewed, especially those regarding waste treatment technologies, waste solidifying procedures and the characteristics of asphalt and solidified forms. A new concept of the bituminization method is suggested in this report which can improve the characteristics of solidified forms. Stable solid forms with high leach resistance, high thermal resistance and good compression strength were produced by the suggested bituminization method, in which spent polyethylene from agricultural farms was added. This report can help further research and development of improved bituminized forms of radioactive wastes that will maintain long term stabilities in disposal sites. (author). 59 refs., 19 tabs., 18 figs

  7. Effect of Cement on Properties of Over-Burnt Brick Bituminous Concrete Mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Dipankar; Pal, Manish

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation is carried out to propose the use of cement coated over burnt brick aggregate in the preparation of bituminous concrete mix. The effect of cement on various mechanical properties such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient (stability to flow ratio), indirect tensile strength, stripping, rutting and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study, different cement percentages such as 2, 3, 4 and 5 % by weight of aggregate have been mixed with Over Burnt Brick Aggregate (OBBA). The laboratory results indicate that bituminous concrete prepared by 4 % cement coated OBBA gives the highest Marshall stability. The bituminous concrete mix with 4 % cement shows considerable improvement in various mechanical properties of the mix compared to the plain OBBA concrete mix.

  8. State of the art report on bituminized waste forms of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Kook; Shon, Jong Sik; Kim, Kil Jeong; Lee, Kang Moo; Jung, In Ha

    1998-03-01

    In this report, research and development results on the bituminization of radioactive wastes are closely reviewed, especially those regarding waste treatment technologies, waste solidifying procedures and the characteristics of asphalt and solidified forms. A new concept of the bituminization method is suggested in this report which can improve the characteristics of solidified forms. Stable solid forms with high leach resistance, high thermal resistance and good compression strength were produced by the suggested bituminization method, in which spent polyethylene from agricultural farms was added. This report can help further research and development of improved bituminized forms of radioactive wastes that will maintain long term stabilities in disposal sites. (author). 59 refs., 19 tabs., 18 figs

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

    2002-07-01

    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Two additional biomass co-firing test burns were conducted during this quarter. In the first test (Test 12), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was comilled with Galatia coal and injected through the single-register burner. Liquid ammonia was intermittently added to the primary air stream to increase fuel-bound nitrogen and simulate cofiring with chicken litter. Galatia coal is a medium-sulfur ({approx} 1.2% S), high chlorine ({approx}0.5%) Illinois Basin coal. In the second test (Test 13), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was comilled with Jim Walters No.7 mine coal and injected through the single-register burner. Jim Walters No.7 coal is a low-volatility, low-sulfur ({approx} 0.7% S) Eastern bituminous coal. The results of these tests are presented in this quarterly report. Progress has continued to be made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. The Configurable Fireside Simulator has been delivered from REI, Inc. and is being tested with exiting CFD solutions. Preparations are under way for a final pilot-scale combustion experiment using the single-register burner fired with comilled mixtures of Jim Walters No.7 low-volatility bituminous coal and switchgrass. Because of the delayed delivery of the Configurable Fireside Simulator, it is planned to ask for a no-cost time extension for the project until the end of this calendar year. Finally, a paper describing this project that included preliminary results from the first four cofiring tests was presented at the 12th European

  10. Organic maturation and coal-derived hydrocarbon potentials of cretaceous coal measures in the middle Benue trough of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 6,000 m of sediments of Cretaceous - Tertiary ages have been deposited in the Benue Trough. conspicuous amongst these are the coal-bearing strata, of which those in the Middle Benue Trough have attained a rank of high to medium volatile bituminous coal. Coal beds are now widely known to be a major source of associated and non-associated gases and are increasingly becoming exploration targets for gas accumulation in most parts of the world. In the Middle Benue Trough, the Turonian Awgu Formation is the main coal-bearing unit. Maceral analysis on samples from the coal seems and some organic matter-rich inter seam sediments obtained from four boreholes and two outcrop sections allows distinction of three petrographic facies which are related to the maceral associations, namely: (1) The vitrinite-fusinite coal facies which is vitrinite-dominated with minor amounts of liptinite and variable amounts of inertinite Mineral matter content is low. (2) The trimaceritic coal facies is vitrinite-dominated with moderate amounts of liptinite and inertinite. Mineral matter content is low. (3) The shaly coal facies is mineral matter-dominated with variable amounts of vitrinite, liptinite and inertinite. Vitrinite reflectance values measured on the these samples generally increase with depth from 0.74-1.25%. At these values, usually large amounts of volatile matter are yielded int he form of methane, carbon dioxide and water as the primary products of progressive maturation and devolatization of humic organic matter. Maturity of organic matter in the underlay dark-black carbonaceous marine shales of the Cenomainan Ezeaku and Albian Arufu/ Uomba/Gboko Formations may still be in the range of medium volatile bituminous coal and probably reach low volatile bituminous stage. These would correspond with the interval of maximum gas generation and the generation of methane accompanied strong aromatization by strong aromatization and ring condensation

  11. Sorption mechanism of solvent vapors to coals; Sekitan eno yobai joki no shuchaku kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to clarify the interactions between micropore structure of coal and solvent reagents, a sorption experiment was carried out under solvent saturated vapor pressure. Low-volatile bituminous coal, Pocahontas No. 3 coal, has the aromatic ring structure developed, and makes solvent more difficult to diffuse into coal, hence sorption amount is small. Methanol has permeated since its polarity is high. High-volatile bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, makes solvent penetrate easily, and the sorption amount was large with both of aromatic and polar solvents. Since brown coal, Beulah Zap coal, contains a large amount of oxygen, and hydrogen bonding is predominant, sorption amount of cyclohexane and benzene having no polarity is small. Methanol diffuses while releasing hydrogen bond due to its polarity, and its sorption amount is large. A double sorption model is available, which expresses the whole sorption amount as a sum of physical sorption amount and amount of permeation into coal. This model was applied when it explained successfully the sorption behavior of the solvents relative to coals, excepting some of the systems. However, also observed were such abnormal behavior as sorption impediment due to interactions between coal surface and solvents, and permeation impediment due to hydroxyl groups inside the coals. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Synthesis document on the long time behavior of packages: operational document ''bituminous'' 2204

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is realized in the framework of the law of 1991 on the radioactive wastes management. The 2004 synthesis document on long time behavior of bituminous sludges packages is constituted by two documents, the reference document and the operational document. This paper presents the operational model describing the water alteration of the packages and the associated radioelements release, as the gas term source and the swelling associated to the self-irradiation and the bituminous radiolysis. (A.L.B.)

  13. Direct Coal Oxidation in Modified Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Gil, Vanesa; Ippolito, Davide;

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon......-carbonate slurry or anode layer. The nature of the coal affects both open circuit voltage and power output. Highest OCV and power densities were observed for bituminous coal and by adding manganese oxide or praseodymium-doped ceria to the carbon/carbonate mixture. Comparing the carbon black fueled performance of...

  14. Geology and coal potential of Somaliland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Y. Ali [Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-01

    Geological field mapping along with available geological and drilling data suggest that Somaliland (Northwestern Somalia) has favourable stratigraphy and structure for coal deposits. Lignitic to sub-bituminous coal deposits with ages from Jurassic to Oligocene-Miocene occur in various locations across the country including Hed-Hed valley south of Onkhor, Guveneh hills north of Las Dureh and Daban Basin southeast of Berbera. However, the coal occurrence at Hed-Hed has both the greatest thickness and highest quality. These deposits have the potential to provide an important alternative fuel resource which could alleviate the growing shortage of traditional fuels and assist in reducing the country's dependence on imported energy. However, further investigation, including drilling and laboratory analyses, still needs to be carried out, particularly on the Upper Cretaceous coal seams to evaluate the quality and resource potential of the deposits.

  15. Oxidation of pyrite in coal to magnetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Alexander, C.C.; Dulong, F.T.

    1984-01-01

    When bituminous coal is heated in an inert atmosphere (He) containing small amounts of oxygen at 393-455 ??C, pyrite (FeS2) in coal is partially converted to magnetite (Fe304). The maximum amount of Fe304 formed during the time of heating corresponds to 5-20% of the total pyrite present, depending on the coal sample. The magnetite forms as an outer crust on the pyrite grains. The fact that the magnetic properties of the pyrite grains are substantially increased by the magnetite crust suggests that pyrite can be separated from coal by use of a low magnetic field. In a laboratory test, 75% removal is obtained by means of a 500 Oe magnet on three samples, and 60% on a fourth sample. ?? 1984.

  16. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time

  17. Polygenic formation model of the planet's bituminous belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrievsky, A. N.; Balanyuk, I. E.

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to nontraditional hydrocarbon sources. Today the portion of nontraditional gas in the world extraction is 15% or 450 billion cubic meters, which hat makes up the volume of total gas exports from Russia. As is known, the easy-prospecting oil has been already found. The innovative technologies in geophysics, drilling, and excavation and the increased extraction coefficient expect further development and industrial compliance with these requirements. Based on calculations, the world oil reserves are now one trillion of stock tank barrels and one trillion barrels have been already extracted. The evergrowing demand for energy gives rise to the necessity of searching for and extracting more oil resources, and both these aspects are unique problems. The search for profitable petroleum deposits has become more and more difficult even in the leading companies. The increment of the world resources is a key vital question; therefore, the elaboration of criteria for the discovery of nontraditional deposits take on special significance in the economic respect. The authors are working out a conception that will be a guideline for future finding of the richest oil deposits in active geodynamic zones. For the first time, we suggest the polygenic formation model of the planet's bituminous belts.

  18. A process for the bituminization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for the incorporation of sodium nitrate solutions in bitumen, with a view to the bituminization of radioactive wastes. This process has involved the development of a chemical process and its technological application. A double jacket reactor equipped with an anchor-type stirrer has been built. Sodium nitrate (NaNO3) solutions with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) are fed into the reactor simultaneously with a bitumen emulsion while heated oil is circulated through the double jacket. After all the water has evaporated, the mixture is ''simmered'' at 170/180 deg C for up to 5 hours in order to get a homogeneous product which will be suitable for final storage. The product contains small salt crystals (10/50 μm) and has high viscosity (200/2000 poise at 160 deg C and 12 rpm), so that the possibility of sedimentation is eliminated. In comparative experiments with molten bitumen, large salt aggregates, inhomogeneously distributed, make the product unsuitable. It has been found that NaOH is responsible for the polimerization of the bitumen, which raises its viscosity. The degree of polimerization depends on the NaOH concentration and ''simmering'' time and temperature. NaOH is added to NaNO3 in order to raise the mixture's viscosity and thereby prevent sedimentation

  19. Low-rank coal research. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--June 30, 1989, including quarterly report, April--June 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  20. 提高炮采工作面块煤率的技术途径%Technical Access to Improve Lump Coal Rate of Drilling and Blasting Coal Mining Face Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温树珍

    2012-01-01

    为提高小煤矿炮采块煤率,结合龙岩矿区小煤矿块煤层特征,分析了块煤率的影响因素为块煤的岩性特征和爆破落煤方式,基于块煤岩性特征将块煤分为3类块煤,为提高块煤率研究分析了这3类块煤开采选择不同的落煤方式。试验结果表明:坚硬块煤层可通过适当爆破落煤方式实现块煤率提高23%;节理发育条带块煤层,可不放炮直接采用风镐落煤法开采,其块煤率提高33%;块煤夹粉煤煤层,采用爆破振动加风镐落煤的方法,块煤率提高较多。%In order to improve the lump coal rate of the drilling and blasting mining face in a small mine, in combination with the lump coal seam features of the small mine in Longyan Mining Area, the paper had an analysis that the influence factors of the lump coal rate would be the lithology features of the lump coal and the drilling and blasting mining method. Based on the lithology features of the lump coal, the lump coal could be divided into three kinds of lump coal. In order to improve the lump coal rate, the three kind lump coal min- ing could select different coal cutting methods. The trial results showed that the hard lump coal seam with suitable drilling and blasting cutting method could have a lump coal rate improved by 23%. When there was a joint developed zone in the lump coal seam, the drilling and blasting would not be allowed to be applied and the pneumatic pick could be directly applied to the coal cutting. Thus the lump coal rate could be improved by 33%. When a seam with lump coal and fine coal, a standing blasting with pneumatic pick coal cutting method could be applied and the lump coal rate could be highly improved.

  1. Bioconversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.

    1993-10-25

    The overall objective of the project is to develop an integrated two stage fermentation process for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to a mixture of alcohols. This is achieved in two steps. In the first step, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) to butyric and acetic acids. Subsequent fermentation of the acids by Clostridium acetobutylicum leads to the production of butanol and ethanol. The tasks for this quarter were: (1) development/isolation of superior strains for fermentation of syngas, (2) optimization of process conditions for fermentation of syngas, (3) evaluation of bioreactor configuration for improved mass transfer of syngas, (4) development of a membrane-based pervaporation system, (5) optimization of process conditions for reducing carbon and electron loss by H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} fermentation, and (6) synthesis gas fermentation in single-stage by co-culture. Progress is reported in isolation of CO utilizing anaerobic strains; investigating the product profile for the fermentation of syngas by B. methylotrophicum; and determining the effect of carbon monoxide on growth of C. acetobutylicum.

  2. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  3. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1997--September 27, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L. [and others

    1998-01-06

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Phase I was completed on November 1, 1995. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included performing pilot-scale air toxics (i.e., trace elements and volatile organic compounds) testing and evaluating a ceramic filtering device on the demonstration boiler. Also, a sodium bicarbonate duct injection system was installed on the demonstration boiler. An economic analysis was conducted which investigated the benefits of decreased dependence on imported oil by using new coal combustion technologies. Work related to coal preparation and utilization was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, and surface-based separation processes. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included receiving three cleaned coals from Cyprus-Amax.

  4. Petrographic compositions of Paleozoic coals of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargal, Luvsanchultem; Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh

    2016-04-01

    In Mongolia, the deposition of coal bearing strata commenced in Pennsylvanian, and continued in Upper Permian, in Lower-Middle Jurassic and finally in Lower Cretaceous time. Pennsylvanian coal seams were deposited in Western Mongolia, where peat formation was initially developed in the southernmost part and later gradually shifted to northward. By the Late Permian, the locus of coal formation had changed and main peat accumulation took place in southern Mongolia. Lower-Middle Jurassic coal was accumulated in western, northern and eastern Mongolia. During this time, peat forming condition was comparatively stable in entire Mongolia. In the Early Cretaceous, thick and extensive coal was formed in the Eastern Mongolia. Due to this general trend of peat accumulation, coal rank decreases from west (bituminous) to east (lignite). The significant portion of Pennsylvanian and Upper Permian coal reserves, existed in western and southern Mongolia, are coking coal. Thus, petrographical studies of the coals are notably important. However, previous studies of Paleozoic coals have been sparse, and only few deposits have been conducted. The maceral compositions of Western Mongolian Pennsylvanian coals such as Khushuut, Maanit, Khurengol, Zeegt, Tsagaangol, Nuurstkhotgor, Khartarvagatai and Olonbulag were studied. The results show that the coals are dominated by vitrinite (45 vol.% to 71 vol.%) and inertinite (28 vol.% to 53vol.%) macerals. Liptinite contents are low, less than 4 vol.%. In addition, vitrinite reflectance values (Rmax in oil) of Khushuut (1.85%), Maanit (0.92%), Khurengol (1.4%), Zeegt (0.86%), Tsagaangol (3.6%), Nuurstkhotgor (0.9%), Khartarvagatai (1.1%) and Olonbulag (1.7%) were determined. Upper Permian coals in southern Mongolia (Tavantolgoi, Nariinsukhait, Jargalant, Tsagaantolgoi, Buduuniikhyar) are dominated by vitrinite (55 vol.% to 78 vol.%) and inertinite macerals (19 vol.% to 44 vol.%). Liptinite contents range from 1 vol.% to 7 vol.%. The vitrinite

  5. The delineation of coal bed erosion zone with technical means of mine seismic exploration%利用矿井震波探测技术圈定煤层侵蚀带

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏恒一; 宋军

    2015-01-01

    The coal bed erosion is a problem in the process of coal production, and the delinenation of the erotion zone will help to select appropriate mining technology. This paper tells how to determine the boundary of the erotion zone with technical means of seismic exploration. On the basis of the lithology analysis,we can determine the scope of the erotion zone through organic arrangement of engineering.The work provided accurate geological information for the coal production and obtained good economic beneift.The technical means of mine seismic exploration will have a good prospect in solving the geological problems of the coal production.%针对综采工作面回采过程中发现的煤层侵蚀带,在进行岩性分析的基础上,应用矿井震波勘探技术,经过综合分析,系统布置勘探工程,迅速准确地圈定了工作面内部煤层侵蚀带范围,及时为煤矿生产决策提供了准确的地质信息,取得了良好的经济效益。矿井地震波勘探方法在解决矿井生产中的地质问题方面具有很好的应用前景。

  6. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance of the process gave the following integral indicators: weight-average temperature of 2200-2300 K, and carbon gasification degree of 82,4-83,2%. Synthesis gas yield at thermochemical preparation of raw coal dust for burning was 24,5% and in the case of electron-beam activation of coal synthesis gas yield reached 36,4%, which is 48% higher.

