WorldWideScience

Sample records for bituminous coal

  1. Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uezuelmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m-3. It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration. (authors)

  2. Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisne, Abdullah; Okten, Gündüz; Celebi, Nilgün

    2005-01-01

    Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uzülmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m(-3). It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HORIZONTAL COMBUSTION TECHNIQUE FOR BITUMINOUS COAL BRIQUET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路春美; 程世庆; 邵延玲; 张晔

    1997-01-01

    Through a lot of experiments, a new kind of stove using horizontal combustion technique for bituminous coal briquet has been developed. Making use of this stove, studies have been made on burning process of bituminous coal briquet, distribution of temperature field in the stove, the regularities of evolution and combustion of volatile matter, the burning rate and efficiency of bituminous coal briquet, characteristics of fire-sealing and sulfur-retention. The results show that, with the technique, some achievements can be obtained in combustion of bituminous coal briquet, such as lower pollution that the flue gas black degree is below 0.5R and dust concentration is below 90mg/m3 . The stove's combustion efficiency reaches 90%, sulfur fixing efficiency is 60%, and CO concentration is decreased by 40% compared with other traditional stoves. With so many advantages, the stove can be used extensively in civil stoves and smaller industrial boilers.

  4. Performance of PAHs emission from bituminous coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严建华; 尤孝方; 李晓东; 倪明江; 尹雪峰; 岑可法

    2004-01-01

    Carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated in coal combustion have caused great environmental health concern. Seventeen PAHs (16 high priority PAHs recommended by USEPA plus Benzo[e]pyrene) present in five raw bituminous coals and released during bituminous coal combustion were studied. The effects of combustion temperature, gas atmosphere, and chlorine content of raw coal on PAHs formation were investigated. Two additives (copper and cupric oxide) were added when the coal was burned. The results indicated that significant quantities of PAHs were produced from incomplete combustion of coal pyrolysis products at high temperature, and that temperature is an important causative factor of PAHs formation. PAHs concentrations decrease with the increase of chlorine content in oxygen or in nitrogen atmosphere. Copper and cupric oxide additives can promote PAHs formation (especially the multi-ring PAHs) during coal combustion.

  5. 30 CFR 716.4 - Special bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.4 Special bituminous coal mines... may be used if necessary to prevent erosion. (3) Spoil piles will be graded and contoured with no more... of an amendment or revision to the State of Wyoming's regulatory program, regulations, or...

  6. Amenability of Muzret bituminous coal to oil agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahinoglu, E.; Uslu, T. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mining Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    Laboratory scale agglomeration tests were undertaken to investigate the amenability of Muzret (Yusufeli-Artvin) bituminous coal to oil agglomeration. Kerosene was extensively used as oil in the tests. In addition, fuel oil, diesel oil, and hazelnut oil were also used in order to determine the effect of oil type. The effects of the parameters including coal content, kerosene content, agglomeration time, coal particle size, pH, oil type, and agitation rate, on the combustible matter recovery, ash reduction and pyritic sulphur reduction, were investigated. It was found that Muzret bituminous coal could be readily cleaned by oil agglomeration with substantial reductions in ash and pyritic sulphur content. Maximum combustible matter recovery, ash reduction and pyritic sulphur reduction were achieved to be 85.54%, 59.98%, and 85.17%, respectively. (author)

  7. Sorption of aqueous phosphorus onto bituminous and lignitous coal ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Jinying; Kirk, Donald W. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada); Jia, Charles Q. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada)], E-mail: cqjia@chem-eng.toronto.edu; Liu Xinan [College of Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2007-09-05

    Aiming at the development of a phosphorus removal technology for waste water, phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) retention behavior of bituminous and lignitous coal ashes was investigated using a batch reactor. Ash samples, including fresh and weathered fly and bottom ashes, were studied for their sorption isotherms and reversibility. Fly ashes had a much higher phosphate retention capacity (4000-30,000 mg P/kg) than bottom ashes (15-600 mg P/kg). Lignitous coal ashes were more capable of retaining phosphate than bituminous coal ashes. The retention process was largely irreversible, and the irreversibility increased with the increase in the retention capacity. Weathering enlarged the retention capacity of the bituminous bottom ash, but substantially lowered that of the fly ash, likely due to the difference in the weather-induced changes between the fly and bottom ashes. Sorption isotherms of fly ashes were found to be adequately represented by the Langmuir model while those of bottom ashes fitted better to the Freundlich model. Concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} in the aqueous phase were measured at the end of sorption and desorption experiments, and were compared with solubilities of three calcium phosphate minerals. The aqueous solutions were saturated or super-saturated with respect to tricalcium phosphate (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}) and hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}OH), and slightly under-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium phosphate. It is concluded that precipitation of calcium phosphate is the predominant mechanism for phosphate retention by coal ash under the conditions studied. There is a strong and positive correlation between alkalinity and phosphate sorption capacity. Consequently, acid neutralization capacity (ANC) can be used as an indicator of phosphate sorption capacity of coal ashes.

  8. Steam and air plasma gasification of bituminous coal and petrocoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical analysis and experimental investigation of two very different solid fuels, low-rank bituminous coal of 40 % ash content and petrocoke of 3 % ash content, gasification under steam and air plasma conditions with an aim of producing synthesis gas. Numerical analysis was fulfilled using the software package TERRA for equilibrium computation. Using the results of the numerical simulation, experiments on plasma steam gasification of the petrocoke and air and steam gasification of the coal were conducted in an original installation. Nominal power of the plasma installation is 100 kWe and sum consumption of the reagents is up to 20 kg/h. High quality synthesis gas was produced in the experiments on solid fuels plasma gasification. It has been found that the synthesis gas content at about 97.4 vol.% can be produced. Comparison between the numerical and experimental results showed satisfactory agreement. 

  9. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  10. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  11. The hydrogasification of lignite and sub-bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, B.; Fallon, P. T.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-02-01

    A North Dakota lignite and a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogenated at up to 900°C and 2500 psi hydrogen pressure. Yields of gaseous hydrocarbons and aromatic liquids have been studied as a function of temperature, pressure, residence time, feed rates and H2/coal ratio. Coal feed rates in excess of 10 lb/hr have been achieved in the 1 in. I. D.×8 ft reactor and methane concentration as high as 55% have been observed. A four-step reaction model was developed for the production and decomposition of the hydrocarbon products. A single object function formulated from the weighted errors for the four dependent process, variables, CH4, C2H6, BTX, and oil yields, was minimized using a program containing three independent iterative techniques. The results of the nonlinear regression analysis for lignite show that a first-order chemical reaction model with respect to C conversion satisfactorily describes the dilute phase hydrogenation. The activation energy for the initial products formation was estimated to be 42,700 cal/gmole and the power of hydrogen partial pressure was found to be +0.14. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.83. The mechanism, the rate expressions, and the design curves developed can be used for scale-up and reactor design.

  12. Investigation of the combustion characteristics of Zonguldak bituminous coal using DTA and DTG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Okutan, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-06-21

    Combustion characteristics of coking, semicoking, and noncoking Turkish bituminous coal samples from Zonguldak basin were investigated applying differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) techniques. Results were compared with that of the coke from Zonguldak bituminous coal, a Turkish lignite sample from Soma, and a Siberian bituminous coal sample. The thermal data from both techniques showed some differences depending on the proximate analyses of the samples. Noncombustible components of the volatile matter led to important changes in thermal behavior. The data front both methods were, evaluated jointly, and some thermal properties were interpreted considering these methods in a complementary combination.

  13. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons ( -20 + 100 mesh; 0.149-0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm3/cm3 which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above 100 cm3/cm3 are obtainable by grinding the granular products to - 325 mesh (adsorption capacity increases with increasing pore surface area and micropore volume when normalizing with respect to sample bulk volume. Compared with steam-activated carbons, granular carbons produced by KOH activation have higher micropore volume and higher methane adsorption capacities (g/g). Their volumetric methane adsorption capacities are lower due to their lower bulk densities. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  14. Variations in pore characteristics in high volatile bituminous coals: Implications for coal bed gas content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Strapoc, D.; Solano-Acosta, W.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Seelyville Coal Member of the Linton Formation (Pennsylvanian) in Indiana was studied to: 1) understand variations in pore characteristics within a coal seam at a single location and compare these variations with changes occurring between the same coal at different locations, 2) elaborate on the influence of mineral-matter and maceral composition on mesopore and micropore characteristics, and 3) discuss implications of these variations for coal bed gas content. The coal is high volatile bituminous rank with R0 ranging from 0.57% to 0.60%. BET specific surface areas (determined by nitrogen adsorption) of the coals samples studied range from 1.8 to 22.9??m2/g, BJH adsorption mesopore volumes from 0.0041 to 0.0339??cm3/g, and micropore volumes (determined by carbon dioxide adsorption) from 0.0315 to 0.0540??cm3/g. The coals that had the largest specific surface areas and largest mesopore volumes occur at the shallowest depths, whereas the smallest values for these two parameters occur in the deepest coals. Micropore volumes, in contrast, are not depth-dependent. In the coal samples examined for this study, mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes. It is especially clear in the case of micropores, where an increase in mineral-matter content parallels the decrease of micropore volume of the coal. No obvious relationships were observed between the total vitrinite content and pore characteristics but, after splitting vitrinite into individual macerals, we see that collotelinite influences both meso- and micropore volume positively, whereas collodetrinite contributes to the reduction of mesopore and micropore volumes. There are large variations in gas content within a single coal at a single location. Because of this variability, the entire thickness of the coal must be desorbed in order to determine gas content reliably and to accurately calculate the level of gas saturation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Adsorption of SO2 on bituminous coal char and activated carbon fiber prepared from phenol formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBarr, Joseph A.; Lizzio, Anthony A.; Daley, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon-based materials are used commercially to remove SO2 from coal combustion flue gases. Historically, these materials have consisted of granular activated carbons prepared from lignite or bituminous coal. Recent studies have reported that activated carbon fibers (ACFs) may have potential in this application due to their relatively high SO2 adsorption capacity. In this paper, a comparison of SO2 adsorption for both coal-based carbons and ACFs is presented, as well as ideas on carbon properties that may influence SO2 adsorption

  16. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  17. Physical properties of solid fuel briquettes from bituminous coal waste and biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZARRINGHALAM-MOGHADDAM A; GHOLIPOUR-ZANJANI N; DOROSTIS; VAEZ M

    2011-01-01

    Biomass and bituminous coal fines from four different coalfields were used to produce fuel briquettes.Two physical properties of briquettes,water resistance index and compressive strength were analyzed.The influence of type and quantity of biomass on physical properties was also studied.The results reveal that depending on the mineral content of the coal,the physical properties of the briquettes differ noticeably.The comparison of briquettes with and without biomass showed that the presence of the beet pulp increased CS in all types of coal samples.Samples containing beet pulp had better physical properties than sawdust.Mezino Ⅱ coal briquettes had highest CS and WRI than the other ones.Calorific value of biomass/Mezino Ⅱ coal briquettes was lessened in comparison with raw coal,but it remained in an acceptable range.

  18. Some thoughts on the organic structure of bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Our current operating hypothesis is that coal consists of a cross linked macromolecular network of high aromatic clusters held together by linkages which include ethers and methylene groups. These clusters are arranged like beads on a string with 3 to 5 beads between branch points. Coal can be liqufied most readily by cleaving the links between the clusters. Doing chemistry on the clusters in the whole coal is very difficult because of the problems of getting to the clusters by reagents. It is fortunate that the linkages between clusters are quite reactive. But even with this, it is clear that coal liquefaction is a formidable chemical problem. There is much wisdom is Sternberg's suggestion that the chemistry of the freed clusters (pre-asphaltenes) be developed. Our model indicates that the chemistry which results in freeing the clusters from the network also should be explored and broadened.

  19. Identification and significance of accessory minerals from a bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.; Stanton, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used to study the in situ accessory minerals in polished blocks and pellets of petrographically analysed samples of the Waynesburg coal (hvb). Individual grains from the low-temperature ash (LTA) of the same coal were also studied. The visual resolution of the SEM permitted the detection of submicron mineral grains, which could then be analysed by the attached energy-dispersive system. Emphasis was placed on the highly reflective grains in the carbominerite bands. Among the most abundant accessory minerals observed were rutile, zircon, and rare-earth-bearing minerals. Small (1-5 ??m) particles of what may be authigenic iron-rich chromite and a nickel silicate form rims on quartz grains. The SEM also permits the observation of grain morphology and mineral intergrowths. These data are useful in determining authigenicity and diagenic alteration. Substances in density splits of LTA include authigenic, detrital, extraterrestrial magnetite, tourmaline, and evaporite (?) minerals, and a fluorine-bearing amphibole. This analytical approach allows the determination of specific sites for many of the trace elements in coals. In the Waynesburg coal, most of the chromium is in the iron-chromium rims, the fluorine is in the amphibole, and the rare-earth elements are in rare-earth-bearing minerals. The ability to relate trace-element data to specific minerals will aid in predicting the behaviour of elements in coal during combustion, liquefaction, gasification, weathering, and leaching processes. This ability also permits insight into the degree of mobility of these elements in coal and provides clues to sedimentological and diagenetic conditions. ?? 1978.

  20. Examination and comparision of structure: lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal. [10 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, R.E.; Hayatsu, R.; Scott, R.G.; Moore, L.P.; Studier, M.H.

    1976-01-01

    Coal can be described as an amorphous mixture of macromolecules each made up of a complex array of organic molecules chemically linked together. Methods for breaking up these macromolecules in order to characterize the aromatic structural types have been explored. Pyrolysis is a common method for depolymerizing coal, but under the conditions necessary for pyrolysis much structural rearrangement occurs making a comparison of the products to the initial structural groups in coal difficult if not impossible. One approach has been to use a variety of selective oxidation methods. Aqueous sodium dichromate, aqueous air oxidation with uv light, and hydrogen peroxide in acetic acid have been used. Initial results of some of these studies have been published. This work has been extended to include characterization and comparison of a lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite. Besides the oxidation products, the monomeric organic molecules trapped within the macromolecules are examined and the results interpreted in relation to coal structure and the coalification process.

  1. Bituminous coal fired USC power plants for the European market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klebes, J.; Tigges, K.-D.; Klauke, F.; Busekrus, K. [Hitachi Power Europe GmbH (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The presentation, in slide/viewgraph form, is in sections entitled: Introduction; Steam generator design features; Optimization of plant efficiency; Steam turbine design features (USC material design principles; rotating and stationary blades; last stage blade (LP 48 inch)); and Future developments. The presentation includes a chart of recent highly efficient coal-fired power plants in Japan, China and Germany.

  2. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Lab.

    2002-06-01

    Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals to investigate the various factors influencing airborne respirable dust generation. Bituminous coal samples from 8 mines (5 U.S. and 3 Polish) were uniformly prepared and processed through a double roll crusher located in a low air velocity wind tunnel. Experimental factors studied included inherent coal seam constituents, specific energy of crushing, product size characteristics, dust cloud electrostatic field, and specific quantity of airborne respirable dust generated. A combination of factors is associated with the generation of airborne respirable dust. One factor involved is the effect of coal rank, described by the inherent moist fuel ratio, on the product size characteristics. However, since coals of high moist fuel ratio (high rank) are generally more extensively cleated, it is suggested that the degree of cleating is directly responsible for the quantity of respirable-sized particles produced in the crushed product material for eastern U.S. coals. This is implied by the relationship of ash content and at least one mineral constituent (pyrite, determined from pyritic sulfur analysis) to the percentage of airborne respirable dust. A clear delineation of coals, based on well-known proximate analysis characteristics, that generate the most respirable dust appears to be possible. It was also shown that the dust-generating characteristics of coals could be reasonably described by both the moist fuel ratio and the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI). These results show a clear distinction between eastern and western U.S. coals. However, no consistent distinction for Polish coal was observed.

  3. Distribution of inorganic and organic substances in the hydrocyclone separated Slovak sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton Zubrik; Slavomir Hredzak; Ludmila Turcaniova; Michal Lovas; Ingo Bergmann; Klaus Dieter Becker; Maria Lukcova; Vladimir Sepelak [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Institute of Geotechnics

    2010-08-15

    A low-rank Slovak sub-bituminous coal from the Handlova deposit was physically treated by washing in a water-only cyclone with the goal to find the separation effect for inorganic (mainly Fe-bearing minerals) and organic substances (humic acids, diterpanes). A high-quality coal product with the ash content in the dry matter of 9.02% and carbon content of C{sup d} = 68.12% at a mass yield of 29.51% was obtained using the water-only cyclone processing. At first, the physically treated coal samples were detailed characterized by XRD, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, FT-IR and HR-TEM. In addition to non-crystalline organic coal components, inorganic compounds belonging to silicate minerals (kaolinite, muscovite and quartz) as well as to Fe-bearing sulphide minerals (pyrite) were identified in the sub-bituminous coal by XRD. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy detected the presence of iron carbonate (siderite), iron-containing clay mineral and two sulphur-containing minerals (pyrite, jarosite) in the untreated coal. On the other hand, only one Fe-bearing mineral, (pyrite) was found in the washed coal. Effect of the physical separation is also demonstrated in FT-IR spectra, where the peak at 1040 cm{sup -1} representing the silicate component in the untreated sample is not detectable in the washed coal sample. Presence of extractive organic substances, i.e. humic acids and tetracyclic diterpane (16a(H)-phyllocladane), in the hydrocyclone products is also evidenced. It was confirmed that the isolated diterpenoic compound is attendant in the washed product with the lowest ash content and it is assimilated with the organic part of coal. Surprisingly, humic acids were found in the highest concentration in the slurry that has the highest content of ash (63.14%). 54 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Organic geochemistry of Upper Carboniferous bituminous coals and clastic sediments from the Lublin Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Marek R.; Karger, Michał; Gazda, Lucjan; Grafka, Oliwia

    2013-09-01

    Bituminous coals and clastic rocks from the Lublin Formation (Pennsylvanian, Westphalian B) were subjected to detailed biomarker and Rock-Eval analyses. The investigation of aliphatic and aromatic fractions and Rock-Eval Tmax suggests that the Carboniferous deposits attained relatively low levels of thermal maturity, at the end of the microbial processes/initial phase of the oil window. Somewhat higher values of maturity in the clastic sediments were caused by postdiagenetic biodegradation of organic matter. The dominance of the odd carbon-numbered n-alkanes in the range n-C25 to n-C31 , high concentrations of moretanes and a predominance of C 28 and C29 steranes are indicative of a terrigenous origin of the organic matter in the study material. This is supported by the presence of eudesmane, bisabolane, dihydro-ar-curcumene and cadalene, found mainly in the coal samples. In addition, tri- and tetracyclic diterpanes, e. g. 16β(H)-kaurane, 16β(H)-phyllocladane, 16α(H)-kaurane and norisopimarane, were identified, suggesting an admixture of conifer ancestors among the deposited higher plants. Parameters Pr/n-C17 and Rdit in the coal samples show deposition of organic matter from peat swamp environments, with the water levels varying from high (water-logged swamp) to very low (ephemeral swamp). Clastic deposits were accumulated in a flood plain environment with local small ponds/lakes. In pond/lake sediments, apart from the dominant terrigenous organic matter, research also revealed a certain quantity of algal matter, indicated, i.a., by the presence of tricyclic triterpanes C28 and C29 and elevated concentrations of steranes. The Paq parameter can prove to be a useful tool in the identification of organic matter, but the processes of organic matter biodegradation observed in clastic rocks most likely influence the value of the parameter, at the same time lowering the interpretation potential of these compounds. The value of Pr/Ph varies from 0.93 to 5.24 and from 3

  5. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2005-11-01

    Prolonged exposure to airborne respirable coal dust is responsible for coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), commonly called black lung. Health research studies have identified that the prevalence and severity of CWP are directly related to both the amount of dust exposure and the coal rank. The amount of airborne respirable dust (ARD) smaller than 10 micrometers generated from breakage of different coals varies widely. To investigate the cause, researchers for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have conducted experiments to identify the causes of airborne respirable dust liberation. Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals from eight mines. The results indicate that the proximate analysis of a coal sample can provide a very good indicator of the potential for a dust problem. For application to the coal mining, processing, and utilization industries, data from 977 US coal seams compiled by the Department of Energy (DoE) has been used to calculate this dust generation potential from an equation based on the NIOSH measured data. A simple procedure for this calculation is provided. 1 fig.

  6. US bituminous coal test program in the British Gas/Lurgi (BGL) gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, M.D.; Tart, K.R.; Eales, D.F. (British Gas plc, London (United Kingdom)); Turna, O. (Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    1991-12-01

    The BGL moving-bed, slagging-gasification process is an extension of the commercially proven Lurgi dry-ash, moving-bed gasification process. British Gas and Lurgi have demonstrated the process over an 11-year period at the 350 and 500 t/d scale at British Gas' Westfield Development Center, Scotland, with a wide variety of US and British coals. British Gas also installed a gas purification and HICOM methanation plant at Westfield to treat approximately 190,000 sft{sup 3}/h of purified syngas. Objectives are: To demonstrate the suitability of US bituminous coals as feed-stocks in the BGL gasification process; to provide performance data for use in designing commercial-scale BGL-based gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) power plants; and to evaluate the performance of the British Gas HICOM process for methanation of US coal-derived syngas.

  7. Petrographic and Vitrinite Reflectance Analyses of a Suite of High Volatile Bituminous Coal Samples from the United States and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents vitrinite reflectance and detailed organic composition data for nine high volatile bituminous coal samples. These samples were selected to provide a single, internally consistent set of reflectance and composition analyses to facilitate the study of linkages among coal composition, bitumen generation during thermal maturation, and geochemical characteristics of generated hydrocarbons. Understanding these linkages is important for addressing several issues, including: the role of coal as a source rock within a petroleum system, the potential for conversion of coal resources to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and the interactions between coal and carbon dioxide during enhanced coalbed methane recovery and(or) carbon dioxide sequestration in coal beds.

  8. Chemical activation of bituminous coal for hampering oligomerization of organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liang; Sorial, George A

    2011-12-15

    Activated carbons prepared by KOH activation of bituminous coal were studied for hampering oligomerization of phenolic compounds on its surface. A total of 24 activated carbons with different microporosity and BET surface area were created. The effect of the different variables of the activation process (KOH/bituminous coal ratio, heating temperature, activation time, and flow rate of nitrogen gas) on critical carbon parameters was analyzed. The impact of activated carbon on oligomerization was examined by conducting isotherm experiments at a neutral pH on Carbon(exp) produced with optimal characteristics and granular activated carbon (GAC) F400 for phenol, 2-methylphenol and 2-ethylphenol. These isotherms were collected under anoxic (absence of molecular oxygen) and oxic (presence of molecular oxygen) conditions. The single solute adsorption of phenol, 2-methylphenol and 2-ethylphenol on Carbon(exp) showed no obvious differences between oxic and anoxic environment, which indicated that the Carbon(exp) sample is very effective in hampering the oligomerization of phenolic compounds under oxic conditions. On the other hand, F400, which have lower micropore percentage and BET surface area, significant increases in the adsorptive capacity had been observed when molecular oxygen was present. PMID:22004832

  9. Comparing potentials for gas outburst in a Chinese anthracite and an Australian bituminous coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guoqing; Saghafi Abouna

    2014-01-01

    Gas outbursts in underground mining occur under conditions of high gas desorption rate and gas content, combined with high stress regime, low coal strength and high Young’s modulus. This combination of gas and stress factors occurs more often in deep mining. Hence, as the depth of mining increases, the poten-tial for outburst increases. This study proposes a conceptual model to evaluate outburst potential in terms of an outburst indicator. The model was used to evaluate the potential for gas outburst in two mines, by comparing numerical simulations of gas flow behavior under typical stress regimes in an Australian gassy mine extracting a medium-volatile bituminous coal, and a Chinese gassy coal mine in Qinshui Basin (Shanxi province) extracting anthracite coal. We coupled the stress simulation program (FLAC3D) with the gas simulation program (SIMED II) to compute the stress and gas pressure and gas content distribution following development of a roadway into the targeted coal seams. The data from gas content and stress distribution were then used to quantify the intensity of energy release in the event of an outburst.

  10. Burnout behaviour of bituminous coals in air-staged combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluger, F.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Process Engineering and Power Plant (IVD)

    2001-07-01

    In order to determine the influence on burnout by the combustion conditions and the coal preparation, three bituminous coals sold on the world market, from three different locations in Poland, South Africa, and Australia, were studied more closely. For this purpose, the coals were ground in two different particle size ranges, which, besides the influence of the combustion conditions, such a temperature, residence time, and stoichiometry, made it possible to also investigate the impact on burnout by the coal preparation. The experiments were carried out in an electrically heated entrained-flow reactor with a thermal input of 8.5 kW. The parameters for the experiments are wall temperature (1000-1350{degree}C), air ratio (0.6-1.15) and two particle sizes (70% {lt} 75 {mu}m, 90% {lt} 75 {mu}m). The results show that in general, for increasing temperatures, the burnout quality will improve. For the Australian Illawara coal, another outcome is increased NOx emissions. Lowering the air ratio in the reduction zone leads to less NOx emission but to increased unburnt matter in ash. For the smaller particle size fraction, the analysis of the different particle sizes shows an improvement of the burnout without a change in NOx emissions. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Comparative study of thermal properties of bio-coal from aromatic spent with low rank sub-bituminous coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vineet; Baruah, B P; Khare, Puja

    2013-06-01

    In present investigation, biocoal samples were prepared from aromatic plant waste of two perennial grasses, i.e. Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemongrass) and Vetiveria zizanioides (khus) after oil extraction, root of Rosa damascene (rose), bark of Eucalyptus citriodora. These biocoals were characterized by proximate, ultimate, metal, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and ash analyses. Activation energies, initial temperature of devolatilization, maximum rate of weight loss (Rmax), fouling, slagging and alkali index were determined on the basis of TGA and ash analysis. These biocoals have good calorific values. There is possibility of slagging and fouling in combustion system but it is not severe. Owing to their similar fuel properties as high sulphur sub-bituminous coal, they can be good candidates for co-firing. Blending of these biocoals with high sulphur coals will serve dual purpose as (i) alternate fuel, and (ii) reduction in SO2 emission. PMID:23603187

  12. Mapping and prediction of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis with bioavailable iron content in the bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Li, W.; Attfield, M.D.; Nadas, A.; Frenkel, K.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the first National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis (CWP) and the U.S. Geological Survey database of coal quality, we show that the prevalence of CWP in seven coal mine regions correlates with levels of bioavailable iron (BAI) in the coals from that particular region (correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p < 0.0015). CWP prevalence is also correlated with contents of pyritic sulfur (r = 0.91, p < 0.0048) or total iron (r = 0.85, p < 0.016) but not with coal rank (r = 0.59, p < 0.16) or silica (r = 0.28, p < 0.54). BAI was calculated using our model, taking into account chemical interactions of pyrite, sulfuric acid, calcite, and total iron. That is, iron present in coals can become bioavailable by pyrite oxidation, which produces ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid. Calcite is the major component in coals that neutralizes the available acid and inhibits iron's bioavailabiity. Therefore, levels of BAI in the coals are determined by the available amounts of acid after neutralization of calcite and the amount of total iron in the coals. Using the linear fit of CWP prevalence and the calculated BAI in the seven coal mine regions, we have derived and mapped the pneumoconiotic potencies of 7,000 coal samples. Our studies indicate that levels of BAI in the coals may be used to predict coal's toxicity, even before large-scalen mining.

  13. Effect of Pre-oxidation on the Properties of Crushed Bituminous Coal and Activated Carbon Prepared Therefrom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The influence of a pre-oxidation process on the chemical properties of crushed bituminous coal and on adsorption properties of the subsequently formed char and activated carbon is discussed in this paper.Datong bituminous coal samples sized 6 mm were oxidized at different temperatures and for different times and then carbonized and activated by steam to obtain activated carbons.A Uniform Design method was used to arrange the experiments, IR and adsorption experiments were used to characterize these oxidized coals, chars and activated carbon samples.The results show that the carboxyl group disappeared and α-CH2 groups joined to alkenes decreased dramatically but the carbonyl group clearly increased in the coal sample oxidized at 543 K; The chemical composition of coal samples oxidized at lower temperature is different from that of coal oxidized at 543 K.Oxidizing coal samples at higher temperatures for a short time or at lower temperatures for a longer time resulted in activated carbon samples that tended toward the same adsorption properties: Iodine number 1100 mg/g and Methylene blue value 252 mg/g.The yield of activated carbon obtained from the pre-oxidized coal is 10% higher than the yield from parent coal but the activated carbons have the same adsorption properties.

