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Sample records for bituminous coal

  1. Facies studies of bituminous coals in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Grzegorz J. [Polish Geological Institute, Lower Silesian Branch, al. Jaworowa 19, 53-122, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2004-04-23

    Polish bituminous coal basins are associated exclusively with Carboniferous deposits, differing in origin and geological structure. This paper presents only short review of papers of Polish authors on coal facies studies of Carboniferous coals occurring in the Lower Silesian Coal Basin (LSCB), Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) and Lublin Coal Basin (LCB) of Poland. Facies investigations of Carboniferous coals of Poland have been in progress over 20 years. The results of these studies have provided new information on such subjects as: (1) recognition of main depositional conditions in paleomires, (2) determine prevailing paleoplant communities, (3) appraisal of peat-forming environment reconstruction-types and characteristics of paleomires. These facies analyses are connected to results of such studies as: pure coal petrology, using maceral and microlithotype composition as parameters of the environment of coal deposition, combined results of petrological, palynological and sedimentological studies.

  2. Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisne, Abdullah; Okten, Gündüz; Celebi, Nilgün

    2005-01-01

    Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uzülmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m(-3). It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HORIZONTAL COMBUSTION TECHNIQUE FOR BITUMINOUS COAL BRIQUET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路春美; 程世庆; 邵延玲; 张晔

    1997-01-01

    Through a lot of experiments, a new kind of stove using horizontal combustion technique for bituminous coal briquet has been developed. Making use of this stove, studies have been made on burning process of bituminous coal briquet, distribution of temperature field in the stove, the regularities of evolution and combustion of volatile matter, the burning rate and efficiency of bituminous coal briquet, characteristics of fire-sealing and sulfur-retention. The results show that, with the technique, some achievements can be obtained in combustion of bituminous coal briquet, such as lower pollution that the flue gas black degree is below 0.5R and dust concentration is below 90mg/m3 . The stove's combustion efficiency reaches 90%, sulfur fixing efficiency is 60%, and CO concentration is decreased by 40% compared with other traditional stoves. With so many advantages, the stove can be used extensively in civil stoves and smaller industrial boilers.

  4. Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (United States)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

  5. Unexpectedly high uptake of palladium by bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J. [Research Lab. for Mining Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The uptake of palladium as a conversion catalyst onto coals of different rank was investigated. Palladium fixation occurs by a different mode to that for alkaline earth and first row transition metals. Therefore, the dispersion of relatively high concentration of palladium by an ion sorption process is even possible for bituminous coals. (orig.)

  6. Performance of PAHs emission from bituminous coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严建华; 尤孝方; 李晓东; 倪明江; 尹雪峰; 岑可法

    2004-01-01

    Carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated in coal combustion have caused great environmental health concern. Seventeen PAHs (16 high priority PAHs recommended by USEPA plus Benzo[e]pyrene) present in five raw bituminous coals and released during bituminous coal combustion were studied. The effects of combustion temperature, gas atmosphere, and chlorine content of raw coal on PAHs formation were investigated. Two additives (copper and cupric oxide) were added when the coal was burned. The results indicated that significant quantities of PAHs were produced from incomplete combustion of coal pyrolysis products at high temperature, and that temperature is an important causative factor of PAHs formation. PAHs concentrations decrease with the increase of chlorine content in oxygen or in nitrogen atmosphere. Copper and cupric oxide additives can promote PAHs formation (especially the multi-ring PAHs) during coal combustion.

  7. Investigation of synthesis of silicon carbide from bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; He, E.; Chen, S. [Xian University of Science and Technology, Xian (China). Dept of Materials Technology

    2000-08-01

    Three kinds of bituminous coal were investigated in SiC synthesis reaction under N{sub 2} atmosphere protection. It was found that bituminous coal could be used as the carbon source to synthesise SiC. However, there was a significant difference in the quantity of SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, which was the by product, from the different types of bituminous coal. It had been indicated by the research work that the bituminous coal's volatile constituents and the micro-structure of the coke (such as porosity, micromorphology of pore and specific surface area etc.) were the two critical factors which determined the generation of SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} in this reaction system. The difference of these three kinds of bituminous coal in volatile constituents and coke's micro-structure were studied under temperature ranging from 1200 to 1600{degree}C and their effects on the SiC reaction system was also discussed. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. A study on spontaneous ignition of bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin-Rui Li; Hiroshi Koseki; Yusaku Iwata [National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    The thermal properties of four bituminous coals were studied using isothermal and temperature-programmed calorimeters, such as a differential thermal analysis, a heat flux calorimeter C80 and an thermal activity monitor (TAM-III). The corresponding spontaneous ignition was measured in an adiabatic spontaneous ignition tester. It was found that there were weak exothermic activities in bituminous coal at 50-100 {sup o}C and meanwhile carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide was generated. These thermal behaviors are responsible for the self heating from 50{sup o}C and spontaneous ignition at 80{sup o}C. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. A study on spontaneous ignition of bituminous coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin-Rui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal properties of four bituminous coals were studied using isothermal and temperature-programmed calorimeters, such as a differential thermal analysis, a heat flux calorimeter C80 and an thermal activity monitor (TAM-III. The corresponding spontaneous ignition was measured in an adiabatic spontaneous ignition tester. It was found that there were weak exothermic activities in bituminous coal at 50-100°C and meanwhile carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide was generated. These thermal behaviors are responsible for the self heating from 50°C and spontaneous ignition at 80°C.

  10. Amenability of Muzret bituminous coal to oil agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahinoglu, E.; Uslu, T. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mining Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    Laboratory scale agglomeration tests were undertaken to investigate the amenability of Muzret (Yusufeli-Artvin) bituminous coal to oil agglomeration. Kerosene was extensively used as oil in the tests. In addition, fuel oil, diesel oil, and hazelnut oil were also used in order to determine the effect of oil type. The effects of the parameters including coal content, kerosene content, agglomeration time, coal particle size, pH, oil type, and agitation rate, on the combustible matter recovery, ash reduction and pyritic sulphur reduction, were investigated. It was found that Muzret bituminous coal could be readily cleaned by oil agglomeration with substantial reductions in ash and pyritic sulphur content. Maximum combustible matter recovery, ash reduction and pyritic sulphur reduction were achieved to be 85.54%, 59.98%, and 85.17%, respectively. (author)

  11. Co-pyrolysis characteristic of biomass and bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Aibin; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangsuo

    2015-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of biomass and bituminous coal have been studied in this work. The temperature was up to 900°C with the heating rates of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C/min. Rice straw, saw dust, microcrystalline cellulose, lignin and Shenfu bituminous coal were chosen as samples. Six different biomass ratios were used. The individual thermal behavior of each sample was obtained. The experimental weight fractions of the blended samples and the calculated values were compared. The results show that the weight fractions of the blended samples behave differently with calculated ones during the co-pyrolysis process. With the increasing biomass ratio, relative deviations between experimental weight fractions and calculated ones are larger. H/C molar ratio, heat transfer properties of biomass would affect to the interaction between biomass and coal. The maximum degradation rates are slower than the calculated ones. The activation energy distributions also changed by adding some biomass into coal.

  12. Steam and air plasma gasification of bituminous coal and petrocoke

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Messerle; Alexander Ustimenko

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical analysis and experimental investigation of two very different solid fuels, low-rank bituminous coal of 40 % ash content and petrocoke of 3 % ash content, gasification under steam and air plasma conditions with an aim of producing synthesis gas. Numerical analysis was fulfilled using the software package TERRA for equilibrium computation. Using the results of the numerical simulation, experiments on plasma steam gasification of the petrocoke and air and steam ga...

  13. Chemical and Pyrolytic Thermogravimetric Characterization of Nigerian Bituminous Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyakuma Bemgba Bevan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of new coal deposits in Nigeria presents solutions for nation’s energy crises and prospects for socioeconomic growth and sustainable development. Furthermore, the quest for sustainable energy to limit global warming, climate change, and environmental degradation has necessitated the exploration of alternatives using cleaner technologies such as coal pyrolysis. However, a lack of comprehensive data on physico-chemical and thermal properties of Nigerian coals has greatly limited their utilization. Therefore, the physico-chemical properties, rank (classification, and thermal decomposition profiles of two Nigerian bituminous coals – Afuze (AFZ and Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ – were examined in this study. The results indicate that the coals contain high proportions of C, H, N, S, O and a sufficiently high heating value (HHV for energy conversion. The coal classification revealed that the Afuze (AFZ coal possesses a higher rank, maturity, and coal properties compared to the Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ coal. A thermal analysis demonstrated that coal pyrolysis in both cases occurred in three stages; drying (30-200 °C, devolatilization (200-600 °C, and char decomposition (600-1000 °C. The results also indicated that pyrolysis at 1000 °C is not sufficient for complete pyrolysis. In general, the thermochemical and pyrolytic fuel properties indicate that the coal from both places can potentially be utilized for future clean energy applications.

  14. Concentration of viruses from water on bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhe, S.B.; Parhad, N.M.

    1988-05-01

    The potential of bituminous coal for adsorption of viruses, using poliovirus as a model, was investigated. Influence of pH of water on the adsorption of viruses on a coal bed with and without addition of cation (Al/sup 3 +/) indicated that poliovirus could be adsorbed efficiently at pH 5 in presence of AlCl/sub 3/ at a concentration of 0.0005 M. studies on the effect of different concentrations of monovalent, divalent and trivalent cations showed that the trivalent cation was more effective and was required at a lower concentration than other cations tested. A coal bed of 1.5 g could adsorb as high as 204,000 PFU from water based on the absence of virus in the filtrate. Total organic carbon content of the water did not interfere in virus adsorption to coal. The results obtained indicated that a bituminous coal bed could be used as one of the methods for efficient concentration of viruses from water. 31 refs., 8 tabs.

  15. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  16. Steam and air plasma gasification of bituminous coal and petrocoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical analysis and experimental investigation of two very different solid fuels, low-rank bituminous coal of 40 % ash content and petrocoke of 3 % ash content, gasification under steam and air plasma conditions with an aim of producing synthesis gas. Numerical analysis was fulfilled using the software package TERRA for equilibrium computation. Using the results of the numerical simulation, experiments on plasma steam gasification of the petrocoke and air and steam gasification of the coal were conducted in an original installation. Nominal power of the plasma installation is 100 kWe and sum consumption of the reagents is up to 20 kg/h. High quality synthesis gas was produced in the experiments on solid fuels plasma gasification. It has been found that the synthesis gas content at about 97.4 vol.% can be produced. Comparison between the numerical and experimental results showed satisfactory agreement. 

  17. Fuel properties of bituminous coal and pyrolytic oil mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Hazlin; Sharuddin, Munawar Zaman; Daud, Ahmad Rafizan Mohamad; Syed-Hassan, Syed Shatir A.

    2014-10-01

    Investigation on the thermal decomposition kinetics of coal-biooil slurry (CBS) fuel prepared at different ratios (100:0,70:30,60:40,0:100) was conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The materials consisted of Clermont bituminous coal (Australia) and bio-oil (also known as pyrolytic oil) from the source of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) that was thermally converted by means of pyrolysis. Thermal decomposition of CBS fuel was performed in an inert atmosphere (50mL/min nitrogen) under non-isothermal conditions from room temperature to 1000°C at heating rate of 10°C/min. The apparent activation energy (Ea.) and pre-exponential factor (A) were calculated from the experimental results by using an Arrhenius-type kinetic model which first-order decomposition reaction was assumed. All kinetic parameters were tabulated based on the TG data obtained from the experiment. It was found that, the CBS fuel has higher reactivity than Clermont coal fuel during pyrolysis process, as the addition of pyrolytic oil will reduce the Ea values of the fuel. The thermal profiles of the mixtures showed potential trends that followed the characteristics of an ideal slurry fuel where high degradation rate is desirable. Among the mixture, the optimum fuel was found at the ratio of 60:40 of pyrolytic oil/coal mixtures with highest degradation rate. These findings may contribute to the development of a slurry fuel to be used in the vast existing conventional power plants.

  18. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  19. Reactivity and characterisation of various rank Turkish bituminous coal chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizgut, S.; Baran, Y.; Cuhadaroglu, D. [Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2003-07-01

    A set of seven bituminous coal chars has been characterised by IR spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG) and elemental analysis. FTIR study provided suitable information to establish differences between coal samples according to their chemical compositions. The reactivity of these samples was also studied and correlated with the coal parameters of mean vitrinite reflectance, fuel ratio and H/C ratio. The data suggest that reactivity as determined can be correlated with the mean vitrinite reflectance, fuel ratio and H/C ratio (0.90). The order of reactivity of samples were; Amasra (S1) (R-m=0.65) > Azdavay (S4) (R-m=0.99) {approx_equal} Armutcuk (S2) (R-m=0.81) {approx_equal} Acenta (S3) (R-m=0.92) > Ac2l2k (S6) (R-m=1.11) Cay (S5) (R-m=1.03) > Sogutozu (S7) (R-m=2.14).

  20. Investigation of the combustion characteristics of Zonguldak bituminous coal using DTA and DTG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Okutan, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-06-21

    Combustion characteristics of coking, semicoking, and noncoking Turkish bituminous coal samples from Zonguldak basin were investigated applying differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) techniques. Results were compared with that of the coke from Zonguldak bituminous coal, a Turkish lignite sample from Soma, and a Siberian bituminous coal sample. The thermal data from both techniques showed some differences depending on the proximate analyses of the samples. Noncombustible components of the volatile matter led to important changes in thermal behavior. The data front both methods were, evaluated jointly, and some thermal properties were interpreted considering these methods in a complementary combination.

  1. Surface Properties of Photo-Oxidized Bituminous Coals: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Natural weathering has a detrimental effect on the hydrophobic nature of coal, which in turn can influence clean-coal recovery during flotation. Few techniques are available that can establish the quality of coal surfaces and that have a short analysis time to provide input for process control. Luminescence emissions which can be quantified with an optical microscope and photometer system, are measurably influenced by degree of weathering as well as by mild storage deterioration. In addition, it has been shown that when vitrinite is irradiated with a relatively high intensity flux of violet- or ultraviolet- light in the presence of air, photo-oxidation of the surface occurs. The combination of measuring the change in luminescence emission intensity with degree of surface oxidation provided the impetus for the current investigation. The principal aim of this research was to determine whether clear correlations could be established among surface oxygen functionality, hydrophobicity induced by photo-oxidation, and measurements of luminescence intensity and alteration. If successful, the project would result in quantitative luminescence techniques based on optical microscopy that would provide a measure of the changes in surface properties as a function of oxidation and relate them to coal cleanability. Two analytical techniques were designed to achieve these goals. Polished surfaces of vitrain bands or a narrow size fraction of powdered vitrain concentrates were photo-oxidized using violet or ultraviolet light fluxes and then changes in surface properties and chemistry were measured using a variety of near-surface analytical techniques. Results from this investigation demonstrate that quantitative luminescence intensity measurements can be performed on fracture surfaces of bituminous rank coals (vitrains) and that the data obtained do reveal significant variations depending upon the level of surface oxidation. Photo-oxidation induced by violet or ultraviolet light

  2. Carbon molecular sieves from bituminous coal by controlled coke deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, S.N.; Patwardhan, S.R.; Gangadhar, B. (Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and zeolites are widely used as microporous sieving solids for gas and liquid separations. However, due to hydrophobicity, better thermal stability, and neutrality in both acidic and alkaline media, CMSs have definite advantages over zeolites. In the present work, an effort has been made to develop suitable process conditions for synthesizing CMSs from the locally available bituminous coal. The coal was crushed, milled, and agglomerated with sulfate pulp waste liquor (SPWL) or coal-tar pitch (CTP) as the binders, and then carbonized in nitrogen atmosphere at 800{degree}C for about 60 minutes. In order to narrow down the pore mouth sizes, acetylene and benzene were each cracked separately at 800{degree}C to facilitate the deposition of coke on the char. Acetylene and benzene were cracked for 3 to 10 minutes, and 10 to 30 minutes, respectively. Acetylene cracked samples did not show good separation, probably because of over-coking in deeper locations. In contrast benzene cracked samples were found to be highly suitable for CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} separation. The best result (i.e. uptake ratio of 39.9) was obtained for feed benzene entrainment in N{sub 2} of 1.27 x 10{sup -4} g/ml, cracking time of 30 minutes, and this ratio was more than 10 times that of non-coked sample. CMS samples produced using SPWL as binder showed poor O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} uptake ratios throughout (1 to 1.5), whereas samples with CTP as binder showed far more encouraging results, the best uptake ratio being 5.5 for benzene-nitrogen feed stream containing 3.508 x 10{sup -4} g/ml benzene and 5 minutes cracking time. This ratio is about 5.5 times more than that of uncoked sample. 4 tabs., 10 figs., 17 refs.

  3. Variations in pore characteristics in high volatile bituminous coals: Implications for coal bed gas content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Strapoc, D.; Solano-Acosta, W.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Seelyville Coal Member of the Linton Formation (Pennsylvanian) in Indiana was studied to: 1) understand variations in pore characteristics within a coal seam at a single location and compare these variations with changes occurring between the same coal at different locations, 2) elaborate on the influence of mineral-matter and maceral composition on mesopore and micropore characteristics, and 3) discuss implications of these variations for coal bed gas content. The coal is high volatile bituminous rank with R0 ranging from 0.57% to 0.60%. BET specific surface areas (determined by nitrogen adsorption) of the coals samples studied range from 1.8 to 22.9??m2/g, BJH adsorption mesopore volumes from 0.0041 to 0.0339??cm3/g, and micropore volumes (determined by carbon dioxide adsorption) from 0.0315 to 0.0540??cm3/g. The coals that had the largest specific surface areas and largest mesopore volumes occur at the shallowest depths, whereas the smallest values for these two parameters occur in the deepest coals. Micropore volumes, in contrast, are not depth-dependent. In the coal samples examined for this study, mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes. It is especially clear in the case of micropores, where an increase in mineral-matter content parallels the decrease of micropore volume of the coal. No obvious relationships were observed between the total vitrinite content and pore characteristics but, after splitting vitrinite into individual macerals, we see that collotelinite influences both meso- and micropore volume positively, whereas collodetrinite contributes to the reduction of mesopore and micropore volumes. There are large variations in gas content within a single coal at a single location. Because of this variability, the entire thickness of the coal must be desorbed in order to determine gas content reliably and to accurately calculate the level of gas saturation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. Chemistry of thermally altered high volatile bituminous coals from southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.; Mastalerz, Maria; Brassell, S.; Elswick, E.; Hower, J.C.; Schimmelmann, A.

    2007-01-01

    The optical properties and chemical characteristics of two thermally altered Pennsylvanian high volatile bituminous coals, the non-coking Danville Coal Member (Ro = 0.55%) and the coking Lower Block Coal Member (Ro = 0.56%) were investigated with the purpose of understanding differences in their coking behavior. Samples of the coals were heated to temperatures of 275????C, 325????C, 375????C and 425????C, with heating times of up to one hour. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro%) rises with temperature in both coals, with the Lower Block coal exhibiting higher reflectance at 375????C and 425????C compared to the Danville coal. Petrographic changes include the concomitant disappearance of liptinites and development of vesicles in vitrinites in both coals, although neither coal developed anisotropic coke texture. At 375????C, the Lower Block coal exhibits a higher aromatic ratio, higher reflectance, higher carbon content, and lower oxygen content, all of which indicate a greater degree of aromatization at this temperature. The Lower Block coal maintains a higher CH2/CH3 ratio than the Danville coal throughout the heating experiment, indicating that the long-chain unbranched aliphatics contained in Lower Block coal liptinites are more resistant to decomposition. As the Lower Block coal contains significant amounts of liptinite (23.6%), the contribution of aliphatics from these liptinites appears to be the primary cause of its large plastic range and high fluidity. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Adsorption of SO2 on bituminous coal char and activated carbon fiber prepared from phenol formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBarr, Joseph A.; Lizzio, Anthony A.; Daley, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon-based materials are used commercially to remove SO2 from coal combustion flue gases. Historically, these materials have consisted of granular activated carbons prepared from lignite or bituminous coal. Recent studies have reported that activated carbon fibers (ACFs) may have potential in this application due to their relatively high SO2 adsorption capacity. In this paper, a comparison of SO2 adsorption for both coal-based carbons and ACFs is presented, as well as ideas on carbon properties that may influence SO2 adsorption

  6. Physical properties of solid fuel briquettes from bituminous coal waste and biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZARRINGHALAM-MOGHADDAM A; GHOLIPOUR-ZANJANI N; DOROSTIS; VAEZ M

    2011-01-01

    Biomass and bituminous coal fines from four different coalfields were used to produce fuel briquettes.Two physical properties of briquettes,water resistance index and compressive strength were analyzed.The influence of type and quantity of biomass on physical properties was also studied.The results reveal that depending on the mineral content of the coal,the physical properties of the briquettes differ noticeably.The comparison of briquettes with and without biomass showed that the presence of the beet pulp increased CS in all types of coal samples.Samples containing beet pulp had better physical properties than sawdust.Mezino Ⅱ coal briquettes had highest CS and WRI than the other ones.Calorific value of biomass/Mezino Ⅱ coal briquettes was lessened in comparison with raw coal,but it remained in an acceptable range.

  7. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  8. GC/MS Analysis of Fractional Extraction of Fusain from Tongting Bituminous Coal in CS2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fusain from Tongting (Huaibei, Anhui Province) bituminous (FTTB) coal was fractionally extracted using Soxhlet extractor with CS2. Then the extracts were analyzed with GC/MS. Comparison of experimental data between FTTB coal and clarain from Tongting bituminous (CTTB) coal was carried out. The results show that the kinds of small molecule components detected by GC/MS of FTTB are less than those of CTTB. Long-chain alkanes exist mostly in the extracts of fusain. Macromolecular networks are predominant in the FTTB coal mainly composed of inertinite in the coal petrography. The size of micropores in the FTTB coal is relatively small, and the development of micropores is relatively low. Thus the content of aromatic compounds with affinity for micropores is relative low in FTTB, while the content of long-chain alkanes with affinity for macromolecule networks is relatively high. Sub-components in exinite determine the distribution of long-chain alkanes extracted in the last stage. Odd-numbered carbon distribution appears when resin is most in exinite, while high carbon alkane distribution appears when exinite is dominant in cutinite. Small aromatic molecules are firstly packed in micropores, and exist in a free state after micropores are saturated.

  9. Mercury in Bituminous Coal Used in Polish Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrz, Piotr; Kogut, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Poland is a country with the highest anthropogenic mercury emission in the European Union. According to the National Centre for Emissions Management (NCEM) estimation yearly emission exceeds 10 Mg. Within that approximately 56% is a result of energetic coal combustion. In 121 studied coal samples from 30 coal mines an average mercury content was 112.9 ppb with variation between 30 and 321 ppb. These coals have relatively large contents of chlorine and bromine. Such chemical composition is benefitial to formation of oxidized mercury Hg2+, which is easier to remove in Air Pollution Control Devices. The Hgr/Qir (mercury content to net calorific value in working state) ratio varied between 1.187 and 13.758 g Hg · TJ-1, and arithmetic mean was 4.713 g Hg · TJ-1. Obtained results are close to the most recent NCEM mercury emission factor of 1.498 g Hg · TJ-1. Value obtained by us is more reliable that emission factor from 2011 (6.4 g Hg · TJ-1), which caused overestimation of mercury emission from energetic coal combustion.

  10. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Lab.

    2002-06-01

    Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals to investigate the various factors influencing airborne respirable dust generation. Bituminous coal samples from 8 mines (5 U.S. and 3 Polish) were uniformly prepared and processed through a double roll crusher located in a low air velocity wind tunnel. Experimental factors studied included inherent coal seam constituents, specific energy of crushing, product size characteristics, dust cloud electrostatic field, and specific quantity of airborne respirable dust generated. A combination of factors is associated with the generation of airborne respirable dust. One factor involved is the effect of coal rank, described by the inherent moist fuel ratio, on the product size characteristics. However, since coals of high moist fuel ratio (high rank) are generally more extensively cleated, it is suggested that the degree of cleating is directly responsible for the quantity of respirable-sized particles produced in the crushed product material for eastern U.S. coals. This is implied by the relationship of ash content and at least one mineral constituent (pyrite, determined from pyritic sulfur analysis) to the percentage of airborne respirable dust. A clear delineation of coals, based on well-known proximate analysis characteristics, that generate the most respirable dust appears to be possible. It was also shown that the dust-generating characteristics of coals could be reasonably described by both the moist fuel ratio and the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI). These results show a clear distinction between eastern and western U.S. coals. However, no consistent distinction for Polish coal was observed.

  11. Bituminous coal fired USC power plants for the European market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klebes, J.; Tigges, K.-D.; Klauke, F.; Busekrus, K. [Hitachi Power Europe GmbH (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The presentation, in slide/viewgraph form, is in sections entitled: Introduction; Steam generator design features; Optimization of plant efficiency; Steam turbine design features (USC material design principles; rotating and stationary blades; last stage blade (LP 48 inch)); and Future developments. The presentation includes a chart of recent highly efficient coal-fired power plants in Japan, China and Germany.

  12. Synergistic effect on thermal behavior during co-pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass model components blend with bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shuzhong; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Lin; Meng, Haiyu

    2014-10-01

    Co-thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass and coal has been investigated as an effective way to reduce the carbon footprint. Successful evaluating on thermal behavior of the co-pyrolysis is prerequisite for predicting performance and optimizing efficiency of this process. In this paper, pyrolysis and kinetics characteristics of three kinds of lignocellulosic biomass model components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) blended with a kind of Chinese bituminous coal were explored by thermogravimetric analyzer and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. The results indicated that the addition of model compounds had different synergistic effects on thermal behavior of the bituminous coal. The cellulose showed positive synergistic effects on the thermal decomposition of the coal bituminous coal with lower char yield than calculated value. For hemicellulose and lignin, whether positive or negative synergistic was related to the mixed ratio and temperature range. The distribution of the average activation energy values for the mixtures showed nonadditivity performance.

  13. Distribution of inorganic and organic substances in the hydrocyclone separated Slovak sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton Zubrik; Slavomir Hredzak; Ludmila Turcaniova; Michal Lovas; Ingo Bergmann; Klaus Dieter Becker; Maria Lukcova; Vladimir Sepelak [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Institute of Geotechnics

    2010-08-15

    A low-rank Slovak sub-bituminous coal from the Handlova deposit was physically treated by washing in a water-only cyclone with the goal to find the separation effect for inorganic (mainly Fe-bearing minerals) and organic substances (humic acids, diterpanes). A high-quality coal product with the ash content in the dry matter of 9.02% and carbon content of C{sup d} = 68.12% at a mass yield of 29.51% was obtained using the water-only cyclone processing. At first, the physically treated coal samples were detailed characterized by XRD, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, FT-IR and HR-TEM. In addition to non-crystalline organic coal components, inorganic compounds belonging to silicate minerals (kaolinite, muscovite and quartz) as well as to Fe-bearing sulphide minerals (pyrite) were identified in the sub-bituminous coal by XRD. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy detected the presence of iron carbonate (siderite), iron-containing clay mineral and two sulphur-containing minerals (pyrite, jarosite) in the untreated coal. On the other hand, only one Fe-bearing mineral, (pyrite) was found in the washed coal. Effect of the physical separation is also demonstrated in FT-IR spectra, where the peak at 1040 cm{sup -1} representing the silicate component in the untreated sample is not detectable in the washed coal sample. Presence of extractive organic substances, i.e. humic acids and tetracyclic diterpane (16a(H)-phyllocladane), in the hydrocyclone products is also evidenced. It was confirmed that the isolated diterpenoic compound is attendant in the washed product with the lowest ash content and it is assimilated with the organic part of coal. Surprisingly, humic acids were found in the highest concentration in the slurry that has the highest content of ash (63.14%). 54 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Organic geochemistry of Upper Carboniferous bituminous coals and clastic sediments from the Lublin Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Marek R.; Karger, Michał; Gazda, Lucjan; Grafka, Oliwia

    2013-09-01

    Bituminous coals and clastic rocks from the Lublin Formation (Pennsylvanian, Westphalian B) were subjected to detailed biomarker and Rock-Eval analyses. The investigation of aliphatic and aromatic fractions and Rock-Eval Tmax suggests that the Carboniferous deposits attained relatively low levels of thermal maturity, at the end of the microbial processes/initial phase of the oil window. Somewhat higher values of maturity in the clastic sediments were caused by postdiagenetic biodegradation of organic matter. The dominance of the odd carbon-numbered n-alkanes in the range n-C25 to n-C31 , high concentrations of moretanes and a predominance of C 28 and C29 steranes are indicative of a terrigenous origin of the organic matter in the study material. This is supported by the presence of eudesmane, bisabolane, dihydro-ar-curcumene and cadalene, found mainly in the coal samples. In addition, tri- and tetracyclic diterpanes, e. g. 16β(H)-kaurane, 16β(H)-phyllocladane, 16α(H)-kaurane and norisopimarane, were identified, suggesting an admixture of conifer ancestors among the deposited higher plants. Parameters Pr/n-C17 and Rdit in the coal samples show deposition of organic matter from peat swamp environments, with the water levels varying from high (water-logged swamp) to very low (ephemeral swamp). Clastic deposits were accumulated in a flood plain environment with local small ponds/lakes. In pond/lake sediments, apart from the dominant terrigenous organic matter, research also revealed a certain quantity of algal matter, indicated, i.a., by the presence of tricyclic triterpanes C28 and C29 and elevated concentrations of steranes. The Paq parameter can prove to be a useful tool in the identification of organic matter, but the processes of organic matter biodegradation observed in clastic rocks most likely influence the value of the parameter, at the same time lowering the interpretation potential of these compounds. The value of Pr/Ph varies from 0.93 to 5.24 and from 3

  15. Numerical study of bituminous coal combustion in a boiler furnace with bottom blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zroychikov, N. A.; Kaverin, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    Results obtained by the numerical study of a solid fuel combustion scheme with bottom blowing using Ekibastuz and Kuznetsk bituminous coals of different fractional makeup are presented. Furnace chambers with bottom blowing provide high-efficiency combustion of coarse-grain coals with low emissions of nitrogen oxides. Studying such a combustion scheme, identification of its technological capabilities, and its further improvement are topical issues. As the initial object of study, we selected P-57-R boiler plant designed for burning of Ekibastuz bituminous coal in a prismatic furnace with dry-ash (solid slag) removal. The proposed modernization of the furnace involves a staged air inflow under the staggered arrangement of directflow burners (angled down) and bottom blowing. The calculation results revealed the specific aerodynamics of the flue gases, the trajectories of solid particles in the furnace chamber, and the peculiarities of the fuel combustion depending on the grinding fineness. It is shown that, for coal grinding on the mill, the overall residue on the screen plate of 90 µm ( R 90 ≤ 27% for Ekibastuz coal and R 90 ≤ 15% for Kuznetsk coal) represents admissible values for fuel grind coarsening in terms of economic efficiency and functional reliability of a boiler. The increase in these values leads to the excess of regulatory heat losses and unburned combustible losses. It has been established that the change in the grade of the burned coal does not significantly affect the flow pattern of the flue gases, and the particles trajectory is essentially determined by the elemental composition of the fuel.

  16. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2005-11-01

    Prolonged exposure to airborne respirable coal dust is responsible for coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), commonly called black lung. Health research studies have identified that the prevalence and severity of CWP are directly related to both the amount of dust exposure and the coal rank. The amount of airborne respirable dust (ARD) smaller than 10 micrometers generated from breakage of different coals varies widely. To investigate the cause, researchers for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have conducted experiments to identify the causes of airborne respirable dust liberation. Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals from eight mines. The results indicate that the proximate analysis of a coal sample can provide a very good indicator of the potential for a dust problem. For application to the coal mining, processing, and utilization industries, data from 977 US coal seams compiled by the Department of Energy (DoE) has been used to calculate this dust generation potential from an equation based on the NIOSH measured data. A simple procedure for this calculation is provided. 1 fig.

  17. Combustion characteristics and arsenic retention during co-combustion of agricultural biomass and bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui; Hu, Yunhu

    2016-08-01

    A combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and laboratory-scale circulated fluidized bed combustion experiment was conducted to investigate the thermochemical, kinetic and arsenic retention behavior during co-combustion bituminous coal with typical agricultural biomass. Results shown that ignition performance and thermal reactivity of coal could be enhanced by adding biomass in suitable proportion. Arsenic was enriched in fly ash and associated with fine particles during combustion of coal/biomass blends. The emission of arsenic decreased with increasing proportion of biomass in blends. The retention of arsenic may be attributed to the interaction between arsenic and fly ash components. The positive correlation between calcium content and arsenic concentration in ash suggesting that the arsenic-calcium interaction may be regarded as the primary mechanism for arsenic retention.

  18. The thermal decomposition studies of three Polish bituminous coking coals and their blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzesinska, M.; Szeluga, U.; Czajkowska, S.; Muszynski, J.; Zachariasz, J.; Pusz, S.; Pilawa, B. [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 34, 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Kwiecinska, B. [AGH-University of Science and Technology, Aleja Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Koszorek, A. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry and Technology, Silesian Technical University, Krzywoustego 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2009-01-31

    The objective of this work was to investigate the thermal decomposition of various bituminous coal blends. Three Polish coals of varying rank (82.7, 86.2 and 88.7 wt.% carbon content) and caking ability (weak, moderate and strong) were collected from the Krupinski, Szczyglowice and Zofiowka mines, respectively. These coals were used to prepare binary and ternary blends. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) were used. The weight loss and heat flow during pyrolysis, and storage/loss elastic modulus measured as a function of increasing temperature were related to the caking ability of coals. Parameters determined with the TGA and the DSC methods in the binary and ternary blends were correlated with the proportion of strongly-caking-coal concentration in the blend. The weight loss of coal blends was found to be additive parameter. The DSC thermograms of binary blends were found to be different from those of the ternary blends, which suggests a different course for this blend pyrolysis. (author)

  19. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 8. Gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eighth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The period of gasification test was July 28 to August 19, 1983. 6 refs., 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. Comparing potentials for gas outburst in a Chinese anthracite and an Australian bituminous coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guoqing; Saghafi Abouna

    2014-01-01

    Gas outbursts in underground mining occur under conditions of high gas desorption rate and gas content, combined with high stress regime, low coal strength and high Young’s modulus. This combination of gas and stress factors occurs more often in deep mining. Hence, as the depth of mining increases, the poten-tial for outburst increases. This study proposes a conceptual model to evaluate outburst potential in terms of an outburst indicator. The model was used to evaluate the potential for gas outburst in two mines, by comparing numerical simulations of gas flow behavior under typical stress regimes in an Australian gassy mine extracting a medium-volatile bituminous coal, and a Chinese gassy coal mine in Qinshui Basin (Shanxi province) extracting anthracite coal. We coupled the stress simulation program (FLAC3D) with the gas simulation program (SIMED II) to compute the stress and gas pressure and gas content distribution following development of a roadway into the targeted coal seams. The data from gas content and stress distribution were then used to quantify the intensity of energy release in the event of an outburst.

  1. Burnout behaviour of bituminous coals in air-staged combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluger, F.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Process Engineering and Power Plant (IVD)

    2001-07-01

    In order to determine the influence on burnout by the combustion conditions and the coal preparation, three bituminous coals sold on the world market, from three different locations in Poland, South Africa, and Australia, were studied more closely. For this purpose, the coals were ground in two different particle size ranges, which, besides the influence of the combustion conditions, such a temperature, residence time, and stoichiometry, made it possible to also investigate the impact on burnout by the coal preparation. The experiments were carried out in an electrically heated entrained-flow reactor with a thermal input of 8.5 kW. The parameters for the experiments are wall temperature (1000-1350{degree}C), air ratio (0.6-1.15) and two particle sizes (70% {lt} 75 {mu}m, 90% {lt} 75 {mu}m). The results show that in general, for increasing temperatures, the burnout quality will improve. For the Australian Illawara coal, another outcome is increased NOx emissions. Lowering the air ratio in the reduction zone leads to less NOx emission but to increased unburnt matter in ash. For the smaller particle size fraction, the analysis of the different particle sizes shows an improvement of the burnout without a change in NOx emissions. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: potential UCG products and markets. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-31

    The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) The US will continue to require new sources of energy fuels and substitutes for petrochemical feedstocks into the foreseeable future. Most of this requirement will be met using coal. However, the cost of mining, transporting, cleaning, and preparing coal, disposing of ash or slag and scrubbing stack gases continues to rise; particularly, in the Eastern US where the need is greatest. UCG avoids these pitfalls and, as such, should be considered a viable alternative to the mining of deeper coals. (2) Of the two possible product gases LBG and MBG, MBG is the most versatile. (3) The most logical use for UCG product in the Eastern US is to generate power on-site using a combined-cycle or co-generation system. Either low or medium Btu gas (LBG or MBG) can be used. (4) UCG should be an option whenever surface gasification is considered; particularly, in areas where deeper, higher sulfur coal is located. (5) There are environmental and social benefits to use of UCG over surface gasification in the Eastern US. (6) A site could be chosen almost anywhere in the Illinois and Ohio area where amenable UCG coal has been determined due to the existence of existing transportation or transmission systems. (7) The technology needs to be demonstrated and the potential economic viability determined at a site in the East-North-Central US which has commercial quantities of amenable bituminous coal before utilities will show significant interest.

  3. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  4. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. [Effect of preconversion heat soak with coal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    A study of the high-temperature soaking started in this quarter, following the installation of reactors in the previous quarter. Two high-volatile bituminous coals and three coal liquids, which were identified in the previous report, were used. A cross-linked, three-dimensional macromolecular model has been widely accepted f or the structure of coal, but there is no direct evidence to prove this model. The conventional coal structure model has been recently re-examined by this investigator because of the importance of relatively strong intra- and intermolecular interactions in bituminous coals. It was reasonable to deduce that significant portions were physically associated after a study of multistep extractions, associative equilibria, the irreversibility and the dependence of coal concentration on solvent swelling, and consideration of the monophase concept. Physical dissociation which may be significant above 300{degree}C should be utilized for the treatment before liquefaction. The high-temperature soaking in a recycle oil was proposed to dissociate coal complexes.

  5. An evaluation of a two-stage spiral processing ultrafine bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew D. Benusa; Mark S. Klima [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Mineral Engineering

    2008-10-15

    Testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of a multistage Multotec SX7 spiral concentrator treating ultrafine bituminous coal. This spiral mimics a two-stage separation in that the refuse is removed after four turns, and the clean coal and middlings are repulped (without water addition) and then separated in the final three turns. Feed samples were collected from the spiral circuit of a coal cleaning plant located in southwestern Pennsylvania. The samples consisted of undeslimed cyclone feed (nominal -0.15 mm) and deslimed spiral feed (nominal 0.15 x 0.053 mm). Testing was carried out to investigate the effects of slurry flow rate and solids concentration on spiral performance. Detailed size and ash analyses were performed on the spiral feed and product samples. For selected tests, float-sink and sulfur analyses were performed. In nearly all cases, ash reduction occurred down to approximately 0.025 mm, with some sulfur reduction occurring even in the -0.025 mm interval. The separation of the +0.025 mm material was not significantly affected by the presence of the -0.025 mm material when treating the undeslimed feed. The -0.025 mm material split in approximately the same ratio as the slurry, and the majority of the water traveled to the clean coal stream. This split ultimately increased the overall clean coal ash value. A statistical analysis determined that both flow rate and solids concentration affected the clean coal ash value and yield, though the flow rate had a greater effect on the separation. 23 refs.

  6. Structural characterization of vitrinite-rich and inertinite-rich Permian-aged South African bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Niekerk, Daniel; Mathews, Jonathan P. [Energy and Mineral Engineering and the EMS Energy Institute, Pennsylvania State University, Hosler Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Pugmire, Ronald J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Solum, Mark S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Painter, Paul C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 320 Steidle Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Two South African coals of the same rank and age, but different in maceral composition were subjected to extensive structural analyses. Inertinite-rich Highveld coal (dominated by semifusinite) and vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal were studied to determine structural differences and similarities. The two coals had similar carbon content ({proportional_to} 84%, dmmf) and vitrinite reflectance (mean-maximum 0.71% for vitrinite-rich vs. 0.75% for inertinite-rich), but differed in hydrogen content (6.23% for vitrinite-rich and 4.53% for inertinite-rich). The inertinite-rich coal was more aromatic (86% for inertinite-rich and 76% for vitrinite-rich) and more polycondensed (indicated by a higher bridgehead carbon content). The inertinite-rich coal was structurally more ordered, with a higher degree of crystalline stacking. Both coals had similar average aromatic cluster sizes (16 carbons for vitrinite-rich and 18 carbons for inertinite-rich) and number of cluster attachments (6 attachments for vitrinite-rich and 5 attachments for inertinite-rich). Mass spectrometry showed that both coals consist of similar molecular weight distributions; ranging to approximately 1700 m/z with a maximum abundance of {proportional_to} 450 m/z for the vitrinite-rich coal and {proportional_to} 550 m/z for the inertinite-rich coal. Compared to the Argonne Premium coals the South African vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal was comparable to the coals in the high-volatile bituminous range and inertinite-rich Highveld was closer to the medium- to low-volatile bituminous range. Both coals were surprisingly similar in bulk characterization, although inertinite-rich Highveld coal was structurally more ordered, hydrogen deficient, and more aromatic. (author)

  7. Effect of Pre-oxidation on the Properties of Crushed Bituminous Coal and Activated Carbon Prepared Therefrom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The influence of a pre-oxidation process on the chemical properties of crushed bituminous coal and on adsorption properties of the subsequently formed char and activated carbon is discussed in this paper.Datong bituminous coal samples sized 6 mm were oxidized at different temperatures and for different times and then carbonized and activated by steam to obtain activated carbons.A Uniform Design method was used to arrange the experiments, IR and adsorption experiments were used to characterize these oxidized coals, chars and activated carbon samples.The results show that the carboxyl group disappeared and α-CH2 groups joined to alkenes decreased dramatically but the carbonyl group clearly increased in the coal sample oxidized at 543 K; The chemical composition of coal samples oxidized at lower temperature is different from that of coal oxidized at 543 K.Oxidizing coal samples at higher temperatures for a short time or at lower temperatures for a longer time resulted in activated carbon samples that tended toward the same adsorption properties: Iodine number 1100 mg/g and Methylene blue value 252 mg/g.The yield of activated carbon obtained from the pre-oxidized coal is 10% higher than the yield from parent coal but the activated carbons have the same adsorption properties.

  8. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value.

  9. Experimental and computational study and development of the bituminous coal entrained-flow air-blown gasifier for IGCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaimov, N. A.; Osipov, P. V.; Ryzhkov, A. F.

    2016-10-01

    In the paper the development of the advanced bituminous coal entrained-flow air- blown gasifier for the high power integrated gasification combined cycle is considered. The computational fluid dynamics technique is used as the basic development tool. The experiment on the pressurized entrained-flow gasifier was performed by “NPO CKTI” JSC for the thermochemical processes submodel verification. The kinetic constants for Kuznetsk bituminous coal (flame coal), obtained by thermal gravimetric analysis method, are used in the model. The calculation results obtained by the CFD model are in satisfactory agreements with experimental data. On the basis of the verified model the advanced gasifier structure was suggested which permits to increase the hydrogen content in the synthesis gas and consequently to improve the gas turbine efficiency. In order to meet the specified requirements vapor is added on the second stage of MHI type gasifier and heat necessary for air gasification is compensated by supplemental heating of the blasting air.

  10. Non-catalytic co-gasification of sub-bituminous coal and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyendu, Guevara Che

    Fluidization characteristics and co-gasification of pulverized sub-bituminous coal, hybrid poplar wood, corn stover, switchgrass, and their mixtures were investigated. Co-gasification studies were performed over temperature range from 700°C to 900°C in different media (N2, CO2, steam) using a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. In fluidization experiments, pressure drop (Delta P) observed for coal-biomass mixtures was higher than those of single coal and biomass bed materials in the complete fluidization regime. There was no systematic trend observed for minimum fluidization velocity ( Umf) with increasing biomass content. However, porosity at minimum fluidization (εmf) increased with increasing biomass content. Channeling effects were observed in biomass bed materials and coal bed with 40 wt.% and 50 wt.% biomass content at low gas flowrates. The effect of coal pressure overshoot reduced with increasing biomass content. Co-gasification of coal and corn stover mixtures showed minor interactions. Synergetic effects were observed with 10 wt.% corn stover. Coal mixed with corn stover formed agglomerates during co-gasification experiments and the effect was severe with increase in corn stover content and at 900°C. Syngas (H2 + CO) concentrations obtained using CO2 as co-gasification medium were higher (~78 vol.% at 700°C, ~87 vol.% at 800°C, ~93 vol.% at 900°C) than those obtained with N2 medium (~60 vol.% at 700°C, ~65 vol.% at 800°C, ~75 vol.% at 900°C). Experiments involving co-gasification of coal with poplar showed no synergetic effects. Experimental yields were identical to predicted yields. However, synergetic effects were observed on H2 production when steam was used as the co-gasification medium. Additionally, the presence of steam increased H2/CO ratio up to 2.5 with 10 wt.% hybrid poplar content. Overall, char and tar yields decreased with increasing temperature and increasing biomass content, which led to increase in product gas.

  11. Recovery bituminous coal fines: a discussion on the production of coal-water slurry fuels and its relationship to fine coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Scaroni, A.W.; Battista, J.J. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The recovery of bituminous coal fines from slurry impoundments and fine coal cleaning circuits has received considerable attention over the last decade from both coal suppliers and coal-fired utilities. Several coal-fired utilities are presently determining whether a low-solids, low viscosity coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) produced from fine coal can be co-fired with their normal coal feedstock in order to lower their fuel cost and reduce their NO{sub x} emissions. One of the most visible CWSF demonstration programs in the United States is being conducted by GPU Generating, Inc. (GPU Genco). GPU Genco has conducted intermittent demonstration co-fire testing at their 218 MWe-Seward Station since 1993. These tests successfully demonstrate that a low-solids CWSF can be co-fired with pulverized coal in wall-and tangentially-fired boilers. The majority of the CWSF tested at Seward has been prepared from impounded coal fines cleaned via froth flotation and, on a more limited basis, a CWSF prepared from coal fines concentrated from a screen-bowl centrifuge effluent. The production of alow-solids CWSF from wet, fine coal provides an alternative to dewatering. This paper summarizes several fine coal recovery and utilization programs conducted by Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) and GPU Genco during the last five years. These programs range from performing bench-to-pilot-scale cleanability and pilot-scale combustion testing to full-scale utility demonstration tests. All of these successful programs have a common thread of integrating and addressing the issues of fine coal characterization, cleaning handling, and the combustion performance of the CWSF. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Valorization of bituminous coal pulps using column flotation; Valorisation de fines de charbon bitumineux par flottation en colonnes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gursu, G.; Hicyilmaz, C. [Universite du Moyen-Orient, Ankara (Turkey); Bilgen, S. [Universite de Mersin (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    Washing tests were performed with 5 x 5 x 200 cm{sup 3} laboratory flotation columns on bituminous coal pulps from Zonguldak (Turkey) containing 47.52% of ash. The final product contains 10% of ash with a 73.52% recovery. A re-washing of this concentrate allows to obtain a final product with 5.88% of ash and a 59.27% recovery. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  13. Potential of water-washing of rape straw on thermal properties and interactions during co-combustion with bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiulin; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2017-03-07

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal properties and interactions during co-combustion of rape straw (RS) before and after water-washing with bituminous coal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the properties and interactions during co-combustion of RS with bituminous coal (at 10, 20, 40 and 60% RS). The feasibility and potential of water-washing as an RS pre-treatment was also explored. Reactivity and the amount of heat released followed a quadratic trend, while changes to the degree of interactions between the fuels conformed to a cosine curve. Water-washing increased the ignition and burn-out temperatures and slightly decreased reactivity. Demineralization negatively affected the previously synergistic co-firing relationship, nevertheless, the amount of heat released increased by 10.28% and the average activation energy (146kJ/mol) was lower than that of the unwashed blend (186kJ/mol). Overall, water-washing of RS could prove a useful pre-treatment before co-combustion with bituminous coal.

  14. Regional differences in the variations of the degree of gas outburst hazard for Mecsek sub-bituminous coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemedi Varga, Z.

    1987-01-01

    In the collieries of the Mecsek Mountains (South Hungary) in which the sub-bituminous coal is exploited, coal and gas outbursts as well as gas outbursts have been recorded in the Pecs-area since 1984, in the Szaszvar area since 1902, and nowadays in the Komlo-area since 1964. Concerning the degree of gas outbursts hazard, the differences between the Pecs and Komlo areas cannot be explained by the differences in facies, by structural differences and by the frequency of occurrence of igneous rocks. The conditions of coalification seem to be responsible for these differences. In this respect the significance of the so-called second phase coalification is emphasized.

  15. Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-megawatt utility boiler in Taiwan firing bituminous coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Lee, Hsiu-Hsia; Hwang, Jyh-Feng; Chen, Wang

    2010-05-01

    Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-MW tangential-fired utility boiler in Taiwan burning Australian and Chinese bituminous coal blends was investigated. Flue gases were simultaneously sampled at the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) inlet, the SCR outlet, the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, and the stack. Samplings of coal, lime, bottom ash/slag, fly ash, and gypsum slurry were also conducted. Results indicated that flue gases at the inlet to SCR contained a great potion of particle-bound mercury (Hg(p)), 59-92% of the total mercury. Removal of mercury was not observed for the SCR system. However, repartitioning of mercury species across the SCR occurred that significantly increased the portion of elemental mercury (Hg0) to up to 29% and oxidized mercury (Hg2+) to up to 33% in the SCR outlet gas. Overreporting of Hg(p) at the inlet of SCR may cause the observed repartitioning; the high ammonia/nitric oxide circumstance in the SCR unit was also speculated to cause the mercury desorption from ash particles and subsequent reentrance into the gas phase. ESP can remove up to 99% of Hg(p), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) can remove up to 84% of Hg2+. Mercury mass balances were calculated to range between 81 and 127.4%, with an average of 95.7% wherein 56-82% was in ESP fly ash, 8.7-18.6% was retained in the FGD gypsum, and 6.2-26.1% was emitted from the stack. Data presented here suggest that mercury removal can be largely enhanced by increasing the conversion of Hg0 into Hg(p) and Hg2+.

  16. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    A study of the high-temperature soaking started in this quarter, following the installation of reactors in the previous quarter. Two high-volatile bituminous coals and three coal liquids, which were identified in the previous report, were used. A cross-linked, three-dimensional macromolecular model has been widely accepted f or the structure of coal, but there is no direct evidence to prove this model. The conventional coal structure model has been recently re-examined by this investigator because of the importance of relatively strong intra- and intermolecular interactions in bituminous coals. It was reasonable to deduce that significant portions were physically associated after a study of multistep extractions, associative equilibria, the irreversibility and the dependence of coal concentration on solvent swelling, and consideration of the monophase concept. Physical dissociation which may be significant above 300{degree}C should be utilized for the treatment before liquefaction. The high-temperature soaking in a recycle oil was proposed to dissociate coal complexes.