  7. Enhancement of pulverized coal combustion by plasma technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorokhovski, M.A.; Jankoski, Z.; Lockwood, F.C.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [University of Rouen, Rouen (France)

    2007-07-01

    Plasma-assisted pulverized coal combustion is a promising technology for thermal power plants (TPP). This article reports one- and three- dimensional numerical simulations, as well as laboratory and industrial measurements of coal combustion using a plasma-fuel system (PFS). The chemical kinetic and fluid mechanics involved in this technology are analysed. The results show that a PFS, can be used to promote early ignition and enhanced stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. It is shown that this technology, in addition to enhancing the combustion efficiency of the flame, reduces harmful emissions from power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures). Data summarising the experience of 27 pulverized coal boilers in 16 thermal power plants in several countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Ukraine, Slovakia, Mongolia and China), embracing steam productivities from 75 to 670 tons per hour (TPH), are presented. Finally, the practical computation of the characteristics of the PFS, as function of coal properties, is discussed.

  8. Isotopic and chemical characterization of coal in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (delta /sup 13/C % PDB) and toxic/trace element concentration levels are determined for tertiary coal samples collected from seven coal fields in Pakistan. No systematic isotope effects are found in the process of coalification from peat to tertiary lignites and sub-bituminous coal. Similarly, no age effects are observed during the Tertiary regime. The observed variations in the carbon isotopic composition of coal obtained from 'Sharigh coal field' and the 'Sor-range/Degarl coalfield'. In Balochistan are attributes to the depositional environments. More sampling/stable carbon isotope analysis are required to validate these observations. Significant concentrations of toxic elements such as S, Cr, Cd and Pb in Makarwal coal may pose environmental and engineering/operational problems for thermal power plants. (author)

  9. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1996--March 27, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Pisupati, S.V. [and others

    1997-07-22

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. Preliminary pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction catalyst tests were conducted when firing natural gas in Penn State`s down-fired combustor. This is the first step in the scale-up of bench-scale results obtained in Phase II to the demonstration boiler scale when firing coal. The economic study focused on community sensitivity to coal usage, regional/national economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included installing a ribbon mixer into Penn State`s micronized coal-water mixture circuit for reentraining filter cake. In addition, three cleaned coals were received from CQ Inc. and three cleaned coals were received from Cyprus-Amax.

  10. Bituminous reference document: synthesis of knowledge on the long time behavior of bituminous packages; Dossier de reference bitume: synthese des connaissances sur le comportement a long terme des colis bitumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sercombe, J.; Adenot, F.; Vistoli, P.P.; Parraud, S.; Riglet-Martial, C.; Gwinner, B.; Felines, I.; Tiffreau, C.; Libert, M

    2004-07-01

    This document is a synthesis of the knowledge acquired at the CEA on the behavior of bituminous packages. In this framework, the CEA studied bituminous packages in generic conditions of a package lifetime. The main factors, the evolution mechanisms and influential parameters have been determined and quantitative s simulation have been developed. After a description of the main initial bituminous packages characterizations, the evolutions in saturated and un-saturated environment are exposed. (A.L.B.)

  11. Non-intrusive measurement of particle charge: Electrostatic dry coal cleaning. Technical progress report No. 8, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    As we reported in the Technical Progress Report No. 7, there are surges of electric current in the charging loop during triboelectrification of all particles. A high speed data acquisition and analysis system was developed to monitor and record the current pattern. There is no known report on such charge-discharge surges in the literature. The mechanism for it is yet to be understood. The on-line computerized electric current measurement also leads to an observation of charging effects as a function of particle feeding rate. It is shown that feed rate greatly alters particle charge. Such an effect is mostly overlooked by researchers and it could have a important role in process design where the feed rate would be maximized. The initial results for coal and mineral particles demonstrated that the average charge was lower when the feed rate was increased. Further investigation is scheduled to identify potential controlling factors, eg, the solid volume fraction and particle number density could be important process factors. The study of charging velocity and particle size was continued. It was found that particle charge was linearly dependent on the charging velocity for all samples investigated. However, the slope of this linear dependence varied for particles having different diameters. In addition, the charge-velocity relationships were dependent on feeding rates. Hence, the data discussed below include these interrelationships.

  12. Emissions and Furnace Gas Temperature for Electricity Generation Via Co-Firing of Coal and Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Mehmood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen and sulphur oxides for electricity generation with coal and biomass co-firing are investigated and the furnace gas temperature assessed. The study uses simulation and considers fuel combinations based on two coals (bituminous coal, lignite and four types of biomass (rice husk, sawdust, chicken litter, refused derived fuel. With increasing biomass, net CO2 emissions are seen to decline significantly for all types of selected biomass, while gross carbon dioxide emissions increase for all blends except bituminous coal/refuse derived fuel, lignite/chicken litter and lignite/refuse derived fuel. The reductions in emissions of nitrogen and sulphur oxides are dependent on the contents of nitrogen and sulphur in the biomass. The results also show for all fuel combinations that increasing the biomass proportion decreases the furnace exit gas temperature.

  13. EFFECT OF HEATING RATE ON THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF PULVERIZED COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan Sampath

    2000-01-01

    This final technical report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96224 during the period September 24, 1996 to September 23, 1999 which covers the entire performance period of the project. During this period, modification, alignment, and calibration of the measurement system, measurement of devolatilization time-scales for single coal particles subjected to a range of heating rates and temperature data at these time-scales, and analysis of the temperature data to understand the effect of heating rates on coal thermal properties were carried out. A new thermodynamic model was developed to predict the heat transfer behavior for single coal particles using one approach based on the analogy for thermal property of polymers. Results of this model suggest that bituminous coal particles behave like polymers during rapid heating on the order of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} K/s. At these heating rates during the early stages of heating, the vibrational part of the heat capacity of the coal molecules appears to be still frozen but during the transition from heat-up to devolatilization, the heat capacity appears to attain a sudden jump in its value as in the case of polymers. There are a few data available in the coal literature for low heating rate experiments (10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} K/s) conducted by UTRC, our industrial partner, in this project. These data were obtained for a longer heating duration on the order of several seconds as opposed to the 10 milliseconds heating time of the single particle experiments discussed above. The polymer analogy model was modified to include longer heating time on the order of several seconds to test these data. However, the model failed to predict these low heating rate data. It should be noted that UTRC's work showed reasonably good agreement with Merrick model heat capacity predictions at these low heating rates, but at higher heating rates UTRC observed that coal thermal response was heat flux dependent. It is concluded

  14. Geology and coal bed methane resource potential of the Gondwana Barapukuria Coal Basin, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Hayashi, Daigoro [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, 903-0213 (Japan)

    2008-08-05

    With an area of 5.16 km{sup 2}, the Barapukuria coal deposit is one of the five largest Gondwana coal basins in Bangladesh, and is located in the north west of the country close to the towns of Dinajpur and Saidpur. The existence of the basin was initially indicated by a negative gravity anomaly in oil and gas exploration. Exploration for the deposit was commenced by the Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB), with seven surface boreholes that confirmed the existence of a significant coal deposit. The deposit occurs as an asymmetrical synclinal structure with an axis striking approximately N-S. The deposit is limited to the east by a large normal fault which has displaced Archaean metamorphics against the Gondwana sediments. The coal-bearing sediments are comprised of Gondwana Permian-age sandstones, siltstones, subordinate carbonaceous shales, and six correlated coal seams. The Gondwana sediments are unconformably overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, against which the coal seams are successively subcropped to the west. Within the structural limits of the basin, approximately 377 Mt coal in-situ has been quantified in the six coal seams that range in depth from 118 to 518 m below surface. Due to the synclinal nature of the deposit, the upper coal seams, designated I to V, occur over diminishing areal extent with decreasing depth. The principal seam of interest is the lowermost Seam VI, with a variable thickness across the deposit from 22 m in the northern part of the deposit to more than 42 m in the southern and eastern areas. Development of the Barapukuria Mine, the country's first coal mine, commenced in 1996 with the construction of two vertical shafts. Coal production from Seam VI began in 2005 and continues at the present time. Seam VI coal is high volatile B bituminous rank. About 34 Mt of coal has been estimated as recoverable resources, utilising descensional multi-slice longwall mining. The mine design and development have been severely

  15. A kinetic study of gaseous potassium capture by coal minerals in a high temperature fixed-bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    The reactions between gaseous potassium chloride and coal minerals were investigated in a lab-scale high temperature fixed-bed reactor using single sorbent pellets. The applied coal minerals included kaolin, mullite, silica, alumina, bituminous coal ash, and lignite coal ash that were formed into...... long cylindrical pellets. Kaolin and bituminous coal ash that both have significant amounts of Si and Al show superior potassium capture characteristics. Experimental results show that capture of potassium by kaolin is independent of the gas oxygen content. Kaolin releases water and forms metakaolin...... temperatures below 1300°C. However, the weight gain by mullite is only slightly smaller than that by kaolin in the temperature range of 1300-1500°C. A simple model was developed for the gas-solid reaction between potassium vapor and metakaolin pellet at 900°C....

  16. Influence of Coal Particle Size on Coal Adsorption and Desorption Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao

    2014-10-01

    Accurate testing coal isotherm can play a significant role in the areas of coal seam gas drainage, outburst control, CO2 geo-sequestration, coalbed methane (CBM) and enhanced coalbed methane recovery (ECBM) etc. The effect of particle size on the CO2 and CH4 sorption capacity of bituminous coal from Illawarra, Australia was investigated at 35°C and at pressure up to 4 MPa. A unique indirect gravimetric apparatus was used to measure the gas adsorption and desorption isotherms of coal of different particle sizes ranging from around 150 urn to 16 mm. Langmuir model was used to analysis the experimental results of all gases. Coal particle size was found to have an apparent effect on the coal ash content and helium density results. Coal with larger particle size had higher ash content and higher helium density. The sorption isotherm was found to be highly sensitive with helium density of coal which was determined in the procedure of testing the void volume of sample cell. Hence, coal particle size had a significant influence on the coal sorption characteristics including sorption capacity and desorption hysteresis for CO2 and CH4, especially calculated with dry basis of coal. In this study, the 150-212 um (150 um) coal samples achieved higher sorption capacity and followed by 2.36-3.35 mm (2.4 mm), 8-9.5 mm (8 mm) and 16-19 mm (16 mm) particle size samples. However, the differences between different coal particles were getting smaller when the sorption isotherms are calculated with dry ash free basis. Test with 150 um coal samples were also found to have relatively smaller desorption hysteresis compared with the other larger particle size samples. The different results including adsorption/desorption isotherm, Langmuir parameters and coal hysteresis were all analysed with the CO2 and CH4 gases.

  17. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  18. Emission characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of different residential coals in North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wen X. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: wxliu@urban.pku.edu.cn; Dou Han; Wei, Zhi C.; Chang Biao; Qiu, Wei X.; Liu Yuan; Tao Shu [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-02-01

    Emission properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion of six residential coals in North China were investigated. The results indicated that, the total emission factors (EFs) for 15 PAH species in gaseous and particulate phases ranged from 52.8 to 1434.8 mg/kg with a decreasing sequence of local bituminous coals and anthracite coals, and honeycomb briquettes were largely dependent on the raw coals used to produce them. Particulate phase, dominated by median or high molecular weight components, made a major contribution (68.8% - 76.5%) to the total EFs for bituminous coals, while gaseous phase with principal low molecular weight species accounted for most (86.3% - 97.9%) of the total EFs for anthracite coals. The phase partitioning of PAH emission for honeycomb briquettes was similarly dependent on the crude coals. The total EFs, phase partitioning and component profiles of emitted PAHs were mainly influenced by the inner components of the studied coals. Burning mode and flue number on household coal-stoves also affected the emission characteristics by means of the oxygen supply. A sum of seven carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene(BaP)-equivalent carcinogenic power and total toxicity potency expressed in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-dioxin(TCDD) toxic equivalence exhibited that bituminous coals and produced honeycomb briquettes had remarkably elevated values. Fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene from anthracite coals showed higher levels of BaP-based toxic equivalent factor, though the other toxicity indices were rather low for this type of coal.

  19. Emission characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of different residential coals in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion of six residential coals in North China were investigated. The results indicated that, the total emission factors (EFs) for 15 PAH species in gaseous and particulate phases ranged from 52.8 to 1434.8 mg/kg with a decreasing sequence of local bituminous coals and anthracite coals, and honeycomb briquettes were largely dependent on the raw coals used to produce them. Particulate phase, dominated by median or high molecular weight components, made a major contribution (68.8% - 76.5%) to the total EFs for bituminous coals, while gaseous phase with principal low molecular weight species accounted for most (86.3% - 97.9%) of the total EFs for anthracite coals. The phase partitioning of PAH emission for honeycomb briquettes was similarly dependent on the crude coals. The total EFs, phase partitioning and component profiles of emitted PAHs were mainly influenced by the inner components of the studied coals. Burning mode and flue number on household coal-stoves also affected the emission characteristics by means of the oxygen supply. A sum of seven carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene(BaP)-equivalent carcinogenic power and total toxicity potency expressed in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-dioxin(TCDD) toxic equivalence exhibited that bituminous coals and produced honeycomb briquettes had remarkably elevated values. Fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene from anthracite coals showed higher levels of BaP-based toxic equivalent factor, though the other toxicity indices were rather low for this type of coal

  20. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs

  1. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report: First quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, long-term testing of the LNB + AOFA configuration continued and no parametric testing was performed. Further full-load optimization of the LNB + AOFA system began on March 30, 1993. Following completion of this optimization, comprehensive testing in this configuration will be performed including diagnostic, performance, verification, long-term, and chemical emissions testing. These tests are scheduled to start in May 1993 and continue through August 1993. Preliminary engineering and procurement are progressing on the Advanced Low NOx Digital Controls scope addition to the wall-fired project. The primary activities during this quarter include (1) refinement of the input/output lists, (2) procurement of the distributed digital control system, (3) configuration training, and (4) revision of schedule to accommodate project approval cycle and change in unit outage dates.

  2. Molecular characterization of flash pyrolysates of two Carboniferous coals and their constituting maceral fractions

    OpenAIRE

    J. S. Sinninghe Damsté; Hartgers, W.A.; Ling, Y.; Leeuw, J. W.; Dyrckacz, G.

    1994-01-01

    Two high-volatile bituminous Upper Carboniferous coals from the Argonne Premium Coal Set and their constituting liptinite, vitrinite, and inertinite fractions, obtained by density gradient centrifugation (DGC), were characterized by Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A detailed analysis of the pyrolysis products was performed to relate individual macerals to their (plant-derived) precursors. Liptinite fractions were found to be mainly composed of sporinite, the diagen...

  3. The Influence Of Mass Fraction Of Dressed Coal On Ignition Conditions Of Composite Liquid Fuel Droplet

    OpenAIRE

    Shlegel Nikita E.; Kats Mark D.; Glushkov Dmitriy O.