  14. Structural characterization of vitrinite-rich and inertinite-rich Permian-aged South African bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Niekerk, Daniel; Mathews, Jonathan P. [Energy and Mineral Engineering and the EMS Energy Institute, Pennsylvania State University, Hosler Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Pugmire, Ronald J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Solum, Mark S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Painter, Paul C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 320 Steidle Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Two South African coals of the same rank and age, but different in maceral composition were subjected to extensive structural analyses. Inertinite-rich Highveld coal (dominated by semifusinite) and vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal were studied to determine structural differences and similarities. The two coals had similar carbon content ({proportional_to} 84%, dmmf) and vitrinite reflectance (mean-maximum 0.71% for vitrinite-rich vs. 0.75% for inertinite-rich), but differed in hydrogen content (6.23% for vitrinite-rich and 4.53% for inertinite-rich). The inertinite-rich coal was more aromatic (86% for inertinite-rich and 76% for vitrinite-rich) and more polycondensed (indicated by a higher bridgehead carbon content). The inertinite-rich coal was structurally more ordered, with a higher degree of crystalline stacking. Both coals had similar average aromatic cluster sizes (16 carbons for vitrinite-rich and 18 carbons for inertinite-rich) and number of cluster attachments (6 attachments for vitrinite-rich and 5 attachments for inertinite-rich). Mass spectrometry showed that both coals consist of similar molecular weight distributions; ranging to approximately 1700 m/z with a maximum abundance of {proportional_to} 450 m/z for the vitrinite-rich coal and {proportional_to} 550 m/z for the inertinite-rich coal. Compared to the Argonne Premium coals the South African vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal was comparable to the coals in the high-volatile bituminous range and inertinite-rich Highveld was closer to the medium- to low-volatile bituminous range. Both coals were surprisingly similar in bulk characterization, although inertinite-rich Highveld coal was structurally more ordered, hydrogen deficient, and more aromatic. (author)

  15. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. PMID:22944493

  16. Mechanical, sorption and transport experiments on a German high volatile bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensterblum, Y.; Krooss, B.M. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal; Massarotto, Paul [Queensland Univ., Brisbane, St Lucia, QLD (Australia). School of Engineering

    2013-08-01

    A high volatile bituminous coal (vitrinite reflectance: 0.93%, carbon content: 83%) from the Prosper-Haniel mine, North Rhine-Westphalia has been studied using a comprehensive set of measurements and experimental procedures at RWTH Aachen University and the University of Queensland. Using the True Triaxial Stress Coal Permeameter (TTSCP) (Massarotto 2003) of the University of Queensland, permeability and gas displacement tests were performed on an 80 mm cube of the Prosper-Haniel coal. Extensive data sets were recorded to assess the effects of stress changes on gas transport and the impact of nitrogen, methane and CO{sub 2} sorption on the mechanical properties. We investigate the permeability coefficients for helium, nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide measured on this sample as a function of net stress. As expected, permeability values decrease with increasing stress. Methane and nitrogen have nearly identical permeability coefficients throughout the entire net stress range, while permeability coefficients measured with helium are higher and those measured with CO{sub 2} significantly lower. During the permeability measurements with CO{sub 2} an anisotropic swelling of the coal cube by about 0.19% to 0.23% was observed. The volumetric effect (swelling) is 100 times slower than gas displacement. Simultaneous mechanical tests indicated a softening of the coal block upon exposure to CO{sub 2}. Thus, a decrease of Young's modulus (YM) of the coal cube during the CO{sub 2} flow test was observed as compared to the methane and nitrogen tests. High-pressure sorption isotherms with CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} were determined on different grain-size fractions of the Prosper-Haniel coal at 318K and different moisture contents. Methane sorption capacity decreases by 29% with increasing moisture content. Also, a decrease of sorption rate was observed with increasing moisture content. While sorption rates are generally faster for CO{sub 2} than for CH{sub 4}, the sorption

  17. Experimental and modelling of the thermal regions of activity during pyrolysis of bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strezov, Vladimir [Newbolds Applied Research, The University of Newcastle, Cnr Frith and Gavey Streets, Mayfield 2304, NSW (Australia); Lucas, John A. [Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan 2308, NSW (Australia); Strezov, Les [Strezov Consulting, 7 Marin Street, Adamstown 2289, NSW (Australia)

    2004-03-01

    Computer-aided thermal analysis technique, incorporated with thermogravimetric and Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR), and mass spectrometry, were employed in studying the devolatilisation of three thermal bituminous coals under packed bed pyrolysing conditions. The heats of reactions evolved during coal devolatilisation were determined by computational calorimetry and compared with the evolution rate of fourteen volatile species. The devolatilisation was classified into five major regions of thermal activity, according to the analysis, where the first was related to the dehydration of strongly bounded water. The second was the pre-plastic region with an endothermic prepyrolytic reaction, while the third was the exothermic plastic range with primarily evolution of tars and re-solidification reactions. The secondary devolatilisation was found to be endothermic and the major contributors were hydrocarbons, secondary water, CS{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. The largest reaction was the contraction of carbon planes with evolution of hydrogen. Each reaction region was assumed to follow the first-order Arrhenius kinetic correlation and the activation energy was determined for each of the five regions. The activation energies were then incorporated into a simplified model for predicting the overall heats of reactions.

  18. Study on the submicron and micron morphology and the properties of poor bituminous coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei-Fang Fu; Huai-Chun Zhou; Qing-Yan Fang; Hai Yao; Jianrong Qiu; Minghou Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2007-05-15

    Carbon burnout and its reaction mechanism have been widely focused on in the past decades. The properties of burnout, submicron and micron morphology and the reaction mechanism of poor bituminous coal/char (PBC) in a W-shaped power plant boiler was studied and was compared with those in DTF and in TGA, which showed that the degree of PBC burnout in TGA at 1450{sup o}C was greater than or approximately equal to that in a W-shaped boiler, and that the complexity of the reactions among residual char, oxygen and SiO{sub 2} did not seem to result in mass loss in TGA, although the weight percentage of the residual char in ash decreased from 33% ad (air dry basis) at 900{sup o}C to 9% and at 1450{sup o}C. According to the distribution of pores and the properties of the char burnout, the char can be simply categorized into three classes: char burnout easy, char burnout difficult and char burnout very difficult. The differences of the reaction mechanism must be considered while predicting the burning rate and degree of char burnout in a full-scale boiler by making use of experimental results from TGA and DTF. A different char particle contains markedly different amount of carbons, but for a special char particle, the ratio of carbon to ash is generally constant, and an ash shell does not exist on the char surface. The fusion mineral matter composing of C-O-Si-Al is amorphous, not in the form of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} above 1450{sup o}C.

  19. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates

  20. Effect of structural alteration on the macromolecular properties of brown and bituminous coals, quantitative relationships to the hydrogenation reactivity with tetralin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Kuznetsova, L.I. [Inst. of Chemistry and Chemico-Metallurgical Processes, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Bimer, J.; Salbut, P.D. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Warszawa (Poland); Gruber, R. [Univ. de Metz (France)

    1996-12-31

    The mobility of macromolecular network has been found to be the fundamental property of both brown and bituminous coals governing the reactivity for hydrogenation with tetralin. In Kansk-Achinsk brown coal, this was primarily affected by carboxylate cross-linking via polyvalent cations like Ca.

  1. Petrography and geochemistry of Oligocene bituminous coal from the Jiu Valley, Petrosani basin (southern Carpathian Mountains), Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Stucker, J.D. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); University of Kentucky Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Morehead, KY, 40351 (United States); Tatu, Calin A. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Immunology, Clinical Laboratory No. 1, Pta. E. Murgu No. 2, RO-1900 Timisoara (Romania); Buia, Grigore [University of Petrosani, Department of Geology, University St. 20, RO-2675 Petrosani (Romania)

    2010-05-01

    Belt samples of Oligocene (Chattian) bituminous coal from 10 underground mines located in the Jiu Valley, Hunedoara County, Petrosani basin, Romania, have been examined and analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, major-, minor- and trace-element chemistry, organic petrography, and vitrinite reflectance. The mineral chemistry and mode of occurrence of trace elements also have been investigated using SEM and electron microprobe techniques. Twenty coal beds occur in the Jiu Valley and most of the samples are from bed no. 3, the most productive bed of the Dilja-Uricani Formation of Oligocene age. The Petrosani basin, oriented SW-NE, is 48-km long, 10-km wide at the eastern part and 2-km wide at the western part. The coal mines are distributed along the center of the valley generally following the Jiu de Vest River. Reflectance measurements indicate that the rank of the coals ranges from high-volatile B to high-volatile A bituminous. Overall, rank decreases from the southwest to the northeast. In bed no. 3, R{sub max} varies from 0.75% in the northeast to 0.93% in the southwest. Although, most Oligocene coals in Romania and adjacent countries are lignite in rank, the Jiu Valley bituminous coals have been affected by regional metamorphism and attending hydrothermal fluids related to the Alpine orogenic event. The coals are all dominated by vitrinite; resinite and funginite are important minor macerals in most of the coals. Pyrite and carbonate generally dominate the mineral assemblages with carbonate more abundant in the northwest. Siderite occurs as nodules and masses within the macerals (generally vitrinite). Dolomite and calcite occur as fracture fillings, plant-cell fillings, and in other authigenic forms. Late-stage fracture fillings are siderite, dolomite, calcite, and ankerite. In one instance, two populations of siderite ({proportional_to} 35 and {proportional_to} 45 wt.% FeO) plus ankerite fill a large fracture. Late-stage pyrite framboid alteration is Ni

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Carbon Content in Bituminous Coal by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Using UV Laser Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiongwei; Mao, Xianglei; Wang, Zhe; Richard, E. Russo

    2015-11-01

    The carbon content of bituminous coal samples was analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The 266 nm laser radiation was utilized for laser ablation and plasma generation in air. The partial least square method and the dominant factor based PLS method were used to improve the measurement accuracy of the carbon content of coal. The results showed that the PLS model could achieve good measurement accuracy, and the dominant factor based PLS model could further improve the measurement accuracy. The coefficient of determination and the root-mean-square error of prediction of the PLS model were 0.97 and 2.19%, respectively; and those values for the dominant factor based PLS model were 0.99 and 1.51%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the 266 nm wavelength could accurately measure the carbon content of bituminous coal. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51276100) and the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2013CB228501). The authors also thank the financial funding from the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Science Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (No. 2013CB228501)

  3. Characterization of burning and CO2 gasification of chars from mixtures of Zonguldak (Turkey) and Australian bituminous coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, different mixtures (30 wt.% + 70 wt.% and 50 wt.% + 50 wt.%, respectively) of Zonguldak bituminous coal (Turkey) and an Australian bituminous coal are carbonized to obtain char samples. The ignition temperatures of the samples are determined by sending O2 onto the samples in a system designed for determining the ignition temperature. The gasification reactivity of the chars in a CO2 atmosphere is also measured at temperatures between 800 deg. C and 1050 deg. C. The relationship between the ignition temperature and the burning character of the same samples is investigated thermogravimetrically. The moisture, ash and volatile matter analyses are also performed. An increase in carbonization temperature leads to a decrease in the amount of volatile matter. The differences between the effects of volatile matter on the ignition temperature and the gasification reactivity of the samples with CO2 might be explained by the change in pore structure and the varying catalytic effect of mineral components in the structure. It is also seen that there is a good correlation between the thermal analysis and the complete analysis results of the samples

  4. Co-combustion of bituminous coal and biomass fuel blends: Thermochemical characterization, potential utilization and environmental advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui

    2016-10-01

    The thermochemical characteristics and gaseous trace pollutant behaviors during co-combustion medium-to-low ash bituminous coal with typical biomass residues (corn stalk and sawdust) were investigated. Lowering of ignition index, burnout temperature and activation energy in the major combustion stage are observed in the coal/biomass blends. The blending proportion of 20% and 30% are regarded as the optimum blends for corn stalk and sawdust, respectively, in according the limitations of heating value, activation energy, flame stability and base/acid ratio. The reductions of gaseous As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) were 4.5%, 7.8%, 6.3%, 9.8%, 9.4% and 17.4%, respectively, when co-combustion coal with 20% corn stalk. The elevated capture of trace elements were found in coal/corn stalk blend, while the coal/sawdust blend has the better PAHs control potential. The reduction mechanisms of gaseous trace pollutants were attributed to the fuel property, ash composition and relative residence time during combustion. PMID:27393832

  5. Controls on coalbed methane potential and gas sorption characteristics of high-volatile bituminous coals in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Acosta, Wilfrido

    distribution, and adsorption experiments at high and low gas pressures are employed to estimate reservoir gas capacity and to characterize high volatile bituminous coals of Indiana for potential future CO2 sequestration. Understanding the mechanisms and geologic conditions that control the occurrence of gas in coal allows us to better characterize: (1) CBM reservoirs for their potential economic use, and (2) coal seams as future receptacles of anthropogenic carbon dioxide.

  6. Effect of mineral matrix and seam thickness on reflectance of vitrinite in high to low volatile bituminous coals - an enigma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, F.; Gentzis, T.; Snowdon, L.R.; Bustin, R.M.; Feinstein, S.; Labonte, M. (Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Inst. of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The variation of vitrinite reflectance with respect to mineral matrix (lithology), the thickness of coal seams and coal lenses and the type of organic matter was studied from two cores in a 550 m sedimentary succession from the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Kootenay Group. The data obtained indicate that reflectance in high to low volatile bituminous coals (%R[sub o], max0.8-1.35) with depth of burial is affected by the percentage of organic matter in the samples. A positive correlation between the vitrinite reflectance and the percentage of organic matter and a negative correlation with the percentage of mineral matter exist and the thicker the coal interval, the higher the vitrinite reflectance. Variations in vitrinite reflectance may be attributed to chemical differences in the organic matter, possibly induced by degradation and diagenesis syn- or post-depositionally, and to the effect of some clay minerals present in the sediments, which may act as catalysts. Differences in the thermal conductivity of the strata have demonstrably not accounted for the observed variations in reflectance with lithology. The differences in the vitrinite reflectance of organic matter between lithotypes is substantial and is thus an important consideration in resolving the time-temperature history and generation of hydrocarbons from a sedimentary succession.

  7. Predictors of plasticity in bituminous coals. Technical progress report No. 2, March 1, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, W. G.; Reasoner, J. W.; Hower, J. C.; Yates, L. P.; Clark, C. P.; Jones, T. M.; Sturgeon, L. P.; Whitt, J. M.

    1982-03-01

    The approach of this study is to secure three dozen (or more) coals of varying rank, composition and plasticity, and to analyze these coals carefully by standard chemical and petrographic techniques. The bitumen fractions will be determined, both by THF (asphaltenes but not preasphaltenes) and DMF (everything). Pyrolysis gas chromatography on both whole coals and extracted residues will compare capacities to generate metaplast. Extracts from coals with plasticities differing by at least four orders of magnitude will be examined for identifiable differences; extraction residues will be subjected to differential FTIR analysis. All of the data will be combined and subjected to systematic statistical analysis with the objective of identifying predictors of coal plasticity. This report describes the work in the first six months of the study. During this period equipment and instrumentation has been obtained, 24 coal samples have been obtained, the nonclassical methods have been developed and checked out, and an appreciable amount of experimentl data has been obtained.

  8. XRD and FT–IR investigations of sub-bituminous Assam coals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binoy K Saikia; R K Boruah; P K Gogoi

    2007-08-01

    Two coal samples collected from Makum coal field, Assam, India were studied by XRD and FT–IR techniques. The X-ray diffractogram shows the existence of some crystalline carbons in Assam coals as proven by the appearance of peaks. The radial distribution functional (RDF) method was applied for the determination of structural aspects of the coals. The study indicates that the coals are lignite in type and there is no evidence of graphite-like structures. The maximum in the () plots of function of radial distribution of atoms (FRDA) relates to different distances between carbon atoms of aliphatic chains. The first significant maximum relates to the C–C bond (type C–CH=CH–C), the second maximum relates to the distance between carbon atoms of aliphatic chains that are located across one carbon atom. The curve intensity profiles obtained from FRDA show quite regular molecular packets for this coal. The coals were found to be lignite in nature. FT–IR study shows the presence of aliphatic carbon, C=O and C–O stretching associated with –OH and –NH stretching vibrations. Kaolinite and quartz were also found to be major minerals in Assam coals by FTIR spectroscopy. The difference in intensities of carbonyl groups of the coal samples is likely to relate with the rank.

  9. Carbon dioxide and methane sorption in high volatile bituminous coals from Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Gluskoter, H.; Rupp, J.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of coals from several coalbeds in Indiana were analyzed for CO2 and CH4 sorption capacity using a high-pressure adsorption isotherm technique. Coal quality and petrographic composition of the coals were determined to study their relationships to the volume of CO2 and CH4 that could be sorbed into the coal. At the temperature of 17 ??C and 400 psi (??? 2.8 MPa), the coals can sorb (on dry ash-free basis) from 4 to 6.3 m3/ton (128-202 scf/ton) of CH4 and 19.5-24.6 m3/ton4 (624 to 788 scf/ton) of CO2. The ratio of CO2/CH4 at these conditions ranges from 3.5 to 5.3 and decreases with an increasing pressure for all coals. The coals studied are of a very similar coal rank (Ro from 0.48 to 0.62%) but of varying petrographic composition, and CO2 sorption volumes appear to be positively correlated to the content of maceral telocollinite. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Selected annotated bibliography of the geology of uraniferous and radioactive native bituminous substances, exclusive of coals, in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harriet Nell

    1956-01-01

    Native bituminous substances are divided into two groups, 1) bitumens and, 2) pyrobitumens. Bitumens are composed principally of hydrocarbons substantially free from oxygenated bodies, are fusible, and are soluble in carbon disulfide. Native bitumens occur in liquid and solid forms. The native liquid bitumens include all petroleums or crude oils. Native solid bitumens include native waxes such as ozocerite, asphalts or petroleum tars, and asphaltites such as gilsonite and grahamite. Pyrobitumens are composed principally of hydrocarbons which may contain oxygenated bodies. They are infusible and are insoluble, or nearly insoluble, in carbon disulfide. Native pyrobitumens are divided into an oxygen-containing group including peats, lignites, and coals, and an essentially oxygen-free, asphaltic group including such substances as wurtzilite, albertite, impsonite, and ingramite. Thucholites, which are carbonaceous substances that may contain uranium, thorium, and rare earths, commonly are considered to be pyrobitumens. Their compositions are variable and may fall into either the oxygen-containing or oxygen-free group. All varieties of native bituminous substances may be associated with mineral matter. The nomenclature of bitumens and pyrobitumens is used very loosely in the literature. This circumstance arises from the difficulty in recognizing many of these substances by visual examination, and because many of them can be identified accurately only by chemical methods. Inasmuch as some of the chemical procedures are time-consuming and satisfactory analytical methods have not been devised for all these substances, geologists generally have not obtained precise identifications but rather have used names that appeared most appropriate to the circumstances. It is expected that future research will show many substances called "asphaltite," "thucholite," etc., to be incorrectly identified. The nomenclature used by the authors of the various references of this bibliography is

  11. Progressive oxidation of pyrite in five bituminous coal samples: An As XANES and 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring pyrite commonly contains minor substituted metals and metalloids (As, Se, Hg, Cu, Ni, etc.) that can be released to the environment as a result of its weathering. Arsenic, often the most abundant minor constituent in pyrite, is a sensitive monitor of progressive pyrite oxidation in coal. To test the effect of pyrite composition and environmental parameters on the rate and extent of pyrite oxidation in coal, splits of five bituminous coal samples having differing amounts of pyrite and extents of As substitution in the pyrite, were exposed to a range of simulated weathering conditions over a period of 17 months. Samples investigated include a Springfield coal from Indiana (whole coal pyritic S = 2.13 wt.%; As in pyrite = detection limit (d.l.) to 0.06 wt.%), two Pittsburgh coal samples from West Virginia (pyritic S = 1.32-1.58 wt.%; As in pyrite = d.l. to 0.34 wt.%), and two samples from the Warrior Basin, Alabama (pyritic S = 0.26-0.27 wt.%; As in pyrite = d.l. to 2.72 wt.%). Samples were collected from active mine faces, and expected differences in the concentration of As in pyrite were confirmed by electron microprobe analysis. Experimental weathering conditions in test chambers were maintained as follows: (1) dry Ar atmosphere; (2) dry O2 atmosphere; (3) room atmosphere (relative humidity ∼20-60%); and (4) room atmosphere with samples wetted periodically with double-distilled water. Sample splits were removed after one month, nine months, and 17 months to monitor the extent of As and Fe oxidation using As X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, respectively. Arsenic XANES spectroscopy shows progressive oxidation of pyritic As to arsenate, with wetted samples showing the most rapid oxidation. 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy also shows a much greater proportion of Fe3+ forms (jarosite, Fe3+ sulfate, FeOOH) for samples stored under wet conditions, but much less difference among samples stored

  12. Applied Technological Direction of Power Plant Ash and Slag Waste Management when Kuznetsk Bituminous Coal is Burned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihach Snejana A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently a lot of power plants have a problem with storage of coal combustion solid by-products (ash and slag. Holding capacity of existing power plants available ash dumps were enlarged and modernized repeatedly. Many plants have two or even three of them. Today new ash dump construction is economically inconvenient due to need to assign new plots of land and their inconveniently big distance from a plant, which increase ash and slag transportation expenses. The goal of our research work is to find promising directions for ash and slag waste mass utilization based on Kuznetsk bituminous coals experimental data on ultimate composition and properties. The experimental research of ash, slag and their mixture samples from ash dumps brought us to conclusion that the most promising direction for these materials application in large quantities is construction industry including road construction. Be-sides, we lined up some other directions for ash, slag, and ash and slag mixture possible application. These directions might not provide mass utilization but they are promising from a point of view of the researched waste properties.

  13. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  14. Suitability of UK bituminous and Spanish lignitious coals and their blends of two stage liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatman-Fairs, D.P.; Harrison, G. [Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom). School of Sciences

    1999-11-01

    Liquefaction experiments were carried out in spinning/falling basket autoclaves using samples of Kellingly (UK) and Samca (Spain) coals, and a process derived recycle solvent (PDRS). Hydrocracking experiments were carried out in a bomb type autoclave using sulphided NiMo catalyst. For the dissolution, experiments with the individual coals, the influence of temperature 380, 400 and 420{degree}C, and time 1 or 2 h was considered. For hydrocracking, preliminary experiments were carried out with a Kellingly coal liquid to establish appropriate reaction conditions for the hydrocracking of Kellingly and Samca coal liquid blends. There was some evidence of synergistic activity for conversion to dichloromethane (DCM) soluble material and antagonistic behaviour for conversion to tetrahydrofuran soluble/DCM insoluble material for dissolution of the coal blends, but hydrocracking of the coal liquid blends resulted in additive behaviour. For each of the coals, the extent of dissolution correlated with the extent of desulphurisation. The sulphur contents of the solid residues from dissolution tended to increase with the temperature of dissolution, but their H:C ratios decreased and their calorific values were independent. 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Dike intrusions into bituminous coal, Illinois Basin: H, C, N, O isotopic responses to rapid and brief heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Mastalerz, Maria; Gao, Ling; Sauer, Peter E.; Topalov, Katarina

    2009-10-01

    Unlike long-term heating in subsiding sedimentary basins, the near-instantaneous thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter near magmatic intrusions is comparable to artificial thermal maturation in the laboratory in terms of short duration and limited extent. This study investigates chemical and H, C, N, O isotopic changes in high volatile bituminous coal near two Illinois dike contacts and compares observed patterns and trends with data from other published studies and from artificial maturation experiments. Our study pioneers in quantifying isotopically exchangeable hydrogen and measuring the D/H (i.e., 2H/ 1H) ratio of isotopically non-exchangeable organic hydrogen in kerogen near magmatic contacts. Thermal stress in coal caused a reduction of isotopically exchangeable hydrogen in kerogen from 5% to 6% in unaltered coal to 2-3% at contacts, mostly due to elimination of functional groups (e.g., sbnd OH, sbnd COOH, sbnd NH 2). In contrast to all previously published data on D/H in thermally matured organic matter, the more mature kerogen near the two dike contacts is D-depleted, which is attributed to (i) thermal elimination of D-enriched functional groups, and (ii) thermal drying of hydrologically isolated coal prior to the onset of cracking reactions, thereby precluding D-transfer from relatively D-enriched water into kerogen. Maxima in organic nitrogen concentration and in the atomic N/C ratio of kerogen at a distance of ˜2.5 to ˜3.5 m from the thicker dike indicate that reactive N-compounds had been pyrolytically liberated at high temperature closer to the contact, migrated through the coal seam, and recombined with coal kerogen in a zone of lower temperature. The same principle extends to organic carbon, because a strong δ13C kerogen vs. δ15N kerogen correlation across 5.5 m of coal adjacent to the thicker dike indicates that coal was functioning as a flow-through reactor along a dynamic thermal gradient facilitating back-reactions between mobile

  16. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of bituminous coals from the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District, Upper Silesian Basin, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, P.; Busch, A.; Krooss, B. M.; Francu, J.; Francu, E.

    2009-04-01

    In the context of a joint Czech-German project, experimental and analytical methods are being applied to improve the understanding of compositional variation of coal-related gas in the SW part of the Upper Silesian Basin (Czech Republic). According to present understanding, the gas composition is controlled by generation (thermal vs. microbial), migration and adsorption/desorption processes. In particular the effects of the sorption processes on the chemical and isotopic composition of coal gases are only poorly explored. During the first stage of this project, the gas adsorption capacity has been determined for coal samples representing the paralic Ostrava Formation (Namurian A) and the limnic Karviná Formation (Namurian B-C). For this purpose, high pressure adsorption isotherms have been measured for methane and carbon dioxide on medium and low volatile bituminous coal (VRr 1.2-1.8%) from the production face of two collieries in the study area. Adsorption isotherms have been measured for pressures up to 25 MPa for CO2 and up to 17 MPa for methane at 20˚ C and 45˚ C. Isotherms were measured on dry, moisture-equilibrated and "as received" samples (moisture content: 0.5-1.7%, mineral-matter-free) using a manometric method. Sorption capacities for CH4 at 45˚ C ranged from 18 to 27 Std. cm3/g (0.7 to 1.1 mmol/g) coal, dry ash-free (daf), showing an increase of sorption capacity with increasing coal rank. For CO2, sorption capacities were generally higher than for methane, ranging from 35-40 Std. cm3/g (1.4-1.7 mmol/g) coal (daf). Equilibrium moisture contents, determined by a modified ASTM method, were significantly higher than the "as received" moisture. Sorption capacities measured on moisture-equilibrated samples were generally lower than those measured on dry or "as received" samples. Methane excess sorption isotherms show a type I Langmuir form and could be approximated using the Langmuir function. Excess sorption isotherms for CO2 show a decrease in

  17. Parametric and dynamic studies of an iron-based 25-kWth coal direct chemical looping unit using sub-bituminous coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Integrated, moving bed chemical looping reactor with iron-oxide based oxygen carrier. • Coal carbon conversion from 84.8% to 99.9%, thermal capacity 7.4 to 27.7 kWth, O2 demand less than 1.3%. • Dynamic temperature of moving bed reducer is established and tracked during coal injection. • CH4 and CO present at initial coal injection, eliminated after oxygen carrier activated. • Lower coal injection had higher volatiles residence time and conversion. - Abstract: The iron-based Coal-Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) combustion process is an alternative to conventional oxy-combustion technologies, where the oxygen used for fuel conversion in the CDCL process is provided by an iron-oxide based oxygen carrier instead of an air separation unit. The iron oxide is reduced using coal in the reducer reactor, producing highly-pure CO2 in the flue gas, and the reduced iron oxide is regenerated in a separate combustor reactor using air. The CDCL process at Ohio State has been developed and demonstrated in a 25 kWth sub-pilot unit, and it is the first chemical looping demonstration unit with a circulating moving bed reactor for solid fuel conversion. To date, the CDCL sub-pilot unit at OSU has been operated for more than 680 h, with a 200-h continuous operation, providing important data on long term operability as well as parametric optimization. This paper discusses recent parametric operational experience with sub-bituminous coal as the fuel, where dynamic changes in variables were performed to observe the effects on the unit itself. Measurements included temperature, pressure, and gas concentrations from the reducer and combustor. Furthermore, effects of different variables, such as flue gas recycle ratios (enhancer gas flow rates), feed port injection, and temperature, were observed. Tests confirmed high coal conversions with high purity of CO2 achieved in the flue gas. Overall, the moving bed design of the reducer results in nearly full coal conversion

  18. Contribution of Ash Content Related to Methane Adsorption Behaviors of Bituminous Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane adsorption isotherms on coals with varying ash contents were investigated. The textural properties were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K, and methane adsorption characteristics were measured at pressures up to 4.0 MPa at 298 K, 313 K, and 328 K, respectively. The Dubinin-Astakhov model and the Polanyi potential theory were employed to fit the experimental data. As a result, ash content correlated strongly to methane adsorption capacity. Over the ash range studied, 9.35% to 21.24%, the average increase in methane adsorption capacity was 0.021 mmol/g for each 1.0% rise in ash content. With the increasing ash content range of 21.24%~43.47%, a reduction in the maximum adsorption capacities of coals was observed. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the saturated adsorption capacity and the specific surface area and micropore volume of samples. Further, this study presented the heat of adsorption, the isosteric heat of adsorption, and the adsorbed phase specific heat capacity for methane adsorption on various coals. Employing the proposed thermodynamic approaches, the thermodynamic maps of the adsorption processes of coalbed methane were conducive to the understanding of the coal and gas simultaneous extraction.

  19. JV Task-123 Determination of Trace Element Concentrations at an Eastern Bituminous Coal Plant Employing an SCR and Wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Laudal

    2008-05-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) and with funding from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducting tests to prove that a high level of mercury control (>90%) can be achieved at a power plant burning a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. With funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), DOE, and Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates Program, the EERC completed an additional sampling project to provide data as to the behavior of a number of trace elements across the various pollution control devices, with a special emphasis on the wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Results showed that the concentrations of almost all the elements of interest leaving the stack were very low, and a high percentage of the trace elements were captured in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (for most, >80%). Although, with a few exceptions, the overall mass balances were generally quite good, the mass balances across the wet FGD were more variable. This is most likely a result of some of the concentrations being very low and also the uncertainties in determining flows within a wet FGD.

  20. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  1. Experimental Study on Minimum Ignition Temperature of Bituminous Coal Dust Cloud%烟煤煤尘云最低着火温度实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓军; 屈姣; 王秋红; 谢长春

    2014-01-01

    In this PaPer,study and measurement were carried out on the minimum ignition temPerature of three kinds of bituminous coal dust clouds by using the Godbert-Greenwald heating furnace,including the non-caking coal taken from Dafusi Mine in Binxian County,the gas coal from Kouzi East Mine in Anhui Province and the lean coal from 301 working face of Tianchi Mine in Shanxi Province. It was found out from the exPerimental results that the ash content of the gas coal,non-caking coal and lean coal increased in turn,their volatile content reduced in turn,their fixed carbon content increased in turn,and the water content of the lean coal,gas coal and non-caking coal increased in turn;the minimum ignition temPerature of the three kinds of bituminous coal dust clouds decreased with the reduction of their Particle sizes;based on their minimum ignition temPeratures,it was found out that the hardest ignited coal dust was the lean coal and the easiest ignited coal dust was gas coal. This study can Provide an exPerimental basic for the safe Production in coal mines.%为了研究彬县大佛寺矿不粘煤、安徽口孜东矿气煤、山西天池矿301工作面瘦煤等3种烟煤的煤尘云最低着火温度,实验采用Godbert-Greenwald加热炉对以上3种烟煤的煤尘云最低着火温度进行了测试。研究发现气煤、不粘煤、瘦煤的灰分依次增大,挥发分依次减小,固定碳依次增大,水分随瘦煤、气煤、不粘煤依次增大;这3种烟煤煤尘云的最低着火温度都随煤尘粒径的减小而降低;根据最低着火温度,得知煤尘云被引燃的难易程度依次为瘦煤、不粘煤、气煤。此基础研究可为煤矿的安全生产提供实验依据。

  2. Combustion characteristics of semicokes derived from pyrolysis of low rank bituminous coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Wei; Xie Qiang; Huang Yuyi; Dang Jiatao; Sun Kaidi; Yang Qian; Wang Jincao

    2012-01-01

    Various semicokes were obtained from medium-low temperature pyrolysis of Dongrong long flame coal.The proximate analysis,calorific value and Hardgrove grindability index (HGI) of semicokes were determined,and the ignition temperature,burnout temperature,ignition index,burnout index,burnout ratio,combustion characteristic index of semicokes were measured and analyzed using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA).The effects of pyrolysis temperature,heating rate,and pyrolysis time on yield,composition and calorific value of long flame coal derived semicokes were investigated,especially the influence of pyrolysis temperature on combustion characteristics and grindability of the semicokes was studied combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of semicokes.The results show that the volatile content,ash content and calorific value of semicokes pyrolyzed at all process parameters studied meet the technical specifications of the pulverized coal-fired furnaces (PCFF) referring to China Standards GB/T 7562-1998.The pyrolysis temperature is the most influential factor among pyrolysis process parameters.As pyrolysis temperature increases,the yield,ignition index,combustion reactivity and burnout index of semicokes show a decreasing tend,but the ash content increases.In the range of 400 and 450 ℃,the grindability of semicokes is rational,especially the grindability of semicokes pyrolyzed at 450 ℃ is suitable.Except for the decrease of volatile content and increase of ash content,the decrease of combustion performance of semicokes pyrolyzed at higher temperature should be attributed to the improvement of the degree of structural ordering and the increase of aromaticity and average crystallite size of char.It is concluded that the semicokes pyrolyzed at the temperature of 450 ℃ is the proper fuel for PCFF.