  17. Study on the submicron and micron morphology and the properties of poor bituminous coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei-Fang Fu; Huai-Chun Zhou; Qing-Yan Fang; Hai Yao; Jianrong Qiu; Minghou Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2007-05-15

    Carbon burnout and its reaction mechanism have been widely focused on in the past decades. The properties of burnout, submicron and micron morphology and the reaction mechanism of poor bituminous coal/char (PBC) in a W-shaped power plant boiler was studied and was compared with those in DTF and in TGA, which showed that the degree of PBC burnout in TGA at 1450{sup o}C was greater than or approximately equal to that in a W-shaped boiler, and that the complexity of the reactions among residual char, oxygen and SiO{sub 2} did not seem to result in mass loss in TGA, although the weight percentage of the residual char in ash decreased from 33% ad (air dry basis) at 900{sup o}C to 9% and at 1450{sup o}C. According to the distribution of pores and the properties of the char burnout, the char can be simply categorized into three classes: char burnout easy, char burnout difficult and char burnout very difficult. The differences of the reaction mechanism must be considered while predicting the burning rate and degree of char burnout in a full-scale boiler by making use of experimental results from TGA and DTF. A different char particle contains markedly different amount of carbons, but for a special char particle, the ratio of carbon to ash is generally constant, and an ash shell does not exist on the char surface. The fusion mineral matter composing of C-O-Si-Al is amorphous, not in the form of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} above 1450{sup o}C.

  18. Petrography and geochemistry of Oligocene bituminous coal from the Jiu Valley, Petrosani basin (southern Carpathian Mountains), Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Stucker, J.D. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); University of Kentucky Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Morehead, KY, 40351 (United States); Tatu, Calin A. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Immunology, Clinical Laboratory No. 1, Pta. E. Murgu No. 2, RO-1900 Timisoara (Romania); Buia, Grigore [University of Petrosani, Department of Geology, University St. 20, RO-2675 Petrosani (Romania)

    2010-05-01

    Belt samples of Oligocene (Chattian) bituminous coal from 10 underground mines located in the Jiu Valley, Hunedoara County, Petrosani basin, Romania, have been examined and analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, major-, minor- and trace-element chemistry, organic petrography, and vitrinite reflectance. The mineral chemistry and mode of occurrence of trace elements also have been investigated using SEM and electron microprobe techniques. Twenty coal beds occur in the Jiu Valley and most of the samples are from bed no. 3, the most productive bed of the Dilja-Uricani Formation of Oligocene age. The Petrosani basin, oriented SW-NE, is 48-km long, 10-km wide at the eastern part and 2-km wide at the western part. The coal mines are distributed along the center of the valley generally following the Jiu de Vest River. Reflectance measurements indicate that the rank of the coals ranges from high-volatile B to high-volatile A bituminous. Overall, rank decreases from the southwest to the northeast. In bed no. 3, R{sub max} varies from 0.75% in the northeast to 0.93% in the southwest. Although, most Oligocene coals in Romania and adjacent countries are lignite in rank, the Jiu Valley bituminous coals have been affected by regional metamorphism and attending hydrothermal fluids related to the Alpine orogenic event. The coals are all dominated by vitrinite; resinite and funginite are important minor macerals in most of the coals. Pyrite and carbonate generally dominate the mineral assemblages with carbonate more abundant in the northwest. Siderite occurs as nodules and masses within the macerals (generally vitrinite). Dolomite and calcite occur as fracture fillings, plant-cell fillings, and in other authigenic forms. Late-stage fracture fillings are siderite, dolomite, calcite, and ankerite. In one instance, two populations of siderite ({proportional_to} 35 and {proportional_to} 45 wt.% FeO) plus ankerite fill a large fracture. Late-stage pyrite framboid alteration is Ni

  19. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates

  20. Influence of an igneous intrusion on the inorganic geochemistry of a bituminous coal from Pitkin County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.; Bostick, N.H.; Dulong, F.T.; Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.N.

    1998-01-01

    Although the effects of igneous dikes on the organic matter in coal have been observed at many localities there is virtually no information on the effects of the intrusions of the inorganic constituents in the coal. Such a study may help to elucidate the behavior of trace elements during in situ gasification of coal and may provide insights into the resources potential for coal and coke affected by the intrusion. To determine the effects of an igneous intrusion on the inorganic chemistry of a coal we used a series of 11 samples of coal and natural coke that had been collected at intervals from 3 to 106 cm from a dike that intruded the bituminous Dutch Creek coal in Pitkin, CO. The samples were chemically analyzed for 66 elements. SEM-EDX and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed on selected samples. Volatile elements such as F, Cl, Hg, and Se are not depleted in the samples (coke and coal) nearest the dike that were exposed to the highest temperatures. Their presence in these samples is likely due to secondary enrichment following volatilization of the elements inherent in the coal. Equilibration with ground water may account for the uniform distribution of Na, B, and Cl. High concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Sr, and CO2 in the coke region are attributed to the reaction of CO and CO2 generated during the coking of the coal with fluids from the intrusion, resulting in the precipitation of carbonates. Similarly, precipitation of sulfide minerals in the coke zone may account for the relatively high concentrations of Ag, Hg, Cu, Zn, and Fe. Most elements are concentrated at the juncture of the fluidized coke and the thermally metamorphosed coal. Many of the elements enriched in this region (for example, Ga, Ge, Mo, Rb, U, La, Ce, Al, K, and Si) may have been adsorbed on either the clays or the organic matter or on both.Although the effects of igneous dikes on the organic matter in coal have been observed at many localities there is virtually no information on the

  1. Co-combustion of bituminous coal and biomass fuel blends: Thermochemical characterization, potential utilization and environmental advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui

    2016-10-01

    The thermochemical characteristics and gaseous trace pollutant behaviors during co-combustion medium-to-low ash bituminous coal with typical biomass residues (corn stalk and sawdust) were investigated. Lowering of ignition index, burnout temperature and activation energy in the major combustion stage are observed in the coal/biomass blends. The blending proportion of 20% and 30% are regarded as the optimum blends for corn stalk and sawdust, respectively, in according the limitations of heating value, activation energy, flame stability and base/acid ratio. The reductions of gaseous As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) were 4.5%, 7.8%, 6.3%, 9.8%, 9.4% and 17.4%, respectively, when co-combustion coal with 20% corn stalk. The elevated capture of trace elements were found in coal/corn stalk blend, while the coal/sawdust blend has the better PAHs control potential. The reduction mechanisms of gaseous trace pollutants were attributed to the fuel property, ash composition and relative residence time during combustion.

  2. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Final report, September 20, 1991--September 19, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    One of the main goals for competitive coal liquefaction is to decrease gas yields to reduce hydrogen consumption. Complexing this element as methane and ethane decreases process efficiently and is less cost effective. To decrease the gas yield and increase the liquid yield, an effective preconversion process has been explored on the basis of the physically associated molecular nature of coal. Activities have been focused on two issues: (1) maximizing the dissolution of associated coal and (2) defining the different reactivity associated with a wide molecular weight distribution. Two-step soaking at 350{degrees}C and 400{degrees}C in a recycle oil was found to be very effective for coal solubilization. No additional chemicals, catalysts, and hydrogen are required for this preconversion process. High-volatile bituminous coals tested before liquefaction showed 80--90% conversion with 50--55% oil yields. New preconversion steps suggested are as follows: (1) dissolution of coal with two-step high-temperature soaking, (2) separation into oil and heavy fractions of dissolved coal with vacuum distillation, and (3) selective liquefaction of the separated heavy fractions under relatively mild conditions. Laboratory scale tests of the proposed procedure mode using a small autoclave showed a 30% increase in the oil yield with a 15--20% decrease in the gas yield. This batch operation projects a substantial reduction in the ultimate cost of coal liquefaction.

  3. Controls on coalbed methane potential and gas sorption characteristics of high-volatile bituminous coals in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Acosta, Wilfrido

    distribution, and adsorption experiments at high and low gas pressures are employed to estimate reservoir gas capacity and to characterize high volatile bituminous coals of Indiana for potential future CO2 sequestration. Understanding the mechanisms and geologic conditions that control the occurrence of gas in coal allows us to better characterize: (1) CBM reservoirs for their potential economic use, and (2) coal seams as future receptacles of anthropogenic carbon dioxide.

  4. Study on co-pyrolysis characteristics of rice straw and Shenfu bituminous coal blends in a fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Aibin; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangsuo

    2014-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis behaviors of rice straw and Shenfu bituminous coal were studied in a fixed bed reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. The pyrolysis temperatures were 700°C, 800°C and 900°C, respectively. Six different biomass ratios were used. Gas, tar components were analyzed by a gas chromatograph and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry respectively. Under co-pyrolysis conditions, the gas volume yields are higher than the calculated values. Co-pyrolysis tar contains more phenolics, less oxygenate compounds than calculated values. The addition of biomass changes the atmosphere during the pyrolysis process and promotes tar decomposition. The SEM results show that the differences between the blended char and their parents char are not significant. The results of char yields and ultimate analysis also show that no significant interactions exist between the two kinds of particles. The changes of gas yield and components are caused by the secondary reactions and tar decomposition.

  5. Major, trace, and natural radioactive elements in bituminous coal from Australia, Romania, Russia, South Africa and Ukraine: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duliu, O.G.; Culicov, O.A.; Radulescu, I.; Cristea, C.; Vasiu, T. [University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania). Dept. of Atomic & Nuclear Physics

    2005-05-01

    Five samples of bituminous coal collected from different basins (Australia, Romania, Russia, South Africa and Ukraine) have been investigated by using different analytical techniques. Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sn, In, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Hg, Th and U have been determined by neutron activation analysis, K-40, U-238, U-235 and Th-232 have been measured radiometrically, H, C, O, N, and S have been dosed by dynamic flash combustion, while gravimetric methods have been used to measure moisture and ash content together with calorific value. Major mineralogical fractions have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction. The results have shown significant positive correlations between radiometric and activation analysis results, between calorific value and carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen concentrations and negative significant correlations between calorific value and ash content. According to the Romanian Regulations, only Cr and Ni for Romanian coal exceeded the minimum threshold to be considered unpolluting elements. The distribution of rare earth elements, La to Th ratio, as well as of Sc, La and Th together with Co, Hf and Th have confirmed that, irrespective of sample sources, the mineral part of coal has a composition close to that of the upper continental crust.

  6. Plasma-Augmented Fluidized Bed Gasification of Sub-bituminous Coal in CO2-O2 Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelievre, C.; Pickles, C. A.; Hultgren, S.

    2016-01-01

    The gasification of a sub-bituminous coal using CO2-O2 gas mixtures was studied in a plasma-augmented fluidized bed gasifier. Firstly, the coal was chemically characterized and the gasification process was examined using Thermogravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA/DTA) in CO2, O2 and at a CO2 to O2 ratio of 3 to 1. Secondly, the equilibrium gas compositions were obtained using the Gibbs free energy minimization method (HSC Chemistry®7). Thirdly, gasification tests were performed in a plasma-augmented fluidized bed and the off-gas temperatures and compositions were determined. Finally, for comparison purposes, control tests were conducted using a conventional fluidized bed coal gasifier and these results were compared to those achieved in the plasma-augmented fluidized bed gasifier. The effects of bed temperature and CO2 to O2 ratio were studied. For both gasifiers, at a given bed temperature, the off-gas compositions were in general agreement with the equilibrium values. Also, for both gasifiers, an experimental CO2 to O2 ratio of about 3 to 1 resulted in the highest syngas grade (%CO + %H2). Both higher off-gas temperatures and syngas grades could be achieved in the plasma-augmented gasifier, in comparison to the conventional gasifier. These differences were attributed to the higher bed temperatures in the plasma-augmented fluidized bed gasifier.

  7. Co-combustion characteristics and blending optimization of tobacco stem and high-sulfur bituminous coal based on thermogravimetric and mass spectrometry analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Kai; Cao, Yan; Pan, Wei-ping

    2013-03-01

    Despite much research on co-combustion of tobacco stem and high-sulfur coal, their blending optimization has not been effectively found. This study investigated the combustion profiles of tobacco stem, high-sulfur bituminous coal and their blends by thermogravimetric analysis. Ignition and burnout performances, heat release performances, and gaseous pollutant emissions were also studied by thermogravimetric and mass spectrometry analyses. The results indicated that combustion of tobacco stem was more complicated than that of high-sulfur bituminous coal, mainly shown as fixed carbon in it was divided into two portions with one early burning and the other delay burning. Ignition and burnout performances, heat release performances, and gaseous pollutant emissions of the blends present variable trends with the increase of tobacco stem content. Taking into account the above three factors, a blending ratio of 0–20% tobacco stem content is conservatively proposed as optimum amount for blending.

  8. XRD and FT-IR investigations of sub-bituminous Assam coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikia, B.K.; Boruah, R.K.; Gogoi, P.K. [Tezpur University, Tezpur (India). Dept. of Chemical Science

    2007-08-15

    Two coal samples collected from Makum coal field, Assam, India were studied by XRD and FT-IR techniques. The X-ray diffractogram shows the existence of some crystalline carbons in Assam coals as proven by the appearance of peaks. The radial distribution functional (RDF) method was applied for the determination of structural aspects of the coals. The study indicates that the coals are lignite in type and there is no evidence of graphite-like structures. The maximum in the Gr) plots of function of radial distribution of atoms (FRDA) relates to different distances between carbon atoms of aliphatic chains. The first significant maximum relates to the C-C bond (type C-CH=CH-C), the second maximum relates to the distance between carbon atoms of aliphatic chains that are located across one carbon atom. The curve intensity profiles obtained from FRDA show quite regular molecular packets for this coal. The coals were found to be lignite in nature. FT-IR study shows the presence of aliphatic carbon, C=O and C-O stretching associated with -OH and -NH stretching vibrations. Kaolinite and quartz were also found to be major minerals in Assam coals by FTIR spectroscopy. The difference in intensities of carbonyl groups of the coal samples is likely to relate with the rank.

  9. XRD and FT–IR investigations of sub-bituminous Assam coals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binoy K Saikia; R K Boruah; P K Gogoi

    2007-08-01

    Two coal samples collected from Makum coal field, Assam, India were studied by XRD and FT–IR techniques. The X-ray diffractogram shows the existence of some crystalline carbons in Assam coals as proven by the appearance of peaks. The radial distribution functional (RDF) method was applied for the determination of structural aspects of the coals. The study indicates that the coals are lignite in type and there is no evidence of graphite-like structures. The maximum in the () plots of function of radial distribution of atoms (FRDA) relates to different distances between carbon atoms of aliphatic chains. The first significant maximum relates to the C–C bond (type C–CH=CH–C), the second maximum relates to the distance between carbon atoms of aliphatic chains that are located across one carbon atom. The curve intensity profiles obtained from FRDA show quite regular molecular packets for this coal. The coals were found to be lignite in nature. FT–IR study shows the presence of aliphatic carbon, C=O and C–O stretching associated with –OH and –NH stretching vibrations. Kaolinite and quartz were also found to be major minerals in Assam coals by FTIR spectroscopy. The difference in intensities of carbonyl groups of the coal samples is likely to relate with the rank.

  10. Progressive oxidation of pyrite in five bituminous coal samples: An As XANES and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Huggins, Frank E.

    2007-01-01

    Naturally occurring pyrite commonly contains minor substituted metals and metalloids (As, Se, Hg, Cu, Ni, etc.) that can be released to the environment as a result of its weathering. Arsenic, often the most abundant minor constituent in pyrite, is a sensitive monitor of progressive pyrite oxidation in coal. To test the effect of pyrite composition and environmental parameters on the rate and extent of pyrite oxidation in coal, splits of five bituminous coal samples having differing amounts of pyrite and extents of As substitution in the pyrite, were exposed to a range of simulated weathering conditions over a period of 17 months. Samples investigated include a Springfield coal from Indiana (whole coal pyritic S = 2.13 wt.%; As in pyrite = detection limit (d.l.) to 0.06 wt.%), two Pittsburgh coal samples from West Virginia (pyritic S = 1.32–1.58 wt.%; As in pyrite = d.l. to 0.34 wt.%), and two samples from the Warrior Basin, Alabama (pyritic S = 0.26–0.27 wt.%; As in pyrite = d.l. to 2.72 wt.%). Samples were collected from active mine faces, and expected differences in the concentration of As in pyrite were confirmed by electron microprobe analysis. Experimental weathering conditions in test chambers were maintained as follows: (1) dry Ar atmosphere; (2) dry O2 atmosphere; (3) room atmosphere (relative humidity ∼20–60%); and (4) room atmosphere with samples wetted periodically with double-distilled water. Sample splits were removed after one month, nine months, and 17 months to monitor the extent of As and Fe oxidation using As X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, respectively. Arsenic XANES spectroscopy shows progressive oxidation of pyritic As to arsenate, with wetted samples showing the most rapid oxidation. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy also shows a much greater proportion of Fe3+ forms (jarosite, Fe3+ sulfate, FeOOH) for samples stored under wet conditions, but much less

  11. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  12. XPS study and physico-chemical properties of nitrogen-enriched microporous activated carbon from high volatile bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Pietrzak [Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland). Laboratory of Coal Chemistry and Technology

    2009-10-15

    N-enriched microporous active carbons of different physico-chemical parameters have been obtained from high volatile bituminous coal subjected to the processes of ammoxidation, carbonisation and activation in different sequences. Ammoxidation was performed by a mixture of ammonia and air at the ratio 1:3 (flow ratio 250 ml/min:750 ml/min) at 350{sup o}C, at each stage of production i.e. that of precursor, carbonisate and active carbon. Ammoxidation performed at the stage of demineralised coal or carbonisate has been shown to lead to a significant nitrogen enrichment and to have beneficial effect on the porous structure of the carbon during activation, allowing obtaining samples of the surface area of 2600-2800 m{sup 2}/g and pore volume 1.29-1.60 cm{sup 3}/g to be obtained with the yield of about 50%. The amount of nitrogen introduced into the carbon structure was found to depend on the sequence of the processes applied. The greatest amount of nitrogen was introduced for the processes in the sequence carbonisation {yields} activation {yields} ammoxidation. The introduction of nitrogen at the stage of active carbon leads to a reduction in the surface area and lowering of its sorption capacity. From the XPS study, ammoxidation introduces nitrogen mainly in the form of imines, amines, amides, N-5 and N-6, irrespective of the processing stage at which it is applied. 40 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. The influence of eruptive intrusion on the physical and chemical features of bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radnaine, G.; Banhegyi, M.; Pal, I.; Yos, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The majority of coal and gas shows in the Mecheksk coal basin are related to eruptive intrusions. The influence of thermal action on the coal formations is investigated together with the influence of pressure on the concentration of combustible components and the hardness, porosity and size as well as distribution of pores in the rock and on the sorption characteristics of combustible components whose sizes and hardnesses are much greater than coal that has not been subjected to such action. The total porosity of the coke varies over a wide range, but is at the same time much greater than in the coals. However, eruptive intrusions have no influence on the absolute number of micropores; their relative number decreases with an increase in the number of macropores and pores of variable size.

  14. Effects of preoxidation on the swelling and softening of bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, D. J.; Jenkins, R. G.; Walker, Jr., P. L.

    1980-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of a DuPont 942-TMA (Thermomechanical Analyzer) dilatometer system for the characterization of the swelling and softening properties of caking coals. The results of this investigation demonstrate the utility of this dilatometer system. Several parameters clearly defined with this unit are characteristic of the plastic transitions occurring upon carbonization. These include softening, dilation and resolidification temperature and volume contraction, expansion and total dilation values. The transition parameters measured with the 942-TMA unit are influenced significantly by coal particle size, dilatometer load, and heating rate. All transition temperatures exhibit marked increases with increasing heating rate. Softening temperatures decrease with increasing load and particle size. Dilation temperatures are essentially independent of dilatometer load effects and resolidification temperatures are independent of load and particle size over the range of conditions used in this study. Volume contraction and expansion values show an increase with decreasing coal particle size. Volume expansion values also exhibit strong heating rate and load dependencies. The results point up the great difficulty involved in obtaining truly fresh unoxidized coal samples. Storage of fine coal particles for extended periods of time in atmospheres with even slight oxygen concentrations show signs of weathering. Exposure of an HVA coal to dry air at ambient temperature has much less effect on subsequent swelling and softening properties than does exposure to moist air.

  15. Inhibiting effect of [HOEmim][BF4] and [Amim]Cl ionic liquids on the cross-linking reaction of bituminous coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lanyun; Xu Yongliang; Wang Shaokun; Song Zhipeng

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the hazard of coal spontaneous combustion, the cross-linking reaction between O-containing functional groups of coal should be inhibited. So the inhibitory effect of an ionic liquid (IL) on the cross-linking reaction was studied. The O-containing functional groups change the weight loss and H2O, CO2, CO yields of bituminous coal before and after [HOEmim][BF4] and [Amim]Cl pre-treatment and were detected by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermo Gravimetric (TG) anal-ysis. The results show that [Amim]Cl has a weaker ability to inhibit the cross-linking reaction of bitumi-nous coal compared to [HOEmim][BF4]. Besides, based on Quantum Chemistry calculation, it was found that the different inhibiting effects of [HOEmim][BF4] and [Amim]Cl are greatly related to their anions and the H linked with C2 atom on the imidazole ring. The H-donor ability of coal will be enhanced by [HOEmim][BF4] leading to a weaker cross-linking reaction of coal.

  16. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  17. Adsorption of SO2 on bituminous coal char and activated carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBarr, Joseph A.; Lizzio, Anthony A.; Daley, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    The SO2 adsorption behaviors of activated carbons produced from Illinois coal and of commercially prepared activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were compared. There was no relation between surface area of coal-based carbons and SO2 adsorption, whereas adsorption of SO2 on the series of ACFs was inversely proportional to N2 BET surface area. Higher surface area ACFs had wider pores and adsorbed less SO2; thus, pore size distribution is thought to play a significant role in SO2 adsorption for these materials. Oxidation with HNO3 and/or H2SO4, followed by heat treatment at 700−925°C to remove carbon−oxygen complexes, resulted in increased SO2 adsorption for both coal chars and ACFs. This behavior was explained by an increase in the available number of free sites, previously occupied by oxygen and now available for SO2 adsorption. The use of nitrogen-containing functional groups on ACFs of proper pore size shows promise for further increasing SO2 adsorption capacities. Knowledge of the relationship among the number of free sites, pore size, and surface chemistry on corresponding SO2 adsorption should lead to the development of more efficient adsorbents prepared from either coal or ACFs.

  18. Preliminary field exploration in the bituminous coal mining with impulse radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thyssen, F.; Schepers, R.

    1983-06-01

    A laboratory measuring station to determine the physical characteristics of coal has been built up and measurements have been carried out with samples from different seams. Underground radar measurements were carried out in the experimental mine Tremonia with a non-explosion-proof apparatus. The development of a intrinsicly safe radar apparatus for underground measurements has been chiefly terminated.

  19. Combustion characteristics of semicokes derived from pyrolysis of low rank bituminous coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Wei; Xie Qiang; Huang Yuyi; Dang Jiatao; Sun Kaidi; Yang Qian; Wang Jincao

    2012-01-01

    Various semicokes were obtained from medium-low temperature pyrolysis of Dongrong long flame coal.The proximate analysis,calorific value and Hardgrove grindability index (HGI) of semicokes were determined,and the ignition temperature,burnout temperature,ignition index,burnout index,burnout ratio,combustion characteristic index of semicokes were measured and analyzed using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA).The effects of pyrolysis temperature,heating rate,and pyrolysis time on yield,composition and calorific value of long flame coal derived semicokes were investigated,especially the influence of pyrolysis temperature on combustion characteristics and grindability of the semicokes was studied combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of semicokes.The results show that the volatile content,ash content and calorific value of semicokes pyrolyzed at all process parameters studied meet the technical specifications of the pulverized coal-fired furnaces (PCFF) referring to China Standards GB/T 7562-1998.The pyrolysis temperature is the most influential factor among pyrolysis process parameters.As pyrolysis temperature increases,the yield,ignition index,combustion reactivity and burnout index of semicokes show a decreasing tend,but the ash content increases.In the range of 400 and 450 ℃,the grindability of semicokes is rational,especially the grindability of semicokes pyrolyzed at 450 ℃ is suitable.Except for the decrease of volatile content and increase of ash content,the decrease of combustion performance of semicokes pyrolyzed at higher temperature should be attributed to the improvement of the degree of structural ordering and the increase of aromaticity and average crystallite size of char.It is concluded that the semicokes pyrolyzed at the temperature of 450 ℃ is the proper fuel for PCFF.

  20. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 3. Gasification of Rosebud sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the third volume in a series of documents prepared by Black, Sivalls and Bryson, Incorporated and describes the gasification of Rosebud subbituminous coal during the time period November 2-20, 1982. Test results and data are presented for the gasification of the coal and the operation of a slipstream tar scrubber to cool the gas and remove condensed tar. 5 refs., 29 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

    1980-10-01

    The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

  2. Bituminous coal production in the Appalachian basin: past, present, and future: Chapter D.3 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Polyak, Désirée E.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Although small quantities of coal first were produced from the Appalachian basin in the early 1700s, the first production statistics of significance were gathered during the census of 1830 (Eavenson, 1942). Since then, about 35 billion short tons of bituminous coal have been produced from the Appalachian basin from an original potential coal reserve (PCR(o)) estimated to range from about 60 to 90 billion short tons. The term “reserve” refers to economically producible coal, and a “potential coal reserve” (PCR(n)) is an estimate of the amount of coal economically recoverable in a region (State, coal field) over a defined time period (n = number of years) and under a range of economic, societal, and technological conditions. Thus, the current cumulative production plus the PCR(n) equals an estimated cumulative production (ECP(n)). The maps in this report (oversized figures 1, 2, 3, and 4) were produced from a digital database of historical and current coal production records by county. Sources of the original data include various State geological surveys, the U.S. Geological Survey, the former U.S. Bureau of Mines, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Coal Resource Assessment Project.

  3. Comparative Studies on the Combustion Kinetics of Chars Prepared from Brown and Bituminous Coals under Air (O_2/N_2) and Oxy-fuel (O_2/CO_2) Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Wada, Nozomi; Nozawa, Sohey; Matsushita, Yohsuke; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Oomori, Motohira; Harada, Tatsuro; Miyawaki, Jin; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of a solid-gas reaction model which can describe the combustion and gasification mechanism for air (O_2/N_2) and oxy-fuel (O_2/CO_2) conditions. Loy Yang brown coal was used as a sample after pyrolysis, together with Newlands coal as bituminous coal for comparison of coal ranks. By carrying out the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) run under non-isothermal conditions, chemical reaction rates of partial oxidation reaction and gasification reaction were esti...

  4. Thermal relaxation of bituminous coal to improve donation ability of hydrogen radicals in flash pyrolysis; Sekitan kozo kanwa ni yoru suiso radical kyoyo noryoku no kojo wo mezashita netsubunkai mae shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    In terms of coal conversion reaction, the behavior of bituminous coal heated beyond a glass transition point was examined on the basis of pyrolyzed products, and the effect of an increase in proton mobility on promotion of coal decomposition was evaluated. In experiment, after Illinois bituminous coal specimen was heated up to a specific temperature in N2 or He gas flow at a rate of 5K/min, the specimen was directly transferred to a pyrolyzer for instantaneous pyrolysis. As the experimental result, the glass transition temperature of the Illinois coal specimen was calculated to be 589K from a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profile. From the pyrolysis result of the Illinois coal specimen heated up to 623K, the char yield decreased by 3kg as compared with that of the original coal, while the tar yield increased by 4kg up to 27kg per 100kg of the original coal. This tar increase was larger than that of cooled coal. These results suggested that the donation of hydrogen radicals to coal fragments is improved with an increase in proton mobility. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Gao, Zhengyang; Zhu, Jiashun; Wang, Quanhai; Huang, Yaji; Chiu, Chengchung; Parker, Bruce; Chu, Paul; Pant, Wei-Ping

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0)concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH3 addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH3 reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation.

  6. Change in the magnetic properties of bituminous coal intruded by an igneous dike, Dutch Creek Mine, Pitkin County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Dulong, F.T.; Bostick, N.H.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetization measurements have been made on natural coke-coal samples collected at various distances from a felsic porphyry dike in a coal seam in Dutch Creek Mine, Colorado to help characterize the nature and distribution of the iron-bearing phases. The magnetization passes through a maximum at the coke-to-coal transition about 31 cm from the dike contact. The magnetic measurements support the geochemical data indicating that magmatic fluids along with a high-temperature gas pulse moved into the coal bed. Interaction of the magmatic fluids with the coal diminished the reducing power of the thermal gas pulse from the dike to a point about 24 cm into the coal. The hot reducing gas penetrated further and produced a high temperature (~400-525??C) zone (at about 31 cm) just ahead of the magmatic fluids. Metallic iron found in this zone is the principal cause of the observed high magnetization. Beyond this zone, the temperature was too low to alter the coal significantly.Magnetization measurements have been made on natural coke-coal samples collected at various distances from a felsic porphyry dike in a coal seam in Dutch Creek Mine, Colorado to help characterize the nature and distribution of the iron-bearing phases. The magnetization passes through a maximum at the coke-to-coal transition about 31 cm from the dike contact. The magnetic measurements support the geochemical data indicating that magmatic fluids along with a high-temperature gas pulse moved into the coal bed. Interaction of the magmatic fluids with the coal diminished the reducing power of the thermal gas pulse from the dike to a point about 24 cm into the coal. The hot reducing gas penetrated further and produced a high temperature (approximately 400-525 ??C) zone (at about 31 cm) just ahead of the magmatic fluids. Metallic iron found in this zone is the principal cause of the observed high magnetization. Beyond this zone, the temperature was too low to alter the coal significantly.

  7. Structural features of a bituminous coal and their changes during low-temperature oxidation and loss of volatiles investigated by advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.-D.; Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Hatcher, P.G.; Li, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative and advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques were employed to investigate (i) the chemical structure of a high volatile bituminous coal, as well as (ii) chemical structural changes of this coal after evacuation of adsorbed gases, (iii) during oxidative air exposure at room temperature, and (iv) after oxidative heating in air at 75 ??C. The solid-state NMR techniques employed in this study included quantitative direct polarization/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS) at a high spinning speed of 14 kHz, cross polarization/total sideband suppression (CP/TOSS), dipolar dephasing, CH, CH2, and CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) filtering, two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13C heteronuclear correlation NMR (HETCOR), and 2D HETCOR with 1H spin diffusion. With spectral editing techniques, we identified methyl CCH 3, rigid and mobile methylene CCH2C, methine CCH, quaternary Cq, aromatic CH, aromatic carbons bonded to alkyls, small-sized condensed aromatic moieties, and aromatic C-O groups. With direct polarization combined with spectral-editing techniques, we quantified 11 different types of functional groups. 1H-13C 2D HETCOR NMR experiments indicated spatial proximity of aromatic and alkyl moieties in cross-linked structures. The proton spin diffusion experiments indicated that the magnetization was not equilibrated at a 1H spin diffusion time of 5 ms. Therefore, the heterogeneity in spatial distribution of different functional groups should be above 2 nm. Recoupled C-H long-range dipolar dephasing showed that the fraction of large charcoal-like clusters of polycondensed aromatic rings was relatively small. The exposure of this coal to atmospheric oxygen at room temperature for 6 months did not result in obvious chemical structural changes of the coal, whereas heating at 75 ??C in air for 10 days led to oxidation of coal and generated some COO groups. Evacuation removed most volatiles and caused a significant reduction in aliphatic signals in its DP

  8. Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Campbell

    2008-12-31

    This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

  9. Distribution and Fate of Mercury in Pulverized Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants in Coal Energy-Dominant Huainan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingyu; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu

    2016-05-01

    A better understanding on the partitioning behavior of mercury (Hg) during coal combustion in large-scale coal-fired power plants is fundamental for drafting Hg-emission control regulations. Two large coal-fired utility boilers, equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system, respectively, in coal energy-dominant Huainan City, China, were selected to investigate the distribution and fate of Hg during coal combustion. In three sampling campaigns, we found that Hg in bottom ash was severely depleted with a relative enrichment (RE) index coal. We estimated that Hg emissions in all Huainan coal-fired power plants varied from 1.8 Mg in 2003 to 7.3 Mg in 2010.

  10. Labor law successorship under the National Bituminous Coal Wage Agreement and the union's campaign for job security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, T.P.; Smith, W.L. (Crowell and Moring, Washington, DC (USA))

    This article evaluates the existing state of labor law successorship in the coal industry, with particular emphasis on cases interpreting Article I of the Wage Agreement as it is applied to transactions involving inactive coal properties, and on the job security provisions of Article II of the 1988 NBCWA. Part II of this article summarizes the basic principles of labor law successorship, which provide the necessary background for a full understanding of the scope of Articles I and I of the Wage Agreement. Part III of this article reviews the successorship provisions of Article I of the Wage Agreement in detail, and discusses the various interpretations given its provisions by arbitrators, the courts, and the National Labor Relations Board (Board). Part III also reviews the related provisions of Article 1A of the NBCWA, as they apply to various forms of leasing and contracting of coal producing properties. Part IV of this article examines the new job security provisions of Article II of the 1988 Wage Agreement, which establish a new procedure for staffing at non-signatory operations of signatory employers. Part V of this article argues that some courts and arbitrators have improperly extended the reach of the contractual successorship and job security obligations, and suggests an interpretation of Articles I and II of the Wage Agreement that is more harmonious with the overriding objectives of federal labor law policy.

  11. The Impact of the Bituminous Coal Combustion from the Thermoelectric Power Plant from Paroseni on the Environment of Jiu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Rebrisoreanu

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The Jiu Valley Basin is one of the most important coal mining areas in Romania. Other industries, including a power plant, are also well developed in this area. Therefore, pollution is very high. One of the most polluted environmental compounds is the air. High mountains surround the Jiu Valley, which makes difficult the air refreshing. For this reason, it is very important to discuss the air pollution and especially that produced by dust. Since the industrial companies are concentrated in a small area, it is very difficult to identify and prosecute the polluting one. The present paper aims to identify the sources of air pollution, especially among the mining companies, because the power plant is considered the most important polluting agent in this area.

  12. Rapid pyrolysis characteristic of Shenfu bituminous coal%神府烟煤快速热解特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔童敏; 李超; 周志杰; 常清华; 高瑞; 于广锁; 王辅臣

    2015-01-01

    利用高频电炉对神府煤进行快速热解,研究了不同热解温度和停留时间下,固相和气相产物的性质。结果表明,煤焦的失重率及真密度随温度升高和时间的延长而增长。红外光谱结果表明,热解过程中,煤中含氢/含氧官能团分解,生成H2、CO、CO2、CH4等气体,并且其分解程度随温度的升高和时间的延长而加深。气相产物中H2和CO的释放量随温度的升高和时间的延长而增加,而CO2和CH4存在释放量的峰值。气相产物随温度的升高和时间的延长而增多,导致高温煤焦出现大量的孔隙和裂缝。%A high-frequency furnace was utilized to carry out rapid pyrolysis of Shenfu coal. The effect of temperature and residence time on the properties of solid and gas products was studied. The results show that the mass loss and true density of the char increase with increasing of both temperature and time. The analysis of their infrared spectra indicates that the hydrogen/oxygen functional groups decompose to form H2 , CO, CO2 , CH4 and other gases during pyrolysis, and the decomposition increase with increasing temperature and time. The emission of H2 and CO monotonically increases, however there are emission peaks for CO2 and CH4 . The total gas products increase with temperature and time, leading to the pores and cracks on the char after high temperature pyrolysis.

  13. 热黏结剂对低阶煤制取型煤的热态性能影响%STUDY ON INFLUENCE OF HEAT BINDER ON PROPERTIES OF BRIQUETTE FROM LOW RANK BITUMINOUS COALS UNDER HOT STATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄山秀; 马名杰

    2013-01-01

    选用煤焦油沥青、高黏结肥煤作为热黏结剂,分别以不同的掺入量和低阶烟煤粉煤及其他原料混合制取型煤.型煤样品热强度测定结果表明:以煤焦油沥青为热黏结剂的型煤热强度高于以高黏结肥煤为热黏结剂的型煤热强度,进一步对型煤微观结构电镜分析也证实了以煤焦油沥青为热黏结剂的型煤其黏结性能和防水性相对较好,电镜切片表明,煤焦油沥青热态下析出的挥发分经过胶质体时产生的气泡相互作用能使胶质体受压形成更坚固的整体网状结构;研究还发现煤焦油沥青的粒度对型煤热强度也有一定的影响.%Two different materials such as coal tar pitch, fat coal with high adhesion were chosen as the heat binder, which were mixed into the powder of low rank bituminous coals from Shenmu or Yuzhou and other raw materials to make coal briquette in different ration. The determination results show that the thermal strength of coal briquette with tar pitch is higher than that of coal briquette with fat coal. Further analysis of micro-structure of coal briquette by electron microscopic also verifies that the cohesion and water resistance of coal briquette with tar pitch is stronger, and it is because that interaction of air bubble poduced by volatile separated under hot state through colloid pressures the colloid and form the stronger net-structure on coal granules surface. Moreover, the particle size of tar pitch also have certain effect on thermal strength of coal briquette.

  14. Appalachian basin bituminous coal: sulfur content and potential sulfur dioxide emissions of coal mined for electrical power generation: Chapter G.5 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Milici, Robert C.; Freeman, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Data from 157 counties in the Appalachian basin of average sulfur content of coal mined for electrical power generation from 1983 through 2005 show a general decrease in the number of counties where coal mining has occurred and a decrease in the number of counties where higher sulfur coals (>2 percent sulfur) were mined. Calculated potential SO2 emissions (assuming no post-combustion SO2 removal) show a corresponding decrease over the same period of time.

  15. Study of the Changes on Tree Shrew Bronchial Epithelium Induced by Xuanwei Bituminous Coal Dust%宣威烟煤粉尘诱发树鼩支气管粘膜上皮改变的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小波; 贺猛; 李光剑; 周永春; 赵光强; 雷玉洁; 杨凯云; 田琳玮; 黄云超

    2015-01-01

    背景与目的肺癌在许多国家和地区已成为发病率和死亡率最高的恶性肿瘤,建立科学合适的肺癌动物模型,用以模拟出与人类肺癌的病因、发病机制、发展过程相似的动物模型是亟待解决的问题。通过宣威烟煤粉尘PM10(particulate matter with diameters of 10μm or less, PM10)对树鼩支气管上皮的影响,探索建立宣威烟煤粉尘致肺癌模型的可行性。方法健康成年树鼩,切开颈部皮肤,充分暴露甲状软骨,于甲状软骨上方薄弱处,采用特制灌注针行穿刺的方法进行气管内试剂灌注。定期行X线检查,观察肺部影像学改变,处死动物行肺组织病理检查,观察灌注后支气管上皮改变情况。结果烟尘处理组树鼩灌注药物后1周内开始死亡,空白对照组、溶剂对照组树鼩灌注后至实验结束无异常死亡。定期处死树鼩行肺组织HE染色切片病理检查,空白对照组及溶剂对照组无明显病理改变,烟尘处理组树鼩肺组织可见支气管粘膜上皮过度增生-鳞状化生-不典型增生-早期浸润癌的病理变化过程。结论宣威烟煤粉尘可以导致树鼩支气管上皮出现支气管粘膜上皮过度增生-鳞状化生-不典型增生-早期浸润癌的病理变化,应用宣威烟煤粉尘PM10行气管内灌注可以诱发树鼩肺癌。可以建立肺癌模型。%Background and objective Lung cancer is the type of cancer with the highest incidence and mortality in numerous countries and regions. Establishing an appropriate animal model that can be used to simulate lung cancer etiology, pathogenesis, and similar processes, is urgent. We explore the feasibility of establishing a lung cancer model induced by Xuan-wei bituminous coal dust PM10 (particulate matter with diameters of 10 μm or less), which affects bronchial epithelium of tree shrews.Methods hTe neck skin of adult tree shrews is dissected, and the thyroid cartilage is fully

  16. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, B. [PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs.

  17. Fluid-dynamical and poro-elastic coupling of gas permeability of inert and sorbing gases on an Australian sub-bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensterblum, Y.; Krooss, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    The interaction and the coupling of slip-flow, a fluid dynamic phenomenon, and the cleat volume compressibility which is a poroelastic phenomenon has been investigated on two samples from the Taroom coal measure, Surat Basin, Queensland Australia. Measurements were performed using inert (helium and argon) and sorbing gases (nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide) at controlled effective stress. We observed the following regular sequence of permeability coefficients for the different gases: Helium >> argon => nitrogen > methane >> CO2 Even after slip-flow correction, different intrinsic permeability coefficients are obtained for the same sample if different gases are used in the tests. The permeability values determined with helium are largest while those measured with CO2 are lowest. Inert gases like helium and argon show higher apparent- and even slip flow-corrected permeability coefficients than sorbing gases like methane or carbon dioxide. This observation is contrary to the prediction that the slip-flow corrected permeability have to be the same for all gases. The cleat volume compressibility cf was evaluated using the 'matchstick approach' [1, 2]. The cleat volume compressibility coefficients cf are almost identical for the two samples taken from the same well. However, for one sample a strong dependence of the cf with the mean pore pressure was observed. This is attributed to a strong slip-flow effect caused by a narrow cleat system as compared to the sister sample. The cleat volume compressibility coefficient cf is almost the same for inert and sorbing gases. We conclude that the occurrence of slip-flow in coals is able to compensate the permeability reduction resulting from increasing effective stress. This should lead to a much higher productivity of coal bed methane reservoirs in the third production phase (pseudo-steady state phase; [3]). This conclusion appears to be also valid for shale gas and tight gas reservoirs, where the gas transport takes place in

  18. Preliminary experimental study of bituminous coal gasification on dual fluidized beds%烟煤在双流化床中气化特性初步实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武小军; 范晓旭; 陈文义; 初雷哲

    2012-01-01

    利用一套高3m的双流化床煤气化实验系统,以烟煤为燃料进行了气化初步实验研究.烟煤在气化炉中进行热解气化,生成的半焦经下返料器送入燃烧炉进行燃烧,通过高温循环灰携带能量供给气化炉.通过调整气化炉内料层高度改变燃料在气化炉内的停留时间,从而影响气化效果,料层高度可以通过气化炉内压差进行监测.烟煤气化达到稳定工况时,燃烧炉和气化炉的温度和压差基本保持稳定.燃气热值为5.53 MJ/m3,尚未达到中热值标准,原因在于实验装置规模较小导致散热损失较大,同时返料器以空气为返料风降低了燃气品质.%Gasification experiments on bituminous coal were made in an experimental system of dual fluidized beds with 3 m in height. Gasifier was used for coal pyrolysis/gasification. Semicarbon was sent into burner for combustion by U-valve. Energy for gasification was carried by high temperature cycle ash. Status of gasification can be influenced by residence time of fuel which can be changed by adjusting the bed material level in gasifier. Differential pressures in gasifier were used for analyzed the bed material level. The temperature and differential pressure in gasifier and burner maintained stability when gasification condition operated steadily. The calorific value of gas was 5.53 MJ/Nm3 and didn't reach the standard of medium heat value. The cause is that the heat loss is bigger in small size and gas quality was decreased by the air which is used as return wind.

  19. Operation of flue gas fan during mixed burning of bituminous coal in a lean coal-fired boiler:problems and solutions%贫煤锅炉掺烧烟煤热炉烟风机运行问题及其解决措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴豪; 范庆伟; 张立欣

    2014-01-01

    介绍了华能南京电厂贫煤锅炉的抽炉烟干燥技术,分析了该锅炉掺烧烟煤后热炉烟风机磨损、积灰、振动、出力不足等问题。对此,通过对热炉烟风机实施选型优化、叶片防磨治理、合理安排检修等措施后,大大延长了热炉烟风机使用周期和寿命,减少了检修时间和检修费用,保证了贫煤锅炉掺烧烟煤制粉系统的安全性和可靠性。%The flue gas drying technology implemented in lean coal-fired boiler of Nanj ing Power Plant was introduced.Problems such as hot flue gas fan abrasion,deposited ash vibrancy,and insufficient output oc-curred on this boiler were investigated.Moreover,solutions for the above problems were put forward. Through fan type selection optimization,fan blade abrasion resistant treatment,reasonable arrangement of maintenance and other measures,the problems of fan blade abrasion and deposited ash vibrancy were well solved,and the service life of flue gas fan was significantly prolonged,the time and cost of maintenance were reduced,and the safety and reliability of bituminous coal pulverizing system in lean coal-fired boiler were ensured.

  20. Relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica in C1 bituminous coal in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China%云南省宣威地区非吸烟女性肺癌与C1烟煤中二氧化硅的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光剑; 黄云超; 田林玮; 刘拥军; 郭律; 肖义泽; 侯文俊; 杨堃; 陈颖

    2013-01-01

    二氧化硅颗粒物进入室内空气中随悬浮颗粒物吸入肺部”的迁移富集路线.%Objective To measure the content of silica in C1 bituminous coal and its combustion products in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei,Yunnan Province,China and to investigate the relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica produced naturally in C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei.Methods The C1 bituminous coal widely used in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei was selected as experiment group,while the C2+1,K7,and M30 bituminous coal that was mined and used in the low-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei for more than 10 years were selected as control group.Fourteen paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples from the non-smoking women with non-small cell lung cancer who were born in Xuanwei and were at least the 3rd generation of the family living there were collected from the department of pathology,the ahird affiliated hospital of kunming medical university (tumor hospital of yunnan province).Titrimetric potassium silicofluoride method was used to measure the content of silica in raw coal and its bottom ashes in 20 samples from the experimental group and control group.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in C1 bituminous coal and its bottom ashes,and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in the bottom ashes and coal soot of C1 bituminous coal as well as the lung cancer tissue from the non-smoking women in Xuanwei,and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.The silica particles were separated from the coal soot and bottom ashes and characterized by physical method

  1. Japan's Sunshine Project 1988 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Describes work carried out during the year on coal liquefaction and gasification technologies, bituminous and brown coal liquefaction, development of machinery and materials for coal liquefaction plant, coal type selection studies, data collection and processing, utilization and upgrading technology of coal derived products, toxicological and environmental effects of liquefied coal, coal-based hydrogen production technology and technology for entrained flow coal gasification.

  2. Effects of coal rank on the chemical composition and toxicological activity of coal liquefaction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Dauble, D.D.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and toxicological testing of coal liquefaction materials from the EDS and H-Coal processes operated using different ranks of coal. Samples of recycle solvent from the bottoms recycle mode of the EDS direct coal liquefaction process derived from bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals were analyzed. In addition, the H-Coal heavy fuel oils derived from bituminous and sub-bituminous coals were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsoprtion column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry. The toxicological activity of selected samples was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay, an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity, and a static bioassy with Daphnia magna for aquatic toxicity of the water-soluble fractions. 22 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Thermal stability of carboxylic acid functionality in coal; Sekitanchu ni sonzaisuru karubokishiruki no netsubunkai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Aida, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Carboxyl in coal was focused in discussing its pyrolytic behavior while tracking change of its absolute amount relative to the heating temperatures. A total of four kinds of coals, consisting of two kinds brown coals, sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were used. Change in the absolute amount of carboxyl due to heating varies with coalification degree. Decomposition starts in the bituminous coal from around 300{degree}C, and is rapidly accelerated when 400{degree}C is exceeded. Carboxyls in brown coals exist two to three times as much as those in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, of which 40% is decomposed at a temperature as low as about 300{degree}C. Their pyrolytic behavior at temperatures higher than 400{degree}C resembles that of the bituminous coal. Carboxyls consist of those easy to decompose and difficult to decompose. Aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with simple structure are stable at temperatures lower than 300{degree}C, and decompose abruptly from about 400{degree}C, hence their behavior resembles that of carboxyls in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Structure of low-temperature decomposing carboxyls in brown coals is not known, but it is assumed that humic acid originated from natural materials remains in the structure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF HEXANE SOLUBLE OILS FROM LIQUEFACTION OF TWO BITUMINOUS COALS%两种烟煤的液化及液化油的组成特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱继升; LawrenceP.Norcio

    2001-01-01

    Two high-volatile subbituminous coals, DECS-6 of US and Yanzhou coal of China, were liquefied or co-liquefied with HDPE or PVC at 400?℃, 30?min under 7?MPa hydrogen. The results show that Yanzhou coal is easier to be liquefied or co-liquefied than DECS-6 coal under the experimental conditions used and the hexane-soluble oil from Yanzhou coal has more low boiling point fractions than that from DECS-6 coal. The aromatics in hexane soluble oils mainly consist of alkylbeneze, alkylnaphthalene, phenanthrene-,pyrene-, chrysene-, and benzopyrene- compounds, the polars mainly compose of compounds containing O, S and N etc.%在400 ℃、30 min、7 MPa冷氢压条件下两种煤液化结果表明,兖州煤比DECS-6(美国煤)煤更容易液化或共液化,这可能与兖州煤硫含量比较高有关,但DECS-6煤的油收率要高于兖州煤,表明EDCS-6煤容易裂解生成小分子化合物。同种煤液化油的沸点分布特征基本一致。UV(紫外光谱)特征表明,液化油中单环芳烃主要为烷基取代苯类化合物,二环芳烃组分主要是烷基取代萘类化合物,三环芳烃主要为渺位缩合的菲类化合物,四环芳烃主要为芘、屈艹类化合物,五环芳烃以苯并芘类化合物为主,而极性化合物可归属为含O、S、N的极性芳香化合物。

  5. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  6. 新型菊芋秸秆-烟煤混合固体燃料添加剂的选择与燃烧性能分析%Selecting additives for optimum combustion performance of a new-type Jerusalem artichoke-bituminous coal solid biofuel pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常子磐; 郭加汛; 赵耕毛; 王长海

    2016-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke biomass has been used to produce biofuel and can also improve the combustion performance of bituminous coal after adding to the coal. However, Jerusalem artichoke-bituminous coal solid biofuel pellets(JAC pellets)still produce large amount of slag during combustion. Here we examined the combustion characteristics of JAC pellets after mixing with MgCO3, CaCO3, Al2O3 and Al2Si2O5(OH)5 at 3%(m﹕m)to select additives for optimum combustion performance of JAC pellets. Results showed that adding additives decreased slag-ging rates to a great extent, while absorbed acid gases effectively. Addition of CaCO3 resulted in a significant reduction in ash content and Ringelman emittance. In summary, CaCO3 improved the combustion performance of the JAC pellets and could be a promising additive for JAC pellets.%在研制新型菊芋秸秆-烟煤混合固体燃料的基础上,筛选不同添加剂[MgCO3、CaCO3、Al2O3、Al2Si2O5(OH)5]优化燃料,以提高生物质混合固体燃料的燃烧性能。将四种添加剂以3%比例(质量比)与菊芋秸秆-烟煤混合固体燃料混合,比较了不同添加剂对混合固体燃料的灰分、结渣率、放热量、烟黑、灰熔点、烟气成分等的影响。结果表明:四种添加剂对酸性气体有明显的吸附作用,且能有效降低混合固体燃料的结渣率,其中CaCO3添加剂使混合固体燃料的灰分含量、烟黑的林格曼指数下降最为明显。这表明, CaCO3添加剂能有效缓解混合固体燃料中的灰分、烟黑、酸性气体的生成,提高其燃烧性能,是一种较为理想的新型菊芋秸秆-烟煤混合固体燃料添加剂。

  7. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  8. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Potential of Charqueadas Coal Field in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V [NETL

    2012-10-23

    The I2B coal seam in the Charqueadas coal field has been evaluated as a target for enhanced coal bed methane production and CO{sub 2} sequestration. The samples were low rank coals (high volatile bituminous and sub-bituminous) obtained from the I2B seam as 3 cores. Such properties as sorption capacity, internal structure of the samples, porosity and permeability were of primary interest in this characterization study.