    2015-01-01

    The laws of condition modification of inert heat and ignition in an oxidant flow of composite liquid fuel droplet were studied by the developed experimental setup. Investigations were for composite liquid fuel composition based on the waste of bituminous and nonbaking coal processing, appropriate carbon dust, water, used motor oil. The characteristics of boundary layer inertia heat of composite liquid fuel droplet, thermal decomposition of coal organic part, the yield of volatiles and evapora...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Two additional biomass co-firing test burns were conducted during this quarter. In the first test (Test 10), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was compiled with Galatia coal and injected through the dual-register burner. Galatia coal is a medium-sulfur Illinois Basin coal ((approx)1.0% S). The dual-register burner is a generic low-NO(sub x) burner that incorporates two independent wind boxes. In the second test (Test 11), regular ((approx)70% passing 200 mesh) and finely ground ((approx)90% passing 200 mesh) Pratt Seam coal was injected through the single-register burner to determine if coal grind affects NO(sub x) and unburned carbon emissions. The results of these tests are presented in this quarterly report. Significant progress has been made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO(sub x) emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. No additional results of CFD modeling have been received as delivery of the Configurable Fireside Simulator is expected during the next quarter. Preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments with the single-register burner and a low-volatility bituminous coal. Some delays have been experienced in the acquisition and processing of biomass. Finally, a project review was held at the offices of Southern Research in Birmingham, on February 27, 2002

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

    2002-04-30

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Two additional biomass co-firing test burns were conducted during this quarter. In the first test (Test 10), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was compiled with Galatia coal and injected through the dual-register burner. Galatia coal is a medium-sulfur Illinois Basin coal ({approx}1.0% S). The dual-register burner is a generic low-NO{sub x} burner that incorporates two independent wind boxes. In the second test (Test 11), regular ({approx}70% passing 200 mesh) and finely ground ({approx}90% passing 200 mesh) Pratt Seam coal was injected through the single-register burner to determine if coal grind affects NO{sub x} and unburned carbon emissions. The results of these tests are presented in this quarterly report. Significant progress has been made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. No additional results of CFD modeling have been received as delivery of the Configurable Fireside Simulator is expected during the next quarter. Preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments with the single-register burner and a low-volatility bituminous coal. Some delays have been experienced in the acquisition and processing of biomass. Finally, a project review was held at the offices of Southern Research in Birmingham, on February 27, 2002.

  6. Maceral Characteristics and Vitrinite Reflectance Variation of The High Rank Coals, South Walker Creek, Bowen Basin, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Asep K. Permana; Ward, C. R.; L. W. Gurba

    2014-01-01

    DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.156The Permian coals of the South Walker Creek area, with a vitrinite reflectance (Rvmax) of 1.7 to 1.95% (low-volatile bituminous to semi-anthracite), are one of the highest rank coals currently mined in the Bowen Basin for the pulverized coal injection (PCI) market. Studies of petrology of this coal seam have identified that the maceral composition of the coals are dominated by inertinite with lesser vitrinite, and only minor amounts of liptinite. Clay minerals, quar...

  7. Toxic substances from coal combustion: Laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senior, C.L.; Bool, L.E. III [PSI Technologies, Andover, MA (United States); Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E.; Shah, N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Zheng, T. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. PSI Technologies (PSIT) is teaming with researches from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona, the University of Kentucky, the University of Connecticut, and Princeton University to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO{sub x} combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSIT`s existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). Extensive coal characterization and laboratory work will be conducted in order to develop and test new sub-models, including direct identification of the modes of occurrence of trace inorganic species in coal and ash using unique analytical techniques such as XAFS analysis and selective leaching and combustion testing too evaluate the formation and partitioning of inorganic toxic compounds as a function of mode of occurrence and combustion conditions at a range of combustion scales. Preliminary analysis of two American bituminous coals has focused on the forms of arsenic in both coal and ash. Trends in trace metal concentration in coal particles as a function of particle size have also been documented.

  8. 选煤厂煤泥水处理系统工艺流程的改造与优化%Technical innovation model of slime treatment system for coal preparation plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽梅

    2011-01-01

    选煤厂煤泥水处理系统的改造,是我国选煤厂进行技术改造最多的一个环节.为了减少新水的消耗,减少环境污染,提高选煤效率,选煤厂在煤泥水处理方面,通过对煤泥水处理系统的改造,已积累了很多宝贵的实践经验.文章总结出了几种典型的煤泥水处理工艺流程类型及适应条件,并主要通过具体实例的分析,了解和掌握选煤厂煤泥水处理系统技术改造的原因、采取的措施和取得的经济效果和社会效果,为选煤厂今后在煤泥水处理系统的改造提供切实可行的参考方法和实施手段.%Slime treatment system is an important unit to make more innovations in coal preparation plants in China. There are more valuable practice experiences in variant technical innovations for slime treatment system in coal preparation plants to decrease new water consuption and pollution and to increase coal preparation efficiency. The paper summarizes some typical slime treatment flowsheetes and conditions to get with them, and expands on causes and measures of technical innovation for slime treatment system in coal preparation plants and on getting economic and social results by some samples. It provides some practical methods and measures for slime treatment system innovation in coal preparation plant in futher.

  9. Effects of salt content on leaching properties of synthetic bituminized wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leaching properties of soluble components (Na+, NO3−, and NO2−) in synthetic bituminized wastes with various characteristics, such as salt content, salt composition, and bitumen matrix, were quantitatively evaluated by means of an aqueous leaching test. Micropores were formed in the bituminized waste by the leaching of soluble salts. The penetrability of bitumen and the salt content affected the size and the shape of the micropores observed by scanning electron microscopy. The linear relationship between leaching fraction of the soluble components and square root of leaching time was observed, and the diffusion coefficient of the soluble component was determined by Fick's law. The diffusion coefficients of ionic species of interest were similar to each other. Moreover, the diffusion coefficient agreed among bituminized wastes with the same salt content, even if salt composition and bitumen matrix were different. The diffusion coefficient of the component was proportional to the salt content in the synthetic bituminized wastes. It was found that the salt content in the bituminized waste was one of the key factors to determine the diffusion coefficient. (author)

  10. Evaluation of coal bed methane potential of coal seams of Sawang Colliery, Jharkhand, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Vinod A Mendhe; A Varade

    2008-04-01

    The coal seams of Sawang Colliery, East Bokaro Coalfields are bituminous to sub-bituminous in nature and categorized as high gaseous seams (degree II to degree III level). These seams have the potential for coal bed methane (CBM) and their maturity increases with increasing depth, as a result of enhanced pressure-temperature conditions in the underground. The vitrinite maceral group composition of the investigated coal seams ranges from 62.50-83.15%, whereas the inertinite content varies from 14.93-36.81%. The liptinite content varies from 0.66% to 3.09%. The maximum micro-pores are confined within the vitrinite group of macerals. The coal seams exhibit vitrinite reflectance values (Ro% calculated) from 0.94% (sample CG-97) to 1.21% (sample CG-119). Proximate analyses of the investigated coal samples reveal that the moisture content (M%) ranges from 1.28% to 2.98%, whereas, volatile matter (VM%) content is placed in the range of 27.01% to 33.86%. The ash content (A%) ranges from 10.92% to 30.01%. Fixed carbon (FC%) content varies from 41.53% to 55.93%. Fuel ratio variation shows a restricted range from 1.53 to 1.97. All the coal samples were found to be strongly caking and forming coke buttons. The present study is based on the adsorption isotherm experiments carried out under controlled P-T conditions for determination of actual gas adsorption capacity of the coal seams. This analysis shows that the maximum methane gas adsorbed in the coal sample CG-81 is 17m3/t (Std. daf), at maximum pressure of 5.92MPa and experimental temperature of 30°C. The calculated Langmuir regression parameters PL and VL range from 2.49 to 3.75MPa and 22.94 to 26.88m3/t (Std. daf), respectively.

  11. Spectroscopy study of electron spin resonance of coal oxidation of different rank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work constitutes an initial step for the knowledge of the coal oxidation, with the purpose of preventing the adverse influences caused by this phenomenon in the physical-chemical characteristics and in the tendency to the spontaneous combustion. Since the knowledge the influence of the free radicals in this process, their relative concentration was measured by means of the use of the technique of resonance spin electron. This technique measures the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, generally in the microwaves region, for the materials that not have electrons matched up in a strong magnetic field. In the essays of oxidation three coal of different range and different characteristics of mass were used and it was studied the influence of the temperature, particle size and the range. The results showed that the coal of Guacheta (bituminous low in volatile) it presents bigger concentration of free radicals, after the reaction with the atmospheric oxygen, with regard to the coal of the Cerrejon (bituminous high in volatile B) and Amaga (bituminous high in volatile C). Although this doesn't indicate that the coal of Guacheta is that more easily is oxidized, but rather it possibly presents stabilization of radicals for resonance. It concluded that there are differences in the oxidation mechanism between coal of different rank and different agglomeration properties

  12. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1995--September 27, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Hatcher, P.; Knicker, H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1996-10-21

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through the Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Mixture Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. During this reporting period, preparation of the Phase I final report continued. Work on Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included initiating a study to identify appropriate SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies for coal-fired industrial boilers. In addition, work started on the design of a ceramic filtering device for installation on the demonstration boiler. The ceramic filter device will be used to demonstrate a more compact and efficient filtering device for retrofit applications. Coal preparation and utilization activities, and the economic analysis were completed and work focused on preparing the final report. Work on Phase III focused on coal preparation studies and economic analyses of coal use. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, surface-based separation processes, and dry processing. The economic study focused on selecting incentives for commercialization of coal using technologies, community sensitivity to coal usage, regional economic impacts of new coal utilization technologies, and constructing a national energy portfolio.

  13. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Quarterly technical progress report, March--May 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1990-12-31

    The objectives of the project are to investigate various coal pretreatment techniques and to determine the effect of these pretreatment procedures on the reactivity of the coal. Reactivity enhancement will be evaluated under both direct hydroliquefaction and co-processing conditions. Coal conversion utilizing low rank coals and low severity conditions (reaction temperatures generally less than 350{degrees}C) are the primary focus of the liquefaction experiments, as it is expected that the effect of pretreatment conditions and the attendant reactivity enhancement will be greatest for these coals and at these conditions. This document presents a comprehensive report summarizing the findings on the effect of mild alkylation pretreatment on coal reactivity under both direct hydroliquefaction and liquefaction co-processing conditions. Results of experiments using a dispersed catalyst system (chlorine) are also presented for purposes of comparison. IN general, mild alkylation has been found to be an effective pretreatment method for altering the reactivity of coal. Selective (oxygen) methylation was found to be more effective for high oxygen (subbituminous) coals compared to coals of higher rank. This reactivity enhancement was evidenced under both low and high severity liquefaction conditions, and for both direct hydroliquefaction and liquefaction co-processing reaction environments. Non-selective alkylation (methylation) was also effective, although the enhancement was less pronounced than found for coal activated by O-alkylation. The degree of reactivity enhancement was found to vary with both liquefaction and/or co-processing conditions and coal type, with the greatest positive effect found for subbituminous coal which had been selectively O-methylated and subsequently liquefied at low severity reaction conditions. 5 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Breaking the limits of structural and mechanical imaging of the heterogeneous structure of coal macerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, L.; Tselev, A.; Jesse, S.; Okatan, M. B.; Proksch, R.; Mathews, J. P.; Mitchell, G. D.; Rodriguez, B. J.; Kalinin, S. V.; Ivanov, I. N.

    2014-10-01

    The correlation between local mechanical (elasto-plastic) and structural (composition) properties of coal presents significant fundamental and practical interest for coal processing and for the development of rheological models of coal to coke transformations. Here, we explore the relationship between the local structural, chemical composition, and mechanical properties of coal using a combination of confocal micro-Raman imaging and band excitation atomic force acoustic microscopy for a bituminous coal. This allows high resolution imaging (10s of nm) of mechanical properties of the heterogeneous (banded) architecture of coal and correlating them to the optical gap, average crystallite size, the bond-bending disorder of sp2 aromatic double bonds, and the defect density. This methodology allows the structural and mechanical properties of coal components (lithotypes, microlithotypes, and macerals) to be understood, and related to local chemical structure, potentially allowing for knowledge-based modeling and optimization of coal utilization processes.

  15. Breaking the limits of structural and mechanical imaging of the heterogeneous structure of coal macerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation between local mechanical (elasto-plastic) and structural (composition) properties of coal presents significant fundamental and practical interest for coal processing and for the development of rheological models of coal to coke transformations. Here, we explore the relationship between the local structural, chemical composition, and mechanical properties of coal using a combination of confocal micro-Raman imaging and band excitation atomic force acoustic microscopy for a bituminous coal. This allows high resolution imaging (10s of nm) of mechanical properties of the heterogeneous (banded) architecture of coal and correlating them to the optical gap, average crystallite size, the bond-bending disorder of sp2 aromatic double bonds, and the defect density. This methodology allows the structural and mechanical properties of coal components (lithotypes, microlithotypes, and macerals) to be understood, and related to local chemical structure, potentially allowing for knowledge-based modeling and optimization of coal utilization processes. (paper)

  16. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Saini, A.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the progress of our work during the first quarterly period. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of fresh and THF-extracted samples of two subbituminous coals and fresh samples of three bituminous coals using cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid state {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS techniques. CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS provided important information on carbon distribution/functionality and molecular components/structural units, respectively, for these coal samples. Pyrolysis-GC-MS revealed that there are remarkable structural differences in structural units between the subbituminous coals and the bituminous coals. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in the pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization of catalytically and thermally pretreated as well as physically treated Wyodak subbituminous coal, and temperature-staged and temperature-programmed thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous coal.

  17. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Coal deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolela, Ahmed [Department of Petroleum Operations, Ministry of Mines and Energy, Kotebe Branch Office, P. O. Box-486, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2007-11-22

    The gravity of Ethiopian energy problem has initiated studies to explore various energy resources in Ethiopia, one among this is the exploration for coal resources. Studies confirmed the presence of coal deposits in the country. The coal-bearing sediments are distributed in the Inter-Trappean and Pre-Trap volcanic geological settings, and deposited in fluvio-lacustrine and paludal environments in grabens and half-grabens formed by a NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE fault systems. Most significant coal deposits are found in the Inter-Trappean geological setting. The coal and coal-bearing sediments reach a maximum thickness of 4 m and 300 m, respectively. The best coal deposits were hosted in sandstone-coal-shale and mudstone-coal-shale facies. The coal formations of Ethiopia are quite unique in that they are neither comparable to the coal measures of the Permo-Carboniferous Karroo Formation nor to the Late Devonian-Carboniferous of North America or Northwestern Europe. Proximate analysis and calorific value data indicated that the Ethiopian coals fall under lignite to high volatile bituminous coal, and genetically are classified under humic, sapropelic and mixed coal. Vitrinite reflectance studies confirmed 0.3-0.64% Ro values for the studied coals. Palynology studies confirmed that the Ethiopian coal-bearing sediments range in age from Eocene to Miocene. A total of about 297 Mt of coal reserve registered in the country. The coal reserve of the country can be considered as an important alternative source of energy. (author)

  18. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1994--September 27, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Morrison, J.L. [and others

    1995-04-14

    The US Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. Activities this reporting period included performing coal beneficiation/preparation studies, conducting combustion performance evaluations, preparing retrofit engineering designs, determining retrofit economics, and installing a micronized coal-water mixture (MCWM) circuit.

  19. Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, N.C.

    1996-02-01

    In order to develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, we plan to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitate depolymerization of coal. We also plan to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms. In addition the product of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein.

  20. Semi-coke briquettes: towards reducing emissions of primary PM2.5, particulate carbon, and carbon monoxide from household coal combustion in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Li; Xinghua Li; Jingkun Jiang; Lei Duan; Su Ge; Qi Zhang; Jianguo Deng; Shuxiao Wang; Jiming Hao

    2016-01-01

    Direct household use of unprocessed raw coals for cooking and heating without any air pollution control device has caused serious indoor and outdoor environment problems by emitting particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. This study examined household emission reduction by switching from unprocessed bituminous and anthracite coals to processed semi-coke briquettes. Two typical stoves were used to test emission characteristics when burning 20 raw coal samples commonly used in residenti...