  3. Pneumoconiosis among underground bituminous coal miners in the United States: is silicosis becoming more frequent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Scott Laney; Edward L. Petsonk; Michael D. Attfield [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States). Division of Respiratory Disease Studies

    2010-10-15

    Epidemiologic reports since 2000 have documented increased prevalence and rapid progression of pneumoconiosis among underground coal miners in the United States. To investigate a possible role of silica exposure in the increase, we examined chest x-rays (CXRs) for specific abnormalities (r-type small opacities) known to be associated with silicosis lung pathology. Underground coal miners are offered CXRs every 5 years. Abnormalities consistent with pneumoconiosis are recorded by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) B Readers using the International Labour Office Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis. CXRs from 1980-2008 of 90,973 participating miners were studied, focusing on reporting of r-type opacities (small rounded opacities 3-10 mm in diameter). Log binomial regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios adjusted for miner age and profusion category. Among miners from Kentucky, Virginia, and West Virginia, the proportion of radiographs showing r-type opacities increased in the 1990s (PR=2.5; 95% CI=1.7-3.7) and after 1999 (PR=4.1; 95% CI=3.0-5.6), compared to the 1980s (adjusted for profusion category and miner age). The prevalence of progressive massive fibrosis in 2000-2008 was also elevated compared to the 1980's (PR=4.4; 95% CI=3.1-6.3) and 1990's (PR=3.8; 95% CI=2.1-6.8) in miners from Kentucky, Virginia, and West Virginia. The increasing prevalence of pneumoconiosis over the past decade and the change in the epidemiology and disease profile documented in this and other recent studies imply that U.S. coal miners are being exposed to excessive amounts of respirable crystalline silica.

  4. Contribution of Ash Content Related to Methane Adsorption Behaviors of Bituminous Coals

    OpenAIRE

    Yanyan Feng; Wen Yang; Wei Chu

    2014-01-01

    Methane adsorption isotherms on coals with varying ash contents were investigated. The textural properties were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K, and methane adsorption characteristics were measured at pressures up to 4.0 MPa at 298 K, 313 K, and 328 K, respectively. The Dubinin-Astakhov model and the Polanyi potential theory were employed to fit the experimental data. As a result, ash content correlated strongly to methane adsorption capacity. Over the ash range stu...

  5. Solid superacid-catalyzed hydroconversion of an extraction residue from Lingwu bituminous coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming Yue; Xian-Yong Wei; Bing Sun; Ying-Hua Wang; Zhi-Min Zong; Zi-Wu Liu

    2012-01-01

    A solid superacid was prepared as a catalyst.The catalyst was characterized by ammonia temperatureprogrammed desorption,surface property measurement,and analyses with scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry.A extraction residue from Lingwu subbituminous coal was subject to non-catalytic and catalytic hydroconversion using cyclohexane as the solvent under pressurized hydrogen at 300 ℃ for 3h.The results show that the total yield of petroleum ether-extractable arenes from catalytic hydroconversion is much higher than that from non-catalytic hydroconversion.The cleavage of Car-Calk bonds in the residue could significantly proceed during catalytic hydroconversion.

  6. Formation of hydrogen cyanide and ammonia during the gasification of sewage sludge and bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Paterson; Y. Zhuo; D. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    HCN and NH{sub 3} released during the gasification of sewage sludge have been measured during a program of tests with a laboratory-scale spouted-bed gasifier. The data have been compared with results from gasification tests with coal. The effect of altering the bed temperature has been investigated, and the results have been related to reactions involving gaseous N species known to occur in the gasifier. The effect of steam addition on the HCN release has been examined. It has been found that the HCN concentrations in the exit gas increase with the operating temperature, which is thought to indicate increased formation as a primary product of the decomposition of the fuel-N compounds. Increasing the height of the char bed caused a significant reduction in the HCN concentration at the exit, as this promoted the decomposition of HCN to NH{sub 3}. Steam addition caused a rise in the HCN concentration during tests with sewage sludge and a similar effect had previously been reported on the NH{sub 3} concentration during tests with coal. The NH{sub 3} concentration decreased with increasing temperature, and this is thought to reflect the increased rate of the equilibration of NH{sub 3} in the gas phase to form N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. 18 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

    1980-10-01

    The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

  8. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 3. Gasification of Rosebud sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the third volume in a series of documents prepared by Black, Sivalls and Bryson, Incorporated and describes the gasification of Rosebud subbituminous coal during the time period November 2-20, 1982. Test results and data are presented for the gasification of the coal and the operation of a slipstream tar scrubber to cool the gas and remove condensed tar. 5 refs., 29 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Bituminous coal production in the Appalachian basin: past, present, and future: Chapter D.3 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Polyak, Désirée E.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Although small quantities of coal first were produced from the Appalachian basin in the early 1700s, the first production statistics of significance were gathered during the census of 1830 (Eavenson, 1942). Since then, about 35 billion short tons of bituminous coal have been produced from the Appalachian basin from an original potential coal reserve (PCR(o)) estimated to range from about 60 to 90 billion short tons. The term “reserve” refers to economically producible coal, and a “potential coal reserve” (PCR(n)) is an estimate of the amount of coal economically recoverable in a region (State, coal field) over a defined time period (n = number of years) and under a range of economic, societal, and technological conditions. Thus, the current cumulative production plus the PCR(n) equals an estimated cumulative production (ECP(n)). The maps in this report (oversized figures 1, 2, 3, and 4) were produced from a digital database of historical and current coal production records by county. Sources of the original data include various State geological surveys, the U.S. Geological Survey, the former U.S. Bureau of Mines, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Coal Resource Assessment Project.

  10. Thermal relaxation of bituminous coal to improve donation ability of hydrogen radicals in flash pyrolysis; Sekitan kozo kanwa ni yoru suiso radical kyoyo noryoku no kojo wo mezashita netsubunkai mae shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    In terms of coal conversion reaction, the behavior of bituminous coal heated beyond a glass transition point was examined on the basis of pyrolyzed products, and the effect of an increase in proton mobility on promotion of coal decomposition was evaluated. In experiment, after Illinois bituminous coal specimen was heated up to a specific temperature in N2 or He gas flow at a rate of 5K/min, the specimen was directly transferred to a pyrolyzer for instantaneous pyrolysis. As the experimental result, the glass transition temperature of the Illinois coal specimen was calculated to be 589K from a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profile. From the pyrolysis result of the Illinois coal specimen heated up to 623K, the char yield decreased by 3kg as compared with that of the original coal, while the tar yield increased by 4kg up to 27kg per 100kg of the original coal. This tar increase was larger than that of cooled coal. These results suggested that the donation of hydrogen radicals to coal fragments is improved with an increase in proton mobility. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Gao, Zhengyang; Zhu, Jiashun; Wang, Quanhai; Huang, Yaji; Chiu, Chengchung; Parker, Bruce; Chu, Paul; Pant, Wei-Ping

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0)concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH3 addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH3 reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation.

  12. Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Campbell

    2008-12-31

    This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

  13. Distribution and Fate of Mercury in Pulverized Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants in Coal Energy-Dominant Huainan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingyu; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu

    2016-05-01

    A better understanding on the partitioning behavior of mercury (Hg) during coal combustion in large-scale coal-fired power plants is fundamental for drafting Hg-emission control regulations. Two large coal-fired utility boilers, equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system, respectively, in coal energy-dominant Huainan City, China, were selected to investigate the distribution and fate of Hg during coal combustion. In three sampling campaigns, we found that Hg in bottom ash was severely depleted with a relative enrichment (RE) index removal efficiencies of ESPs, WFGD, and ESPs + WFGD were 17-32, 10-29, and 36-46%, respectively. The Hg-emission factor of studied boilers was in a high range of 0.24-0.29 g Hg/t coal. We estimated that Hg emissions in all Huainan coal-fired power plants varied from 1.8 Mg in 2003 to 7.3 Mg in 2010. PMID:26883032

  14. EFFECT OF COAL-SWELLING AND SYNCHRONOUSLY SUPPORTED CATALYSTS ON COPROCESSING OF BITUMINOUS COAL AND HEAVY OILS%同步溶胀-担载催化剂对烟煤-重油共炼的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈军; 石斌; 郭龙德; 郭智慧; 田华; 张建芳

    2011-01-01

    以Fe(NO3)3和Na2S分别作为催化剂前体和原位硫化剂,在20℃下分别用水、甲醇(M)、N-N二甲基甲酰胺(DMF)和二甲亚砜(DMSO)对神华烟煤溶胀12 h,同步溶胀-担载催化剂后的烟煤脱除溶剂后与轮古常渣(LGAR)和杜84超稠油(Du84)在2:1油煤质量比,8 MPa冷氢压,420℃,1h的条件下进行加氢共处理.结果表明,神华烟煤经过溶胀处理后与两种重油共处理的液化率都明显提高,煤的转化率明显增大;三种有机溶胀剂相比,DMF同步溶胀促进液化效果最好,其次为DMSO,甲醇最差.两种配油相比,Du84比LGAR更适合煤-重油共处理.XRD分析表明,同步溶胀-担载法制备的溶胀煤栽铁催化剂以非晶态和高分散的状态存在于溶胀煤表面,在共处理中催化剂最终转化为Fe1-xS.在煤-重油共处理中,经DMF同步溶胀-担载的催化剂失活,结晶相对不明显.%Fe(NO3)3 as catalytic precursor and Na2S as in-situ presulfurizer were impregnated on the Shenhua bituminous coals which were synchronously swollen with H2O, methanol, N-N dimethylformamide (DMF) or dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) at 20 'C for 12 h. Then the swollen coals were prepared by vacuum drying. The co-processing of swollen Shenhua coal and two heavy oils(LGAR and Du84) was carried on under the condition of the mass ratio of 2:1 oil to coal, 8 Mpa cold hydrogen pressure,420℃ and 1 h. The coprocessing of the swollen bituminous coal and LGAR or Du84 was significantly improved on the coal liquefaction. Among the three swelling solvents, the improvement of DMF was the highest, that of DMSO was the better and methanol were the lowest. Du84 was favor in the coprocessing than LGAR. By XRD analysis, the iron catalysts on the swollen coal with Fe(NO3)3 synchronously impregnated with the solvents were amorphous and highly dispersed on coal surface and could transform into Fe1-x S in the coprocessing. During the coprocessing, the deactivation of the catalyst synchronously impregnated on

  15. The Impact of the Bituminous Coal Combustion from the Thermoelectric Power Plant from Paroseni on the Environment of Jiu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Rebrisoreanu

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The Jiu Valley Basin is one of the most important coal mining areas in Romania. Other industries, including a power plant, are also well developed in this area. Therefore, pollution is very high. One of the most polluted environmental compounds is the air. High mountains surround the Jiu Valley, which makes difficult the air refreshing. For this reason, it is very important to discuss the air pollution and especially that produced by dust. Since the industrial companies are concentrated in a small area, it is very difficult to identify and prosecute the polluting one. The present paper aims to identify the sources of air pollution, especially among the mining companies, because the power plant is considered the most important polluting agent in this area.

  16. Bituminization plant Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this leaflet the principle of the bituminization plant for radioactive concentrate (the intermediate liquid radioactive waste generated during the NPP A1, V-1, V-2 operations) solidification used in the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) is presented

  17. 热黏结剂对低阶煤制取型煤的热态性能影响%STUDY ON INFLUENCE OF HEAT BINDER ON PROPERTIES OF BRIQUETTE FROM LOW RANK BITUMINOUS COALS UNDER HOT STATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄山秀; 马名杰

    2013-01-01

    选用煤焦油沥青、高黏结肥煤作为热黏结剂,分别以不同的掺入量和低阶烟煤粉煤及其他原料混合制取型煤.型煤样品热强度测定结果表明:以煤焦油沥青为热黏结剂的型煤热强度高于以高黏结肥煤为热黏结剂的型煤热强度,进一步对型煤微观结构电镜分析也证实了以煤焦油沥青为热黏结剂的型煤其黏结性能和防水性相对较好,电镜切片表明,煤焦油沥青热态下析出的挥发分经过胶质体时产生的气泡相互作用能使胶质体受压形成更坚固的整体网状结构;研究还发现煤焦油沥青的粒度对型煤热强度也有一定的影响.%Two different materials such as coal tar pitch, fat coal with high adhesion were chosen as the heat binder, which were mixed into the powder of low rank bituminous coals from Shenmu or Yuzhou and other raw materials to make coal briquette in different ration. The determination results show that the thermal strength of coal briquette with tar pitch is higher than that of coal briquette with fat coal. Further analysis of micro-structure of coal briquette by electron microscopic also verifies that the cohesion and water resistance of coal briquette with tar pitch is stronger, and it is because that interaction of air bubble poduced by volatile separated under hot state through colloid pressures the colloid and form the stronger net-structure on coal granules surface. Moreover, the particle size of tar pitch also have certain effect on thermal strength of coal briquette.

  18. 某600 MW机组烟煤锅炉低N0x改造及效果分析%Low NOx Retrofit for Certain 600 MW Bituminous Coal Boiler and Performance Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁鹏飞

    2013-01-01

    The retrofit effect of certain 600 MW bituminous coal boiler indicates that low NOx combustion technology can reduce the NOx production to 70%, but there are some problems, such as combustion economy and large spray water. Strong reduction atmosphere of burner zone may cause high temperature corrosion on water wall. Therefore, it is suggested to spray some anticorrosive material for prevention.%对某600 MW机组烟煤锅炉进行低NOx改造,改造后锅炉总体性能良好,NOx减排达到70%.但改造对锅炉燃烧经济性、减温水量产生负面影响,同时主燃烧器区形成的强还原性气氛还可能对水冷壁造成高温腐蚀,必须采取喷涂等防腐手段加以预防.

  19. Measurement and modeling of adsorptive?poromechanical properties of bituminous coal cores exposed to CO2: Adsorption, swelling strains, swelling stresses and impact on fracture permeability

    OpenAIRE

    ESPINOZA, D.N.; VANDAMME, Mathieu; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Dangla, Patrick; VIDAL-GILBERT, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    The reservoir response of unmineable coal seams to primary and enhanced natural gas recovery is strongly affected by gas sorption and the swelling properties of the coal reservoir rock. In-depth understanding of the process of gas sorption/desorption in the coal matrix, induced deformation and measurement of relevant physical parameters are critical for predictive reservoir management. Models used in industry practice are based on swelling strains measured in "free" swelling coal or on empiri...

  20. Appalachian basin bituminous coal: sulfur content and potential sulfur dioxide emissions of coal mined for electrical power generation: Chapter G.5 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Milici, Robert C.; Freeman, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Data from 157 counties in the Appalachian basin of average sulfur content of coal mined for electrical power generation from 1983 through 2005 show a general decrease in the number of counties where coal mining has occurred and a decrease in the number of counties where higher sulfur coals (>2 percent sulfur) were mined. Calculated potential SO2 emissions (assuming no post-combustion SO2 removal) show a corresponding decrease over the same period of time.

  1. Investigation of pyrite as a contributor to slagging in eastern bituminous coals. Quarterly progress report 9, October 1-December 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryers, R.W.

    1984-06-01

    The objective of this program is to examine slags formed as a result of firing coals with varying concentration levels, size distribution, and orientation of pyrite with regard to mineral matter in the coal in a laboratory furnace. The program tasks are: (1) selection of eight candidate coals; (2) chemical characterization of the coal samples and identification of the pyrite size, distribution, and orientation with respect to other mineral matter and concentration levels; (3) testing of the candidate coals in a laboratory furnace; (4) chemical and physical characterization of the slag and fly ash samples created by the impurities in the coal sample; (5) influence of coal beneficiation on furnace slagging; and (6) analysis of data and identification of parameters influencing the contribution of pyrite to slagging problems. Washing of the Upper Freeport coal from Indiana County, Pennsylvania, was completed by the last quarter of 1983. The washed product was characterized for mineral content, and a combustion test was performed. Kentucky No. 9 from Henderson County, Kentucky, selected as the sixth coal to be investigated, was characterized using size and gravity fractionation techniques and was combusted in the laboratory furnace to evaluate its slagging and fouling potential. The remaining two coals to be characterized and combusted were identified as Illinois No. 5 and Lower Kittanning from Clarion County, Pennsylvania. 80 figures, 27 tables.

  2. 基于热重分析法的烟煤掺烧褐煤特性研究%Combustion Characteristics of Bituminous Coal Blended with Lignite Using Thermo-gravimetric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志斌; 马莹; 戴新; 赵建军; 关彦军; 张锴

    2015-01-01

    针对电厂掺烧褐煤缺乏相关理论指导的技术需求,采用热重分析方法系统考察了包煤、准煤和褐煤的单独燃烧特性,并将两种烟煤分别以10%、30%、50%和70%的比例在相同条件下与褐煤混合燃烧,根据各燃料燃烧特征参数计算了单一煤种及其不同掺混比例的着火指数、燃尽指数和综合燃烧指数。结果表明,褐煤最易着火和燃尽;包煤着火特性较好,但在550~660℃范围内出现难燃峰致使燃尽特性变差;准煤的着火特性最差,燃尽特性略优于包煤;将包煤和准煤与褐煤掺混后燃烧特性有所改善,各燃烧特征温度降低,且综合燃烧指数随褐煤掺烧比例的增加而增加。建议在电厂实际应用时,褐煤的掺烧比例控制在30%-50%之间。%Based on the actual requirement for fundamental theory of blending lignite in coal-fired power stations, combustion characteristics of lignite, bituminous coal and their blends were investigated by using thermogravimetric method ( TGA) in this paper.Lignite was blended with two types of bituminous coals in proportions of 10%, 30%, 50%and 70%, respectively.The ignition index, burnout index and comprehensive combustion index of single and mixed fuels were calculated by means of combustion characteristic parameters.The results show that lig-nite displays the best ignition and burnout performace, Bao coal is easier to ignite but hard to burn out in the tem-perature range of 550 and 660℃.Compared to Bao coal, Zhun coal is the hardest to ignite but better to burn out. The performance of combustion can be improved after blending lignite, which is largely because the comprehensive combustion index of blended coals increases with the increasing ratio of lignite.Therefore, the blending ratio of lig-nite suggested lignite ration should be controlled between 30%and 50%.

  3. Model formulations for the mathematical-statistical evaluation of operation data as a planning assistance in the assessment of face operations in the bituminous coal mining. Modellansaetze fuer die mathematisch-statistische Auswertung von Betriebsdaten als Planungshilfsmittel bei der Einschaetzung von Strebbetrieben im Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griesenbrock, H.P.

    1982-06-14

    Regression models based on comprehensive operating data collections were developed and tested for a sure assessment of the haulage capacity of face conveyors in the Ruhr bituminous coal mining. Starting from a critical view of the previously developed models for the assessment of face operations a factorial model has been developed considering the data in the form of utilization coefficients the parameters of which are not directly but iteratively determinable.

  4. Explosion characteristics of pulverised torrefied and raw Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Southern pine (Pinus palustris) in comparison to bituminous coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-treatments, such as torrefaction, can improve biomass fuels properties. Dedicated and coal co-firing plants, in which pulverised biomass and torrefied biomass can be used, are exposed to explosion hazards during handling, storage and transport from the mills to the boiler. Data on the explosion characteristics of biomass and torrefied biomass are scarce. This study presents explosion characteristics (maximum explosion pressure, deflagration index and minimum explosible concentration) of two torrefied wood samples and compares their reactivity to that of their corresponding untreated biomass materials and to a sample of Kellingley coal. Torrefied biomass samples showed higher reactivity, overpressures were around 9 bar (0.9 MPa, 1 bar = 105 Pa) for all biomass samples irrespective of size or sample composition. Derived laminar burning velocities ranged between 0.1–0.12 m s−1, and were therefore similar to that of coal (0.12 m s−1). The differences in explosion reactivity influence the design of explosion protection measures and can be used to introduce suitable modifications for safe operations with torrefied biomass. - Highlights: • Explosion characteristics were measured for two torrefied biomass samples. • Properties were compared to those of coal and corresponding untreated biomass. • Maximum explosion overpressures were similar for all biomass at about 9 bar. • Torrefied biomass was more reactive than coal and untreated biomass. • Biomass explosion data can be used to design better safety systems

  5. Cold bituminous mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Delak, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Asphalt mix (short also asphalt) can be obtained from nature (natural asphalt) or produced technically (artificial asphalt), i. e. as a mix of bituminous binder, stone grain, and other additives that improve the asphalt properties. The beginnings of the use of asphalt can be traced from 6,000 to 4,000 BC since people back then knew some materials that contained bitumen as a binder. A more frequent use of the natural asphalt, however, starts around 3,000 BC. Different peoples used it primar...

  6. Mineralogical and elemental composition of fly ash from pilot scale fluidised bed combustion of lignite, bituminous coal, wood chips and their blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaos Koukouzas; Jouni Hamalainen; Dimitra Papanikolaou; Antti Tourunen; Timo Jantti [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Ptolemais (Greece). Centre for Research and Technology Hellas

    2007-09-15

    The chemical and mineralogical composition of fly ash samples collected from different parts of a laboratory and a pilot scale CFB facility has been investigated. The fabric filter and the second cyclone of the two facilities were chosen as sampling points. The fuels used were Greek lignite (from the Florina basin), Polish coal and wood chips. Characterization of the fly ash samples was conducted by means of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), particle size distribution (PSD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). According to the chemical analyses the produced fly ashes are rich in CaO. Moreover, SiO{sub 2} is the dominant oxide in fly ash with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} found in considerable quantities. Results obtained by XRD showed that the major mineral phase of fly ash is quartz, while other mineral phases that are occurred are maghemite, hematite, periclase, rutile, gehlenite and anhydrite. The ICP-OES analysis showed rather low levels of trace elements, especially for As and Cr, in many of the ashes included in this study compared to coal ash from fluidised bed combustion in general. 23 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Fluorine in Canadian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godbeer, W.G.; Swaine, D.J.; Goodarzi, F. (CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Division of Coal and Energy Technology)

    1994-08-01

    Fluorine was determined in 57 samples of coals from western Canada and the Yukon (47 bituminous, 4 subbituminous, 6 lignite) by a pyrohydrolysis method. The range of values is 31-930 ppmw F in dry coal, the lowest values being mainly for the low-rank coals. For bituminous coals most values are in the range 31-580 (mean 174) ppmw F. 23 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO2 emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  9. Experimental study on the characteristics of NOx emissions from 600 MW supercritical bituminous coal fired boiler with swirl burner%600MW超临界旋流燃烧烟煤锅炉NOx排放特性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳峻峰; 秦鹏; 邹磊; 梁绍华; 张恩先; 黄磊

    2012-01-01

    针对某厂1台600MW超临界低NOx轴向旋流燃烧烟煤锅炉特点,通过变工况(氧量、不同层燃烧器风量分配方式、二次风比率、二次风旋流强度、三次风旋流强度、同层燃烧器风量分配方式和负荷等)试验,分析了锅炉NOx排放特性.试验结果表明:对于燃用烟煤的采用低NOx旋流燃烧器的锅炉,运行氧量燃尽风份额、锅炉负荷及同层燃烧器风量分配方式是NOx排放的主要影响因素.为控制NOx排放,保持锅炉原有热效率,燃烧调整的原则为:(1)在保证锅炉运行安全的前提下应尽量采用低氧燃烧;(2)采用大比例的燃尽风份额;(3)运行负荷不应过低;(4)同层燃烧器风量分配采用双峰方式.%NOx. emissions from a 600 MW supercritical boiler with swirl burner were investigated by performing a serial of tests such as changing O2 concentration, air-distribution of different level burners, secondary air ratio, secondary and tertiary air swirl strength, air-distribution of the burners in same level and boiler load. The test results show that for the bituminous coal fired boiler with swirl burner, the O2 concentration, over fire air (OFA) ratio, boiler load and air-distribution mode of the burners in same level are the main factors affecting NOx emissions. In order to reduce NOx emissions and keep higher boiler efficiency, the following principles about combustion adjustment should be obeyed: (1) the O2 concentration should be kept in the premise of ensuring safe operalion of boiler as lower as possible;{2) large proportion of OFA should be adopted; (3) boiler load should not be loo low; (4) two-peak air distribution mode should be taken among the same level burners.

  10. Relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica in C1 bituminous coal in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China%云南省宣威地区非吸烟女性肺癌与C1烟煤中二氧化硅的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光剑; 黄云超; 田林玮; 刘拥军; 郭律; 肖义泽; 侯文俊; 杨堃; 陈颖

    2013-01-01

    二氧化硅颗粒物进入室内空气中随悬浮颗粒物吸入肺部”的迁移富集路线.%Objective To measure the content of silica in C1 bituminous coal and its combustion products in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei,Yunnan Province,China and to investigate the relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica produced naturally in C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei.Methods The C1 bituminous coal widely used in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei was selected as experiment group,while the C2+1,K7,and M30 bituminous coal that was mined and used in the low-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei for more than 10 years were selected as control group.Fourteen paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples from the non-smoking women with non-small cell lung cancer who were born in Xuanwei and were at least the 3rd generation of the family living there were collected from the department of pathology,the ahird affiliated hospital of kunming medical university (tumor hospital of yunnan province).Titrimetric potassium silicofluoride method was used to measure the content of silica in raw coal and its bottom ashes in 20 samples from the experimental group and control group.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in C1 bituminous coal and its bottom ashes,and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in the bottom ashes and coal soot of C1 bituminous coal as well as the lung cancer tissue from the non-smoking women in Xuanwei,and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.The silica particles were separated from the coal soot and bottom ashes and characterized by physical method

  11. Operation of flue gas fan during mixed burning of bituminous coal in a lean coal-fired boiler:problems and solutions%贫煤锅炉掺烧烟煤热炉烟风机运行问题及其解决措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴豪; 范庆伟; 张立欣

    2014-01-01

    介绍了华能南京电厂贫煤锅炉的抽炉烟干燥技术,分析了该锅炉掺烧烟煤后热炉烟风机磨损、积灰、振动、出力不足等问题。对此,通过对热炉烟风机实施选型优化、叶片防磨治理、合理安排检修等措施后,大大延长了热炉烟风机使用周期和寿命,减少了检修时间和检修费用,保证了贫煤锅炉掺烧烟煤制粉系统的安全性和可靠性。%The flue gas drying technology implemented in lean coal-fired boiler of Nanj ing Power Plant was introduced.Problems such as hot flue gas fan abrasion,deposited ash vibrancy,and insufficient output oc-curred on this boiler were investigated.Moreover,solutions for the above problems were put forward. Through fan type selection optimization,fan blade abrasion resistant treatment,reasonable arrangement of maintenance and other measures,the problems of fan blade abrasion and deposited ash vibrancy were well solved,and the service life of flue gas fan was significantly prolonged,the time and cost of maintenance were reduced,and the safety and reliability of bituminous coal pulverizing system in lean coal-fired boiler were ensured.

  12. Relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica in C1 bituminous coal in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China%云南省宣威地区非吸烟女性肺癌与C1烟煤中二氧化硅的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光剑; 黄云超; 田林玮; 刘拥军; 郭律; 肖义泽; 侯文俊; 杨堃; 陈颖

    2013-01-01

    二氧化硅颗粒物进入室内空气中随悬浮颗粒物吸入肺部”的迁移富集路线.%Objective To measure the content of silica in C1 bituminous coal and its combustion products in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei,Yunnan Province,China and to investigate the relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica produced naturally in C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei.Methods The C1 bituminous coal widely used in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei was selected as experiment group,while the C2+1,K7,and M30 bituminous coal that was mined and used in the low-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei for more than 10 years were selected as control group.Fourteen paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples from the non-smoking women with non-small cell lung cancer who were born in Xuanwei and were at least the 3rd generation of the family living there were collected from the department of pathology,the ahird affiliated hospital of kunming medical university (tumor hospital of yunnan province).Titrimetric potassium silicofluoride method was used to measure the content of silica in raw coal and its bottom ashes in 20 samples from the experimental group and control group.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in C1 bituminous coal and its bottom ashes,and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in the bottom ashes and coal soot of C1 bituminous coal as well as the lung cancer tissue from the non-smoking women in Xuanwei,and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.The silica particles were separated from the coal soot and bottom ashes and characterized by physical method

  13. Coal Production 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  14. Fluorine in Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Tang, X.Y.; Li, S.H.; Wang, B.B.; Wang, M.S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2004-05-01

    Three hundred and five coal samples were taken from the main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of China. The method of pyrohydrolysis was applied to measure the fluorine content in the samples, which exhibit logarithmic normal frequency distributions. The range of fluorine content in dry coal varies from 26 to 1230 mg/kg with a geometric mean of 136 mg/kg. The fluorine content decreases gradually from sub-bituminous through bituminous coal to anthracite. However, such varying tendency of fluorine content is not due to the presence of organic fluorine in coal. The geological age also apparently has no effect on the fluorine content. Even though the fluorine content of most coals in China is not high, much more attention should be given to the fluoride pollution caused by improper (unvented) coal-burning and the widespread household use of high-fluoride coal-clay.