  9. Polar polycyclic aromatic compounds from different coal types show varying mutagenic potential, EROD induction and bioavailability depending on coal rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wiebke; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Püttmann, Wilhelm; Hollert, Henner; Achten, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Investigations of the bioavailability and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) have rarely considered the heterogeneity of coals and the impact of more polar PAC besides polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Earlier, we investigated the toxicity of eight heterogeneous coals and their extracts. In the present study, the hazard potential with respect to mechanism-specific toxicity of polar fractions of dichloromethane extracts from coals was studied. Polar extract fractions of all coal types except for anthracite induced EROD activity (determined in RTL-W1 cells), independent of coal type (Bio-TEQs between 23 ± 16 and 52 ± 22 ng/g). The polar fractions of all bituminous coal extracts revealed mutagenic activity (determined using the Ames Fluctuation test). No significant mutation induction was detected for the polar extract fractions from the lignite, sub-bituminous coal and anthracite samples, which indicates a higher dependency on coal type for polar PAC here. Additionally, information on bioavailability was derived from a bioaccumulation test using the deposit-feeding oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus which was exposed for 28 days to ground coal samples. Despite the high toxic potential of most coal extracts and a reduced biomass of Lumbriculus in bituminous coal samples, bioaccumulation of PAH and mortality after 28 days were found to be low. Limited bioaccumulation of PAH (up to 3.6 ± 3.8 mg/kg EPA-PAH) and polar PAC were observed for all coal samples. A significant reduction of Lumbriculus biomass was observed in the treatments containing bituminous coals (from 0.019 ± 0.004 g to 0.046 ± 0.011 g compared to 0.080 ± 0.025 g per replicate in control treatments). We conclude that bioavailability of native PAC from coals including polar PAC is low for all investigated coal types. In comparison to lignite, sub-bituminous coals and anthracite, the bioavailability of PAC from bituminous coals is slightly increased.

  10. Carbon dioxide from coal combustion: Variation with rank of US coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, J.C.; Glick, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from combustion of US coal systematically varies with ASTM rank indices, allowing the amount of CO2 produced per net unit of energy to be predicted for individual coals. No single predictive equation is applicable to all coals. Accordingly, we provide one equation for coals above high volatile bituminous rank and another for lower rank coals. When applied to public data for commercial coals from western US mines these equations show a 15% variation of kg CO2 (net GJ)-1. This range of variation suggests reduction of US CO2 emissions is possible by prudent selection of coal for combustion. Maceral and mineral content are shown to slightly affect CO2 emissions from US coal. We also suggest that CO2 emissions increased between 6 and 8% in instances where Midwestern US power plants stopped burning local, high-sulfur bituminous coal and started burning low-sulfur, subbituminous C rank coal from the western US.

  11. 烟煤快速加氢热解研究 Ⅲ.焦油组成考察%FLASH HYDROPYROLYSIS OF BITUMINOUS COAL Ⅲ. RESEARCH ON FLASH HYDROPYROLYSIS TAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    在高压气流床反应装置上对东胜煤快速加氢热解制取焦油试样,研究了热解温度对焦油主要组分的影响,并与高温焦炉焦油进行比较。实验表明: 加氢热解焦油的液态烃得率达15%以上,是高温焦炉焦油得率的二倍;油馏分高,沥青质少;酚类化合物和纯缩合多环芳烃含量高,脂肪烃含量低,纯缩合多环芳烃烷基衍生物组成较简单。加氢热解改善了焦油的品质,提高了得率。%Tar sample obtained by flash hydropyrolysis (FHP) from Dongshen coal at high pressure entrained reactor was investigated. An effect of falsh hydropyrolysis temperature on main components in tar was studied and the quality of tar was compared with high temperature coke oven tar. The results showed: the yields of liquid hydrocarbon in FHP tar were more than 15%, which is twofold of that in coke oven tar; the FHP tar has superior oil fraction, i.e., minor pitch, superior phenol components and pure condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and minor aliphatic hydrocarbon. The components of the FHP tar were simpler than that of high temperature coke oven tar. Therefore, FHP improved quantity and quality of tar.

  12. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  13. Effects of surface chemistry on the porous structure of coal. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1996--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.A.; Hatcher, P.G.; Radovic, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    Selective presaturation and saturation transfer {sup 129}Xe NMR experiments were performed on a high volatile C bituminous coal and an anthracite. The experiments detect the movement of xenon atoms among different regions of the internal surface, and to the external surface of the coal particles. The results indicate that adsorbed xenon atoms can move to the external surface of the bituminous coal significantly faster than in the anthracite. The results are interpreted in terms of the porous structure of the coals.

  14. Correlation between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on China's coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong-guan; YUAN Jian; SONG Ji-yong; LENG Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    It is highly important to investigate relationship between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on coal in the fields of coalbed methane recovery. Based on data examination of coal quality indexes collected from the literatures, regression equations for Langmuir adsorption constants, VL or VL/PL, and coal quality indexes for selected coal samples were developed with multiple linear regression of SPSS software according to the degree of coal metamorphosis. The regression equations built were tested with data collected from some literatures, and the influences of coal quality indexes on CH4 adsorption on coals were studied with investigation of regression equations, and the reasons of low accuracy to Langmuir constants calculated with regression equation for a few coal samples were investigated. The results show that the regression equations can be employed to predict Langmuir constants for methane adsorption isotherms on coals obtained using volumetric gas adsorption experiments, which are conducted at 30 ℃ on a wet or dried coal samples with less than 30% ash content in coal. The influence of same coal quality index with various coal rank or influence of various coal quality indexes for same coal rank on CH4 adsorption is not consistent. The regression equations have different accuracy to different coal rank, in which the VL equations supply better prediction accuracy for anthracite and higher prediction error for lower metamorphosis coal, and the PL prediction error with VL and VL/PL equations is lower to bituminous coal and higher to anthracite.

  15. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  16. Exploratory drilling methods for bituminous coal in Appalachia, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossakowski, L.; Michota, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Using boreholes as an example, exploratory drilling methods near anthracite mines are demonstrated. The borehole designs are described in detail and their primary diameters are given together with the drilling equipment used and the organization of labor. The results obtained are also given.

  17. PILOT-SCALE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CATALYST ON MERCURY SPECIATION IN ILLINOIS AND POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL COMBUSTION FLUE GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur and chlorine) and one Po...

  18. Coal facies studies in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, Wolfgang D. [Laboratorio de Carvao e de Petrologia Organica, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-04-23

    The present study is a compilation of published data on coal facies studies in Canada based on coal petrological and other methods. The geological age of the coals range from the Devonian coal deposits in Arctic Canada to coals of Tertiary age in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, intermontane British Columbia and Arctic Canada. In terms of rank, the coal deposits studied range from lignite to low volatile bituminous. Coal petrological methods include maceral and microlithotype analyses, frequently integrated with data from palynological and geochemical analyses. Most recently, a number of studies have applied sequence stratigraphic concepts to the coal-bearing strata including the interpretation of coal petrological data in the context of this concept.

  19. Devolatilization and ignition of coal particles in a two-dimensional fluidized bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, W.; Siemons, R.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1989-01-01

    In a two-dimensional (15 × 200 × 400 mm) high-temperature fluidized bed, devolatilization ignition and combustion phenomena of single coal particles have been studied. The particles, with diameters of 4–9 mm, were selected from three coal types of widely different rank: brown coal, bituminous coal,

  20. Following changes in the constitution of rapidly heated bituminous vitrinites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Jonathan Paul

    1998-12-01

    Molecular models, which represent the constitution (the chemical and physical structure) of bituminous vitrinites from the Upper Freeport and Lewiston-Stockton coal seams, were generated computationally. Incorporation of physical data significantly reduced the number of possible structures and forced the inclusion of hydroaromatic structures. This limited the bonding types and the extent of bonding to the coal matrix. The use of vitrinites (telocollinite) rather than whole coals reduced the complexity of the molecular structures and precluded incorporation of other maceral functionalities (such as long chain aliphatics or highly condensed aromatic structures) into the models. A narrow size fraction of each vitrinite was pyrolyzed in a drop-tube reactor under conditions representative of the devolatilization stage of pulverized coal combustion. The collected chars represented the transition from vitrinite to almost fully devolatilized char. Computational fluid dynamics were used to calculate the range of time-temperature histories of the particles in the reactor. Significant variation (up to 400sp°C and 0.15 s residence time) was found within a cuts primarily due to different extents of swelling, different particle sizes and the associated differences in mass loss. The vitrinite models were subjected to via various pyrolysis mechanisms and the resulting char structure compared to those of the experimentally-produced chars. The breaking of bonds in order of bond strengths did not produce a reasonable initial char structure; one which was similar to the parent vitrinite. The weaker bonds tend to be aliphatic in nature, hence breaking these bonds resulted in a structure that was too aromatic and hydrogen deficient. 'Rules' of pyrolysis, which were reasonable for the transitions of this rank of vitrinite under rapid heating conditions were proposed. Five-membered rings, either formed via ring condensation or originally present in the vitrinite, introduce curvature into

  1. Quality criteria for blast-furnace injection coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lherbier, L.W.Jr.; Serrano, E.J. [United States Steel Corp., Munhall, PA (United States). Research and Technology Center

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviewed the history of coal injection at United States Steel Corporation. Currently, pulverized coal (PC) is injected on 10 blast furnaces at the company's facilities at 5 different plants in the United States, Canada and Slovakia. Although low-volatile bituminous coal was used extensively at several sites in the past, all the furnaces now inject high-volatile bituminous coal. The choice of coal injection depends on cost, physical and chemical properties an intended application. Any type of coal can be used for low injection levels. As injection rates increase however, the choice of coal or coal blends depend on more complex characteristics such as combustibility, char reactivity and flow characteristics. Although low-volatile, higher rank bituminous coals usually provide higher coke replacement ratios, they can be more difficult to convey and burn. In contrast, high-volatile, lower rank coals are typically more reactive and easier to convey, but offer lower coke replacement ratios and could even contribute to furnace instability. This paper presented lessons learned with various types of injection coal. It also reviewed existing and emerging standards for choosing injection coals. The parameters that must be considered when choosing from a set of coals include moisture and hardness; carbon and hydrogen content; oxygen content; impurities; coal value; coal rank; conveying properties; reactivity; and coal type and injection rate. Coals with less ash, sulphur and alkali are usually preferred. For ironmaking, coals ranging in rank from anthracite to high-volatile bituminous coal are suitable for low to moderate injection rates. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Petrographic and mineral characterization of Balkan coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yossifova, M. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Applied Mineralogy

    1995-12-31

    This paper is part of a complex petrographic, mineralogical and chemical investigation on Balkan bituminous coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation. The petrographic and phase-mineralogical composition in ten composite samples and four water extracts have been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. STUDY ON EVOLUTION REGULARITIES AND ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SULFIDE DURING BITUMINOUS BRIQUETTE HORIZONTAL COMBUSTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路春美; 王永征

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution regularity and the absorption characters of sulfide for bituminous briquette burned in a horizontal burning furnace. The evolution rate of sulphur is affected by some factors, such as the sulphur content in the burning coal, burning time and the meane excess air coefficient in the furnace. With processing the experimental result, the calculation related expression has been obtained to predict the evolution rate of sulfide. The sulphur absorption efficiency of briquette is affected by the factors such as the character of the sulphur sorbent, the type of the coal and the operating parameters. "By means of appropriately adjusting the calciumsulphur mole ratio, the mean excess air coefficient and the time-interval between pushing two layer briquettes, a high sulphur absorption efficiency (>74%) can be obtained.

  4. A kinetic study of gaseous potassium capture by coal minerals in a high temperature fixed-bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    The reactions between gaseous potassium chloride and coal minerals were investigated in a lab-scale high temperature fixed-bed reactor using single sorbent pellets. The applied coal minerals included kaolin, mullite, silica, alumina, bituminous coal ash, and lignite coal ash that were formed...

  5. Basic properties of Japanese and foreign coals selected for liquefaction. 1. A consideration of the method for proximate analysis of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R.

    1984-10-01

    The use of thermogravimetry for the proximate analysis of coals is compared with the Japanese Standard method (JIS M8812). The thermogravimetric method was found to be applicable to a wide range of brown coals, lignites and bituminous coals providing a rapid and simple method requiring only a small sample and giving a direct determination of fixed carbon.

  6. Evaluation of the Impact of Chlorine on Mercury Oxidation in a Pilot-Scale Coal Combustor--The Effect of Coal Blending

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study has been undertaken to investigate the effect of blending PRB coal with an Eastern bituminous coal on the speciation of Hg across an SCR catalyst. In this project, a pilot-scale (1.2 MWt) coal combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for NOx control was used for evaluating ...

  7. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Messerle; Alexander Ustimenko

    2012-01-01

    Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance ...

  8. Modification Bituminous Binders Petroleum Resin (Based on C9 Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Chigorina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to measure the basic parameters of a bituminous binder obtained by modification of the BND 60/90 binder with petroleum resin, for both dynamic and static modification modes.

  9. Effects of bituminous layer as backfill material on mechanical behavior in tunnel model

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyoshi, Akihiro; Takano, Shin-ei; Urata, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Takaki

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of bituminous material as a backfill material on mechanical behavior in model tunnel in laboratory. It is known that load spreading and relaxation of bituminous material are good properties. Then if we use bituminous material as a backfill material of tunnel, the tunnel will have waterproof, good load spreading property. We used new bituminous material (Aquaphalt) which can solidify in water. We conducted relaxation test in tension for new bituminous mat...

  10. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  11. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  12. Operation experience of Suralaya coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saragi, M. [PT Indonesia Power (Indonesia). Suralaya Generation Business Unit

    2004-07-01

    Coal utilization for generating electricity at Suralaya coal-fired power plant has been increased from time to time. It has been driven by the growth of electricity demand from industry as well as consumption from the household sector. Generally, boilers for power plant were designed to burn the locally available coals with a limited specification range. Suralaya coal-fired power plant was built based on coal specifications from Bukit Asam (Sumatera Island), which categorized as sub-bituminous coal rank. Nowadays, supply of coal for Suralaya coal-fired power plant not only comes from Bukit Asam coal mine but also from Kalimantan coal mines. The utilization of coal from the other mines has brought other consequences on operating and equipment of the plant. It needs some effort to deal with the effect from different specifications of coal from the originated design of coal. 4 tabs.

  13. The bituminous sands : a Canadian mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, D.R. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Nasr, G.J. [Lebanese Univ., Roumieh (Lebanon). Faculty of Engineering; Turcotte, S.F. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Etudes Internationales et Mondialisation; Salah, N.B. [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques De Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia). LMMP

    2009-07-01

    This paper examined the controversy about the potential role of a significant increase in Canadian oil sands production in order to bridge the upcoming gap between the world's increasing energy demand and the total recoverable oil supply. The paper presented the actual potential of different scenarios and considered the prediction cost forecasts. A brief overview of environmental impacts and the real return on investments were also provided. Environmental impacts that were considered included land degradation; water contamination; ecosystem damage; and air pollution. Nuclear energy was also presented as a possible solution. The paper demonstrated that even in a very optimistic scenario, Canada's oil sands accelerated production has a negligible effect on the aforementioned gap, has a considerable impact on environment that has yet to be accounted for. Energy ratios that were presented included energy return on energy investment; energy available on energy used; and energy payback. It was concluded that enhanced recovery techniques are clearly needed for future sustainable exploitation of these bituminous sands. 32 refs., 1 fig.

  14. 75 FR 57849 - Maintenance of Incombustible Content of Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... Safety and Health Act of 1977 in response to the grave danger that miners in underground bituminous coal mines face when accumulations of coal dust are not made inert. MSHA has concluded, from...

  15. Capital cost: low and high sulfur coal plants; 800 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 800-MWe (Nominal) low- and high-sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. (This is the fourth subject in a series of eight performed in the Commercial Electric Power Cost Studies by the US NRC). The low-sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III (this volume) describes the high sulfur coal plant. The design basis, drawings, and summary cost estimate for a 794-MWe high-sulfur coal plant are presented in this volume. This information was developed by redesigning the low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal plant for burning high-sulfur bituminous coal. The reference design includes a lime flue-gas-desulfurization system. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  16. Coal Gasification Processes for Retrofitting Military Central Heating Plants: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    inorganic material remainitig after coal is completely combusted. At high temperatures, the ash will melt and clinkers may form. The ash composition ...was employed until 1941 by more than 9000 producers worldwide. Units installed in 1933 and 1948 are currently operating in South Africa . In 1980...Springs. South Africa Vaal Potteries Ltd. 1 8.5 Bituminous Operational Meyerton, South Africa Union Steel Corporation 2 10 Bituminous Operational

  17. THE HISTORY OF EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION OF BITUMINOUS AND KEROGENOUS DEPOSITS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed thal the first known sedimens of natural bitumen or asphalt in coastal Croatia were exploited as the early moddle ages. Yet authenticated written documents about Vinišće near Trogir derive from no earlier than 1628, about Vrgorac/Paklina from only 1753. By the end of the 18th century, many deposits were discovered in Dalmatia, but it was Škrip on the Island of Brač and Suhi Dolac that were important. The earliest known deposits and occurrences of kerogenous rocks, or bituminous or oil shales, are mentioned as stone or fossil coal in Sovinjak, in the upper course of the River Mirna, and in Rebići in Istria; near Sinj, Slivno not far from the River Neretva, Mirta and near Nerežišće on the Island uf Brač. All if these were well known and described in 1804, while Sovinjak was mentioned in the 16th century. In the article, some of new information derived from mining and geological research into bituminous and kerogenous sediments and deposits are provided (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. Non-covalent associative structure of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUI Heng-fu(水恒福)

    2004-01-01

    The recent progress of non-covalent associative structure of coal, and the mechanisms of the CS2/NMP (1:1 by volume) mixed solvent and the additive addition enhancing the extraction yield of coals were reviewed, and the aggregation behavior of coal in solid and solution states were presented, and the aggregation behavior of coal in solid and solution states were introduced in this paper. Coal extraction and swelling in organic solvents at room temperature were the most useful methods to understand the associative structure of coal. CS2/NMP (1:1 by volume) is a unique solvent to give high extraction yields for some bituminous coals. Some additives can dissociate the stronger interactions among coal molecules and enhance the extraction yields of coal in the mixed solvent.

  19. Third symposium on coal preparation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The third Symposium on Coal preparation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Fourteen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five additional papers had been entered previously from other sources. Topics covered involved chemical comminution and chemical desulfurization of coal (aimed at reducing sulfur sufficiently with some coals to meet air quality standards without flue gas desulfurization), coal cleaning concepts, removing coal fines and recycling wash water, comparative evaluation of coal preparation methods, coal refuse disposal without polluting the environment, spoil bank reprocessing, noise control in coal preparation plants, etc. (LTN)

  20. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  1. Mercury in coal and the impact of coal quality on mercury emissions from combustion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Senior, C.L.; Quick, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of Hg in coal feedstock that is emitted by stack gases of utility power stations is a complex function of coal chemistry and properties, combustion conditions, and the positioning and type of air pollution control devices employed. Mercury in bituminous coal is found primarily within Fe-sulfides, whereas lower rank coal tends to have a greater proportion of organic-bound Hg. Preparation of bituminous coal to reduce S generally reduces input Hg relative to in-ground concentrations, but the amount of this reduction varies according to the fraction of Hg in sulfides and the efficiency of sulfide removal. The mode of occurrence of Hg in coal does not directly affect the speciation of Hg in the combustion flue gas. However, other constituents in the coal, notably Cl and S, and the combustion characteristics of the coal, influence the species of Hg that are formed in the flue gas and enter air pollution control devices. The formation of gaseous oxidized Hg or particulate-bound Hg occurs post-combustion; these forms of Hg can be in part captured in the air pollution control devices that exist on coal-fired boilers, without modification. For a given coal type, the capture efficiency of Hg by pollution control systems varies according to type of device and the conditions of its deployment. For bituminous coal, on average, more than 60% of Hg in flue gas is captured by fabric filter (FF) and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Key variables affecting performance for Hg control include Cl and S content of the coal, the positioning (hot side vs. cold side) of the system, and the amount of unburned C in coal ash. Knowledge of coal quality parameters and their effect on the performance of air pollution control devices allows optimization of Hg capture co-benefit. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Status of coal biotechnology in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Afzal Ghauri; M.A. Anwar; N. Akhtar; R. Haider; A. Tawab [National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad (Pakistan)

    2009-07-01

    Pakistan is endued with 185 billion tons colossal reserves of coal, but only 7.89 % of the country total energy requirements are met by coal. Most of the Pakistani coal reserves are sub-bituminous or lignitic in nature and contain 3-12 % sulphur. Existence of sulphur compounds in coal limits its industrial application due to environmental as well as technical problems. However, coal biotechnology can emerge as panacea for upgrading the huge reserves of coal in Pakistan. In general, coal biotechnology refers to biodesulphurization, biosolubilization and biogasification of coal. NIBGE has long term interests in the field of coal bioprocessing for tapping prime resources of indigenous coal. In NIBGE, lab scale experiments for coal biodesulphurization led to 90% efficiency in sulphur removal. Heap leaching was also carried out at the level of 10 and 20 tons coal heaps with 60% sulphur removal efficiency. Furthermore, a prototype of 300 tons coal heap was set up with a local cement industry and 75% microbial desulphurization was achieved. The league of indigenously isolated chemolithotrophic bacteria was involved in coal desulphurization. On the other side, for making the best use of 175 billion tons of low rank coal reserves, coal biosolubilization and subsequent biogasification is being projected. Consequently, beneficiated coal through biotechnology is supposed to contribute in energy mix of Pakistan for providing electricity requirements of the country and saving huge oil import bills.

  3. Mutagenicity of eluent by hot water extraction of various coals: Effect of chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunenori Nakajima; Hiroyuki Hasegawa; Satomi Nakamata; Hirokazu Takanashi; Akira Ohki [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Department of Bioengineering

    2008-10-15

    Six kinds of powdery coals (two bituminous coals, two sub-bituminous coals, and two lignites) were extracted by hot water, and the eluents obtained were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), absorbance at 260 nm (A260), and pH. The TOC in the eluents decreased in the order, lignites > sub-bituminous coals > bituminous coals. The eluents of lignite gave high A{sub 260}/TOC values and fairly low pH compared to other coals. Chemical structure of the organic matter eluted from coals was discussed with the aid of FTIR analysis. The coal eluents were analyzed by the Ames mutagenicity assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA98 strains, and no mutagenicity was observed for all of the six coals. However, especially for the lignites, chlorination of the eluents produced an appreciable mutagenicity, and the expression of mutagenicity was dependent upon the type of coal. The mutagenicity was extinguished when metabolic activation (rat liver homogenate, +S9) was applied. 26 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. The release of iron during coal combustion. Milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

    1995-06-01

    Iron plays an important role in the formation of both fly ash and deposits in many pulverized-coal-fired boilers. Several authors indicate that iron content is a significant indicator of the slagging propensity of a majority of US bituminous coals, in particular eastern bituminous coals. The pyritic iron content of these coals is shown to be a particularly relevant consideration. A series of investigations of iron release during combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile bituminous coal under combustion conditions ranging from oxidizing to inert. Experimental measurements are described in which, under selected conditions, major fractions of the iron in the coal are released within a 25 ms period immediately following coal devolatilization. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that the iron is released as a consequence of oxygen attack on porous pyrrhotite particles. Experimental testing of the proposed mechanism reveals that the release is dependent on the presence of both pyrite in the raw coal and oxygen in the gas phase, that slow preoxidation (weathering) of the pyrite significantly inhibits the iron release, and that iron loss increases as oxygen penetration of the particle increases. Each observation is consistent with the postulated mechanism.

  5. Biochemically enhanced methane production from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Aleksandra

    For many years, biogas was connected mostly with the organic matter decomposition in shallow sediments (e.g., wetlands, landfill gas, etc.). Recently, it has been realized that biogenic methane production is ongoing in many hydrocarbon reservoirs. This research examined microbial methane and carbon dioxide generation from coal. As original contributions methane production from various coal materials was examined in classical and electro-biochemical bench-scale reactors using unique, developed facultative microbial consortia that generate methane under anaerobic conditions. Facultative methanogenic populations are important as all known methanogens are strict anaerobes and their application outside laboratory would be problematic. Additional testing examined the influence of environmental conditions, such as pH, salinity, and nutrient amendments on methane and carbon dioxide generation. In 44-day ex-situ bench-scale batch bioreactor tests, up to 300,000 and 250,000 ppm methane was generated from bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste respectively, a significant improvement over 20-40 ppm methane generated from control samples. Chemical degradation of complex hydrocarbons using environmentally benign reagents, prior to microbial biodegradation and methanogenesis, resulted in dissolution of up to 5% bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste and up to 25% lignite in samples tested. Research results confirm that coal waste may be a significant underutilized resource that could be converted to useful fuel. Rapid acidification of lignite samples resulted in low pH (below 4.0), regardless of chemical pretreatment applied, and did not generate significant methane amounts. These results confirmed the importance of monitoring and adjusting in situ and ex situ environmental conditions during methane production. A patented Electro-Biochemical Reactor technology was used to supply electrons and electron acceptor environments, but appeared to influence methane generation in a

  6. Capital cost: low- and high-sulfur coal plants, 800 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 800-MWe (Nominal) high- and low-sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The low-sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the high-sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 801-MWe low sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equimpment list, and site description are contained in Volume II. The design basis, drawings, and summary cost estimate for a 794-MWe high-sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal plant for burning high-sulfur bituminous coal. The reference design includes a lime flue-gas desulfurization system. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal.

  7. Liquefaction and/or solubilization of Spanish coals by newly isolated microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monistrol, I.F.; Laborda, F. (Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Alcala de Henares (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia Parasitologia)

    1994-11-01

    A screening procedure has been set up for isolating microorganisms capable of liquefying coal. Spanish coals were used in the tests, namely a brown lignite from Galicia, sub-bituminous coal from Teruel and hard coal from Minas Figaredo S.A. (Asturias). Among the isolated strains several microorganisms proved capable of liquefying untreated lignite. When lignites were pretreated a more intense and rapid liquefaction was achieved, chelating agents being among the best pretreatment. None of the isolated microorganisms could satisfactorily liquefy sub-bituminous and hard coals in solid media. On the other hand, some fungi grew specifically on the untreated coals, engulfing them and in many cases a soft slurry was obtained. Several of the isolated microorganisms were able to solubilize all three untreated Spanish coals in liquid media. Coal solubilization was measured spectrophotometrically at 300, 400 and 450 nm. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  9. Induction of sister chromatid exchanges by coal dust and tobacco snuff extracts in human peripheral lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, J.D.; Ong, T.

    1985-01-01

    The organic solvent extracts of sub-bituminous coal dust and tobacco snuff, both together and separately, were tested for the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human peripheral lymphocytes. The results indicate that these extracts induced SCEs, and that when tested together synergistically induced SCEs in two of three donors. Studies with the organic solvent extracts of all five ranks of coal indicate that the extracts of bituminous, lignite, and peat, but not anthracite, induced SCEs. Similar experiments conducted with water extracts, induced SCEs, and that anthracite was equivocal. To determine whether individuals differed in their SCE responses to coal dust extracts, lymphocytes from five donors were tested with organic solvent extracts of bituminous and sub-bituminous coal. An analysis of variance indicates that the SCE response was significantly influenced by the donor and each of the two coal extracts. The findings presented here suggest that coal dust, with or without tobacco snuff, may play a role in the elevated incidence of gastric cancer in coal miners. Because water extracts of some ranks of coal induced SCEs, there exists the possibility of adverse environmental effects due to coal leachates.

  10. Coal-based carbon foams. Influence of the precursor coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montserrat Calvo; Roberto Garcia; Sabino R. Moinelo [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Carbon foams were obtained from several bituminous coals with different plasticity and volatile matter content by a two-stage thermal process. The first stage, a controlled carbonisation treatment under pressure at 450-500{sup o}C, is responsible for the final textural properties of the foam. In the second stage the carbonisation product was baked at 1100{sup o}C. The foams produced display a macroporous texture with plasticity, volatile matter content and maceral composition of the precursor coals having an influence on the apparent density and the pore size of the resultant porous products. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Distribution of trace elements in selected pulverized coals as a function of particle size and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, C.L.; Zeng, T.; Che, J.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.; Finkelman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in coal have diverse modes of occurrence that will greatly influence their behavior in many coal utilization processes. Mode of occurrence is important in determining the partitioning during coal cleaning by conventional processes, the susceptibility to oxidation upon exposure to air, as well as the changes in physical properties upon heating. In this study, three complementary methods were used to determine the concentrations and chemical states of trace elements in pulverized samples of four US coals: Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, Elkhorn and Hazard, and Wyodak coals. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the absolute concentration of elements in the parent coals and in the size- and density-fractionated samples. Chemical leaching and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to provide information on the form of occurrence of an element in the parent coals. The composition differences between size-segregated coal samples of different density mainly reflect the large density difference between minerals, especially pyrite, and the organic portion of the coal. The heavy density fractions are therefore enriched in pyrite and the elements associated with pyrite, as also shown by the leaching and XAFS methods. Nearly all the As is associated with pyrite in the three bituminous coals studied. The sub-bituminous coal has a very low content of pyrite and arsenic; in this coal arsenic appears to be primarily organically associated. Selenium is mainly associated with pyrite in the bituminous coal samples. In two bituminous coal samples, zinc is mostly in the form of ZnS or associated with pyrite, whereas it appears to be associated with other minerals in the other two coals. Zinc is also the only trace element studied that is significantly more concentrated in the smaller (45 to 63 ??m) coal particles.

  12. Applications of polymer extrusion technology to coal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    Upon heating, many of the middle-aged bituminous coals exhibit a plasticity very similar to polyethylene for a few minutes. Plastic coal can be extruded, pelletized or molded using common plastics technology and equipment. Investigations concerning the plastic state of coals are conducted with the objective to develop techniques which will make useful commercial applications of this property possible. Experiments which show the characteristics of plastic-state coal are discussed, and problems related to a continuous extrusion of coal are considered. Probably the most significant difference between the continuous extrusion of coal and the extrusion of a thermoplastic polymer is that volatiles are continuously being released from the coal. Attention is given to aspects of dragflow, solids feeding, and melt pumping. Application potentials for plastic coal extrusion might be related to coal gasification, direct liquefaction, and coal combustion.

  13. Concentration, Distribution, and Occurrence of REEs in Coals from Chongqing, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The concentration, distribution, and occurrence of rare earth elements (REEs) in coals as well as stone coals in different geological periods from Chongqing were studied. The results show that the REE content in coals from Chongqing is much higher than that of the ordinary Chinese coals, the Late Paleozoic coals from North China, US coals, and the world coals. Although the concentration of light rare earth elements (LREE) is higher than that of heavy rare earth elements (HREE), the ratio of LREE to HREE is as low as 5.11. The REE content decreases with the coal-formation periods from old to new. The REE content in the Sinian stone coal is the highest, but it is the lowest in Early Jurassic coals. The similar REE contents in bituminous coals and anthracite show that the metamorphism has a little influence on REE content in coal. In addition, silicate association dominates the occurrence mode of REEs in coals from Chongqing.

  14. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  15. Co-combustion of coal and SRF in an entrained flow reactor: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming;

    2009-01-01

    Investigations on co-firing of SRF with two kinds of bituminous coal were carried out in an entrained flow reactor. The experimental results showed that co-combustion of coal and SRF increased the unburnt carbon in fly ashes. The emissions of NO and SO2 were reduced with an increasing share of SRF...

  16. Analyses of coal product samples taken by the Division of Energy Technology, CSIR, during 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshoff, H.P.; Barnard, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    General chemical and physical properties of South African coal products, including the ash analysis, are reported on a series of samples taken during 1987. 370 product samples from 103 collieries were sampled and analyzed. Petrographic analyses were also carried out on a series of bituminous coal product samples from 88 collieries, and the results are given here.

  17. 76 FR 35968 - Maintenance of Incombustible Content of Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Risk The final rule applies to all underground bituminous coal mines in the United States. There are... and dried will not cohere to form a cake which will not be dispersed into separate particles by a... preventing them from being entrained in an explosion front rather than mixing with and inerting the coal...

  18. Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  19. Investigation of relationship between barometric pressure and coal and gas outburst events in underground coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yönet, Sinem; Esen, Olgun; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outburst is a serious risk which occurs during the mine production. This accident results both ejection of high volumes of gas and high amount of coal into the mine production area, and death of mining workers for many years in Turkey. Outburst of gas, coal and rock can be defined as sudden release of coal and rock accompanied by large quantities of gas into the working face or other mine workings. It is a phenomena that influenced by geological structure such as folds, joints of rocks or coal seams, is also still investigated for many years. Zonguldak Coal Basin is the main part of the Upper Carboniferous bituminous coal basin of Turkey. Much of the bituminous coal mining has thus been concentrated in the Zonguldak Basin which is located on the Black Sea coast. The coal field has been disturbed by tectonic activity, first by Hercynian and later by Alpine orogenesis resulting in folding and faulting of strata. This formation has a complex structural geology which consists mostly fault zones, anticlinal and syncline strata and because of this a large amount of methane gases are adsorbed or accumulated in strata or in coal fractures, pores and micropores. There are 5 Collieries exists in Zonguldak Coalfield and coal and gas outbursts were occurred only in two collieries such as Karadon and Kozlu Mines. In addition at a number of 90 coal and gas outburst events were experienced in these collieries. Based on the analysis of data, oscillation at barometric pressure and temperature values at the location of Kozlu and Karadon Mines were seen when coal and gas outburst events were occurred. In this study, barometric pressure and temperature changes are investigated at Kozlu and Karadon Mines. Also the relationship between the variation at temperature with barometric pressure and coal and gas outbursts are evaluated. It can be understand that this investigation depends to field observations and macroscopic considerations and on the purpose of predicting the

  20. Coal desulfurization through reverse micelle biocatalysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Yen, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    A novel bioprocess using micelle biocatalysis has been attempted to minimize several disadvantages of conventional microbial coal desulfurization scale-up processes. The reverse micelle biocatalysis process consists of a water-immiscible organic medium, a surfactant, an aqueous phase and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria or enzymes. This process has been successful for removing sulfur from bituminous coal (Illinois coal 5). The preliminary results showed that coal desulfurization through the use of cell-free enzyme extracts of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 19859 was better than that of bacteria itself. The use of enzymes has shown potential for commercial coal desulfurization process as well. This same process is being applied to the thermophillic bacteria Sulfolobus acidocaldarius ATCC 33909. The implications of these experimental results are discussed, including a hypothetical mechanism using reverse micelle biocatalytical process for coal desulfurization.

  1. Short description of the Peruvian coal basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrascal-Miranda, Eitel R. [UNI, Lima (Peru); Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Ap. Co., 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-04-23

    This work synthesizes the main general characteristics of the Peruvian Coal Basins in relation to age, coal facies and coal rank. Peruvian coals are located in a series of coal basins from the Paleozoic to the Cenozoic age. Paleozoic coal seams are mainly of Mississippian age (Carboniferous). They are of continental origin and their reduced thickness and ash content are their main characteristics. Mesozoic coal seams (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) are located in the so-called Peruvian Western Basin and in the depressions close to the 'Maranon Geoanticline'. They were originated in deltaic facies under the influence of brackish and fresh waters. Some of these coal basins (those distributed in the central and northern parts of Peru) are relatively well known because they are of economic importance. Finally, Cenozoic coal seams (Tertiary) are found in both paralic and limnic basins and their reserves are limited. All the Peruvian coals are of humic character and are vitrinite-rich. Their rank is highly variable and normally related with the different orogenic events which strongly affected this region. Thus, Paleozoic and Mesozoic coals are of bituminous to anthracite/meta-anthracite coal rank while peats, lignite and subbituminous coals are found in Cenozoic basins.

  2. Biodepolymerization studies of low rank Indian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvi, V.A.; Banerjee, R.; Ram, L.C.; Singh, G. [FRI, Dhanbad (India). Environmental Management Division

    2009-10-15

    Biodepolymerization of some of the lower rank Indian coals by Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Aspergillus species were studied in a batch system. The main disadvantage in burning low rank coals is the low calorific values. To get the maximum benefit from the low rank coals, the non fuel uses of coals needs to be explored. The liquefaction of coals is the preliminary processes for such approaches. The present study is undertaken specifically to investigate the optimization of bio depolymerization of Neyveli lignite by P. djmor. The pH of the media reached a constant value of about 7.8 by microbial action. The effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources and influence of chelators and metal ions on depolymerization of lignite were also studied. Lignite was solubilized by P. djamor only to a limited extent without the addition of carbon and nitrogen sources. Sucrose was the best suitable carbon source for coal depolymerization by P. djamor and sodium nitrate followed by urea was the best nitrogen source. The Chelators like salicylic acid, TEA and metal ions Mg{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+} has enhanced the lignite solubilization process. The finding of the study showed that, compared to sub-bituminous and bituminous coal, the lignite has higher rate of solubilization activity.

  3. Mode of occurrence of arsenic in four US coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Huggins, Frank E.; Palmer, C.A.; Shah, N.; Crowley, S.S.; Huffman, G.P.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated analytical approach has been used to determine the mode of occurrence of arsenic in samples of four widely used US coals: the Pittsburgh, Illinois #6, Elkhorn/Hazard, and Wyodak. Results from selective leaching, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, and electron microprobe analysis show that pyrite is the principal source of arsenic in the three bituminous coals, but the concentration of As in pyrite varies widely. The Wyodak sample contains very little pyrite; its arsenic appears to be primarily associated with organics, as As3+, or as arsenate. Significant (10-40%) fractions of arsenate, derived from pyrite oxidation, are also present in the three bituminous coal samples. This information is essential in developing predictive models for arsenic behavior during coal combustion and in other environmental settings.

  4. Evaluation of the Properties of Bituminous Concrete Prepared from Brick-Stone Mix Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Dipankar Sarkar; Manish Pal; Sarkar, Ashoke K.; Umesh Mishra

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes an investigation into mechanical properties of brick-stone bituminous concrete mix. The effect of brick-stone mix on various mechanical properties of the bituminous concrete such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall Quotient (stability to flow ratio), Indirect Tensile Strength, stripping, rutting, and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study over-burnt brick aggregate (OBBA) and stone aggregate (SA) have been mixed in different ratios ...

  5. The Case of Coal Water Slurry Fuel for Industrial Use in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the case for design and development of Coal Water Slurry (CWS Plant for industrial use in Pakistan. After exclusive comparison between coal quality quantification for CWS it was found that Darra mines at Pakistan provide best coal for CWS. Highly volatile, A and B Bituminous coal and Sub-Bituminous coal is selected for making CWS because of its low Sulfur contents, Ash contents and high heating value through experimentation. The purpose of this research was to present a complete blue print for the production of coal water slurry fuel in Pakistan. The measured viscosity and heat contents of the tested CWS are of the order 490 mPa-sec and 23.8 KJ/kg, respectively.

  6. Nitrogen release during coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L.; Mitchell, R.E.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.

    1995-02-01

    Experiments in entrained flow reactors at combustion temperatures are performed to resolve the rank dependence of nitrogen release on an elemental basis for a suite of 15 U.S. coals ranging from lignite to low-volatile bituminous. Data were obtained as a function of particle conversion, with overall mass loss up to 99% on a dry, ash-free basis. Nitrogen release rates are presented relative to both carbon loss and overall mass loss. During devolatilization, fractional nitrogen release from low-rank coals is much slower than fractional mass release and noticeably slower than fractional carbon release. As coal rank increases, fractional nitrogen release rate relative to that of carbon and mass increases, with fractional nitrogen release rates exceeding fractional mass and fractional carbon release rates during devolatilization for high-rank (low-volatile bituminous) coals. At the onset of combustion, nitrogen release rates increase significantly. For all coals investigated, cumulative fractional nitrogen loss rates relative to those of mass and carbon passes through a maximum during the earliest stages of oxidation. The mechanism for generating this maximum is postulated to involve nascent thermal rupture of nitrogen-containing compounds and possible preferential oxidation of nitrogen sites. During later stages of oxidation, the cumulative fractional loss of nitrogen approaches that of carbon for all coals. Changes in the relative release rates of nitrogen compared to those of both overall mass and carbon during all stages of combustion are attributed to a combination of the chemical structure of coals, temperature histories during combustion, and char chemistry.

  7. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. A new approach to study fast pyrolysis of pulverized coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Yao, J.; Lin, W. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemical Metallurgy Fast Reactions Laboratory, Beijing, BJ (China)

    2002-07-01

    An experimental study of the effects of varying bed temperature and coal particle size on the fast pyrolysis of pulverized coal in a downer reactor is described. A Datong bituminous coal (particle size 0.5 and 0.34 mm) was studied at temperatures ranging from 592{sup o} C to 720{sup o} C. The experiments were conducted in a batch apparatus. An on-line gas analyzer was used to measure carbon dioxide release curves. The experimental data were used to develop a pyrolysis model that quantifies the fast heating of fine coal particles. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF WETTING HEAT ON COAL SLURRYABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱书全; 付晓恒; 刘昀; 王祖讷; 李颖

    1997-01-01

    Wetting Heat of various ranks of coals in water was measured by using SETARAM C80D Calorimeter. The data were correlated to coals' slurryability which is characterized by the solid load at the viscosity of 1 Pa·s and 25℃. The results showed that the heat of wetting by water decreases as coal rank increases in the range of brawn coal to bituminous coal with carbon content of 89%~90% (daf), and then, increases a little for anthracite. This trend fitted well to the relationship of slurryability to coal rank. The heat of wetting was also correlated to the inherent moisture content and the oxygen content of coal, which are commonly considered as slurryability indication parameters. Hence, the wetting heat is another measure of coal's slurryability.

  10. Integral Characteristics of Stability of Coal-Water Slurries and Coal-Water Slurries Containing Petrochemicals By Evaluation of Separation Into Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrienko Margarita A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For wide use of coal and oil processing wastes in heat power industry we investigated the structural stability of coal-water slurries (CWS and coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP. Three methods of evaluating slurry stability were considered. The method of evaluation of separation (into layers of the slurry was chosen to determine the stability of fuel compositions based on bituminous and brown coal, filter cakes of bituminous coals, waste motor, turbine, transformer, compressor oils, oil, oiled mixture and mazut. The experiments shown, that the addition of waste oils (with mass fraction of 10 % to investigated fuel compositions leads to increase of slurry segmental stability is almost by 2 times.

  11. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are used in greenhouse gas inventories to estimate emissions from coal combustion. In the absence of direct measures, emissions factors are frequently used as a quick, low cost way to estimate emissions values. Coal combustion has been a major contributor to the CO2 flux into the atmosphere. Nearly all of the fuel carbon (99 % in coal is converted to CO2 during the combustion process. The carbon content is the most important coal parameter which is the measure of the degree of coalification (coal rank. Coalification is the alteration of vegetation to form peat, succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous to anthracite coal. During the geochemical or metamorphic stage, the progressive changes that occur within the coal are an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen and oxygen content resulting in a loss of volatiles. Heterogeneous composition of coal causes variation in CO2 emission from different coals. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has produced guidelines on how to produce emission inventories which includes emission factors. Although 2006 IPCC Guidelines provided the default values specified according to the rank of the coal, the application of country-specific emission factors was recommended when estimating the national greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the differences between country-specific emission factors and default IPCC CO2 emission factors, EF(CO2, for coals. Also, this study estimated EF(CO2 for two different types of coals and peat from B&H, on the basis fuel analyses. Carbon emission factors for coal mainly depend on the carbon content of the fuel and vary with both rank and geographic origin, which supports the idea of provincial variation of carbon emission factors. Also, various other factors, such as content of sulphur, minerals and macerals play an important role and influence EF(CO2 from coal. Carbonate minerals

  12. Formation of fine particles in co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel in a pulverized coal-fired power station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Fine particles formed from combustion of a bituminous coal and co-combustion of coal with 7 th% (thermal percentage) solid recovered fuel (SRF) in a pulverized coal-fired power plant were sampled and characterized in this study. The particles from dedicated coal combustion and co-combustion both...... appear to be an important formation mechanism. The elemental composition of the particles from coal combustion showed that S and Ca were significantly enriched in ultrafine particles and P was also enriched considerably. However, compared with supermicron particles, the contents of Al, Si and K were...

  13. Peru: coal over the past three years: future trends. El desarrollo de la situacion del carbon en el Peru durante los ultimos tres anos y su evolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunin Borkoroski, E.; Goluchoweska, K.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, annual coal production in Peru reached 150 to 200 mt and has since remained at roughly the same level. The coal comes from between 50 and 100 small and sometimes rather antiquated mining units which are run by small firms or individuals. Only a handful of coal mining operations are run by large companies and these too are small units. 85% of production is anthracite and the remainder bituminous coal. Only in rare cases is lignite or graphite mined and this only in very small quantities. Anthracite is mined in the Libertad, Ancash and Cajamarca departments, bituminous coal in Pasco and Junin and both types of coal in Lima and Arequipa. Current production patterns do not reflect the distribution and abundance of the coal. Coal has been found nearly everywhere in Peru and appears to have great potential whereas measured reserves are minimal and scattered across the country.

  14. Flash hydropyrolysis of coal. Quarterly report No. 9, April 1-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    Both the North Dakota lignite and New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogasified in the Flash Hydropyrolysis unit with yields ranging up to about 85 to 90% conversion of the available carbon at 2500 psi and 875 to 900/sup 0/C. The lignite appears to be less reactive at lower pressure than the sub-bituminous coal, producing an average of 40% gaseous yield at 1000 psi and 900/sup 0/C while the sub-bituminous produced over 50%. The reactivity of both coals is dependent on the hydrogen partial pressure but does not appear to be affected by H/sub 2//coal feed ratio. When the H/sub 2//coal ratio was reduced to 0.05 and sub-bituminous coal was run at 2500 psi and 875/sup 0/C, a high methane concentration of 57% was achieved. However, the yield or conversion of carbon to gas was limited to 30% which may be attributed to the reduction in hydrogen partial pressure during the run. Further work is being planned to obtain additional data at the lower pressure and H/sub 2//coal feed ratios. Illinois No. 6 coal, a caking bituminous, has been successfully run in the experimental equipment both treated with calcium and untreated. A reaction model, previously developed, has been modified and is being fitted to all the lignite data to produce one consistent set of pre-exponential factors and activation energies for the reaction rate equations. The experimental equipment is being modified to allow varying feed composition and especially introduction of steam into the feed gas.

  15. Evaluation of the Properties of Bituminous Concrete Prepared from Brick-Stone Mix Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an investigation into mechanical properties of brick-stone bituminous concrete mix. The effect of brick-stone mix on various mechanical properties of the bituminous concrete such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall Quotient (stability to flow ratio, Indirect Tensile Strength, stripping, rutting, and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study over-burnt brick aggregate (OBBA and stone aggregate (SA have been mixed in different ratios (by weight such as 20 : 80, 40 : 60, 60 : 40, and 80 : 20, respectively. The laboratory results indicate that bituminous concrete, prepared by 20% brick aggregate and 80% stone aggregate, gives the highest Marshall stability. This bituminous concrete mix shows considerable improvement in various mechanical properties of the mix as compared to the other mixes.

  16. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 οC and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  17. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA)); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA)); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  18. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for

  19. Characterization of Some Nigerian Coals for Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chukwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five coal samples from Odagbo (Kogi State, Owukpa (Benue State, Ezimo (Enugu State, Amansiodo (Enugu State, and Inyi (Enugu State of Nigerian coal deposits were subjected to proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, calorific value determination, and petrographic and thermogravimetric analysis to determine their suitability for power generation. Based on results of tests carried out, Amansiodo coal is a bituminous, low sulphur, and medium ash coal, while Owukpa coal is a subbituminous A, low sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Odagbo coal is a subbituminous B, medium sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Ezimo coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal, and Inyi coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal. Between Odagbo and Owukpa subbituminous coals, Owukpa has a lower ignition temperature (283.63°C due to its higher volatile matter content (39.1%. However, Ezimo subbituminous coal, which has a lower volatile matter (31.1%, unexpectedly has the same ignition temperature as Owukpa (283.63°C due to its higher liptinite content (7.2% when compared with that of Owukpa (2.9%. The ease of combustion of the coal samples in decreasing order is Odagbo < Owukpa < Inyi < Ezimo < Amansiodo.

  20. Coking coals of Mongolia: Distribution and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Jargal, Luvsanchultem

    2016-04-01

    The coal deposits of Mongolia tend to become younger from west to east and can be subdivided into two provinces, twelve basins, and three areas. Main controlling factor of coal rank is the age of coal bearing sequences. Western Mongolian coal-bearing province contains mostly high rank bituminous coal in strata from Late Carboniferous. The basins in southern Mongolia and the western part of central Mongolia have low rank bituminous coal in strata from the Permian. The northern and central Mongolian basins contain mainly Jurassic subbituminous coal, whereas the Eastern Mongolian province has Lower Cretaceous lignite. Mongolian known coking coal reserves are located in western, southern and northern Mongolia and related to Carboniferous, Permian and Jurassic sequences, respectively. Pennsylvanian Nuurstkhotgor coal deposit is located in northwestern Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). The coals have 1-7.5 crucible swelling number (CSN) and 0-86 G-index. Vitrinite reflectance value (Rmax in oil) varies from 0.7% to 1.2% and sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.3% to 0.6% with an average of 0.4%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 1.0 billion ton, of which half is coking coal. Upper Permian Khurengol deposit is situated in western Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). CSN and G-index of coal are 8-9 and 54-99, respectively. The coals have Rmax of 1.1 to 1.7% (average 1.4%) and sulfur content of 0.2 to 0.6% (average 0.4%). Coking coal reserve of the deposit is estimated to be 340 million ton. Upper Permian Tavantolgoi, the largest coking coal deposit, lies in southern Mongolia (in South Gobi coal-bearing basin). The coals have CSN of 1 to 7.5 and Rmax of 0.7% to 1.2%. Sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.5% to 0.9%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 6.0 billion ton, of which 2.0 billion ton is accounted as coking coal. Lower-Middle Jurassic Ovoot coal is located in northern Mongolia (in Orkhon-Selenge coal-bearing area). This is one of

  1. Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

    2008-12-15

    Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

  2. Multi-Attribute Selection of Coal Center Location: A Case Study in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuakunrittiwong, T.; Ratanakuakangwan, S.