  1. Coal-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1992. Some information about technics, environmental questions and markets are also given. The use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced by about 10 percent during 1992 to the level of 1.1 million ton. This is the case for both heat generating boilers and co-generation boilers. On the other hand, the electricity production in the cogeneration plants have increased, mainly for tax reasons. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. During 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 cogeneration plants. For 1992 these figures are 5 and 9. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The industry has reduced its use of steamcoal by 140 000 tons to about 700 000 tons. The reason is a cut down of production in particularly the cement industry and the mineral wool industry. The steamcoal import was 1.2 million tons during 1992, the same as the year before. The import has been lower than the consumption during the last years. The companies have reduced their stocks because of changed laws about emergency stocks. The average price of steamcoal imported in Sweden in 1992 was 272 SEK/ton or 25 SEK/ton lower than in 1991. The coal market during 1992 was affected by smaller consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. Among other things independent mines in Russia and Poland have dumped low quality coals. A structuring of both process and quality has now begun. Western companies have for instance started joint ventures with Russian companies and supplied washing- and classifying equipments. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx given by county administrations or concession boards. 13 tabs

  2. Injury experience in coal mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, R.B.; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  3. Injury experience in coal mining, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  4. Injury experience in coal mining, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This Mine and Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  5. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  6. Effects of microwave irradiation treatment on physicochemical characteristics of Chinese low-rank coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Typical Chinese lignites with various ranks are upgraded through microwave. • The pore distribution extends to micropore region, BET area and volume increase. • FTIR show the change of microstructure and improvement in coal rank after upgrading. • Upgraded coals exhibit weak combustion similar to Da Tong bituminous coal. • More evident effects are obtained for raw brown coal with relative lower rank. - Abstract: This study investigates the effects of microwave irradiation treatment on coal composition, pore structure, coal rank, function groups, and combustion characteristics of typical Chinese low-rank coals. Results showed that the upgrading process (microwave irradiation treatment) significantly reduced the coals’ inherent moisture, and increased their calorific value and fixed carbon content. It was also found that the upgrading process generated micropores and increased pore volume and surface area of the coals. Results on the oxygen/carbon ratio parameter indicated that the low-rank coals were upgraded to high-rank coals after the upgrading process, which is in agreement with the findings from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Unstable components in the coal were converted into stable components during the upgrading process. Thermo-gravimetric analysis showed that the combustion processes of upgraded coals were delayed toward the high-temperature region, the ignition and burnout temperatures increased, and the comprehensive combustion parameter decreased. Compared with raw brown coals, the upgraded coals exhibited weak combustion characteristics similar to bituminous coal. The changes in physicochemical characteristics became more notable when processing temperature increased from 130 °C to 160 °C or the rank of raw brown coal was lower. Microwave irradiation treatment could be considered as an effective dewatering and upgrading process

  7. Formation of fine particles in co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel in a pulverized coal-fired power station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Glarborg, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Fine particles formed from combustion of a bituminous coal and co-combustion of coal with 7 th% (thermal percentage) solid recovered fuel (SRF) in a pulverized coal-fired power plant were sampled and characterized in this study. The particles from dedicated coal combustion and co-combustion both...... showed an ultrafine mode centered at approximately 0.1 μm. Compared with coal combustion, co-combustion of coal and SRF increased the formation of submicron particles, especially ultrafine particles below 0.2 μm. The morphology of the particles indicated that supermicron particles were primarily formed...... appear to be an important formation mechanism. The elemental composition of the particles from coal combustion showed that S and Ca were significantly enriched in ultrafine particles and P was also enriched considerably. However, compared with supermicron particles, the contents of Al, Si and K were...

  8. Elemental and surface characterization of indigenous coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elemental and surface characterization of local coal samples have been done in this research project. These samples from different mines of Punjab and Sindh were used in pulverized form with particle size ranges from 5 to 70 microns. Moisture content of these coal samples was determined by simply weight loss method. The maximum 9.3% moisture was found in coal sample of Al-Fateh Coal Company Khanot Hyderabad and minimum moisture 2.3% was found in coal sample of Dost sons dalwal from Chakwal. Coal samples for elemental analysis were prepared in one milligram along with BBOT standard and vanadium pentaoxide for complete combustion. These samples were weighed on highly sensitive balance with precision in the range of micrograms. Elemental characterization of coal samples was performed by CHNS-O analyzer to determine the percentage amount of carbon, hydrogen and sulfur present in the coal. The coal samples taken from mines of Mianwali and from Hyderabad were found as high ranked coal in bituminous range as carbon content found greater than 50% in these coals. The maximum carbon content 61% measured for old B-Mines MCL from Mianwali and minimum carbon content of 34% was found in coal sample of Dost Sons Dalwal from Chakwal. The minimum sulfur to carbon ratio (to check the quality of coal) was found from Haroon Mines B-Quality khajoola of Chakwal and Habibullah Mines.42 seam-1, khanot of Hyderabad and maximum sulfur to carbon ratio was found from punjmin (gambrial), DCP Dandot of Chakwal. From the results of elemental analysis, further calculations for the evaluation of total air required to burn the coal was carried out and the amount of total flue gases produced during combustion has also been estimated. Particle.size of best five coal samples based on carbon content was determined by using laser particle size analyzer. All the coal samples contained fine particles in the range of 5-70 μm. The mode of distribution of all coal samples was found in the range of 5- 20

  9. Plane flame furnace combustion tests on JPL desulfurized coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, J. J.; Kim, H. T.; Lima, J. G. H.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of three raw bituminous (PSOC-282 and 276) and subbituminous (PSOC-230) coals, the raw coals partially desulfurized (ca -60%) by JPL chlorinolysis, and the chlorinated coals more completely desulfurized (ca -75%) by JPL hydrodesulfurization were determined. The extent to which the combustion characteristics of the untreated coals were altered upon JPL sulfur removal was examined. Combustion conditions typical of utility boilers were simulated in the plane flame furnace. Upon decreasing the parent coal voltaile matter generically by 80% and the sulfur by 75% via the JPL desulfurization process, ignition time was delayed 70 fold, burning velocity was retarded 1.5 fold, and burnout time was prolonged 1.4 fold. Total flame residence time increased 2.3 fold. The JPL desulfurization process appears to show significant promise for producing technologically combustible and clean burning (low SO3) fuels.

  10. UMWA: the wild card in short term coal prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US coal industry faces two possible labour actions, the first stemming from the Bituminous Coal Operators Association (BCOA) and the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) in opposition to the non-union sector over the issue of retired medical benefit funds (which may lead to wildcat action this summer). If this issue is not resolved by 31 January 1993, when the current eastern wage agreement expires, pressure may build for a national coal strike in February. The consequences of these actions for the US coal market are considered. Resource Data International monthly market indicators for the US coal industry together with utility market price indicators for the Illinois Basin are tabulated. 2 tabs

  11. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxclair, E.J. [Destec Energy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Stultz, J. [PSI Energy, Inc., West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  12. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  13. Spanish Round Robin test on water sensitivity test of bituminous mixtures; Ejercicio espanol interlaboratorios sobre el ensayo de sensibilidad al gua de mezclas bituminosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Saez, R.; Enrique Gabeiras, L.; Miranda Perez, L.; Valor Hernandez, F.

    2011-07-01

    The amendment of Article 542 and 543 on the hot asphalt mixtures included in the Spanish Technical specifications for Road Construction (PG-3), by Circular Order 24/2008, introduced a new series of modification to adapt Spanish regulations to European standards series EN 13108. Among the various amendments, new tests methods and design criteria are considered, as UNE-EN 12697-12 for assessing the water sensitivity on compacted specimens, which is mandatory for every kind of bituminous mixture. In this paper, firstly a comparison between the European method and the old Spanish method described in the NLT-162 is made, explaining the experimental conditions selected. The results of an interlaboratory study or Round Robin Test conducted in ten Spanish laboratories are subsequently described and analyzed, in order to allow each laboratory to assess its technical performance, and also to determine quantitatively the precision of the new method in terms of repeatability and reproducibility. (Author) 15 refs.

  14. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1992--March 27, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; Hogg, R. [and others

    1993-05-13

    The US Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first phase of the program is underway. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (MC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and pre-combustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash and high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phase I are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil- designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or MC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  15. Safety assessment for the bituminization facility of the medium-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment for the home-made bituminization facility of the medium-level waste during hot test is made. The average external dose equivalent per month is 0.136 x 10-2 Sv. The radioactive substance released into the environment is much lower than the permissible limit. The danger of burning and exploding of the bituminized product is avoided because the operation temperature is controlled strictly below 170 C degree. The report also briefly describes the structural characteristic of the facility, the main process and radiation protection and safety measures

  16. Project and design of apparatus and equipment of pilot plant experimental bituminization line PS 44 EBO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modifications are described made in the design of major components of the pilot plant experimental bituminization line involving: the mixing equipment, the film rotor evaporator, the calciner, and various transport mechanisms for handling drums and containers. The difficulty and complexity of the problem which Kralovopolska strojirna Brno, the end supplier of the bituminization line, will have to tackle is evident mainly from the case of bridge cranes, which feed the line, and the full-portal gantry crane which handles the containers and drums at regional sites of radioactive waste disposal. (Z.M.)

  17. Installation in the A-1 plant of an experimental bituminization line by VUCHZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the termination of the experimental operation of the bituminization line at the Research Institute for Chemical Installations in Brno, the line was dismantled and transferred to the nucler power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice. The installation of the line, the layout of the assemblies are described and the results of tests with non-radioactive simulated wastes and actual radioactive wastes briefly described. An amount of 3.2 m3 of actual radioactive wastes from the V-1 nuclear power plant was processed in the tests. The results confirmed the suitability of bituminization for processing liquid radioactive wastes from WWER nuclear power plants. (Z.M.)

  18. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 15, April--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-07-25

    Goal is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on 6 coals to optimize these processes, followed by design/construction/operation of a 2-t/hr PDU. During this quarter, parametric testing of the 30-in. Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn plant was completed and clean coal samples submitted for briquetting. A study of a novel hydrophobic dewatering process continued at Virginia Tech. Benefits of slurry PSD (particle size distribution) modification and pH adjustment were evaluated for the Taggart and Hiawatha coals; they were found to be small. Agglomeration bench-scale test results were positive, meeting product ash specifications. PDU Flotation Module operations continued; work was performed with Taggart coal to determine scaleup similitude between the 12-in. and 6-ft Microcel{trademark} columns. Construction of the PDU selective agglomeration module continued.

  19. Separation and analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons from two Chinese coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Ming-jie; LI Wen-dian; XIE Rui-lun; ZONG Ying; CAI Ke-ying; PENG Yao-li; ZONG Zhi-min; XIE Rui-lun; WEI Xian-yong

    2008-01-01

    Separation and analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) from coals is of considerable significance for both fuel and non-fuel use of the coals. In present work two Chinese bituminous coals were selected for separation of AHs by ultrasonic extraction with CS2 followed by column chromatography using hexane as eluent. A series of AHs were separated from the two coals and analyzed by GC/MS. FTIR was employed to characterize the raw coals and the extracted residues. The results of GC/MS analysis show that the separated AHs are mono- to tetracyclic arenes, among which the principle AHs are alkyl naphthalenes and phenanthrenes. Obvious differences in the composition and the structure of AHs exist between the two coals, i.e., the AHs from Tongting coal tend to be higher rings compared to those from Pingshuo coal both from the variety and from the abundance of the AHs. FFIR analysis shows that the raw and extracted coals are similar in terms of functional groups, suggesting that the composition and structure of CS extract, especially the AHs, from coals can be used to interpret the coal structure to some extent.

  20. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  1. Effect of hydrothermal treatment of coal on its associative structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui Heng-fu; Wang Zhi-cai; Wang Gao-qiang; Niu Min-feng [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    4 bituminous coals with different ranks were thermally and hydrothermally treated under different conditions, and the raw and treated coals were extracted with carbon disulfide/N-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent (1:1 by volume). It is found that the extraction yields of the thermal or hydrothermal treated coals at proper conditions increase in different extent. The increments of extraction yields for hydrothermal treated coals are higher than those of thermal treated coals. FT-IR shows that the adsorption peaks at 3410 cm{sup -1} attributed to OH group for the hydrothermal treated coals decrease, suggesting the dissociation of the coal aggregation structure due to the breakage of hydrogen bonds, resulting in the increase of extraction yields for the treated coals. For higher rank coal, the removal of minerals and the dissociation of {pi}-cation association after hydrothermal treatment of coal may be responsible for the increase of extraction yield. In addition, the mechanism of hydrothermal treatment of coal was discussed. 15 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Phenols as chemical fossils in coals. [Book chapter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bimer, J. (Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland); Given, P.H.; Raj, S.

    1978-01-01

    It is generally considered that vitrinite, the principal maceral in most coals, represents coalified, partly decayed wood. Hence lignin should be one of the important precursors to the vitrinites in coals. Accordingly, it would be interesting to know whether any chemical fossils related to lignin could be found in coals. The purpose of this paper is to report what we believe to be a successful search for such fossils. The experimental approach exploited a degradation reaction developed in a study of soil humic acids by Burges et al. This reaction involves a reductive degradation with sodium amalgam and hot water. Thin layer chromatography of the ether soluble part of the product (yield, about 20%) showed the presence of a number of phenols and phenolic acids, most of whose structures bore obvious relationships to known microbial and chemical degradation products of lignin but some to the A ring of flavonoids. Humic acids can be extracted from peats and lignites but not from bituminous coals. However, oxidation of bituminous coals with aqueous performic acid generates in high yield (80 to 110% by weight) materials that closely resemble humic acids. The Burges reductive degradation was applied to humic acids extracted from some peats and lignites, and produced by oxidation of a number of bituminous coals. A number of identifications of products were made originally by gas chromatography with co-injection of standards. In this preliminary publication the experimental procedures are described and a sufficient selection of the data are given to show what was found by co-injection and later confirmed by mass spectrometry.

  3. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1994, April 1994--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NOx combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NOx burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters. Results are described.

  4. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO(sub 3) and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a flue gas conditioning system was completed at PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. Performance testing was underway. Results will be detailed in the next quarterly and subsequent technical summary reports. Also in this quarter, discussions were initiated with a prospective long-term candidate plant. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning has been proposed here, but there is interest in liquid additives as a safer alternative

  5. Application of microorganisms in coal cleaning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secure energy supply is one of the basic pre-requisites for a sound economic system, sustained standard and quality of life and eventually for the social well-being of each individual. For a progressive country like Pakistan, it is obligatory that all energy options must be pursued vigorously including coal utilization, which given the relatively large resources available, is considered to be one of the major options for the next few hundred years. Bioprocessing of coal in an emerging technology which has started to receive considerable research attention. Recent research activities involving coal cleaning, direct coal conversion, and indirect conversion of coal-derived materials have generated a plethora of facts regarding biochemistry, chemistry, and thermodynamic behavior of coal, in that its bioprocessing is on the verge of becoming and acceptable means to great coals. In this research report, investigations pertaining to the various aspects of coal bio processing, including desulfurization and depyritization are discussed. Bituminous coals varying in total sulfur contents of 3-6% were depyritized more than 90% by mesophilic acidophiles like Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Thiobacillus thio oxidans and thermophilic Sulfolobus brierleyi. The archaebacterium, Sulfolobus brierleyi was found to desulfurize inorganic and organic sulfur components of the coal. Conditions were established under which it can remove more than 30% of the organic sulfur present in the coals. Heterotrophic microorganisms including oxenic and soil isolates were also employed for studying sulfurization. A soil isolate, Oil-2, was found to remove more than 70% dibenzothiophenic sulfur present in an oil-water emulsion (1:20 ratio). Pseudomonas putida and the bacterium oil-2 also remove 60-70% organic sulfur present in the shale-oil. Preliminary results indicate the presence of putatively known Kodama's pathway in the oil-2. The mass balance for sulfate indicated the possibility of the presence

  6. Oxidative derivatization and solubilization of coal. Final report. Period: October 1, 1986 - April 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, J.G.; Porowski, E.N.; Straub, A.M.