  15. Effects of coal rank on the chemical composition and toxicological activity of coal liquefaction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Dauble, D.D.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and toxicological testing of coal liquefaction materials from the EDS and H-Coal processes operated using different ranks of coal. Samples of recycle solvent from the bottoms recycle mode of the EDS direct coal liquefaction process derived from bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals were analyzed. In addition, the H-Coal heavy fuel oils derived from bituminous and sub-bituminous coals were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsoprtion column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry. The toxicological activity of selected samples was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay, an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity, and a static bioassy with Daphnia magna for aquatic toxicity of the water-soluble fractions. 22 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. Export market potential for Alaskan and Western US coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major utilization trends may create opportunity for dramatic expansion of Alaska's coal exports from a huge ultra-low sulfur coal resource base. Markets are expected to open up in the Pacific Basin for sub-bituminous and bituminous steam coals from Alaska to include not only run-of-mine coals but also product streams from beneficiation technologies. Market considerations aside, deficiencies in physical infrastructure and an unresolved resource ownership issue are the principal impediments at this time to property development

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF HEXANE SOLUBLE OILS FROM LIQUEFACTION OF TWO BITUMINOUS COALS%两种烟煤的液化及液化油的组成特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱继升; LawrenceP.Norcio

    2001-01-01

    Two high-volatile subbituminous coals, DECS-6 of US and Yanzhou coal of China, were liquefied or co-liquefied with HDPE or PVC at 400?℃, 30?min under 7?MPa hydrogen. The results show that Yanzhou coal is easier to be liquefied or co-liquefied than DECS-6 coal under the experimental conditions used and the hexane-soluble oil from Yanzhou coal has more low boiling point fractions than that from DECS-6 coal. The aromatics in hexane soluble oils mainly consist of alkylbeneze, alkylnaphthalene, phenanthrene-,pyrene-, chrysene-, and benzopyrene- compounds, the polars mainly compose of compounds containing O, S and N etc.%在400 ℃、30 min、7 MPa冷氢压条件下两种煤液化结果表明,兖州煤比DECS-6(美国煤)煤更容易液化或共液化,这可能与兖州煤硫含量比较高有关,但DECS-6煤的油收率要高于兖州煤,表明EDCS-6煤容易裂解生成小分子化合物。同种煤液化油的沸点分布特征基本一致。UV(紫外光谱)特征表明,液化油中单环芳烃主要为烷基取代苯类化合物,二环芳烃组分主要是烷基取代萘类化合物,三环芳烃主要为渺位缩合的菲类化合物,四环芳烃主要为芘、屈艹类化合物,五环芳烃以苯并芘类化合物为主,而极性化合物可归属为含O、S、N的极性芳香化合物。

  18. Thermal stability of carboxylic acid functionality in coal; Sekitanchu ni sonzaisuru karubokishiruki no netsubunkai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Aida, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Carboxyl in coal was focused in discussing its pyrolytic behavior while tracking change of its absolute amount relative to the heating temperatures. A total of four kinds of coals, consisting of two kinds brown coals, sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were used. Change in the absolute amount of carboxyl due to heating varies with coalification degree. Decomposition starts in the bituminous coal from around 300{degree}C, and is rapidly accelerated when 400{degree}C is exceeded. Carboxyls in brown coals exist two to three times as much as those in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, of which 40% is decomposed at a temperature as low as about 300{degree}C. Their pyrolytic behavior at temperatures higher than 400{degree}C resembles that of the bituminous coal. Carboxyls consist of those easy to decompose and difficult to decompose. Aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with simple structure are stable at temperatures lower than 300{degree}C, and decompose abruptly from about 400{degree}C, hence their behavior resembles that of carboxyls in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Structure of low-temperature decomposing carboxyls in brown coals is not known, but it is assumed that humic acid originated from natural materials remains in the structure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  20. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  1. 烟煤快速加氢热解研究 Ⅲ.焦油组成考察%FLASH HYDROPYROLYSIS OF BITUMINOUS COAL Ⅲ. RESEARCH ON FLASH HYDROPYROLYSIS TAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    在高压气流床反应装置上对东胜煤快速加氢热解制取焦油试样,研究了热解温度对焦油主要组分的影响,并与高温焦炉焦油进行比较。实验表明: 加氢热解焦油的液态烃得率达15%以上,是高温焦炉焦油得率的二倍;油馏分高,沥青质少;酚类化合物和纯缩合多环芳烃含量高,脂肪烃含量低,纯缩合多环芳烃烷基衍生物组成较简单。加氢热解改善了焦油的品质,提高了得率。%Tar sample obtained by flash hydropyrolysis (FHP) from Dongshen coal at high pressure entrained reactor was investigated. An effect of falsh hydropyrolysis temperature on main components in tar was studied and the quality of tar was compared with high temperature coke oven tar. The results showed: the yields of liquid hydrocarbon in FHP tar were more than 15%, which is twofold of that in coke oven tar; the FHP tar has superior oil fraction, i.e., minor pitch, superior phenol components and pure condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and minor aliphatic hydrocarbon. The components of the FHP tar were simpler than that of high temperature coke oven tar. Therefore, FHP improved quantity and quality of tar.

  2. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  3. Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondi, Giulio; Tataranni, Piergiorgio; Pettinari, Matteo;

    2014-01-01

    Today recycling is one of the most innovative and interesting techniques for the rehabilitation of destressed road pavements. In recent years the increased interest in this process, has led to the development of various alternative methods for the recovery and the reuse of road bituminous materials....... Cold recycling is, among the recycling techniques, certainly the most studied and developed: it allows the recovering of bituminous material from an existing pavement without the addition of heat, whilst ensuring the creation of high quality bound base layers. A wide range of materials have been tested...... together with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and, consequently, there is a large number of variables that can be considered in the mix-design process of new eco-friendly Cold Recycled Mixes. In particular, the present research involves the use of Crumb Rubber within a mixture containing 100% Reclaimed...

  4. Polar polycyclic aromatic compounds from different coal types show varying mutagenic potential, EROD induction and bioavailability depending on coal rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wiebke; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Püttmann, Wilhelm; Hollert, Henner; Achten, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Investigations of the bioavailability and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) have rarely considered the heterogeneity of coals and the impact of more polar PAC besides polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Earlier, we investigated the toxicity of eight heterogeneous coals and their extracts. In the present study, the hazard potential with respect to mechanism-specific toxicity of polar fractions of dichloromethane extracts from coals was studied. Polar extract fractions of all coal types except for anthracite induced EROD activity (determined in RTL-W1 cells), independent of coal type (Bio-TEQs between 23 ± 16 and 52 ± 22 ng/g). The polar fractions of all bituminous coal extracts revealed mutagenic activity (determined using the Ames Fluctuation test). No significant mutation induction was detected for the polar extract fractions from the lignite, sub-bituminous coal and anthracite samples, which indicates a higher dependency on coal type for polar PAC here. Additionally, information on bioavailability was derived from a bioaccumulation test using the deposit-feeding oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus which was exposed for 28 days to ground coal samples. Despite the high toxic potential of most coal extracts and a reduced biomass of Lumbriculus in bituminous coal samples, bioaccumulation of PAH and mortality after 28 days were found to be low. Limited bioaccumulation of PAH (up to 3.6 ± 3.8 mg/kg EPA-PAH) and polar PAC were observed for all coal samples. A significant reduction of Lumbriculus biomass was observed in the treatments containing bituminous coals (from 0.019 ± 0.004 g to 0.046 ± 0.011 g compared to 0.080 ± 0.025 g per replicate in control treatments). We conclude that bioavailability of native PAC from coals including polar PAC is low for all investigated coal types. In comparison to lignite, sub-bituminous coals and anthracite, the bioavailability of PAC from bituminous coals is slightly increased.

  5. Process for the production of coal briquettes and installation for carrying out this process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, R.

    1989-01-25

    Coal briquettes are produced with the aid of a granular mixture of bituminous coal and inert coal by heating the bituminous coal above its softening point in contact with the inert coal previously heated to a higher temperature and mixed with the bituminous coal in a mixer to form a pasty substance through the softening of the bituminous coal. This pasty substance is extracted through the bottom of the mixer and guided into a briquette forming apparatus, the briquettes then being hardened and cooled. The gases produced in the mixer are delivered into a separator, at the bottom of which the solid constituents entrained by the gases are recovered and are recycled into the mixer at a point below the top level of the mixture.

  6. Oxidative desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, S.; Lacount, R.B.; Warzinski, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    Both pyritic and organic sulfur in coal can be removed by a variety of oxidation techniques, including treatment with NO/sub x/, peroxygen compounds, air in the presence of specific organic media, or air and water at elevated temperature and pressure. The most promising method involves contacting an aqueous slurry of coal with air at pressures up to 1000 psi and temperatures of 140/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/C. Coals from different geographic areas of the US have been treated with air and water in this way, resulting in removal of more than 90% of pyritic sulfur and up to 40% of organic sulfur as sulfuric acid, which is separated from the desulfurized coal by filtration. Fuel value losses are usually less than 10%. Costs for processing coal by this procedure will be somewhere between the less efficient, less thorough and less costly physical coal cleaning methods and the more thorough but much more costly coal conversion techniques. Oxidative desulfurization potentially can upgrade up to 40% of the bituminous coal in the US to environmentally acceptable boiler fuel and can bring most of the rest of the bituminous coals at least close to acceptability with relatively little loss in total fuel value.

  7. Response Modelling of Bitumen, Bituminous Mastic and Mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on testing and modelling the viscoelastic response of bituminous binders. The main goal is to find an appropriate response model for bituminous binders. The desired model should allow implementation into numerical environments such as ABAQUS. On the basis of such numerical envi

  8. MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY IN CHINESE UTILITY COAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of analyzing representative samples of 20 Chinese utility coals for mercury content, and proximate, ultimate, and heating values. The data for these bituminous coals, obtained from China with the cooperation of the Chinese University of Mining Technology,...

  9. Correlation between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on China's coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong-guan; YUAN Jian; SONG Ji-yong; LENG Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    It is highly important to investigate relationship between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on coal in the fields of coalbed methane recovery. Based on data examination of coal quality indexes collected from the literatures, regression equations for Langmuir adsorption constants, VL or VL/PL, and coal quality indexes for selected coal samples were developed with multiple linear regression of SPSS software according to the degree of coal metamorphosis. The regression equations built were tested with data collected from some literatures, and the influences of coal quality indexes on CH4 adsorption on coals were studied with investigation of regression equations, and the reasons of low accuracy to Langmuir constants calculated with regression equation for a few coal samples were investigated. The results show that the regression equations can be employed to predict Langmuir constants for methane adsorption isotherms on coals obtained using volumetric gas adsorption experiments, which are conducted at 30 ℃ on a wet or dried coal samples with less than 30% ash content in coal. The influence of same coal quality index with various coal rank or influence of various coal quality indexes for same coal rank on CH4 adsorption is not consistent. The regression equations have different accuracy to different coal rank, in which the VL equations supply better prediction accuracy for anthracite and higher prediction error for lower metamorphosis coal, and the PL prediction error with VL and VL/PL equations is lower to bituminous coal and higher to anthracite.

  10. Skid resistance of bituminous surfaces in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colony, D. C.

    1984-03-01

    Statistical studies of skid number (SN) on the state highway system in Ohio reveal apparently systematic variations in distributions of SN among the twelve districts in the state. These variations appear to be significantly related to traffic and to geological characteristics of a given district. Regression calculations using traffic index, a function of ADT and age of the pavement surface in months, show a high correlation with SN, although standard errors of estimate were too large to make the equations useful for predicting SN from traffic variables. Similar results were obtained by elating SN to physiographic features in the state. Pavement surface type (bituminous or pcc) and coarse aggregate type (limestone, gravel or slag) are significantly related to SN.

  11. PILOT-SCALE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CATALYST ON MERCURY SPECIATION IN ILLINOIS AND POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL COMBUSTION FLUE GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur and chlorine) and one Po...

  12. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  13. STUDY ON EVOLUTION REGULARITIES AND ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SULFIDE DURING BITUMINOUS BRIQUETTE HORIZONTAL COMBUSTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路春美; 王永征

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution regularity and the absorption characters of sulfide for bituminous briquette burned in a horizontal burning furnace. The evolution rate of sulphur is affected by some factors, such as the sulphur content in the burning coal, burning time and the meane excess air coefficient in the furnace. With processing the experimental result, the calculation related expression has been obtained to predict the evolution rate of sulfide. The sulphur absorption efficiency of briquette is affected by the factors such as the character of the sulphur sorbent, the type of the coal and the operating parameters. "By means of appropriately adjusting the calciumsulphur mole ratio, the mean excess air coefficient and the time-interval between pushing two layer briquettes, a high sulphur absorption efficiency (>74%) can be obtained.

  14. Sequential solvent extraction for the modes of occurrence of selenium in coals of different ranks from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, L.; Kang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Forms of selenium in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite (natural coke) from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, have been determined by sequential solvent extraction. The selenium content in bulk samples is 4.0, 2.4, and 2.0 ??g/g in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite, respectively. The six forms of selenium determined by six-step solvent extraction are water-leachable, ion-exchangeable, organic matter-associated, carbonate-associated, silicate-associated, and sulfide-associated. The predominant forms of selenium in bituminous coal are organic matter-associated (39.0%), sulfide-associated (21.1%), and silicate bound (31.8%); these three forms account for 92% of the total. The organic matter bound-selenium decrease dramatically from bituminous coal (39.0%) to anthracite (11.6%) and to cokeite (0%), indicating that organic matter bound selenium is converted to other forms during metamorphism of the coal, most likely sulfide-form. The sulfide-associated form increased remarkably from bituminous coal (21.1%) to anthracite (50.4%) and cokeite (54.5%), indicating the formation of selenium sulfide, possibly in pyrite during the transformation of bituminous coal to anthracite and cokeite. The silicate-associated selenium in bituminous coal (31.8%) is much higher than that in anthracite (16.4%) and cokeite (15.8%), indicating that silicate-associated selenium is partly converted to sulfide during metamorphism. ?? 2007 Zhang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  15. Quality criteria for blast-furnace injection coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lherbier, L.W.Jr.; Serrano, E.J. [United States Steel Corp., Munhall, PA (United States). Research and Technology Center

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviewed the history of coal injection at United States Steel Corporation. Currently, pulverized coal (PC) is injected on 10 blast furnaces at the company's facilities at 5 different plants in the United States, Canada and Slovakia. Although low-volatile bituminous coal was used extensively at several sites in the past, all the furnaces now inject high-volatile bituminous coal. The choice of coal injection depends on cost, physical and chemical properties an intended application. Any type of coal can be used for low injection levels. As injection rates increase however, the choice of coal or coal blends depend on more complex characteristics such as combustibility, char reactivity and flow characteristics. Although low-volatile, higher rank bituminous coals usually provide higher coke replacement ratios, they can be more difficult to convey and burn. In contrast, high-volatile, lower rank coals are typically more reactive and easier to convey, but offer lower coke replacement ratios and could even contribute to furnace instability. This paper presented lessons learned with various types of injection coal. It also reviewed existing and emerging standards for choosing injection coals. The parameters that must be considered when choosing from a set of coals include moisture and hardness; carbon and hydrogen content; oxygen content; impurities; coal value; coal rank; conveying properties; reactivity; and coal type and injection rate. Coals with less ash, sulphur and alkali are usually preferred. For ironmaking, coals ranging in rank from anthracite to high-volatile bituminous coal are suitable for low to moderate injection rates. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are ralated to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product. (author)

  17. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for the long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

  18. Development of non-standard equipment of bituminization line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description is presented of some components of the bituminization line developed at the Research Institute of Chemical Installations in Brno. The film rotor evaporator has an evaporation area of 2 m2. The mixing tank is the main technological assembly for processing loose materials, i.e., sorbents and fly ash which it mixes with melted bitumen. The screw conveyor with a three-way valve is designed for batching the dried radioactive sorbent and fly ash into mixing tanks. Attention is also devoted to certain systems of measurement and control of the bituminization line, namely to measurement of the level of the bituminization product, the flow rate of bituminization emulsion and the water-sorbent mixture and to the diagnostics of failure and accident conditions of the film rotor evaporator. (Z.M.)

  19. Bituminous and asphaltic membranes for radioactive waste repositories on land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study has been to identify, within generic designs for waste facilities, areas where bituminous materials might be incorporated as a barrier. The report is presented in three sections: Part I - The properties of bitumen are described, with particular reference to the long-term behaviour of the material. The durability of bitumen is discussed, including aspects such as ageing, microbial degradation, chemical resistance and radiation resistance. Part II -The use of bituminous materials in hydraulic engineering is outlined. Much of this section of the report concentrates on the use of bituminous materials in embankment dams and reservoir construction. A review of material technology and construction techniques is presented and a detailed assessment made of the performance of the materials in service. Part III - Generic trench type radioactive waste repository designs incorporating bituminous materials are presented. Material and construction specifications for the designs are detailed, and a performance assessment presented. (author)

  20. Effects of bituminous layer as backfill material on mechanical behavior in tunnel model

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyoshi, Akihiro; Takano, Shin-ei; Urata, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Takaki

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of bituminous material as a backfill material on mechanical behavior in model tunnel in laboratory. It is known that load spreading and relaxation of bituminous material are good properties. Then if we use bituminous material as a backfill material of tunnel, the tunnel will have waterproof, good load spreading property. We used new bituminous material (Aquaphalt) which can solidify in water. We conducted relaxation test in tension for new bituminous mat...

  1. The bituminous sands : a Canadian mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, D.R. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Nasr, G.J. [Lebanese Univ., Roumieh (Lebanon). Faculty of Engineering; Turcotte, S.F. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Etudes Internationales et Mondialisation; Salah, N.B. [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques De Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia). LMMP

    2009-07-01

    This paper examined the controversy about the potential role of a significant increase in Canadian oil sands production in order to bridge the upcoming gap between the world's increasing energy demand and the total recoverable oil supply. The paper presented the actual potential of different scenarios and considered the prediction cost forecasts. A brief overview of environmental impacts and the real return on investments were also provided. Environmental impacts that were considered included land degradation; water contamination; ecosystem damage; and air pollution. Nuclear energy was also presented as a possible solution. The paper demonstrated that even in a very optimistic scenario, Canada's oil sands accelerated production has a negligible effect on the aforementioned gap, has a considerable impact on environment that has yet to be accounted for. Energy ratios that were presented included energy return on energy investment; energy available on energy used; and energy payback. It was concluded that enhanced recovery techniques are clearly needed for future sustainable exploitation of these bituminous sands. 32 refs., 1 fig.

  2. A kinetic study of gaseous potassium capture by coal minerals in a high temperature fixed-bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    The reactions between gaseous potassium chloride and coal minerals were investigated in a lab-scale high temperature fixed-bed reactor using single sorbent pellets. The applied coal minerals included kaolin, mullite, silica, alumina, bituminous coal ash, and lignite coal ash that were formed...

  3. Coal desulfurization by chlorinolysis production and combustion test evaluation of product coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Daly, D.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory-scale screening tests were carried out on coal from Harrison County, Ohio to establish chlorination and hydrodesulfurization conditions for the batch reactor production of chlorinolysis and chlorinolysis-hydrodesulfurized coals. In addition, three bituminous coals, were treated on the lab scale by the chlorinolysis process to provide 39 to 62% desulfurization. Two bituminous coals and one subbituminous coal were then produced in 11 to 15 pound lots as chlorinolysis and hydrodesulfurized coals. The chlorinolysis coals had a desulfurization of 29-69%, reductions in voltatiles and hydrogen. Hydrodesulfurization provided a much greater desulfurization (56-86%), reductions in volatiles and hydrogen. The three coals were combustion tested in the Penn State ""plane flame furnace'' to determine ignition and burning characteristics. All three coals burned well to completion as: raw coals, chlorinolysis processed coals, and hydrodesulfurized coals. The hydrodesulfurized coals experienced greater ignition delays and reduced burning rates than the other coals because of the reduced volatile content. It is thought that the increased open pore volume in the desulfurized-devolatilized coals compensates in part for the decreased volatiles effect on ignition and burning.

  4. Evaluation of the Impact of Chlorine on Mercury Oxidation in a Pilot-Scale Coal Combustor--The Effect of Coal Blending

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study has been undertaken to investigate the effect of blending PRB coal with an Eastern bituminous coal on the speciation of Hg across an SCR catalyst. In this project, a pilot-scale (1.2 MWt) coal combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for NOx control was used for evaluating ...

  5. Basic properties of Japanese and foreign coals selected for liquefaction. 1. A consideration of the method for proximate analysis of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R.

    1984-10-01

    The use of thermogravimetry for the proximate analysis of coals is compared with the Japanese Standard method (JIS M8812). The thermogravimetric method was found to be applicable to a wide range of brown coals, lignites and bituminous coals providing a rapid and simple method requiring only a small sample and giving a direct determination of fixed carbon.

  6. Fluorine in Asturian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Suarez-Fernandez, G.P.; Cardin, J.M. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain))

    1994-07-01

    Concentrations of fluorine in Asturian bituminous coals and anthracites have been determined. Fluorine analysis has been carried out by comparing oxygen bomb combustion and pyrohydrolysis methods. Pyrohydrolysis revealed higher values in samples whose ash contents were greater than 25 wt%, which in turn was related to fluorine contents higher than 100 ppm. Good correlation between fluorine and ash content suggests that fluorine is present in these coals in mineral species, and is not probably associated with organic matter. The association of fluorine with phosphorus is also discussed. An excess of fluorine concentration versus phosphorus, corresponding to fluorapatite, has been found. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. THE HISTORY OF EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION OF BITUMINOUS AND KEROGENOUS DEPOSITS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed thal the first known sedimens of natural bitumen or asphalt in coastal Croatia were exploited as the early moddle ages. Yet authenticated written documents about Vinišće near Trogir derive from no earlier than 1628, about Vrgorac/Paklina from only 1753. By the end of the 18th century, many deposits were discovered in Dalmatia, but it was Škrip on the Island of Brač and Suhi Dolac that were important. The earliest known deposits and occurrences of kerogenous rocks, or bituminous or oil shales, are mentioned as stone or fossil coal in Sovinjak, in the upper course of the River Mirna, and in Rebići in Istria; near Sinj, Slivno not far from the River Neretva, Mirta and near Nerežišće on the Island uf Brač. All if these were well known and described in 1804, while Sovinjak was mentioned in the 16th century. In the article, some of new information derived from mining and geological research into bituminous and kerogenous sediments and deposits are provided (the paper is published in Croatian.

  8. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  9. Effect of the grinding behaviour of coal blends on coal utilisation for combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Rubiera González, Fernando; Arenillas de la Puente, Ana; Fuente Alonso, Enrique; N. Miles; Pis Martínez, José Juan

    1999-01-01

    Grinding of a high volatile bituminous coal was performed in three comminution devices: Raymond Mill (RM), Rolls Crusher (RC) and Ball Mill (BM). The pulverised samples were sieved to obtain four particle size fractions, and temperature-programmed combustion (TPC) was used for the evaluation of their combustion behaviour. In addition, three coals of different hardness and rank were mixed in various proportions in order to compare the combustibility characteristics of the binary coal blends wi...

  10. Bituminization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results and experiences are summed up from the research and development of the technology of bituminization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive concentrates generated in the operation of nuclear power plants with WWER-440 reactors. The experiments took place on a pilot plant bituminization line with various model solutions at an evaporator capacity of 70, 100 and 140 litres per hour. The composition of the solutions changed in dependence on the knowledge of the composition of actual concentrates in the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The following factors were studied in the concentrate: the effect of its pH, its borate content and content of metal carbonates, the content of organic acid salts, the content of detergents, etc., on the process of bituminization. Physico-chemical conditions are described under which the operation of the evaporator was fail-safe and filling of the bituminization product with salts homogeneous. A low water content of up to 1% was achieved. The properties of the bituminization product were negatively affected by a high level of heavy metal oxides, surfactants, oxalates and citrates. In order to improve the properties of the product it will be necessary to replace bitumen emulsion Silembit-60 used as reinforcement matrix, by a different type of bitumen. (Z.M.)

  11. Correlation of coal liquefaction reactivity with coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Durfee, S.L.; Voorhees, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A narrow suite of bituminous coals chosen from the DOE/Penn State sample bank has been hydrogenated in a batch stirred autoclave. Rates of conversion to THF-solubles have been measured, and the data modeled using a pseudo-second order rate expression. Extent of conversion and rate of conversion of the coals in the suite have been correlated to coal compositional parameters and structural features. Recent data on reactivity correlations with information from pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and C-NMR are presented. (2 tables, 5 figs., 17 refs.)

  12. Correlation of coal liquefaction reactivity with coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Durfee, S.L.; Voorhees, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A narrow suite of bituminous coals chosen from the DOE/Penn State sample bank has been hydrogenated in a batch stirred autoclave. Rates of conversion to THF solubles have been measured, and the data modeled using a pseudo-second order rate expression. Extent of conversion and rate of conversion of the coals in the suite have been correlated to coal compositional parameters and structural features. Recent data on reactivity correlations with information from pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and C-NMR are presented.

  13. Operation experience of Suralaya coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saragi, M. [PT Indonesia Power (Indonesia). Suralaya Generation Business Unit

    2004-07-01

    Coal utilization for generating electricity at Suralaya coal-fired power plant has been increased from time to time. It has been driven by the growth of electricity demand from industry as well as consumption from the household sector. Generally, boilers for power plant were designed to burn the locally available coals with a limited specification range. Suralaya coal-fired power plant was built based on coal specifications from Bukit Asam (Sumatera Island), which categorized as sub-bituminous coal rank. Nowadays, supply of coal for Suralaya coal-fired power plant not only comes from Bukit Asam coal mine but also from Kalimantan coal mines. The utilization of coal from the other mines has brought other consequences on operating and equipment of the plant. It needs some effort to deal with the effect from different specifications of coal from the originated design of coal. 4 tabs.

  14. Non-covalent associative structure of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUI Heng-fu(水恒福)

    2004-01-01

    The recent progress of non-covalent associative structure of coal, and the mechanisms of the CS2/NMP (1:1 by volume) mixed solvent and the additive addition enhancing the extraction yield of coals were reviewed, and the aggregation behavior of coal in solid and solution states were presented, and the aggregation behavior of coal in solid and solution states were introduced in this paper. Coal extraction and swelling in organic solvents at room temperature were the most useful methods to understand the associative structure of coal. CS2/NMP (1:1 by volume) is a unique solvent to give high extraction yields for some bituminous coals. Some additives can dissociate the stronger interactions among coal molecules and enhance the extraction yields of coal in the mixed solvent.

  15. Rapid coal analysis. Part II: Slurry atomization DCP emission analysis of NBS coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, D.L.; Wichman, M.D.; Fry, R.C.

    1985-11-01

    A McCrone Micronising Mills is used to wet grind NBS bituminous coal to a median particle diameter of 5.7 m within 10 min. The finely divided coal slurry is immediately nebulized without sieving into a three-electrode DCP for accurate trace element determinations within 15 min overall lapsed time. Three important parameters contribute to near-quantitative elemental recovery without the use of wet or dry ashing, matrix matching, standard additions, as correction factors. These parameters are: (1) extremely small coal particle size, (2) spray chamber conditions favoring unusually efficient characteristic of the hot DCP. Near-unity response factors are observed for the rapid DCP emission determination of trace metals in finely divided coal slurry. Calibration may therefore be performed simply with aqueous standards. The slurry method gives near quantitative agreement between experimental and certified values for Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, and Pb in NBS bituminous coal.

  16. Third symposium on coal preparation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The third Symposium on Coal preparation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Fourteen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five additional papers had been entered previously from other sources. Topics covered involved chemical comminution and chemical desulfurization of coal (aimed at reducing sulfur sufficiently with some coals to meet air quality standards without flue gas desulfurization), coal cleaning concepts, removing coal fines and recycling wash water, comparative evaluation of coal preparation methods, coal refuse disposal without polluting the environment, spoil bank reprocessing, noise control in coal preparation plants, etc. (LTN)

  17. Measurement of heat generation from simulated bituminized product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fire and explosion incident occurred at Bituminization Demonstration Facility of PNC Tokai Works on March 11, 1997. In order to ascertain the cause of incident, the investigation has been pushed forward. For the investigation, we prepared simulated bituminized product of measurement of heat generation in low temperature region less than 200degC. We used calvet Calorimeter MS80 for the heat generation measurement. Result of measurement, we were able to catch the feeble heat generation from bituminized product. The maximum calorific value that was able to detect it in isothermal measurement was approximately 1 mW/g in 160degC. It was approximately 2 mW/g in 200degC. And, as the another measurement, the measurement condition went heat rate by 0.01degC/minute, the highest temperature 190degC. As a result, the maximum generation of heat value that was able to detect it was approximately 0.5 mW/g. I changed simulated bituminized products and measured these. A difference of condition is salt particle size, salt content rate (45%, 60%), addition of the simulated precipitate. But there was not a difference in the generation of heat characteristic detected. (author)

  18. Reuse of steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Sanzeni, Alex; Rondi, Luca

    2012-03-30

    This paper presents a comprehensive study to evaluate the mechanical properties and environmental suitability of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures. A variety of tests were executed on samples of EAF slag to characterize the physical, geometrical, mechanical and chemical properties as required by UNI EN specifications, focusing additionally on the volumetric expansion associated with hydration of free CaO and MgO. Five bituminous mixtures of aggregates for flexible road pavement were designed containing up to 40% of EAF slag and were tested to determine Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength. The leaching behaviour of slag samples and bituminous mixtures was evaluated according to the UNI EN leaching test. The tested slag showed satisfactory physical and mechanical properties and a release of pollutants generally below the limits set by the Italian code. Tests on volume stability of fresh materials confirmed that a period of 2-3 months is necessary to reduce effects of oxides hydration. The results of tests performed on bituminous mixtures with EAF slag were comparable with the performance of mixtures containing natural aggregates and the leaching tests provided satisfactory results. PMID:22305201

  19. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  20. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  1. Coal bed methane potential and biogasification of soma lignite

    OpenAIRE

    Baysal, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Coal bed methane (CBM) can arise from both thermogenic and biogenic activity on the coal beds and adsorb on the porous matrix of the coal. Therefore, investigation of pore structure and gas capacity of the coal is essential for accurate estimations of coal bed gas potential. Coal samples of lignite to sub-bituminous rank were obtained from different depths of Soma basin and were characterized by low pressure CO2 adsorption isotherms at 273 K. Micropore surface areas of the samples were calcul...

  2. Status of coal biotechnology in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Afzal Ghauri; M.A. Anwar; N. Akhtar; R. Haider; A. Tawab [National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad (Pakistan)

    2009-07-01

    Pakistan is endued with 185 billion tons colossal reserves of coal, but only 7.89 % of the country total energy requirements are met by coal. Most of the Pakistani coal reserves are sub-bituminous or lignitic in nature and contain 3-12 % sulphur. Existence of sulphur compounds in coal limits its industrial application due to environmental as well as technical problems. However, coal biotechnology can emerge as panacea for upgrading the huge reserves of coal in Pakistan. In general, coal biotechnology refers to biodesulphurization, biosolubilization and biogasification of coal. NIBGE has long term interests in the field of coal bioprocessing for tapping prime resources of indigenous coal. In NIBGE, lab scale experiments for coal biodesulphurization led to 90% efficiency in sulphur removal. Heap leaching was also carried out at the level of 10 and 20 tons coal heaps with 60% sulphur removal efficiency. Furthermore, a prototype of 300 tons coal heap was set up with a local cement industry and 75% microbial desulphurization was achieved. The league of indigenously isolated chemolithotrophic bacteria was involved in coal desulphurization. On the other side, for making the best use of 175 billion tons of low rank coal reserves, coal biosolubilization and subsequent biogasification is being projected. Consequently, beneficiated coal through biotechnology is supposed to contribute in energy mix of Pakistan for providing electricity requirements of the country and saving huge oil import bills.