    2016-11-01

    Under Power Development Plan 2015, Thailand has to diversify its heavily gas-fired electricity generation. The main owner of electricity transmission grids is responsible to implement several coal-fired power plants with clean coal technology. To environmentally handle and economically transport unprecedented quantities of sub-bituminous and bituminous coal, a coal center is required. The location of such facility is an important strategic decision and a paramount to the success of the energy plan. As site selection involves many criteria, Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process or Fuzzy-AHP is applied to select the most suitable location among three candidates. Having analyzed relevant criteria and the potential alternatives, the result reveals that engineering and socioeconomic are important criteria and Map Ta Phut is the most suitable site for the coal center.

  3. Effect of intermolecular cohesion on coal liquefaction. 3. Reactivity of oxygen methylated coal; Sekitan teibunshika hanno ni okeru bunshikan gyoshuryoku no koka. 3. O-methyl ka tan no hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Nagaishi, H.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The reactivity of oxygen methylated coal was studied to control hydrogen bond in bituminous coal liquefaction and intermolecular cohesion such as van der Waals force. In experiment, crushed and dried Illinois coal of 100mesh or less was used as specimen, and oxygen methylated coal was prepared by Liotta`s method using tetrabutylammonium halide. Coal liquefaction was conducted in an electromagnetic agitation autoclave using tetralin solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 100kg/cm{sup 2} while heating. The molecular weight distribution of the products obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. The experimental results are as follows. The effect of intermolecular cohesion in bituminous coal on the reactivity is mainly derived from decomposing reaction from preasphaltene to oil. Yields of oil fraction by methylation increase corresponding to release of intermolecular cohesion. Since the thermal release is promoted with temperature rise, the difference in yield due to different treatments decreases. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. NO Reduction over Biomass and Coal Char during Simultaneous Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ke; Glarborg, Peter; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    . The straw and bark chars showed higher reactivity, about a factor of 4–5, than bituminous char at 850 °C. The difference in reactivity between biomass char and bituminous char decreased with increasing reaction temperature. The reaction rate expressions for NO reduction during simultaneous combustion......This paper reports an experimental study of NO reduction over chars of straw, bark, bituminous coal, and lignite. The experiments were performed in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 850–1150 °C. The chars were generated by in situ pyrolysis at the reaction temperature to minimize further...... thermal deactivation. The rates of NO reduction over char were studied by char combustion experiments and O2-free experiments respectively. Two simple models were applied to interpret the data from the char combustion experiments. One model assumed that combustion and NO release take place uniformly...

  5. Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2004-01-01

    Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces. Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines in these two provinces. Alaskan coal resources have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The identified resources are near existing and planned infrastructure to promote development, transportation, and marketing of this low-sulfur coal. The relatively short distances to countries in the west Pacific Rim make them more exportable to these countries than to the lower 48 States of the United States. Another untapped but potential resource of large magnitude is coalbed methane, which has been estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters) by T.N. Smith 1995, Coalbed methane potential for Alaska and drilling results for the upper Cook Inlet Basin: Intergas, May 15 - 19, 1995, Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama, p. 1 - 21.

  6. Coal char oxidation kinetics in air medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh Alexander G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of oxidation kinetics for three types of coal char with different carbon content in air is presented. The coal char powders of anthracite, bituminous T-grade coal and 2B-grade lignite with particle size less than 80 μm were tested. The coal char oxidation was researched by isothermal method via simultaneous TG-DSC analyzer Netzsch STA 449 Jupiter F3 in the temperature range of 1000–1200 °C. Measurements were carried out at ambient pressure. Volumetric flow rate of oxidizing medium into analyser chamber was 250 ml/min. Flow consisted of air and argon with volumetric ratio 24/1. Carbon average rate of oxidation reaction at each temperature were defined based on experimental results. Kinetic constants (the frequency factor and activation energy were defined for Arrhenius equation modified with three submodels: volumetric model, shrinking core model and random pore model. The activation energy values for anthracite are 1,6-1,7 times higher than for chars of bituminous coal and lignite.

  7. Leaching tests of simulated Cogema bituminized waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, S.; Akimoto, T.; Iida, Y.; Nagano, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The leaching behavior of COGEMA-type bituminized radioactive waste was studied for the atmospheric and anaerobic conditions. Active and inactive laboratory-scale bitumen samples, including two major salts of NaNO{sub 3} and BaSO{sub 4}, were contacted with deionized water, an alkaline solution (0.01 mol/L Ca(OH){sub 2} or 0.03 mol/L KOH), or a saline solution (0.5 mol/L KCl). It was found that the release of salt was reduced in the Ca(OH){sub 2} solution compared with deionized water under the atmospheric conditions. No significant difference in the concentrations of {sup 237}Np in leachants contacted with the samples for 7 days was observed between the atmospheric and the anaerobic conditions. (authors)

  8. Seventh symposium on coal mine drainage research. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Seventh Symposium on Coal Mine Drainage Research, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Seventeen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include chemical reactions of pyrite oxidation and acid formation in spoil banks, abandoned mines, etc., formation of small acid lakes from the drainage and their neutralization by natural and other neutralization measures, trace elements in acid mine drainage, ground water contamination, limnology, effects of surface mined ground reclamation and neutralization, water purification and treatment, mining and coal preparation plant waste disposal, ash and fly ash disposal (to minimize leaching from the wastes), runoff from large coal storage stockpiles during storms (prevention of environmental effects by collection and neutralization by passing through an ash pond). (LTN)

  9. Sorption mechanism of solvent vapors to coals; Sekitan eno yobai joki no shuchaku kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to clarify the interactions between micropore structure of coal and solvent reagents, a sorption experiment was carried out under solvent saturated vapor pressure. Low-volatile bituminous coal, Pocahontas No. 3 coal, has the aromatic ring structure developed, and makes solvent more difficult to diffuse into coal, hence sorption amount is small. Methanol has permeated since its polarity is high. High-volatile bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, makes solvent penetrate easily, and the sorption amount was large with both of aromatic and polar solvents. Since brown coal, Beulah Zap coal, contains a large amount of oxygen, and hydrogen bonding is predominant, sorption amount of cyclohexane and benzene having no polarity is small. Methanol diffuses while releasing hydrogen bond due to its polarity, and its sorption amount is large. A double sorption model is available, which expresses the whole sorption amount as a sum of physical sorption amount and amount of permeation into coal. This model was applied when it explained successfully the sorption behavior of the solvents relative to coals, excepting some of the systems. However, also observed were such abnormal behavior as sorption impediment due to interactions between coal surface and solvents, and permeation impediment due to hydroxyl groups inside the coals. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Mode of occurrence of chromium in four US coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Crowley, S.; Palmer, C.A.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The mode of occurrence of chromium in three US bituminous coals and one US subbituminous has been examined using both X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and a selective leaching protocol supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobe measurements. A synthesis of results from both methods indicates that chromium occurs principally in two forms in the bituminous coals: the major occurrence of chromium is associated with the macerals and is not readily leached by any reagent, whereas a second, lesser occurrence, which is leachable in hydrofluoric acid (HF), is associated with the clay mineral, illite. The former occurrence is believed to be a small particle oxyhydroxide phase (CrO(OH)). One coal also contained a small fraction (<5%) of the chromium in the form of a chromian magnetite, and the leaching protocol indicated the possibility of a similar small fraction of chromium in sulfide form in all three coals. There was little agreement between the two techniques on the mode of occurrence of chromium in the subbituminous coal; however, only a limited number of subbituminous coals have been analyzed by either technique. The chromium in all four coals was trivalent as no evidence was found for the Cr6+ oxidation state in any coal.

  11. Capital cost: low and high sulfur coal plants; 800 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 800-MWe (Nominal) low- and high-sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. (This the fourth subject in a series of eight performed in the Commercial Electric Power Cost Studies by the US NRC). The low-sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II (this volume), while Volume III describes the high-sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 801-MWe low-sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I and the drawings, equipment list, and site description are contained in this document. The design basis, drawings, and summary cost estimate for a 794-MWe high-sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal plant for burning high-sulfur bituminous coal. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  12. Thermal properties of different rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdar Yaman; Hanzade Haykiri-Acma [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Thermal properties of various coal samples which have different rank and petrography were investigated under both inert and oxidizing conditions up to 900{sup o}C in a thermal analysis system. Peat, anthracite, and bituminous coal samples from different countries and various lignites from Turkey such as Askale, Soma, and Elbistan were used. DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) and TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis) techniques were applied. DTG (Derivative Thermogravimetric) curves were derived and interpreted considering the physical and chemical properties, and the rank of coals. Pyrolytic chars obtained from the inert atmosphere experiments were examined applying SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometry) techniques. It was found that the thermal reactivity and the apparent thermal properties of different rank coals differ considerably under both conditions. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Geology and coal potential of Somaliland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Y. Ali [Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-01

    Geological field mapping along with available geological and drilling data suggest that Somaliland (Northwestern Somalia) has favourable stratigraphy and structure for coal deposits. Lignitic to sub-bituminous coal deposits with ages from Jurassic to Oligocene-Miocene occur in various locations across the country including Hed-Hed valley south of Onkhor, Guveneh hills north of Las Dureh and Daban Basin southeast of Berbera. However, the coal occurrence at Hed-Hed has both the greatest thickness and highest quality. These deposits have the potential to provide an important alternative fuel resource which could alleviate the growing shortage of traditional fuels and assist in reducing the country's dependence on imported energy. However, further investigation, including drilling and laboratory analyses, still needs to be carried out, particularly on the Upper Cretaceous coal seams to evaluate the quality and resource potential of the deposits.

  14. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time

  15. Interpolation and Sampling Errors of the Ash and Sulphur Contents in Selected Polish Bituminous Coal Deposit (Upper Silesian Coal Basin - USCB) / Błędy Interpolacji I Opróbowania Zawartości Popiołu I Siarki W Wytypowanych Polskich Złożach Węgla Kamiennego (Górnośląskie Zagłębie Węglowe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Jacek; Wasilewska-Błaszczyk, Monika

    2015-09-01

    The basic sources of information on the parameters characterizing the quality of coal (i.e. its ash and sulphur contents) in the deposits of The Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) are drill core sampling (the first stage of exploration) and channel sampling in mine workings (the second stage of exploration). Boreholes are irregularly spaced but provide relatively uniform coverage over an entire deposit area. Channel samples are taken regularly in mine workings, but only in the developed parts of the deposit. The present study considers selected seams of two mines. The methodology used is based on detailed geostatistical analysis, point kriging procedure and P. Gy's theory of sampling. Its purpose is: • defining and comparing geostatistical models for variability of the ash and sulphur contents for data originating from boreholes and mine workings, • predicting by means of point kriging the values of the parameters and errors of interpolation using data from boreholes at grid points where underground mine workings were later channel-sampled, • assessing the accuracy of interpolation by comparison of predicted values of parameters with real values (found by channel sampling), • evaluating the variances of total secondary sampling error (error of preparation of assay samples) and analytical error introduced by assaying of sulphur and ash, • assessing the contribution of sampling and analytical errors (global estimation error) to the interpolation errors. The authors found that the interpolation errors for ash or sulphur content are very large, with mean relative values of 35%-60%, mainly caused by the considerable natural variability, a significant role of random component of variability, and heterogeneity of spatial distribution of these characteristics. The sampling and analytical errors play a negligible role. Their values are smaller than 11% of interpolation error values. Presenting estimates of the spatial distribution of ash and sulphur contents in

  16. Petrographic compositions of Paleozoic coals of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargal, Luvsanchultem; Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh

    2016-04-01

    In Mongolia, the deposition of coal bearing strata commenced in Pennsylvanian, and continued in Upper Permian, in Lower-Middle Jurassic and finally in Lower Cretaceous time. Pennsylvanian coal seams were deposited in Western Mongolia, where peat formation was initially developed in the southernmost part and later gradually shifted to northward. By the Late Permian, the locus of coal formation had changed and main peat accumulation took place in southern Mongolia. Lower-Middle Jurassic coal was accumulated in western, northern and eastern Mongolia. During this time, peat forming condition was comparatively stable in entire Mongolia. In the Early Cretaceous, thick and extensive coal was formed in the Eastern Mongolia. Due to this general trend of peat accumulation, coal rank decreases from west (bituminous) to east (lignite). The significant portion of Pennsylvanian and Upper Permian coal reserves, existed in western and southern Mongolia, are coking coal. Thus, petrographical studies of the coals are notably important. However, previous studies of Paleozoic coals have been sparse, and only few deposits have been conducted. The maceral compositions of Western Mongolian Pennsylvanian coals such as Khushuut, Maanit, Khurengol, Zeegt, Tsagaangol, Nuurstkhotgor, Khartarvagatai and Olonbulag were studied. The results show that the coals are dominated by vitrinite (45 vol.% to 71 vol.%) and inertinite (28 vol.% to 53vol.%) macerals. Liptinite contents are low, less than 4 vol.%. In addition, vitrinite reflectance values (Rmax in oil) of Khushuut (1.85%), Maanit (0.92%), Khurengol (1.4%), Zeegt (0.86%), Tsagaangol (3.6%), Nuurstkhotgor (0.9%), Khartarvagatai (1.1%) and Olonbulag (1.7%) were determined. Upper Permian coals in southern Mongolia (Tavantolgoi, Nariinsukhait, Jargalant, Tsagaantolgoi, Buduuniikhyar) are dominated by vitrinite (55 vol.% to 78 vol.%) and inertinite macerals (19 vol.% to 44 vol.%). Liptinite contents range from 1 vol.% to 7 vol.%. The vitrinite

  17. Enhancement of pulverized coal combustion by plasma technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorokhovski, M.A.; Jankoski, Z.; Lockwood, F.C.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [University of Rouen, Rouen (France)

    2007-07-01

    Plasma-assisted pulverized coal combustion is a promising technology for thermal power plants (TPP). This article reports one- and three- dimensional numerical simulations, as well as laboratory and industrial measurements of coal combustion using a plasma-fuel system (PFS). The chemical kinetic and fluid mechanics involved in this technology are analysed. The results show that a PFS, can be used to promote early ignition and enhanced stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. It is shown that this technology, in addition to enhancing the combustion efficiency of the flame, reduces harmful emissions from power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures). Data summarising the experience of 27 pulverized coal boilers in 16 thermal power plants in several countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Ukraine, Slovakia, Mongolia and China), embracing steam productivities from 75 to 670 tons per hour (TPH), are presented. Finally, the practical computation of the characteristics of the PFS, as function of coal properties, is discussed.

  18. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance of the process gave the following integral indicators: weight-average temperature of 2200-2300 K, and carbon gasification degree of 82,4-83,2%. Synthesis gas yield at thermochemical preparation of raw coal dust for burning was 24,5% and in the case of electron-beam activation of coal synthesis gas yield reached 36,4%, which is 48% higher.

  19. Effect of Cement on Properties of Over-Burnt Brick Bituminous Concrete Mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Dipankar; Pal, Manish

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation is carried out to propose the use of cement coated over burnt brick aggregate in the preparation of bituminous concrete mix. The effect of cement on various mechanical properties such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient (stability to flow ratio), indirect tensile strength, stripping, rutting and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study, different cement percentages such as 2, 3, 4 and 5 % by weight of aggregate have been mixed with Over Burnt Brick Aggregate (OBBA). The laboratory results indicate that bituminous concrete prepared by 4 % cement coated OBBA gives the highest Marshall stability. The bituminous concrete mix with 4 % cement shows considerable improvement in various mechanical properties of the mix compared to the plain OBBA concrete mix.

  20. State of the art report on bituminized waste forms of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Kook; Shon, Jong Sik; Kim, Kil Jeong; Lee, Kang Moo; Jung, In Ha

    1998-03-01

    In this report, research and development results on the bituminization of radioactive wastes are closely reviewed, especially those regarding waste treatment technologies, waste solidifying procedures and the characteristics of asphalt and solidified forms. A new concept of the bituminization method is suggested in this report which can improve the characteristics of solidified forms. Stable solid forms with high leach resistance, high thermal resistance and good compression strength were produced by the suggested bituminization method, in which spent polyethylene from agricultural farms was added. This report can help further research and development of improved bituminized forms of radioactive wastes that will maintain long term stabilities in disposal sites. (author). 59 refs., 19 tabs., 18 figs

  1. Influence of association of "EVA-NBR" on indirect tensile strength of modified bituminous concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinoun, M.; Soudani, K.; Haddadi, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the improvement of the mechanical properties of bituminous concrete by modification of bituminous concrete. In this study, we present the results of the indirect tensile strength "ITS" of modified bituminous concrete by the combination of two modifiers, one is a plastomer EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) and the other is a industrial waste from the shoe soles grinding NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) as crumb rubber. To modify the bitumen a wet process was used. The results show that the modification of bitumen by EVA-NBR combination increases their resistance to the indirect traction "ITS" compared to the bituminous concrete control. The mixture of 5% [50% EVA+ 50% NBR] is given the best result among the other associations.

  2. Thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether: A model of ether linkages in low rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Malcolm, E.A.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, an area of interest and frustration for coal chemists has been the direct liquefaction of low rank coal. Although low rank coals are more reactive than bituminous coals, they are more difficult to liquefy and offer lower liquefaction yields under conditions optimized for bituminous coals. Solomon, Serio, and co-workers have shown that: in the pyrolysis and liquefaction of low rank coals, a low temperature cross-linking reaction associated with oxygen functional groups occurs before tar evolution. A variety of pretreatments (demineralization, alkylation, and ion-exchange) have been shown to reduce these retrogressive reactions and increase tar yields, but the actual chemical reactions responsible for these processes have not been defined. In order to gain insight into the thermochemical reactions leading to cross-linking in low rank coal, we have undertaken a study of the pyrolysis of oxygen containing coal model compounds. Solid state NMR studies suggest that the alkyl aryl ether linkage may be present in modest amounts in low rank coal. Therefore, in this paper, we will investigate the thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) as a model of 0-aryl ether linkages found in low rank coal, lignites, and lignin, an evolutionary precursor of coal. Our results have uncovered a new reaction channel that can account for 25% of the products formed. The impact of reaction conditions, including restricted mass transport, on this new reaction pathway and the role of oxygen functional groups in cross-linking reactions will be investigated.

  3. Development of standards and a cost model for coal agglomeration and related studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.G.; Kuby, O.A.; Korosi, F.A.; Paulin, M.O.

    1982-02-26

    Several topics concerning coal agglomeration and fixed-bed coal gasification, as they relate to an agglomeration-process development program presently being performed for the Department of Energy, are discussed in this report. Specific topics include an examination of the performance of coals in fixed-bed gasifiers, the development of properties' standards by which agglomerates produced in the program may be compared, the development of a cost model to judge the economic feasibility of coal agglomeration for potential users and the maximum binder levels to be considered in the program, the definition of a suitable briquette size for coal gasification, and a study of upgrading methods at the mines to improve agglomeration. Extensive property data and the results of a number of special tests on six coals (Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, Wyoming Bighorn subbituminous coal, Montana Rosebud No. 14 subbituminous coal, North Dakota Indian Head lignite and Pennsylvania Nanoth anthracite coal) and on FMC formcoke and Simplex briquettes are reported.

  4. Organic emissions in coal combustion in relation to coal structure and combustion temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruinsma, O.S.L.; Verhagen, E.J.H.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1985-10-01

    The pulsed combustion of coal has been studied in a small fluidized-bed reactor. The effect of combustion temperature and coal rank on the organic composition of the off-gas was investigated. Results are presented for the combustion of an anthracite, a medium-volatile bituminous coal and a high-volatile bituminous coal at 700, 800 and 900 C. The analytical techniques used include on-line FT-IR, O2 monitoring, FID and off-line GC-MS using Tenax as adsorbent. About 120 hydrocarbons were found, of which over 80% have been identified. Overall combustion characteristics such as oxygen consumption, total amount of unburned hydrocarbons and swelling properties of the coal have been related to the composition of the organic substances in the off-gas. The distribution of the polycyclic aromatics, from benzene to chrysene, and of alkylated derivatives is discussed in detail. Oxygen-containing compounds have also been analysed, although detailed discussion would be premature. 20 references.

  5. Oxy-fuel combustion of millimeter-sized coal char: Particle temperatures and NO formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Navascués, Leyre Gómez; Nielsen, Joachim Bachmann;

    2013-01-01

    In this work, differences in particle temperature and NO yield during char oxidation in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres, respectively, have been examined. A laboratory scale fixed bed reactor, operated isothermally at 1073 K, was used for combustion of millimeter-sized lignite and bituminous coal ch...

  6. Mercury reduction by coal blending : effects of boiler configuration and blending on mercury speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyng, R. [Ontario Power Generation Nanticoke Generating Station, Nanticoke, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Ontario Power Generation has explored the potential of reducing mercury emissions through fuel blending on full-scale operating units at its 8 x 500 MW Nanticoke coal-fired generating station. This presentation addressed the issue of unit configuration on mercury speciation. It outlined full scale testing of mercury emissions in 2004 and the potential for mercury control suggested by the test data. Mercury emissions were measured for the firing of various eastern US bituminous and western US sub-bituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blends. Three blends of up to 84 per cent sub-bituminous coal were tested. Two methods of coal blending, selective bunkering and silo or field blending were also tested. Mercury emissions under boiler configurations with and without selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and over-fire air were compared. This paper included the results from semi-continuous monitoring (SCM) data collected during the test period. A high mercury oxidation was observed over chlorine concentration ranges of 0.3 to 0.1 per cent. It was noted that feeding dedicated fuels to mills, rather than yard blends of bituminous PRB, results in higher levels of mercury capture, particularly at higher than 16:84 blend. A consistently high level of oxidation was noted across the SCR demonstrated for all blends tested. It was noted that Over Fire Air (OFA) advanced combustion technology systems appeared to increase mercury oxidation. tabs., figs.

  7. Behaviour of inorganic matter during heating of Bulgarian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassileva, Christina G.; Vassilev, Stanislav V. [Central Laboratory of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 107, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2006-12-15

    Bulgarian subbituminous (Pernik, Bobov Dol) and bituminous (Balkan) coals were gradually heated under air from 100 {sup o}C to their fluid ash-fusion temperatures (1400-1600 {sup o}C) via 100 {sup o}C intervals and the behaviour of their inorganic matter (IM) was studied. The original minerals and newly formed inorganic phases in the oxidation and combustion products (OCPs) of these coals were identified and the behaviour of 33 minerals and phases was described. The coals studied reveal high detrital abundance and low authigenic mineralization with sulphide-sulphate, carbonate or mixed sulphide-sulphate and carbonate tendencies. The IM of coals is composed mainly of quartz, kaolinite, illite+muscovite, feldspars, pyrite, and calcite, while the other minerals identified have subordinate occurrence. The IM of OCPs includes various pre-existing minerals and newly formed phases. The latter phases are glass, quartz-cristobalite-tridymite, mullite, amorphous clay material, hematite-magnetite, anhydrite, and others originating from the heating of these coals or storage of their OCPs. The physico-chemical processes and temperatures that result in the formation of new phases in OCPs are described. The relationships between the ash-fusion behaviour and chemical and mineral composition of the coals are also discussed. A systematization of the physico-chemical transformations and some comparative characterizations, as well as prediction of certain technological and environmental problems related to the behaviour of IM during heating of Bulgarian lignites, subbituminous and bituminous coals are also described and summarized. (author)

  8. Geology and coal bed methane resource potential of the Gondwana Barapukuria Coal Basin, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Hayashi, Daigoro [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, 903-0213 (Japan)

    2008-08-05

    With an area of 5.16 km{sup 2}, the Barapukuria coal deposit is one of the five largest Gondwana coal basins in Bangladesh, and is located in the north west of the country close to the towns of Dinajpur and Saidpur. The existence of the basin was initially indicated by a negative gravity anomaly in oil and gas exploration. Exploration for the deposit was commenced by the Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB), with seven surface boreholes that confirmed the existence of a significant coal deposit. The deposit occurs as an asymmetrical synclinal structure with an axis striking approximately N-S. The deposit is limited to the east by a large normal fault which has displaced Archaean metamorphics against the Gondwana sediments. The coal-bearing sediments are comprised of Gondwana Permian-age sandstones, siltstones, subordinate carbonaceous shales, and six correlated coal seams. The Gondwana sediments are unconformably overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, against which the coal seams are successively subcropped to the west. Within the structural limits of the basin, approximately 377 Mt coal in-situ has been quantified in the six coal seams that range in depth from 118 to 518 m below surface. Due to the synclinal nature of the deposit, the upper coal seams, designated I to V, occur over diminishing areal extent with decreasing depth. The principal seam of interest is the lowermost Seam VI, with a variable thickness across the deposit from 22 m in the northern part of the deposit to more than 42 m in the southern and eastern areas. Development of the Barapukuria Mine, the country's first coal mine, commenced in 1996 with the construction of two vertical shafts. Coal production from Seam VI began in 2005 and continues at the present time. Seam VI coal is high volatile B bituminous rank. About 34 Mt of coal has been estimated as recoverable resources, utilising descensional multi-slice longwall mining. The mine design and development have been severely

  9. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  10. Influence of Coal Particle Size on Coal Adsorption and Desorption Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao

    2014-10-01

    Accurate testing coal isotherm can play a significant role in the areas of coal seam gas drainage, outburst control, CO2 geo-sequestration, coalbed methane (CBM) and enhanced coalbed methane recovery (ECBM) etc. The effect of particle size on the CO2 and CH4 sorption capacity of bituminous coal from Illawarra, Australia was investigated at 35°C and at pressure up to 4 MPa. A unique indirect gravimetric apparatus was used to measure the gas adsorption and desorption isotherms of coal of different particle sizes ranging from around 150 urn to 16 mm. Langmuir model was used to analysis the experimental results of all gases. Coal particle size was found to have an apparent effect on the coal ash content and helium density results. Coal with larger particle size had higher ash content and higher helium density. The sorption isotherm was found to be highly sensitive with helium density of coal which was determined in the procedure of testing the void volume of sample cell. Hence, coal particle size had a significant influence on the coal sorption characteristics including sorption capacity and desorption hysteresis for CO2 and CH4, especially calculated with dry basis of coal. In this study, the 150-212 um (150 um) coal samples achieved higher sorption capacity and followed by 2.36-3.35 mm (2.4 mm), 8-9.5 mm (8 mm) and 16-19 mm (16 mm) particle size samples. However, the differences between different coal particles were getting smaller when the sorption isotherms are calculated with dry ash free basis. Test with 150 um coal samples were also found to have relatively smaller desorption hysteresis compared with the other larger particle size samples. The different results including adsorption/desorption isotherm, Langmuir parameters and coal hysteresis were all analysed with the CO2 and CH4 gases.

  11. Investigating by EPR the reaction processes of intermediate products from the thermodestruction of binary mixtures of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonomopulo, V.P.

    1983-03-01

    Binary mixtures of long-flame, gas-bituminous, coking, lean-caking, and lean coals are used to study the processes for the interaction of intermediate products of the thermodestruction of coals. The value and sign of the paramagnetic effect which occurs during simultaneous heating of coals in a binary mixture are determined by the relative position of each coal on the metamorphic scale. The possible role of plastification and reaction of the two coals in the formation of an ordered paramagnetic structure are demonstrated. 4 references.

  12. Biopetrological investigations on the coals of Kosar, Dongargaon and Mahadoli areas, Wardha Valley Coalfield, Maharashtra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarate, O.S. [Birbal Sahni Institute Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2004-04-01

    The coal sequences concealed below the Deccan Trap in Mahadoli (northwestern part) and in the vicinity of Kosar and Dongargaon areas (Kayar Block) delimiting the western boundary of the Wardha Valley Coalfield, Maharashtra, have been analyzed. A comparative study about their maceral constitution, rank evaluation and depositional environment has also been discussed. The coals in these areas are classified under fusic and mixed types barring the top seam of Dongargaon area containing vitric type of coal. In general, these coals have attained high volatile bituminous C stage of rank.

  13. Mechanisms and kinetics of coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R M; Furlong, M W

    1981-05-01

    Colorado School of Mines is engaged in an experimental program to develop comprehensive models for the effects of coal composition upon the kinetics and mechanisms of coal hydrogenation, for the effects of mineral matter additives (disposable catalysts) upon kinetics and mechanisms of coal hydrogenation, and for the kinetics and mechanisms of the hydrogenation of coal derived products such as preasphaltenes, and asphaltenes. Experimental work was completed on a suite of bituminous coals, thus completing the initial phase of the coal reactivity study. Eleven of the 14 coals of the suite were successfully run in duplicate. Conversion to THF solubles was correlated well by pseudo-second order kinetics. The resulting kinetic rate constants correlated with H/C ratio, mean-max vitrinite reflectance, and a specially-defined fraction of reactive macerals. The data did not correlate well with O/C ratios of the parent coals. Computer-derived statistical fits of various kinetic models were limited in their effectiveness at fitting the experimental data. Experimental work on the first phase of the disposal catalyst studies was completed. Statistical significance testing of the experimental data showed: fractional conversion and yield of light hydrocarbon products increased with time; and mineral properties of the additives were more significant in increasing overall conversion than the additive surface areas. The relative effects of the additives are given.

  14. Bituminous reference document: synthesis of knowledge on the long time behavior of bituminous packages; Dossier de reference bitume: synthese des connaissances sur le comportement a long terme des colis bitumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sercombe, J.; Adenot, F.; Vistoli, P.P.; Parraud, S.; Riglet-Martial, C.; Gwinner, B.; Felines, I.; Tiffreau, C.; Libert, M

    2004-07-01

    This document is a synthesis of the knowledge acquired at the CEA on the behavior of bituminous packages. In this framework, the CEA studied bituminous packages in generic conditions of a package lifetime. The main factors, the evolution mechanisms and influential parameters have been determined and quantitative s simulation have been developed. After a description of the main initial bituminous packages characterizations, the evolutions in saturated and un-saturated environment are exposed. (A.L.B.)

  15. Maturation, constitution and depositional environment of the coals from Makardhokada area, Nagpur District, Maharashtra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarate, O.S. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2007-12-15

    Recent sub-surface investigations have proved the existence of coal deposits in Makardhokada area of Nagpur District, Maharashtra. Structurally, Makardhokada area represents the western extension of Umrer coalfield. As far as the economic potentialities of these coal deposits are concerned, out of the six seams intersected, only four viz. Seam I, II, IV and V have attained workable thickness of more than a metre. The maceral constitution and rank estimations have been considered as the parameters to interpret the depositional environment and economic importance of these coal deposits. The maceral study suggests that the coal of seam I contains a mixture of all the three coal types i.e. vitric (Vitrinite rich), fusic (Inertinite rich) and mixed (Vitrinite + Inertinite rich). However, the seams II and IV are constituted by fusic and mixed coal types. Seam V contains both the vitric and mixed coal types. The maturation (reflectance) studies have indicated low vitrinite reflectivity (R{sub 0} max %) of 0.42-0.53%, which suggests that the coals have attained sub-bituminous C to high volatile bituminous C stage of the rank. The coal constitution suggests frequent floods at the depositional site and alternate dry oxidizing and cold climatic seasonal changes caused the formation of vitric and fusic coal types.

  16. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: a synoptic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronbauer, Marcio A; Izquierdo, Maria; Dai, Shifeng; Waanders, Frans B; Wagner, Nicola J; Mastalerz, Maria; Hower, James C; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Taffarel, Silvio R; Bizani, Delmar; Silva, Luis F O

    2013-07-01

    The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO₃ versus Al₂O₃ determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates.

  17. Significance of coal petrological investigations in coal bed methane exploration - Indian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, B.K.; Singh, B.D.; Singh, A. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2006-11-25

    Understanding of sorption and desorption processes of gas by coal is important in coal bed methane (CBM) estimation and determining its producibility. The results of the investigations carried out so far in Australia, on the role of coal type and rank in CBM storage and recovery are found to be inapplicable in the context of Indian coals. This is probably because the Australian Permian coals were considered as a two-component system - vitrinite- and inertinite-rich (liptinite macerals being present in negligible amount), when tested through sorption and desorption experiments. Liptinite maceral group, the third component of almost all high-volatile bituminous Permian coals of India, comprising hydrogen-rich plant parts (mostly the sporinite, spores and pollen), was not acknowledged in the model studies. Likewise, two lithotype bands - bright and dull including bulk coal samples were tested for the preceding experiments, whereas a third lithotype band semi-bright, the common lithotype of Permian coals was not included in such studies. Besides some general and specific comments on observations made, it is suggested to explore the role of liptinite macerals in sorption properties in different lithotypes; and assess coal permeability on three band components.

  18. Evaluation of coal bed methane potential of coal seams of Sawang Colliery, Jharkhand, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Vinod A Mendhe; A Varade

    2008-04-01

    The coal seams of Sawang Colliery, East Bokaro Coalfields are bituminous to sub-bituminous in nature and categorized as high gaseous seams (degree II to degree III level). These seams have the potential for coal bed methane (CBM) and their maturity increases with increasing depth, as a result of enhanced pressure-temperature conditions in the underground. The vitrinite maceral group composition of the investigated coal seams ranges from 62.50-83.15%, whereas the inertinite content varies from 14.93-36.81%. The liptinite content varies from 0.66% to 3.09%. The maximum micro-pores are confined within the vitrinite group of macerals. The coal seams exhibit vitrinite reflectance values (Ro% calculated) from 0.94% (sample CG-97) to 1.21% (sample CG-119). Proximate analyses of the investigated coal samples reveal that the moisture content (M%) ranges from 1.28% to 2.98%, whereas, volatile matter (VM%) content is placed in the range of 27.01% to 33.86%. The ash content (A%) ranges from 10.92% to 30.01%. Fixed carbon (FC%) content varies from 41.53% to 55.93%. Fuel ratio variation shows a restricted range from 1.53 to 1.97. All the coal samples were found to be strongly caking and forming coke buttons. The present study is based on the adsorption isotherm experiments carried out under controlled P-T conditions for determination of actual gas adsorption capacity of the coal seams. This analysis shows that the maximum methane gas adsorbed in the coal sample CG-81 is 17m3/t (Std. daf), at maximum pressure of 5.92MPa and experimental temperature of 30°C. The calculated Langmuir regression parameters PL and VL range from 2.49 to 3.75MPa and 22.94 to 26.88m3/t (Std. daf), respectively.

  19. Combustion characterization of coals for industrial applications. Final technical report, January 1, 1981-May 29, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala, N.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

    1985-03-01

    In-depth fundamental information was obtained from a two-inch inner diameter laminar flow reactor referred to as the Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). This information consists of the following: (1) pyrolysis kinetic characteristics of four coals of various rank (Texas lignite, Montana subbituminous, Alabama high volatile bituminous, and Pennsylvania anthracite); and (2) combustion kinetic studies of chars produced from the foregoing parent coals. A number of standard ASTM and special in-house bench scale tests were also performed on the coals and chars prepared therefrom to characterize their physicochemical properties. The pilot scale (500,000 Btu/hr) Controlled Mixing History Furnace (CMHF) was used to determine the effect of staged combustion on NO/sub x/ emissions control from an overall combustion performance of the Alabama high volatile bituminous coal. The quantitative fundamental data developed from this study indicate significant differences in coal/char chemical, physical, and reactivity characteristics, which should be useful to those interested in modeling coal combustion and pyrolysis processes. These results underscore the fact that coal selection is one of the keys governing a successful coal conversion/utilization process. The combustion kinetic information obtained on the high volatile bituminous coal has been used in conjunction with combustion engineering's proprietary mathematical models to predict the combustion performance of this coal in the Controlled Mixing History Furnace. Comparison of the predicted data with the experimental results shows a virtually one-to-one scale-up from the DTFS to the CMHF. These data should provide vital information to designers in the area of carbon burnout and NO/sub x/ reduction for large scale coal utilization applications. 31 refs., 28 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. A geochemical investigation into the effect of coal rank on the potential environmental effects of CO2 sequestration in deep coal beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jonathan J.; Burruss, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Coal samples of different rank were extracted in the laboratory with supercritical CO2 to evaluate the potential for mobilizing hydrocarbons during CO2 sequestration or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from deep coal beds. The concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons mobilized from the subbituminous C, high-volatile C bituminous, and anthracite coal samples were 41.2, 43.1, and 3.11 ?g g-1 dry coal, respectively. Substantial, but lower, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were mobilized from these samples: 2.19, 10.1, and 1.44 ?g g-1 dry coal, respectively. The hydrocarbon distributions within the aliphatic and aromatic fractions obtained from each coal sample also varied with coal rank and reflected changes to the coal matrix associated with increasing degree of coalification. Bitumen present within the coal matrix may affect hydrocarbon partitioning between coal and supercritical CO2. The coal samples continued to yield hydrocarbons during consecutive extractions with supercritical CO2. The amount of hydrocarbons mobilized declined with each successive extraction, and the relative proportion of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons increased during successive extractions. These results demonstrate that the potential for mobilizing hydrocarbons from coal beds, and the effect of coal rank on this process, are important to consider when evaluating coal beds for CO2 storage.

  1. Investigation of coal structure. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, Masaharu

    1994-03-01

    A better understanding of coal structure is the first step toward more effective utilization of the most abundant hydrocarbon resource. Detailed characterization of coal structure is very difficult, even with today`s highly developed analytical techniques. This is primarily due to the amorphous nature of these high-molecular-weight mixtures. Coal has a polymeric character and has been popularly represented as a three-dimensional cross-linked network. There is, however, little or no information which positively verifies this model. The principal objective of this research was to further investigate the physical structure of coal and to determine the extent to which coal molecules may be covalently cross-linked and/or physically associated. Two common characterization methods, swellability and extractability, were used. A technique modifying the conventional swelling procedure was established to better determine network or associated model conformation. A new method for evaluating coal swelling involving laser scattering has also been developed. The charge-transfer interaction is relatively strong in high-volatile bituminous coal. Soaking in the presence of electron donors and acceptors proved effective for solubilizing the coal, but temperatures in excess of 200 C were required. More than 70 wt% of the coal was readily extracted with pyridine after soaking. Associative/dissociative equilibria of coal molecules were observed during soaking. From these results, the associated model has gained credibility over the network model as the representative structure of coal. Significant portions of coal molecules are unquestionably physically associated, but the overall extent is not known at this time.

  2. Mobilization of iron from coal fly ash was dependent upon the particle size and the source of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K R; Veranth, J M; Lighty, J S; Aust, A E

    1998-12-01

    Particulate air pollution, including coal fly ash, contains iron, and some of the pathological effects after inhalation may be due to reactive oxygen species produced by iron-catalyzed reactions. The objective of this study was to determine whether iron, present in coal fly ash, was mobilized, leading to ferritin induction in human airway epithelial cells, and whether the size of the particles affected the amount of iron mobilized. Three types of coal were used to generate the three size fractions of fly ash collected. The Utah coal fly ash was generated from a bituminous b coal, the Illinois coal fly ash from a bituminous c coal, and the North Dakota coal fly ash from a lignite a coal. Three size fractions were studied to compare the amount of iron mobilized in human airway epithelial (A549) cells and by citrate in cell-free suspensions. The size fractions selected were fine (airborne particulate matter fraction greater than 10 microm. Coal fly ash samples were incubated with 1 mM citrate to determine if iron associated with coal fly ash could be mobilized. Iron was mobilized by citrate from all three size fractions of all three coal types to levels as high as 56.7 nmol of Fe/mg of coal fly ash after 24 h. With all three coal types, more iron was mobilized by citrate from the fraction than from the >2.5 microm fractions. Further, the mobilized iron was in the Fe(III) form. To determine if iron associated with the coal fly ash could be mobilized by A549 cells, cells were treated with coal fly ash, and the amount of the iron storage protein ferritin was determined after 24 h. Ferritin levels were increased by as much as 11.9-fold in cells treated with coal fly ash. With two of the three types of coal studied, more ferritin was induced in cells treated with the fraction than with the >2.5 microm fractions. Further, inhibition of the endocytosis of the coal fly ash by the cells resulted in ferritin levels that were near that of the untreated cells, suggesting that

  3. Effect of mix parameters on longevity of bituminous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Clayton Matthew

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of varying aggregate sources, aggregate gradations on the stripping and rutting potential of bituminous based plant mixes specified by the Missouri Department of Transportation. The different aggregate combinations included two different aggregate sources (Potosi Dolomite and Jefferson City Dolomite) including two variations for the Jefferson City Dolomite mix to simulate a marginally in-specification mix and an out-of-specification but in-field tolerance mix. The "field" mix simulated the marginal mix where field tolerance of high dust and low binder content were maximized. All three mixes were evaluated for stripping susceptibility using the Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR) test and the Hamburg Wheel Tracking Device (HWTD). The mix characteristics (unit weight, effective binder content, and air voids) were used for a Level 3 analysis in the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) to determine long term pavement distress conditions such as fatigue cracking, rutting, and IRI (smoothness). The Potosi mix exhibited the best resistance to rutting and stripping during both the TSR testing as well as the Hamburg testing. The Jefferson City In-Spec and Out-of-Spec mixes showed less resistance to rutting and stripping in order, respectively. This was expected for the Jefferson City mixes where the aggregate was of lower quality (higher Los Angeles Abrasion, Micro Deval loss, absorption, and deleterious materials). Also, in the case of the Jefferson City Out-of-Spec mix, the binder content was lower. Upon evaluating the mixes using the MEPDG software, it was shown that mix characteristics such as air voids, VMA, and VFA influenced the fatigue cracking, rutting, and IRI predictions to a minor degree.

  4. Studies on the solubilization of German coal by fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiss, J. (Grahamhaus Stadt kg, Bad Kreuznach (Germany))

    1992-09-01

    The capability of seven basidiomycetes (Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta, Pleurotus florida, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, P. eryngii, Stropharia sp.), one ascomycete (Chaetomium globosum) and five hyphomycetes and moulds (Humicola grisea, Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus terreus, Paecilomyces varioti, Papulaspora immersa) to solubilize medium and high volatile bituminous coals (types A and B) as well as four types of lignite B from Germany was tested in surface cultures. The intensity of bioliquefaction was determined by estimating the rate of droplet formation and by measuring the loss of weight of the coal granules gravimetrically. The bituminous coals with a relative high degree of coalification were only moderately converted by Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus florida, P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju. The three species of Pleurotus caused the greatest rate of biosolubilization of lignite, yielding a loss of weight of the coal granules of more than 5.8% with a maximum of 7.6% with P. florida. The non-basidiomycetes proved to be less active with a liquefaction rate of up to 3.5% with Trichoderma viride. In general, the geologically younger lignite coals were more effectively solubilized than the older hard coals. The volatile matter and the oxygen content proved to be the principal factors influencing the intensity of bioconversion.

  5. Injury experience in coal mining, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  6. Injury experience in coal mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, R.B.; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  7. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxclair, E.J. [Destec Energy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Stultz, J. [PSI Energy, Inc., West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  8. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, October--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-01

    A number of the processes for converting coal to gas supported by US DOE have reached the pilot plant stage. Laboratory research is also continuing in order to develop data for verifying the feasibility of the specific process and for supporting the operation of the plant. Responsibility for designing, constructing, and operating these pilot plants is given. The most successful test to date was completed in the pilot plant of the BI-GAS Process. The HYGAS Process pilot plant continued testing with Illinois bituminous coal to acquire data necessary to optimize the design of a commercial demonstration plant using the HYGAS process. The Synthane Process pilot plant continued studies of Illinois No. 6 coal. Other processes discussed are: Agglomerating Burner Process, Liquid Phase Methanation Process, Molten Salt Gasification Process, Advanced Coal Gasification System, and Lo-Btu Gasification of Coal for Electric Power Generation. Each project is described briefly with funding, history, and progress during the quarter. (LTN)

  9. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  10. Effect of hydrothermal treatment of coal on its associative structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui Heng-fu; Wang Zhi-cai; Wang Gao-qiang; Niu Min-feng [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    4 bituminous coals with different ranks were thermally and hydrothermally treated under different conditions, and the raw and treated coals were extracted with carbon disulfide/N-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent (1:1 by volume). It is found that the extraction yields of the thermal or hydrothermal treated coals at proper conditions increase in different extent. The increments of extraction yields for hydrothermal treated coals are higher than those of thermal treated coals. FT-IR shows that the adsorption peaks at 3410 cm{sup -1} attributed to OH group for the hydrothermal treated coals decrease, suggesting the dissociation of the coal aggregation structure due to the breakage of hydrogen bonds, resulting in the increase of extraction yields for the treated coals. For higher rank coal, the removal of minerals and the dissociation of {pi}-cation association after hydrothermal treatment of coal may be responsible for the increase of extraction yield. In addition, the mechanism of hydrothermal treatment of coal was discussed. 15 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Separation and analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons from two Chinese coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Ming-jie; LI Wen-dian; XIE Rui-lun; ZONG Ying; CAI Ke-ying; PENG Yao-li; ZONG Zhi-min; XIE Rui-lun; WEI Xian-yong

    2008-01-01

    Separation and analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) from coals is of considerable significance for both fuel and non-fuel use of the coals. In present work two Chinese bituminous coals were selected for separation of AHs by ultrasonic extraction with CS2 followed by column chromatography using hexane as eluent. A series of AHs were separated from the two coals and analyzed by GC/MS. FTIR was employed to characterize the raw coals and the extracted residues. The results of GC/MS analysis show that the separated AHs are mono- to tetracyclic arenes, among which the principle AHs are alkyl naphthalenes and phenanthrenes. Obvious differences in the composition and the structure of AHs exist between the two coals, i.e., the AHs from Tongting coal tend to be higher rings compared to those from Pingshuo coal both from the variety and from the abundance of the AHs. FFIR analysis shows that the raw and extracted coals are similar in terms of functional groups, suggesting that the composition and structure of CS extract, especially the AHs, from coals can be used to interpret the coal structure to some extent.

  12. Characterization and Classification of Coals and Rocks Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Hu, Ke-xiang; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Xiao; Ding, En-jie

    2016-09-01

    Being the key unaddressed problem in unmanned mining condition, a new method for the coal-rock interface recognition was proposed in the study. Firstly, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was employed to measure 10 kinds of coals/rocks which were common in China. Secondly, the physical properties of coals/rocks such as absorption coefficient spectra, refractive index, and dielectric properties in THz band were studied. The different responses in THz range caused by diverse components in coals/rocks were discussed, and the dielectric property of coals/rocks in THz band was well fitted by the Lorentz model. Finally, by the means of principal component analysis (PCA), support vector machine (SVM), and THz spectral data, the recognition rate of coals/rocks reaches to 100 % and the recognition rate of different bituminous coals reaches to 97.5 %. The experimental results show that the proposed method is fast, stable, and accurate for the detection of coal-rock interface and could be a promising tool for the classification of different bituminous coals.

  13. Investigation on Pulverized Coal Combustion Behavior by Non-Isothermic Integral Thermogravimetry Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Cheng-lin; ZHANG Jian-liang; LIN Xiang-hai; LIU Qin-yuan; WANG Xiao-liu

    2011-01-01

    The combustion process of pulverized coal was investigated by non-isothermic integral thermogravimetry. The thermogravimetry curves were fitted by the Coats-Redferm approximation function, and kinetic parameters and characteristic temperatures were obtained. The optimal mixing ratio and particle size can be ascertained. The characteristic temperature of pulverized coal can be obtained from the thermogravimetry curve, and the combustion of coal can be divided into homogeneous and heterogeneous combustion according to the differential thermal analysis curve. The activation energy of a single type of coal ranking from low to high is as follows: bituminous coal, meager-lean coal, and anthracite. In the first mixing method, with more low-price meager-lean coal B replacing high price anthracite A, the activation energy slightly decreases; with more bituminous coal replacing meager-lean coal, total tendency makes a declining of activation. In the later mixing method, with an increase in particle size, a declining activation energy can be seen in total tendency.

  14. Characterization and Classification of Coals and Rocks Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Hu, Ke-xiang; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Xiao; Ding, En-jie

    2017-02-01

    Being the key unaddressed problem in unmanned mining condition, a new method for the coal-rock interface recognition was proposed in the study. Firstly, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was employed to measure 10 kinds of coals/rocks which were common in China. Secondly, the physical properties of coals/rocks such as absorption coefficient spectra, refractive index, and dielectric properties in THz band were studied. The different responses in THz range caused by diverse components in coals/rocks were discussed, and the dielectric property of coals/rocks in THz band was well fitted by the Lorentz model. Finally, by the means of principal component analysis (PCA), support vector machine (SVM), and THz spectral data, the recognition rate of coals/rocks reaches to 100 % and the recognition rate of different bituminous coals reaches to 97.5 %. The experimental results show that the proposed method is fast, stable, and accurate for the detection of coal-rock interface and could be a promising tool for the classification of different bituminous coals.

  15. Methane adsorption-induced coal swelling measured with an optical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Shuheng; Wan Yi; Duan Lijiang; Xia Zhaohui; Zhang Songhang

    2015-01-01

    In order to quantify the effect of matrix shrinkage on reservoir permeability during coalbed methane production, coal samples from Huozhou, Changzhi and Jincheng areas in Shanxi province (classified as high-volatile bituminous coal, low-volatile bituminous coal and anthracite, respectively) were collected, and adsorption-induced coal swelling in methane were determined by an optical method at 40 ?C and pressure up to 12 MPa. All three coals showed similar behavior-that swelling increased as a function of pressure up to about 10 MPa but thereafter no further increase in swelling was observed. Swelling in the direction perpendicular to the bedding plane is greater than that parallel to the bedding plane, and the differences are about 7.77–8.33%. The maximum volumetric swelling ranges from 2.73% to 3.21%-increasing with increasing coal rank. The swelling data can be described by a modified DR model. In addition, swelling increases with the amount of adsorption. However, the increase shows a relatively slower stage followed by a relatively faster stage instead of a linear increase. Based on the assumption that sorption-induced swelling/shrinkage of coal in methane is reversible, the permeability increases induced by coal shrinkage during methane desorption was analyzed, and the results indicate that the permeability change is larger for higher rank coal in the same unit of pressure depletion.

  16. Going clean : new technology makes coal greener

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, H.

    2007-09-15

    As a widely distributed and reliable resource, coal has played an important role in industrial development. At a cost of less than US $2.00 per GJ, coal will remain a valuable resource as the demand for energy increases. The science of clean coal technology is proven and applications are being formed, particularly in carbon dioxide sequestration. Examples of clean coal technology include oxy-fuel combustion, amine scrubbing and coal gasification. All these approaches produce energy while emitting CO{sub 2} gas that is relatively pure and can be easily captured for storage, thereby preventing emissions to the atmosphere. The Canadian Clean Power Coalition has determined that coal gasification has considerable potential in Canada, particularly since Alberta sits above some of the largest coal and oil reserves in the world. Gasification involves heating up a coal feedstock at high temperatures and pressure, in the presence of water in the form of steam. Synthesis gas and hydrogen are produced in the process. The produced CO{sub 2} is concentrated in a way that makes it relatively easy to capture and sequester in the earth or used to enhance the recovery of oil from depleted oil wells. In addition to coal, there are numerous other carbon-based materials that can be gasified, including bitumens, bitumen residuals or petroleum coke. Studies have shown that Alberta's sub-bituminous coal is an ideal candidate for gasification. There are industries in Alberta that need hydrogen for feedstock, and the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provides a vast storage for pure CO{sub 2}. It was concluded that gasification is the only current technology that will have the ability to significantly reduce the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere from fossil fuels. The greatest challenge is the capital cost of building the coal gasification facilities. 4 figs.