    1988-05-01

    We investigated the solubilization of coal by oxidative means to produce motor fuels. Nitric acid was used in the first of two approaches taken to cleave aliphatic linkages in coal and reduce the size of its macrostructure. Mild conditions, with temperatures up to a maximum of 75 C, and nitric acid concentrations below 20% by weight, characterize this process. The solid product, obtained in high yields, is soluble in polar organic solvents. Lower alcohols, methanol in particular, are of interest as carrier solvents in diesel fuel applications. Coals investigated were New York State peat, Wyodak subbituminous coal, North Dakota lignite, and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The lower tank coals were easily converted and appear well suited to the process, while the bituminous Illinois No. 6 and Pitt Seam coals were unreactive. We concentrated our efforts on Wyodak coal and North Dakota lignite. Reaction conditions with regards to temperature, acid concentration, and time were optimized to obtain high product selectivity at maximum conversion. A continuous process scheme was developed for single pass coal conversions of about 50% to methanol-soluble product.

  7. Genesis and rank distribution of Upper Carboniferous coal basins in the Cantabrian Mountains, Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenero, Juan Ramon; Barba, Pedro; Llorens, Teresa [Department of Geology, Salamanca University, 37008-Salamanca (Spain); Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC). Ap. Co, 73. 33080-Oviedo (Spain); Fernandez-Suarez, Javier [Department of Petrology and Geochemistry, Complutense University, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-03

    The Cantabrian Mountains located in the NW of the Iberian Peninsula constitute the most important coal-mining district of Spain. Anthracitic and bituminous coals (high and medium rank coals) have been mined in the area since the end of the nineteenth century and they currently account for about 70% of the total coal resources of the country. The region forms part of the Cantabrian and West Asturian-Leonese Zones of the Iberian Variscan Fold Belt and is strongly deformed by a set of imbricate thrusts, coeval folds and high-angle faults. Coal-bearing successions are Westphalian and Stephanian (Pennsylvanian) in age and are exposed in numerous coalfields of variable size arranged roughly parallel to the tectonic structures. Coal rank varies from medium-rank bituminous D coals (Rr {>=} 0.5%) to high-rank anthracites A coals (Rr < 6.0%). The regional rank distribution can be correlated with the increase in the thermal effect observed from Westphalian to the Stephanian coals, and from the Cantabrian Zone to the West Asturian-Leonese Zone. These rank variations are related to the thermal processes caused by the emplacement of some major faults, and granitoids and mafic rocks in upper crustal levels and the subsequent development of the regional methamorphic contact aureoles. (author)

  8. Importance of the textural characteristics of inert additives in the reduction of coal thermoplastic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Fernandez; C. Barriocanal; M.A. Diez; R. Alvarez [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Seven carbonaceous materials of different origin were chosen in order to study the influence of their porous structure on the modification of the thermoplastic properties of a bituminous coal. The materials included were: two non-coking coals, a petroleum coke, coke fines, two residues from tyre recycling and a bituminous residue. The materials were heat-treated to 900{sup o}C to prevent any chemical interaction between the volatiles evolved during co-carbonization. The thermoplastic properties of blends that contained 10 wt.% of additive were measured by means of the Gieseler test. Microporosity was measured by CO{sub 2} adsorption at 273 K, whereas meso and macroporosity were determined by means of mercury porosimetry. The results of the porous structure assessment are discussed in relation to the modification of coal plasticity. 32 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Historical U.S. Residential Coal Use and Female Lung Cancer Mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, Jennifer; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    2001-03-01

    Recent ecological and case-control studies have indicated elevated lung cancer mortality (LCM) associated with bituminous "smoky" coal use in China, but no similar study has been conducted using U.S. populations. Early 20th century U.S. home cooking and heating fuels were examined in relation to age-specific female LCM, focusing on county-level mortality during 1950-54 to reduce potential inter-county confounding due to cigarette smoking among women aged 40* vs. 60* years (among whom 11% vs. 5% ever smoked, respectively). Overall, a significant relationship was found between female LCM and county-level average per capita bituminous coal use with and without adjustment for numerous covariates in counties where ~75% of homes used coal for heating. This positive association was similar in each female age group after adjustment of 190 combinations of variates considered in addition t

  10. Aspects of solid state 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy in coals from the Balkan peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREAS GEORGAKOPOULOS

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The cross-polarized magic-angle-spinning NMR (CPMAS-NMR technique was used in this work to assess the carbon distribution in coals of different rank (peat, lignite, xylite, sub-bituminous coal from important deposits in Greece and Bulgaria. The technique is assumed to be only semiquantitative, due to a number of interferences, such as spinning side bands (SSB in the spectra, paramagnetic species in the samples, and low or remote protonation of aromatic carbons. The Bulgarian sub-bituminous coal shows the greatest amounts of aromatic structures. The lignite sample from the Drama basin, Northern Greece, is relatively unaltered and largely unweathered, and shows the greatest amounts of aliphatic groups. The 13C-NMR spectra of Pliocene lignites from endemic areas in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia, taken from published papers, show significantly more intense resonances for methoxyl, phenolic, and polysaccharide moieties compared to the Drama lignite NMR spectrum. Xylite reveals high contents of carbohydrates.

  11. Quality aspects of thermal coal marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia's thermal coal industry is under increasing competition. A successful marketing strategy must distinguish the product from that of Australian competitors, leaving the buyer in no doubt as to its value. The marketing of thermal coal is a very different experience and encompasses an interesting commercial and technical mix. The technical merits of a coal may be effectively used to prepare the way for a sale. However, once the technical hurdle is passed (i.e. the coal is classified as acceptable), the three factors which influence the sale are price, price and price. The other aspect of marketing is that marketing, especially technical market support, must realize that the buyer often has no experience in using the coals purchased. This is particularly true with thermal coals. Virtually no thought is given as to how the coal performs or how much is used. Consequently, it is not uncommon for cheap, low quality coals to be purchased, even though it is not the choice that will result in the lowest power generation cost when all other factors are taken into consideration. The author has developed a model which allows to differentiate between coals for a range of properties relative to the use of the coal, so that a coal company can calculate the break-even price in term of cost per kWh of electricity generated and enable a more valid cost comparison between coals to be made

  12. Characterization of Malaysian coals for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunowara, M.; Bustam, M. A.; Sufian, S.; Eldemerdash, U.

    2016-06-01

    Coal samples from Mukah-Balingian and Merit-Pila coal mines were characterized with ultimate, approximate, petrographic analysis, FT-IR spectra patterns, FESEM images and BET measurements to obtain information on the chemical composition and chemical structure in the samples. Two coal samples were obtained from Merit-Pila coal mine namely sample1 (S1) and sample2 (S2). The other two coal samples were obtained from Mukah-Balingian coal mine namely sample3 (S3) and sample4 (S4), Sarawak, Malaysia. The results of ultimate analysis show that coal S1 has the highest carbon percentage by 54.47%, the highest hydrogen percentage by 10.56% and the lowest sulfur percentage by 0.19% and the coal S4 has the highest moisture content by 31.5%. The coal S1 has the highest fixed carbon percentage by 42.6%. The coal S4 has BET surface area by 2.39 m2/g and Langmuir surface area by 3.0684 m2/g respectively. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis of all coal samples shows a presence of oxygen containing functional groups which considered are as active sites on coal surface. The oxygen functional groups are mainly carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (-CH, -CH2, -CH3), aliphatic (C-O-C stretching associated with -OH), amino (-NH stretching vibrations), (-NH stretching vibrations), aromatic (C=C), vinylic (C=C) and clay minerals. In all FE-SEM images of coal samples matrix, it can be seen that there are luminous and as non luminous features which refer to the existence of various minerals types distributed in the coal organic matrix. The bright luminosity is due to the presence of sodium, potassium or aluminium. According to petrographic analysis, all coal sample samples are range in vitrinite reflectance from 0.38% to 56% (VRr) are sub-bituminous coals.

  13. 8th RILEM International Symposium on Testing and Characterization of Sustainable and Innovative Bituminous Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Partl, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of RILEM TC 237-SIB (Testing and characterization of sustainable innovative bituminous materials and systems). The papers have been selected for publication after a rigorous peer review process and will be an invaluable source to outline and clarify the main directions of present and future research and standardization for bituminous materials and pavements. The following topics are covered: - Characterization of binder-aggregate interaction - Innovative testing of bituminous binders, additives and modifiers - Durability and aging of asphalt pavements - Mixture design and compaction analysis - Environmentally sustainable materials and technologies - Advances in laboratory characterization of bituminous materials - Modeling of road materials and pavement performance prediction - Field measurement and in-situ characterization - Innovative materials for reinforcement and interlayer systems - Cracking and damage characterization of asphalt pavements - Rec...

  14. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Bueno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance.

  15. Towards an Accurate Stress Dependant Time & Frequency Domain VE Response Model for Bituminous Binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.; Huurman, M.; Pronk, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Linear viscoelastic properties of bituminous binders for short loading times are analyzed using dynamic mechanical analysis methods. Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) test with parallel plate (PP) configuration is widely used for this purpose. Due to the complex stress distribution over the cross-sectio

  16. Bituminization system of low level liquid waste in Genkai Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bituminization system for low level radioactive liquid wastes has such advantages as its volume reduction is 6 to 10 times higher than the cementing systems, and the exuding ratio of radioactive nuclides from bituminized body into sea water is smaller, because the solids containing radioactive nuclides are solidified into oily bitumen which is very water repellent. Therefore, Genkai No.2 reactor plant has adopted the batch bituminization system, the main equipment of which being a drum mixer. This equipment has the capacity of treating 35 m3 of drain from the machines (boron 21,000 ppm) yearly, mainly composed of boric acid, and 85 m3 of floor drain/laundry drain yearly (solids 1.1 wt.%). This paper describes the outline of the system, the improvement of the installation, operating method, operation control, and the results of cold and hot operations. At the beginning of the trial operation, the concentrated laundry drain from No.1 reactor during the regular inspection was bituminized, and the concentrated sodium borate solution from No.2 reactor was treated since July, 1980. These results show the good volume reduction, condensate-processing capability, mixer controllability and mixer decontamination efficiency. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  17. Kinetic models for the oxy-fuel combustion of coal and coal/biomass blend chars obtained in N2 and CO2 atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal reactivity and kinetics of five coal chars, a biomass char, and two coal/biomass char blends in an oxy-fuel combustion atmosphere (30%O2–70%CO2) were studied using the non-isothermal thermogravimetric method at three heating rates. Fuel chars were obtained by devolatilization in an entrained flow reactor at 1273 K under N2 and CO2 atmospheres. Three nth-order representative gas–solid models – the volumetric model (VM), the grain model (GM) and the random pore model (RPM) – were employed to describe the reactive behaviour of the chars. The RPM model was found to be the best for describing the reactivity of the high rank coal chars, while VM was the model that best described the reactivity of the bituminous coal chars, the biomass char and the coal-biomass blend char. The kinetic parameters of the chars obtained in N2 and CO2 in an oxy-fuel combustion atmosphere with 30% of oxygen were compared, but no relevant differences were observed. The behaviour of the blend of the bituminous coal (90%wt.) and the biomass (10%wt.) chars resembled that of the individual coal concealing the effect of the biomass. Likewise, no interaction was detected between the high rank coal and the biomass chars during oxy-fuel combustion of the blend. -- Highlights: ► Oxy-fuel reactivity and kinetics of coal and coal/biomass blends chars were determined. ► Kinetic parameters were essentially the same under N2 or CO2 devolatilization atmospheres. ► Best model for describing chars reactivity depended on the parent coal rank. ► Random pore model for low rank coal and biomass chars; volumetric model for high rank coal chars.

  18. The production of high load coal-water mixtures on the base of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, Y.; Bruer, G.; Kolesnikova, S. [Research and Design Institute for Problems of Development of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (KATEKNilugol), Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The results of the {open_quotes}KATEKNIIugol{close_quotes} work on the problems of high load coal-water mixtures are given in this article. General principles of the mixture production, short characteristics of Kansk-Achinsk coals, the experimental results of the coal mixture production on a test-industrial scale, the suspension preparation on the base of coal mixtures, technical-economical indexes of tested coal pipeline variants based on Kansk-Achinsk coals are described.

  19. An investigation into the stress-permeability relationship of coals and flow patterns around working longwall faces

    OpenAIRE

    Durucan, S.

    1981-01-01

    This research aimed to establish a physical relationship between applied stress and permeabilities of different coals. Seven different coals, ranging from medium volatile to high volatile bituminous, were tested for stress-permeability relationship under simulated subsurface stress conditions. Prior to the experimental investigations, the stress conditions around a working longwall face were considered in order to achieve an accurate simulation of the stresses experienced underground. ...

  20. Enthalpy measurement of coal-derived liquids. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1977. [155 to 742 degrees F and 150, 200, 500, 1000 and 1500 psia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidnay, A.J.; Yesavage, V.F.

    1977-10-15

    Coal-derived liquids are a new and vital class of industrial compounds, but have thermodynamic properties that are largely unknown and, presently, unpredictable. The objective of this research is to measure one of the most important thermodynamic properties, the enthalpy, for representative coal-derived liquids over the pressure and temperature regions most likely to be encountered in both liquefaction and processing systems. Experimental measurements were made on a distillate from a coal-derived liquid sample produced with the Synthoil process. The measurements extend from 155 to 742/sup 0/F at pressures of 150, 200, 500, 1000, and 1500 psia. Enthalpy measurements were also started on a naphtha cut from a coal-derived liquid produced by the SRC-I process. These naphtha measurements are approximately 60 percent complete.

  1. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 2, Appendices. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This semiannual progress report contains the following appendices: description of the 1,000 lb steam/h watertube research boiler; the Pennsylvania CGE model; Phase II, subtask 3.9 coal market analysis; the CGE model; and sector definition

  2. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 2, Appendices. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Hatcher, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1996-10-15

    This semiannual progress report contains the following appendices: description of the 1,000 lb steam/h watertube research boiler; the Pennsylvania CGE model; Phase II, subtask 3.9 coal market analysis; the CGE model; and sector definition.

  3. Use of waste plastic in construction of bituminous road

    OpenAIRE

    Abhijeet Jirge; Karan patil; Mrs.Vidula Swami; Suhas patil; Sushil patil; Karan salokhe

    2012-01-01

    Bottles, containers and packing strips etc. is increasing day by day. As a result amount of waste plastic also increases. This leads to various environmental problems. Many of the wastes produced today will remain in the environment for many years leading to various environmental concerns. Therefore it is necessary to utilize thewastes effectively with technical development in each field. Many by-products are being produced using the plastic wastes. Our present work is helping to take care of...

  4. FT-i.r. and XRD analysis of sapropelitic coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodoev, N.V.; Guet, J.-M.; Gruber, R.; Dolgopolov, N.I.; Wilelm, J.-C.; Bazarova, O. [Institute of Carbon Materials Chemistry SB RAS, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    1996-05-01

    Sapropelitic coals (sapropelic coals + gyttja) of various coalification stages were examined using Ft-i.r. spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Fi-i.r. spectra showed that the main constituent of low-rank sapropelitic coals is aliphatic chains. The evolution of carbonyl groups is more likely to be related to rank changes from peat to anthracite than that of aliphatic groups. The XRD analysis showed great differences between the low-rank sapropelitic coals and humic coals, although bituminous coals have a structure similar to that of humic coals of the same degree of coalification. The method of function of radial distribution of atoms (FRDA) was applied to low-rank sapropelitic coals. Maxima at 0.5 and 1 nm in the FRDA curves of these coals were established, indicating the parallel orientation of aliphatic chains in sapropelitic coals. The sapropelitic structure is probably determined by preservation of algal cell membranes, because it is known that the aliphatic parts of fatty acids of algal cell membranes have a parallel orientation. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Effective utilization of Mongolian coal by upgrading in a solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avid, B.; Sato, Y.; Maruyama, K.; Yamada, Y. [Institute of Energy Utilization, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Purevsuren, B. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, MAS, Ulaanbaatar-51 (Mongolia)

    2004-07-15

    Liquid-phase upgrading of Mongolian low-rank coals, which are rich in oxygen, having low heating value, was investigated using 200 ml autoclave at 380-440 C in the presence of t-decalin and coal tar as solvent under 2 MPa of initial nitrogen atmosphere. The upgrading of Baganuur-2A and Shivee ovoo coal at 440 C in t-decalin gave 9.7-10.2 wt.% of gas, 3.7-4.5 wt.% of oil, 4.4-8.4 wt.% of water and 77-82 wt.% of upgraded solid product. The heating value of the upgraded solid product from Baganuur-2A coal increased to 32.9 MJ/kg as compared to the heating value of raw coal, which was 26.3 MJ/kg, and for the Shivee ovoo coal, it was reached from 21.2 to 28.8 MJ/kg. The upgrading process has influenced significantly the enhancement of the aromaticity and the spontaneous ignition temperature of the raw coal. The distribution of aromatic stacking layers (N) is slightly higher for the upgraded solid products treated at 440 C than raw coal. The Baganuur-2A, Shivee ovoo coals and these upgraded solid products were mixed with Goonyella bituminous coal and tested on gieseler plastmeter to characterise thermoplastic behaviour.