  3. Mutagenicity of eluent by hot water extraction of various coals: Effect of chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunenori Nakajima; Hiroyuki Hasegawa; Satomi Nakamata; Hirokazu Takanashi; Akira Ohki [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Department of Bioengineering

    2008-10-15

    Six kinds of powdery coals (two bituminous coals, two sub-bituminous coals, and two lignites) were extracted by hot water, and the eluents obtained were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), absorbance at 260 nm (A260), and pH. The TOC in the eluents decreased in the order, lignites > sub-bituminous coals > bituminous coals. The eluents of lignite gave high A{sub 260}/TOC values and fairly low pH compared to other coals. Chemical structure of the organic matter eluted from coals was discussed with the aid of FTIR analysis. The coal eluents were analyzed by the Ames mutagenicity assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA98 strains, and no mutagenicity was observed for all of the six coals. However, especially for the lignites, chlorination of the eluents produced an appreciable mutagenicity, and the expression of mutagenicity was dependent upon the type of coal. The mutagenicity was extinguished when metabolic activation (rat liver homogenate, +S9) was applied. 26 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  5. Biochemically enhanced methane production from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Aleksandra

    For many years, biogas was connected mostly with the organic matter decomposition in shallow sediments (e.g., wetlands, landfill gas, etc.). Recently, it has been realized that biogenic methane production is ongoing in many hydrocarbon reservoirs. This research examined microbial methane and carbon dioxide generation from coal. As original contributions methane production from various coal materials was examined in classical and electro-biochemical bench-scale reactors using unique, developed facultative microbial consortia that generate methane under anaerobic conditions. Facultative methanogenic populations are important as all known methanogens are strict anaerobes and their application outside laboratory would be problematic. Additional testing examined the influence of environmental conditions, such as pH, salinity, and nutrient amendments on methane and carbon dioxide generation. In 44-day ex-situ bench-scale batch bioreactor tests, up to 300,000 and 250,000 ppm methane was generated from bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste respectively, a significant improvement over 20-40 ppm methane generated from control samples. Chemical degradation of complex hydrocarbons using environmentally benign reagents, prior to microbial biodegradation and methanogenesis, resulted in dissolution of up to 5% bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste and up to 25% lignite in samples tested. Research results confirm that coal waste may be a significant underutilized resource that could be converted to useful fuel. Rapid acidification of lignite samples resulted in low pH (below 4.0), regardless of chemical pretreatment applied, and did not generate significant methane amounts. These results confirmed the importance of monitoring and adjusting in situ and ex situ environmental conditions during methane production. A patented Electro-Biochemical Reactor technology was used to supply electrons and electron acceptor environments, but appeared to influence methane generation in a

  6. The release of iron during coal combustion. Milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

    1995-06-01

    Iron plays an important role in the formation of both fly ash and deposits in many pulverized-coal-fired boilers. Several authors indicate that iron content is a significant indicator of the slagging propensity of a majority of US bituminous coals, in particular eastern bituminous coals. The pyritic iron content of these coals is shown to be a particularly relevant consideration. A series of investigations of iron release during combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile bituminous coal under combustion conditions ranging from oxidizing to inert. Experimental measurements are described in which, under selected conditions, major fractions of the iron in the coal are released within a 25 ms period immediately following coal devolatilization. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that the iron is released as a consequence of oxygen attack on porous pyrrhotite particles. Experimental testing of the proposed mechanism reveals that the release is dependent on the presence of both pyrite in the raw coal and oxygen in the gas phase, that slow preoxidation (weathering) of the pyrite significantly inhibits the iron release, and that iron loss increases as oxygen penetration of the particle increases. Each observation is consistent with the postulated mechanism.

  7. In situ measurements of the spectral emittance of coal ash deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectral emittance of deposits left by bituminous and sub-bituminous coals under oxidizing conditions have been measured in situ. Pulverized coal is injected into a down-fired entrained-flow reactor. Ash accumulates on a probe in the reactor effluent and radiation emitted by the ash layer is recorded using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Values for the spectral emissive power emitted by the ash and the surface temperature of the ash are extracted from these data. These results are then used to calculate the spectral emittance of the deposit. The spectral emittances of ash deposits formed by burning Illinois no. 6 (bituminous) coal and Powder River Basin (sub-bituminous) coal were measured between 3000 and 500 wavenumbers. The spectral emittance of the deposit left by the bituminous coal has a constant value of approximately 0.46 between 3000 and 2400 wavenumbers. Between 2200 and 1200 wavenumbers, the spectral emittance of the deposit increases from approximately 0.47 to approximately 0.61. Between 1200 and 500 wavenumbers, the spectral emittance is relatively constant at 0.61. The spectral emittance of the deposit left by the sub-bituminous coal is also relatively constant between 3000 and 2400 wavenumbers at a value of 0.29. Between 2200 and 500 wavenumbers, the spectral emittance of deposits from the sub-bituminous coal increases from approximately 0.29 to 0.55. Differences between these spectral emittance measurements and those measured ex situ illustrate the importance of making in situ measurements. Band emittances were calculated using the measured spectral emittances, and band emittances of the deposits are reported as functions of temperature.

  8. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  9. Induction of sister chromatid exchanges by coal dust and tobacco snuff extracts in human peripheral lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, J.D.; Ong, T.

    1985-01-01

    The organic solvent extracts of sub-bituminous coal dust and tobacco snuff, both together and separately, were tested for the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human peripheral lymphocytes. The results indicate that these extracts induced SCEs, and that when tested together synergistically induced SCEs in two of three donors. Studies with the organic solvent extracts of all five ranks of coal indicate that the extracts of bituminous, lignite, and peat, but not anthracite, induced SCEs. Similar experiments conducted with water extracts, induced SCEs, and that anthracite was equivocal. To determine whether individuals differed in their SCE responses to coal dust extracts, lymphocytes from five donors were tested with organic solvent extracts of bituminous and sub-bituminous coal. An analysis of variance indicates that the SCE response was significantly influenced by the donor and each of the two coal extracts. The findings presented here suggest that coal dust, with or without tobacco snuff, may play a role in the elevated incidence of gastric cancer in coal miners. Because water extracts of some ranks of coal induced SCEs, there exists the possibility of adverse environmental effects due to coal leachates.

  10. Identification of aggregates for Tennessee bituminous surface courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Heather Jean

    Tennessee road construction is a major venue for federal and state spending. Tax dollars each year go to the maintenance and construction of roads. One aspect of highway construction that affects the public is the safety of its state roads. There are many factors that affect the safety of a given road. One factor that was focused on in this research was the polish resistance capabilities of aggregates. Several pre-evaluation methods have been used in the laboratory to predict what will happen in a field situation. A new pre-evaluation method was invented that utilized AASHTO T 304 procedure upscaled to accommodate surface bituminous aggregates. This new method, called the Tennessee Terminal Textural Condition Method (T3CM), was approved by Tennessee Department of Transportation to be used as a pre-evaluation method on bituminous surface courses. It was proven to be operator insensitive, repeatable, and an accurate indication of particle shape and texture. Further research was needed to correlate pre-evaluation methods to the current field method, ASTM E 274-85 Locked Wheel Skid Trailer. In this research, twenty-five in-place bituminous projects and eight source evaluations were investigated. The information gathered would further validate the T3CM and find the pre-evaluation method that best predicted the field method. In addition, new sources of aggregates for bituminous surface courses were revealed. The results of this research have shown T3CM to be highly repeatable with an overall coefficient of variation of 0.26% for an eight sample repeatability test. It was the best correlated pre-evaluation method with the locked wheel skid trailer method giving an R2 value of 0.3946 and a Pearson coefficient of 0.710. Being able to predict field performance of aggregates prior to construction is a powerful tool capable of saving time, money, labor, and possibly lives.

  11. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Marc A. Rosen; Shoaib Mehmood; Bale V. Reddy

    2012-01-01

    The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel) and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite) are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combina...

  12. Distribution of trace elements in selected pulverized coals as a function of particle size and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, C.L.; Zeng, T.; Che, J.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.; Finkelman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in coal have diverse modes of occurrence that will greatly influence their behavior in many coal utilization processes. Mode of occurrence is important in determining the partitioning during coal cleaning by conventional processes, the susceptibility to oxidation upon exposure to air, as well as the changes in physical properties upon heating. In this study, three complementary methods were used to determine the concentrations and chemical states of trace elements in pulverized samples of four US coals: Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, Elkhorn and Hazard, and Wyodak coals. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the absolute concentration of elements in the parent coals and in the size- and density-fractionated samples. Chemical leaching and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to provide information on the form of occurrence of an element in the parent coals. The composition differences between size-segregated coal samples of different density mainly reflect the large density difference between minerals, especially pyrite, and the organic portion of the coal. The heavy density fractions are therefore enriched in pyrite and the elements associated with pyrite, as also shown by the leaching and XAFS methods. Nearly all the As is associated with pyrite in the three bituminous coals studied. The sub-bituminous coal has a very low content of pyrite and arsenic; in this coal arsenic appears to be primarily organically associated. Selenium is mainly associated with pyrite in the bituminous coal samples. In two bituminous coal samples, zinc is mostly in the form of ZnS or associated with pyrite, whereas it appears to be associated with other minerals in the other two coals. Zinc is also the only trace element studied that is significantly more concentrated in the smaller (45 to 63 ??m) coal particles.

  13. Heterogeneity in coal composition and implications for lung cancer risk in Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downward, George S.; Hu, Wei; Large, David; Veld, Harry; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Chapman, Robert S.; Rothman, Nat; Qing, Lan; Vermeulen, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties in Yunnan Province, China have among the highest lung cancer rates in the country. This has been associated with the domestic combustion of bituminous coal (referred to as "smoky" coal). Additionally, significant geographical variation in cancer rates among sm

  14. Analyses of coal product samples taken by the Division of Energy Technology, CSIR, during 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshoff, H.P.; Barnard, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    General chemical and physical properties of South African coal products, including the ash analysis, are reported on a series of samples taken during 1987. 370 product samples from 103 collieries were sampled and analyzed. Petrographic analyses were also carried out on a series of bituminous coal product samples from 88 collieries, and the results are given here.

  15. Coal deposits of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Nelson W.

    1987-01-01

    The coal fields of the Unites States can be divided into six major provinces. The Appalachian and Interior Provinces contain dominantly bituminous coal in strata of Pennsylvanian age. The coal seams are relatively thin and are mined both by surface and underground methods. Sulfyur content is low to moderate in the Appalachian Province, generally high in the Interior province. The Gulf Coastal Plain Province, in Texas and neighboring states, contains lignite of Eocene age. The seams are 3-25 ft (0.9-7.5 m) thick and are minded in large open pits. The Northern Great Plains Province has lignite and subbituminous coal of Cretaceous, Paleocene and Eocene age. The coal, largely very low in sulfur, occurs in beds up to 100 ft (30 m) thick and is strip-mined. The Rocky Mountain Province contains a great variety of coal deposits in numerous separate intermontane basins. Most of it is low-sulfur subbituminous to bituminous coal iof Creatceous and early Tertiary age. The seams range from a few feet to over 100 ft (30 m) thick. Strip-mining dominates but underground mines are important in Utah and Colorado. The Pacific Coast Province, which includes Alaska, contains enormous cola resources but has seen little mining. The coal is highly diverse in physical character and geologic setting. ?? 1987.

  16. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A new use for Illinois coal is as fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as first step in steel production. Because of cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. Purpose of this study is to evaluate combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a pilot plant test facility. (Limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high S and Cl contents are suitable for blast furnace injection.) This proposal is intended to complete the study under way with Armco and Inland and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for injection. Main feature of current work is testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s pilot plant coal combustion facility. During this quarter, two additional 300-pound samples of coal (IBCSP-110 Springfield No. 5 and an Appalachian coal) were delivered. Six Illinois Basin coals were analyzed with the CANMET model and compared with other bituminous coals from the Appalachians, France, Poland, South Africa, and Colombia. Based on computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in injection with a variety of other bituminous coals.

  17. Concentration, Distribution, and Occurrence of REEs in Coals from Chongqing, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The concentration, distribution, and occurrence of rare earth elements (REEs) in coals as well as stone coals in different geological periods from Chongqing were studied. The results show that the REE content in coals from Chongqing is much higher than that of the ordinary Chinese coals, the Late Paleozoic coals from North China, US coals, and the world coals. Although the concentration of light rare earth elements (LREE) is higher than that of heavy rare earth elements (HREE), the ratio of LREE to HREE is as low as 5.11. The REE content decreases with the coal-formation periods from old to new. The REE content in the Sinian stone coal is the highest, but it is the lowest in Early Jurassic coals. The similar REE contents in bituminous coals and anthracite show that the metamorphism has a little influence on REE content in coal. In addition, silicate association dominates the occurrence mode of REEs in coals from Chongqing.

  18. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  19. Iodine in Chinese coals and its geochemistry during coalification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D.S.; Deng, H.W.; Zheng, B.S.; Wang, W.Y.; Tang, X.Y.; Xiao, H.Y. [Nanchang University, Nanchang (China)

    2008-08-15

    To determine the I distribution in Chinese coals, a nationwide survey was undertaken based on the distribution, periods of formation, rank and production yields of various coal deposits. A total of 305 coal samples were collected and their I contents were determined by catalytic spectrophotometry with pyrohydrolysis. The geochemistry of I during coalification (including both peat diagenesis and coal metamorphism) was assessed. It was found that the I contents of Chinese coals range from 0.04 mg kg{sup -1} to 39.5 mg kg{sup -1} and exhibit a lognormal distribution, with a geometric mean of 1.27 mg kg{sup -1} Statistical correlation analysis and the observation that I contents increase with coal rank indicate that coal 1 is chalcophile in nature, and not generally organically bound. When peat developed into lignite through diagenesis, 95-99.9% of the original I was lost. The composition and structure of clay minerals present in the coal were controlled by the original depositional environment. The higher the I content of coals, the more likely the original sediments were affected by a marine environment. Iodine contents increased front lignite through sub-bituminous and bituminous coals to anthracite. This indicates that coal absorbed excess I from hydrothermal fluids during metamorphism (including geothermal metamorphism and telemagmatic metamorphism). The telemagmatic metamorphism was caused by magmatic activities that depended on the specific geological structure of the region. In China, most high-rank coals were formed by telemagmatic metamorphism.

  20. Iodine in Chinese coals and its geochemistry during coalification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Daishe [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Honggutan New Zone, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330031 (China); Institute of Geographic Sciences and Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail: dswu@ncu.edu.cn; Deng Haiwen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Honggutan New Zone, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330031 (China); Zheng Baoshan [State Key Lab of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS, Guiyang 550002 (China); Wang Wuyi [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Tang Xiuyi [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China); Xiao Huayun [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Honggutan New Zone, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330031 (China)

    2008-08-15

    To determine the I distribution in Chinese coals, a nationwide survey was undertaken based on the distribution, periods of formation, rank and production yields of various coal deposits. A total of 305 coal samples were collected and their I contents were determined by catalytic spectrophotometry with pyrohydrolysis. The geochemistry of I during coalification (including both peat diagenesis and coal metamorphism) was assessed. It was found that the I contents of Chinese coals range from 0.04 mg kg{sup -1} to 39.5 mg kg{sup -1} and exhibit a lognormal distribution, with a geometric mean of 1.27 mg kg{sup -1}. Statistical correlation analysis and the observation that I contents increase with coal rank indicate that coal I is chalcophile in nature, and not generally organically bound. When peat developed into lignite through diagenesis, 95-99.9% of the original I was lost. The composition and structure of clay minerals present in the coal were controlled by the original depositional environment. The higher the I content of coals, the more likely the original sediments were affected by a marine environment. Iodine contents increased from lignite through sub-bituminous and bituminous coals to anthracite. This indicates that coal absorbed excess I from hydrothermal fluids during metamorphism (including geothermal metamorphism and telemagmatic metamorphism). The telemagmatic metamorphism was caused by magmatic activities that depended on the specific geological structure of the region. In China, most high-rank coals were formed by telemagmatic metamorphism.

  1. Detection of reactive free radicals in fresh coal mine dust and their implication for pulmonary injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, N S; Suryan, M M; Vallyathan, V; Green, F H; Jafari, B; Wheeler, R

    1989-01-01

    Freshly ground and aged anthracite and bituminous coal samples were investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to detect the presence, concentration and reactivity of free radicals. Freshly ground anthracite coal produced greater concentration of free radicals than the bituminous coal, and the radical reactivity was also greater for the anthracite. The reactivity of the newly produced free radicals in the anthracite dust correlated with the dust's toxicity. Furthermore, similar coal-based free radicals were detected in the lung tissue of autopsied coal miners, suggestive of persistent reactivity by the embedded coal dust leading to the progressive disease process. Results of the studies on the severity of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and free radical concentration in lung tissue support this hypothesis. PMID:2705696

  2. Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Rate of coal hydroliquefaction: correlation to coal structure. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Voorhees, K.J.; Durfee, S.L.

    1985-05-01

    This report summarizes the research carried out on DOE grant No. FG22-83PC60784. The work was divided into two phases. The first phase consisted of a series of coal liquefaction rate measurements on seven different coals from the Exxon sample bank, followed by correlation with parent coal properties. The second phase involved characterization of the coals by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry and subsequent correlations of the Py/MS patterns with various liquefaction reactivity parameters. The hydroliquefaction reactivities for a suite of 7 bituminous and subbituminous coals were determined on a kinetic basis. These reactivities were correlated fairly successfully with the following parent coal properties: volatile matter, H/C and O/C ratios, vitrinite reflectance, and calorific value. The total surface areas of the coals were experimentally determined. Reactivity was shown to be independent of surface area. Following completion of the batch reactor experiments, the seven coals investigated were analyzed by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry. The pyrolysis spectra were then submitted to factor analysis in order to extract significant features of the coal for use in correlational efforts. These factors were then related to a variety of liquefaction reactivity definitions, including both rate and extent of liquefaction to solvent solubility classifications (oils, asphaltenes, preasphaltenes, etc.). In general, extent of reaction was found to correlate best with the Py/MS data. 37 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. NO Reduction over Biomass and Coal Char during Simultaneous Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ke; Glarborg, Peter; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental study of NO reduction over chars of straw, bark, bituminous coal, and lignite. The experiments were performed in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 850–1150 °C. The chars were generated by in situ pyrolysis at the reaction temperature to minimize further...

  5. Biodepolymerization studies of low rank Indian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvi, V.A.; Banerjee, R.; Ram, L.C.; Singh, G. [FRI, Dhanbad (India). Environmental Management Division

    2009-10-15

    Biodepolymerization of some of the lower rank Indian coals by Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Aspergillus species were studied in a batch system. The main disadvantage in burning low rank coals is the low calorific values. To get the maximum benefit from the low rank coals, the non fuel uses of coals needs to be explored. The liquefaction of coals is the preliminary processes for such approaches. The present study is undertaken specifically to investigate the optimization of bio depolymerization of Neyveli lignite by P. djmor. The pH of the media reached a constant value of about 7.8 by microbial action. The effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources and influence of chelators and metal ions on depolymerization of lignite were also studied. Lignite was solubilized by P. djamor only to a limited extent without the addition of carbon and nitrogen sources. Sucrose was the best suitable carbon source for coal depolymerization by P. djamor and sodium nitrate followed by urea was the best nitrogen source. The Chelators like salicylic acid, TEA and metal ions Mg{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+} has enhanced the lignite solubilization process. The finding of the study showed that, compared to sub-bituminous and bituminous coal, the lignite has higher rate of solubilization activity.

  6. Geochemistry of beryllium in Bulgarian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazy, Greta M. [Geology Department, University of Sofia ' St. Kl. Ohridski' , Tzar Osvoboditel 15, Sofia 1504 (Bulgaria)

    2006-04-03

    The beryllium content of about 3000 samples (coal, coaly shales, partings, coal lithotypes, and isolated coalified woods) from 16 Bulgarian coal deposits was determined by atomic emission spectrography. Mean Be concentrations in coal show great variability: from 0.9 to 35 ppm for the deposits studied. There was no clear-cut relationship between Be content and rank. The following mean and confidence interval Be values were measured: lignites, 2.6+/-0.8 ppm; sub-bituminous coals, 8.2+/-3.3 ppm; bituminous coals, 3.0+/-1.2 ppm; and anthracites, 19+/-9.0 ppm. The Be contents in coal and coaly shales for all deposits correlated positively suggesting a common source of the element. Many samples of the coal lithotypes vitrain and xylain proved to be richer in Be than the hosting whole coal samples as compared on ash basis. Up to tenfold increase in Be levels was routinely recorded in fusain. The ash of all isolated coalified woods was found to contain 1.1 to 50 times higher Be content relative to its global median value for coal inclusions. Indirect evidence shows that Be occurs in both organic and inorganic forms. Beryllium is predominantly organically bound in deposits with enhanced Be content, whereas the inorganic form prevails in deposits whose Be concentration approximates Clarke values. The enrichment in Be exceeding the coal Clarke value 2.4 to 14.5 times in some of the Bulgarian deposits is attributed to subsynchronous at the time of coal deposition hydrothermal and volcanic activity. (author)

  7. Analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons in overburden from coal mines: Assessment of the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bituminous coals are known to contain significant amounts of petroleum-like hydrocarbons trapped in the pore system of the macromolecular network. With increasing thermal stress acting upon coals under the particular conditions in their deposits, the relative amount of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons within the trapped bitumen increases until the coal reaches the rank of medium-volatile bituminous coals. Coking coals particularly are rich in compounds such as benzene, biphenyl, naphthalene, and their alkylated derivatives. Potential hazardous environmental impact of these hydrocarbons has to be considered when mining or reclaiming overburden because approximately 10% overburden material related to coal mining is coal. Exposure to long-term weathering destroys the pore system of coals, which might result in a release of highly volatile bituminous coal constituents into the atmosphere. This view is supported by analyses of coals present in overburden material. In the present study, the on-line combination of thermodesorption coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry is shown to be an appropriate tool for the detection and quantitation of hydrocarbons of a wide boiling temperature range present in solid sample material. The method is preferentially suitable for the analysis of highly volatile constituents such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, which are not quantitatively analyzed using conventional solvent-extraction methods

  8. Elemental and mineralogical characteristic and speciation of some elements in Canadian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, F.; Labonte, M. [Natural Resources Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

    2005-07-01

    This study examined Canadian feed coals that are subbituminous to bituminous in rank with a sulphur content of 0.32-3.55 per cent. The main minerals within these coals are quartz and aluminosilicates. The accessory minerals include pyrite, sphalerite, barite, calcite, anhydrite, chromite, zircon, biotite, and monazite. Gorceixite, which is typically associated with degraded volcanic ash, is found in one of the subbituminous feed coals. The sulphur content of the feed coals suggests that the feed coal formed in a fresh water setting containing the least amount of sulphur. Those associated with evaporites have the highest S content. The concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium and zinc in these feed coals are low compared to world coals. Mercury content of these feed coals ranges from 0.04 ppm to 0.16 ppm, also a low value compared to world coals. Mercury is generally associated with the pyritic portion of coal and has direct correlation to arsenic and sulphur content in these coals. Arsenic in low sulphur coals is generally associated with coal macerals and in higher sulphur coals with pyrite. The speciation of arsenic, chromium and nickel indicates that arsenic is present in the less-toxic form As{sup +5} and Cr is present as Cr{sup 3+}, an essential human trace nutrient, found in subbituminous and bituminous ranked coals and nickel is present mostly as non-toxic Ni{sup 2+}.

  9. A new approach to study fast pyrolysis of pulverized coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Yao, J.; Lin, W. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemical Metallurgy Fast Reactions Laboratory, Beijing, BJ (China)

    2002-07-01

    An experimental study of the effects of varying bed temperature and coal particle size on the fast pyrolysis of pulverized coal in a downer reactor is described. A Datong bituminous coal (particle size 0.5 and 0.34 mm) was studied at temperatures ranging from 592{sup o} C to 720{sup o} C. The experiments were conducted in a batch apparatus. An on-line gas analyzer was used to measure carbon dioxide release curves. The experimental data were used to develop a pyrolysis model that quantifies the fast heating of fine coal particles. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Stress-strain response of pre-compacted granular coal samples exposed to CO2, CH4, He and Ar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, F. van; Hol, S.; Spiers, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between supercritical carbon dioxide and coal has been the subject of many studies in recent years. This paper reports two different types of swelling experiments, one on confined and one on unconfined samples of pre-pressed, crushed bituminous coal, performed at gas or fluid pressur

  12. Isotopic and chemical characterization of coal in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (delta/sup 13/C PDB) and toxic/trace element concentration levels are determined for Tertiary coal samples collected from seven coal fields in Pakistan. No systematic isotope effects are found in the process of coal liquefaction from peat to Tertiary lignites and sub bituminous coal. Similarly, no age effects are observed during the Tertiary regime. The observed variations in the carbon isotopic composition of coal obtained from 'Sharigh coal field' and the 'Sor-Range/Degari coal field' in Baluchistan are attributed to the depositional environments. More sampling of stable carbon isotope analysis are required to validate these observations. Significant concentrations of toxic elements such as S, Cr, Cd and Pb in Makarwal coal may pose environmental and engineering/operational problems for thermal power plants. (author)

  13. STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF WETTING HEAT ON COAL SLURRYABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱书全; 付晓恒; 刘昀; 王祖讷; 李颖

    1997-01-01

    Wetting Heat of various ranks of coals in water was measured by using SETARAM C80D Calorimeter. The data were correlated to coals' slurryability which is characterized by the solid load at the viscosity of 1 Pa·s and 25℃. The results showed that the heat of wetting by water decreases as coal rank increases in the range of brawn coal to bituminous coal with carbon content of 89%~90% (daf), and then, increases a little for anthracite. This trend fitted well to the relationship of slurryability to coal rank. The heat of wetting was also correlated to the inherent moisture content and the oxygen content of coal, which are commonly considered as slurryability indication parameters. Hence, the wetting heat is another measure of coal's slurryability.

  14. Emissions and Furnace Gas Temperature for Electricity Generation Via Co-Firing of Coal and Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Shoaib Mehmood; Bale Reddy; Marc Rosen

    2015-01-01

    The emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen and sulphur oxides for electricity generation with coal and biomass co-firing are investigated and the furnace gas temperature assessed. The study uses simulation and considers fuel combinations based on two coals (bituminous coal, lignite) and four types of biomass (rice husk, sawdust, chicken litter, refused derived fuel). With increasing biomass, net CO2 emissions are seen to decline significantly for all types of selected biomass, while gross c...

  15. Atlas of the Colombian coal, Potential map and rank: Map 5-09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the presentation of the Atlas of Coal to scale 1:500.000, it is sought to show to big features the location of the different areas with coal in Colombia, associating with the geologic units, the potential and the range. In the Map 5-09, the formations that include the coal are defined as Umir, Guaduas, Limbo, (Los Cuervos), San Fernando, (Carbonera), defined as Kst, Ksgt and Pgt. For the potential an arbitrary scale settled down, in the following way: in the first place bigger to 1000 million tons; between 1000 and 100; between 100 and 10 and lastly smaller to 10 million tons. These figures are represented in the map by triangles with colors that they are equal before to the figures mentioned. Keeping in mind the scale, it was opted to report the potential in the category of the hypothetical resources; when the resources or reserves are established, they are also reported. As for the range, in the map it is indicated by means of symbols that should be taken as a domain or tendency of the coal in each area in general. The the coal rank understood as the transformation that has reached along the geologic evolution is what is mentioned as anthracitic coal, semi-anthracitic, bituminous low in volatile, bituminous middle in volatile, bituminous high in volatile A, B and C, sub-bituminous and lastly the lignite. For each map are mentioned that there are determined

  16. Study of thermal reactivity during bituminization of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the study of chemical reactions and phases transitions which can occur between magnesium nitrate, sodium nitrate, cobalt sulphur product, and nickel potassium ferrocyanide, when they are heated together during bituminization process of nuclear waste. The applied methodology associates a few techniques: temperature, enthalpy, and kinetics of reaction are determined by calorimetry, reaction products are characterised by chemical analyses, mass spectrometry and XRD analysis. Three fields of temperature and energy are observed in function of composition (one compound or a mixture of compounds). The study of reactions between NaNO3 and cobalt sulphur product shows that the presence of water has got an effect on reaction temperature. The study of Mg(NO3)2, 6 H2O and CoS shows an overlapping of different signals, and that the reaction rate is very slow (a few hours). (author)

  17. Leaching tests of simulated Cogema bituminized waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, S.; Akimoto, T.; Iida, Y.; Nagano, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The leaching behavior of COGEMA-type bituminized radioactive waste was studied for the atmospheric and anaerobic conditions. Active and inactive laboratory-scale bitumen samples, including two major salts of NaNO{sub 3} and BaSO{sub 4}, were contacted with deionized water, an alkaline solution (0.01 mol/L Ca(OH){sub 2} or 0.03 mol/L KOH), or a saline solution (0.5 mol/L KCl). It was found that the release of salt was reduced in the Ca(OH){sub 2} solution compared with deionized water under the atmospheric conditions. No significant difference in the concentrations of {sup 237}Np in leachants contacted with the samples for 7 days was observed between the atmospheric and the anaerobic conditions. (authors)

  18. Coking coal of Checua Lenguazaque area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report a summary of the main characteristics of the coal of the area of Checua-Samaca is presented. Using the main works carried out on this area, the most important geologic, physical-chemical, technological and petrographic aspects are compiled that are considered essential to carry out a technical evaluation of these coal and all the analyses they take to conclude that in this area, bituminous coal are presented with very good coking properties, on the other hand, it is demonstrated by the use that is given to the coal extracted by the small existent mining. However, keeping in mind the demands of the international market of the coking coal, it becomes necessary to improve the existent geologic information to be able to make reliable stratigraphic correlations

  19. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are used in greenhouse gas inventories to estimate emissions from coal combustion. In the absence of direct measures, emissions factors are frequently used as a quick, low cost way to estimate emissions values. Coal combustion has been a major contributor to the CO2 flux into the atmosphere. Nearly all of the fuel carbon (99 % in coal is converted to CO2 during the combustion process. The carbon content is the most important coal parameter which is the measure of the degree of coalification (coal rank. Coalification is the alteration of vegetation to form peat, succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous to anthracite coal. During the geochemical or metamorphic stage, the progressive changes that occur within the coal are an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen and oxygen content resulting in a loss of volatiles. Heterogeneous composition of coal causes variation in CO2 emission from different coals. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has produced guidelines on how to produce emission inventories which includes emission factors. Although 2006 IPCC Guidelines provided the default values specified according to the rank of the coal, the application of country-specific emission factors was recommended when estimating the national greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the differences between country-specific emission factors and default IPCC CO2 emission factors, EF(CO2, for coals. Also, this study estimated EF(CO2 for two different types of coals and peat from B&H, on the basis fuel analyses. Carbon emission factors for coal mainly depend on the carbon content of the fuel and vary with both rank and geographic origin, which supports the idea of provincial variation of carbon emission factors. Also, various other factors, such as content of sulphur, minerals and macerals play an important role and influence EF(CO2 from coal. Carbonate minerals

  20. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA)); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA)); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  1. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for

  2. Economy, environmental issues and market requirements. The example of coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domestic coal mining is in a recession stage now. The cost of mining increases and the European market is saturated. The projection of the needs for solid fuels till 2000 was analyzed based on an investigation made among 80 large-scale customers and in the municipal and household sphere. Demands for bituminous coal for power plants exhibit an increasing trend. From the environmental point of view it is unfavourable that, as the district authorities suppose, brown coal and bituminous coal sludges will continue to be used by the households and communities after 2000. The problem of the mining and processing costs and of the related coal prices is a crucial issue in the future development of fuel mining in the Czech Republic. (M.D.). 3 refs

  3. Determination of Sectional Constancy of Organic Coal-Water Fuel Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A.; Nyashina, Galina S.; Strizhak, Pavel A.