  17. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [For low sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 V olume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  18. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [High sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 Volume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  19. Effective Diffusion Coefficients in Coal Chars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Jensen, Anker

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of effective diffusion coefficients in char particles is important when interpreting experimental reactivity measurements and modeling char combustion or NO and N2O reduction. In this work, NO and N2O reaction with a bituminous coal char was studied in a fixed-bed quartz glass reactor....... The experimental results were compared with theoretical values calculated from the mean pore radius and the cross-linked pore model. The method of mean pore radius underestimated the effective diffusion coefficient more than an order of magnitude. Using the cross-linked pore model, the bimodal pore size...

  20. Characterization of Malaysian coals for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunowara, M.; Bustam, M. A.; Sufian, S.; Eldemerdash, U.

    2016-06-01

    Coal samples from Mukah-Balingian and Merit-Pila coal mines were characterized with ultimate, approximate, petrographic analysis, FT-IR spectra patterns, FESEM images and BET measurements to obtain information on the chemical composition and chemical structure in the samples. Two coal samples were obtained from Merit-Pila coal mine namely sample1 (S1) and sample2 (S2). The other two coal samples were obtained from Mukah-Balingian coal mine namely sample3 (S3) and sample4 (S4), Sarawak, Malaysia. The results of ultimate analysis show that coal S1 has the highest carbon percentage by 54.47%, the highest hydrogen percentage by 10.56% and the lowest sulfur percentage by 0.19% and the coal S4 has the highest moisture content by 31.5%. The coal S1 has the highest fixed carbon percentage by 42.6%. The coal S4 has BET surface area by 2.39 m2/g and Langmuir surface area by 3.0684 m2/g respectively. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis of all coal samples shows a presence of oxygen containing functional groups which considered are as active sites on coal surface. The oxygen functional groups are mainly carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (-CH, -CH2, -CH3), aliphatic (C-O-C stretching associated with -OH), amino (-NH stretching vibrations), (-NH stretching vibrations), aromatic (C=C), vinylic (C=C) and clay minerals. In all FE-SEM images of coal samples matrix, it can be seen that there are luminous and as non luminous features which refer to the existence of various minerals types distributed in the coal organic matrix. The bright luminosity is due to the presence of sodium, potassium or aluminium. According to petrographic analysis, all coal sample samples are range in vitrinite reflectance from 0.38% to 56% (VRr) are sub-bituminous coals.

  1. The results of experimental asbestos research into the washing of bituminized sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agalarov, M.S.; Mangasarova, A.G.; Zhirnov, B.I.

    1981-01-01

    Bituminized sandstone was exposed to washing by its removal at the Kirmak deposits under the operation of ''Leninneft''' of the National Mining Institute, and the National Mining Institutes Umbaki deposits under the operation of ''Karagandaneft'''. Various compositions were employed as washing agents including an oil-water mixture. The composition of bituminus oil is given and the method used in the preparation of the mixture is presented. Research has indicated that the coefficient for washing the bituminized sandstone hinges on the various compositions of the oil-water washing fluid and the types of bitumins when this process is undertaken at temperatures of 291-293 degrees Calvin. At temperatures of 358-363 degrees Calvin, this relationship disappears and the coefficient for washing aproaches one.

  2. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  3. Nature of hydrogen bonding in coal-derived asphaltenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.R.; Li, N.C.

    1978-02-01

    Reports are presented on near-infrared and proton magneti resonance studies of hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl group of o-phenylphenol (OPP) and two coal derived asphaltenes, and their acid and base components. The asphaltenes were prepared from bituminous coal under the same conditions except that one was prepared using a CoMo catalyst. The results of the studies show that the use of the CoMo catalyst leads to a base asphaltene component of lower molecular weight and higher hydrogen-bond acceptor strength.

  4. High-pressure co-gasification of coal with biomass and petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermoso, J.; Arias, B.; Plaza, M.G.; Pevida, C.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Garcia-Pena, F.; Casero, P. [Elcogas S.A. C.T. GICC Puertollano, Carretera Calzada de Calatrava, km 27, 13500 Puertollano, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    The effects of the main operation variables (temperature, pressure and gasifying agent composition) on gas production and other process parameters, such as carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency and high heating value, during the steam-oxygen gasification of a bituminous coal were studied. It was observed that temperature and oxygen concentration were the most influential variables during the gasification process. In addition, co-gasification tests of binary blends of a bituminous coal with different types of biomass (up to 10%) and petroleum coke (up to 60%), as well as ternary blends of coal-petcoke-biomass (45-45-10%) were conducted in order to study the effect of blending on gas production and carbon conversion. (author)

  5. Historical U.S. Residential Coal Use and Female Lung Cancer Mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, Jennifer; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    2001-03-01

    Recent ecological and case-control studies have indicated elevated lung cancer mortality (LCM) associated with bituminous "smoky" coal use in China, but no similar study has been conducted using U.S. populations. Early 20th century U.S. home cooking and heating fuels were examined in relation to age-specific female LCM, focusing on county-level mortality during 1950-54 to reduce potential inter-county confounding due to cigarette smoking among women aged 40* vs. 60* years (among whom 11% vs. 5% ever smoked, respectively). Overall, a significant relationship was found between female LCM and county-level average per capita bituminous coal use with and without adjustment for numerous covariates in counties where ~75% of homes used coal for heating. This positive association was similar in each female age group after adjustment of 190 combinations of variates considered in addition t

  6. Co-combustion of pulverized coal and solid recovered fuel in an entrained flow reactor- General combustion and ash behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Co-combustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF) was carried out in an entrained flow reactor, and the influence of additives such as NaCl, PVC, ammonium sulphate, and kaolinite on co-combustion was investigated. The co-combustion experiments were carried out with SRF shares of 7...... corrosion potential during co-combustion of coal and SRF, except for the experiments with NaCl or PVC addition....

  7. Release of inorganic material during coal devolatilization. Milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    Experimental results presented in this paper indicate that coal devolatilization products convectively remove a fraction of the nonvolatile components of inorganic material atomically dispersed in the coal matrix. Results from three facilities burning six different coals illustrate this mechanism of ash transformation and release from coal particles. Titanium is chosen to illustrate this type of mass release from coal particles on the basis of its low volatility and mode of occurrence in the coal. During moderate rates of devolatilization (10{sup 4} K/s heating rate), no significant loss of titanium is noted. At more rapid rates of heating/devolatilization (10{sup 5} K/s) a consistent but minor (3-4 %) loss of titanium is noted. During rapid devolatilization (5xl0{sup 5} K/s and higher), significant (10-20 %) amounts of titanium leave the coal. The loss of titanium monitored in coals ranging in rank from subbituminous to high-volatile bituminous coals and under conditions typical of pulverized-coal combustion. The amount of titanium lost during devolatilization exhibits a complex rank dependence. These results imply that other atomically dispersed material (alkali and alkaline earth elements) may undergo similar mechanisms of transformation and release.

  8. The German coal market in 2011; Der deutsche Steinkohlenmarkt im Jahr 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Luebke, Roland; Boergel, Thomas [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany); Verschuur, Michael [Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Compared to the previous year the German coal market recorded a slight fall in total consumption by 0.7% to 57.5 mill. coal units. Whereas coking coal and coke consumption of the steel industry clearly increased (+4.3%) due to the boom, sale of power station coals declined considerably in 2011 (-2.5%). However, electricity generation in Germany fell by almost the same amount (-2.2%). Primary energy consumption even declined by a good 5% to its lowest level since 1990 - probably because of the mild weather - and this despite economic growth of 3% in 2011. It must be stated that there was no increase in generation of electricity from bituminous coal following shutdown of eight of the 17 German nuclear power stations in the wake of the events at Fukushima although this was not the case with renewable energy and lignite. The political decisions in 2011 to expedite the energy turning point in Germany also do not suggest a continuous upward trend in the future. Bituminous coal occupied third place in the national energy mix in 2011 both in primary energy consumption and generation of electricity. Within the German coal market imported coal again compensated for the reduced contribution of indigenous coal. The indigenous coal mining industry has continued its politically prescribed decline according to plan. With the Council decision concerning coal subsidies in the EU, which came into force on 1 January 2011, and the deletion of the review clause in the Coal Financing Act approved by the German legislators cessation of the coal production in Germany at the end of 2018 has now become final and irreversible. At the same time the closure plan for the German coal mining industry extending to 2018 was approved by the EU Commission in December 2011. Meanwhile the RAG group is preparing its future after the end of the active mining industry inter alia by the use of available mining infrastructure for forms of renewable energy. (orig.)

  9. Refining the art of coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.

    1993-10-01

    SGI International's Liquids from coal (LFC) Process converts low-rank coals into condensable hydrocarbons, or coal-derived liquid (CDL), a solid product, called process-derived fuels (PDF), non-condensable gases and pyrolysis water. This paper describes the process, which consists of three basic steps (drying, pyrolysis, and finishing or conditioning), the process control system and the characteristics of and markets for the two main coproducts, CDF and PDF. It also describes, the technical feasibility study that SGT International carries out when it wants to determine the applicability of the LFC Process to a particular sub-bituminous or lignite coal. The paper discusses the economics of coal upgrading in general and of the LFC Process in particular. A 1000 short ton-per-day demonstration plant has been completed at the Buckskin Mine in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. The cost of construction (which was completed in late Spring 1992) and the first two years of operation are being partly funded through the USDOE's Clean Coal Technology Program. 9 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION--A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT, PHASE II: ELEMENT MODES OF OCCURRENCE FOR THE OHIO 5/6/7, WYODAK AND NORTH DAKOTA COAL SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan Kolker; Stanley J. Mroczkowski; Curtis A. Palmer; Kristen O. Dennen; Robert B. Finkelman; John H. Bullock Jr.

    2002-05-30

    This study reports on the second phase (Phase II) of USGS research activities in support of DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95101 ''Toxic Substances From Coal Combustion--A Comprehensive Assessment'', funded under DOE Interagency Agreement DE-AI22-95PC95145. The purpose of the study was to provide a quantitative and semi-quantitative characterization of the modes of occurrence of trace elements in coal samples investigated under Phase II, including (1) Ohio 5/6/7, an Ohio bituminous coal sample blended from the No.5, No.6, and No.7 beds; (2) North Dakota, a lignite sample from the Falkirk Mine, Underwood, ND, and (3) Wyodak, a sub-bituminous coal sample from the Cordero Mine, Gillette, WY. Samples from these coal beds were selected for their range in rank and commercial applicability. Results of this research provide basic information on the distribution of elements in Phase II coal samples, information needed for development of a commercial predictive model for trace-element behavior during coal combustion.

  11. Estimating thermodynamic properties of coal, char, tar and ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisermann, W.; Johnson, P. Conger, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Methods of predicting the specific heat, enthalpy, and entropy of coal, char, tar and ash as a function of temperature and material composition are presented. The standard entropy of coal is approximated by comparing the behaviour of the standard entropies of a number of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons as a function of the variables H/(C + N), O/(C + N), N/(C + N), and S/(C + N), where the variables are the atomic fractions of the respective elements. The standard entropy of a bituminous coal was found to be about 20 kJ/kmol carbon K and of the char to be about 10 kJ/kmol carbon K. Estimates of the enthalpy difference between 273 K and temperatures above 273 K deviated from published data by about 8.49% for chars and 8.55% for coals on the average. Maximum deviations of 18.3% and 17.6% respectively were found.

  12. Influence of coal properties on mercury uptake from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J.; Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Miskolc University, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary). Research Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    1999-10-01

    The uptake of mercury (II) from aqueous solution by a range of coals has been studied and the results have been compared to those for a number of other sorbents, including commercial active carbons and cation-exchange resins. At pH 5 in a buffer medium, the capacities for mercury removal of the low-rank coals and the oxidized bituminous coals investigated are comparable to those of the other sorbents tested. For the lignites investigated, a high content of organic sulfur does not markedly affect the capacity for mercury uptake in relatively neutral and low chloride media, owing to redox reactions being the most likely mechanism involved. However, in highly acidic solutions, the capacities for mercury uptake are considerably greater for the high-sulfur coals investigated than for their low-sulfur counterparts due to chelation being the major sorption process involved. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Bueno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance.

  14. Chemomechanics of Damage Accumulation and Damage-Recovery Healing in Bituminous Asphalt Binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauli, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    As a contribution to the development of mutli-scale multi-physics approaches to modelling pavement performance, the present thesis considers the topic of damage accumulation accompanied by damage recover self-healing of the bituminous asphalt phase of pavement systems. It is found insightful that b

  15. 8th RILEM International Symposium on Testing and Characterization of Sustainable and Innovative Bituminous Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Partl, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of RILEM TC 237-SIB (Testing and characterization of sustainable innovative bituminous materials and systems). The papers have been selected for publication after a rigorous peer review process and will be an invaluable source to outline and clarify the main directions of present and future research and standardization for bituminous materials and pavements. The following topics are covered: - Characterization of binder-aggregate interaction - Innovative testing of bituminous binders, additives and modifiers - Durability and aging of asphalt pavements - Mixture design and compaction analysis - Environmentally sustainable materials and technologies - Advances in laboratory characterization of bituminous materials - Modeling of road materials and pavement performance prediction - Field measurement and in-situ characterization - Innovative materials for reinforcement and interlayer systems - Cracking and damage characterization of asphalt pavements - Rec...

  16. Microstructural self-healing of bituminous materials: Combined experimental and numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauli, A.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Kasbergen, C.; Varveri, K.; Scarpas, A.

    2013-01-01

    Bituminous materials form a class of materials that possess the intrinsic ability to selfheal. This self-healing capability is evidenced by the observation that the service life of these materials ‘in the field’ exceeds the service life as predicted by standard mechanical laboratory tests. This mism

  17. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: A synoptic view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronbauer, Marcio A. [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Izquierdo, Maria [School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Dai, Shifeng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Waanders, Frans B. [School of Chemical and Minerals Engineering, North West University (Potchefstroom campus), Potchefstroom 2531 (South Africa); Wagner, Nicola J. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Taffarel, Silvio R.; Bizani, Delmar [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); and others

    2013-07-01

    The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO{sub 3} versus Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates. - Highlights: • Coal waste geochemisty can provide increased environmental information in coal-mining areas. • Oxidation is the major process for mineral transformation in coal ashes. • The electron bean methodology has been applied to investigate neoformed minerals.

  18. Bioassay for estimating the biogenic methane-generating potential of coal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E.J.P.; Voytek, M.A.; Warwick, P.D.; Corum, M.D.; Cohn, A.; Bunnell, J.E.; Clark, A.C.; Orem, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Generation of secondary biogenic methane in coal beds is likely controlled by a combination of factors such as the bioavailability of coal carbon, the presence of a microbial community to convert coal carbon to methane, and an environment supporting microbial growth and methanogenesis. A set of treatments and controls was developed to bioassay the bioavailability of coal for conversion to methane under defined laboratory conditions. Treatments included adding a well-characterized consortium of bacteria and methanogens (enriched from modern wetland sediments) and providing conditions to support endemic microbial activity. The contribution of desorbed methane in the bioassays was determined in treatments with bromoethane sulfonic acid, an inhibitor of microbial methanogenesis. The bioassay compared 16 subbituminous coal samples collected from beds in Texas (TX), Wyoming (WY), and Alaska (AK), and two bituminous coal samples from Pennsylvania (PA). New biogenic methane was observed in several samples of subbituminous coal with the microbial consortium added, but endemic activity was less commonly observed. The highest methane generation [80????mol methane/g coal (56??scf/ton or 1.75??cm3/g)] was from a south TX coal sample that was collected from a non-gas-producing well. Subbituminous coals from the Powder River Basin, WY and North Slope Borough, AK contained more sorbed (original) methane than the TX coal sample and generated 0-23????mol/g (up to 16??scf/ton or 0.5??cm3/g) new biogenic methane in the bioassay. Standard indicators of thermal maturity such as burial depth, nitrogen content, and calorific value did not explain differences in biogenic methane among subbituminous coal samples. No original methane was observed in two bituminous samples from PA, nor was any new methane generated in bioassays of these samples. The bioassay offers a new tool for assessing the potential of coal for biogenic methane generation, and provides a platform for studying the

  19. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical

  20. Coal-water slurry fuel production: Its evolution and current status in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Interest in the US in utilizing bituminous coal in a slurry form has evolved substantially over the last two decades. In the mid-1970`s, technologies to utilize coal-oil mixtures (COMs) as potential fuel oil replacements for utility and industrial boilers were developed as a consequence of escalating world oil prices. To further reduce dependency on imported oil, interest shifted away from COMs to coal-water slurry fuels (CWSFs) because higher solids loadings were obtainable while eliminating the use of oil. Research which focused on the use of CWSF as a potential fuel oil replacement peaked in the mid to late-1980`s as a result of a decline in world oil prices. During the late 1980`s and early 1990`s, coal suppliers and coal-fired utilities began to evaluate the production of CWSF using bituminous coal fines from fine coal cleaning circuits in an effort to reduce dewatering/drying costs. This marked a philosophical change in the driving force behind the utilization of CWSF in the US. In an effort to broaden the supply of coal fines, The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) and the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) surveyed a series of fine coal impoundments in western Pennsylvania to determine the quality, cleanability, and slurryability of the coal fines contained therein. The development and commercialization of recovery technologies, cleaning techniques, and CWSF reentrainment circuits, coupled with an interest by utilities to utilize low-cost fuels, has fostered the recovery of impounded coal fines. In addition to the fine coal impoundments, fine coal cleaning circuits which actively dispose of process water having suspended coal fines (e.g. centrifuge effluent) are being examined to determine if the fines can be recovered and thickened into a low solids CWSF. The paper describes required physical and chemical properties of a CWSF for boiler applications. There is a growing awareness that CWSF is a fuel form that can be cofired with coal. The

  1. Mercury in coal. A review. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudovich, Ya. E.; Ketris, M.P. [Institute of Geology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Morozova St., 100, ap. 49, 167023 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2005-05-11

    This is the first of two papers that review approximately 200 publications on mercury (Hg) in coal; topics reviewed in this paper include: (a) analytical and historical introduction; (b) some peculiarities of Hg environmental geochemistry; (c) estimation of the Hg coal Clarke value; (d) occurrence of high-Hg coals; (e) mode of Hg occurrence in coal; (f) factors influencing the distribution of Hg in coal; and (g) origins of Hg in coal. Aspects of the environmental impact of Hg due to coal combustion and coking are noted throughout the review, and are more fully examined in second and final paper of this review. The Clarke value for Hg in coal (world-wide average Hg content) is 0.10 (+/-0.01) ppm Hg, regardless of coal rank. However, if the Hg content is expressed on an ash basis, bituminous rank coals average 0.87 (+/-0.08 ppm) Hg, and lower rank coals average 0.62 (+/-0.06) ppm. In general, Hg is a very 'coalphile' element; that is, it has a strong affinity for organic and inorganic coal matter, but is obligatory authigenic. There are some coals that are enriched in Hg by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above the Clarke value. Such coals are located in the Donbas (Ukraine), Appalachian basin and Texas (USA), Russian Far East, and Southern China. Mercury in these coals is usually accompanied by other chalcophile trace elements. In low-sulfur coals, which are generally poor in Hg, only two Hg sites dominate: Hg{sub org} and Hg{sub sulfide} (commonly pyritic mercury, Hg{sub pyr}). High-sulfur coals usually contain higher amounts of Hg, which is typically in the Hg{sub pyr} form. In the unique Hg-enriched Donbas coals, both HgS and metallic mercury (Hg{sup o}) also occur. Because of the extremely strong affinity of Hg{sup 2+} for humic matter, it is theoretically possible for syngenetic (or early epigenetic) Hg to accumulate in peats and lignites. Indeed, the amount of Hg in some tropic and moderate zone peats is greater than or equal to the Hg content of typical

  2. Refining and end use study of coal liquids II - linear programming analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, C.; Tam, S.

    1995-12-31

    A DOE-funded study is underway to determine the optimum refinery processing schemes for producing transportation fuels that will meet CAAA regulations from direct and indirect coal liquids. The study consists of three major parts: pilot plant testing of critical upgrading processes, linear programming analysis of different processing schemes, and engine emission testing of final products. Currently, fractions of a direct coal liquid produced form bituminous coal are being tested in sequence of pilot plant upgrading processes. This work is discussed in a separate paper. The linear programming model, which is the subject of this paper, has been completed for the petroleum refinery and is being modified to handle coal liquids based on the pilot plant test results. Preliminary coal liquid evaluation studies indicate that, if a refinery expansion scenario is adopted, then the marginal value of the coal liquid (over the base petroleum crude) is $3-4/bbl.

  3. Improving performance of direct coal liquefaction through swelling with solvent under the radiation of ultrasonic wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Xian-zhi; LI Ke-jian; WANG Li

    2004-01-01

    Three kinds of lower rank bituminous coals from Yanzhou mine and Tengxian mine from Shandong Province were treated and hydrogenated in the study. The test results show that the performance of hydrogenation liquefaction of the pretreated coals is improved markedly. Under the test condition of H2 initial pressure 8.2 MPa, addition of the oil yield of pretreated YZ1 coal is 69.76% compared with 62.53% of oil yield of untreated YZ1. Seminally the oil yield of pretreated YZ2 coal is 55.43% compared with20.88% of untreated YZ2 coal. The results of tests also prove that the improving degree of hydrogenation liquefaction of the pretreated coals is related with radiation duration when the radiation frequency and radiation power of ultrasonic wave are fixed.

  4. Interaction between biomass and different rank coals during co-pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Effects of biomass on the pyrolytic decomposition of different rank coals were investigated by non-isothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) method from ambient to 900 C with a heating rate of 40 C/min under nitrogen. Hazelnut shell (HS) which is a woody biomass species was added as much as 10 wt% to coals such as peat, lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite to obtain coal/biomass blends for co-pyrolysis runs. Effects of HS present in the blends were evaluated regarding the apparent decomposition rates and the char yields. It was found that the addition of thermally reactive HS led to some increases in the volatilization rates of coals especially at temperatures below 500 C. Besides, the char yields revealed unexpected variations in case of low rank coals. Although, HS addition did not play significant role on the char yields of bituminous coal and anthracite, considerable deviations from the theoretical char yields were detected in the case of peat and lignites. The presence of HS led to increasing char weight for peat, while the char weights for lignites decreased seriously. These variations were interpreted, and it can be concluded that these variations cannot be explained by simple additive behavior, and the existence of synergistic interactions should be taken into account. (author)

  5. Emission factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from domestic coal combustion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chunmei; Chen, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoyang; Ren, Lihong; Yin, Baohui; Liu, Xiaoyu; Bai, Zhipeng

    2014-01-01

    Domestic coal stove is widely used in China, especially for countryside during heating period of winter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important in flue gas of the stove. By using dilution tunnel system, samples of both gaseous and particulate phases from domestic coal combustion were collected and 18 PAH species were analyzed by GC-MS. The average emission factors of total 18 PAH species was 171.73 mg/kg, ranging from 140.75 to 229.11 mg/kg for bituminous coals, while was 93.98 mg/kg, ranging from 58.48 to 129.47 mg/kg for anthracite coals. PAHs in gaseous phases occupied 95% of the total of PAHs emission of coal combustion. In particulate phase, 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs were the main components, accounting for 80% of the total particulate PAHs. The total toxicity potency evaluated by benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent carcinogenic power, sum of 7 carcinogenic PAH components and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin had a similar tendency. And as a result, the toxic potential of bituminous coal was higher than that of anthracite coal. Efficient emission control should be conducted to reduce PAH emissions in order to protect ecosystem and human health.

  6. A case study of PFBC for low rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, S.A. [ABB Carbon AB, Finspong (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Pressurized Fluidized Combined-Cycle (PFBC) technology allows the efficient and environmentally friendly utilization of solid fuels for power and combined heat and power generation. With current PFBC technology, thermal efficiencies near 46%, on an LHV basis and with low condenser pressures, can be reached in condensing power plants. Further efficiency improvements to 50% or more are possible. PFBC plants are characterized by high thermal efficiency, compactness, and extremely good environmental performance. The PFBC plants which are now in operation in Sweden, the U.S. and Japan burn medium-ash, bituminous coal with sulfur contents ranging from 0.7 to 4%. A sub- bituminous {open_quotes}black lignite{close_quotes} with high levels of sulfur, ash and humidity, is used as fuel in a demonstration PFBC plant in Spain. Project discussions are underway, among others in Central and Eastern Europe, for the construction of PFBC plants which will burn lignite, oil-shale and also mixtures of coal and biomass with high efficiency and extremely low emissions. This paper will provide information about the performance data for PFBC plants when operating on a range of low grade coals and other solid fuels, and will summarize other advantages of this leading new clean coal technology.

  7. Comparative study of the influence of minerals in gas sorption isotherms of three coals of similar rank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, C.; Inheiro, H.J.; de Sousa, M.J.L. [University of Fernando Pessoa, Porto (Portugal)

    2008-07-15

    This investigation compares the gas adsorption behaviour and capacity of three bituminous coals from South Africa, of similar rank, by assessing the characteristics of the raw coal, as well as the resulting float and sink fractions (at 1.80 cm{sup 3}/g) obtained by density separation of crushed coal samples. Calculations were also made to obtain the raw coal gas storage capacity from the weighted contribution of both float and sink fractions results, thereby permitting comparison with the analysed results of the raw coal. The study demonstrated that the clean fraction of a coal has the highest capacity to retain gas in the sorbed state, followed by raw coal, and lastly the sink fraction, and re-confirmed previous investigations that showed minerals to be inhibitors of gas adsorption and retention.

  8. Combustion studies of coal-derived solid fuels. Part IV. Correlation of ignition temperatures from thermogravimetry and free-floating experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of TG as an efficient and practical method to characterize the combustion properties of fuels used in large-scale combustors is of considerable interest. Relative ignition temperatures of a lignite, an anthracite, a bituminous coal and three chars derived from this coal were measured by a free-floating technique. These temperatures were correlated with those estimated from TG burning profiles of the fuels. ?? 1992.

  9. Physicochemical Characterization and Thermal Decomposition of Garin Maiganga Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyakuma Bemgba Bevan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the newly discovered Garin Maiganga (GMG coal from Nigeria. The physicochemical characterization comprised of elemental, proximate, calorific value, and classification (rank analyses. Thermal analysis was examined using combined Thermogravimetric (TG and Derivative Thermogravimetric analyses (DTG. Hence, the coal was heated from 30°C to 1000°C at 20°C/min under inert conditions to examine its thermal degradation behaviour and temperature profile characteristics (TPC. The results indicated that the GMG coal fuel properties consist of low Ash, Nitrogen, and Sulphur content. Moisture content was > 5%, Volatile Matter > 50%, Fixed Carbon > 22%, and Heating Value (HHV 23.74 MJ/kg. Based on its fuel properties, the GMG coal can be classified as a Sub-Bituminous B, non-agglomerating low rank coal (LRC. The GMG coal TPCs – onset, peak, and offset temperatures – were 382.70°C, 454.60°C, and 527.80°C, respectively. The DTG profile revealed four (4 endothermic peaks corresponding to loss of moisture (drying, volatile matter (devolatization, and coke formation. The residual mass Rm was 50.16%, which indicates that higher temperatures above 1000°C are required for the complete pyrolytic decomposition of the GMG coal. In conclusion, the results indicate that the GMG coal is potentially suitable for future utilization in electric power generation and the manufacture of cement and steel.

  10. Final Safety Assessment of Coal Tar as Used in Cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant-antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users.

  11. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  12. Geochemical investigation of the potential for mobilizing non-methane hydrocarbons during carbon dioxide storage in deep coal beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, J.J.; Burruss, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Coal samples of different rank (lignite to anthracite) were extracted in the laboratory with supercritical CO2 (40 ??C; 10 MPa) to evaluate the potential for mobilizing non-methane hydrocarbons during CO2 storage (sequestration) or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from deep (???1-km depth) coal beds. The total measured alkane concentrations mobilized from the coal samples ranged from 3.0 to 64 g tonne-1 of dry coal. The highest alkane concentration was measured in the lignite sample extract; the lowest was measured in the anthracite sample extract. Substantial concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also mobilized from these samples: 3.1 - 91 g tonne-1 of dry coal. The greatest amounts of PAHs were mobilized from the high-volatile bituminous coal samples. The distributions of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons mobilized from the coal samples also varied with rank. In general, these variations mimicked the chemical changes that occur with increasing degrees of coalification and thermal maturation. For example, the amount of PAHs mobilized from coal samples paralleled the general trend of bitumen formation with increasing coal rank. The coal samples yielded hydrocarbons during consecutive extractions with supercritical CO2, although the amount of hydrocarbons mobilized declined with each successive extraction. These results demonstrate that the potential for supercritical CO2 to mobilize non-methane hydrocarbons from coal beds, and the effect of coal rank on this process, are important to consider when evaluating deep coal beds for CO2 storage.

  13. Transformism in Alberta: The Environmental Political Economy of the Bituminous Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Rosene, Ryan

    This thesis attempts to help establish environmental political economy as a viable academic field while providing an example of work in the discipline. It offers an analysis of societal processes resulting in the co-optation and/or neutralization of critical environmentalist ideas. Using Alberta's bituminous sands as a case study, and a Gramsci-influenced eco-Marxist theory as a foundation, the thesis argues that the term 'environmental transformism' (inspired by the Gramscian term trasformismo) is helpful in describing and framing such processes. Accordingly, the ensuing chapters provide an analysis of why environmental transformism is happening in Alberta, and demonstrate how this mechanism works at protecting the status quo from threatening ideologies, thereby consolidating neoliberal capitalism. A concluding argument discusses the inherent dangers posed to society by the transformism of certain environmental subjectivities. The thesis begins by introducing the contentious social and environmental issues surrounding the development of the bituminous sands.

  14. Study on the influence of electromagnetic field on the property of coal combustion burnout in circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Y. [Ruiping Coal and Electric Power Ltd. Co., Ruzhou (China)

    2008-08-15

    To study the influences of electromagnetism field pretreatment of pulverized Coal (EFPPC) on the properties of its combustion, thermogravimetric analysis, a Muffle furnace experiment and an X-ray diffraction experiment were carried out for three Coal banks. It was shown that EFPPC will induce the molecular structure of Coal to change into amorphous carbon, which causes an increase in the rate of oxygen absorption during the initial stages of Coal burning and reaction activity. It is also shown that the residual carbon of bituminous Coal would be increased by about 0.33% - 0.41%, i.e, the loss of standard Coal is about 3,000 t/a for double 480 t/h boilers, when applying EFPPC for 1 min at a temperature of 800 - 1,000 {sup o}C. When the temperature increases 200 {sup o}C, the residual carbon increases by about 2.07% but the effect of EFPPC is less than 0.21% for bituminous Coal and residual carbon is about 1.47% and the effect of EFPPC is less than 0.05% for lean Coal. Therefore the effect of increasing the temperature of EFPPC on residual carbon is less than that of increasing the time of EFPPC. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Characteristics of the gasoline fraction obtained by thermodestruction of bituminous oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleyev, A.M.; Margulis, B.Y.; Martynov, A.A.; Vigdergauz, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    A chromatographic evaluation of the 35-95/sup 0/C gasoline fraction obtained by thermal decomposition of bituminous oil was carried out. The initial analysis involving liquid chromatography in conjunction with fluorescent indicator spectra pointed to the presence of aromatic, olefinic, and paraffin fractions, which were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography. The final results indicated that thermal destruction by means of a gas generator yields products similar to those obtained by oxidative cracking.

  16. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Dipankar Sarkar; Manish Pal; Sarkar, Ashoke K.

    2016-01-01

    There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46...

  17. Parameters which Affect the Stiffness of Bitumen and Bituminous Hot Mixes

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with bitumen and bituminous mixes, using suitable mathematical models that take into account the parameters affecting their elastic and plastic stiffnesses. These parameters are stress level and acting time, penetration index, softening time and temperature. Viscosity and the total acting time of the load affect the elastic stiffness of bitumen. The elastic stiffness of bitumen and the voluminous concentration of the aggregate influence the elastic stiffness of th...

  18. Sphagnum Moss in the Athabasca Bituminous Sands Region Reveals No Significant Atmospheric Contamination by "Heavy Metals"

    OpenAIRE

    SHOTYK W.; BELLAND Rene; DUKE John; KEMPTER Heike; KRACHLER MICHAEL; NOERNBERG Tommy; VILE Melanie; WIEDER Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2014-01-01

    Sphagnum moss were collected from three sites at each of twenty-one ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs in the vicinity of and surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca Bituminous Sands in Alberta. Compared with contemporary Sphagnum moss from multiple sites at each of four bogs in rural locations of southern Germany, the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb and Tl, similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th and V. ...

  19. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  20. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  1. A fiber-reinforced composite structure for the repair of thermally cracked bituminous pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzen, Jeffrey Alan

    1998-10-01

    The apparatus under development in this project is a structural component or beam fabricated from a fiber reinforced plastic composite (FRPC). The FRPC beam is a structural repair component intended to bridge a deteriorated thermal crack in full depth bituminous pavements or partial depth bituminous pavements over portland cement concrete. The bridging action provided by the FRPC beam is intended to minimize roughness through the repaired area for up to five years, eliminate reappearance of the deteriorated crack, and provide a controlled expansion crack that can be treated with standard sealing techniques. This apparatus is designed for maintenance use as a field expedient, semi-permanent repair using tools that are commonly available at the Area Maintenance level. Three FRPC beams were constructed for field trial in a thermally cracked, full depth bituminous pavement on US-36 east of Hiawatha, Kansas. Each of the beams were instrumented with bonded metal foil strain gages and field installation by KDOT Maintenance forces was done in August and September of 1997. The FRPC beams have been evaluated since installation and this evaluation will continue for up to five years. Evaluation of the beams has been accomplished through static load tests using the strain gage instrumentation and Falling Weight Deflectometer measurements. The FRPC beams have performed satisfactorily as of the date of writing.

  2. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lili [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Schobert, Harold H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

  3. Activities of the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreszer, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze was established in 1955. The works on carbochemical technologies have been, therefore, carried out at the Institute for 40 years. The targets of the Institute`s activities are research, scientific and developing works regarding a sensible utilization of fuels via their processing into more refined forms, safe environment, highly efficient use of energy carriers and technological products of special quality. The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal has been dealing with the following: optimized use of home hard coals; improvement of classic coal coking technologies, processing and utilization of volatile coking products; production technologies of low emission rate fuels for communal management; analyses of coal processing technologies; new technologies aimed at increasing the efficiency of coal utilization for energy-generating purposes, especially in industry and studies on the ecological aspects of these processes; production technologies of sorbents and carbon activating agents and technologies of the utilization; rationalization of water and wastes management in the metallurgical and chemical industries in connection with removal of pollution especially dangerous to the environment from wastes; utilization technologies of refined materials (electrode cokes, binders, impregnating agents) for making electrodes, refractories and new generation construction carbon materials; production technologies of high quality bituminous and bituminous and resin coating, anti-corrosive and insulation materials; environmentally friendly utilization technologies for power station, mine and other wastes, and dedusting processes in industrial gas streams.

  4. Coals as sorbents for the removal and reduction of hexavalent chromium from aqueous waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J.; Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [University of Miskolc, Miskolc (Hungary). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the potential of coals as a low-cost reactive barrier material for environmental protection applications, with the ability to prevent leaching of toxic Cr(VI) and other transition metals. Depending upon the type of ion and the surface functionalities, the uptake can involve ion sorption, ion exchange, chelation and redox mechanisms with the surface functionalities being considered as partners in electron transfer processes. The capacity for Cr(VI) uptake of low rank coals and oxidized bituminous coals has been found to lie within the range 02-0.6 mM g{sup -1}. Air oxidation of bituminous coals can increase their Cr(VI) removal capacities. The effect of air oxidation of coals on uptake capacity was more pronounced for Cr(VI) than Cr(III) but less than for Hg(II) and the other ions (Ca{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2}) investigated. As previously found for Hg(II), redox mechanisms plays an important role in Cr(VI) uptake, with resultant Cr(III) is exchanged back into solution by hydrogen ions, but some of the sorbed chromium is irreversibly bound to the coal. The reduction of Cr(VI) alone is often considered a satisfactory solution in view of Cr(III) being essentially nontoxic. 56 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Proceedings of the third annual underground coal conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Annual Underground Coal Conversion Symposium was held at Fallen Leaf Lake, CA, June 6--9, 1977. It was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and hosted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Forty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; ten papers had been entered previously from other sources. The papers cover the in-situ gasification of lignite, subbituminous coal and bituminous coal, in flat lying seams and a steeply dipping beds, at moderate and at greater depths, and describe various technologies of (borehole linking, well spacings, gasifying agents (air, oxygen, steam, hydrogen, including mixtures). Measuring instruments for diagnostic and process control purposes are described. Environmental impacts (ground subsidence and possible groundwater pollution) are the subject of several papers. Finally, mathematical modelling and projected economics of the process are developed. (LTN)

  6. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combinations and co-firing ratios, using a system model and numerical simulation. The results indicate that plant energy efficiency decreases with increase of biomass proportion in the fuel mixture, and that the extent of the decrease depends on specific properties of the coal and biomass types.

  7. A short report of the investigations made on the facies of German coal deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmer, Janet [An den Rothen 96, D-97080 Wurzburg (Germany)

    2004-04-23

    In 1996, Commission II of the ICCP set up a coal facies working group. The first step was to collate literature on coal facies analysis for different countries. This report provides an overview on the investigations made on the facies interpretations of German coal deposits over the last 50 years with an emphasis on Tertiary coals. It outlines the major deposits present in Germany and gives the main facies interpretations of coals of lignite and bituminous rank. Furthermore, it points out that there lies a certain ambiguity in the interpretation of specific maceral associations, which could confuse facies analyses without the support of interdisciplinary studies and thus suggests that the working group should address this point for future work.

  8. [Emission factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential coal combustion and its influence factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Ting-Ting; Chen, Ying-Jun; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chong-Guo; Lin, Tian

    2013-07-01

    As the emission source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), domestic coal combustion has attracted increasing attention in China. According to the coal maturity, combustion form and stove type associated with domestic coal combustion, a large-size, full-flow dilution tunnel and fractional sampling system was employed to collect the emissions from five coals with various maturities, which were burned in the form of raw-coal-chunk (RCC)/honeycomb-coal-briquettes (HCB) in different residential stoves, and then the emission factors of PAHs (EF(PAHs)) were achieved. The results indicate that the EF(PAHs) of bituminous coal ranged from 1.1 mg x kg(-1) to 3.9 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 2.5 mg x kg(-1) to 21. 1 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, and the anthracite EF(PAH8) were 0.2 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 0.6 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, respectively. Among all the influence factors of emission factors of PAHs from domestic coal combustion, the maturity of coal played a major role, the range of variance reaching 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in coals with different maturity. Followed by the form of combustion (RCC/HCB), the EF(PAHs) of HCB was 2-6 times higher than that of RCC for the same geological maturity of the coal. The type of stove had little influence on EF(PAHs).

  9. Current status of U.S. coal utilization and non-fuel uses of fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.S.; Schobert, H.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An understanding of the current situation is important for projecting the future direction of coal utilization. The world`s annual consumption of coal in 1995 was 5104.01 million short tons (MST, 1 short ton = 0.907 metric ton). Coal plays a very important role in the US energy supply; US coal production in 1995 totaled 1033 MST, including 611.1 MST of bituminous coal, 328.4 MST of subbituminous coal, 86.1 MST of lignite, and 4.1 MST of anthracite. US coal consumption totaled 940.6 MST, with 88.1% in electric utilities, 3.5% in coke plants, 7.8% for other industrial uses, and only 0.6% in the residential and commercial sectors. The amount of fossil resources used for non-fuel purposes accounted for 8.4% of the total annual consumption in 1995. Non-fuel uses of fossil fuels particularly coal may become more important in the future. The demonstrated coal reserves in the world are large enough for consumption for over 220 years at the 1995 level, while proven oil reserves are only about 40 times the world`s 1995 consumption level. Coal has several positive attributes when considered as a feedstock for aromatic chemicals, specialty chemicals, and carbon-based materials. Existing nonfuel uses of coals include (1) high temperature carbonization of bituminous and subbituminous coals to make metallurgical coke; (2) gasification of coal to make synthesis gases and other chemicals; (3) use of coal in manufacturing other materials such as activated carbons, carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and production of phosphorus (phosphoric acid); (4) the use of coal tars from carbonization and gasification for making aromatic and phenolic chemicals; (5) the use of coal tar pitch for making carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers; and (6) other non-fuel products derived from coal including combustion by-products. Coal may become more important both as an energy source and as the source of chemical feedstocks in the 21st century.

  10. Using ground and intact coal Samples to evaluate hydrocarbon fate during supercritical CO2 injection into coal beds: effects of particle size and coal moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jon; Hackley, Paul C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Warwick, Peter D.; Burruss, Robert

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the potential for mobilizing organic compounds from coal beds during geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage (sequestration), a series of solvent extractions using dichloromethane (DCM) and using supercritical CO2 (40 °C and 10 MPa) were conducted on a set of coal samples collected from Louisiana and Ohio. The coal samples studied range in rank from lignite A to high volatile A bituminous, and were characterized using proximate, ultimate, organic petrography, and sorption isotherm analyses. Sorption isotherm analyses of gaseous CO2 and methane show a general increase in gas storage capacity with coal rank, consistent with findings from previous studies. In the solvent extractions, both dry, ground coal samples and moist, intact core plug samples were used to evaluate effects of variations in particle size and moisture content. Samples were spiked with perdeuterated surrogate compounds prior to extraction, and extracts were analyzed via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The DCM extracts generally contained the highest concentrations of organic compounds, indicating the existence of additional hydrocarbons within the coal matrix that were not mobilized during supercritical CO2 extractions. Concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic compounds measured in supercritical CO2 extracts of core plug samples generally are lower than concentrations in corresponding extracts of dry, ground coal samples, due to differences in particle size and moisture content. Changes in the amount of extracted compounds and in surrogate recovery measured during consecutive supercritical CO2extractions of core plug samples appear to reflect the transition from a water-wet to a CO2-wet system. Changes in coal core plug mass during supercritical CO2 extraction range from 3.4% to 14%, indicating that a substantial portion of coal moisture is retained in the low-rank coal samples. Moisture retention within core plug samples, especially in low-rank coals, appears to inhibit

  11. Development and evaluation of highly-loaded coal slurries. Phase I summary report, October 15, 1977-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffee, R.S.

    1979-05-01

    Slurry fuels comprised of either bituminous, subbituminous, or lignite coal, and either aqeuous media or emulsions of No. 6 oil in water as the carrier were developed and evaluated at solids loadings up to 70% by weight. Emphasis was placed on aqueous slurries of bituminous coal. These slurries were developed for use in place of No. 6 oil in oil-fired burners. High solids loadings were attained by use of bimodal particle size distributions, which are blends of coarse-grind coal (approx. 50 to 85% -50 mesh) and fine-grind coal (generally 90% -200 mesh). The effect of the blends on slurry viscosity was determined to find the blends that minimize viscosity. The effect of mill conditions on particle size distribution was determined for each coal, using a hammermill pulverizer. A large number of water-soluble resins were evaluated for effect on slurry stability and viscosity. The best of these was found to be hydroxypropylated corn starch. Slurries based on the use of 3% solutions of the starch in water were prepared with up to 70% by weight bituminous coal and up to 65% subbituminous coal. The slurries are pourable pseudo-plastic fluids having room-temperature viscosities in the range of 550 to 1100 cp at a shear rate of 3000 sec/sup -1/, depending on the type of coal, solids loading, and particle size distribution. None of the slurries exhibited hard pack settling, even after room-temperature storage up to 74 days. Oil-in-water emulsions made with polyethylene glycol (23) lauryl ether as an emulsifier were found to be stable with respect to phase separation when stored at 160/sup 0/F. Slurries made with these emulsions do not exhibit hard pack settling after one week storage at 160/sup 0/F.

  12. Inorganic chemistry, petrography and palaeobotany of Permian coals in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdgate, G.R. [School of Earth Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia); McLoughlin, S. [School of Natural Resource Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Drinnan, A.N. [School of Botany, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia); Finkelman, R.B.; Willett, J.C.; Chiehowsky, L.A. [U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 956, Reston, VA 20092 (United States)

    2005-07-20

    Sampled outcrops of Permian coal seams of the Bainmedart Coal Measures in the Lambert Graben, eastern Antarctica, have been analysed for their proximates, ultimates, ash constituents and trace elements. A similar series of samples has been analysed for their principle maceral and microlithotype components and vitrinite reflectance. The coals are sub-bituminous to high volatile bituminous in rank; maturity increases markedly in southern exposures around Radok Lake where the oldest part of the succession is exposed and some strata have been intruded by mafic dykes and ultramafic sills. The coal ash is mostly silica and aluminium oxides, indicating that the mineral ash component is mostly quartz and various clay minerals. The ratio of silica to aluminium oxides appears to increase in an upward stratigraphic direction. The coal macerals include a relatively high liptinite content (mainly sporinite) that is significantly higher than for typical Gondwana coals. Greater degrees of weathering within the floodbasin/peat mire environments associated with climatic drying towards the end of the Permian might account for both preferential sporopollenin preservation and increased silica:aluminium oxide ratios up-section. Correlation of the coal maceral components to adjacent peninsula India coals indicates the closest comparative coals of similar age and rank occur within the Godavari Basin, rather then the Mahanadi Basin, which is traditionally interpreted to have been contiguous with the Lambert Graben before Gondwanan breakup. The petrological characteristics suggest that either previous interpretations of Palaeozoic basin alignments between Antarctica and India are incorrect, or that environmental settings and post-Permian burial histories of these basins were strongly independent of their tectonic juxtaposition. A permineralized peat bed within the succession reveals that the coals predominantly comprise wood- and leaf-rich debris derived from low-diversity forest

  13. Proximate analysis of coal and solid products from coal conversion by thermogravimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacchelli, A.; Selucky, M.

    1983-01-01

    Proximate analysis of coals consists of the determination of moisture, volatile matter, ash and fixed carbon in a sample. This report shows that this analysis can be accomplished using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) as a procedure which can simulate all conditions involved. The influence of various variables, such as sample size, purge gas flow rate, temperature program and coal rank have been studied using coal samples ranging in rank from low volatile bituminous coals to lignites. The TGA procedure practically eliminates sample contact with ambient air and reduces sample handling to detemining (automatically) its original weight before the start of the analysis. The whole proximate analysis is essentially a one-step procedure. The use of oxygen after volatile matter removal allows direct burning of fixed carbon as a direct determination of its weight. The method is fast and well repeatable and is recommended as a semiroutine procedure, especially for very small samples from minibomb experiments, or where additional information on the course of sample devolatilization is of interest, such as in the analysis of pyridine and toluene extracts and the various insoluble materials form coal conversion experiments. 7 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Slagging in a pulverised-coal-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devir, G.P.; Pohl, J.H.; Creelman, R.A. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a technique to evaluate the severity of slagging of a coal in a pulverised-coal-fired boiler. There are few data in the literature on the nature of in-situ boiler slags, their rate of growth and/or their strength properties relevant to sootblowing. The latter is thought to be of more concern to boiler operators and gives rise to the significance of selecting suitable strength tests. As well as standardised methods for characterising pulverised coal performance in a boiler, several novel and less popular techniques are discussed in detail. A suite of three sub-bituminous coals from the Callide Coalfields, Biloela (600 km north of Brisbane), has been selected for slagging tests in the 350 MW{sub e} units of Callide 'B' power station. Disposable air-cooled mild steel slagging probes have been constructed to simulate the conditions for deposit formation in the boiler region. To date, tests for one of these coals has been completed and preliminary results are presented. Once testing for the remaining coals has been completed, it is anticipated that the differences exhibited in deposit growth and strength may be correlated with typical variations in physical and chemical properties of the pulverised coal.

  15. Comparison of hydrocarbon gases (C{sub 1}-C{sub 5}) production from Carboniferous Donets (Ukraine) and Cretaceous Sabinas (Mexico) coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsaab, D.; Elie, M.; Izart, A.; Martinez, L. [G2R, Nancy - Universite, CNRS, CREGU, BP-239, 54506 Vandoeuvres-les-Nancy (France); Sachsenhofer, R.F. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Strasse 5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Privalov, V.A. [Donetsk National Technical University, Artem str., 58, UA-83000 Donetsk (Ukraine); Suarez-Ruiz, I. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon - (INCAR) - CSIC. Ap.Co., 73, 33080-Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-04-03

    The main purpose of this contribution is to compare the ability of Carboniferous coals from the Donets Basin of the Ukraine and Cretaceous coal from the Sabinas Basin of the Mexico to generate hydrocarbon gases (C{sub 1}-C{sub 5}). Two bituminous coals from the Donets Basin (2c10YD and 1l1Dim; 0.55 and 0.65%R{sub r} respectively) and one bituminous coal from the Sabinas Basin (Olmos, 0.92%R{sub r}) were studied using heating experiments in a confined-pyrolysis system. The highest rank reached during the heating experiments corresponds to the anthracite stage (2.78 and 2.57%R{sub r}) for the 2c10YD and 1l1Dim coals and (2.65%R{sub r}) for the Olmos coal. The composition of the generated (C{sub 1}-C{sub 5}) gases was evaluated using a thermodesorption-multidimensional gas chromatography. The results show that the Carboniferous Donets coals produced more wet gas and methane during pyrolysis than the Cretaceous Olmos coal. This is probably due to their higher liptinite (6-20%) and collodetrinite content and to the loss of a major part of the petroleum potential of the Olmos coal during natural coalification. C{sub 2}-C{sub 5} compounds are mainly derived from the cracking of liquid hydrocarbons. Ethane is the most stable compound and formed from the cracking of higher hydrocarbon component. Large amounts of methane (up to 81 mg/g coal for the Donets coals and 50 mg/g coal for the Sabinas coal) were formed at high temperatures by cracking of previously formed heavier hydrocarbons and by dealkylation of the coal matrix. A linear relationship was observed between methane generation and the maturity level of both coal types. (author)

  16. Enteric virus removal inactivation by coal-based media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.; Chaudhuri, M. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-02-01

    Four coal-based media, viz. alum-pretreated or ferric hydroxide-impregnated Giridih bituminous coal and lignite (alum-GBC, Fe-GBC; alum-lignite and Fe-Lignite) were laboratory tested to assess their potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses in water. Batch-sorption screening tests, employing a poliovirus-spiked canal water, indicated high poliovirus sorption by Fe-GBC and alum-GBC in a short contact time of 5 min. Based on the results of further batch-sorption tests, using silver incorporated media (alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC-Ag and Fe-GBC-Ag), as well as aesthetic water quality consideration and previous findings on removal of coliforms and turbidity, alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC and alum-GBC-AG were included in downflow column studies employing poliovirus-spiked canal water. All three media showed potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses. In a separate column study employing a joint challenge of poliovirus and rotavirus, alum/Ag-GBC removed 59.3-86.5% of the viruses along with more than 99% reduction in indigenous heterotrophic bacteria. Alum/silver-pretreated bituminous coal medium appears promising for use in household water filters in rural areas of the developing world. However, improved medium preparation to further enhance its efficiency is needed; also, its efficacy in removing/inactivating indigenous enteric bacteria, viruses and protozoa has to be ensured and practicalities or economics of application need to be considered.