  6. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1993--March 27, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R.; Shepard, J.F.; Scaroni, A.W.; Hogg, R.; Chander, S.; Cho, H.; Ityokumbul, M.T.; Klima, M.S. [and others

    1994-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. To achieve the objectives of the program, a team of researchers was assembled. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFS) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and precombustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phases I and II are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  7. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1993--September 27, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1993-12-17

    The US DOD, through an Interagency Agreement with the US DOE, has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first phase of the program is underway. A team of researchers has been assembled from Penn State, ABB Combustion Engineering Systems (CE), AMAX Research and Development Center (AMAX), and Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER). These four organizations are the current members of the Consortium. Phase 1 activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase 2 research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and pre-combustion strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase 3 activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phase 1 are described in this report. The objective of Phase 1 is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program of the following tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package. Miscellaneous activities are reported. Activities planned for the next semiannual period are listed. The project schedule, with a description of milestones, is included.

  8. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Saini, A.K.; Burgess, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    During this quarterly period progress has been made in the following three subjects related to the effects of low-temperature thermal and catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. First, the liquefaction behavior of three bituminous coals with a carbon content ranging from 77% to 85% was evaluated spectroscopically by [sup 13]C NMR and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to delineate the structural changes that occur in the coal during liquefaction. Complementary data includes ultimate and proximate analysis, along with optical microscopy for maceral determinations. Even though these are all bituminous coals they exhibit quite different physical and chemical characteristics. The coals vary in rank, ranging from HvC b to HvA b, in petrographic composition, different maceral percentages, and in chemical nature, percent of carbon and of volatiles. It is these variations that govern the products, their distribution, and conversion percentages. Some of the products formed can be traced to a specific maceral group. Second, pyrolysis-GC-MS and FTIR techniques were used to characterize Wyodak coal before and after drying in vacuum and in air and the residues from its thermal and catalytic liquefactions. The analysis of the air-dried coal shows a decrease in the phenolic type structures in the coal network and increase in the carbonyl structures as the oxidative drying proceeds. An enhanced decrease in the carbonyl structure is observed in the liquefaction residues from the raw coal as compared to that of the vacuum dried coal. The analyses of the liquefaction residues of the air-dried coal show an increase in the ether linkages which may have a negative impact on liquefaction. The extent of the solvent adduction also increases during liquefaction with the extent of oxidation of the coal. Finally, the effects of reaction conditions were investigated on conversion of low-rank coals using a Texas subbituminous coal.

  9. The German coal market in 2011; Der deutsche Steinkohlenmarkt im Jahr 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Luebke, Roland; Boergel, Thomas [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany); Verschuur, Michael [Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Compared to the previous year the German coal market recorded a slight fall in total consumption by 0.7% to 57.5 mill. coal units. Whereas coking coal and coke consumption of the steel industry clearly increased (+4.3%) due to the boom, sale of power station coals declined considerably in 2011 (-2.5%). However, electricity generation in Germany fell by almost the same amount (-2.2%). Primary energy consumption even declined by a good 5% to its lowest level since 1990 - probably because of the mild weather - and this despite economic growth of 3% in 2011. It must be stated that there was no increase in generation of electricity from bituminous coal following shutdown of eight of the 17 German nuclear power stations in the wake of the events at Fukushima although this was not the case with renewable energy and lignite. The political decisions in 2011 to expedite the energy turning point in Germany also do not suggest a continuous upward trend in the future. Bituminous coal occupied third place in the national energy mix in 2011 both in primary energy consumption and generation of electricity. Within the German coal market imported coal again compensated for the reduced contribution of indigenous coal. The indigenous coal mining industry has continued its politically prescribed decline according to plan. With the Council decision concerning coal subsidies in the EU, which came into force on 1 January 2011, and the deletion of the review clause in the Coal Financing Act approved by the German legislators cessation of the coal production in Germany at the end of 2018 has now become final and irreversible. At the same time the closure plan for the German coal mining industry extending to 2018 was approved by the EU Commission in December 2011. Meanwhile the RAG group is preparing its future after the end of the active mining industry inter alia by the use of available mining infrastructure for forms of renewable energy. (orig.)

  10. The control of coal mine gas and coordinated exploitation of coal bed methane in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-zhong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the coalfield geology and the distribution of coal bed methane (CBM) in China, the geological conditions for exploiting the CBM and drain-ing the coal mine gas were analyzed, as well as the characteristics of CBM production. By comparing the current situation of CBM exploitation in China with that in the United States, the current technology and characteristics of the CBM exploitation in China were summa-rized and the major technical problems of coal mine gas control and CBM exploitation analyzed. It was emphasized that the CBM exploitation in China should adopt the coal mine gas drainage method coordinated with coal mine exploitation as the main model. It was proposed that coal mine gas control should be coordinated with coal mine gas ex-ploitation. The technical countermeasure should be integrating the exploitation of coal and CBM and draining gas before coal mining.

  11. Conversion of existing oil and gas units to coal fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmud, F.M.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility and technical aspects of various alternatives for converting gas- or oil-fired utility and industrial boilers to coal firing are reviewed. These alternatives involve direct coal firing, the use of modified coal fuels, and firing with fuels produced by coal gasification. (LCL)

  12. Production of low ash coal by thermal extraction with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do Kim, S.; Woo, K.J.; Jeong, S.K.; Rhim, Y.J.; Lee, S.H. [Korean Institute for Energy Research, Taejon (Republic of Korea). Clean Coal Technological Research Center

    2008-07-15

    Present study was conducted for the purpose of producing low ash coal from LRC (low rank coals) such as lignite and sub-bituminous coal through thermal extraction using polar solvent. Extraction from bituminous coal was also investigated for comparison. NMP as a polar solvent was used. The ratio of coal to solvent was adjusted as 1:10. Experimental conditions were established which include the extraction temperature of 200-430{sup o}C, initial applied pressure of 1-20 bar and extraction time of 0.5-2 hr were used. Extraction yield and ash content of extracted and residual coal were measured. The extraction yield increased with the increase of extraction temperature, and the ash content of extracted coal decreased below 0.4% at 400{sup o}C from the raw coal samples that have the ash contents of 4-6%. According to the analysis of experiments results, fixed carbon and calorific value increased, and H/C and O/C decreased.

  13. The application of low rank coal on IGCC plant by the developed simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Chun-Yang; Kim, Hyung-Taek [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Energy Systems Research

    2013-07-01

    Nowadays, IGCC power plant that uses the gasification technology is emerging in many countries because this system has the characteristic of high efficiency without air pollutant emissions. Though bituminous and sub-bituminous coals are the main feedstock of IGCC in the present years, which only accounts for around 50%, the high consumption of coal will lead to an inevitable tendency that people focus their eyes on low rank coal which holds abundant reserves throughout the world in the future. In the previous work, the IGCC model based on the Texaco gasification power system has been developed, and the developed model has a good match with the pulverized dry coal. There are five blocks in the simulation model of IGCC plant, such as fuel pretreatment, gasification, ash removal, AGR and combined cycle. Present investigation focuses on the application of low rank coal based on the developed model of 300 MW gasification plant comparing with Illinois6 (high rank coal). Illinois6 (IC6) and IBC (Indonesia lignite) are chosen as the feedstock of gasification. To evaluate the application of low rank coal, the evaluating parameters are chosen as cold gas efficiency (CGE) and carbon conversion (CC) of gasifier, composition content of syngas, power output and efficiency of combined cycle. It indicates that IBC coal which has 46.6% of plant net efficiency has relatively superiority over 40.93% of the IC6 under the same evaluating parameters.

  14. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION--A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT, PHASE II: ELEMENT MODES OF OCCURRENCE FOR THE OHIO 5/6/7, WYODAK AND NORTH DAKOTA COAL SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan Kolker; Stanley J. Mroczkowski; Curtis A. Palmer; Kristen O. Dennen; Robert B. Finkelman; John H. Bullock Jr.

    2002-05-30

    This study reports on the second phase (Phase II) of USGS research activities in support of DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95101 ''Toxic Substances From Coal Combustion--A Comprehensive Assessment'', funded under DOE Interagency Agreement DE-AI22-95PC95145. The purpose of the study was to provide a quantitative and semi-quantitative characterization of the modes of occurrence of trace elements in coal samples investigated under Phase II, including (1) Ohio 5/6/7, an Ohio bituminous coal sample blended from the No.5, No.6, and No.7 beds; (2) North Dakota, a lignite sample from the Falkirk Mine, Underwood, ND, and (3) Wyodak, a sub-bituminous coal sample from the Cordero Mine, Gillette, WY. Samples from these coal beds were selected for their range in rank and commercial applicability. Results of this research provide basic information on the distribution of elements in Phase II coal samples, information needed for development of a commercial predictive model for trace-element behavior during coal combustion.

  15. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 11, April--June, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-07-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 tons of each of three project coals, by each process. During Quarter 11 (April--June, 1995), work continued on the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant with the installation and calibration of a refurbished 30-inch diameter column. The evaluation of toxic trace element data for column flotation samples continued, with preliminary analysis indicating that reasonably good mass balances were achieved for most elements, and that significant reductions in the concentration of many elements were observed from raw coal, to flotation feed, to flotation product samples. Significant progress was made on Subtask 6.5 selective agglomeration bench-scale testing. Data from this work indicates that project ash specifications can be met for all coals evaluated, and that the bulk of the bridging liquid (heptane) can be removed from the product for recycle to the process. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr selective agglomeration module progressed this quarter with the completion of several revisions of both the process flow, and the process piping and instrument diagrams. Procurement of coal for PDU operation began with the purchase of 800 tons of Taggart coal. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU continued through this reporting quarter and is currently approximately 60% complete.

  16. Pressure-drop predictions in a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    OpenAIRE

    Bunt, John Reginald; Luckos, Adam

    2011-01-01

    In the Sasol Synfuels plant in Secunda, Sasol-Lurgi fixed-bed dry-bottom gasifiers are used for the conversion of low-grade bituminous coals to synthesis gas (syngas). The gasifiers are fed with lump coal having a particle size in the range from 5 to 100 mm. Operating experience shows that the average particle size and particle-size distribution (PSD) of feed coal, char and ash influence the pressure drop across the bed and the gas-flow distribution within the bed. These hydrodynamic phenomen...

  17. Improved reactivity of large coal particles by K2CO3 addition during steam gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzee, Sansha; Neomagus, Hein W J P; Bunt, John R.; Everson, Raymond C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the excess solution impregnation method was used to impregnate large coal particles (5 and 10 mm) with K2CO3, and the effect of the additive on steam gasification reactivity was investigated. A washed bituminous, medium rank-C Highveld coal, with an ash content of 12.6 wt.% (air-dried basis), was used for experimentation. The excess solution method was used to impregnate coal particles with the selected additive, K2CO3, and results from XRF analysis indicated that t...

  18. A global equilibrium analysis of co-firing coal and solid recovered fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    Global equilibrium calculations have been performed to study the behavior of ash forming species in cocombustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF). It revealed that co-combustion of coal and 25% SRF (weight basis) could significantly reduce the formation of NaCl (g) and KCl (g...... converted to aluminosilicates during the flue gas cooling in the experiments, probably due to kinetic limitations. The results suggest that it is important to control the chlorine and alkali content in SRF, in order to facilitate co-combustion of coal and SRF....

  19. Influence of coal properties on mercury uptake from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J.; Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Miskolc University, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary). Research Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    1999-10-01

    The uptake of mercury (II) from aqueous solution by a range of coals has been studied and the results have been compared to those for a number of other sorbents, including commercial active carbons and cation-exchange resins. At pH 5 in a buffer medium, the capacities for mercury removal of the low-rank coals and the oxidized bituminous coals investigated are comparable to those of the other sorbents tested. For the lignites investigated, a high content of organic sulfur does not markedly affect the capacity for mercury uptake in relatively neutral and low chloride media, owing to redox reactions being the most likely mechanism involved. However, in highly acidic solutions, the capacities for mercury uptake are considerably greater for the high-sulfur coals investigated than for their low-sulfur counterparts due to chelation being the major sorption process involved. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical

  1. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR), which combines conventional reburning and Advanced Reburning (AR) technologies with an innovative method of delivering coal as the reburning fuel. The overall objective of this project is to develop engineering and scientific information and know-how needed to improve the cost of reburning via increased efficiency and minimized carbon in ash and move the FFR technology to the demonstration and commercialization stage. Specifically, the project entails: (1) optimizing FFR with injection of gasified and partially gasified fuels with respect to NOx and carbon in ash reduction; (2) characterizing flue gas emissions; (3) developing a process model to predict FFR performance; (4) completing an engineering and economic analysis of FFR as compared to conventional reburning and other commercial NOx control technologies, and (5) developing a full-scale FFR design methodology. The project started in August 2000 and will be conducted over a two-year period. The work includes a combination of analytical and experimental studies to identify optimum process configurations and develop a design methodology for full-scale applications. The first year of the program included pilot-scale tests to evaluate performances of two bituminous coals in basic reburning and modeling studies designed to identify parameters that affect the FFR performance and to evaluate efficiency of coal pyrolysis products as a reburning fuel. Tests were performed in a 300 kW Boiler Simulator Facility to characterize bituminous coals as reburning fuels. Tests showed that NOx reduction in basic coal reburning depends on process conditions, initial NOx and coal type. Up to 60% NOx reduction was achieved at optimized conditions. Modeling activities during first year concentrated on the development of coal reburning model and on the prediction of NOx reduction in reburning by coal gasification products. Modeling predicted that composition of coal gasification

  2. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, December 20-March 19, 1982. Second quarterly report on the effect of rapid heating rate on coal nitrogen and sulfur release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gat, N.

    1982-04-26

    A laser pyrolysis technique is applied to the investigation of the effects of heating rate on release of coal-bound sulfur and nitrogen. An experimental system characterization and calibration has been completed. A detailed documentation was prepared describing the 3-color pyrometer and the data analysis technique. The coal particle feed system has been calibrated to provide accurate mass flow rate at pre-selected particle velocities. The first batch of samples submitted for chemical analysis will be used for the determination of kinetics parameters at a high heating rate (approximately equal to 10/sup 6/ K/s). The coal used presently is a Montana Rosebud. Two other coals are available; one is ILL No. 6 (through EERC) which will need to be pulverized and the second is a Pitt. hv-A (through KVB). It was confirmed that sieve and drag size distribution of coal differ significantly, and that particle shape effects may be significant in the modelling of particle dynamics.

  3. Combustion of char-coal waste pellets for high efficiency and low NO{sub x}. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S.

    1995-12-31

    To maintain market share, new uses must be found for Illinois coals in the largest end use area, namely power generation. To this end, the suitability of Illinois coal for high efficiency power plants like combined cycles must be investigated. This approach involves partial gasification of the coal to produce fuel gas for the topping cycle gas turbines, while the residual char is burnt in the gas turbine exhaust to produce steam for the Rankine bottoming cycle. This project seeks to improve the combustion characteristics of the residual char by pelletizing it with waste coal in order to improve its combustor residence time and carbon conversion efficiency. At the same time, attempts are made to reduce pollutant emissions. During this quarter, the residual char produced by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation in their pyrolyzer has been pelletized with Illinois gob coal in various proportions. Combustion tests have been performed in a laboratory scale circulating fluidized bed combustor. Preliminary results show that the pellets are much easier to burn and exhibit high carbon conversion efficiencies. Further combustion tests are in progress.