    2016-02-01

    To use widespreadly the waste of coals and oils processing in the great and the small-scale power generation, the key parameter, which is sectional constancy of promising organic coal-water fuels (OCWF), was studied. The compo-sitions of OCWF from brown and bituminous coals, filter cakes, used motor, turbine and dielectrical oils, water-oil emul-sion and special wetting agent (plasticizer) were investigated. Two modes of preparation were considered. They are with homogenizer and cavitator. It was established that the constancy did not exceed 5-7 days for the compositions of OCWF with brown coals, and 12-15 days for that compositions with bituminous coals and filter cakes. The injection of used oils in a composition of OCWF led to increase in viscosity of fuel compositions and their sectional constancy.

  4. Characterization of Some Nigerian Coals for Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chukwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five coal samples from Odagbo (Kogi State, Owukpa (Benue State, Ezimo (Enugu State, Amansiodo (Enugu State, and Inyi (Enugu State of Nigerian coal deposits were subjected to proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, calorific value determination, and petrographic and thermogravimetric analysis to determine their suitability for power generation. Based on results of tests carried out, Amansiodo coal is a bituminous, low sulphur, and medium ash coal, while Owukpa coal is a subbituminous A, low sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Odagbo coal is a subbituminous B, medium sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Ezimo coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal, and Inyi coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal. Between Odagbo and Owukpa subbituminous coals, Owukpa has a lower ignition temperature (283.63°C due to its higher volatile matter content (39.1%. However, Ezimo subbituminous coal, which has a lower volatile matter (31.1%, unexpectedly has the same ignition temperature as Owukpa (283.63°C due to its higher liptinite content (7.2% when compared with that of Owukpa (2.9%. The ease of combustion of the coal samples in decreasing order is Odagbo < Owukpa < Inyi < Ezimo < Amansiodo.

  5. Coking coals of Mongolia: Distribution and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Jargal, Luvsanchultem

    2016-04-01

    The coal deposits of Mongolia tend to become younger from west to east and can be subdivided into two provinces, twelve basins, and three areas. Main controlling factor of coal rank is the age of coal bearing sequences. Western Mongolian coal-bearing province contains mostly high rank bituminous coal in strata from Late Carboniferous. The basins in southern Mongolia and the western part of central Mongolia have low rank bituminous coal in strata from the Permian. The northern and central Mongolian basins contain mainly Jurassic subbituminous coal, whereas the Eastern Mongolian province has Lower Cretaceous lignite. Mongolian known coking coal reserves are located in western, southern and northern Mongolia and related to Carboniferous, Permian and Jurassic sequences, respectively. Pennsylvanian Nuurstkhotgor coal deposit is located in northwestern Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). The coals have 1-7.5 crucible swelling number (CSN) and 0-86 G-index. Vitrinite reflectance value (Rmax in oil) varies from 0.7% to 1.2% and sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.3% to 0.6% with an average of 0.4%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 1.0 billion ton, of which half is coking coal. Upper Permian Khurengol deposit is situated in western Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). CSN and G-index of coal are 8-9 and 54-99, respectively. The coals have Rmax of 1.1 to 1.7% (average 1.4%) and sulfur content of 0.2 to 0.6% (average 0.4%). Coking coal reserve of the deposit is estimated to be 340 million ton. Upper Permian Tavantolgoi, the largest coking coal deposit, lies in southern Mongolia (in South Gobi coal-bearing basin). The coals have CSN of 1 to 7.5 and Rmax of 0.7% to 1.2%. Sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.5% to 0.9%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 6.0 billion ton, of which 2.0 billion ton is accounted as coking coal. Lower-Middle Jurassic Ovoot coal is located in northern Mongolia (in Orkhon-Selenge coal-bearing area). This is one of

  6. An assessment of cleaning amenability of salt range coal through physical cleaning methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representative coal samples from the eastern salt range (Modern Engineering and Kishor coal mines, Pakistan) and the central salt range (Punjmin coal mine, Pakistan) were collected and examined for their chemical composition. The chemical characteristics indicate that the salt range coal belongs to sub-bituminous category. Washability analysis on selected coal samples (6.70 , 0.212 mm) using zinc chloride solution with a specific gravity from 1.3 to 1.7 were executed. The results classify the central salt range coal as easily washable while, the Eastern salt range coal as moderately difficult to wash. Jigging, shaking table and spiral techniques were applied to check the cleaning amenability of the salt range coal through these techniques. Among these techniques, shaking table revealed the most promising results for all the three coals. Punjmin coal showed the maximum rejection of ash of 55% and that of total sulphur of 74% with a recovery of 46%. (author)

  7. Interpolation and Sampling Errors of the Ash and Sulphur Contents in Selected Polish Bituminous Coal Deposit (Upper Silesian Coal Basin - USCB) / Błędy Interpolacji I Opróbowania Zawartości Popiołu I Siarki W Wytypowanych Polskich Złożach Węgla Kamiennego (Górnośląskie Zagłębie Węglowe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Jacek; Wasilewska-Błaszczyk, Monika

    2015-09-01

    The basic sources of information on the parameters characterizing the quality of coal (i.e. its ash and sulphur contents) in the deposits of The Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) are drill core sampling (the first stage of exploration) and channel sampling in mine workings (the second stage of exploration). Boreholes are irregularly spaced but provide relatively uniform coverage over an entire deposit area. Channel samples are taken regularly in mine workings, but only in the developed parts of the deposit. The present study considers selected seams of two mines. The methodology used is based on detailed geostatistical analysis, point kriging procedure and P. Gy's theory of sampling. Its purpose is: • defining and comparing geostatistical models for variability of the ash and sulphur contents for data originating from boreholes and mine workings, • predicting by means of point kriging the values of the parameters and errors of interpolation using data from boreholes at grid points where underground mine workings were later channel-sampled, • assessing the accuracy of interpolation by comparison of predicted values of parameters with real values (found by channel sampling), • evaluating the variances of total secondary sampling error (error of preparation of assay samples) and analytical error introduced by assaying of sulphur and ash, • assessing the contribution of sampling and analytical errors (global estimation error) to the interpolation errors. The authors found that the interpolation errors for ash or sulphur content are very large, with mean relative values of 35%-60%, mainly caused by the considerable natural variability, a significant role of random component of variability, and heterogeneity of spatial distribution of these characteristics. The sampling and analytical errors play a negligible role. Their values are smaller than 11% of interpolation error values. Presenting estimates of the spatial distribution of ash and sulphur contents in

  8. Effect of intermolecular cohesion on coal liquefaction. 3. Reactivity of oxygen methylated coal; Sekitan teibunshika hanno ni okeru bunshikan gyoshuryoku no koka. 3. O-methyl ka tan no hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Nagaishi, H.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The reactivity of oxygen methylated coal was studied to control hydrogen bond in bituminous coal liquefaction and intermolecular cohesion such as van der Waals force. In experiment, crushed and dried Illinois coal of 100mesh or less was used as specimen, and oxygen methylated coal was prepared by Liotta`s method using tetrabutylammonium halide. Coal liquefaction was conducted in an electromagnetic agitation autoclave using tetralin solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 100kg/cm{sup 2} while heating. The molecular weight distribution of the products obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. The experimental results are as follows. The effect of intermolecular cohesion in bituminous coal on the reactivity is mainly derived from decomposing reaction from preasphaltene to oil. Yields of oil fraction by methylation increase corresponding to release of intermolecular cohesion. Since the thermal release is promoted with temperature rise, the difference in yield due to different treatments decreases. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruya, P.

    2009-06-15

    Indonesia has become the largest exporter of steam coal in the world, but the long-term future of coal exports is being brought into question as domestic demand is projected to grow by a significant amount, from 40-50 Mt/y in 2007 to more than 100 Mt/y by 2013, and even higher beyond 2013. Exports reached 200-210 Mt in 2008, and is set to rise in the future. Import volumes are negligible, while indigenous production was estimated to be around 240-260 Mt in 2008. Illegal mining is being addressed and in the past could have accounted for at least 20 Mt/y of production, but obtaining reliable export and production figures as a result is therefore not straight forward. Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world. This fact coupled with robust GDP growth means there is more pressure on the state-controlled electricity industry to invest and build an adequate infrastructure to meet the rising demand for power. Part of this investment is being driven by government policy to build 10 GWe of coal-fired power by 2010 and a second tranche by 2013. However, the investment programme, commonly known as the 'crash programme' is more likely to be delayed by 2-3 years. Nevertheless, the likely 20-30 Mt/y or so of additional coal demand from the first tranche alone will put pressure on domestic coal producers to meet expanding demand both at home and abroad for low rank and exportable bituminous coals. This report covers four main topics, the Indonesian coal industry, the power generating sector and its use of clean coal technology, changes in coal demand and its impact on international trade, and finally a brief look at upgrading low rank coals within the country. 80 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Effect of Cement on Properties of Over-Burnt Brick Bituminous Concrete Mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Dipankar; Pal, Manish

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation is carried out to propose the use of cement coated over burnt brick aggregate in the preparation of bituminous concrete mix. The effect of cement on various mechanical properties such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient (stability to flow ratio), indirect tensile strength, stripping, rutting and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study, different cement percentages such as 2, 3, 4 and 5 % by weight of aggregate have been mixed with Over Burnt Brick Aggregate (OBBA). The laboratory results indicate that bituminous concrete prepared by 4 % cement coated OBBA gives the highest Marshall stability. The bituminous concrete mix with 4 % cement shows considerable improvement in various mechanical properties of the mix compared to the plain OBBA concrete mix.

  11. State of the art report on bituminized waste forms of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, research and development results on the bituminization of radioactive wastes are closely reviewed, especially those regarding waste treatment technologies, waste solidifying procedures and the characteristics of asphalt and solidified forms. A new concept of the bituminization method is suggested in this report which can improve the characteristics of solidified forms. Stable solid forms with high leach resistance, high thermal resistance and good compression strength were produced by the suggested bituminization method, in which spent polyethylene from agricultural farms was added. This report can help further research and development of improved bituminized forms of radioactive wastes that will maintain long term stabilities in disposal sites. (author). 59 refs., 19 tabs., 18 figs

  12. State of the art report on bituminized waste forms of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Kook; Shon, Jong Sik; Kim, Kil Jeong; Lee, Kang Moo; Jung, In Ha

    1998-03-01

    In this report, research and development results on the bituminization of radioactive wastes are closely reviewed, especially those regarding waste treatment technologies, waste solidifying procedures and the characteristics of asphalt and solidified forms. A new concept of the bituminization method is suggested in this report which can improve the characteristics of solidified forms. Stable solid forms with high leach resistance, high thermal resistance and good compression strength were produced by the suggested bituminization method, in which spent polyethylene from agricultural farms was added. This report can help further research and development of improved bituminized forms of radioactive wastes that will maintain long term stabilities in disposal sites. (author). 59 refs., 19 tabs., 18 figs

  13. STUDY ON REGULATIONS OF.SULFUR OCCURRENCE AND PYRITE MAGNETISM OF LATE PERMIAN COALS IN SOUTHWEST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任德贻; 唐跃刚; 雷加锦

    1994-01-01

    The Permian coal In southwest China contains highest sulfur among the Chinese coal. Compositional variations of sulfur in coal are mainly controlled by paiaogeographicai environments during peat accumulation. High organic sulfur coal is formed in peat swamp developing in tidal flat of limited carbonate platform, and it is provided with especial petrological and geochemical characteristics, and its organosuLfur-containing compounds are mainly thiophene series. The macroscopical and microscopical shapes or types of pyrites in Late Permian coal are diversified. Bituminous coal and anthracite are diamagnetic, but the pyrites are paramagnetic. The magnetic susceptibility of the pyrites is depended on the content of paramagnatic elements associated with pyrites.

  14. Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2004-01-01

    Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces. Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines in these two provinces. Alaskan coal resources have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The identified resources are near existing and planned infrastructure to promote development, transportation, and marketing of this low-sulfur coal. The relatively short distances to countries in the west Pacific Rim make them more exportable to these countries than to the lower 48 States of the United States. Another untapped but potential resource of large magnitude is coalbed methane, which has been estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters) by T.N. Smith 1995, Coalbed methane potential for Alaska and drilling results for the upper Cook Inlet Basin: Intergas, May 15 - 19, 1995, Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama, p. 1 - 21.

  15. Seventh symposium on coal mine drainage research. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Seventh Symposium on Coal Mine Drainage Research, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Seventeen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include chemical reactions of pyrite oxidation and acid formation in spoil banks, abandoned mines, etc., formation of small acid lakes from the drainage and their neutralization by natural and other neutralization measures, trace elements in acid mine drainage, ground water contamination, limnology, effects of surface mined ground reclamation and neutralization, water purification and treatment, mining and coal preparation plant waste disposal, ash and fly ash disposal (to minimize leaching from the wastes), runoff from large coal storage stockpiles during storms (prevention of environmental effects by collection and neutralization by passing through an ash pond). (LTN)

  16. Mercury concentration in coal - unraveling the puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toole-O`Neil, B.; Tewalt, S.J.; Finkelman, R.B.; Akers, D.J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Based on data from the US Geological Surveys COALQUAL database, the mean concentration of mercury in coal is approximately 0.2 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Assuming the database reflects in-ground US coal resources, values for conterminous US coal areas range from 0.08 {mu}g g{sup -1} for coal in the San Juan and Uinta regions to 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} for the Gulf Coast lignites. Recalculating the COALQUAL data to an equal energy basis unadjusted for moisture differences, the Gulf Coast lignites have the highest values (36.4 lb of Hg/10{sup 12} Btu) and the Hams Fork region coal has the lowest value (4.8 lb of Hg/10{sup 12} Btu). Strong indirect geochemical evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of the mercury in coal is associated with pyrite occurrence. This association of mercury and pyrite probably accounts for the removal of mercury with the pyrite by physical coal cleaning procedures. Data from the literature indicate that conventional coal cleaning removes approximately 37% of the mercury on an equal energy basis, with a range of 0% to 78%. When the average mercury reduction value is applied to in-ground mercury values from the COALQUAL database, the resulting `cleaned` mercury values are very close to mercury in `as-shipped` coal from the same coal bed in the same county. Applying the reduction factor for coal cleaning to eastern US bituminous coal, reduces the mercury input load compared to lower-rank non-cleaned western US coal. In the absence of analytical data on as-shipped coal, the mercury data in the COALQUAL database, adjusted for cleanability where appropriate, may be used as an estimator of mercury contents of as-shipped coal. 28 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  17. Mercury concentration in coal - Unraveling the puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole-O'Neil, B.; Tewalt, S.J.; Finkelman, R.B.; Akers, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Based on data from the US Geological Survey's COALQUAL database, the mean concentration of mercury in coal is approximately 0.2 ??gg-1. Assuming the database reflects in-ground US coal resources, values for conterminous US coal areas range from 0.08 ??gg-1 for coal in the San Juan and Uinta regions to 0.22 ??gg-1 for the Gulf Coast lignites. Recalculating the COALQUAL data to an equal energy basis unadjusted for moisture differences, the Gulf Coast lignites have the highest values (36.4 lb of Hg/1012 Btu) and the Hams Fork region coal has the lowest value (4.8 lb of Hg/1012Btu). Strong indirect geochemical evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of the mercury in coal is associated with pyrite occurrence. This association of mercury and pyrite probably accounts for the removal of mercury with the pyrite by physical coal cleaning procedures. Data from the literature indicate that conventional coal cleaning removes approximately 37% of the mercury on an equal energy basis, with a range of 0% to 78%. When the average mercury reduction value is applied to in-ground mercury values from the COALQUAL database, the resulting 'cleaned' mercury values are very close to mercury in 'as-shipped' coal from the same coal bed in the same county. Applying the reduction fact or for coal cleaning to eastern US bituminous coal, reduces the mercury input load compared to lower-rank non-deaned western US coal. In the absence of analytical data on as-shipped coal, the mercury data in the COALQUAL database, adjusted for deanability where appropriate, may be used as an estimator of mercury contents of as-shipped coal. ?? 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sorption mechanism of solvent vapors to coals; Sekitan eno yobai joki no shuchaku kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to clarify the interactions between micropore structure of coal and solvent reagents, a sorption experiment was carried out under solvent saturated vapor pressure. Low-volatile bituminous coal, Pocahontas No. 3 coal, has the aromatic ring structure developed, and makes solvent more difficult to diffuse into coal, hence sorption amount is small. Methanol has permeated since its polarity is high. High-volatile bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, makes solvent penetrate easily, and the sorption amount was large with both of aromatic and polar solvents. Since brown coal, Beulah Zap coal, contains a large amount of oxygen, and hydrogen bonding is predominant, sorption amount of cyclohexane and benzene having no polarity is small. Methanol diffuses while releasing hydrogen bond due to its polarity, and its sorption amount is large. A double sorption model is available, which expresses the whole sorption amount as a sum of physical sorption amount and amount of permeation into coal. This model was applied when it explained successfully the sorption behavior of the solvents relative to coals, excepting some of the systems. However, also observed were such abnormal behavior as sorption impediment due to interactions between coal surface and solvents, and permeation impediment due to hydroxyl groups inside the coals. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Geology and coal potential of Somaliland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Y. Ali [Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-01

    Geological field mapping along with available geological and drilling data suggest that Somaliland (Northwestern Somalia) has favourable stratigraphy and structure for coal deposits. Lignitic to sub-bituminous coal deposits with ages from Jurassic to Oligocene-Miocene occur in various locations across the country including Hed-Hed valley south of Onkhor, Guveneh hills north of Las Dureh and Daban Basin southeast of Berbera. However, the coal occurrence at Hed-Hed has both the greatest thickness and highest quality. These deposits have the potential to provide an important alternative fuel resource which could alleviate the growing shortage of traditional fuels and assist in reducing the country's dependence on imported energy. However, further investigation, including drilling and laboratory analyses, still needs to be carried out, particularly on the Upper Cretaceous coal seams to evaluate the quality and resource potential of the deposits.

  20. Thermal properties of different rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdar Yaman; Hanzade Haykiri-Acma [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Thermal properties of various coal samples which have different rank and petrography were investigated under both inert and oxidizing conditions up to 900{sup o}C in a thermal analysis system. Peat, anthracite, and bituminous coal samples from different countries and various lignites from Turkey such as Askale, Soma, and Elbistan were used. DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) and TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis) techniques were applied. DTG (Derivative Thermogravimetric) curves were derived and interpreted considering the physical and chemical properties, and the rank of coals. Pyrolytic chars obtained from the inert atmosphere experiments were examined applying SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometry) techniques. It was found that the thermal reactivity and the apparent thermal properties of different rank coals differ considerably under both conditions. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time

  2. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  3. Bituminous reference document: synthesis of knowledge on the long time behavior of bituminous packages; Dossier de reference bitume: synthese des connaissances sur le comportement a long terme des colis bitumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sercombe, J.; Adenot, F.; Vistoli, P.P.; Parraud, S.; Riglet-Martial, C.; Gwinner, B.; Felines, I.; Tiffreau, C.; Libert, M

    2004-07-01

    This document is a synthesis of the knowledge acquired at the CEA on the behavior of bituminous packages. In this framework, the CEA studied bituminous packages in generic conditions of a package lifetime. The main factors, the evolution mechanisms and influential parameters have been determined and quantitative s simulation have been developed. After a description of the main initial bituminous packages characterizations, the evolutions in saturated and un-saturated environment are exposed. (A.L.B.)

  4. Petrographic compositions of Paleozoic coals of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargal, Luvsanchultem; Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh

    2016-04-01

    In Mongolia, the deposition of coal bearing strata commenced in Pennsylvanian, and continued in Upper Permian, in Lower-Middle Jurassic and finally in Lower Cretaceous time. Pennsylvanian coal seams were deposited in Western Mongolia, where peat formation was initially developed in the southernmost part and later gradually shifted to northward. By the Late Permian, the locus of coal formation had changed and main peat accumulation took place in southern Mongolia. Lower-Middle Jurassic coal was accumulated in western, northern and eastern Mongolia. During this time, peat forming condition was comparatively stable in entire Mongolia. In the Early Cretaceous, thick and extensive coal was formed in the Eastern Mongolia. Due to this general trend of peat accumulation, coal rank decreases from west (bituminous) to east (lignite). The significant portion of Pennsylvanian and Upper Permian coal reserves, existed in western and southern Mongolia, are coking coal. Thus, petrographical studies of the coals are notably important. However, previous studies of Paleozoic coals have been sparse, and only few deposits have been conducted. The maceral compositions of Western Mongolian Pennsylvanian coals such as Khushuut, Maanit, Khurengol, Zeegt, Tsagaangol, Nuurstkhotgor, Khartarvagatai and Olonbulag were studied. The results show that the coals are dominated by vitrinite (45 vol.% to 71 vol.%) and inertinite (28 vol.% to 53vol.%) macerals. Liptinite contents are low, less than 4 vol.%. In addition, vitrinite reflectance values (Rmax in oil) of Khushuut (1.85%), Maanit (0.92%), Khurengol (1.4%), Zeegt (0.86%), Tsagaangol (3.6%), Nuurstkhotgor (0.9%), Khartarvagatai (1.1%) and Olonbulag (1.7%) were determined. Upper Permian coals in southern Mongolia (Tavantolgoi, Nariinsukhait, Jargalant, Tsagaantolgoi, Buduuniikhyar) are dominated by vitrinite (55 vol.% to 78 vol.%) and inertinite macerals (19 vol.% to 44 vol.%). Liptinite contents range from 1 vol.% to 7 vol.%. The vitrinite

  5. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance of the process gave the following integral indicators: weight-average temperature of 2200-2300 K, and carbon gasification degree of 82,4-83,2%. Synthesis gas yield at thermochemical preparation of raw coal dust for burning was 24,5% and in the case of electron-beam activation of coal synthesis gas yield reached 36,4%, which is 48% higher.

  6. Enhancement of pulverized coal combustion by plasma technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorokhovski, M.A.; Jankoski, Z.; Lockwood, F.C.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [University of Rouen, Rouen (France)

    2007-07-01

    Plasma-assisted pulverized coal combustion is a promising technology for thermal power plants (TPP). This article reports one- and three- dimensional numerical simulations, as well as laboratory and industrial measurements of coal combustion using a plasma-fuel system (PFS). The chemical kinetic and fluid mechanics involved in this technology are analysed. The results show that a PFS, can be used to promote early ignition and enhanced stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. It is shown that this technology, in addition to enhancing the combustion efficiency of the flame, reduces harmful emissions from power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures). Data summarising the experience of 27 pulverized coal boilers in 16 thermal power plants in several countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Ukraine, Slovakia, Mongolia and China), embracing steam productivities from 75 to 670 tons per hour (TPH), are presented. Finally, the practical computation of the characteristics of the PFS, as function of coal properties, is discussed.

  7. Thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether: A model of ether linkages in low rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Malcolm, E.A.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, an area of interest and frustration for coal chemists has been the direct liquefaction of low rank coal. Although low rank coals are more reactive than bituminous coals, they are more difficult to liquefy and offer lower liquefaction yields under conditions optimized for bituminous coals. Solomon, Serio, and co-workers have shown that: in the pyrolysis and liquefaction of low rank coals, a low temperature cross-linking reaction associated with oxygen functional groups occurs before tar evolution. A variety of pretreatments (demineralization, alkylation, and ion-exchange) have been shown to reduce these retrogressive reactions and increase tar yields, but the actual chemical reactions responsible for these processes have not been defined. In order to gain insight into the thermochemical reactions leading to cross-linking in low rank coal, we have undertaken a study of the pyrolysis of oxygen containing coal model compounds. Solid state NMR studies suggest that the alkyl aryl ether linkage may be present in modest amounts in low rank coal. Therefore, in this paper, we will investigate the thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) as a model of 0-aryl ether linkages found in low rank coal, lignites, and lignin, an evolutionary precursor of coal. Our results have uncovered a new reaction channel that can account for 25% of the products formed. The impact of reaction conditions, including restricted mass transport, on this new reaction pathway and the role of oxygen functional groups in cross-linking reactions will be investigated.

  8. Development of standards and a cost model for coal agglomeration and related studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.G.; Kuby, O.A.; Korosi, F.A.; Paulin, M.O.

    1982-02-26

    Several topics concerning coal agglomeration and fixed-bed coal gasification, as they relate to an agglomeration-process development program presently being performed for the Department of Energy, are discussed in this report. Specific topics include an examination of the performance of coals in fixed-bed gasifiers, the development of properties' standards by which agglomerates produced in the program may be compared, the development of a cost model to judge the economic feasibility of coal agglomeration for potential users and the maximum binder levels to be considered in the program, the definition of a suitable briquette size for coal gasification, and a study of upgrading methods at the mines to improve agglomeration. Extensive property data and the results of a number of special tests on six coals (Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, Wyoming Bighorn subbituminous coal, Montana Rosebud No. 14 subbituminous coal, North Dakota Indian Head lignite and Pennsylvania Nanoth anthracite coal) and on FMC formcoke and Simplex briquettes are reported.

  9. Emissions and Furnace Gas Temperature for Electricity Generation Via Co-Firing of Coal and Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Mehmood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen and sulphur oxides for electricity generation with coal and biomass co-firing are investigated and the furnace gas temperature assessed. The study uses simulation and considers fuel combinations based on two coals (bituminous coal, lignite and four types of biomass (rice husk, sawdust, chicken litter, refused derived fuel. With increasing biomass, net CO2 emissions are seen to decline significantly for all types of selected biomass, while gross carbon dioxide emissions increase for all blends except bituminous coal/refuse derived fuel, lignite/chicken litter and lignite/refuse derived fuel. The reductions in emissions of nitrogen and sulphur oxides are dependent on the contents of nitrogen and sulphur in the biomass. The results also show for all fuel combinations that increasing the biomass proportion decreases the furnace exit gas temperature.

  10. Trace elements in co-combustion of solid recovered fuel and coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    2013-01-01

    Trace element partitioning in co-combustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF) was studied in an entrained flow reactor. The experiments were carried out at conditions similar to pulverized coal combustion, with SRF shares of 7.9 wt.% (wet basis), 14.8 wt.% and 25.0 wt.%. In ad......Trace element partitioning in co-combustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF) was studied in an entrained flow reactor. The experiments were carried out at conditions similar to pulverized coal combustion, with SRF shares of 7.9 wt.% (wet basis), 14.8 wt.% and 25.0 wt......-based additives increased the volatility of Cd, Pb and As, whereas addition of ammonium sulphate generally decreased the volatility of trace elements. Addition of kaolinite reduced the volatility of Pb, while the influence on other trace elements was insignificant. The results from the present work imply...

  11. Behaviour of inorganic matter during heating of Bulgarian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassileva, Christina G.; Vassilev, Stanislav V. [Central Laboratory of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 107, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2006-12-15

    Bulgarian subbituminous (Pernik, Bobov Dol) and bituminous (Balkan) coals were gradually heated under air from 100 {sup o}C to their fluid ash-fusion temperatures (1400-1600 {sup o}C) via 100 {sup o}C intervals and the behaviour of their inorganic matter (IM) was studied. The original minerals and newly formed inorganic phases in the oxidation and combustion products (OCPs) of these coals were identified and the behaviour of 33 minerals and phases was described. The coals studied reveal high detrital abundance and low authigenic mineralization with sulphide-sulphate, carbonate or mixed sulphide-sulphate and carbonate tendencies. The IM of coals is composed mainly of quartz, kaolinite, illite+muscovite, feldspars, pyrite, and calcite, while the other minerals identified have subordinate occurrence. The IM of OCPs includes various pre-existing minerals and newly formed phases. The latter phases are glass, quartz-cristobalite-tridymite, mullite, amorphous clay material, hematite-magnetite, anhydrite, and others originating from the heating of these coals or storage of their OCPs. The physico-chemical processes and temperatures that result in the formation of new phases in OCPs are described. The relationships between the ash-fusion behaviour and chemical and mineral composition of the coals are also discussed. A systematization of the physico-chemical transformations and some comparative characterizations, as well as prediction of certain technological and environmental problems related to the behaviour of IM during heating of Bulgarian lignites, subbituminous and bituminous coals are also described and summarized. (author)

  12. Geology and coal bed methane resource potential of the Gondwana Barapukuria Coal Basin, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Hayashi, Daigoro [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, 903-0213 (Japan)

    2008-08-05

    With an area of 5.16 km{sup 2}, the Barapukuria coal deposit is one of the five largest Gondwana coal basins in Bangladesh, and is located in the north west of the country close to the towns of Dinajpur and Saidpur. The existence of the basin was initially indicated by a negative gravity anomaly in oil and gas exploration. Exploration for the deposit was commenced by the Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB), with seven surface boreholes that confirmed the existence of a significant coal deposit. The deposit occurs as an asymmetrical synclinal structure with an axis striking approximately N-S. The deposit is limited to the east by a large normal fault which has displaced Archaean metamorphics against the Gondwana sediments. The coal-bearing sediments are comprised of Gondwana Permian-age sandstones, siltstones, subordinate carbonaceous shales, and six correlated coal seams. The Gondwana sediments are unconformably overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, against which the coal seams are successively subcropped to the west. Within the structural limits of the basin, approximately 377 Mt coal in-situ has been quantified in the six coal seams that range in depth from 118 to 518 m below surface. Due to the synclinal nature of the deposit, the upper coal seams, designated I to V, occur over diminishing areal extent with decreasing depth. The principal seam of interest is the lowermost Seam VI, with a variable thickness across the deposit from 22 m in the northern part of the deposit to more than 42 m in the southern and eastern areas. Development of the Barapukuria Mine, the country's first coal mine, commenced in 1996 with the construction of two vertical shafts. Coal production from Seam VI began in 2005 and continues at the present time. Seam VI coal is high volatile B bituminous rank. About 34 Mt of coal has been estimated as recoverable resources, utilising descensional multi-slice longwall mining. The mine design and development have been severely

  13. Emission characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of different residential coals in North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wen X. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: wxliu@urban.pku.edu.cn; Dou Han; Wei, Zhi C.; Chang Biao; Qiu, Wei X.; Liu Yuan; Tao Shu [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-02-01

    Emission properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion of six residential coals in North China were investigated. The results indicated that, the total emission factors (EFs) for 15 PAH species in gaseous and particulate phases ranged from 52.8 to 1434.8 mg/kg with a decreasing sequence of local bituminous coals and anthracite coals, and honeycomb briquettes were largely dependent on the raw coals used to produce them. Particulate phase, dominated by median or high molecular weight components, made a major contribution (68.8% - 76.5%) to the total EFs for bituminous coals, while gaseous phase with principal low molecular weight species accounted for most (86.3% - 97.9%) of the total EFs for anthracite coals. The phase partitioning of PAH emission for honeycomb briquettes was similarly dependent on the crude coals. The total EFs, phase partitioning and component profiles of emitted PAHs were mainly influenced by the inner components of the studied coals. Burning mode and flue number on household coal-stoves also affected the emission characteristics by means of the oxygen supply. A sum of seven carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene(BaP)-equivalent carcinogenic power and total toxicity potency expressed in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-dioxin(TCDD) toxic equivalence exhibited that bituminous coals and produced honeycomb briquettes had remarkably elevated values. Fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene from anthracite coals showed higher levels of BaP-based toxic equivalent factor, though the other toxicity indices were rather low for this type of coal.