  17. Co-pyrolysis of coal with organic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straka, P.; Buchtele, J. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The co-pyrolysis of high volatile A bituminous coal with solid organic materials (proteins, cellulose, polyisoprene, polystyrene, polyethylene-glycolterephtalate-PEGT) at a high temperature conditions was investigated. Aim of the work was to evaluate, firstly, the changes of the texture and of the porous system of solid phase after high temperature treatment in presence of different types of macromolecular solids, secondly, properties and composition of the tar and gas. Considered organic solids are important waste components. During their co-pyrolysis the high volatile bituminous coal acts as a hydrogen donor in the temperature rank 220-480{degrees}C. In the rank 500- 1000{degrees}C the solid phase is formed. The co-pyrolysis was carried out at heating rate 3 K/min. It was found that an amount of organic solid (5-10%) affects important changes in the optical texture forms of solid phase, in the pore distribution and in the internal surface area. Transport large pores volume decreases in presence of PEGT, polystyrene and cellulose and increases in presence of proteins and polyisoprene. (image analysis measurements show that the tendency of coal to create coarse pores during co-pyrolysis is very strong and increases with increasing amount of organic solid in blend). An addition of considered materials changes the sorption ability (methylene blue test, iodine adsorption test), moreover, the reactivity of the solid phase.

  18. Injury experience in coal mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

  19. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  20. Effects of Surface Chemistry on the Porous Structure of Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radovic, Ljubisa R; Hatcher, Patrick G

    1997-05-01

    In this report, 129 Xe nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of xenon gas adsorbed in coal is used to describe some poorly understood features of coal microporous structure, particularly in establishing that a connected network exists, the type of connectivity, and its changes with the rank of coal. Micropore size scale and distribution are also considered. Two methods are developed which are new and versatile tools for the investigation of porous structure. Both utilize xenon gas that is in motion, while undergoing diffusion or exchange in coal, to describe the connectivity of the micropore structure of coal. Time tracking of the adsorption process by NMR, selective saturation, and saturation transfer techniques were used to obtain new information on the coal rank dependence of porous structure. In addition, an existing 129 Xe chemical shift-pore diameter model was used to calculate micropore diameters for coals, as well as for a microporous carbon, before and after pore-size alteration. In the initial study performed, straightforward 129 Xe NMR spectra at equilibrium xenon adsorption at a series of pressures were acquired for a rank-varied set of six coals. Acquisition of the NMR signal as an echo was tested and found to improve spectral quality. The spectra were used to calculate micropore diameters for the six coals. These range from 5.6 to 7.5 and exhibit a minimum value for the intermediate coal rank. The smallest pores occur in coals of about 82-85% carbon; at both lower and higher coal ranks, the average micropore size tends to be larger. The changes in the spectra with coal rank and surface area were explored. Signal linewidths were found to decrease with increasing coal rank and were interpreted in terms of increasing chemical or physical homogeneity of the coal as rank increases. The packing density of powdered coal was found to alter the spectral appearance in a high volatile bituminous coal, which is preliminary evidence that exchange affects the

  1. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  2. Cofiring coal-water slurry fuel with pulverized coal as a NOx reduction strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A low solids, low viscosity coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) was formulated and produced from impounded bituminous coal fines and burned in a utility-scale boiler to investigate NOx emissions reduction during the cofiring of CWSF with pulverized coal. Tests were conducted at the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) Seward Station, located near Seward, Pennsylvania in a Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), front-wall fired, pulverized coal boiler (34 MWe). Two B and W pulverizers feed coal to six burners (two burner levels each containing three low-NOx burners). Approximately 20% of the thermal input was provided by CWSF, the balance by pulverized coal. There was a significant reduction of NOx emissions when cofiring CWSF and pulverized coal as compared to firing 100% pulverized coal. The level of reduction was dependent upon the cofiring configuration (i.e., cofiring in the upper three, lower three, or all six burners), with NOx emissions being reduced by as much as 26.5%. The reduction in NOx emissions was not due to the tempering effect of the water in the CWSF, because a greater reduction in NOx occurred when cofiring CWSF than when injecting the same quantity of water at the same boiler firing rate. This paper discusses the tests in detail and the proposed reburn mechanism for the NOx reduction. In addition, combustion test results from the front-wall fired unit at the Seward Station will be compared to CWSF cofire tests that have been conducted at cyclone-fired units at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Paradise Station (704 MWe), Drakesboro, Kentucky and Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC) Marion, Illinois Station (33 MWe).

  3. Future economic conversion of coal to electricity. Zukuenftige wirtschaftliche Kohleverstromung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotschenreuther, H.; Haeuser, U.; Weirich, P.H. (Asea Brown Boveri AG, Mannheim (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Kraftwerke)

    1993-01-01

    Available and exhaustible development potential is essential for making a decision on the choice of a new power plant technology. The criteria for potential development will be increase in efficiency in the whole load range with constant or improved economics, operating performance compatible with today's requirements and possibilities of application in the intermediate or upper medium-load range. The power plant concepts which promise success from today's point of view for the conversion of bituminous coal to electricity are indicated. (orig.).

  4. Economic conversion of coal into electricity in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotschenreuther, H.; Haeuser, U.; Weirich, P.-H. (ABB Kraftwerke AG, Mannheim (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    Available and exhaustible development potential is essential for making a decision on the choice of a new power plant technology. The criteria for potential development will be increased in efficiency in the whole load range with constant or improved economics, operating performance compatible with today's requirements and possibilities of application in the intermediate or upper medium-load range.The power plant concepts which promise success from today's point of view for the conversion of bituminous coal to electricity are indicated. These include the high-temperature steam power plant. 17 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Fifth symposium on surface mining and reclamation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Fifth Symposium on Surface Mining and Reclamation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Twenty-six papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include spoil bank revegetation, use of aerial photography, reclamation for row crop production, hydrology, computer programs related to this work, subirrigated alluvial valley floors, reclamation on steep slopes, mountain top removal, surface mine road design, successional processes involved in reclamation, land use planning, etc. (LTN)

  6. Influence of different types of coals and stoves on the emissions of parent and oxygenated PAHs from residential coal combustion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Yue; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Feng, Yanli; Chen, Tian; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of coal property and stove efficiency on the emissions of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) during the combustion, fifteen coal/stove combinations were tested in this study, including five coals of different geological maturities in briquette and chunk forms burned in two residential stoves. The emission factors (EFs) of pPAHs and oPAHs were in the range of 0.129-16.7 mg/kg and 0.059-0.882 mg/kg, respectively. The geological maturity of coal significantly affected the emissions of pPAHs and oPAHs with the lower maturity coals yielding the higher emissions. The chunk-to-briquette transformation of coal dramatically increased the emissions of pPAHs and oPAHs during the combustion of anthracite, whereas this transformation only elevated the emissions of high molecular weight PAHs for bituminous coals. The influence of stove type on the emissions of pPAHs and oPAHs was also geological-maturity-dependent. High efficiency stove significantly reduced the emissions of PAHs from those relatively high-maturity coals, but its influences on low-maturity coals were inconstant.

  7. Geochemistry and mineralogy of coal in the recently explored Zhundong large coal field in the Junggar basin, Xinjiang province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jibin [Faculty of Earth Sciences and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 100083 (China); Xinjiang Bureau of Prospecting and Development of Geology and Mineral Resources, Urumqi, Xinjiang, 830000 (China); Zhuang, Xinguo [Institute of Sedimentary Basin and Mineral, Faculty of Earth Resources, China University of Geosciences, Hubei, 430074 (China); Alastuey, Andres; Querol, Xavier [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, CSIC, C/ LLuis Sole Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Li, Jinghong [Xinjiang Bureau of Prospecting and Development of Geology and Mineral Resources, Urumqi, Xinjiang, 830000 (China)

    2010-05-01

    The Zhundong coalfield is a very large coal deposit, currently under exploration, and promises to be an important coal mining resource in Western China. The coal reserves amount to 164 Gt. At Xiheishan and Wucaiwan, the coal-bearing units are the Badaowan (Lower Jurassic) and, especially, the Xishanyao formations (Middle Jurassic). These contain from one to 31 coal seams (one to 10 workable coals reaching the rank of high volatile A bituminous) with an accumulated workable coal thickness of 20-87 m. These recently explored coal reserves are of a high quality and are characterized by low ash, aluminum, iron, sulfur, and trace element contents. The minerals present in this coal are mainly quartz, kaolinite, siderite, and pyrite. The trace element contents in both Xiheishan and Wucaiwan coals are much lower when compared with the usual concentration ranges present in Chinese coals, with the exception of Ba and Sr. Thus, Ba contents in Xiheishan coal are higher than Swaine's worldwide concentration range. A large number of elements have mainly aluminosilicate affinity, and occur in clay and other detrital coal minerals. Ca and Mn have mainly carbonate affinity; Fe and S have mainly sulphide affinity in Wuchaiwan coal. In Xiheishan, Fe, Mn and Mg have mainly carbonate affinity (siderite), and probably, B, Co, Ni and S have an organic affinity. Thus, the Zhundong coalfield contains coal with a very high quality and very low levels of impurities. The very low ash yields, S, Fe, and trace element contents may be attributed to the sedimentological setting, with intensive peat bog aggradation in a very shallow lake environment with a low detrital supply. The very low sulfur content, the relatively high Ba-sulfate (barite) content and the high siderite occurrence in Xiheishan coal (in contrast to the pyrite occurrence in Wucaiwan coal) may be attributed to the rapid aggradation of peat with the consequent oxidation and leaching of minerals, elements, and degradation of

  8. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-08-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  9. Temperature Trends in Coal Char Combustion under Oxy-fuel Conditions for the Determination of Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Samira [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hecht, Ethan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion technology with carbon capture and storage could significantly reduce global CO2 emissions, a greenhouse gas. Implementation can be aided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, which require an accurate understanding of coal particle kinetics as they go through combustion in a range of environments. To understand the kinetics of pulverized coal char combustion, a heated flow reactor was operated under a wide range of experimental conditions. We varied the environment for combustion by modifying the diluent gas, oxygen concentration, gas flow rate, and temperature of the reactor/reacting gases. Measurements of reacting particle temperatures were made for a sub-bituminous and bituminous coal char, in environments with CO2 or N2 as the diluent gas, with 12, 24, and 36 vol-% oxygen concentration, at 50, 80, 100, and 200 standard liters per minute flowing through the reactor, reactor temperatures of 1200, 1400 K, at pressures slightly above atmospheric. The data shows consistent increasing particle temperature with increased oxygen concentration, reactor temperature and higher particle temperatures for N2 diluent than CO2. We also see the effects of CO2 gasification when different ranks of coal are used, and how the reduction in the temperature due to the CO2 diluent is greater for the coal char that has higher reactivity. Quantitative measurements for temperature are not yet complete due to ongoing calibration of detection systems.

  10. Comparative study of semi-industrial-scale flames of pulverized coals and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballester, J.; Barroso, J.; Cerecedo, L.M.; Ichaso, R. [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2005-05-01

    Three p.f. flames have been studied in a semi-industrial furnace, using different fuels: a bituminous coal, a lignite, and a biomass (oak sawdust). The operating conditions were exactly the same for the two coals, and very similar to those for the biornass flame. The objective was to evaluate the impact of differences in fuel composition on flame characteristics, through measurement of the spatial distribution of the main parameters: temperature and concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons, and N{sub 2}O. The higher volatiles content in the lignite leads to higher temperatures and more intense combustion than the bituminous coal. Nevertheless, as might be expected, more marked differences are observed between the flames from the biomass and coals. The much higher volatiles content of the wood results in a more intense flame close to the burner, as indicated by visual observations and by concentrations of unburnt gases (CO and unburnt hydrocarbons) in that zone. It is remarkable that the combustion zone extends further for the biomass; while unburnt species were very low for the coals at an axial distance of 1 m, high values were detected for the pulverized oak. The measurements suggest that two stages can be distinguished in the biomass flame: a zone of intense combustion close to the burner, followed by a second region where the large biomass particles gradually devolatilize and are consumed.

  11. Application of coals as sorbents for the removal of Cr from aqueous waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J.; Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [University of Miskolc, Miskolc (Hungary). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2001-09-01

    The study reported further understanding of how various electron transfer processes operate for Cr(VI) with a view to using coals for the removal of Cr(VI) from waste streams. Skye peat, Spanish and German lignites, UK high and low volatility bituminous coals and an activated carbon were used. After treatment to remove exchangeable cations, ion exchange experiments were conducted in 0.1 M acetic acid-sodium acetate (1:1) buffer and 0.05 M sulphuric acid solutions and the slurries were agitated once a day. The ion concentrations in the solutions were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Cr(VI) renaming in solution was determined by the standard calorimetric 1,5-diphenylcarbazide method. Peat and low rank (Spanish Mequinenza) coal exhibited a larger capacity for Cr(VI) removal than bituminous coal. Redox mechanisms are operative coupled with the oxidation of the coal and peat surfaces. Desorption of Cr(III) formed by reduction which occurs in strongly acidic media also needs to be considered. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  12. Depositional environment and source potential of Jurassic coal-bearing sediments (Gresten Formation, Hoflein gas/condensate field, Austria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Bechtel, A.; Kuffner, T.; Rainer, T.; Gratzer, R.; Sauer, R.; Sperl, H. [Mount University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria)

    2006-05-15

    Coal-bearing Jurassic sediments (Gresten Formation; Lower Quartzarenite Member) are discussed as source rocks for gas and minor oil in the basement of the Alpine-Carpathian frontal zone (e.g. Hoflein gas/condensate field). Core material has therefore been analysed to characterize depositional environment and source potential of the Lower Quartzarenite Member (LQM). Geochemical data from the Hoflein condensate are used to establish a Source-condensate correlation. The LQM was deposited in a flood basin with transitions to a delta-plain environment. Coal originated in frequently flooded mires and evolved within an oxygenated and acidic environment. It is inferred from geochemical data that organic matter from aquatic macrophytes and gymnosperms contributed to coal formation. Wildfires were abundant and oxidation of plant remains occurred frequently. This resulted in the formation of dull coal with very high inertinite contents. Bituminous shales were formed in deeper waters under dysoxic conditions. Apart from abundant algae and micro-organisms, it is concluded that there was an increased contribution of higher land plants relative to macrophytes to the biomass of the shales. Despite high inertinite contents, coal within the LQM has a significant oil potential. Bituminous shales contain a Type III-II kerogen. According to pyrolysis-gas chromatography data, coal and shale generate a high wax paraffinic oil. The organic matter is immature to marginal mature (0.55% Rr). Bituminous shales are considered a potential source for the Hoflein condensate. Coal may be the source for gas and minor oil in the Klement Field, but is not the source for the condensate.

  13. Characteristics of the benzene fraction of products resulting from the thermal destruction of bituminous petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleev, A.M.; Margulis, B.Ya.; Martynov, A.A.; Vigdergauz, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    A description is given of a method for the chromatographic analysis of the 35 to 95/sup 0/C benzene feaction produced from the thermal destruction of bituminous petroleum. Aromatic, olefin, and paraffin-naphthene fractions were identified in the first stage of fluid chromatography with a fluorescent indicator. Gas chromatography was employed to undertake a detailed analysis of each fraction. The results of the analysis indicate that the use of a thermogas generator in the process of thermodestruction approximates the process of oxidative cracking. 11 references, 4 figures.

  14. Assessment of the Remaining Life of Bituminous Layers in Road Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálmán Adorjányi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a mechanistic-empirical approach is presented for the assessment of bearing capacity condition of asphalt pavement layers by Falling Weight Deflectometer measurements and laboratory fatigue tests. The bearing capacity condition ratio was determined using past traffic data and the remaining fatigue life which was determined from multilayer pavement response model. The traffic growth rate was taken into account with finite arithmetic and geometric progressions. Fatigue resistance of layers’ bituminous materials was obtained with indirect tensile fatigue tests. Deduct curve of condition scores was derived with Weibull distribution.

  15. Hydrocarbon Generating Potential of Mineral—Bituminous Matrix in Source Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建平; 黄第藩

    1998-01-01

    Mineral-bituminous matrix(MBM) makes up a major part of source rocks,but its potential in hydrocarbon generation is uncertain,Mineral and organic (Maceral and kerogen) compositions,organic maturity and fluorescence of MBM are studied based on source rock samples from eastern Jiuquan(Jiudong)Basin.The results show that MBM is dominated by inorganic minerals and among the small percentage of organic components those of secondary origins are predominant over the primary species.This strongly indicates that the significance of MBM in hydrocarbon generation is limited.

  16. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141574 Chen Hao(Exploration and Development Research Institute,Daqing Oilfield Company,Daqing 163712,China)High-Resolution Sequences and Coal Accumulating Laws in Nantun Formation of Huhe Lake Sag(Petroleum Geology&Oilfield Development in Daqing,ISSN1000-3754,CN23-1286/TQ,32(4),2013,p.15-19,5 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:coal accumulation regularity,coal

  17. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091159 Gao Yan(No.3 Prospecting Team of Anhui Bureau of Coal Geology,Suzhou 234000,China) Effect of Depositional Environment of Coal-Bearing Stratum on Major Coal Seams in Suntan Coalmine,Anhui Province(Geology of Anhui,ISSN 1005- 6157,CN34-1111/P,18(2),2008,p.114 -117,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)

  18. Coal pyrolysis and char burnout under conventional and oxy-fuel conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Makhadmeh, L.; Maier, J.; Scheffknecht, G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2009-07-01

    Coal utilization processes such as combustion or gasification generally involve several steps i.e., the devolatilization of organic materials, homogeneous reactions of volatile matter with the reactant gases, and heterogeneous reactions of the solid (char) with the reactant gases. Most of the reported work about coal pyrolysis and char burnout were performed at low temperatures under environmental conditions related to the air firing process with single particle tests. In this work, coal combustion under oxy-fuel conditions is investigated by studying coal pyrolysis and char combustion separately in practical scales, with the emphasis on improving the understanding of the effect of a CO{sub 2}-rich gas environment on coal pyrolysis and char burnout. Two coals, Klein Kopje a medium volatile bituminous coal and a low-rank coal, Lausitz coal were used. Coal pyrolysis in CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} environments were performed for both coals at different temperatures in an entrained flow reactor. Overall mass release, pyrolysis gas concentrations, and char characterization were performed. For char characterization ultimate analysis, particle size, and BET surface area were measured. Chars for both coals were collected at 1150 C in both CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} environments. Char combustion was performed in a once-through 20 kW test facility in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} atmospheres. Besides coal quality, oxygen partial pressure was chosen as a variable to study the effect of the gas environment on char burnout. In general, it is found that the CO{sub 2} environment and coal rank have a significant effect on coal pyrolysis and char burnout. (orig.)

  19. Semi-coke briquettes: towards reducing emissions of primary PM2.5, particulate carbon, and carbon monoxide from household coal combustion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Jiang, Jingkun; Duan, Lei; Ge, Su; Zhang, Qi; Deng, Jianguo; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Direct household use of unprocessed raw coals for cooking and heating without any air pollution control device has caused serious indoor and outdoor environment problems by emitting particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. This study examined household emission reduction by switching from unprocessed bituminous and anthracite coals to processed semi-coke briquettes. Two typical stoves were used to test emission characteristics when burning 20 raw coal samples commonly used in residential heating activities and 15 semi-coke briquette samples which were made from bituminous coals by industrial carbonization treatment. The carbonization treatment removes volatile compounds from raw coals which are the major precursors for PM formation and carbon emission. The average emission factors of primary PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and carbon monoxide for the tested semi-coke briquettes are much lower than those of the tested raw coals. Based on the current coal consumption data in China, switching to semi-coke briquettes can reduce average emission factors of these species by about 92%, 98%, 91%, and 34%, respectively. Additionally, semi-coke briquette has relatively lower price and higher burnout ratio. The replacement of raw coals with semi-coke briquettes is a feasible path to reduce pollution emissions from household activities.

  20. Hydrogen production by coal plasma gasification for fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvita, V. [Max-Planck-Institute, Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Sandtorstrasse 1, 39106, Magdeburg (Germany); Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Research Department of Plasmotechnics, 22 Zvereva str., 050100 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2007-11-15

    Coal gasification in steam and air atmosphere under arc plasma conditions has been investigated with Podmoskovnyi brown coal, Kuuchekinski bituminous coal and Canadian petrocoke. It was found that for those coals the gasification degree to synthesis gas were 92.3%, 95.8 and 78.6% correspondingly. The amount of produced syngas was 30-40% higher in steam than in air gasification of the coal. The reduction of the carbon monoxide content in the hydrogen-rich reformate gas for low-temperature fuel cell applications normally involves high- and low-temperature water gas shift reactors followed by selective oxidation of residual carbon monoxide. It is shown that the carbon monoxide content can be reduced in one single reactor, which is based on an iron redox cycle. During the reduction phase of the cycle, the raw gas mixture of H{sub 2} and CO reduces a Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} sample, while during the oxidation phase steam re-oxidizes the iron and simultaneously hydrogen is being produced. The integration of the redox iron process with a coal plasma gasification technology in future allows the production of CO{sub x}-free hydrogen. (author)

  1. Partitioning of selected trace elements in coal combustion products from two coal-burning power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Engle, Mark A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Jones, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Samples of feed coal (FC), bottom ash (BA), economizer fly ash (EFA), and fly ash (FA) were collected from power plants in the Central Appalachian basin and Colorado Plateau to determine the partitioning of As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in coal combustion products (CCPs). The Appalachian plant burns a high-sulfur (about 3.9 wt.%) bituminous coal from the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed and operates with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), with flue gas temperatures of about 163 °C in the ESPs. At this plant, As, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in FA samples, compared to BA and EFA. A mass balance (not including the FGD process) suggests that the following percentages of trace elements are captured in FA: As (48%), Cr (58%), Pb (54%), Se (20%), and Hg (2%). The relatively high temperatures of the flue gas in the ESPs and low amounts of unburned C in FA (0.5% loss-on-ignition for FA) may have led to the low amount of Hg captured in FA. The Colorado Plateau plant burns a blend of three low-S (about 0.74 wt.%) bituminous coals from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and operates with fabric filters (FFs). Flue gas temperatures in the baghouses are about 104 °C. The elements As, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in the fine-grained fly ash product (FAP) produced by cyclone separators, compared to the other CCPs at this plant. The median concentration of Hg in FA (0.0983 ppm) at the Colorado Plateau plant is significantly higher than that for the Appalachian plant (0.0315 ppm); this higher concentration is related to the efficiency of FFs in Hg capture, the relatively low temperatures of flue gas in the baghouses (particularly in downstream compartments), and the amount of unburned C in FA (0.29% loss-on-ignition for FA).

  2. Effects of coal storage in air on physical and chemical properties of coal and on gas adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Solano-Acosta, W.; Schimmelmann, A.; Drobniak, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates changes in the high-volatile bituminous Lower Block Coal Member from Indiana owing to moisture availability and oxidation in air at ambient pressure and temperature over storage time. Specifically, it investigates changes in chemistry, in surface area, and pore structure, as well as changes in methane and carbon dioxide adsorption capacities. Our results document that the methane adsorption capacity increased by 40%, whereas CO2 adsorption capacity increased by 18% during a 13-month time period. These changes in adsorption are accompanied by changes in chemistry and surface area of the coal. The observed changes in adsorption capacity indicate that special care must be taken when collecting samples and preserving coals until adsorption characteristics are measured in the laboratory. High-pressure isotherms from partially dried coal samples would likely cause overestimation of gas adsorption capacities, lead to a miscalculation of coal-bed methane prospects, and provide deceptively optimistic prognoses for recovery of coal-bed methane or capture of anthropogenic CO2. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. KINETIC STUDY OF COAL AND BIOMASS CO-PYROLYSIS USING THERMOGRAVIMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping; Hedges, Sheila; Chaudharib, Kiran; Turtonb, Richard

    2013-10-29

    The objectives of this study are to investigate thermal behavior of coal and biomass blends in inert gas environment at low heating rates and to develop a simplified kinetic model using model fitting techniques based on TGA experimental data. Differences in thermal behavior and reactivity in co-pyrolysis of Powder River Basin (PRB) sub-bituminous coal and pelletized southern yellow pine wood sawdust blends at low heating rates are observed. Coal/wood blends have higher reactivity compared to coal alone in the lower temperature due to the high volatile matter content of wood. As heating rates increase, weight loss rates increase. The experiment data obtained from TGA has a better fit with proposed two step first order reactions model compared single first order reaction model.

  4. Characterization of air toxics from a laboratory coal-fired combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-03

    Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coal combustion were studied in a laboratory-scale combustion facility, with emphasis on fine particles in three size ranges of less than 7.5 {mu}m diameter. Vapors were also measured. Substances under study included organic compounds, anions, elements, and radionuclides. Fly ash was generated by firing a bituminous coal in a combuster for 40 h at each of two coal feed rates. Flue gas was sampled under two conditions. Results for organic compounds, anions, and elements show a dependence on particle size consistent with published power plant data. Accumulation of material onto surface layers was inferred from differences in chemical composition between the plume simulating dilution sampler and hot flue samples. Extracts of organic particulate material were fractionated into different polarity fractions and analyzed by GC/MS. In Phase II, these laboratory results will be compared to emissions from a full-scale power plant burning the same coal.

  5. Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health

    2008-04-01

    An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higher for bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Evaluation of paramagnetic species in coals with iodine doping technique; Yoso tenkaho wo mochiita sekitanchu no jojiseishu no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, S.; Kumagai, H.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of coals was considered by using iodine doping technique. Sub-bituminous coal (WA) and bituminous coal (UF) were used to observe EPR spectra using microwaves. With the UF coal, strength of the narrow component of the spectra was found constant regardless of amount of the doped iodine, wherein radicals without interaction with iodine were detected. Strength of the broad component increased with the iodine doping amount, where in deviation of {pi} electrons was detected, which have been generated as a result of interaction between aromatic rings and iodine in the coals. Spin concentration of the WA coal with low coalification degree is constant regardless of the iodine doping amount, and the interaction of the iodine with the aromatic rings was found small. The higher the coalification degree, the more the aromatic ring structure grows, and electron donor capability for the iodine increases. In a system with the entire spin being uniform, the spectrum height shows a saturation phenomenon against increase in microwave output. A non-uniform system, in which the oriented spin forms small groups and is in local thermal equilibrium, does not show saturation, but increases monotonously. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Low SO2 emission from CFB co-firing MSW and bituminous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qing-gang; LI Zhi-wei; NA Yong-jie; BAO Shao-lin; SUN Yun-kai; HE Jun

    2004-01-01

    Influence of co-firing rate on SO2 emission from co-firing municipal solid waste(MSW) and bituminous containing high amount of sulfur(1.79%) was studied in a 0.15 MWt circulating fluidized bed(CFB). The temperature selected is 1123 K, typical for MSW incineration using CFB. The particle concentration in the dilution zone of the furnace, the alkali metal concentration and sulfate concentration in the recirculating ash and fly ash, and flue gas composition were determined. The results showed that the addition of MSW leads to a significant decrease in SO2 emission. Concentration of SO2 in flue gas decreased to 0 with the co-firing rate greater than 51%. This reduction in SO2 emission is attributed both to the high particle concentration in the dilution zone of the furnace, the high content of alkali metals in the bed material, and to the comparatively high concentration of HCl in flue gas during co-firing of MSW and bituminous.

  8. Experimental Study of the Influence of the Concentration of Organic Water-Coal Fuel Components on the Integral Ignition Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vershinina, K. Yu.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    To enlarge the power raw material base, the processes of stable initiation of combustion of drops of organic watercoal fuels have been investigated. For the main components, we used filter cakes (coal processing waste), anthracite, bituminous and brown coals of brands D and B2, water, and spent machine, turbine, and transformer oils. We have established the influence of concentrations of components on the minimum (limiting) ignition temperatures of organic water-coal fuels and the ignition delay times of drops of fuel components with initial sizes of 0.25-1.5 mm. Investigations were carried out for oxidizer temperatures of 600-1100 K and its velocities of 0.5-5 m/s characteristic of units, aggregates, and large and small power plants. We have determined the characteristic differences of organic water-coal fuel from water-coal fuel and the close laws of the investigated processes for these fuels.

  9. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131668 Chang Huizhen(Key Laboratory of Coalbed Methane Resources and Reservoir Formation Process,CUMT,Ministry of Edu-cation,School of Resource and Earth Science,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Qin Yong Differences in of Pore Structure of Coals and Their Impact on the Permeability of Coals from the

  10. Petrographic and geochemical characterization of pale and dark brown coal from Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Q.; Xilin, R.; Dazhong, T.; Jian, X.; Wolf, M. [Aachen University, Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen lignite samples from the province of Yunnan were analysed by organic petrography and geochemistry. Twelve of the samples represent the very pale (yellow) Baipao coal, the other three were normal coals of a medium brown colour. The Baipao coal consists mainly of mineral-bituminous groundmass, whereas the normal coal is characterised by well-preserved tissues derived from gymnosperm wood. Up to 190 mg/g C{sub org} of extract is extractable from the Baipao coal; only 63 mg/g C{sub org} from the normal coal. The n-alkaline fraction of the Baipao coal extract consists of high amounts of hopanes and shows the predominance of nor-abietane within the diterpenoids present. The first group of compounds points to intensive bacterial activity, while the second compound indicates not only that gymnosperms are present but also that a relatively oxygen-rich environment existed at the time of deposition. From the petrographic and organic geochemical characteristics it is concluded that the Baipao coal was formed from the same plant source material as the normal coal, but underwent stronger decay. 22 refs., 11 figs., 2 plates, 8 tabs.

  11. Results of coal bed methane drilling, Mylan Park, Monongalia County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Fedorko, Nick; Warwick, Peter D.; Grady, William C.; Crangle, Robert D.; Britton, James Q.

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory funded drilling of a borehole (39.64378 deg E , -80.04376 deg N) to evaluate the potential for coal bed methane and carbon dioxide sequestration at Mylan Park, Monongalia County, West Virginia. The drilling commenced on September 23, 2002 and was completed on November 14, 2002. The 2,525 ft deep hole contained 1,483.41 ft of Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata, 739.67 feet of Mississippian strata, and 301.93 ft. of Devonian strata. The drill site was located directly over abandoned Pittsburgh and Sewickley coal mines. Coal cores from remaining mine pillars were cut and retrieved for desorption from both mines. In addition, coals were cored and desorbed from the Pittsburgh Roof, Little Pittsburgh, Elk Lick, Brush Creek, Upper Kittanning, Middle Kittanning, Clarion, Upper Mercer, Lower Mercer, and Quakertown coal beds. All coals are Pennsylvanian in age and are high-volatile-A bituminous in rank. A total of 34.75 ft of coal was desorbed over a maximum period of 662 days, although most of the coal was desorbed for about 275 days. This report is provided in Adobe Acrobat format. Appendix 3 is provided in Excel format.

  12. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  13. Unburned Carbon Loss in Fly Ash of CFB Boilers Burning Hard Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Junfu(吕俊复); WANG Qimin(王启民); LI Yong(黎永); YUE Guangxi(岳光溪); Yam Y.Lee; Baldur Eliasson; SHEN Jiezhong(沈解忠); YU Long(于龙)

    2003-01-01

    The unburned carbon loss in fly ash of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers, most of which are burning active fuels such as lignite or peat, is normally very low. However, most CFB boilers in China usually burn hard coals such as anthracite and bituminous coal and coal wastes, so the carbon content in the fly ash from these boilers is higher than expected. This paper investigates the source of unburned carbon in the fly ash of CFB boilers burning hard coal through a series of field tests and laboratory investigations. The char behavior during combustion, including fragmentation and deactivation, which is related to the parent coal, has an important impact on the carbon burnout in CFB boilers. The research shows that char deactivation occurs during char burnout in fluidized bed combustion, especially for large particles of low rank coal. The uneven mixing of solids and air in the core region of the furnace also causes poor burnout of carbon in CFB fly ash. An index describing the volatile content (as dry ash free basis) over the heating value is proposed to present the coal rank. The coal combustion efficiency is shown to be strongly connected with this coal index. Several changes in the CFB boiler design are suggested to reduce the unburned carbon loss in the fly ash.

  14. Co-pyrolysis of hydrothermally upgraded brown coal and wax prepared from waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouichi Miura; Susan A. Roces; Monthicha Pattatapanusak; Hiroyuki Nakagawa; Ryuichi Ashida; Masato Morimoto [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    We have recently presented a hydrothermal extraction method that not only removes water from brown coal but also upgrades the coal and extracts low molecular mass compounds simultaneously. The upgraded coal contained much less oxygen than the raw coal. However, it still needs to be further upgraded to be utilized as a substitute for bituminous coal. In this study co-pyrolysis of the upgraded coals and waxes formed from waste plastics was investigated for this purpose. Waxes were prepared through pyrolysis of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyethylene terephtalate. Upgraded coals were then impregnated with the waxes in an autoclave at 200{sup o}C under pressure. The mixtures of coal and wax were rapidly heated up to 1040{sup o}C at about 3000{sup o}C/s using a Curie point pyrolyzer in an inert atmosphere. The char yield was greatly enhanced by a factor of 1.1 to 1.3 compared to the char yield obtained when the upgraded coals and waxes were pyrolyzed independently. Even under a slower heating rate (0.17{sup o}C/s) the char yields increased by a factor of 1.2 for the all mixtures of the upgraded coal and waxes. Since no such effect was found when the raw brown coal was impregnated with waxes, it was suggested that the modification of the structure of brown coal by the hydrothermal extraction could enhance interactions between the coal and the wax when co-pyrolyzed. Effect of wax mixing ratio on co-pyrolysis behavior was also examined. The char yield dramatically increased when the ratio exceeded about 0.3 g/g for the pyrolysis of both under slow and rapid heating rates. This trend coincided with that of the swelling ratio of the upgraded coal impregnated with wax, indicating that some physical change by wax-impregnation affected the co-pyrolysis behavior. 5 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Development of low rank coals upgrading and their CWM producing technology; Teihin`itan kaishitsu ni yoru CWM seizo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Tsurui, M.; Suto, Y.; Asakura, M. [JGC Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, J.; Yui, M.; Takano, S. [Japan COM Co. Ltd., Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    A CWM manufacturing technology was developed by means of upgrading low rank coals. Even though some low rank coals have such advantages as low ash, low sulfur and high volatile matter content, many of them are merely used on a small scale in areas near the mine-mouths because of high moisture content, low calorification and high ignitability. Therefore, discussions were given on a coal fuel manufacturing technology by which coal will be irreversibly dehydrated with as much volatile matters as possible remaining in the coal, and the coal is made high-concentration CWM, thus the coal can be safely transported and stored. The technology uses a method to treat coal with hot water under high pressure and dry it with hot water. The method performs not only removal of water, but also irreversible dehydration without losing volatile matters by decomposing hydrophilic groups on surface and blocking micro pores with volatile matters in the coal (wax and tar). The upgrading effect was verified by processing coals in a pilot plant, which derived greater calorification and higher concentration CWM than with the conventional processes. A CWM combustion test proved lower NOx, lower SOx and higher combustion rate than for bituminous coal. The ash content was also found lower. This process suits a Texaco-type gasification furnace. For a production scale of three million tons a year, the production cost is lower by 2 yen per 10 {sup 3} kcal than for heavy oil with the same sulfur content. 11 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Biomarker geochemistry of bituminous shale sequence and crude oil in the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara-Gulbay, Reyhan; Erdogan, Mert; Korkmaz, Sadettin; Kadinkiz, Gökhan

    2016-04-01

    In the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, bituminous shale sequence with thickness ranging between 72 and 160 m occurs in lacustrine deposits of Upper Miocene-Pliocene age. The live oil has also been observed in this bituminous shale sequence. Rock-Eval/TOC, GC and GC-MS analyses were conducted on selected bituminous shale samples from four borehole (key-12/1, key-12/2, key-12/3 key-12/4) and one crude oil sample from a borehole (key-12/2) in the basin. In this study, organic matter type, maturity and depositional environment of bituminous shale are evaluated and the origin of crude oil is determined by the bituminous shale-crude oil correlation. The total organic carbon (TOC) values of the bituminous shale samples range from 1.21-13.98 wt% with an average TOC value of 4.75wt%. The bituminous shale sequence is characterized by high HI (127-662 mg HC/g TOC) and low OI (7-50 mgCO2/TOC). Tmax varies from 332-419ᵒC. Very low Pr/Ph ratios of bituminous shale (0.09-0.22) are indicative of anoxic depositional conditions. C27 is dominate sterane for bituminous shale and crude oil samples with C27>C29>C28. Normal steranes are more dominant compare to iso- and diasteranes. Ouite high sterane/hopane ratios (1.14-2.70) indicate dominant algal organic matter input for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. C31R/hopane ratio for bituminous shale and crude oil samples are very low (0.09-0.13) and these ratio show a lacustrine depositional envirronment for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. Sterane and terpane distributions of bituminous shale and crude oil are very similar. A very good correlation in terms of biomarker between bituminous shale and crude oil samples indicate that source rock of crude oil is bituminous shale. The 22S/(22R + 22S) C32 homohopane ratios of bituminous shale and crude oil samples are found to be 0.56 and 0.61, indicating that homohopane isomerization has attained equilibrium and bituminous shale and crude oil are

  17. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 1996 Annual Summary of Coal Liquefaction and Gasification; 1996 nendo new sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gasuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    In reference to the results of the research and development under the fiscal 1996 New Sunshine Project, a report was summed up on coal liquefaction and coal gasification. As to the R and D of coal liquefaction technology, researches were conducted on liquefaction characteristics and engineering properties by coal kind, catalysts for coal liquefaction, liquefaction reaction of coal and reformation utilization of the liquefied products, liquefaction reaction mechanism and coking mechanism, solubility of coal in solvent and catalytic reaction mechanism, solvent reaction mechanism by hydrogen donor solvent, etc. Concerning the R and D of coal gasification technology, made were the basic study of eco-technology adaptable gasification technology and the study of coal gasification enhancing technology. Further, as to the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, carried out were the study in pilot plants and the support study of pilot plants. Additionally, R and D were done of the basic technology of coal liquefaction such as upgrading technology and environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction technology, and of coal hydrogasification technology. 3 refs., 81 figs., 25 tabs.

  18. The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Richard; Gray, Gordon; Evans, Robert

    2014-07-31

    The Mesaba Energy Project is a nominal 600 MW integrated gasification combine cycle power project located in Northeastern Minnesota. It was selected to receive financial assistance pursuant to code of federal regulations (?CFR?) 10 CFR 600 through a competitive solicitation under Round 2 of the Department of Energy?s Clean Coal Power Initiative, which had two stated goals: (1) to demonstrate advanced coal-based technologies that can be commercialized at electric utility scale, and (2) to accelerate the likelihood of deploying demonstrated technologies for widespread commercial use in the electric power sector. The Project was selected in 2004 to receive a total of $36 million. The DOE portion that was equally cost shared in Budget Period 1 amounted to about $22.5 million. Budget Period 1 activities focused on the Project Definition Phase and included: project development, preliminary engineering, environmental permitting, regulatory approvals and financing to reach financial close and start of construction. The Project is based on ConocoPhillips? E-Gas? Technology and is designed to be fuel flexible with the ability to process sub-bituminous coal, a blend of sub-bituminous coal and petroleum coke and Illinois # 6 bituminous coal. Major objectives include the establishment of a reference plant design for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (?IGCC?) technology featuring advanced full slurry quench, multiple train gasification, integration of the air separation unit, and the demonstration of 90% operational availability and improved thermal efficiency relative to previous demonstration projects. In addition, the Project would demonstrate substantial environmental benefits, as compared with conventional technology, through dramatically lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and mercury. Major milestones achieved in support of fulfilling the above goals include obtaining Site, High Voltage

  19. Coal petrology and genesis of Jurassic coal in the Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Ao

    2012-01-01

    physical conditions so that pore water can maintain a long-term state of oxidation, circulation and connection to the coal. So coal components remain in an oxidation environment for a long time. Conversely, in the basin center, lacustrine facies developed and peat was rapidly covered by mudstone after burial and subsequent coal beds rapidly entered a reducing environment. As a result, abundant gelatification occurred and the vitrinite content increased. Exinite often accumulated in a specific position in the coal bed. Although the average exinite content is not high on the whole, it does significantly contribute to the total hydrocarbon generation. The exinite content has been underestimated, especially the amorphous bituminous fluid and its importance is emphasized here. The reason is that the fluid flows easily into fusinite which has strong rigidity, or flows into some fissures, where it is commonly neglected.

  20. Production of carbon molecular sieves from illinois coals. An assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizzio, Anthony A.; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud

    1991-01-01

    Chars were produced from an Illinois No. 2 bituminous coal under various pyrolysis and activation conditions and tested for their molecular sieve properties. The amount of N2 compared to the amount of CO2 adsorbed by each char was used as a preliminary indicator of its molecular sieve properties. This relatively simple, but apparently useful test was confirmed by successfully characterizing the well-known molecular sieve properties of a commercial zeolite and molecular sieve carbon. In addition, coal chars having relatively high surface areas (800-1800 m2/g) were produced and tested for their molecular sieving capabilities. These carbon materials, which have high adsorption capacities and relatively narrow pore size distributions, should be ideal candidates for the commercial production of CMS.

  1. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  2. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111053 Chen Jian(School of Earth and Environment,Anhui University of Science and Technology,Huainan 232001,China);Liu Wenzhong Organic Affinity of Trace Elements in Coal from No.10 Coal-Bed at Western Huagou,Guoyang(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(4),2010,p.16-20,24,3 illus.,3 tables,19 refs.)Key words:coal,minor elements,Anhui Province In order to study the organic affinity of trace elements in coal from No.10 coal-bed at western Huagou,Guoyang,10 borehole samples were collected at exploration area of Huaibei mining area.The contents of 12 kinds of trace elements were determined by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS),the total organic carbon(TOC)of coal was determined by LECO carbon and sulfur analyzer,and the organic affinity of trace elements were deduced from the correlations between contents and TOCs.The results showed that the contents of V,Cr,Co,Ni,Mo,Cd,Sb,Pb and Zn were lower than

  3. 用烟煤合成SiC的研究%Investigation of synthesis of silicon carbide from bituminous coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓刚; 何恩广; 陈寿田

    2000-01-01

    用3种烟煤与SiO2在氮气保护下合成SiC,发现烟煤可以作为碳源合成SiC,但不同烟煤煤种合成产物差别很大.研究表明,烟煤的挥发分含量及其焦炭的微观结构(如孔隙率大小、气孔形貌和比表面积等)是影响反应系统内物质生成的关键因素.在1 200~1 600 ℃温度范围内研究了3种烟煤的挥发分含量和焦炭微观结构的差异及其对合成SiC反应体系的影响.

  4. Mechanical properties of hot bituminous mixes manufactured with recycled aggregate of Silestone® waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, M. C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research project which analyzes the viability of incorporating waste material from decorative quartz solid surfacing in the manufacture of hot bituminous mixes. For this purpose, various bituminous mixes were manufactured with waste aggregate in different percentage. A set of tests were carried out that permitted the characterization of the mechanical behavior of these mixes. The results of these tests were similar to the results obtained when conventional mixes made from virgin quarry aggregate were tested. The results for moisture sensitivity as well as for wheel track rutting on mixes showed the optimal performance of this waste material even under very demanding traffic conditions. Laboratory studies showed that the use of this waste material in the manufacture of bituminous mixes is technically viable and can provide high-quality recycled aggregates at a very low cost, which can be used in the pavement of road.

    Este artículo muestra los resultados de un proyecto de investigación que tiene por objeto analizar la viabilidad de incorporación de residuos procedentes de piedra decorativa en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas en caliente. Para ello se fabricaron mezclas con áridos reciclados de residuos procedentes de piedra decorativa en distintos porcentajes, realizando un conjunto de ensayos que posibilitaron caracterizar el comportamiento mecánico de dichas mezclas. Los resultados obtenidos fueron similares a los de las mezclas convencionales fabricadas con áridos vírgenes procedentes de cantera. Los valores de resistencia conservada ante la acción del agua y deformación en pista, pusieron de manifiesto la aptitud del residuo incluso ante las condiciones de tráfico más exigentes. Los trabajos realizados en el laboratorio indican que la utilización del residuo en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas es técnicamente viable, pudiendo obtenerse áridos reciclados de gran calidad y

  5. Osmosis-induced swelling of Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste in constant total stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcke, E.; Marien, A.; Smets, S.; Li, X.; Mokni, N.; Olivella, S.; Sillen, X.

    2010-11-01

    In geological disposal conditions, contact of Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste, which contains high amounts of the hygroscopic and highly soluble NaNO 3, with groundwater will result in water uptake and swelling of the waste, and in subsequent leaching of the embedded NaNO 3 and radionuclides. The swelling of and the NaNO 3 leaching from non-radioactive Eurobitum samples, comprised between two stainless steel filters and in contact with 0.1 M KOH, was studied in restricted (semi-confined) swelling conditions, i.e. under a constant total stress, or counterpressure, of 2.2, 3.3, or 4.4 MPa ( i.e. oedometer conditions). Four tests were stopped after hydration times between 800 and 1500 days, and the samples were analyzed by micro-focus X-ray Computer Tomography (μCT) and by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). The complete set of data enabled a consistent interpretation of the observations and lead to an improved understanding of the phenomenology of the water uptake, swelling, and NaNO 3 leaching in restricted swelling conditions. Under the studied conditions, the bituminous matrix surrounding the NaNO 3 crystals and pores with NaNO 3 solution behaved as a highly efficient semi-permeable membrane, i.e. osmotic processes occurred. In the main part of the leached layers, a high average NaNO 3 concentration and related to this a high osmotic pressure prevailed, explaining why in the studied range the swelling was not measurably affected by the counterpressure. At the interface with the stainless steel filters, a low permeable re-compressed bitumen layer was formed, contributing to the slow release of NaNO 3 compared to the water uptake rate. A fully coupled Chemo-Hydro-Mechanical (CHM) constitutive model has been developed that integrates the key processes involved and that reproduces satisfactorily the results; this is presented in another work. Combination of the experimental and the modelling study allow to conclude that under semi

  6. Annotated bibliography on selected areas of coal mining research and development. Report prepared for the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The Congressional Research Service has completed an annotated bibliography on coal mining research and development. Although the completion of the study was delayed in order to permit CRS analysts to search the libraries of Bituminous Coal, Research Inc., and the Bureau of Mines in the Pittsburgh area, current re-emphasis on the use of coal as an energy source indicates a sustained relevance. The bibliography presents key references to coal-mining R and D under six subject headings keyed to issues of central concern in coal production: (1) mine health and safety, (2) methane recovery, (3) 1-hour rescuer, (4) use of diesels underground, (5) coal preparation, and (6) manpower development in coal mining.

  7. Development prospects for Bazhenov formation bituminous claystones in the southeast of the West Siberian Plate (Tomsk Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozerov, V. B.; Baranov, V. E.; Dmitriev, A. Y.

    2015-02-01

    The article considers the use of time-tested bituminous shale development technologies in the southeast of the West Siberian Plate (Tomsk Region). A research target is the bituminous claystones of the Bazhenov formation. The Bazhenov formation was divided into stratigraphic units, and the sequence of forming these units within the territory under study was restored on the basis of the peculiarities of the Bazhenov formation section structure with gamma-ray logging data. The joint analysis of logs (gamma-ray logging, resistivity logging, SP logging, neutron gamma-ray logging, induction logging) and core data revealed the wide development of carbonatization processes in the lower stratigraphic units of the Bazhenov formation, whereas the upper, most bituminous units do not have the signs of carbonatization. It is a favorable factor for using the existing technologies of producing hydrocarbons from analogous sedimentary deposits. Considering the degree of lithological disconnection of an oilbearing object from adjacent reservoir formations allows making a conclusion that the application of the existing technologies for developing bituminous claystones can be implemented only in the insignificant territory of the area under study where the Bazhenov formation overlies Georgiev formation claystones being over 8 meters thick. To develop the oil and gas potential of the Bazhenov formation in other territories, there will be a need for new technologies that allow forming a fracture-cavernous matrix in a carbonate rock.

  8. Organic Material and Trace Elements of Bituminous Rocks in the Ozank(o)y Field, Ankara, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bituminous rocks in the Ozank(o)y (Ankara) field are different from those of the Paleocenecontent of organic material-rich rocks in the Ozank(o)y (Ankara) field is 3.66-40.72 % wt averaging 14.34%. The dominant organic materials are algae/amorphous accompanied by minor amount of herbaceous material (The dominant kerogen type is Type-Ⅰ with a limited amount of Type-Ⅱ kerogen.).The bituminous rocks in the Ozank(o)y field are enriched in heavy metals such as Ni, Mn, As and Cr. In comparison with the average enrichment values of elements, Ni, Mn, As and Cr in bituminous shales of the Ozank(o)y field are as about 4.38, 14.93, 10.90 and 5.58 times as average values. The average concentrations of these heavy metals are also as high as 215 × 10-6, 828 × 10-6, 58.54 × 10-6, and 148× 10-6 respectively. In addition, sorption properties of clay and organic materials are also important for metal enrichments in the bituminous shales.

  9. Ash formation under pressurized pulverized coal combustion conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila Latorre, Aura Cecilia

    Coal combustion is a source of inorganic particulate matter (ash), which can deposit in boilers and also be emitted into the atmosphere becoming part of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). In order to decrease coal combustion emissions per unit of power produced, higher efficiency systems have been proposed, including systems operating at elevated pressures. These new operating conditions will affect pollutant formation mechanisms, particularly those associated with the conversion of mineral matter to ash. Ash particle formation mechanisms are particularly sensitive to changes in pressure as they are related to the structure of coal char particles at early stages of combustion. To assess the importance of pressure on ash particle formation, pyrolyzed chars and ash particles from pressurized pulverized combustion of two bituminous and one subbituminous U.S. coals at operating pressures up to 30 atm were studied. Pressure changes the distribution of char particle types, changing the spatial distribution of the minerals during the combustion process and therefore affecting particle formation mechanisms. Chars were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and classified into two different types (cenospheric and solid) depending on porosity and wall thickness. A correlation for estimating the amount of these cenospheric char particles was then proposed for bituminous coals based on the operating conditions and coal maceral analysis. The ash particle size distribution of the coals combusted at different operating pressures was measured using Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM). The results of the char characterization and ash particle size distribution measurements were then incorporated into an ash particle formation algorithm that was proposed and implemented. The model predicts ash particle size and composition distributions at elevated pressures under conditions of complete char burnout. Ash predictions were calculated by first

  10. Soot, organics, and ultrafine ash from air- and oxy-fired coal combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Andersen, Myrrha E.