  4. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal fired, closed cycle, magnetohydrodynamic power generation are detailed. These accomplishments relate to all system aspects of a CCMHD power generation system including coal combustion, heat transfer to the MHD working fluid, MHD power generation, heat and cesium seed recovery and overall systems analysis. Direct coal firing of the combined cycle has been under laboratory development in the form of a high slag rejection, regeneratively air cooled cyclone coal combustor concept, originated within this program. A hot bottom ceramic regenerative heat exchanger system was assembled and test fired with coal for the purposes of evaluating the catalytic effect of alumina on NO/sub x/ emission reduction and operability of the refractory dome support system. Design, procurement, fabrication and partial installation of a heat and seed recovery flow apparatus was accomplished and was based on a stream tube model of the full scale system using full scale temperatures, tube sizes, rates of temperature change and tube geometry. Systems analysis capability was substantially upgraded by the incorporation of a revised systems code, with emphasis on ease of operator interaction as well as separability of component subroutines. The updated code was used in the development of a new plant configuration, the Feedwater Cooled (FCB) Brayton Cycle, which is superior to the CCMHD/Steam cycle both in performance and cost. (WHK)

  5. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: A synoptic view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronbauer, Marcio A. [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Izquierdo, Maria [School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Dai, Shifeng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Waanders, Frans B. [School of Chemical and Minerals Engineering, North West University (Potchefstroom campus), Potchefstroom 2531 (South Africa); Wagner, Nicola J. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Taffarel, Silvio R.; Bizani, Delmar [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); and others

    2013-07-01

    The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO{sub 3} versus Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates. - Highlights: • Coal waste geochemisty can provide increased environmental information in coal-mining areas. • Oxidation is the major process for mineral transformation in coal ashes. • The electron bean methodology has been applied to investigate neoformed minerals.

  6. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system. Technical progress report No. 1, August--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-26

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems`` Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  7. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1991--February 15, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jianyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-05-29

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

  8. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Detailed coal exploration in Sungaililin area, South Sumatra, Indonesia (Summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the purpose of evaluating coal resource in the Sungaililin area located about 100km northwest of Palembang city, South Sumatra, Indonesia, survey was conducted on geology, test boring, chemical analysis, infrastructure, etc. The range of geological survey was about 10km{sup 2}. Test boring was carried out for 51 holes (total length: 3,676.50m). Using 102 coal samples, analysis of coal seams was conducted, and measurement was made of the combustion calorie, sulfur content, water content, gravity, ash, ash melting temperature, etc. Survey was also made on roads for coal transportation, places for barge loading, transshipping ports, etc. The results of the survey/study were as follows. Coal seams suitable for drilling are B seam and C seam, which are continuing and 5-9m thick. As to the quality of coal, they are lower bituminous coal or lignite and are high in water content, low in ash and low in sulfur content. The minable coal reserves are more than 76,000,000 tons, and coal of 3,000 tons/year is minable by the conventional method. They are suitable for the supply to thermal power plants in Indonesia and to neighboring countries. (NEDO)

  10. Combustion of char-coal waste pellets for high efficiency and low NO{sub x}. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Illinois coals are prime candidates for use in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants because of their high volatility and good char reactivity. In these plants, partial gasification of the coal in the presence of limestone eliminates the major portion of the sulfur species in the product gases, which are used as fuel for the topping cycle. The char produced is high in ash content, the major portion of which is calcium sulfide. It is also low in volatiles and of low density, compared to the parent coal. The economic success of the gasification route depends on the subsequent utilization of the residual char for raising steam for use in a Rankine cycle bottoming plant and/or preheating the air to the gasifier. Fluidized bed combustion of the char appears an attractive way of utilizing the char. Areas of concern in the fluidized bed combustion of the high ash, low volatility char are: attainment of high carbon conversion efficiencies; reduction of oxides of nitrogen emissions; reduction/elimination of corrosive chlorine species; reduction/elimination of sodium and other alkali species; and efficient usage of the calcium present in the ash to reduce sulfur compounds. The aim of the present project is to investigate ways of improving the carbon conversion efficiency, sulfur capture efficiency and NO{sub x} reduction during the fluidized bed combustion by pelletizing the low density char with coal and coal wastes using cornstarch or wood lignin as binder. During this first quarter, the parent coals and the chars to be tested have been analyzed. Particle size distributions have been measured. Sample pellets have been made evaluation of their properties.

  11. The use of NMR techniques for the analysis of water in coal and the effect of different coal drying techniques on the structure and reactivity of coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Wallace, J.C. Jr.; Butcher, C.H.; Mitzel, J.M.; Turner, T.F.; Hurtubise, R.J.

    1995-02-01

    Western Research Institute has conducted a study of different methods of coal drying as pretreatment steps before liquefaction. The objectives of this study were to develop a combined chemical dehydration/nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for measuring the moisture content of coal, to measure the changes in coal structure that occur during drying, and to determine the effects of different drying methods on liquefaction reactivity of coals. Different methods of drying were investigated to determine whether coal drying can be accomplished without reducing the reactivity of coals toward liquefaction. Drying methods included thermal, microwave, and chemical dehydration. Coals of rank lignite to high volatile bituminous were studied. Coals that were dried or partially dried thermally and with microwaves had lower liquefaction conversions than coals containing equilibrium moisture contents. However, chemically dried coals had conversions equal to or greater than the premoisturized coals. The conversion behavior is consistent with changes in the physical structure and cross linking reactions because of drying. Thermal and microwave drying appear to cause a collapse in the pore structure, thus preventing donor solvents such as tetralin from contacting reactive sites inside the coals. Chemical dehydration does not appear to collapse the pore structure. These results are supported by the solvent swelling measurements in which the swelling ratios of thermally dried and microwave-dried coals were lower than those of premoisturized coals, indicating a greater degree of cross linking in the dried coals. The swelling ratios of the chemically dried coals were greater than those of the premoisturized coals because the pore structure remaining unchanged or increased when water was removed. These results are consistent with the NMR results, which did not show significant changes in coal chemical structure.

  12. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Kong, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, R.

    2008-01-01

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 ??g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate- plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matterbound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism. ?? 2008 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  13. Refining and end use study of coal liquids II - linear programming analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, C.; Tam, S.

    1995-12-31

    A DOE-funded study is underway to determine the optimum refinery processing schemes for producing transportation fuels that will meet CAAA regulations from direct and indirect coal liquids. The study consists of three major parts: pilot plant testing of critical upgrading processes, linear programming analysis of different processing schemes, and engine emission testing of final products. Currently, fractions of a direct coal liquid produced form bituminous coal are being tested in sequence of pilot plant upgrading processes. This work is discussed in a separate paper. The linear programming model, which is the subject of this paper, has been completed for the petroleum refinery and is being modified to handle coal liquids based on the pilot plant test results. Preliminary coal liquid evaluation studies indicate that, if a refinery expansion scenario is adopted, then the marginal value of the coal liquid (over the base petroleum crude) is $3-4/bbl.

  14. Improving performance of direct coal liquefaction through swelling with solvent under the radiation of ultrasonic wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Xian-zhi; LI Ke-jian; WANG Li

    2004-01-01

    Three kinds of lower rank bituminous coals from Yanzhou mine and Tengxian mine from Shandong Province were treated and hydrogenated in the study. The test results show that the performance of hydrogenation liquefaction of the pretreated coals is improved markedly. Under the test condition of H2 initial pressure 8.2 MPa, addition of the oil yield of pretreated YZ1 coal is 69.76% compared with 62.53% of oil yield of untreated YZ1. Seminally the oil yield of pretreated YZ2 coal is 55.43% compared with20.88% of untreated YZ2 coal. The results of tests also prove that the improving degree of hydrogenation liquefaction of the pretreated coals is related with radiation duration when the radiation frequency and radiation power of ultrasonic wave are fixed.

  15. Geology, coal quality, and resources of the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, north-central Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, B.S.; Martirosyan, A.; Malkhasian, G.; Harutunian, S.; Harutunian, G.

    2001-01-01

    The Antaramut-Kurta-Dzoragukh (AKD) coal deposit is a previously unrecognized coal field in north-central Armenia. Coal has been known to exist in the general vicinity since the turn of the century, but coal was thought to be restricted to a small (1 km2) area only near the village of Antaramut. However, through detailed field work and exploratory drilling, this coal deposit has been expanded to at least 20 km2, and thus renamed the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, for the three villages that the coal field encompasses. The entire coal-bearing horizon, a series of tuffaceous sandstones, siltstones, and claystones, is approximately 50 m thick. The AKD coal field contains two coal beds, each greater than 1 m thick, and numerous small rider beds, with a total resource of approximately 31,000,000 metric tonnes. The coals are late Eocene in age, high volatile bituminous in rank, relatively high in ash yield (approximately 40%, as-determined basis) and moderate in sulfur content (approximately 3%, as-determined basis). The two coal beds (No. 1 and No. 2), on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis, have high calorific values of 32.6 MJ/kg (7796 cal/g) and 36.0 MJ/kg (8599 cal/g), respectively. Coal is one of the few indigenous fossil fuel resources occurring in Armenia and thus, the AKD coal field could potentially provide fuel for heating and possibly energy generation in the Armenian energy budget. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Design Fuels Corporation (DFC)-Apache, Inc. coal reclamation system for the plant of the future for processing clean coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical washing processing and drying portion of the DFC process offers an efficient method for cleaning of pyritic sulfur bearing compounds which represents 25% sulfur reduction from original run-of-mine coal quality. This reduction can be augmented with the use of calcium and sodium based compounds to reduce the sulfur in many coals to produce compliance quality coal. The use of mechanical/physical methods for the removal of the pyritic material found in coal is used by the DFC process as a first step to the final application of a complete coal refuse clean-up technology based on site specific conditions of the parent coal. The paper discusses the use of the DFC process to remediate slurry ponds and tailings piles and to improve coal cleaning by gravity separation methods, flotation, hydrocyclones and spiral separators, dense media separation, water only cyclones, and oil/solvent agglomeration. A typical DFC Project is the Rosa Coal Reclamation Project which involves the development of a bituminous coal waste impoundment reclamation and washery system. The plant would be located adjacent to a coal fines pond or tailings pond and refuse pile or gob pile at a former coal strip mine in Oneonta, Alabama. Design Fuels would provide a development program by which coal waste at the Rosa Mine could be reclaimed, cleaned and sold profitably. This feedstock could be furnished from recovered coal for direct use in blast furnaces, or as feedstock for coke ovens at 250,000 tons per year at an attractive price on a 10-year contract basis. The site has an old coal washing facility on the property that will be dismantled. Some equipment salvage has been considered; and removal of the existing plant would be the responsibility of Design Fuels. The paper briefly discusses the market potential of the process

  17. Geology, coal quality, and resources of the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, north-central Armenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, B.S. [US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Geology, National Center, MS 956, 12201Sunrise Valley Drive, 20192 Reston, VA (United States); Martirosyan, A.; Malkhasian, G.; Harutunian, S. [US Geological Survey Armenian Staff, no.5 1st Byway of Aigedzor, Yerevan (Armenia); Harutunian, G. [RA Ministry of Environment GeoEconomic Scientific Center, 49 Komitas St., Yerevan (Armenia)

    2001-02-01

    The Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh (AKD) coal deposit is a previously unrecognized coal field in north-central Armenia. Coal has been known to exist in the general vicinity since the turn of the century, but coal was thought to be restricted to a small (1 km{sup 2}) area only near the village of Antaramut. However, through detailed field work and exploratory drilling, this coal deposit has been expanded to at least 20 km{sup 2}, and thus renamed the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, for the three villages that the coal field encompasses. The entire coal-bearing horizon, a series of tuffaceous sandstones, siltstones, and claystones, is approximately 50 m thick. The AKD coal field contains two coal beds, each greater than 1 m thick, and numerous small rider beds, with a total resource of approximately 31,000,000 metric tonnes. The coals are late Eocene in age, high volatile bituminous in rank, relatively high in ash yield (approximately 40%, as-determined basis) and moderate in sulfur content (approximately 3%, as-determined basis). The two coal beds (No. 1 and No. 2), on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis, have high calorific values of 32.6 MJ/kg (7796 cal/g) and 36.0 MJ/kg (8599 cal/g), respectively. Coal is one of the few indigenous fossil fuel resources occurring in Armenia and thus, the AKD coal field could potentially provide fuel for heating and possibly energy generation in the Armenian energy budget.

  18. Characteristic of coal combustion in oxygen/carbon dioxide atmosphere and nitric oxide release during this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combustion characteristic of a bituminous coal and an anthracite coal in oxygen/carbon dioxide (O2/CO2) atmosphere is investigated in a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The characteristic parameters, which are deduced from the TG-DTG (differential thermogravimetric) curves, show that the coal combustion process is basically kept consistent in O2/CO2 and O2/N2 atmosphere at the O2 concentration of 20%. The Coats-Redfern method with the reaction order of 1.25 could perfectly describe the combustion process in these two different atmospheres through the calculation of the kinetic parameters for the two coals. Nitric oxide (NO) release is concentrated in a narrower time period in O2/CO2 atmosphere compared with the one in O2/N2 atmosphere during the coal combustion process. Though the high value of the NO release rate peak, the total conversion of the fuel-N to NO is strongly depressed in O2/CO2 atmosphere, and at 1473 K, the conversion is reduced by 28.99% for the bituminous coal and 22.54% for the anthracite coal, respectively. When O2 concentration is increased from 20% to 40% in O2/CO2 atmosphere, the coal combustion property is obviously improved with the shift of the whole process into the lower temperature zone and the more intensive of the reaction occurrence in a narrower temperature range. However, the total fuel-N to NO conversion is increased accordingly. For bituminous coal the increase is 17.22% at 1073 K and 20.51% at 1173 K, and for anthracite coal the increase is 15.73% at 1073 K and 16.19% at 1173 K.

  19. A case study of PFBC for low rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, S.A. [ABB Carbon AB, Finspong (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Pressurized Fluidized Combined-Cycle (PFBC) technology allows the efficient and environmentally friendly utilization of solid fuels for power and combined heat and power generation. With current PFBC technology, thermal efficiencies near 46%, on an LHV basis and with low condenser pressures, can be reached in condensing power plants. Further efficiency improvements to 50% or more are possible. PFBC plants are characterized by high thermal efficiency, compactness, and extremely good environmental performance. The PFBC plants which are now in operation in Sweden, the U.S. and Japan burn medium-ash, bituminous coal with sulfur contents ranging from 0.7 to 4%. A sub- bituminous {open_quotes}black lignite{close_quotes} with high levels of sulfur, ash and humidity, is used as fuel in a demonstration PFBC plant in Spain. Project discussions are underway, among others in Central and Eastern Europe, for the construction of PFBC plants which will burn lignite, oil-shale and also mixtures of coal and biomass with high efficiency and extremely low emissions. This paper will provide information about the performance data for PFBC plants when operating on a range of low grade coals and other solid fuels, and will summarize other advantages of this leading new clean coal technology.

  20. Transformism in Alberta: The Environmental Political Economy of the Bituminous Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Rosene, Ryan

    This thesis attempts to help establish environmental political economy as a viable academic field while providing an example of work in the discipline. It offers an analysis of societal processes resulting in the co-optation and/or neutralization of critical environmentalist ideas. Using Alberta's bituminous sands as a case study, and a Gramsci-influenced eco-Marxist theory as a foundation, the thesis argues that the term 'environmental transformism' (inspired by the Gramscian term trasformismo) is helpful in describing and framing such processes. Accordingly, the ensuing chapters provide an analysis of why environmental transformism is happening in Alberta, and demonstrate how this mechanism works at protecting the status quo from threatening ideologies, thereby consolidating neoliberal capitalism. A concluding argument discusses the inherent dangers posed to society by the transformism of certain environmental subjectivities. The thesis begins by introducing the contentious social and environmental issues surrounding the development of the bituminous sands.