  14. Influence of Coal Particle Size on Coal Adsorption and Desorption Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao

    2014-10-01

    Accurate testing coal isotherm can play a significant role in the areas of coal seam gas drainage, outburst control, CO2 geo-sequestration, coalbed methane (CBM) and enhanced coalbed methane recovery (ECBM) etc. The effect of particle size on the CO2 and CH4 sorption capacity of bituminous coal from Illawarra, Australia was investigated at 35°C and at pressure up to 4 MPa. A unique indirect gravimetric apparatus was used to measure the gas adsorption and desorption isotherms of coal of different particle sizes ranging from around 150 urn to 16 mm. Langmuir model was used to analysis the experimental results of all gases. Coal particle size was found to have an apparent effect on the coal ash content and helium density results. Coal with larger particle size had higher ash content and higher helium density. The sorption isotherm was found to be highly sensitive with helium density of coal which was determined in the procedure of testing the void volume of sample cell. Hence, coal particle size had a significant influence on the coal sorption characteristics including sorption capacity and desorption hysteresis for CO2 and CH4, especially calculated with dry basis of coal. In this study, the 150-212 um (150 um) coal samples achieved higher sorption capacity and followed by 2.36-3.35 mm (2.4 mm), 8-9.5 mm (8 mm) and 16-19 mm (16 mm) particle size samples. However, the differences between different coal particles were getting smaller when the sorption isotherms are calculated with dry ash free basis. Test with 150 um coal samples were also found to have relatively smaller desorption hysteresis compared with the other larger particle size samples. The different results including adsorption/desorption isotherm, Langmuir parameters and coal hysteresis were all analysed with the CO2 and CH4 gases.

  15. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  16. The Influence Of Mass Fraction Of Dressed Coal On Ignition Conditions Of Composite Liquid Fuel Droplet

    OpenAIRE

    Shlegel Nikita E.; Kats Mark D.; Glushkov Dmitriy O.

    2015-01-01

    The laws of condition modification of inert heat and ignition in an oxidant flow of composite liquid fuel droplet were studied by the developed experimental setup. Investigations were for composite liquid fuel composition based on the waste of bituminous and nonbaking coal processing, appropriate carbon dust, water, used motor oil. The characteristics of boundary layer inertia heat of composite liquid fuel droplet, thermal decomposition of coal organic part, the yield of volatiles and evapora...

  17. Maceral Characteristics and Vitrinite Reflectance Variation of The High Rank Coals, South Walker Creek, Bowen Basin, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Asep K. Permana; Ward, C. R.; L. W. Gurba

    2014-01-01

    DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.156The Permian coals of the South Walker Creek area, with a vitrinite reflectance (Rvmax) of 1.7 to 1.95% (low-volatile bituminous to semi-anthracite), are one of the highest rank coals currently mined in the Bowen Basin for the pulverized coal injection (PCI) market. Studies of petrology of this coal seam have identified that the maceral composition of the coals are dominated by inertinite with lesser vitrinite, and only minor amounts of liptinite. Clay minerals, quar...

  18. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs

  19. Matrix endor studies of the carbonization of West Canadian coking coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, P. R.; Cannon, S. E.

    1981-02-01

    Cretaceous bituminous coals of known rank R¯0 max, vitrinite reflectance) have been examined by ESR (electron spin resonance) and ENDOR (electron nuclear double resonance) techniques. Both highly oxidised (outcrop) and unoxidised mine-run Balmer coal from the Crowsnest field have been subjected to heat treatment (200-900°C), and the matrix proton ENDOR signal studied as a function of applied microwave and rf power. Changes in ENDOR line shape and intensity are described with particular emphasis on the presoftening region of the unoxidised coal. A comparative study of the carbonization of hvb and 1vb coking coal from the Crowsnest is reported.

  20. Spectroscopy study of electron spin resonance of coal oxidation of different rank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work constitutes an initial step for the knowledge of the coal oxidation, with the purpose of preventing the adverse influences caused by this phenomenon in the physical-chemical characteristics and in the tendency to the spontaneous combustion. Since the knowledge the influence of the free radicals in this process, their relative concentration was measured by means of the use of the technique of resonance spin electron. This technique measures the absorption of electromagnetic radiation, generally in the microwaves region, for the materials that not have electrons matched up in a strong magnetic field. In the essays of oxidation three coal of different range and different characteristics of mass were used and it was studied the influence of the temperature, particle size and the range. The results showed that the coal of Guacheta (bituminous low in volatile) it presents bigger concentration of free radicals, after the reaction with the atmospheric oxygen, with regard to the coal of the Cerrejon (bituminous high in volatile B) and Amaga (bituminous high in volatile C). Although this doesn't indicate that the coal of Guacheta is that more easily is oxidized, but rather it possibly presents stabilization of radicals for resonance. It concluded that there are differences in the oxidation mechanism between coal of different rank and different agglomeration properties

  1. Breaking the limits of structural and mechanical imaging of the heterogeneous structure of coal macerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation between local mechanical (elasto-plastic) and structural (composition) properties of coal presents significant fundamental and practical interest for coal processing and for the development of rheological models of coal to coke transformations. Here, we explore the relationship between the local structural, chemical composition, and mechanical properties of coal using a combination of confocal micro-Raman imaging and band excitation atomic force acoustic microscopy for a bituminous coal. This allows high resolution imaging (10s of nm) of mechanical properties of the heterogeneous (banded) architecture of coal and correlating them to the optical gap, average crystallite size, the bond-bending disorder of sp2 aromatic double bonds, and the defect density. This methodology allows the structural and mechanical properties of coal components (lithotypes, microlithotypes, and macerals) to be understood, and related to local chemical structure, potentially allowing for knowledge-based modeling and optimization of coal utilization processes. (paper)

  2. Breaking the limits of structural and mechanical imaging of the heterogeneous structure of coal macerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, L.; Tselev, A.; Jesse, S.; Okatan, M. B.; Proksch, R.; Mathews, J. P.; Mitchell, G. D.; Rodriguez, B. J.; Kalinin, S. V.; Ivanov, I. N.

    2014-10-01

    The correlation between local mechanical (elasto-plastic) and structural (composition) properties of coal presents significant fundamental and practical interest for coal processing and for the development of rheological models of coal to coke transformations. Here, we explore the relationship between the local structural, chemical composition, and mechanical properties of coal using a combination of confocal micro-Raman imaging and band excitation atomic force acoustic microscopy for a bituminous coal. This allows high resolution imaging (10s of nm) of mechanical properties of the heterogeneous (banded) architecture of coal and correlating them to the optical gap, average crystallite size, the bond-bending disorder of sp2 aromatic double bonds, and the defect density. This methodology allows the structural and mechanical properties of coal components (lithotypes, microlithotypes, and macerals) to be understood, and related to local chemical structure, potentially allowing for knowledge-based modeling and optimization of coal utilization processes.

  3. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Saini, A.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the progress of our work during the first quarterly period. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of fresh and THF-extracted samples of two subbituminous coals and fresh samples of three bituminous coals using cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid state {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS techniques. CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS provided important information on carbon distribution/functionality and molecular components/structural units, respectively, for these coal samples. Pyrolysis-GC-MS revealed that there are remarkable structural differences in structural units between the subbituminous coals and the bituminous coals. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in the pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization of catalytically and thermally pretreated as well as physically treated Wyodak subbituminous coal, and temperature-staged and temperature-programmed thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous coal.

  4. Effect of thickness variation of bituminous layer in the structural responses of flexible pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pavan Vidotto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of thickness variation of bituminous layer in the structural responses of flexible pavements and, therefore in performance. For this, it used traffic data from a weigh station located at Km 28 of the Immigrants Highway, at state of Sao Paulo, whose data collection was realized in 2008. The loads deriving from traffic were applied to the computational program ELSYM5 to obtain structural responses related to damage such as fatigue cracks and rutting. With these values, the damage factors were calculated and then the sensitivity analysis related to the thickness variation of bituminous layer was performed. Through the obtained results was concluded that the variation of thickness of bituminous layer have an influence on structural responses, and that damage factors related to fatigue cracks were more sensitive than those factors related to rutting.

  5. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  6. Evaluation of coal bed methane potential of coal seams of Sawang Colliery, Jharkhand, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Vinod A Mendhe; A Varade

    2008-04-01

    The coal seams of Sawang Colliery, East Bokaro Coalfields are bituminous to sub-bituminous in nature and categorized as high gaseous seams (degree II to degree III level). These seams have the potential for coal bed methane (CBM) and their maturity increases with increasing depth, as a result of enhanced pressure-temperature conditions in the underground. The vitrinite maceral group composition of the investigated coal seams ranges from 62.50-83.15%, whereas the inertinite content varies from 14.93-36.81%. The liptinite content varies from 0.66% to 3.09%. The maximum micro-pores are confined within the vitrinite group of macerals. The coal seams exhibit vitrinite reflectance values (Ro% calculated) from 0.94% (sample CG-97) to 1.21% (sample CG-119). Proximate analyses of the investigated coal samples reveal that the moisture content (M%) ranges from 1.28% to 2.98%, whereas, volatile matter (VM%) content is placed in the range of 27.01% to 33.86%. The ash content (A%) ranges from 10.92% to 30.01%. Fixed carbon (FC%) content varies from 41.53% to 55.93%. Fuel ratio variation shows a restricted range from 1.53 to 1.97. All the coal samples were found to be strongly caking and forming coke buttons. The present study is based on the adsorption isotherm experiments carried out under controlled P-T conditions for determination of actual gas adsorption capacity of the coal seams. This analysis shows that the maximum methane gas adsorbed in the coal sample CG-81 is 17m3/t (Std. daf), at maximum pressure of 5.92MPa and experimental temperature of 30°C. The calculated Langmuir regression parameters PL and VL range from 2.49 to 3.75MPa and 22.94 to 26.88m3/t (Std. daf), respectively.

  7. Coal deposits in the front ranges and foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, southern Canadian Cordillera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustin, R.M.; Smith, G.G. (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Department of Geological Sciences)

    1993-09-01

    Over one-third of Canada's coal resources occurs in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains, with major deposits in the Front Ranges, Inner Foothills and Outer Foothills. In the Front Ranges, deposits of metallurgical and thermal, high-volatile bituminous to semi-anthracite coal occur in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Mist Mountain Formation. In the Inner Foothills of northeastern British Columbia and west-central Alberta, resources of metallurgical and thermal medium- and low-volatile bituminous coal occur in Early Cretaceous strata of the Gething and Gates Formations. In the Outer Foothills resources of thermal, high-volatile bituminous coal occur in Late Cretaceous and Paleocene strata of the Belly River Coalspur and Paskapoo Formations. The major deposits of the Front Ranges and Inner Foothills accumulated within the coastal plains of the Fernie and Moosebar-Clearwater seas. Shorelines prograded to the north and northeast into a foreland basin that evolved in advance of the evolving Colombian Orogen. In the Outer Foothills, coal deposits of the Belly River Formation originated within coastal plains during the withdrawal of the Pakowki Sea. The major coal deposits of the Coalspur and Paskapoo Formations accumulated in the alluvial plain of the foreland basin during the Laramide orogeny. Coal measures of the region were folded and faulted during the Laramide orogeny. Structural deformation has affected the mineability and quality of the coals. Shearing of the seams in adjacent strata has led to oxidation, resulting in weak coal pillars and roofs in underground mines. Faulting and folding has partitioned many coal deposits into discrete structural domains of varying style and complexity. The variation in coal rank in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains reflects the preorogenic depth of burial. There is some evidence for syn-and post-orogenic coalification. 46 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Investigation of coal structure. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, Masaharu

    1994-03-01

    A better understanding of coal structure is the first step toward more effective utilization of the most abundant hydrocarbon resource. Detailed characterization of coal structure is very difficult, even with today`s highly developed analytical techniques. This is primarily due to the amorphous nature of these high-molecular-weight mixtures. Coal has a polymeric character and has been popularly represented as a three-dimensional cross-linked network. There is, however, little or no information which positively verifies this model. The principal objective of this research was to further investigate the physical structure of coal and to determine the extent to which coal molecules may be covalently cross-linked and/or physically associated. Two common characterization methods, swellability and extractability, were used. A technique modifying the conventional swelling procedure was established to better determine network or associated model conformation. A new method for evaluating coal swelling involving laser scattering has also been developed. The charge-transfer interaction is relatively strong in high-volatile bituminous coal. Soaking in the presence of electron donors and acceptors proved effective for solubilizing the coal, but temperatures in excess of 200 C were required. More than 70 wt% of the coal was readily extracted with pyridine after soaking. Associative/dissociative equilibria of coal molecules were observed during soaking. From these results, the associated model has gained credibility over the network model as the representative structure of coal. Significant portions of coal molecules are unquestionably physically associated, but the overall extent is not known at this time.

  9. Safety assessment for the bituminization facility of the medium-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment for the home-made bituminization facility of the medium-level waste during hot test is made. The average external dose equivalent per month is 0.136 x 10-2 Sv. The radioactive substance released into the environment is much lower than the permissible limit. The danger of burning and exploding of the bituminized product is avoided because the operation temperature is controlled strictly below 170 C degree. The report also briefly describes the structural characteristic of the facility, the main process and radiation protection and safety measures

  10. Project and design of apparatus and equipment of pilot plant experimental bituminization line PS 44 EBO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modifications are described made in the design of major components of the pilot plant experimental bituminization line involving: the mixing equipment, the film rotor evaporator, the calciner, and various transport mechanisms for handling drums and containers. The difficulty and complexity of the problem which Kralovopolska strojirna Brno, the end supplier of the bituminization line, will have to tackle is evident mainly from the case of bridge cranes, which feed the line, and the full-portal gantry crane which handles the containers and drums at regional sites of radioactive waste disposal. (Z.M.)

  11. Installation in the A-1 plant of an experimental bituminization line by VUCHZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the termination of the experimental operation of the bituminization line at the Research Institute for Chemical Installations in Brno, the line was dismantled and transferred to the nucler power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice. The installation of the line, the layout of the assemblies are described and the results of tests with non-radioactive simulated wastes and actual radioactive wastes briefly described. An amount of 3.2 m3 of actual radioactive wastes from the V-1 nuclear power plant was processed in the tests. The results confirmed the suitability of bituminization for processing liquid radioactive wastes from WWER nuclear power plants. (Z.M.)

  12. Studies on the solubilization of German coal by fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiss, J. (Grahamhaus Stadt kg, Bad Kreuznach (Germany))

    1992-09-01

    The capability of seven basidiomycetes (Trametes versicolor, Poria placenta, Pleurotus florida, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, P. eryngii, Stropharia sp.), one ascomycete (Chaetomium globosum) and five hyphomycetes and moulds (Humicola grisea, Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus terreus, Paecilomyces varioti, Papulaspora immersa) to solubilize medium and high volatile bituminous coals (types A and B) as well as four types of lignite B from Germany was tested in surface cultures. The intensity of bioliquefaction was determined by estimating the rate of droplet formation and by measuring the loss of weight of the coal granules gravimetrically. The bituminous coals with a relative high degree of coalification were only moderately converted by Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus florida, P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju. The three species of Pleurotus caused the greatest rate of biosolubilization of lignite, yielding a loss of weight of the coal granules of more than 5.8% with a maximum of 7.6% with P. florida. The non-basidiomycetes proved to be less active with a liquefaction rate of up to 3.5% with Trichoderma viride. In general, the geologically younger lignite coals were more effectively solubilized than the older hard coals. The volatile matter and the oxygen content proved to be the principal factors influencing the intensity of bioconversion.

  13. Injury experience in coal mining, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This Mine and Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  14. Injury experience in coal mining, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  15. Injury experience in coal mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, R.B.; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  16. Formation of fine particles in co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel in a pulverized coal-fired power station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Glarborg, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Fine particles formed from combustion of a bituminous coal and co-combustion of coal with 7 th% (thermal percentage) solid recovered fuel (SRF) in a pulverized coal-fired power plant were sampled and characterized in this study. The particles from dedicated coal combustion and co-combustion both...... showed an ultrafine mode centered at approximately 0.1 μm. Compared with coal combustion, co-combustion of coal and SRF increased the formation of submicron particles, especially ultrafine particles below 0.2 μm. The morphology of the particles indicated that supermicron particles were primarily formed...... appear to be an important formation mechanism. The elemental composition of the particles from coal combustion showed that S and Ca were significantly enriched in ultrafine particles and P was also enriched considerably. However, compared with supermicron particles, the contents of Al, Si and K were...

  17. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, October--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-01

    A number of the processes for converting coal to gas supported by US DOE have reached the pilot plant stage. Laboratory research is also continuing in order to develop data for verifying the feasibility of the specific process and for supporting the operation of the plant. Responsibility for designing, constructing, and operating these pilot plants is given. The most successful test to date was completed in the pilot plant of the BI-GAS Process. The HYGAS Process pilot plant continued testing with Illinois bituminous coal to acquire data necessary to optimize the design of a commercial demonstration plant using the HYGAS process. The Synthane Process pilot plant continued studies of Illinois No. 6 coal. Other processes discussed are: Agglomerating Burner Process, Liquid Phase Methanation Process, Molten Salt Gasification Process, Advanced Coal Gasification System, and Lo-Btu Gasification of Coal for Electric Power Generation. Each project is described briefly with funding, history, and progress during the quarter. (LTN)

  18. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxclair, E.J. [Destec Energy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Stultz, J. [PSI Energy, Inc., West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  19. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  20. Effect of hydrothermal treatment of coal on its associative structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui Heng-fu; Wang Zhi-cai; Wang Gao-qiang; Niu Min-feng [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    4 bituminous coals with different ranks were thermally and hydrothermally treated under different conditions, and the raw and treated coals were extracted with carbon disulfide/N-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent (1:1 by volume). It is found that the extraction yields of the thermal or hydrothermal treated coals at proper conditions increase in different extent. The increments of extraction yields for hydrothermal treated coals are higher than those of thermal treated coals. FT-IR shows that the adsorption peaks at 3410 cm{sup -1} attributed to OH group for the hydrothermal treated coals decrease, suggesting the dissociation of the coal aggregation structure due to the breakage of hydrogen bonds, resulting in the increase of extraction yields for the treated coals. For higher rank coal, the removal of minerals and the dissociation of {pi}-cation association after hydrothermal treatment of coal may be responsible for the increase of extraction yield. In addition, the mechanism of hydrothermal treatment of coal was discussed. 15 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Separation and analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons from two Chinese coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Ming-jie; LI Wen-dian; XIE Rui-lun; ZONG Ying; CAI Ke-ying; PENG Yao-li; ZONG Zhi-min; XIE Rui-lun; WEI Xian-yong

    2008-01-01

    Separation and analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) from coals is of considerable significance for both fuel and non-fuel use of the coals. In present work two Chinese bituminous coals were selected for separation of AHs by ultrasonic extraction with CS2 followed by column chromatography using hexane as eluent. A series of AHs were separated from the two coals and analyzed by GC/MS. FTIR was employed to characterize the raw coals and the extracted residues. The results of GC/MS analysis show that the separated AHs are mono- to tetracyclic arenes, among which the principle AHs are alkyl naphthalenes and phenanthrenes. Obvious differences in the composition and the structure of AHs exist between the two coals, i.e., the AHs from Tongting coal tend to be higher rings compared to those from Pingshuo coal both from the variety and from the abundance of the AHs. FFIR analysis shows that the raw and extracted coals are similar in terms of functional groups, suggesting that the composition and structure of CS extract, especially the AHs, from coals can be used to interpret the coal structure to some extent.

  2. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  3. Methane adsorption-induced coal swelling measured with an optical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Shuheng; Wan Yi; Duan Lijiang; Xia Zhaohui; Zhang Songhang

    2015-01-01

    In order to quantify the effect of matrix shrinkage on reservoir permeability during coalbed methane production, coal samples from Huozhou, Changzhi and Jincheng areas in Shanxi province (classified as high-volatile bituminous coal, low-volatile bituminous coal and anthracite, respectively) were collected, and adsorption-induced coal swelling in methane were determined by an optical method at 40 ?C and pressure up to 12 MPa. All three coals showed similar behavior-that swelling increased as a function of pressure up to about 10 MPa but thereafter no further increase in swelling was observed. Swelling in the direction perpendicular to the bedding plane is greater than that parallel to the bedding plane, and the differences are about 7.77–8.33%. The maximum volumetric swelling ranges from 2.73% to 3.21%-increasing with increasing coal rank. The swelling data can be described by a modified DR model. In addition, swelling increases with the amount of adsorption. However, the increase shows a relatively slower stage followed by a relatively faster stage instead of a linear increase. Based on the assumption that sorption-induced swelling/shrinkage of coal in methane is reversible, the permeability increases induced by coal shrinkage during methane desorption was analyzed, and the results indicate that the permeability change is larger for higher rank coal in the same unit of pressure depletion.

  4. Application of microorganisms in coal cleaning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secure energy supply is one of the basic pre-requisites for a sound economic system, sustained standard and quality of life and eventually for the social well-being of each individual. For a progressive country like Pakistan, it is obligatory that all energy options must be pursued vigorously including coal utilization, which given the relatively large resources available, is considered to be one of the major options for the next few hundred years. Bioprocessing of coal in an emerging technology which has started to receive considerable research attention. Recent research activities involving coal cleaning, direct coal conversion, and indirect conversion of coal-derived materials have generated a plethora of facts regarding biochemistry, chemistry, and thermodynamic behavior of coal, in that its bioprocessing is on the verge of becoming and acceptable means to great coals. In this research report, investigations pertaining to the various aspects of coal bio processing, including desulfurization and depyritization are discussed. Bituminous coals varying in total sulfur contents of 3-6% were depyritized more than 90% by mesophilic acidophiles like Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Thiobacillus thio oxidans and thermophilic Sulfolobus brierleyi. The archaebacterium, Sulfolobus brierleyi was found to desulfurize inorganic and organic sulfur components of the coal. Conditions were established under which it can remove more than 30% of the organic sulfur present in the coals. Heterotrophic microorganisms including oxenic and soil isolates were also employed for studying sulfurization. A soil isolate, Oil-2, was found to remove more than 70% dibenzothiophenic sulfur present in an oil-water emulsion (1:20 ratio). Pseudomonas putida and the bacterium oil-2 also remove 60-70% organic sulfur present in the shale-oil. Preliminary results indicate the presence of putatively known Kodama's pathway in the oil-2. The mass balance for sulfate indicated the possibility of the presence

  5. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Bueno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance.

  6. 8th RILEM International Symposium on Testing and Characterization of Sustainable and Innovative Bituminous Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Partl, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of RILEM TC 237-SIB (Testing and characterization of sustainable innovative bituminous materials and systems). The papers have been selected for publication after a rigorous peer review process and will be an invaluable source to outline and clarify the main directions of present and future research and standardization for bituminous materials and pavements. The following topics are covered: - Characterization of binder-aggregate interaction - Innovative testing of bituminous binders, additives and modifiers - Durability and aging of asphalt pavements - Mixture design and compaction analysis - Environmentally sustainable materials and technologies - Advances in laboratory characterization of bituminous materials - Modeling of road materials and pavement performance prediction - Field measurement and in-situ characterization - Innovative materials for reinforcement and interlayer systems - Cracking and damage characterization of asphalt pavements - Rec...

  7. Towards an Accurate Stress Dependant Time & Frequency Domain VE Response Model for Bituminous Binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.; Huurman, M.; Pronk, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Linear viscoelastic properties of bituminous binders for short loading times are analyzed using dynamic mechanical analysis methods. Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) test with parallel plate (PP) configuration is widely used for this purpose. Due to the complex stress distribution over the cross-sectio

  8. Historical U.S. Residential Coal Use and Female Lung Cancer Mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, Jennifer; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    2001-03-01

    Recent ecological and case-control studies have indicated elevated lung cancer mortality (LCM) associated with bituminous "smoky" coal use in China, but no similar study has been conducted using U.S. populations. Early 20th century U.S. home cooking and heating fuels were examined in relation to age-specific female LCM, focusing on county-level mortality during 1950-54 to reduce potential inter-county confounding due to cigarette smoking among women aged 40* vs. 60* years (among whom 11% vs. 5% ever smoked, respectively). Overall, a significant relationship was found between female LCM and county-level average per capita bituminous coal use with and without adjustment for numerous covariates in counties where ~75% of homes used coal for heating. This positive association was similar in each female age group after adjustment of 190 combinations of variates considered in addition t

  9. Importance of the textural characteristics of inert additives in the reduction of coal thermoplastic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Fernandez; C. Barriocanal; M.A. Diez; R. Alvarez [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Seven carbonaceous materials of different origin were chosen in order to study the influence of their porous structure on the modification of the thermoplastic properties of a bituminous coal. The materials included were: two non-coking coals, a petroleum coke, coke fines, two residues from tyre recycling and a bituminous residue. The materials were heat-treated to 900{sup o}C to prevent any chemical interaction between the volatiles evolved during co-carbonization. The thermoplastic properties of blends that contained 10 wt.% of additive were measured by means of the Gieseler test. Microporosity was measured by CO{sub 2} adsorption at 273 K, whereas meso and macroporosity were determined by means of mercury porosimetry. The results of the porous structure assessment are discussed in relation to the modification of coal plasticity. 32 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Characterization of Malaysian coals for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunowara, M.; Bustam, M. A.; Sufian, S.; Eldemerdash, U.

    2016-06-01

    Coal samples from Mukah-Balingian and Merit-Pila coal mines were characterized with ultimate, approximate, petrographic analysis, FT-IR spectra patterns, FESEM images and BET measurements to obtain information on the chemical composition and chemical structure in the samples. Two coal samples were obtained from Merit-Pila coal mine namely sample1 (S1) and sample2 (S2). The other two coal samples were obtained from Mukah-Balingian coal mine namely sample3 (S3) and sample4 (S4), Sarawak, Malaysia. The results of ultimate analysis show that coal S1 has the highest carbon percentage by 54.47%, the highest hydrogen percentage by 10.56% and the lowest sulfur percentage by 0.19% and the coal S4 has the highest moisture content by 31.5%. The coal S1 has the highest fixed carbon percentage by 42.6%. The coal S4 has BET surface area by 2.39 m2/g and Langmuir surface area by 3.0684 m2/g respectively. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis of all coal samples shows a presence of oxygen containing functional groups which considered are as active sites on coal surface. The oxygen functional groups are mainly carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (-CH, -CH2, -CH3), aliphatic (C-O-C stretching associated with -OH), amino (-NH stretching vibrations), (-NH stretching vibrations), aromatic (C=C), vinylic (C=C) and clay minerals. In all FE-SEM images of coal samples matrix, it can be seen that there are luminous and as non luminous features which refer to the existence of various minerals types distributed in the coal organic matrix. The bright luminosity is due to the presence of sodium, potassium or aluminium. According to petrographic analysis, all coal sample samples are range in vitrinite reflectance from 0.38% to 56% (VRr) are sub-bituminous coals.

  11. FT-i.r. and XRD analysis of sapropelitic coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodoev, N.V.; Guet, J.-M.; Gruber, R.; Dolgopolov, N.I.; Wilelm, J.-C.; Bazarova, O. [Institute of Carbon Materials Chemistry SB RAS, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    1996-05-01

    Sapropelitic coals (sapropelic coals + gyttja) of various coalification stages were examined using Ft-i.r. spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Fi-i.r. spectra showed that the main constituent of low-rank sapropelitic coals is aliphatic chains. The evolution of carbonyl groups is more likely to be related to rank changes from peat to anthracite than that of aliphatic groups. The XRD analysis showed great differences between the low-rank sapropelitic coals and humic coals, although bituminous coals have a structure similar to that of humic coals of the same degree of coalification. The method of function of radial distribution of atoms (FRDA) was applied to low-rank sapropelitic coals. Maxima at 0.5 and 1 nm in the FRDA curves of these coals were established, indicating the parallel orientation of aliphatic chains in sapropelitic coals. The sapropelitic structure is probably determined by preservation of algal cell membranes, because it is known that the aliphatic parts of fatty acids of algal cell membranes have a parallel orientation. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Effective utilization of Mongolian coal by upgrading in a solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avid, B.; Sato, Y.; Maruyama, K.; Yamada, Y. [Institute of Energy Utilization, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Purevsuren, B. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, MAS, Ulaanbaatar-51 (Mongolia)

    2004-07-15

    Liquid-phase upgrading of Mongolian low-rank coals, which are rich in oxygen, having low heating value, was investigated using 200 ml autoclave at 380-440 C in the presence of t-decalin and coal tar as solvent under 2 MPa of initial nitrogen atmosphere. The upgrading of Baganuur-2A and Shivee ovoo coal at 440 C in t-decalin gave 9.7-10.2 wt.% of gas, 3.7-4.5 wt.% of oil, 4.4-8.4 wt.% of water and 77-82 wt.% of upgraded solid product. The heating value of the upgraded solid product from Baganuur-2A coal increased to 32.9 MJ/kg as compared to the heating value of raw coal, which was 26.3 MJ/kg, and for the Shivee ovoo coal, it was reached from 21.2 to 28.8 MJ/kg. The upgrading process has influenced significantly the enhancement of the aromaticity and the spontaneous ignition temperature of the raw coal. The distribution of aromatic stacking layers (N) is slightly higher for the upgraded solid products treated at 440 C than raw coal. The Baganuur-2A, Shivee ovoo coals and these upgraded solid products were mixed with Goonyella bituminous coal and tested on gieseler plastmeter to characterise thermoplastic behaviour.