    2016-10-19

    Pulverized bituminous coal was burned in a 10. W externally heated entrained flow furnace under air-combustion and three oxy-combustion inlet oxygen conditions (28, 32, and 36%). Experiments were designed to produce flames with practically relevant stoichiometric ratios (SR. =1.2-1.4) and constant residence times (2.3. s). Size-classified fly ash samples were collected, and measurements focused on the soot, elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC) composition of the total and ultrafine (<0.6. μm) fly ash. Results indicate that although the total fly ash carbon, as measured by loss on ignition, was always acceptably low (<2%) with all three oxy-combustion conditions lower than air-combustion, the ultrafine fly ash for both air-fired and oxy-fired combustion conditions consists primarily of carbonaceous material (50-95%). Carbonaceous components on particles <0.6. μm measured by a thermal optical method showed that large fractions (52-93%) consisted of OC rather than EC, as expected. This observation was supported by thermogravimetric analysis indicating that for the air, 28% oxy, and 32% oxy conditions, 14-71% of this material may be OC volatilizing between 100. C and 550. C with the remaining 29-86% being EC/soot. However, for the 36% oxy condition, OC may comprise over 90% of the ultrafine carbon with a much smaller EC/soot contribution. These data were interpreted by considering the effects of oxy-combustion on flame attachment, ignition delay, and soot oxidation of a bituminous coal, and the effects of these processes on OC and EC emissions. Flame aerodynamics and inlet oxidant composition may influence emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from a bituminous coal. During oxy-coal combustion, judicious control of inlet oxygen concentration and placement may be used to minimize organic HAP and soot emissions.

  11. Biological markers in bitumens and pyrolyzates of Upper Cretaceous bituminous chalks from the Ghareb Formation (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullkötter, Jürgen; Aizenshtat, Zeev; Spiro, Baruch

    1984-01-01

    The sterane and triterpane distributions of three bituminous chalks from the Upper Cretaceous Ghareb Formation (Israel) were investigated both in the original extractable bitumens and in extracts obtained after pyrolysis of whole rock and isolated kerogen samples at 450°C. Pyrolysis was performed in a closed system under hydrous (whole rock) and anhydrous conditions (isolated kerogens). The carbon number distributions of steranes and triterpanes differ significantly between original bitumen and pyrolyzates. Unlike the bitumens in which diasteranes were not detected, the anhydrous pyrolyzates contain small amounts of diasteranes. The presence of water during pyrolysis leads to an increase of sterane isomerization, the abundant formation of diasteranes and an increase of the 18α( H)- trisnorneohopane/17α( H)- trisnorhopane ratio. Sterane isomerization maturation parameters show a closer match between original bitumen and pyrolyzates after pyrolysis in a closed system when compared with an open system.

  12. Coal mining: coal in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Arguelles Martinez, A.; Lugue Cabal, V.

    1984-01-01

    The Survey of Spanish Coal Resources published by the Centre for Energy Studies in 1979 is without doubt the most serious and full study on this subject. The coal boom of the last few years and the important role it will play in the future, as well as the wealth of new information which has come to light in the research carried out in Spanish coalfields by both the public and private sector, prompted the General Mine Management of the Ministry of Industry and Energy to commission IGME to review and update the previous Survey of Spanish Coal Resources of November 1981.

  13. Effects of coal properties on acetylene formation and coking in H{sub 2}/Ar plasma pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, W.; Lu, Y.; Liu, S.; Xie, K. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2004-10-01

    The formation of acetylene by coal plasma pyrolysis is strongly dependent on coal properties. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the effects of coal properties on the acetylene formation and coking in plasma pyrolysis in H{sub 2}/Ar. 12 kinds of coals with different coal rank were chosen and the effects of coal properties, including the content of volatile matter, oxygen and ash, on the yields of acetylene and coking were investigated in details. The results show that the bituminous coals containing the volatile matter from 30 to 40% have higher acetylene yield, while the coals with high oxygen content have lower acetylene yield, which corresponds to an increase in carbon conversion to carbon oxides. The content of mineral matter in coal has no significant relationship with the acetylene yield though it would increase the formation of CO. The higher mineral-matter content in coal is found to have a specific effect on the coking. The results of the tests by adding SiO{sub 2} and sands indicate that the high content of mineral-matter would increase the coke formation and affect the configuration of coke. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Occupational and traning requirements for expanded coal production (as of October 1980). [Forecasting to 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    This study was initiated because of the anticipated rapid growth in trained personnel requirements in bituminous coal mining, and because the industry had already experienced significant problems in recruiting skilled manpower in the course of its employment expansion during the 1970's. Employment in bituminous coal mining is projected to nearly double, from 234,000 in 1977 to 456,000 in 1995, as the net result of a projected threefold increase in coal output to nearly 2.0 billion in 1995 and of an expected significant improvement in overall productivity. A large proportion of current coal mining employees are in occupations which require significant amounts of training for effective work performance. Employment growth to 1955 will be most rapid in those occupations requiring the greatest training or educational preparation. The new training infrastructure which has emerged to meet these needs includes both internal, company-operated training programs and those offered by various external providers. Among the latter are: Vocational schools, community colleges, and university extension departments; public agencies, such as MSHA and state mining departments; coal industry trade associations; and vendors or training consultant groups. The Conference Board survey of coal industry training programs, conducted in late 1979, was designed to provide comprehensive data on the scope of the coal industry's own training activities and on related training issues, based on a mail questionnaire survey addressed to all companies producing 300,000 or more tons per year. The training programs are described with emphasis on time changes, regional effects and implications for a coordinated plan.

  15. Variations in coal characteristics and their possible implications for CO2 sequestration: Tanquary injection site, southeastern Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, D.G.; Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Rupp, J.A.; Harpalani, S.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Regional Sequestration Partnership program, the potential for sequestering CO2 in the largest bituminous coal reserve in United States - the Illinois Basin - is being assessed at the Tanquary site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois. To accomplish the main project objectives, which are to determine CO2 injection rates and storage capacity, we developed a detailed coal characterization program. The targeted Springfield Coal occurs at 274m (900ft) depth, is 2.1m (7ft) thick, and is of high volatile B bituminous rank, having an average vitrinite reflectance (Ro) of 0.63%. Desorbed Springfield Coal gas content in cores from four wells ~15 to ~30m (50 to 100ft) apart varies from 4.7-6.6cm3/g (150 to 210scf/ton, dmmf) and consists, generally, of >92% CH4 with lesser amounts of N2 and then CO2. Adsorption isotherms indicate that at least three molecules of CO2 can be stored for each displaced CH4 molecule. Whole seam petrographic composition, which affects sequestration potential, averages 76.5% vitrinite, 4.2% liptinite, 11.6% inertinite, and 7.7% mineral matter. Sulfur content averages 1.59%. Well-developed coal cleats with 1 to 2cm spacing contain partial calcite and/or kaolinite fillings that may decrease coal permeability. The shallow geophysical induction log curves show much higher resistivity in the lower part of the Springfield Coal than the medium or deep curves because of invasion by freshwater drilling fluid, possibly indicating higher permeability. Gamma-ray and bulk density vary, reflecting differences in maceral, ash, and pyrite content. Because coal properties vary across the basin, it is critical to characterize injection site coals to best predict the potential for CO2 injection and storage capacity. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Direct comparison of XAFS spectroscopy and sequential extraction for arsenic speciation in coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Frank E.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.A.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The speciation of arsenic in an Ohio bituminous coal and a North Dakota lignite has been examined by the complementary methods of arsenic XAFS spectroscopy and sequential extraction by aqueous solutions of ammonium acetate, HCl, HF, and HNO3. In order to facilitate a more direct comparison of the two methods, the arsenic XAFS spectra were obtained from aliquots of the coal prepared after each stage of the leaching procedure. For the aliquots, approximately linear correlations (r2 > 0.98 for the Ohio coal, > 0.90 for the ND lignite) were observed between the height of the edge-step in the XAFS analysis and the concentration of arsenic measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Results from the leaching sequence indicate that there are two major arsenic forms present in both coals; one is removed by leaching with HCl and the other by HNO3. Whereas the XAFS spectral signatures of the arsenic leached by HCl are compatible with arsenate for both coals, the arsenic leached by HNO3 is identified as arsenic associated with pyrite for the Ohio coal and as an As3+ species for the North Dakota lignite. Minor arsenate forms persist in both coals after the final leaching with nitric acid. The arsenate forms extracted in HCl are believed to be oxidation products derived from the other major arsenic forms upon exposure of the pulverized coals to air.

  17. Laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS): Novel applications for coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, C.A.; Spears, D.A.

    1999-07-01

    Laser Ablation - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has enormous potential in coal research. Element concentrations are determined with limits of detection currently in the parts per billion range, whilst spatial resolution as low as 10 microns can be achieved using the CETAC Technologies LSX-100 laser ablation system. Calibration of the LA-ICP-MS systems is notoriously difficult but in this paper the authors review two different techniques used in Sheffield, which allow trace element concentrations of whole coals (bituminous) and minerals and macerals within the coal to be determined. The first technique involves calibrating the system with PF grade coal samples in order that trace element concentrations can directly be determined after ablation of a solid coal or pressed coal sample. Using this technique, potentially hazardous trace elements such as As, Cd, Pb and Hg can be detected and measured even in the low parts per billion concentration (mg/Kg) range. The second application utilizes the spatial resolution of the laser to measure element concentrations in individual coal components. In this paper the results from ablating pyrite framboids in polished sections of the coal are discussed. Elemental information is obtained throughout the ablation procedure and this is then calibrated against the Fe content in order to establish the concentration of an element per 1% pyritic iron.

  18. Coal-oil coprocessing at HTI - development and improvement of the technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalzer, R.H.; Lee, L.K.; Hu, J.; Comolli, A. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Co-Processing refers to the combined processing of coal and petroleum-derived heavy oil feedstocks. The coal feedstocks used are those typically utilized in direct coal liquefaction: bituminous, subbituminous, and lignites. Petroleum-derived oil, is typically a petroleum residuum, containing at least 70 W% material boiling above 525{degrees}C. The combined coal and oil feedstocks are processed simultaneously with the dual objective of liquefying the coal and upgrading the petroleum-derived residuum to lower boiling (<525{degrees}C) premium products. HTI`s investigation of the Co-Processing technology has included work performed in laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The concept of co-processing technology is quite simple and a natural outgrowth of the work done with direct coal liquefaction. A 36 month program to evaluate new process concepts in coal-oil coprocessing at the bench-scale was begun in September 1994 and runs until September 1997. Included in this continuous bench-scale program are provisions to examine new improvements in areas such as: interstage product separation, feedstock concentrations (coal/oil), improved supported/dispersed catalysts, optimization of reactor temperature sequencing, and in-line hydrotreating. This does not preclude other ideas from DOE contracts and other sources that can lead to improved product quality and economics. This research work has led to important findings which significantly increased liquid yields, improved product quality, and improved process economics.

  19. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid--solid reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani [U.S. Department of Energy/NETL; Riley, Jarrett [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tian, Hanjing [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Richards, George [U.S. Department of Energy/NETL

    2016-01-01

    Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe2O4) and calcium ferrite (CaFe2O4). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe2O4 and CaFe2O4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO2) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  20. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, Frank J; Schields, Gene L; Jha, Mehesh C; Moro, Nick

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel™ column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications.

  1. Oil-generating potential of Tertiary coals and other organic-rich sediments of the Nyalau Formation, onshore Sarawak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasiah, A.W. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Geology

    1999-02-01

    The oil-generating potential of coals and other organic-rich sediments from the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene Nyalau Formation, the offshore extension of which is believed to be a major source rock, is evaluated. Coals of the Nyalau Formation are typically dominated by vitrinite, with moderate and low amounts of exinite and inertinite, respectively. Significant amounts of clay minerals are present in these coals and those containing between 15 to 65% mineral matter by volume are termed carbargilite. The samples analysed range from sub-bituminous to high-volatile bituminous rank. Good oil-generating potential is anticipated from these coals and carbargilites with moderate to rich exinite content (15-35%). This is supported by their high hydrogen indices. Petrographically, the most significant evidence of the oil-generating potential of these coals is the generation of petroleum-like materials (exsudatinite) visible under the microscope. The precursor of exsudatinite is the maceral bituminite which readily expels or mobilizes to hydrocarbon-like material in the form of oil smears.

  2. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  3. Blended coals for improved coal water slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Tian-ye; WU Guo-guang; LI Qi-hui; SUN Zhi-qiang; ZENG Fang; WANG Guang-you; MENG Xian-liang

    2008-01-01

    Three coal samples of different ranks were used to study the effect of coal blending on the preparation of Coal Water Slurry (CWS). The results show that by taking advantage of two kinds of coal, the coal concentration in slurry made from hard-to-pulp coal can be effectively improved and increased by 3%-5% generally. DLT coal (DaLiuTa coal mine) is very poor in slurryability and the stability and rheology of the resulting slurry are not very good. When the amount of easily slurried coal is more than 30%, all properties of the CWS improve and the CWS meets the requirements for use as fuel. Coalification, porosity, surface oxygenic functional groups, zeta potential and grindability have a great effect on the performance of blended coal CWS. This leads to some differences in performance between the slurry made from a single coal and slurry made from blended coal.

  4. Relations between flash pyrolysis reactivity and oil/gas products from coals of different rank; Sekitankado no kotonaru shushu no sekitan no flash pyrolysis hannosei to gas oyobi eki seiseibutsu no kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, T.; Kishino, M.; Sakanishi, K.; Korai, Y.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    Curie point flash pyrolysis (FP) reactivity was studied experimentally using three kinds of coals with different coal ranks such as Yallourn brown coal, Tanitoharum sub-bituminous coal and Wandoan sub-bituminous coal. Experiment was performed using a curie point pyrolyzer in carrier gas of 20ml/min in gas flow rate at 450, 590 and 740{degree}C for 5sec. The experimental results were as follows. Each gas component obviously increased at 450-590{degree}C, however, C4-C6 gases drastically decreased at 590-740{degree}C accompanying reduction of the whole gas quantity. All of each polar component remarkably increased at 450-590{degree}C. Yallourn brown coal with high Owt%, in particular, contained a large amount of alkyl-hydroxybenzene group. The amount of cresol of all of three coal specimens also increased at 740{degree}C. It was thus suggested that this is coal constituent molecules derived from cutting of methylene-ether bridged bond by higher-temperature FP. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  6. Investigations into the pyrolytic behaviour of coal/biomass blends using thermogravimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuthaluru, H.B. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2004-04-01

    Investigations into the pyrolytic behaviour during co-pyrolysis of coal, biomass materials and coal/biomass blends prepared at different ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70 and 50:50) have been conducted using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus. The coal sample selected was Collie sub-bituminous coal from Western Australia, while wood waste (WW) and wheat straw (WS) were used as biomass samples. Three thermal events were identified during the pyrolysis. The first two were dominated by the biomass pyrolysis, while the third was linked to the coal pyrolysis, which occurred at much higher temperatures. No interactions were seen between the coal and biomass during co-pyrolysis. The pyrolytic characteristics of the blends followed those of the parent fuels in an additive manner. Among the tested blends, 20:80 blends showed the lowest activation energies of 90.9 and 78.7 kJ mol{sup -1} for coal/WW and coal/WS blends respectively. The optimum blend ratio for pyrolysis of coal/WS was 50:50 with a high degradation rate in all the thermal events and a higher mass loss over the course of the co-pyrolysis compared to coal/WW blends examined. The reaction orders in these experiments were in the range of 0.21-1.60, thus having a significant effect on the overall reaction rate. Besides the pyrolysis of coal alone, the 50:50 coal/biomass blends had the highest reaction rate, ranging 1x10{sup 9}-2x10{sup 9} min{sup -1}. The experimental results may provide useful data for power generation industries for the development of co-firing options with biomass. (Author)

  7. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  8. The application of spectrum standardization method for carbon analysis in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiongwei; Fu, Yangting; Li, Zheng; Liu, Jianming; Ni, Weidou

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbon content in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is limited by its low measurement precision and accuracy. A spectrum standardization method was proposed to achieve both reproducible and accurate results for the quantitative analysis of carbon content in coal with LIBS. The proposed method utilized the molecular carbon emissions to compensate the diminution of atomic carbon emission caused by matrix effect. The compensated carbon line intensities were further converted into an assumed standard state with fixed plasma temperature, electron density, and total number density of elemental carbon, which is proportional to its concentration in the coal samples. In addition, in order to obtained better compensation for total carbon number density fluctuations, an iterative algorithm was applied, which is different from our previous standardization calculations. The modified spectrum standardization model was applied to the measurement of carbon content in 24 bituminous coal sa...

  9. Priority pollutants and associated constituents in untreated and treated discharges from coal mining or processing facilities in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Keith B.C. Brady,

    2015-01-01

    Clean sampling and analysis procedures were used to quantify more than 70 inorganic constituents, including 35 potentially toxic or hazardous constituents, organic carbon, and other characteristics of untreated (influent) and treated (effluent) coal-mine discharges (CMD) at 38 permitted coal-mining or coal-processing facilities in the bituminous coalfield and 4 facilities in the anthracite coalfield of Pennsylvania. Of the 42 facilities sampled during 2011, 26 were surface mines, 11 were underground mines, and 5 were coal refuse disposal operations. Treatment of CMD with caustic soda (NaOH), lime (CaO or Ca(OH)2), flocculent, or limestone was ongoing at 21%, 40%, 6%, and 4% of the facilities, respectively; no chemicals were added at the remaining facilities. All facilities with CMD treatment incorporated structures for active or passive aeration and settling of metal-rich precipitate.

  10. Treatment of Egyptian Maghara coal by plasma ozone synthesized by silent discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Salem, M A; Garamoon, A A; Hassouba, M A

    2003-01-01

    A sample of pyrite rich bituminous coal collected from the main coal seam of Maghara mine, northern sinai, was treated by ozone plasma. The latter was synthesized using silent discharge method (10 kv a.c. and 50 hz). The room temperature Moessbauer spectra of untreated coal sample was easily fitted to two doublet, whose parameters matched those of pyrite (FeS sub 2) and sulfate (FeSO sub 4.H sub 2 O) in addition to hematite. After treatment by ozone plasma, a doublet ascribed to pyrite was observed. The extent of pyrite oxidation to jarosite (Fe sub 2 (SO sub 4) sub 3. nH sub 2 O) was monitored by their relative spectral areas, the incomplete oxidation of pyrite may be attributed to the presence of calcium sulfate layer which acts a screen of ozone.

  11. An assessment of acid wash and bioleaching pre-treating options to remove mercury from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura C. Dronen; April E. Moore; Evguenii I. Kozliak; Wayne S. Seames [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is expected to begin regulating the release of vapor-phase mercury from coal-fired power plants in the year 2007. Chemical pre-treatment methods were investigated for mercury removal effectiveness from pulverized low-sulfur North Dakota lignite coal. More limited results were obtained for a pulverized high-sulfur Blacksville bituminous coal. A two-step acid wash treatment showed removal rates of 60 90%, compared to one-step treatments with concentrated HCl, which yielded removals of 30 38%. Removal effectiveness is similar for first step solvents of water, pH 5.0 acid, or pH 2.0 acid followed by concentrated HCl as the second step solvent, and is independent of first step incubation time. Neither of two bacterial strains, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and T. thiooxidans, was found effective for mercury removal. 23 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. Conspray dynamic sleeve piston coal feeder. Phase II. Verification tests. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-26

    This report details the performance of Phase II: Verification Tests of the Conspray dynamic sleeve piston coal feeder. The machine performed for 200 hours at 700 psi backpressure, utilizing a 70% to 200 mesh Utah bituminous coal as feedstock. All test work was satisfactorily completed. A post-test inspection was performed. A report of component wear and failures incurred in testing is included as well as suggestions for machine upgrades. The overall conclusion is that the dynamic sleeve piston feeder has proven its ability to operate safely and reliably. When problems have occurred, the machine has demonstrated inherent safety by shutting down without endangering process or personnel. With the recommended improvements incorporated into the feeder, the unit will be ready for installation on a pilot scale coal gasifier. 9 figures, 11 tables.

  13. Trace elements in co-combustion of solid recovered fuel and coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Trace element partitioning in co-combustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF) was studied in an entrained flow reactor. The experiments were carried out at conditions similar to pulverized coal combustion, with SRF shares of 7.9 wt.% (wet basis), 14.8 wt.% and 25.0 wt...... linearly with their content in fuel ash. This linear tendency was affected when the fuels were mixed with additives. The volatility of trace elements during combustion was assessed by applying a relative enrichment (RE) factor, and TEM–EDS analysis was conducted to provide qualitative interpretations.......%. In addition, the effect of additives such as NaCl, PVC, ammonium sulphate, and kaolinite on trace element partitioning was investigated. The trace elements studied were As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn, since these elements were significantly enriched in SRF as compared to coal. During the experiments, bottom ash...

  14. Extraction of trace elements in coal for determination by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry using N,N-dimethylformamide and ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujuru, Munyaradzi; Moyo, Stanley; McCrindle, Robert I.; Mokgalaka-Matlala, Ntebogeng

    2012-10-01

    Coal usage continues to increase due to global energy demands. Increasing environmental monitoring and concern means that better methods of trace element determination are always required. This study investigated the use of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), Triton X-100, HNO3 and ultrasound to extract trace elements (Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and V) from coal prior to analysis using ICP-OES and ICP-MS. It was found that the proportion extracted was lowest for V (17%) and highest for Pb (100%). Partial dissolution of the coal particles used in the slurries was demonstrated using scanning electron microscopy studies. Trace element determination of two reference material coal samples demonstrated that this method of extraction is effective. Trace elements in three bituminous coals from different seams being mined in South Africa were determined.

  15. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  16. Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob

    This Ph.D. thesis describes an experimental and modeling investigation of the thermal conversion of coal and an experimental investigation of the emission of NO from char combustion in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres. The motivation for the work has been the prospective use of the technology “Oxy......-Fuel Combustion” as a mean of CO2 abatement in large scale energy conversion. Entrained Flow Reactor (EFR) experiments have been conducted in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 mixtures in the temperature interval 1173 K – 1673 K using inlet O2 concentrations between 5 – 28 vol. %. Bituminous coal has been used as fuel in all....... % it was found that char conversion rate was lowered in O2/CO2 compared to O2/N2. This is caused by the lower diffusion coefficient of O2 in CO2 (~ 22 %) that limits the reaction rate in zone III compared to combustion in O2/N2. Using char sampled in the EFR experiments ThermoGravimetric Analyzer (TGA...

  17. Experimental investigation on NO{sub x} emission and carbon burnout from a radially biased pulverized coal whirl burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Shan; Hui, Shi' en; Zhou, Qulan; Xu, Tongmo; Hu, Hongli [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Taisheng [Dongfang Boiler Group Co., Ltd., Zigong, Sichuan 643001 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Experiments have been performed on 1 MW pulverized coal (pc) furnace in order to investigate the characteristics of coal combustion and NO{sub x} emission from a new type of radially biased dual register whirl burner. The burner is characterized by a primary air pipe with a continuously changing cross-section and an impact ring. The mixture of pulverized coal and air inside the primary pipe is split into two streams, which are the outer pc rich annular jet and the inner pc lean annular jet respectively. Three Chinese coals, which are high rank bituminous coal, low rank bituminous coal and meager coal respectively, are used in the experiments. We examine the influences of various parameters such as the relative position of the over-fire air (OFA) nozzle, over-fire air ratio (19.1%), primary air ratio, inner secondary air ratio, outer secondary air ratio, inner secondary air swirling intensity, and outer secondary air swirling intensity on NO{sub x} formation and unburned carbon in fly ash. With the primary air ratio increasing from 13.4% to 23.4%, the value of the NO{sub x} emission of the SH coal decreases by 26.7% at first, and then increases by 21.7%. In contrast, the value of the carbon in fly ash (C{sub FA}) increases by 40.1% at first, and then decreases by 58.3%. According to the experimental results, the influence of each individual parameter on NO{sub x} formation and unburned carbon in fly ash agrees well with the existing literature. In this study, the influences of various combinations of these parameters are also examined, thus providing some reference for the design of the radial biased whirl burner, the configuration of the furnace and the distribution of the air. (author)

  18. A Study of Adsorptive Characteristics of Australian Coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Y. P.; Tsai, L. L.

    2012-04-01

    Ever since the Kyoto Protocol, controlling carbon dioxide emission and reducing its content in atmosphere are very important environmental issues up to today. One of the effective methods for permanent sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 is to inject CO2 into deep, unminable coal seams and recover coal bed methane at the same time. CO2-ECBM technology had been proved to be very promising to meet the needs of both environment and energy. Beside other external environment factors, capacity of CO2 adsorption and CH4 desorption are the most influencing factors in selection of sites for the geological storage of CO2. Therefore, the objective of this study is to understand the relationship between gas adsorption and CO2 sequestration, by various experiments for the characterization of Australian of coals. Generally speaking, coal seam gas comprises mostly of CH4, CO2, C2H6, and N2. However, some of the Australian coals were reported with significant amount of CO2 up to 90%, which might strongly affect their capacity of CO2 capture and storage (CCS). High to medium volatile bituminous coals from Sydney Basin and Bowen Basin, southeast Australia were selected in this study. Experiments include maceral composition and vitrinite reflectance measurements, petrographic analysis, Proximate analysis, Ultimate analysis, specific surface area analysis as well as CO2 and CH4 adsorption experiments were performed. Parameters for difference adsorption functions (Langmuir, BET, D-R and D-A) were then calculated to fit their adsorption isotherms the best fitting curve can then be found. Among these adsorption functions, Langmuir is the most basic and commonly used function theory. The results of all experiments were synthesized to discuss the relations among each other, so as to establish the relationship between gas adsorption and coal characteristics.

  19. Assessment of an Impulse GPR Antenna Abilities in Investigation of Transversal Cracks of the Bituminous Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiński, L.; Sudyka, J.

    2012-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique is commonly used for detection of internal singularities of construction structure. The method is particularly efficient in the case of linear horizontal objects when profile scanning is being performed in the direction perpendicular to object elongation and polarization of the electric field is parallel to the elongation. Then the singular object manifests itself in the echogram as a scattering hyperbola. Similar response is generated by an object having shape close to a vertical half plane with horizontal edge, when the edge acts like the scattering linear object. The use of GPR technique for investigation of transversal cracks in the bituminous pavement would seem to be promising, but numerous paradoxes occur just at the beginning tests. Even well visible cracks of more than ten millimeters thickness doesn't generate noticeable GPR response, while thinner ones sometimes can produce strong response but in the deeper interior of the pavement. Thus arise a more general question: what the GPR technique can tell us about the cracks? Trying to study this problem some laboratory tests were performed to estimate efficiency of signal generation by structures simulating idealized cracks' shapes. Next long-term (several years) visual observation and repeated GPR scanning was performed on the three road sections (each one of several hundred meters length) with heavy traffic, where ongoing cracking process occurs. The preliminary measurements were directed to obtain the proper way of scanning. The main aim of the analysis was to find GPR characteristics of cracks that can be noticed on echograms. It was performed by detailed correlation of the visually observed cracks position with echograms using decimeter precision. These efforts provided a list of diagnostic GPR characteristics of cracks and some provisional scale of their intensity. In several cases the cracks were probed by drillings to recognize structures responsible for signal

  20. Research on coal staged conversion poly-generation system based on fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingjiang Ni; Chao Li; Mengxiang Fang; Qinhui Wang; Zhongyang Luo; Kefa Cen

    2014-01-01

    A new coal staged conversion poly-generation system combined coal combustion and pyrolysis has been developed for clean and high efficient utilization of coal. Coal is the first pyrolysed in a fluidized pyrolyzer. The pyrolysis gas is then purified and used for chemical product or liquid fuel production. Tar is collected during purification and can be processed to extract high value product and to make liquid fuels by hydro-refining. Semi-coke from the pyrolysis reactor is burned in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor for heat or power generation. The system can realize coal multi-product generation and has a great potential to increase coal utilization value. A 1 MW poly-generation system pilot plant and a 12 MW CFB gas, tar, heat and power poly-generation system was erected. The experimental study focused on the two fluidized bed operation and characterization of gas, tar and char yields and compositions. The results showed that the system could operate stable, and produce about 0.12 m3/kg gas with 22 MJ/m3 heating value and about 10 wt%tar when using Huainan bituminous coal under pyrolysis temperature between 500 and 600 ?C. The produced gases were mainly H2, CH4, CO, CO2, C2H4, C2H6, C3H6 and C3H8. The CFB combustor can burn semi-coke steadily. The application prospect of the new system was discussed.

  1. Estimating thermodynamic properties of coal, char, tar and ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisermann, W.; Johnson, P.; Conger, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Methods for predicting the specific heat, enthalpy, and entropy of coal, char, tar and ash as a function of temperature and material composition are presented. The standard entropy of coal is approximated by comparing the behavior of the standard entropies of a number of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons as a function of the variables H/(C + N), O/(C + N), N/(C + N), and S/(C + N), where the variables are the atomic fractions of the respective elements. The standard entropy of a bituminous coal was found to be about 20 kJ/kmol carbon K and of the char to be about 10 kJ/kmol carbon K. Estimates of the enthalpy difference between 273 K and temperatures above 273 K deviated from published data by about 8.49% for chars and 8.55% for coals on the average. Maximum deviations of 18.3% and 17.6% respectively were found. 10 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Preliminary investigation of the effects of coal-water slurry fuels on the combustion in GE coal fueled diesel engine (Task 1. 1. 2. 2. 1, Fuels)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    In prior work with the coal fired diesel research engine, a necessity to determine the sensitivity of the engine to a wider range of fuels was resolved and included in the R and D Test Plan submitted on 2/9/89. In general, the economic viability and universal acceptance of the commercial engine will be a factor of its ability to tolerate the widest range of source fuels with minimal fuel beneficiation. As detailed in the R and D Test Plan, a preliminary investigation on the effects of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels on the combustion in a GE single cylinder test engine was conducted. The following conclusions are obtained from this investigation. All the test CWS fuels were successfully burned in the GE engine combustion system. They include: 3 to 15 microns mean particle size; 0.7 to 2.8% ash level; KY Blue Gem and PA Mariana bituminous coal, WY Kemmer and Spring Creek Sub-Bituminous coal; coal beneficiated with physical and chemical processes; two kinds of additives for OTISCA CWS; and burnout is not effected by ash or particle size within the test range. For each kind of CWS fuel, the detail design parameters of the fuel injection system has to be compatible. With sufficiently high fuel injection pressure, the 3 micron mean particle size OTISCA fuel burns faster than the 5 micron ones. For OTISCA fuel, the burn rate using Ammonium Lignosulfonate as additive is faster than using Ammonium Condensed Naphthalene Sulfonate. Appendices contain data on heat release, fuel characterization reports from two laboratories, general engine test data, and particulate size distribution. 3 refs.

  3. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  4. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  5. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  6. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  7. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  8. Analysis and modeling of 3D complex modulus tests on hot and warm bituminous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Nguyen Hoang; Sauzéat, Cédric; Di Benedetto, Hervé; González-León, Juan A.; Barreto, Gilles; Nicolaï, Aurélia; Jakubowski, Marc

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the results of laboratory testing of hot and warm bituminous mixtures containing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP). Complex modulus measurements, using the tension-compression test on cylindrical specimens, were conducted to determine linear viscoelastic (LVE) behavior. Sinusoidal cyclic loadings, with strain amplitude of approximately 50ṡ10-6, were applied at several temperatures (from -25 to +45 °C) and frequencies (from 0.03 Hz to 10 Hz). In addition to axial stresses and strains, radial strains were also measured. The complex modulus E ∗ and complex Poisson's ratios ν ∗ were then obtained in two perpendicular directions. Measured values in these two directions do not indicate anisotropy on Poisson's ratio. The time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP) was verified with good approximation in one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) conditions for the same values of shift factor. Experimental results were modeled using the 2S2P1D model previously developed at the University of Lyon/ENTPE. In addition, specific analysis showed that eventual damage created during complex modulus test is very small and is equivalent to the effect of an increase of temperature of about 0.25 °C.

  9. Mercury capture by selected Bulgarian fly ashes: Influence of coal rank and fly ash carbon pore structure on capture efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, I.J.; Hower, J.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Vassilev, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury capture by fly ash C was investigated at five lignite- and subbituminous-coal-burning Bulgarian power plants (Republika, Bobov Dol, Maritza East 2, Maritza East 3, and Sliven). Although the C content of the ashes is low, never exceeding 1.6%, the Hg capture on a unit C basis demonstrates that the low-rank-coal-derived fly ash carbons are more efficient in capturing Hg than fly ash carbons from bituminous-fired power plants. While some low-C and low-Hg fly ashes do not reveal any trends of Hg versus C, the 2nd and, in particular, the 3rd electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows at the Republika power plant do have sufficient fly ash C range and experience flue gas sufficiently cool to capture measurable amounts of Hg. The Republika 3rd ESP row exhibits an increase in Hg with increasing C, as observed in other power plants, for example, in Kentucky power plants burning Appalachian-sourced bituminous coals. Mercury/C decreases with an increase in fly ash C, suggesting that some of the C is isolated from the flue gas stream and does not contribute to Hg capture. Mercury capture increases with an increase in Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and micropore surface area. The differences in Hg capture between the Bulgarian plants burning low-rank coal and high volatile bituminous-fed Kentucky power plants suggests that the variations in C forms resulting from the combustion of the different ranks also influence the efficiency of Hg capture. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Studies of the fate of sulfur trioxide in coal-fired utility boilers based on modified selected condensation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Zhou, Hongcang; Jiang, Wu; Chen, Chien-Wei; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2010-05-01

    The formation of sulfur trioxide (SO(3)) in coal-fired utility boilers can have negative effects on boiler performance and operation, such as fouling and corrosion of equipment, efficiency loss in the air preheater (APH), increase in stack opacity, and the formation of PM(2.5). Sulfur trioxide can also compete with mercury when bonding with injected activated carbons. Tests in a lab-scale reactor confirmed there are major interferences between fly ash and SO(3) during SO(3) sampling. A modified SO(3) procedure to maximize the elimination of measurement biases, based on the inertial-filter-sampling and the selective-condensation-collecting of SO(3), was applied in SO(3) tests in three full-scale utility boilers. For the two units burning bituminous coal, SO(3) levels starting at 20 to 25 ppmv at the inlet to the selective catalytic reduction (SCR), increased slightly across the SCR, owing to catalytic conversion of SO(2) to SO(3,) and then declined in other air pollutant control device (APCD) modules downstream to approximately 5 ppmv and 15 ppmv at the two sites, respectively. In the unit burning sub-bituminous coal, the much lower initial concentration of SO(3) estimated to be approximately 1.5 ppmv at the inlet to the SCR was reduced to about 0.8 ppmv across the SCR and to about 0.3 ppmv at the exit of the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD). The SO(3) removal efficiency across the WFGD scrubbers at the three sites was generally 35% or less. Reductions in SO(3) across either the APH or the dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in units burning high-sulfur bituminous coal were attributed to operating temperatures being below the dew point of SO(3).

  11. Prediction and measurement of entrained flow coal gasification processes. Interim report, September 8, 1981-September 7, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Fletcher, T.H.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

    1984-01-31

    This volume reports interim experimental and theoretical results of the first two years of a three year study of entrained coal gasification with steam and oxygen. The gasifier facility and testing methods were revised and improved. The gasifier was also modified for high pressure operation. Six successful check-out tests at elevated pressure were performed (55, 75, 100, 130, 170, and 215 psig), and 8 successful mapping tests were performed with the Utah bituminous coal at an elevated pressure of 137.5 psig. Also, mapping tests were performed at atmospheric pressure with a Utah bituminous coal (9 tests) and with a Wyoming subbituminous coal (14 tests). The LDV system was used on the cold-flow facility to make additional nonreactive jets mixing measurements (local mean and turbulent velocity) that could be used to help validate the two-dimensional code. The previously completed two-dimensional entrained coal gasification code, PCGC-2, was evaluated through rigorous comparison with cold-flow, pulverized coal combustion, and entrained coal gasification data. Data from this laboratory were primarily used but data from other laboratories were used when available. A complete set of the data used has been compiled into a Data Book which is included as a supplemental volume of this interim report. A revised user's manual for the two-dimensional code has been prepared and is also included as a part of this interim report. Three technical papers based on the results of this study were published or prepared. 107 references, 57 figures, 35 tables.

  12. Effect of Colombian coal rank and its feeding technology on substitute natural gas production by entrained gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Pérez-Bayer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coal rank (from sub-bituminous to semi-anthracite and type of fuel feeding technology (slurry and dry on the production of substitute natural gas (SNG in entrained flow gasifiers is studied. Ten coals from important Colombian mines were selected. The process is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium using Aspen Plus, and its performance is evaluated in function of output parameters that include SNG heating value, Wobbe index, coal conversion efficiency, cold gas efficiency, process efficiency, global efficiency, and SNG production rate, among others. In descending order, the coal-to-SNG process improves energetically with the use of coals with: higher volatile-matter to fixed-carbon ratio, lower ash content, higher C+H/O ratio, and higher coal heating value. The overall energy efficiency of the slurry-feed technology (S-FT to produce SNG by gasification is 17% higher than the dry-feed technology (D-FT, possibly as a consequence of the higher CH4 concentration in the syngas (around 7 vol. % when the coal is fed as aqueous slurry. As the simulated SNG meets the natural gas (NG quality standards in Colombia, the substitute gaseous fuel could be directly transported through pipelines. Therefore, the coal-to-SNG process is a technically feasible and unconventional alternative for NG production.

  13. Coal - proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-14

    This Standard establishes a practice for the proximate analysis of coal, that is, the coal is analysed for the content of moisture, ash and volatile matter; fixed carbon is calculated. The standard provides a basis for the comparison of coals.

  14. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  15. Energy generation potential from coals of the Charqueadas Coalfield, RS, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa da Silva, Z. C.; Heemann, R.; Castro, L.; Ketzer, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Three coal seams, I2B (Inferior 2), I1F (Inferior 1) and MB, from the Charqueadas Coalfield located in the central-east region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil were studied on the basis of geological, petrographic, chemical and geochemical techniques and correlated to the SR1, SR2 and SR3 coal seams from the Santa Rita Coalfield. The Charqueadas Coalfield reserves reach 2,993x106 metric tons of coal distributed in six coal seams. The study of sedimentary and organic facies is made on the subsurface data from five boreholes drilled in the area. There show a well marked lateral facies change from sub aquatic to sub aerial environment, conditioned by both the water level variations and the irregular palaeotopography of the basement. The coals change from limnic to forest-terrestrial moor types characterized by variations of composition in terms of macerals, microlithotypes and mineral matter. The coals are rich in mineral matter (28 to 40%); the vitrinite content reaches 50 %, inertinite 44 % and liptinite varies from 10 to 30 %, in mineral matter free basis. Among the microlithotypes carbominerite and vitrite are predominant. Rank studies carried out by different methods (vitrinite reflectance, max and red-green quotient among others) gave conflicting results, which are explained by the strong bituminization of the vitrinite. However, agreement between fluorescence measurements and organic geochemical parameters (e.g. CPI values) confirm that the coals are of a High Volatile Bituminous B/C (ASTM) or Gasflammkohle (DIN) rank. Based on these characteristics, the Charqueadas coal seams show great potential for use in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) and Enhanced Coalbed Methane (ECBM) projects. Nowadays the state of Rio Grande do Sul is rapidly growing and needs to increase the energy efficiency to attend the industrial demands, filling the gap between supply and energy generation. As with conventional IGCC, UCG gas can be used to generate

  16. Combustion and NOx Emission Behavior of Chinese Coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHonggang; XIEKechang

    2002-01-01

    Seven Chinese coals ranking from anthracite to sub-bituminous from the Shanxi province were selected for study to forecast the combustion and NOx emission behavior.Three UK,one Indonesia and one South Africa coal was included in the study for reference.A flat flame-turbulent jet apparatus was employed to assess flame stability,ignition performance and NOx emission behavior for the initial stage of devolatilization and combustion. This apparatus can simulate particle heating rates,maximum temperatures and the influence of the turbulent fluid interactionson the fate of volatiles.To simulate processes occurring over longer residence time, additional devolatilization experiments were performed in a drop tube furnace.Char reactivity was studied through thermogravimetric analysis.Finally,fouling propensity was studied with the aid of a purpose-built laboratory combustor that enabled the characteristics of the ash deposit to be assessed empirically.The results show that Chinese coals do not appear to possess unusual features in respect of NOx formation,flame stability and ignition,char burnout and ash slagging.The range of coals available in China appears sufficiently broad that suits all requirements.In particular,Shenfu coal,with its initial fast devolatilization and nitrogen release rates and its low initial nitrogen content and high char reactivity,will perform well when fired in industrial boilers as far as NOx emission,flame stability and combustion efficiency are concerned.Pingshuo coal exhibits high char reactivity and an attractive slagging performance suggesting that this fuel represents a good compromise between NOx emission and overall plant efficiency.

  17. Economic considerations for industrial firing of coal-oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, P D; George, T J; Joubert, J I; Bienstock, D

    1978-01-01

    Industrial users of oil and gas face an uncertain future with respect to fuel availability and economics. Direct conversion to coal may be beyond the physical-technical capabilities of a large segment of the industrial community. Conversion to COM (coal-oil mixtures) offers an intermediate, near-term solution which could reduce oil consumption by as much as 40 to 45%. In many cases, COM could be utilized in existing steam-raising equipment without a significant derating. In this paper key economic and technical considerations associated with the conversion of existing clean-fuel-burning industrial boilers to COM-firing are explored. The costs incurred in converting No. 6-oil-fired boilers to COM (50% coal) firing were ascertained for two units with steam capacities of 100,000 lb/hr and 500,000 lb/hr. Based on a discounted cash flow analysis, the fuel savings ensuing from COM substitution are of sufficient magnitude to warrant modifying a substantial number of industrial boilers to COM-firing. With Eastern bituminous coal priced at $1.05/10/sup 6/ Btu and 1% S No. 6 residual oil priced at $2.16/10/sup 6/ Btu, COM appears attractive for immediate consideration as an industrial boiler fuel, based purely on the profit motive. The concept of a commercial COM/coal preparation complex, producing low-ash and low-sulfur coal for established local markets and/or a premium low-sulfur COM fuel was also examined.

  18. 不同快速裂解气氛下的烟煤表面微观特性%Investigation into microscopic characteristics of bituminous surface under different fast pyrolysis conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亮; 齐永锋; 张冬冬; 李正明; 马丽; 常轩; 马强

    2013-01-01

    采用实验工况与电站煤粉锅炉相近的管式炉实验装置,分别制取了N2,(ψ)(N2)=83.4%∶(ψ)(CO2)=16.6%,(ψ)(N2)=81.6%∶(ψ)(CO2)=16.6%∶(ψ)(O2)=1.8%3种气氛下神木烟煤快速裂解的煤焦.结合扫描电子显微镜和烟气分析仪检测发现,与煤粉处于堆积态的慢速热解不同,3种气氛下煤快速热解时破碎的小颗粒较多,随着停留时间的增加,煤焦表面的小孔结构逐渐增多;与N2气氛下相比,加入CO2后煤焦表面变得更致密,再加入O2后,随着停留时间的增加,煤焦表面发生微弱燃烧.%In a drop tube furnace with the combustion conditions similar to those of actual pulverized coal furnace,ShenMu bituminous coal char of fast pyrolysis conditions are prepared under different reaction atmospheres of N2,(ψ)(N2) = 83.4% ∶ (ψ)(CO2) = 16.6%,(ψ)(N2) = 81.6% ∶ (ψ)(CO2) =16.6% ∶ (ψ)(O2)= 1.8%.By means of scanning electron microscopy and flue gas analyzer,the achieved experimental results are quite different from slow pyrolysis of packing pulverized coal.Under fast pyrolysis conditions,more small particles of coal crushing are found.With increasing residence time,the small holes on the surface of char gradually increase.Compared with N2 atmosphere,the surface of the char under (ψ)(N2) = 83.4 % ∶ (ψ)(CO2) = 16.6 % atmosphere becomes more densely.Finally,with increasing residence time,under (ψ)(N2) = 81.6% ∶ (ψ)(CO2) = 16.6% ∶ (ψ)(O2) =1.8% atmosphere,some weak fire is found on the surface of the coal char.

  19. In Vitro Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Silica Nanoparticles in C1 Coal 
in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjian LI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective China’s Xuan Wei County in Yunnan Province have the world’s highest incidence of lung cancer in nonsmoking women-20 times higher than the rest of China. Previous studies showed, this high lung cancer incidence may be associated with the silica particles embedded in the production combustion from the C1 coal. The aim of this study is to separate the silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei County of Yunnan Province, and study in vitro toxicity of naturally occurring silica particles on BEAS-2B. Methods ①Separating the silica particles from combustion products of C1 bituminous coal by physical method, observing the morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope, analysis elements by SEM-EDX, observed the single particle morphology by Transmission Electron Microscope, analyed its particle size distribution by Laser particle size analyzer, the surface area of silica particles were determined by BET nitrogen adsorption analysis; ②Cell viability of the experimental group (silica; naturally occurring, control group (silica; industrial produced and crystalline silica was detected by assay used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT method, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined after 24 h-72 h exposed to these particles. Results ①The physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal, which have different size, and from 30 nm to 120 nm particles accounted for 86.8%, different morphology, irregular surface area and containing trace of aluminum, calcium and iron and other elements; ②Under the same concentration, the experiment group have higher toxicity on BEAS-2B than control groups. Conclusion ①Physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal and not change the original morphology and containing trace;

  20. Metamorphism of mineral matter in coal from the Bukit Asam deposit, south Sumatra, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susilawati, Rita; Ward, Colin R.

    2006-10-02

    The coal of the Miocene Bukit Asam deposit in south Sumatra is mostly sub-bituminous in rank, consistent with regional trends due to burial processes. However, effects associated with Plio-Pleistocene igneous intrusions have produced coal with vitrinite reflectance up to at least 4.17% (anthracite) in different parts of the deposit. The un-metamorphosed to slightly metamorphosed coals, with Rv{sub max} values of 0.45-0.65%, contain a mineral assemblage made up almost entirely of well-ordered kaolinite and quartz. The more strongly heat-affected coals, with Rv{sub max} values of more than 1.0%, are dominated by irregularly and regularly interstratified illite/smectite, poorly crystallized kaolinite and paragonite (Na mica), with chlorite in some of the anthracite materials. Kaolinite is abundant in the partings of the lower-rank coals, but is absent from the partings in the higher-rank areas, even at similar horizons in the same coal seam. Regularly interstratified illite/smectite, which is totally absent from the partings in the lower-rank coals, dominates the mineralogy in the partings associated with the higher-rank coal beds. A number of reactions involving the alteration of silicate minerals appear to have occurred in both the coal and the associated non-coal lithologies during the thermal metamorphism generated by the intrusions. The most prominent involve the disappearance of kaolinite, the appearance of irregularly interstratified illite/smectite, and the formation of regular I/S, paragonite and chlorite. Although regular I/S is identified in all of the non-coal partings associated with the higher-rank coals, illite/smectite with an ordered structure is only recognised in the coal samples collected from near the bases of the seams. The I/S in the coal samples adjacent to the floor of the highest rank seam also appears to have a greater proportion of illitic components. The availability of sodium and other non-mineral inorganic elements in the original coal

  1. Evolution of Submicrometer Organic Aerosols during a Complete Residential Coal Combustion Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Jingkun; Duan, Lei; Hao, Jiming

    2016-07-19

    In the absence of particulate matter (PM) control devices, residential coal combustion contributes significantly to ambient PM pollution. Characterizing PM emissions from residential coal combustion with high time resolution is beneficial for developing control policies and evaluating the environmental impact of PM. This study reports the evolution of submicrometer organic aerosols (OA) during a complete residential coal combustion process, that is, from fire start to fire extinction. Three commonly used coal types (bituminous, anthracite, and semicoke coals) were evaluated in a typical residential stove in China. For all three types of coal, the OA emission exhibited distinct characteristics in the four stages, that is, ignition, fierce combustion, relatively stable combustion, and ember combustion. OA emissions during the ignition stage accounted for 58.2-85.4% of the total OA emission of a complete combustion process. The OA concentration decreased rapidly during the fierce combustion stage and remained low during the relatively stable combustion stage. During these two stages, a significant ion peak of m/z 73 from organic acids were observed. The degree of oxidation of the OA increased from the first stage to the last stage. Implications for ambient OA source-apportionment and residential PM emission characterization and control are discussed.

  2. An important missing source of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide: Domestic coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qianqian; Zhang, Chenglong; Mu, Yujing; Cheng, Ye; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chengtang; Song, Min; Tian, Di; Liu, Pengfei; Liu, Junfeng; Xue, Chaoyang; Ye, Can

    2016-08-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions generated from prevailing domestic coal stoves fueled with raw bituminous coal were studied under alternation cycles of flaming and smoldering combustion. The measurements in the laboratory and the farmer's house indicated that COS and CO emissions mainly occurred under the condition of flame extinguishment after coal loading, whereas SO2 emissions were mainly generated through combustion with flame. The COS emission factors for the domestic stoves in the laboratory and the farmer's house were recorded as 0.57 ± 0.10 g COS kg-1 and 1.43 ± 0.32 g COS kg-1, being approximately a factor of 50 and 125 greater than that generated from coal power plants, respectively. Based on the COS emission factors measured in this study, COS emission from only domestic coal combustion in China would be at least 30.5 ± 5.6 Gg S yr-1 which was 1 magnitude greater than the current COS estimation from the total coal combustion in China.

  3. A Combined Raman Spectroscopic and Thermogravimetric Analysis Study on Oxidation of Coal with Different Ranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy and nonisothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA measurements have been reported for different rank coals (lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite and the relationship between the measurements was examined. It was found that the Raman spectra parameters can be used to characterize structure changes in the different rank coals, such as the band area ratios based on the curve-fitted results. Higher ranked coal was found to have higher values of IGR/IAll and IG+GR/IAll but lower values of ID/I(G+GR, IDL/I(G+GR, IS+SL/I(G+GR, and I(GL+GL'/I(G+GR. The oxidation properties of the coal samples were characterized by the reactivity indexes Tig, T20%, and Tmax from TGA data which were found to correlate well with the band area ratios of IGR/IAll, IG+GR/IAll, and IS+SL/I(G+GR. Based on these correlations, the Raman band area ratios were found to correlate with the oxidation activity of coal providing additional structural information which can be used to understand the changes in the TGA measurements.