  1. Radiation-chemical transformation of synthetic oil from oil-bituminous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Like as test subject was used synthetic oil from oil-bituminous rocks of Balakhany deposit. The regularities of synthetic oils radiation-chemical transformations were studied. Laboratory researches were carried out in an interval of absorbed dose 43-216 kGr and dose rate 0.5 Gr/s. Concentration, radiation-chemical yields of the received gases in the various absorbed doses were established. Results of researches allow to estimate possibility use of oil products received from synthetic oil for isolation of radioactive sources from environment. The purpose of the given work is research of radiation stability of synthetic oil from bituminous rock. Results of such researches will allow to estimate possibility of production different purpose oil products from synthetic oil in a radiation-chemical way and also use of these materials for isolation of radioactive sources from environment

  2. Long-term behavior of bituminized waste: modelling of auto-irradiation and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During interim storage, the main evolution factor of the bituminized wastes is radiolysis under auto-irradiation, while in deep disposal conditions, after radioactive decrease, site resaturation with water, and container corrosion, the main factor of evolution is leaching by water. This paper presents two models, designed to describe respectively radiolytic gas evacuation, and bituminized waste alteration under leaching. The first model is based on the integration of simple descriptions of gas production by radiolysis, gas diffusive transport, bubble nucleation and ripening, and bubble transport under buoyancy and viscosity. The second model is based on simple descriptions of water adsorption and solubilization at the surface, water diffusion into the matrix, water uptake by the most soluble salts, salt grain swelling and alteration of matrix waterproofing, diffusive transport of salts out of the waste. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  3. Illinois coal/RDF coprocessing to produce high quality solids and liquids. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippo, E.J.; Palmer, S.R.; Blankenship, M. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-06-01

    It is the aim of this study to provide information pertinent to the development of a coal/RDF pyrolysis process capable of economically creating valuable products from high sulfur Illinois coal. This project will be carried out in a systematic manner. First, samples will be properly selected prepared, preserved and characterized. Then coals, various plastics, cellulose, and a high quality RDF will be pyrolyzed, steam pyrolyzed, hydro-pyrolyzed, and liquefied at various conditions. Next, blends of coal with various RDF components will be reacted under the same conditions. From this work synergistic effects will be identified and process parametric studies will be conducted on the appropriate mixtures and single components. Product quality and mass balances will be obtained on systems showing promise. Preliminary pyrolysis work will be conducted on a TGA. Over 100 microreactor experiments have been performed and the acquisition of products for analysis has been achieved. Interactions occur between 400--450{degrees}C. The use of higher temperatures should be avoided if liquids are the.desired product. Although, these results are preliminary they are also very encouraging.

  4. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  5. A Method to Estimate the Dynamic Displacement and Stress of a Multi-layered Pavement with Bituminous or Concrete Materials

    OpenAIRE

    LU, ZHENG; Yao, Hailin; Zhang, JingBo

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, a method to estimate the dynamic characteristics of a multilayered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials is proposed. A mechanical model is established to investigate the dynamic displacement and stress of the multi-layered pavement structure. Both the flexible and the rigid pavements, corresponding to bituminous materials and concrete materials, respectively, are studied. The theoretical solutions of the multi-layered pavement structure are deduced considering...

  6. Is Atomic Force Microscopy suited as Tool for fast Screening of Bituminous Materials? An Inter-laboratory Comparison Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, S.N.; Dillingh, B.; Erkens, S.M.J.G.; Schmets, A. J. M.; Fischer, H.R.; Scarpas, A.; Schitter, G.

    2013-01-01

    Bituminous binders are known to have microstructures at typical length scales of micrometers. This microstructure can be probed with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Now that worldwide several research groups are reporting AFM results on bitumen, it is becoming important to improve the understanding of the reproducibility and objectivity of the technique for studying bituminous samples. When reproducibility and stability are proven, AFM can be a tool for asphalt professionals to rapidly screen ...

  7. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  8. A technical and economic evaluation of the lime spray dryer process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jao, Yung-Wo.

    1986-06-01

    A technical and economic evaluation of the lime spray dryer process for the control of SO{sub 2} emissions from utility boilers is presented. The study evaluated retrofitting two 500 MW boilers burning bituminous coal containing 2-3% sulfur. In the lime spray dryer process, a slurry of slaked lime is finely atomized into the flue gas inside a spray dryer absorber located downstream of the air heaters. Sulfur dioxide is absorbed into the slurry droplets where it reacts with the lime to produce calcium sulfite and sulfate. All of the water in the droplets is evaporated by the hot flue gas, leaving a dry particulate. The dry reaction products are collected with the flyash in an electrostatic precipitator or fabric filter downstream of the spray dryer. Part of the waste is mixed with the fresh lime slurry and recycled to the spray dryer to improve lime utilization. The mixture of SO{sup 2} removal waste and flyash is then landfilled. It was concluded that due to the limited experience with the lime spray dryer process on high sulfur coal and electrostatic precipitators, there is some uncertainty with respect to the lime stoichiometry required, precipitator sizing and maintenance cost. With the benefit of favourable assumptions with respect to lime stoichiometry and maintenance, the lime spray dryer process appears to be competitive in cost with limestone slurry scrubbing on 2.5% sulfur coal. The lime spray dryer process offers the promise of higher reliability and of lower costs, particularly if future regulations require wet scrubbing processes to eliminate process wastewater streams or incorporate expensive wastewater treatment. 21 refs., 27 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. A feasibility study to use coal tar contaminated soil in asphalt cement mixture production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal tars are the residues produced during the gasification of coal. Traditionally, coal tars were buried onsite at the power plants or left as residuals in the bottom of gas holders. Currently, there are more than 1,500 such historic sites which will undergo site assessment in the near future. The use of coal tar residuals in asphalt-based products could result in greatly reduced disposal costs, in comparison to current methods of disposal. Present disposal practice of coal tar contaminated residuals includes disposal in hazardous waste landfills or incineration. Treatment and disposal costs are reported to be as much as $1,000/ton for current coal tar contaminated residuals disposal options. This feasibility study was performed to determine the use of coal tar contaminated soil (CTCS) in bituminous materials to produce hot asphalt mix. Mixtures of varying composition of CTCS and bituminous material were produced to perform TCLP. The air emissions during the mixing process were captured and analyzed. In this study, a bench scale investigation was performed to identify and quantify the emissions from heating the CTCS at the mixer temperature. The pilot scale investigations were performed by replacing reclaimable asphalt pavement (RAP) with CTCS during the hot asphalt mix production. The investigations were performed on two types of mixtures; using CTCS as the direct additive in the first type, and using SS-1 (slow setting asphalt emulsion) stabilized CTCS as an additive in the second type

  10. A feasibility study to use coal tar contaminated soil in asphalt cement mixture production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulam, C.S.; Hoag, G.E.; Dahmani, A.; Nadim, F. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Environmental Research Inst.

    1996-11-01

    Coal tars are the residues produced during the gasification of coal. Traditionally, coal tars were buried onsite at the power plants or left as residuals in the bottom of gas holders. Currently, there are more than 1,500 such historic sites which will undergo site assessment in the near future. The use of coal tar residuals in asphalt-based products could result in greatly reduced disposal costs, in comparison to current methods of disposal. Present disposal practice of coal tar contaminated residuals includes disposal in hazardous waste landfills or incineration. Treatment and disposal costs are reported to be as much as $1,000/ton for current coal tar contaminated residuals disposal options. This feasibility study was performed to determine the use of coal tar contaminated soil (CTCS) in bituminous materials to produce hot asphalt mix. Mixtures of varying composition of CTCS and bituminous material were produced to perform TCLP. The air emissions during the mixing process were captured and analyzed. In this study, a bench scale investigation was performed to identify and quantify the emissions from heating the CTCS at the mixer temperature. The pilot scale investigations were performed by replacing reclaimable asphalt pavement (RAP) with CTCS during the hot asphalt mix production. The investigations were performed on two types of mixtures; using CTCS as the direct additive in the first type, and using SS-1 (slow setting asphalt emulsion) stabilized CTCS as an additive in the second type.

  11. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  12. Oxy-fuel combustion of coal and biomass blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ignition temperature, burnout and NO emissions of blends of a semi-anthracite and a high-volatile bituminous coal with 10 and 20 wt.% of olive waste were studied under oxy-fuel combustion conditions in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The results obtained under several oxy-fuel atmospheres (21%O2–79%CO2, 30%O2–70%CO2 and 35%O2–65%CO2) were compared with those attained in air. The results indicated that replacing N2 by CO2 in the combustion atmosphere with 21% of O2 caused an increase in the temperature of ignition and a decrease in the burnout value. When the O2 concentration was increased to 30 and 35%, the temperature of ignition was lower and the burnout value was higher than in air conditions. A significant reduction in ignition temperature and a slight increase in the burnout value was observed after the addition of biomass, this trend becoming more noticeable as the biomass concentration was increased. The emissions of NO during oxy-fuel combustion were lower than under air-firing. However, they remained similar under all the oxy-fuel atmospheres with increasing O2 concentrations. Emissions of NO were significantly reduced by the addition of biomass to the bituminous coal, although this effect was less noticeable in the case of the semi-anthracite. -- Highlights: ► Coal and biomass blends combustion behaviour evaluated under oxy-fuel conditions. ► Biomass addition had a greater effect on the ignition temperature than on burnout. ► Lower NO emissions by blending olive waste with a bituminous coal.

  13. Modelling the quasi-static behaviour of bituminous material using a cohesive zone model

    OpenAIRE

    Tabakovic, Amir; Karac, Aleksandar; Ivankovic, Alojz; Gibney, Amanda; McNally, Ciaran; Gilchrist, M. D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of a cohesive zone model for simulating the performance of bituminous material subjected to quasistatic loading. The Dugdale traction law was implemented within a finite volume code in order to simulate the binder course mortar material response when subjected to indirect tensile loading. A uniaxial tensile test and a threepoint bend test were employed to determine initial stress-strain curves at different test rates and the cohesive zone parameters (...

  14. Microstructural self-healing of bituminous materials: Combined experimental and numerical study

    OpenAIRE

    Pauli, A; Schmets, A. J. M.; Kasbergen, C.; Varveri, K.; Scarpas, A.

    2013-01-01

    Bituminous materials form a class of materials that possess the intrinsic ability to selfheal. This self-healing capability is evidenced by the observation that the service life of these materials ‘in the field’ exceeds the service life as predicted by standard mechanical laboratory tests. This mismatch between laboratory prediction and field service life is usually accounted for by applying a shift or healing factor. In this contribution we demonstrate a model that is based on the observatio...

  15. Use of waste plastic in construction of bituminous road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Jirge

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottles, containers and packing strips etc. is increasing day by day. As a result amount of waste plastic also increases. This leads to various environmental problems. Many of the wastes produced today will remain in the environment for many years leading to various environmental concerns. Therefore it is necessary to utilize thewastes effectively with technical development in each field. Many by-products are being produced using the plastic wastes. Our present work is helping to take care of these aspects. Plastic waste, consisting of carry bags, cups and other utilized plastic can be used as a coating over aggregate and this coated stone can be used for roadconstruction. The mix polymer coated aggregate and tyre modified bitumen have shown higher strength. Use of this mix for road construction helps to use plastics waste. Once the plastic waste is separated from municipal solid waste, the organic matter can be converted into manure and used. Our paper will discuss in detail theprocess and its successful applications.

  16. Characterization of open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators. Quarterly technical summary report No. 6, October 1--December 31, 1977. [PACKAGE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, C.E.; Yousefian, V.; Wormhoudt, J.; Haimes, R.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Kerrebrock, J.L.

    1978-01-30

    Research has included theoretical modeling of important plasma chemical effects such as: conductivity reductions due to condensed slag/electron interactions; conductivity and generator efficiency reductions due to the formation of slag-related negative ion species; and the loss of alkali seed due to chemical combination with condensed slag. A summary of the major conclusions in each of these areas is presented. A major output of the modeling effort has been the development of an MHD plasma chemistry core flow model. This model has been formulated into a computer program designated the PACKAGE code (Plasma Analysis, Chemical Kinetics, And Generator Efficiency). The PACKAGE code is designed to calculate the effect of coal rank, ash percentage, ash composition, air preheat temperatures, equivalence ratio, and various generator channel parameters on the overall efficiency of open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators. A complete description of the PACKAGE code and a preliminary version of the PACKAGE user's manual are included. A laboratory measurements program involving direct, mass spectrometric sampling of the positive and negative ions formed in a one atmosphere coal combustion plasma was also completed during the contract's initial phase. The relative ion concentrations formed in a plasma due to the methane augmented combustion of pulverized Montana Rosebud coal with potassium carbonate seed and preheated air are summarized. Positive ions measured include K/sup +/, KO/sup +/, Na/sup +/, Rb/sup +/, Cs/sup +/, and CsO/sup +/, while negative ions identified include PO/sub 3//sup -/, PO/sub 2//sup -/, BO/sub 2//sup -/, OH/sup -/, SH/sup -/, and probably HCrO/sub 3/, HMoO/sub 4//sup -/, and HWO/sub 3//sup -/. Comparison of the measurements with PACKAGE code predictions are presented. Preliminary design considerations for a mass spectrometric sampling probe capable of characterizing coal combustion plasmas from full scale combustors and flow trains are presented

  17. The microstructure of petroleum vacuum residue films for bituminous concrete: a microscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourty, E D; Tamminga, A Y; Michels, M A J; Vellinga, W-P; Meijer, H E H

    2011-02-01

    Selected carbon-rich refinery residues ('binders') mixed with mineral particles can form composite materials ('bituminous concrete') with bulk mechanical properties comparable to those of cement concrete. The microstructural mechanism underlying the remarkable composite properties has been related to the appearance of a rigid percolating network consisting of asphaltenes and mineral particles [Wilbrink M. et al. (2005) Rigidity percolation in dispersions with a structured visco-elastic matrix. Phys. Rev. E71, 031402]. In this paper, we explore the microstructure of thin binder films of varying thickness with a number of microscopic characterization techniques, and attempt to relate the observed microstructure to the distinctive mechanical behaviour. Two binders, only one of which has been proven to be suitable for bituminous concrete were investigated, and their microstructure compared. Both binders show the formation of asphaltene aggregates. The binder suitable for bituminous concrete is distinguished by the fact that the asphaltenes show a stronger tendency towards such aggregation, due to a higher concentration and less stabilization in the maltene phase. They also show a clear affinity to other species (such as waxes) and may act as nucleation sites for crystals and aggregates of those species. PMID:21118207

  18. Fatigue and healing properties of bituminous mastics reinforced with nano-sized additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagata, Ezio; Baglieri, Orazio; Tsantilis, Lucia; Dalmazzo, Davide; Chiappinelli, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The research work described in the paper focused on fatigue and healing properties of bituminous mastics reinforced with nano-sized additives. Commercially available multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and montmorillonite nanoclay (NC) were combined with a single base bitumen and a standard mineral filler to produce bituminous mastics. These blends were prepared in the laboratory by making use of a technique consisting in simple shear mixing followed by sonication. Fatigue behaviour of mastics under repeated loading was investigated by means of time sweeps performed in the strain-controlled mode at various amplitudes. Healing potential was assessed by adopting a testing protocol specifically conceived to discriminate between recovery of damage induced by fatigue loading and other artefact phenomena which may affect material response. All rheological measurements were carried out with a dynamic shear rheometer in the parallel plates geometry. Outcomes of the experimental investigation were found to be highly dependent on the nature of additive type, as a result of the key role played by interaction mechanisms that nano-particles can establish within the bituminous mastic.

  19. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  20. Coal and coal-bearing strata: recent advances and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Andrew C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in coal geology are highlighted. The increase in our knowledge of peat formation is emphasized and the application of hydrological models of mire systems to coal-bearing strata is advocated. The importance of coalification studies to the geological community as a whole should not be underestimated, Consideration of the original peat-forming vegetation by coal geologists is advocated. Both conceptual and technical advances in coal geology are reviewed. Integration of different ...