  4. Coal mining in northeast India: an overview of environmental issues and treatment approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mayuri Chabukdhara; O.P.Singh

    2016-01-01

    Northeast India has a good deposit of sub-bituminous tertiary coal.The northeast Indian coals have unusual physico-chemical characteristics such as high sulfur,volatile matter and vitrinite content,and low ash content.In addition,many environmental sensitive organic and mineral bound elements such as Fe,Mg,Bi,Al,V,Cu,Cd,Ni,Pb,and Mn etc.remain enriched in these coals.Such characteristics are associated with more severe environmental impacts due to mining and its utilization in coal based industries.Environmental challenges include large scale landscape damage,soil erosion,loss of forest ecosystem and wildlife habitat,air,water and soil pollution.Several physical and chemical methods are reported in literature for the removal of mineral matter,total sulfur and different forms of sulfur from high sulfur coal in northeast India.This paper may help different researchers and stakeholders to understand current state of research in the field.Initiatives may be taken towards sustainable use of coal resources by adopting innovative clean technologies and by implementing effective control measures and regulatory policies.

  5. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  6. Burnout synergic or inhibiting effects in combustion assays of coal/sawdust blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ximena Garcia; Ximena Matus; Claudia Ulloa; Alfredo L. Gordon [University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Characterization of chars and charcoal and combustion assays of coal/ pine sawdust blends were carried on to evaluate the burnout, under conditions similar to those found in pulverized coal combustion. A drop tube furnace (DTF) was used to generate chars from three coals of different rank (Bitsch, a lignite; Lemington, a bituminous HV coal; and LD, a semianthracite) and charcoal from sawdust (S). Burning profiles, as well as morphological and optical characterization of these chars were obtained and discussed. Pulverized samples of pure constituents and sawdust/coal blends (5, 10 and 20%wt of S) were burned in the DTF reactor. Samples of combustion residues were collected for characterization. Depending on blend composition and the rank of the coal being blended, positive and negative deviations with respect to the expected weighted average value of the burnout were measured. This behavior is related both, to the duration of the step by which simultaneous burning of char and charcoal take place, and to the sawdust content in the blend. The optical analysis of combustion residues supports this conclusion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Properties, origin and nomenclature of rodlets of the inertinite maceral group in coals of the central Appalachian basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Finkelman, R.B.; Thompson, C.L.; Brown, F.W.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Resin rodlets, sclerenchyma strands and woody splinters, which are collectively called rodlets, were studied by chemical, optical petrographic, and scanning-electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. A study was made of such rodlets from the bituminous coal beds of the central Appalachian basin (Pennsylvanian; Upper Carboniferous) of the United States. Comparisons were made with rodlets from coal beds of the Illinois basin, the Southern Anthracite Field of Pennsylvania, the St. Rose coal field of Nova Scotia, and European and other coal fields. In order to determine their physical and chemical properties, a detailed study was made of the rodlets from the Pomeroy coal bed (high volatile A bituminous coal; Monongahela Formation; Upper Pennsylvanian) of Kanawha County, West Virginia. The origin of the rodlets was determined by a comparative analysis of a medullosan (seed fern) stem from the Herrin (No. 6) coal bed (high volatile C bituminous coal; Carbondale Formation) from Washington County, Illinois. Rodlets are commonly concentrated in fusain or carbominerite layers or lenses in bituminous coal beds of the central Appalachian basin. Most of the rodlets examined in our study were probably derived from medullosan seed ferns. The three types of rodlets are distinguished on the basis of cellularity, morphology and fracture. The resin rodlets studied by us are noncellular and appear to be similar in properties and origin to those found in coal beds of the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian of the Illinois basin. The resin rodlets extracted from the Pomeroy coal bed exhibit high relief and high reflectance when polished and viewed in reflected light; they are opaque in transmitted light. In cross section, the resin rodlets are oval to round and have diameters ranging from 60 to 450 ??m. Many are solid, but some have vesicles, canals or cavities, which are commonly filled with clay, probably kaolinite. Typically, they have distinct fracture patterns ("kerfs") in longitudinal and

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF TEST PROTOCOLS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF MAGNETO-RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FIELD-RESPONSIVE BITUMINOUS BINDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Santagata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-rheological fluids are materials that exhibit a significant change in their rheological properties in the presence of a magnetic field. Because of such a field-dependent behavior, they can act as smart materials in applications in which changeable performances are desired. In road pavement engineering, the use of bitumen-based magneto-rheological fluids may open innovative scenarios related to the construction of smart pavement sections and to the investigation of damage mechanisms in binders and mixtures. The research work presented in this study explored magneto-rheological properties of several field-responsive bituminous binders obtained from two different base bitumens combined with multi-wall carbon nanotubes and powder iron. The experimental program included oscillatory shear loading tests at different temperatures, performed in the strain controlled mode by means of a dynamic shear rheometer equipped with a magneto-rheological device. The investigation was carried out with the specific goal of identifying critical issues which should be taken into account in materials preparation, testing procedures and data analysis. Undesired overheating of specimens during testing was identified and taken into account for a correct interpretation of experimental data. Thus, while the field-sensitivity of carbon nanotubes was found to be negligible as a result of the magnetic shielding action of bitumen, it was shown that powder iron can significantly affect the magneto-rheological properties of bituminous binders when employed in sufficiently high amounts. Moreover, obtained results indicated that selection of base bitumen is a key factor in designing bituminous-based smart materials. Practical implications which derive from the study are mainly relative to the fine-tuning of laboratory characterization procedures which should necessarily overcome current limitations in temperature regulation and magnetic field generation. Experimental data

  9. Characterization of interactions of coal surface with solvent by flow microcalorimetric measurement. 3; Netsuryo sokutei ni yoru sekitan hyomen to yozai tono sogo sayo no hyoka. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, N.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Kotanigawa, T. [Japan International Corporation Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    An investigation was given on the relationship between methanol adsorbing behavior of reformed coal surface and oxygen containing functional groups in coal. Akabira bituminous coal was air-oxidized or Yallourn brown coal was decarbonated in oil as a reformation treatment. Both of the treated and untreated coals showed an adsorption heat curve of the Langmuir type. The Akabira coal had its oxygen content and the adsorption heat increased as a result of the air oxidizing reformation treatment. The Yallourn coal had its oxygen content and adsorption heat decreased as a result decarbonation reformation treatment. Oxygen containing functional groups act as strong adsorption sites for methanol, and the maximum adsorption amount depends on oxygen content in the coals. Since the coal surface is non-uniform in terms of energy, methanol is adsorbed first into sites with higher molar adsorption heat, and then into lower sites sequentially. Therefore, distribution of the molar adsorption heat can be derived from the relationship between adsorption amount and adsorption heat by changing methanol adsorption amount. The distribution of molar adsorption heat becomes broader when the oxygen content is high, and narrower when low. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of coal and carbon dioxide derived from laboratory coal combustion: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter; Ruppert, Leslie F.

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has dramatically increased from the start of the industrial revolution in the mid-1700s to present levels exceeding 400 ppm. Carbon dioxide derived from fossil fuel combustion is a greenhouse gas and a major contributor to on-going climate change. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope geochemistry is a useful tool to help model and predict the contributions of anthropogenic sources of CO2 in the global carbon cycle. Surprisingly few studies have addressed the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of CO2 derived from coal combustion. The goal of this study is to document the relationships between the carbon and oxygen isotope signatures of coal and signatures of the CO2 produced from laboratory coal combustion in atmospheric conditions.Six coal samples were selected that represent various geologic ages (Carboniferous to Tertiary) and coal ranks (lignite to bituminous). Duplicate splits of the six coal samples were ignited and partially combusted in the laboratory at atmospheric conditions. The resulting coal-combustion gases were collected and the molecular composition of the collected gases and isotopic analyses of δ13C of CO2, δ13C of CH4, and δ18O of CO2 were analysed by a commercial laboratory. Splits (~ 1 g) of the un-combusted dried ground coal samples were analyzed for δ13C and δ18O by the U.S. Geological Survey Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory.The major findings of this preliminary work indicate that the isotopic signatures of δ13C (relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite scale, VPDB) of CO2 resulting from coal combustion are similar to the δ13CVPDB signature of the bulk coal (− 28.46 to − 23.86 ‰) and are not similar to atmospheric δ13CVPDB of CO2 (~ − 8 ‰, see http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/outreach/isotopes/c13tellsus.html). The δ18O values of bulk coal are strongly correlated to the coal dry ash yields and appear to have little or no influence on the δ18O values of CO2

  11. Applied coal petrology: the role of petrology in coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isabel Suarez-Ruiz; John Crelling [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    This book is an integrated approach towards the applications of coal (organic) petrology and discusses the role of this science in the field of coal and coal-related topics. Contents are: Introduction 2. Basic factors controlling coal quality and technological behaviour of coal 3. Mining and benefication 4. Coal combustion 5. Coal gasification 6. Coal liquefaction 7. Coal carbonisation 8. Coal-derived carbons 9. Coal as a Petroleum source rock and reservoir rock 10. Environmental and health aspects 11. Other applications of coal petrology.

  12. Effects of biomass type, blend composition, and co-pyrolysis temperature on hybrid coal quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasongko, Dwiwahju; Wulandari, Winny; Rubani, Inga Shaffira; Rusydiansyah, Rifqi

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study on co-pyrolysis of coal with biomass wastes to produce hybrid coal was conducted to investigate the effects of important process variables, namely biomass type (rice husk and sawdust), blend composition, and co-pyrolysis temperature on the quality of hybrid coal. The experiments were carried out using a vertical tubular furnace equipped with temperature controller to maintain the co-pyrolysis reactor at a given temperature. Nitrogen gas was introduced into the furnace to create an inert environment preventing the sample from burning. A known mass of solid sample consisting of manually granulated blend of coal and biomass with binder in spherical shape was contained in a basket made of stainless sieve. After a given residence time, the sample was taken from the furnace. The blend sample prior to experiment and the produced hybrid coal were then characterized for its proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and calorific value. Experimental findings suggested that by increasing co-pyrolysis temperature from 200 to 400 °C, the calorific value of hybrid coal will increase by 14.5-17.7% to be 5585-7060 kcal/kg. It was also showed that 30% increase in the biomass content in the fuel blend would produce a hybrid coal that emitting up to 25.9% less in CO2 when used for combustion, although its calorific value decreased down to 8% compared to the biomass blend. It is shown that hybrid coal obtained from this study is comparable in calorific value to bituminous coal, thus suitable for power plant while being more environmentally friendly.

  13. Application of reflectance micro-Fourier Transform infrared analysis to the study of coal macerals: An example from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous coals of the Mist Mountain Formation, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Bustin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The applicability of the reflectance micro-Fourier Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) technique for analyzing the distribution of functional groups in coal macerals is discussed. High quality of spectra, comparable to those obtained using other FTIR techniques (KBr pellet and transmission micro-FTIR), indicate this technique can be applied to characterizing functional groups under most conditions. The ease of sample preparation, the potential to analyze large intact samples, and ability to characterize organic matter in areas as small as 20 ??m are the main advantages of reflectance micro-FTIR. The quantitative aspects of reflectance micro-FTIR require further study. The examples from the coal seams of the Mist Mountain Formation, British Columbia show that at high volatile bituminous rank, reflectance micro-FTIR provides valuable information on the character of aliphatic chains of vitrinite and liptinite macerals. Because the character of aliphatic chains influences bond disassociation energies, such information is useful from a hydrocarbon generation viewpoint. In medium volatile bituminous coal liptinite macerals are usually not detectable but this technique can be used to study the degree of oxidation and reactivity of vitrinite and semifusinite.

  14. Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

    2009-09-14

    scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

  15. Comparison of pilot-scale furnace experiments and predictions to full-scale boiler performance of compliance coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, L.S. [Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States); Clarkson, R.J. [Southern Co. Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Stallings, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A series of compliance coals have been fired in the Southern Company Services and Southern Research Institute pilot-scale Combustion Research Facility, with the goal of predicting NO{sub x} emissions, unburned carbon levels, and other operating parameters. The research was financed by a tailored collaboration between Alabama Power and the Electric Power Research Institute. The coals included a South American coal, a Powder River Basin coal, and several local Alabama bituminous coals. They were fired in conventional and low NO{sub x} firing modes, where some of the coals were fired in a tangential-fired simulation, others as wall-fired, and some in both types of firing. Two of Alabama Power`s boilers were used as the plants simulated in the pilot-scale experiments, along with a Gulf Power boiler. The results of the NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon from the pilot furnace testing are presented and compared to the limited full-scale boiler data available on these coals.

  16. Survey and conceptual flow sheets for coal conversion plant handling-preparation and ash/slag removal operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapp, F.C.; Thomas, O.W.; Silverman, M.D.; Dyslin, D.A.; Holmes, J.M.

    1980-03-01

    This study was undertaken at the request of the Fossil Fuel Processing Division of the Department of Energy. The report includes a compilation of conceptual flow sheets, including major equipment lists, and the results of an availability survey of potential suppliers of equipment associated with the coal and ash/slag operations that will be required by future large coal conversion plant complexes. Conversion plant flow sheet operations and related equipment requirements were based on two representative bituminous coals - Pittsburgh and Kentucky No. 9 - and on nine coal conversion processes. It appears that almost all coal handling and preparation and ash/slag removal equipment covered by this survey, with the exception of some coal comminution equipment, either is on hand or can readily be fabricated to meet coal conversion plant capacity requirements of up to 50,000 short tons per day. Equipment capable of handling even larger capacities can be developed. This approach appears to be unjustified, however, because in many cases a reasonable or optimum number of trains of equipment must be considered when designing a conversion plant complex. The actual number of trains of equipment selected will be influenced by the total requied capacity of the complex, the minimum on-line capacity that can be tolerated in case of equipment failure, reliability of specific equipment types, and the number of reactors and related feed injection stations needed for the specific conversion process.

  17. Influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions in pulverized coal combustion boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Feng(魏风); ZHANG Jun-ying(张军营); TANG Bi-guang(唐必光); ZHENG Chu-guang(郑楚光)

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports a field testing of full scale PCC (Pulverized Coal Combustion) boiler study into the influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions at unit 3 (125 MW power units, 420 t/h boiler) of Guixi power station, Jiangxi and puts forward the methods to decrease NOx emissions and the principle of boiler operation and regulation through analyzing NOx emissions state under real running condition. Based on boiler constricted air distribution, the experiment mainly tested the influence of primary air, excessive air, boiler load and milling sets (tertiary air) on NOx emissions and found its influence characteristics. A degraded bituminous coal is simply adopted to avoid the test results from other factors.

  18. Horizontal degasification and characterization of coals in the Sabinas Sub-basin, Mexico: implications for CBM production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentzis, T.; Murray, K.; Klinger, R.; Santillan, M. [CDX Canada Co., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    The Sabinas sub-basin in northern Mexico contains gassy coals in the Upper Cretaceous Los Olmos Formation, based on both historical evidence and current desorption testing. The 'Double Seam' coal is present at shallow depth (< 500 m), has high vitrinite content (> 86 vol%), is well-cleated, shows high diffusivity (average tau) value is 56 hours) and has high natural fracture permeability (> 30 mD) in the minesites. The coal averages 2.2 m in thickness but has a high ash content (32 wt%). A tonstein band is present in the middle of the Double Seam, consisting of vitrinite and inertinite embedded in a matrix of fine clays and quartz. Average desorbed gas content of this medium-volatile bituminous coal (Ro{sub max} = 1.30%) is highest in Mine V (Esmeralda Mine at > 9.0 cm{sup 3}/g). Maximum methane adsorption at an equivalent depth of 300 m is 15 cm{sup 3}/g (as-received basisarb). Coal bed methane is mainly methane (98%) with heating value of 38.21 MJ/m{sup 3} (1026 Btu/ft{sup 3}). The coal is under-pressured and reported to be dry, with possibly free gas in the cleat/fracture system and absence of discrete mineralization. In-seam horizontal drilling prior to longwall mining has resulted in the significant reduction of in-situ gas contents and in an increase of mined coal production per shift. The Sabinas sub-basin coals are suitable for a full-scale coal bed methane (CBM) development using in-seam single horizontal and multi-lateral horizontal drilling. Similarities, but also differences, exist between the Sabinas coals in Mexico and the same coals in the Maverick Basin, Texas.

  19. Coal combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  20. Coal markets in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romer, R.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Colorado's coal industry, and the implementation of a nine point mining plan announced in 1988. This plan includes an environmental regulatory review, coal royalty reform, production and marketing incentives, clean coal and clean air issues, and promotion of the coal industry. Other issues to be addressed are abandoned mine reclamation, abandoned mine safety and land reclamation after surface mining. International markets for Colorado coal are also discussed.

  1. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  2. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  3. Ultra-Low Carbon Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants through Bio-Oil Co-Firing and Biochar Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qi; Mba Wright, Mark; Brown, Robert C

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates a novel strategy of reducing carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants through co-firing bio-oil and sequestering biochar in agricultural lands. The heavy end fraction of bio-oil recovered from corn stover fast pyrolysis is blended and co-fired with bituminous coal to form a bio-oil co-firing fuel (BCF). Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kWh electricity produced vary from 1.02 to 0.26 kg CO2-eq among different cases, with BCF heavy end fractions ranging from 10% to 60%, which corresponds to a GHG emissions reduction of 2.9% to 74.9% compared with that from traditional bituminous coal power plants. We found a heavy end fraction between 34.8% and 37.3% is required to meet the Clean Power Plan's emission regulation for new coal-fired power plants. The minimum electricity selling prices are predicted to increase from 8.8 to 14.9 cents/kWh, with heavy end fractions ranging from 30% to 60%. A minimum carbon price of $67.4 ± 13 per metric ton of CO2-eq was estimated to make BCF power commercially viable for the base case. These results suggest that BCF co-firing is an attractive pathway for clean power generation in existing power plants with a potential for significant reductions in carbon emissions.

  4. Development and evaluation of coal/water mixture combustion technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffee, R.S.; Rossmeissl, N.P.; Skolnik, E.G.; McHale, E.T.

    1981-08-01

    The objective was to advance the technology for the preparation, storage, handling and combustion of highly-loaded coal/water mixtures. A systematic program to prepare and experimentally evaluate coal/water mixtures was conducted to develop mixtures which (1) burn efficiently using combustion chambers and burners designed for oil, (2) can be provided at a cost less than that of No. 6 oil, and (3) can be easily transported and stored. The program consisted of three principal tasks. The first was a literature survey relevant to coal/water mixture technology. The second involved slurry preparation and evaluation of rheological and stability properties, and processing techniques. The third consisted of combustion tests to characterize equipment and slurry parameters. The first task comprised a complete search of the literature, results of which are tabulated in Appendix A. Task 2 was involved with the evaluation of composition and process variables on slurry rheology and stability. Three bituminous coals, representing a range of values of volatile content, ash content, and hardness were used in the slurries. Task 3 was concerned with the combustion behavior of coal/water slurry. The studies involved first upgrading of an experimental furnace facility, which was used to burn slurry fuels, with emphasis on studying the effect on combustion of slurry properties such as viscosity and particle size, and the effect of equipment parameters such as secondary air preheat and atomization.

  5. Selective Adsorption and Selective Transport Diffusion of CO2-CH4 Binary Mixture in Coal Ultramicropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongliang; Feng, Yanhui; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-09-06

    The adsorption and diffusion of the CO2-CH4 mixture in coal and the underlying mechanisms significantly affect the design and operation of any CO2-enhanced coal-bed methane recovery (CO2-ECBM) project. In this study, bituminous coal was fabricated based on the Wiser molecular model and its ultramicroporous parameters were evaluated; molecular simulations were established through Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) and Molecular Dynamic (MD) methods to study the effects of temperature, pressure, and species bulk mole fraction on the adsorption isotherms, adsorption selectivity, three distinct diffusion coefficients, and diffusivity selectivity of the binary mixture in the coal ultramicropores. It turns out that the absolute adsorption amount of each species in the mixture decreases as temperature increases, but increases as its own bulk mole fraction increases. The self-, corrected, and transport diffusion coefficients of pure CO2 and pure CH4 all increase as temperature or/and their own bulk mole fractions increase. Compared to CH4, the adsorption and diffusion of CO2 are preferential in the coal ultramicropores. Adsorption selectivity and diffusivity selectivity were simultaneously employed to reveal that the optimal injection depth for CO2-ECBM is 800-1000 m at 308-323 K temperature and 8.0-10.0 MPa.

  6. Task 27 -- Alaskan low-rank coal-water fuel demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Development of coal-water-fuel (CWF) technology has to-date been predicated on the use of high-rank bituminous coal only, and until now the high inherent moisture content of low-rank coal has precluded its use for CWF production. The unique feature of the Alaskan project is the integration of hot-water-drying (HWD) into CWF technology as a beneficiation process. Hot-water-drying is an EERC developed technology unavailable to the competition that allows the range of CWF feedstock to be extended to low-rank coals. The primary objective of the Alaskan Project, is to promote interest in the CWF marketplace by demonstrating the commercial viability of low-rank coal-water-fuel (LRCWF). While commercialization plans cannot be finalized until the implementation and results of the Alaskan LRCWF Project are known and evaluated, this report has been prepared to specifically address issues concerning business objectives for the project, and outline a market development plan for meeting those objectives.

  7. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The

  8. Metal-oxide-catalyzed CO{sub 2} gasification of coal using a solar furnace simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, T.; Funatoh, A.; Shimizu, T.; Kitayama, Y. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Department of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

    2000-12-01

    Metal-oxide-catalyzed CO{sub 2} gasification of coal was demonstrated in small packed-bed and fluidized-bed reactors using a solar furnace simulator, for the purpose of converting solar high-temperature heat to chemical fuels. The catalytic activities of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZnO were investigated because used In{sub 2}O{sub 3} or ZnO catalyst may be separated from remaining coal ash by In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Zn evaporation at high temperatures and at a reducing atmosphere. Bituminous coal with or without the metal-oxide catalyst in the quartz-tube reactor was directly irradiated by the concentrated Xe-lamp beam and CO{sub 2} was fed to the reactor at pCO{sub 2} = 1.0. In the packed-bed reactor, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZnO much improved the chemical coal conversion by about 4-5 and 2-3 times at the catalyst loading of 17 wt%-In and 30 wt %-Zn in the coal-metal-oxide mixture, respectively, at temperatures around 1000-1400 K. In the fluidized-bed reactor at a small catalyst loading (8-10 wt%-metal in the coal-metal-oxide mixture) and at 1073-1163 K, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalytically increased the coal-conversion rate by 3 times but ZnO scarcely showed the catalytic activity. This metal-catalyzed coal gasification process offers the efficient solar production of the syngas calorifically upgraded by solar energy. 24 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Hydrophobic Dewatering of Fine Coal. Topical report, March 1, 1995-March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.; Sohn, S.; Luttrell, J.; Phillips, D.

    1997-12-31

    Many advanced fine coal cleaning technologies have been developed in recent years under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy. However, they are not as widely deployed in industry as originally anticipated. An important reason for this problem is that the cleaned coal product is difficult to dewater because of the large surface area associated with fine particles. Typically, mechanical dewatering, such as vacuum filtration and centrifugation, can reduce the moisture to 20-35% level, while thermal drying is costly. To address this important industrial problem, Virginia Tech has developed a novel dewatering process, in which water is displaced from the surface of fine particulate materials by liquid butane. Since the process is driven by the hydrophobic interaction between coal and liquid butane, it was referred to as hydrophobic dewatering (HD). A fine coal sample with 21.4 pm median size was subjected to a series of bench-scale HD tests. It was a mid-vol bituminous coal obtained from the Microcel flotation columns operating at the Middle Fork coal preparation plant, Virginia. All of the test results showed that the HD process can reduce the moisture to substantially less than 10%. The process is sensitive to the amount of liquid butane used in the process relative to the solids concentration in the feed stream. Neither the intensity nor the time of agitation is critical for the process. Also, the process does not require long time for phase separation. Under optimal operating conditions, the moisture of the fine coal can be reduced to 1% by weight of coal.

  10. Coprocessing of coal and heavy petroleum crudes and residua: a solvent evaluation and a parametric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Tsai, K.J.; Pass, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    This study has investigated the combined hydroprocessing of coal with petroleum solvents consisting of heavy and reduced crudes and residua to determine the feasibility of simultaneous upgrading of both materials to lighter products. Six hydrogen-rich heavy petroleum materials have been processed with Illinois No. 6 coal at 400/sup 0/C and 425/sup 0/C for 30 minutes under three reaction conditions: a N/sub 2/ atmosphere, a H/sub 2/ atmosphere and a H/sub 2/ atmosphere using hydrotreating extrudates. Liquefaction of bituminous coal can be achieved in the petroleum solvents with coal conversion being dependent upon the reaction conditions. Noncatalytic coal conversions of 45 to 50% are achieved in a H/sub 2/ atmosphere. Addition of a catalyst increases conversion to near 70%. Only approximately 35% conversion is obtained in a N/sub 2/ atmosphere. In the catalytic environment substantial conversions to pentane soluble material occur. Hydrotreatment and extraction of the solvent prior to coprocessing increases the amount of coal conversion and, in some cases, increases the amount of pentane soluble material produced. The influence of the solvent appears to be related to the molecular weight, viscosity and Conradson Carbon number of the petroleum materials. Evaluation of the reaction parameters of temperature, hydrogen pressure, time and catalyst extrudate size for coprocessing has been undertaken. Based on the production of pentane soluble oil and coal conversion, feasible parameters are established: 425/sup 0/C, 1250 psig H/sub 2/ pressure at ambient temperature, long reaction time and a hydrogenation catalyst with a small particle size. Combined processing is shown to be sensitive to catalyst extrudate size, with powdered catalyst giving substantially more oil yield and coal conversion than the extrudates. 6 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  12. Depositional controls on coal distribution and quality in the Eocene Brunner Coal Measures, Buller Coalfield, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, R.M.; Sykes, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Buller Coalfield on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand, contains the Eocene Brunner Coal Measures. The coal measures unconformably overlie Paleozoic-Cretaceous basement rocks and are conformably overlain by, and laterally interfinger with, the Eocene marine Kaiata Formation. This study examines the lithofacies frameworks of the coal measures in order to interpret their depositional environments. The lower part of the coal measures is dominated by conglomeratic lithofacies that rest on a basal erosional surface and thicken in paleovalleys incised into an undulating peneplain surface. These lithofacies are overlain by sandstone, mudstone and organic-rich lithofacies of the upper part of the coal measures. The main coal seam of the organic-rich lithofacies is thick (10-20 m), extensive, locally split, and locally absent. This seam and associated coal seams in the Buller Coalfield are of low- to high-volatile bituminous rank (vitrinite reflectance between 0.65% and 1.75%). The main seam contains a variable percentage of ash and sulphur. These values are related to the thickening and areal distribution of the seam, which in turn, were controlled by the nature of clastic deposition and peat-forming mire systems, marine transgression and local tidal incursion. The conglomeratic lithofacies represent deposits of trunk and tributary braided streams that rapidly aggraded incised paleovalleys during sea-level stillstands. The main seam represents a deposit of raised mires that initially developed as topogenous mires on abandoned margins of inactive braidbelts. Peat accumulated in mires as a response to a rise in the water table, probably initially due to gradual sea-level rise and climate, and the resulting raised topography served as protection from floods. The upper part of the coal measures consists of sandstone lithofacies of flu vial origin and bioturbated sandstone, mudstone and organic-rich lithofacies, which represent deposits of paralic (deltaic

  13. Determination of mercury in coal by isotope dilution cold-vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Stephen E; Kelly, W Robert

    2002-04-01

    A method based on isotope dilution cold-vapor inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-CV-ICPMS) has been developed for high-accuracy determinations of mercury in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. A closed-system digestion process employing a Carius tube is used to completely oxidize the coal matrix and chemically equilibrate the mercury in the sample with a 201Hg isotopic spike. The digestates are diluted with high-purity quartz-distilled water, and the mercury is released as a vapor by reduction with tin(II) chloride. Measurements of 201Hg/202Hg isotope ratios are made using a quadrupole ICPMS system in time-resolved analysis mode. The new method has some significant advantages over existing methods. The instrument detection limit is less than 1 pg/mL. The average blank (n = 17) is 30 pg, which is roughly 1 order of magnitude lower than the equivalent microwave digestion procedure. The detection limit in coal is blank limited and is approximately 40 pg/g. Memory effects are very low. The relative reproducibility of the analytical measurements is approximately 0.5% for mercury concentrations in the range 10-150 ng/g. The method has been used to measure mercury concentrations in six coal reference materials, SRM 1632b (77.4 ng/g), SRM 1632c (94.3 ng/g), BCR 40 (433.2 ng/g), BCR 180 (125.0 ng/g), BCR 181 (135.8 ng/g), and SARM 20 (252.6 ng/g), as well as a coal fly ash, SRM 1633b (143.1 ng/g). The method is equally applicable to other types of fossil fuels including both crude and refined oils.

  14. Determination of mercury in coal by isotope dilution cold-vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.E.; Kelly, W.R.

    2002-04-01

    A method based on isotope dilution cold-vapor inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-CV-ICPMS) has been developed for high-accuracy determinations of mercury in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. A closed-system digestion process employing a Carius tube is used to completely oxidize the coal matrix and chemically equilibrate the mercury in the sample with a Hg-201 isotopic spike. The digestates are diluted with high-purity quartz-distilled water, and the mercury is released as a vapor by reduction with tin chloride. Measurements of Hg-201/Hg-202 isotope ratios are made using a quadrupole ICPMS system in time-resolved analysis mode. The new method has some significant advantages over existing methods. The instrument detection limit is less than 1 pg/mL. The average blank (n = 17) is 30 pg, which is roughly 1 order of magnitude lower than the equivalent microwave digestion procedure. The detection limit in coal is blank limited and is similar to 40 pg/g. Memory effects are very low. The relative reproducibility of the analytical measurements is similar to 0.5% for mercury concentrations in the range 10-150 ng/g. The method has been used to measure mercury concentrations in six coal reference materials, SRM 1632b (77.4 ng/g), SRM 1632c (94.3 ng/g), BCR 40 (433.2 ng/g), BCR 180 (125.0 ng/g), BCR 181 (135.8 ng/g), and SARM 20 (252.6 ng/g), as well as a coal fly ash, SRM 1633b (143.1 ng/g). The method is equally applicable to other types of fossil fuels including both crude and refined oils.

  15. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  16. Intrinsic and extrinsic defects in a family of coal-derived graphene quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: ssingam@ncsu.edu, E-mail: tour@rice.edu [Materials Science Division, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Tol, Johan van [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 E. Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Ye, Ruquan [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tour, James M., E-mail: ssingam@ncsu.edu, E-mail: tour@rice.edu [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2015-11-23

    In this letter, we report on the high frequency (239.2 and 336 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) studies performed on graphene quantum dots (GQDs), prepared through a wet chemistry route from three types of coal: (a) bituminous, (b) anthracite, and (c) coke; and from non-coal derived GQDs. The microwave frequency-, power-, and temperature-dependent ESR spectra coupled with computer-aided simulations reveal four distinct magnetic defect centers. In bituminous- and anthracite-derived GQDs, we have identified two of them as intrinsic carbon-centered magnetic defect centers (a broad signal of peak to peak width = 697 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.0023; and a narrow signal of peak to peak width = 60 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.003). The third defect center is Mn{sup 2+} ({sup 6}S{sub 5/2}, 3d{sup 5}) (signal width = 61 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.0023, A{sub iso} = 93(10{sup −4} T)), and the fourth defect is identified as Cu{sup 2+} ({sup 2}D{sub 5/2}, 3d{sup 9}) (g{sub ⊥} = 2.048 and g{sub ‖} = 2.279), previously undetected. Coke-derived and non-coal derived GQDs show Mn{sup 2+} and two-carbon related signals, and no Cu{sup 2+} signal. The extrinsic impurities most likely originate from the starting coal. Furthermore, Raman, photoluminescence, and ESR measurements detected no noticeable changes in the properties of the bituminous GQDs after one year. This study highlights the importance of employing high frequency ESR spectroscopy in identifying the (magnetic) defects, which are roadblocks for spin relaxation times of graphene-based materials. These defects would not have been possible to probe by other spin transport measurements.

  17. Carbonization and demineralization of coals: A study by means of FT–IR spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Gómez-Serrano; M C Fernández-González; M L Rojas-Cervantes; M F Alexandre-Franco; A Macías-García

    2003-12-01

    Coal basically consists of two parts-a crystalline, inorganic part, and an amorphous, organic part. Based on this, we intended to study the changes that occurred on the composition and on the chemical structure of coals after carbonization at 1000 or 900°C and demineralization treatments with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. For this, four coals of different categories (or levels) were chosen: semianthracite (A–O) and high volatile bituminous coal (B–O), which are high level coals, and lignite (Li–O) and leonardite (Le–O), these being low level coals. The coals were first analysed in terms of their proximate and elemental compositions and then carbonized and demineralized. Also, the starting coals and the prepared samples were examined by infrared spectroscopy. In addition, a study of the optimization of the application of this technique for only A–O was carried out. For A–O and B–O, the spectra recorded intense absorption bands that are ascribable to vibration modes in mineral components as quartz and aluminosilicates, such as kaolinite. For Li–O and Le–O, the spectra displayed some other bands as well, also quite intense, which have been assigned to bond vibrations in functional groups and structures of their organic part. The carbonization of the coals resulted in significant changes in their inorganic part as the content of quartz increased and the content of aluminosilicates decreased. In addition, the thermal decomposition of mineral carbonates occurred. The carbonization greatly affects the organic part of the coals, especially in Li–O and Le–O, as most functional groups and structures are not thermally stable under heating conditions. With regard to demineralization, HF is a more effective agent than HCl, achieving products with higher organic content. The mass losses are higher in Li–O and Le–O than in A–O and B–O. So, the infrared spectroscopy allows the analysis of both inorganic and organic parts of the coals and of

  18. Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka-Danielowska, Danuta

    2010-11-01

    The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations ofTh-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: 226Ra - 85.4 Bq kg(-1), 40 K-689 Bq kg(-1), 232Th - 100.8 Bq kg(-1), 235U-13.5 Bq kg(-1), 238U-50 Bq kg(-1) and 228Ac - 82.4 Bq kg(-1).

  19. Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolka-Danielowska, D. [University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland). Faculty of Earth Science

    2010-11-15

    The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations of Th-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: {sup 226}Ra - 85.4 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 40}K-689 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 232}Th - 100.8 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 235}U - 13.5 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 238}U - 50 Bq kg{sup -1} and {sup 228}Ac - 82.4 Bq kg{sup -1}.

  20. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  1. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  2. Fluidized coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  3. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  4. Continuous coal processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryason, P. R.

    1980-06-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  5. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  6. Chemicals from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  7. Development of oxidation heat of the coal left in the mined-out area of a longwall face: Modelling using the fluent software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraba B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A commercial CFD software program, Fluent, was used to study oxidation processes in the longwall mined-out (gob area. A three-dimensional model of the gob area with an advancing coal face has been developed. For the model, typical oxidation behavior of a bituminous coal from the Ostrava-Karviná District was incorporated as resulted from laboratory investigations. The longwall gob area was designed on the basis of the actual longwall face district. Detailed measurements in the district then enabled re-verification of the model outputs with actual data in situ. The main attention was paid to modelling the effect of grain size of the coal left in the mined-out area on the oxidation heat and gases evolution. Numerical simulations confirmed the existence of an 'optimal' zone for intense development of the spontaneous heating process in the gob area.

  8. A model combining spectrum standardization and dominant factor based partial least square method for carbon analysis in coal by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiongwei; Fu, Yangting; Li, Zheng; Ni, Weidou

    2014-01-01

    Successful quantitative measurement of carbon content in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is suffered from relatively low precision and accuracy. In the present work, the spectrum standardization method was combined with the dominant factor based partial least square (PLS) method to improve the measurement accuracy of carbon content in coal by LIBS. The combination model employed the spectrum standardization method to convert the carbon line intensity into standard state for more accurately calculating the dominant carbon concentration, and then applied PLS with full spectrum information to correct the residual errors. The combination model was applied to the measurement of carbon content for 24 bituminous coal samples. The results demonstrated that the combination model could further improve the measurement accuracy compared with both our previously established spectrum standardization model and dominant factor based PLS model using spectral area normalized intensity for the dominant fa...

  9. Organic petrology and geochemistry of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl, north-central Afghanistan: Depositional environment and source rock potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Sanfilipo, John

    2016-01-01

    Organic geochemistry and petrology of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl outcrop samples from Madr village in north-central Afghanistan were characterized via an integrated analytical approach to evaluate depositional environment and source rock potential. Multiple proxies suggest the organic-rich (TOC ∼6 wt.%) bituminous marls are ‘immature’ for oil generation (e.g., vitrinite Ro rock sulfur content is ∼2.3 wt.% whereas sulfur content is ∼5.0–5.6 wt.% in whole rock extracts with high polar components, consistent with extraction from S-rich Type IIs organic matter which could generate hydrocarbons at low thermal maturity. Low Fe-sulfide mineral abundance and comparison of Pr/Ph ratios between saturate and whole extracts suggest limited Fe concentration resulted in sulfurization of organic matter during early diagenesis. From these observations, we infer that a Type IIs kerogen in ‘immature’ bituminous marl at Madr could be generating high sulfur viscous oil which is seeping from outcrop. However, oil-seep samples were not collected for correlation studies. Aluminum-normalized trace element concentrations indicate enrichment of redox sensitive trace elements Mo, U and V and suggest anoxic-euxinic conditions during sediment deposition. The bulk of organic matter observed via optical microscopy is strongly fluorescent amorphous bituminite grading to lamalginite, possibly representing microbial mat facies. Short chain n-alkanes peak at C14–C16 (n-C17/n-C29 > 1) indicating organic input from marine algae and/or bacterial biomass, and sterane/hopane ratios are low (0.12–0.14). Monoaromatic steroids are dominated by C28clearly indicating a marine setting. High gammacerane index values (∼0.9) are consistent with anoxia stratification and may indicate intermittent saline-hypersaline conditions. Stable C isotope ratios also suggest a marine depositional scenario for the Suzak samples, consistent with the presence of marine foraminifera including

  10. Evaluation of bituminous materials used in pavement recycling projects at Tyndall, MacDill, and Hurlburt Air Force Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiggundu, B.; Martinez, R.; Humphrey, B.; Shuler, T.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents results of a study involving bituminous materials from Tyndall and MacDill Air Force Bases and Hurlburt Field. These materials included Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP), modifiers, virgin asphalts, and new aggregates. A tentative modifier selection criterion was used to judge the quality of materials used in the recycling efforts at the respective sites. The results showed that independent adequacy of physical properties from chemical properties in selection of modifiers could not be established. However, some of the results showed that physical properties were more sensitive indicators of changes in binders due to aging. In addition, this report includes the tentative modifier selection criteria and results of an interlaboratory study from which variability limits to parameters determined using modified Clay-Gel and Heithaus procedures are established. The modified Clay-Gel and Heithaus procedures are included.

  11. Ignition and Combustion of Pulverized Coal and Biomass under Different Oxy-fuel O2/N2 and O2/CO2 Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami Firoozabadi, Seyed Reza

    This work studied the ignition and combustion of burning pulverized coals and biomasses particles under either conventional combustion in air or oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Oxy-fuel combustion is a 'clean-coal' process that takes place in O2/CO2 environments, which are achieved by removing nitrogen from the intake gases and recirculating large amounts of flue gases to the boiler. Removal of nitrogen from the combustion gases generates a high CO2-content, sequestration-ready gas at the boiler effluent. Flue gas recirculation moderates the high temperatures caused by the elevated oxygen partial pressure in the boiler. In this study, combustion of the fuels took place in a laboratory laminar-flow drop-tube furnace (DTF), electrically-heated to 1400 K, in environments containing various mole fractions of oxygen in either nitrogen or carbon-dioxide background gases. The experiments were conducted at two different gas conditions inside the furnace: (a) quiescent gas condition (i.e., no flow or inactive flow) and, (b) an active gas flow condition in both the injector and furnace. Eight coals from different ranks (anthracite, semi-snthracite, three bituminous, subbituminous and two lignites) and four biomasses from different sources were utilized in this work to study the ignition and combustion characteristics of solid fuels in O2/N2 or O2/CO2 environments. The main objective is to study the effect of replacing background N2 with CO2, increasing O2 mole fraction and fuel type and rank on a number of qualitative and quantitative parameters such as ignition/combustion mode, ignition temperature, ignition delay time, combustion temperatures, burnout times and envelope flame soot volume fractions. Regarding ignition, in the quiescent gas condition, bituminous and sub-bituminous coal particles experienced homogeneous ignition in both O2/N 2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres, while in the active gas flow condition, heterogeneous ignition was evident in O2/CO 2. Anthracite, semi

  12. Considerations on coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  13. Coal production 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  14. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 2 - hydrogenative and hydrothermal pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization using pyrolysis-GC-MS, CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Hatcher, P.G.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    It has been indicated by DOE COLIRN panel that low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals. As the second volume of the final report, here we summarize our work on spectroscopic characterization of four raw coals including two subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-extracted but unreacted coals, the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been thermally pretreated. in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent, and the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been catalytically pretreated in the presence of a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent.

  15. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations.

  16. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Activated carbons for natural gas storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical activation with steam or CO2 and by chemical activation with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size distribution, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam activation, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.

  17. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soncini, Ryan M; Means, Nicholas C; Weiland, Nathan T

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  18. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Farthing, William [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hoekman, S. Kent [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes. The specific objectives of the project include: • Demonstration of the continuous production of a uniform densified and formed feedstock from loblolly pine (a lignocellulosic, short rotation woody crop) in a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process development unit (PDU). • Demonstration that finely divided bituminous coal and HTC loblolly pine can be blended to form 90/10 and 70/30 weight-percent mixtures of coal and HTC biomass for further processing by pelletization and briquetting equipment to form robust weather resistant pellets and/or briquettes suitable for transportation and long term storage. • Characterization of the coal-biomass pellets and briquettes to quantify their physical properties (e.g. flow properties, homogeneity, moisture content, particle size and shape), bulk physical properties (e.g. compressibility, heat transfer and friability) and assess their suitability for use as fuels for commercially-available coal gasifiers. • Perform economic analyses using Aspen-based process simulations to determine the costs for deploying and operating HTC processing facilities for the production of robust coal/biomass fuels suitable for fueling commercially-available coal-fired gasifiers. This Final Project Scientific

  19. Organic petrology of Paleocene Marcelina Formation coals, Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela: Tectonic controls on coal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, P.C.; Martinez, M.

    2007-01-01

    About 7??Mt of high volatile bituminous coal are produced annually from the four coal zones of the Upper Paleocene Marcelina Formation at the Paso Diablo open-pit mine of western Venezuela. As part of an ongoing coal quality study, we have characterized twenty-two coal channel samples from the mine using organic petrology techniques. Samples also were analyzed for proximate-ultimate parameters, forms of sulfur, free swelling index, ash fusion temperatures, and calorific value. Six of the samples represent incremental benches across the 12-13??m thick No. 4 bed, the stratigraphically lowest mined coal, which is also mined at the 10??km distant Mina Norte open-pit. Organic content of the No. 4 bed indicates an upward increase of woody vegetation and/or greater preservation of organic material throughout the life of the original mire(s). An upward increase in telovitrinite and corresponding decrease in detrovitrinite and inertinite illustrate this trend. In contrast, stratigraphically higher coal groups generally exhibit a 'dulling upward' trend. The generally high inertinite content, and low ash yield and sulfur content, suggest that the Paso Diablo coals were deposited in rain-fed raised mires, protected from clastic input and subjected to frequent oxidation and/or moisture stress. However, the two thinnest coal beds (both 0.7??m thick) are each characterized by lower inertinite and higher telovitrinite content relative to the rest of Paso Diablo coal beds, indicative of less well-established raised mire environments prior to drowning. Foreland basin Paleocene coals of western Venezuela, including the Paso Diablo deposit and time-correlative coal deposits of the Ta??chira and Me??rida Andes, are characterized by high inertinite and consistently lower ash and sulfur relative to Eocene and younger coals of the area. We interpret these age-delimited coal quality characteristics to be due to water availability as a function of the tectonic control of subsidence rate. It

  20. Radionuclides in US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  1. The economics of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Global aspects of the production, consumption and trade in coal are described. World reserves and resources, production (both by region and country), international trade (exporters and importers), coal consumption (by region and sector), and the demand for primary energy (1960-1979). Each of the producing and consuming countries are discussed individually. The electricity sector and its future demand for coal, and the future demand for coking coal are covered. Prices for metallurgical and steam coal are also given. Statistics are presented in tables.

  2. Extraction of trace elements in coal for determination by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry using N,N-dimethylformamide and ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mujuru, Munyaradzi [Department of Earth, Environmental and Water Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, P/B X680, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Moyo, Stanley [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P/B X680, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); McCrindle, Robert I., E-mail: mccrindleri@tut.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P/B X680, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Mokgalaka-Matlala, Ntebogeng [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P/B X680, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa)

    2012-10-15

    Coal usage continues to increase due to global energy demands. Increasing environmental monitoring and concern means that better methods of trace element determination are always required. This study investigated the use of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), Triton X-100, HNO{sub 3} and ultrasound to extract trace elements (Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and V) from coal prior to analysis using ICP-OES and ICP-MS. It was found that the proportion extracted was lowest for V (17%) and highest for Pb (100%). Partial dissolution of the coal particles used in the slurries was demonstrated using scanning electron microscopy studies. Trace element determination of two reference material coal samples demonstrated that this method of extraction is effective. Trace elements in three bituminous coals from different seams being mined in South Africa were determined. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of ultrasound proved successful in creating a stable coal slurry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solvent mixture was shown to partially dissolve the coal particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonification was an important factor in the slurry development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete determination of minor, trace and ultra-trace elements was possible.

  3. The direct determination of the forms of sulphur in coal using microwave digestion and i.c.p.-a.e.s. analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laban, K.L.; Atkin, B.P. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2000-01-01

    A sequential digestion method is reported for the direct determination of sulphate, pyrite and organic sulphur concentrations in coals of either bituminous or sub-bituminous rank. A three stage extraction was developed, using acid digestion in a microwave oven. In the first stage, 5 M HCl is used to dissolve sulphate phases in the coal. Pyrite is then extracted from the stage 1 residue using 2 M HNO{sub 3}. The final stage, for the determination of organic sulphur, involves the use of concentrated HNO{sub 3}, HCl, HF and boric acid for the complete decomposition of residue that remains following stage 2. The extract solutions from each stage are rapidly analysed for sulphur using i.c.p.-a.e.s. The sums of the three forms of sulphur have shown consistent agreement with certified total sulphur data for most of the coals studied. This correlation, in addition to the good precision achieved by this technique, suggests that the sequential digestion method is reliable. Furthermore, significant timesavings are achievable over some of the standard techniques demonstrating the suitability of the method for routine analyses. 12 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  4. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Francine [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Klein, Michael [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Sheikhi, Reza [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels, and the development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. The multiphase flow code, MFIX, was used to simulate and predict the hydrodynamics and co-gasification, and results were validated with the experiments. The reaction kinetics modeling was used to develop a smaller set of reactions for tractable CFD calculations that represented the experiments. Finally, an efficient tool was developed, MCHARS, and coupled with MFIX to efficiently simulate the complex reaction kinetics.

  5. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  6. Quality and Environmental Impact Assessment of Coal Deposits of Punjab Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *1S. Imad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Major coal fields in Punjab Province are located in the Salt and Surghar ranges, whose collective reserves are 235 million tons. Representative coal samples were collected from Makarwal, Kallar Kahar and Dandot for assessment of quality and its impact on environment during combustion. The coal was classified as sub-bituminous type on the basis of proximate analysis. Average measured calorific values were noted 6801, 5624 and 6415 Btu/lb for Makarwal, Kallar Kahar and Dandot samples respectively. Moderate moisture, volatiles, fixed carbon and low ash designate it as suitable material for electric generation and cement manufacturing. The average sulfur content of all samples was appeared as 5.13%, which is high for power generation and other allied industries. The combustion of this coal may pose threat to the environment in the region due to the presence of high sulfur and other trace elements like Al, Cr, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Sn, and Ni in appreciable quantities. Appropriate measure is essential to substantially reduce sulfur and these trace elements before using it in the power generation plants and other industries of Pakistan

  7. Feasibility study of utilization of coal mine refuse, Estill County, Kentucky. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Reported is a feasibility study of commercial utilization for Eastern KY coal mine refuse at the South-East Coal Co. Cleaning plant in Estill County, KY. Included are descriptions of the physical facilities, sampling and testing methodology, geotechnical properties analyses, typical coal analyses, mineralogical characterizations, slow and quick firing test results, general marketing review of products, and environmental aspects. A good potential for economic development in Estill County exists with the anticipated uses of coal mine refuse as a raw material for the production of construction materials, particularly sintered lightweight aggregate. The refuse responded to the sintering process and a high quality, lightweight product was produced. The aggregate performed well in structural concrete and bituminous surfacing mixes. Other potential uses would be for lightweight concrete masonry blocks and soilless growing media. Inherent characteristics of the sintered material would provide for highly skid-resistant road surfacing aggregate and highly insulative structural building products. Market research results point to definitely feasible markets in East and East-Central KY and to the need for extensive, intensive marketing programs for commercial success of the proposed products. (Portions of this document are not fully legible)

  8. Volatile Release and Ignition Behaviors of Single Coal Particles at Different Oxygen Concentrations Under Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-05-01

    An experimental study on ignition and combustion of single coal particles under different O 2 concentrations was conducted at both normal (1-g) and microgravity ( μ-g) in the first time. The surface and centre temperatures of the bituminous coal particle with initial diameter of ˜ 2.0mm were measured by the monochromatic imaging technique using a short wavelength infrared (SWIR) camera and an embedded fine thermocouple respectively. Results revealed that at μ-g, ignition of the tested coal particles was homogeneous. O 2 concentration significantly affects the shape, ignition temperature and ignition delay time of the volatile flames. A mathematical model considering thermal conduction inside the coal particle was developed to describe the ignition process of single particle, adopting the volatile matter flammability limit as the homogeneous ignition criterion. The predicted ignition temperatures were slightly lower but closer to μ-g data. And the predicted variation trends of ignition temperature and delay time under different O 2 concentrations agreed well with the μ-g experimental results.

  9. Volatiles production from the coking of coal; Sekitan no netsubunkai ni okeru kihatsubun seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Saito, H.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to simplify the coke manufacturing process, a coke production mechanism in coal pyrolysis was discussed. Australian bituminous coal which can produce good coke was used for the discussion. At a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, coal weight loss increases monotonously. However, in the case of 3{degree}C, the weight loss reaches a peak at a maximum ultimate temperature of about 550{degree}C. The reaction mechanism varies with the temperature raising rates, and in the case of 50{degree}C per minute, volatiles other than CO2 and propane increased. Weight loss of coal at 3{degree}C per minute was caused mainly by methane production at 550{degree}C or lower. When the temperature is raised to 600{degree}C, tar and CO2 increased, and so did the weight loss. Anisotropy was discerned in almost of all coke particles at 450{degree}C, and the anisotropy became remarkable with increase in the maximum ultimate temperature. Coke and volatiles were produced continuously at a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, and at 3{degree}C per minute, the production of the coke and volatiles progressed stepwise as the temperature has risen. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Francine [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Agblevor, Foster [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Klein, Michael [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Sheikhi, Reza [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and react