  13. The German coal market in 2011; Der deutsche Steinkohlenmarkt im Jahr 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Luebke, Roland; Boergel, Thomas [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany); Verschuur, Michael [Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Compared to the previous year the German coal market recorded a slight fall in total consumption by 0.7% to 57.5 mill. coal units. Whereas coking coal and coke consumption of the steel industry clearly increased (+4.3%) due to the boom, sale of power station coals declined considerably in 2011 (-2.5%). However, electricity generation in Germany fell by almost the same amount (-2.2%). Primary energy consumption even declined by a good 5% to its lowest level since 1990 - probably because of the mild weather - and this despite economic growth of 3% in 2011. It must be stated that there was no increase in generation of electricity from bituminous coal following shutdown of eight of the 17 German nuclear power stations in the wake of the events at Fukushima although this was not the case with renewable energy and lignite. The political decisions in 2011 to expedite the energy turning point in Germany also do not suggest a continuous upward trend in the future. Bituminous coal occupied third place in the national energy mix in 2011 both in primary energy consumption and generation of electricity. Within the German coal market imported coal again compensated for the reduced contribution of indigenous coal. The indigenous coal mining industry has continued its politically prescribed decline according to plan. With the Council decision concerning coal subsidies in the EU, which came into force on 1 January 2011, and the deletion of the review clause in the Coal Financing Act approved by the German legislators cessation of the coal production in Germany at the end of 2018 has now become final and irreversible. At the same time the closure plan for the German coal mining industry extending to 2018 was approved by the EU Commission in December 2011. Meanwhile the RAG group is preparing its future after the end of the active mining industry inter alia by the use of available mining infrastructure for forms of renewable energy. (orig.)

  14. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Saini, A.K.; Burgess, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    During this quarterly period progress has been made in the following three subjects related to the effects of low-temperature thermal and catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. First, the liquefaction behavior of three bituminous coals with a carbon content ranging from 77% to 85% was evaluated spectroscopically by [sup 13]C NMR and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to delineate the structural changes that occur in the coal during liquefaction. Complementary data includes ultimate and proximate analysis, along with optical microscopy for maceral determinations. Even though these are all bituminous coals they exhibit quite different physical and chemical characteristics. The coals vary in rank, ranging from HvC b to HvA b, in petrographic composition, different maceral percentages, and in chemical nature, percent of carbon and of volatiles. It is these variations that govern the products, their distribution, and conversion percentages. Some of the products formed can be traced to a specific maceral group. Second, pyrolysis-GC-MS and FTIR techniques were used to characterize Wyodak coal before and after drying in vacuum and in air and the residues from its thermal and catalytic liquefactions. The analysis of the air-dried coal shows a decrease in the phenolic type structures in the coal network and increase in the carbonyl structures as the oxidative drying proceeds. An enhanced decrease in the carbonyl structure is observed in the liquefaction residues from the raw coal as compared to that of the vacuum dried coal. The analyses of the liquefaction residues of the air-dried coal show an increase in the ether linkages which may have a negative impact on liquefaction. The extent of the solvent adduction also increases during liquefaction with the extent of oxidation of the coal. Finally, the effects of reaction conditions were investigated on conversion of low-rank coals using a Texas subbituminous coal.

  15. Production of low ash coal by thermal extraction with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do Kim, S.; Woo, K.J.; Jeong, S.K.; Rhim, Y.J.; Lee, S.H. [Korean Institute for Energy Research, Taejon (Republic of Korea). Clean Coal Technological Research Center

    2008-07-15

    Present study was conducted for the purpose of producing low ash coal from LRC (low rank coals) such as lignite and sub-bituminous coal through thermal extraction using polar solvent. Extraction from bituminous coal was also investigated for comparison. NMP as a polar solvent was used. The ratio of coal to solvent was adjusted as 1:10. Experimental conditions were established which include the extraction temperature of 200-430{sup o}C, initial applied pressure of 1-20 bar and extraction time of 0.5-2 hr were used. Extraction yield and ash content of extracted and residual coal were measured. The extraction yield increased with the increase of extraction temperature, and the ash content of extracted coal decreased below 0.4% at 400{sup o}C from the raw coal samples that have the ash contents of 4-6%. According to the analysis of experiments results, fixed carbon and calorific value increased, and H/C and O/C decreased.

  16. Refining the art of coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.

    1993-10-01

    SGI International's Liquids from coal (LFC) Process converts low-rank coals into condensable hydrocarbons, or coal-derived liquid (CDL), a solid product, called process-derived fuels (PDF), non-condensable gases and pyrolysis water. This paper describes the process, which consists of three basic steps (drying, pyrolysis, and finishing or conditioning), the process control system and the characteristics of and markets for the two main coproducts, CDF and PDF. It also describes, the technical feasibility study that SGT International carries out when it wants to determine the applicability of the LFC Process to a particular sub-bituminous or lignite coal. The paper discusses the economics of coal upgrading in general and of the LFC Process in particular. A 1000 short ton-per-day demonstration plant has been completed at the Buckskin Mine in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. The cost of construction (which was completed in late Spring 1992) and the first two years of operation are being partly funded through the USDOE's Clean Coal Technology Program. 9 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION--A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT, PHASE II: ELEMENT MODES OF OCCURRENCE FOR THE OHIO 5/6/7, WYODAK AND NORTH DAKOTA COAL SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan Kolker; Stanley J. Mroczkowski; Curtis A. Palmer; Kristen O. Dennen; Robert B. Finkelman; John H. Bullock Jr.

    2002-05-30

    This study reports on the second phase (Phase II) of USGS research activities in support of DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95101 ''Toxic Substances From Coal Combustion--A Comprehensive Assessment'', funded under DOE Interagency Agreement DE-AI22-95PC95145. The purpose of the study was to provide a quantitative and semi-quantitative characterization of the modes of occurrence of trace elements in coal samples investigated under Phase II, including (1) Ohio 5/6/7, an Ohio bituminous coal sample blended from the No.5, No.6, and No.7 beds; (2) North Dakota, a lignite sample from the Falkirk Mine, Underwood, ND, and (3) Wyodak, a sub-bituminous coal sample from the Cordero Mine, Gillette, WY. Samples from these coal beds were selected for their range in rank and commercial applicability. Results of this research provide basic information on the distribution of elements in Phase II coal samples, information needed for development of a commercial predictive model for trace-element behavior during coal combustion.

  18. Improved reactivity of large coal particles by K2CO3 addition during steam gasification

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzee, Sansha; Neomagus, Hein W J P; Bunt, John R.; Everson, Raymond C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the excess solution impregnation method was used to impregnate large coal particles (5 and 10 mm) with K2CO3, and the effect of the additive on steam gasification reactivity was investigated. A washed bituminous, medium rank-C Highveld coal, with an ash content of 12.6 wt.% (air-dried basis), was used for experimentation. The excess solution method was used to impregnate coal particles with the selected additive, K2CO3, and results from XRF analysis indicated that t...

  19. Co-combustion of coal and SRF in an entrained flow reactor: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming;

    2009-01-01

    Investigations on co-firing of SRF with two kinds of bituminous coal were carried out in an entrained flow reactor. The experimental results showed that co-combustion of coal and SRF increased the unburnt carbon in fly ashes. The emissions of NO and SO2 were reduced with an increasing share of SRF...... slightly with an increasing share of SRF. For SAKLEI coal and SRF cocombustion, the deposit formation rate showed an increasing trend up to 10 mass percent of SRF, and started to decrease at a higher SRF share. By analyzing the ash samples, it has been found that the concentrations of some trace elements...

  20. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical

  1. MINIMIZATION OF CARBON LOSS IN COAL REBURNING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project develops Fuel-Flexible Reburning (FFR), which combines conventional reburning and Advanced Reburning (AR) technologies with an innovative method of delivering coal as the reburning fuel. The overall objective of this project is to develop engineering and scientific information and know-how needed to improve the cost of reburning via increased efficiency and minimized carbon in ash and move the FFR technology to the demonstration and commercialization stage. Specifically, the project entails: (1) optimizing FFR with injection of gasified and partially gasified fuels with respect to NOx and carbon in ash reduction; (2) characterizing flue gas emissions; (3) developing a process model to predict FFR performance; (4) completing an engineering and economic analysis of FFR as compared to conventional reburning and other commercial NOx control technologies, and (5) developing a full-scale FFR design methodology. The project started in August 2000 and will be conducted over a two-year period. The work includes a combination of analytical and experimental studies to identify optimum process configurations and develop a design methodology for full-scale applications. The first year of the program included pilot-scale tests to evaluate performances of two bituminous coals in basic reburning and modeling studies designed to identify parameters that affect the FFR performance and to evaluate efficiency of coal pyrolysis products as a reburning fuel. Tests were performed in a 300 kW Boiler Simulator Facility to characterize bituminous coals as reburning fuels. Tests showed that NOx reduction in basic coal reburning depends on process conditions, initial NOx and coal type. Up to 60% NOx reduction was achieved at optimized conditions. Modeling activities during first year concentrated on the development of coal reburning model and on the prediction of NOx reduction in reburning by coal gasification products. Modeling predicted that composition of coal gasification

  2. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: A synoptic view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronbauer, Marcio A. [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Izquierdo, Maria [School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Dai, Shifeng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Waanders, Frans B. [School of Chemical and Minerals Engineering, North West University (Potchefstroom campus), Potchefstroom 2531 (South Africa); Wagner, Nicola J. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Taffarel, Silvio R.; Bizani, Delmar [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); and others

    2013-07-01

    The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO{sub 3} versus Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates. - Highlights: • Coal waste geochemisty can provide increased environmental information in coal-mining areas. • Oxidation is the major process for mineral transformation in coal ashes. • The electron bean methodology has been applied to investigate neoformed minerals.

  3. Transformism in Alberta: The Environmental Political Economy of the Bituminous Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Rosene, Ryan

    This thesis attempts to help establish environmental political economy as a viable academic field while providing an example of work in the discipline. It offers an analysis of societal processes resulting in the co-optation and/or neutralization of critical environmentalist ideas. Using Alberta's bituminous sands as a case study, and a Gramsci-influenced eco-Marxist theory as a foundation, the thesis argues that the term 'environmental transformism' (inspired by the Gramscian term trasformismo) is helpful in describing and framing such processes. Accordingly, the ensuing chapters provide an analysis of why environmental transformism is happening in Alberta, and demonstrate how this mechanism works at protecting the status quo from threatening ideologies, thereby consolidating neoliberal capitalism. A concluding argument discusses the inherent dangers posed to society by the transformism of certain environmental subjectivities. The thesis begins by introducing the contentious social and environmental issues surrounding the development of the bituminous sands.

  4. The use of NMR techniques for the analysis of water in coal and the effect of different coal drying techniques on the structure and reactivity of coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Wallace, J.C. Jr.; Butcher, C.H.; Mitzel, J.M.; Turner, T.F.; Hurtubise, R.J.

    1995-02-01

    Western Research Institute has conducted a study of different methods of coal drying as pretreatment steps before liquefaction. The objectives of this study were to develop a combined chemical dehydration/nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for measuring the moisture content of coal, to measure the changes in coal structure that occur during drying, and to determine the effects of different drying methods on liquefaction reactivity of coals. Different methods of drying were investigated to determine whether coal drying can be accomplished without reducing the reactivity of coals toward liquefaction. Drying methods included thermal, microwave, and chemical dehydration. Coals of rank lignite to high volatile bituminous were studied. Coals that were dried or partially dried thermally and with microwaves had lower liquefaction conversions than coals containing equilibrium moisture contents. However, chemically dried coals had conversions equal to or greater than the premoisturized coals. The conversion behavior is consistent with changes in the physical structure and cross linking reactions because of drying. Thermal and microwave drying appear to cause a collapse in the pore structure, thus preventing donor solvents such as tetralin from contacting reactive sites inside the coals. Chemical dehydration does not appear to collapse the pore structure. These results are supported by the solvent swelling measurements in which the swelling ratios of thermally dried and microwave-dried coals were lower than those of premoisturized coals, indicating a greater degree of cross linking in the dried coals. The swelling ratios of the chemically dried coals were greater than those of the premoisturized coals because the pore structure remaining unchanged or increased when water was removed. These results are consistent with the NMR results, which did not show significant changes in coal chemical structure.

  5. A Method to Estimate the Dynamic Displacement and Stress of a Multi-layered Pavement with Bituminous or Concrete Materials

    OpenAIRE

    LU, ZHENG; Yao, Hailin; Zhang, JingBo

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, a method to estimate the dynamic characteristics of a multilayered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials is proposed. A mechanical model is established to investigate the dynamic displacement and stress of the multi-layered pavement structure. Both the flexible and the rigid pavements, corresponding to bituminous materials and concrete materials, respectively, are studied. The theoretical solutions of the multi-layered pavement structure are deduced considering...

  6. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Dipankar; Pal, Manish; Sarkar, Ashoke K.

    2016-01-01

    There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46...

  7. Modelling the quasi-static behaviour of bituminous material using a cohesive zone model

    OpenAIRE

    Tabakovic, Amir; Karac, Aleksandar; Ivankovic, Alojz; Gibney, Amanda; McNally, Ciaran; Gilchrist, M. D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of a cohesive zone model for simulating the performance of bituminous material subjected to quasistatic loading. The Dugdale traction law was implemented within a finite volume code in order to simulate the binder course mortar material response when subjected to indirect tensile loading. A uniaxial tensile test and a threepoint bend test were employed to determine initial stress-strain curves at different test rates and the cohesive zone parameters (...

  8. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Kong, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, R.

    2008-01-01

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 ??g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate- plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matterbound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism. ?? 2008 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving performance of direct coal liquefaction through swelling with solvent under the radiation of ultrasonic wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Xian-zhi; LI Ke-jian; WANG Li

    2004-01-01

    Three kinds of lower rank bituminous coals from Yanzhou mine and Tengxian mine from Shandong Province were treated and hydrogenated in the study. The test results show that the performance of hydrogenation liquefaction of the pretreated coals is improved markedly. Under the test condition of H2 initial pressure 8.2 MPa, addition of the oil yield of pretreated YZ1 coal is 69.76% compared with 62.53% of oil yield of untreated YZ1. Seminally the oil yield of pretreated YZ2 coal is 55.43% compared with20.88% of untreated YZ2 coal. The results of tests also prove that the improving degree of hydrogenation liquefaction of the pretreated coals is related with radiation duration when the radiation frequency and radiation power of ultrasonic wave are fixed.

  10. Refining and end use study of coal liquids II - linear programming analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, C.; Tam, S.

    1995-12-31

    A DOE-funded study is underway to determine the optimum refinery processing schemes for producing transportation fuels that will meet CAAA regulations from direct and indirect coal liquids. The study consists of three major parts: pilot plant testing of critical upgrading processes, linear programming analysis of different processing schemes, and engine emission testing of final products. Currently, fractions of a direct coal liquid produced form bituminous coal are being tested in sequence of pilot plant upgrading processes. This work is discussed in a separate paper. The linear programming model, which is the subject of this paper, has been completed for the petroleum refinery and is being modified to handle coal liquids based on the pilot plant test results. Preliminary coal liquid evaluation studies indicate that, if a refinery expansion scenario is adopted, then the marginal value of the coal liquid (over the base petroleum crude) is $3-4/bbl.

  11. Design Fuels Corporation (DFC)-Apache, Inc. coal reclamation system for the plant of the future for processing clean coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical washing processing and drying portion of the DFC process offers an efficient method for cleaning of pyritic sulfur bearing compounds which represents 25% sulfur reduction from original run-of-mine coal quality. This reduction can be augmented with the use of calcium and sodium based compounds to reduce the sulfur in many coals to produce compliance quality coal. The use of mechanical/physical methods for the removal of the pyritic material found in coal is used by the DFC process as a first step to the final application of a complete coal refuse clean-up technology based on site specific conditions of the parent coal. The paper discusses the use of the DFC process to remediate slurry ponds and tailings piles and to improve coal cleaning by gravity separation methods, flotation, hydrocyclones and spiral separators, dense media separation, water only cyclones, and oil/solvent agglomeration. A typical DFC Project is the Rosa Coal Reclamation Project which involves the development of a bituminous coal waste impoundment reclamation and washery system. The plant would be located adjacent to a coal fines pond or tailings pond and refuse pile or gob pile at a former coal strip mine in Oneonta, Alabama. Design Fuels would provide a development program by which coal waste at the Rosa Mine could be reclaimed, cleaned and sold profitably. This feedstock could be furnished from recovered coal for direct use in blast furnaces, or as feedstock for coke ovens at 250,000 tons per year at an attractive price on a 10-year contract basis. The site has an old coal washing facility on the property that will be dismantled. Some equipment salvage has been considered; and removal of the existing plant would be the responsibility of Design Fuels. The paper briefly discusses the market potential of the process

  12. Characteristic of coal combustion in oxygen/carbon dioxide atmosphere and nitric oxide release during this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combustion characteristic of a bituminous coal and an anthracite coal in oxygen/carbon dioxide (O2/CO2) atmosphere is investigated in a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The characteristic parameters, which are deduced from the TG-DTG (differential thermogravimetric) curves, show that the coal combustion process is basically kept consistent in O2/CO2 and O2/N2 atmosphere at the O2 concentration of 20%. The Coats-Redfern method with the reaction order of 1.25 could perfectly describe the combustion process in these two different atmospheres through the calculation of the kinetic parameters for the two coals. Nitric oxide (NO) release is concentrated in a narrower time period in O2/CO2 atmosphere compared with the one in O2/N2 atmosphere during the coal combustion process. Though the high value of the NO release rate peak, the total conversion of the fuel-N to NO is strongly depressed in O2/CO2 atmosphere, and at 1473 K, the conversion is reduced by 28.99% for the bituminous coal and 22.54% for the anthracite coal, respectively. When O2 concentration is increased from 20% to 40% in O2/CO2 atmosphere, the coal combustion property is obviously improved with the shift of the whole process into the lower temperature zone and the more intensive of the reaction occurrence in a narrower temperature range. However, the total fuel-N to NO conversion is increased accordingly. For bituminous coal the increase is 17.22% at 1073 K and 20.51% at 1173 K, and for anthracite coal the increase is 15.73% at 1073 K and 16.19% at 1173 K.

  13. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  14. The microstructure of petroleum vacuum residue films for bituminous concrete: a microscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourty, E D; Tamminga, A Y; Michels, M A J; Vellinga, W-P; Meijer, H E H

    2011-02-01

    Selected carbon-rich refinery residues ('binders') mixed with mineral particles can form composite materials ('bituminous concrete') with bulk mechanical properties comparable to those of cement concrete. The microstructural mechanism underlying the remarkable composite properties has been related to the appearance of a rigid percolating network consisting of asphaltenes and mineral particles [Wilbrink M. et al. (2005) Rigidity percolation in dispersions with a structured visco-elastic matrix. Phys. Rev. E71, 031402]. In this paper, we explore the microstructure of thin binder films of varying thickness with a number of microscopic characterization techniques, and attempt to relate the observed microstructure to the distinctive mechanical behaviour. Two binders, only one of which has been proven to be suitable for bituminous concrete were investigated, and their microstructure compared. Both binders show the formation of asphaltene aggregates. The binder suitable for bituminous concrete is distinguished by the fact that the asphaltenes show a stronger tendency towards such aggregation, due to a higher concentration and less stabilization in the maltene phase. They also show a clear affinity to other species (such as waxes) and may act as nucleation sites for crystals and aggregates of those species. PMID:21118207

  15. A case study of PFBC for low rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, S.A. [ABB Carbon AB, Finspong (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Pressurized Fluidized Combined-Cycle (PFBC) technology allows the efficient and environmentally friendly utilization of solid fuels for power and combined heat and power generation. With current PFBC technology, thermal efficiencies near 46%, on an LHV basis and with low condenser pressures, can be reached in condensing power plants. Further efficiency improvements to 50% or more are possible. PFBC plants are characterized by high thermal efficiency, compactness, and extremely good environmental performance. The PFBC plants which are now in operation in Sweden, the U.S. and Japan burn medium-ash, bituminous coal with sulfur contents ranging from 0.7 to 4%. A sub- bituminous {open_quotes}black lignite{close_quotes} with high levels of sulfur, ash and humidity, is used as fuel in a demonstration PFBC plant in Spain. Project discussions are underway, among others in Central and Eastern Europe, for the construction of PFBC plants which will burn lignite, oil-shale and also mixtures of coal and biomass with high efficiency and extremely low emissions. This paper will provide information about the performance data for PFBC plants when operating on a range of low grade coals and other solid fuels, and will summarize other advantages of this leading new clean coal technology.

  16. Interaction between biomass and different rank coals during co-pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Effects of biomass on the pyrolytic decomposition of different rank coals were investigated by non-isothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) method from ambient to 900 C with a heating rate of 40 C/min under nitrogen. Hazelnut shell (HS) which is a woody biomass species was added as much as 10 wt% to coals such as peat, lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite to obtain coal/biomass blends for co-pyrolysis runs. Effects of HS present in the blends were evaluated regarding the apparent decomposition rates and the char yields. It was found that the addition of thermally reactive HS led to some increases in the volatilization rates of coals especially at temperatures below 500 C. Besides, the char yields revealed unexpected variations in case of low rank coals. Although, HS addition did not play significant role on the char yields of bituminous coal and anthracite, considerable deviations from the theoretical char yields were detected in the case of peat and lignites. The presence of HS led to increasing char weight for peat, while the char weights for lignites decreased seriously. These variations were interpreted, and it can be concluded that these variations cannot be explained by simple additive behavior, and the existence of synergistic interactions should be taken into account. (author)

  17. A feasibility study to use coal tar contaminated soil in asphalt cement mixture production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal tars are the residues produced during the gasification of coal. Traditionally, coal tars were buried onsite at the power plants or left as residuals in the bottom of gas holders. Currently, there are more than 1,500 such historic sites which will undergo site assessment in the near future. The use of coal tar residuals in asphalt-based products could result in greatly reduced disposal costs, in comparison to current methods of disposal. Present disposal practice of coal tar contaminated residuals includes disposal in hazardous waste landfills or incineration. Treatment and disposal costs are reported to be as much as $1,000/ton for current coal tar contaminated residuals disposal options. This feasibility study was performed to determine the use of coal tar contaminated soil (CTCS) in bituminous materials to produce hot asphalt mix. Mixtures of varying composition of CTCS and bituminous material were produced to perform TCLP. The air emissions during the mixing process were captured and analyzed. In this study, a bench scale investigation was performed to identify and quantify the emissions from heating the CTCS at the mixer temperature. The pilot scale investigations were performed by replacing reclaimable asphalt pavement (RAP) with CTCS during the hot asphalt mix production. The investigations were performed on two types of mixtures; using CTCS as the direct additive in the first type, and using SS-1 (slow setting asphalt emulsion) stabilized CTCS as an additive in the second type

  18. Emission factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from domestic coal combustion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chunmei; Chen, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoyang; Ren, Lihong; Yin, Baohui; Liu, Xiaoyu; Bai, Zhipeng

    2014-01-01

    Domestic coal stove is widely used in China, especially for countryside during heating period of winter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important in flue gas of the stove. By using dilution tunnel system, samples of both gaseous and particulate phases from domestic coal combustion were collected and 18 PAH species were analyzed by GC-MS. The average emission factors of total 18 PAH species was 171.73 mg/kg, ranging from 140.75 to 229.11 mg/kg for bituminous coals, while was 93.98 mg/kg, ranging from 58.48 to 129.47 mg/kg for anthracite coals. PAHs in gaseous phases occupied 95% of the total of PAHs emission of coal combustion. In particulate phase, 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs were the main components, accounting for 80% of the total particulate PAHs. The total toxicity potency evaluated by benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent carcinogenic power, sum of 7 carcinogenic PAH components and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin had a similar tendency. And as a result, the toxic potential of bituminous coal was higher than that of anthracite coal. Efficient emission control should be conducted to reduce PAH emissions in order to protect ecosystem and human health.

  19. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  20. Final Safety Assessment of Coal Tar as Used in Cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant-antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users.

  1. Lab-Scale Investigations During Combustion of Agricultural Residues and Selected Polish Coals

    OpenAIRE

    Kordylewski Włodzimierz K.; Mościcki Krzysztof J.; Witkowski Karol J.

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary lab-scale investigations were conducted on slagging abatement in biomass-firing by fuel mixing. Three agriculture biomass fuels and olive cake were used in the experiments. Polish lignites and bituminous coals were examined as anti-sintering additives. The effects of chlorine release, potassium retention and ash sintering were examined by heating samples of biomass fuels and additives in the muffle oven and, next, firing them in the laboratory down-fired furnace at the temperature...

  2. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 1991--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Saini, A.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the progress of our work during the first quarterly period. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of fresh and THF-extracted samples of two subbituminous coals and fresh samples of three bituminous coals using cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid state {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS techniques. CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS provided important information on carbon distribution/functionality and molecular components/structural units, respectively, for these coal samples. Pyrolysis-GC-MS revealed that there are remarkable structural differences in structural units between the subbituminous coals and the bituminous coals. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in the pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization of catalytically and thermally pretreated as well as physically treated Wyodak subbituminous coal, and temperature-staged and temperature-programmed thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Montana subbituminous coal.

  3. Study on the influence of electromagnetic field on the property of coal combustion burnout in circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Y. [Ruiping Coal and Electric Power Ltd. Co., Ruzhou (China)

    2008-08-15

    To study the influences of electromagnetism field pretreatment of pulverized Coal (EFPPC) on the properties of its combustion, thermogravimetric analysis, a Muffle furnace experiment and an X-ray diffraction experiment were carried out for three Coal banks. It was shown that EFPPC will induce the molecular structure of Coal to change into amorphous carbon, which causes an increase in the rate of oxygen absorption during the initial stages of Coal burning and reaction activity. It is also shown that the residual carbon of bituminous Coal would be increased by about 0.33% - 0.41%, i.e, the loss of standard Coal is about 3,000 t/a for double 480 t/h boilers, when applying EFPPC for 1 min at a temperature of 800 - 1,000 {sup o}C. When the temperature increases 200 {sup o}C, the residual carbon increases by about 2.07% but the effect of EFPPC is less than 0.21% for bituminous Coal and residual carbon is about 1.47% and the effect of EFPPC is less than 0.05% for lean Coal. Therefore the effect of increasing the temperature of EFPPC on residual carbon is less than that of increasing the time of EFPPC. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Low-severity catalytic two-stage liquefaction process: Illinois coal conceptual commercial plant design and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, L.M.; Comolli, A.G.; Popper, G.A.; Wang, C.; Wilson, G.

    1988-09-01

    Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) is conducting a program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate a Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. This program which runs through 1987, is a continuation of an earlier DOE sponsored program (1983--1985) at HRI to develop a new technology concept for CTSL. The earlier program included bench-scale testing of improved operating conditions for the CTSL Process on Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and Wyoming sub-bituminous coal, and engineering screening studies to identify the economic incentive for CTSL over the single-stage H-Coal/reg sign/ Process for Illinois No. 6 coal. In the current program these engineering screening studies are extended to deep-cleaned Illinois coal and use of heavy recycle. The results from this comparison will be used as a guide for future experiments with respect to selection of coal feedstocks and areas for further process optimization. A preliminary design for CTSL of Illinois deep-cleaned coal was developed based on demonstrated bench-scale performance in Run No. 227-47(I-27), and from HRI's design experience on the Breckinridge Project and H-Coal/reg sign/ Process pilot plant operations at Catlettsburg. Complete conceptual commercial plant designs were developed for a grassroots facility using HRI's Process Planning Model. Product costs were calculated and economic sensitivities analyzed. 14 refs., 11 figs., 49 tabs.

  5. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  6. Activities of the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreszer, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze was established in 1955. The works on carbochemical technologies have been, therefore, carried out at the Institute for 40 years. The targets of the Institute`s activities are research, scientific and developing works regarding a sensible utilization of fuels via their processing into more refined forms, safe environment, highly efficient use of energy carriers and technological products of special quality. The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal has been dealing with the following: optimized use of home hard coals; improvement of classic coal coking technologies, processing and utilization of volatile coking products; production technologies of low emission rate fuels for communal management; analyses of coal processing technologies; new technologies aimed at increasing the efficiency of coal utilization for energy-generating purposes, especially in industry and studies on the ecological aspects of these processes; production technologies of sorbents and carbon activating agents and technologies of the utilization; rationalization of water and wastes management in the metallurgical and chemical industries in connection with removal of pollution especially dangerous to the environment from wastes; utilization technologies of refined materials (electrode cokes, binders, impregnating agents) for making electrodes, refractories and new generation construction carbon materials; production technologies of high quality bituminous and bituminous and resin coating, anti-corrosive and insulation materials; environmentally friendly utilization technologies for power station, mine and other wastes, and dedusting processes in industrial gas streams.

  7. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lili Huang; Schobert, H.H.; Chunshan Song

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

  8. Proceedings of the third annual underground coal conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Annual Underground Coal Conversion Symposium was held at Fallen Leaf Lake, CA, June 6--9, 1977. It was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and hosted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Forty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; ten papers had been entered previously from other sources. The papers cover the in-situ gasification of lignite, subbituminous coal and bituminous coal, in flat lying seams and a steeply dipping beds, at moderate and at greater depths, and describe various technologies of (borehole linking, well spacings, gasifying agents (air, oxygen, steam, hydrogen, including mixtures). Measuring instruments for diagnostic and process control purposes are described. Environmental impacts (ground subsidence and possible groundwater pollution) are the subject of several papers. Finally, mathematical modelling and projected economics of the process are developed. (LTN)

  9. Direct Coal Oxidation in Modified Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Gil, Vanesa; Ippolito, Davide;

    2015-01-01

    -carbonate slurry or anode layer. The nature of the coal affects both open circuit voltage and power output. Highest OCV and power densities were observed for bituminous coal and by adding manganese oxide or praseodymium-doped ceria to the carbon/carbonate mixture. Comparing the carbon black fueled performance...... of an anode supported (315 µm anodes) and cathode supported cell (15 µm anode) indicates a superior performance of the latter. Using un-catalyzed biomass (charcoal) as fuel results in an OCV of 941 mV and a maximum power density of 78 mW/cm2 at 755ºC similar to the power output of manganese oxide catalyzed......Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon...

  10. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-08-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  11. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-04-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  12. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combinations and co-firing ratios, using a system model and numerical simulation. The results indicate that plant energy efficiency decreases with increase of biomass proportion in the fuel mixture, and that the extent of the decrease depends on specific properties of the coal and biomass types.

  13. Chile: producing coal at world's most southerly mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyllie, R.J.M.

    1987-12-01

    The Pecket coalfield is part of a great coal bearing basin which is on the Brunswick Peninsula about 30km northeast of Punta Arenas, the capital of Magellanes province. Reserves of about 50 million mt are available for open-pit mining with potential for additional resources of similar magnitude some of which would have to be recovered by underground mining. The mine produces sub-bituminous coal for thermal use. The principal customer is a new coal-fired section of the Tocopilla electric power station of Codelco-Chile, the state copper company. The mine is a classic shovel and truck operation with no facilities for washing or cleaning the coal so it is extremely important that the coal is mined cleanly.

  14. Numerical Study on Reduction of NOx and Unburned Carbon in Micronized Coal Reburning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Three dimensional numerical simulation of bituminous coal rebuming in a full-scale tangentially fired boiler was conducted with CFD method to study the effects of rebum zone length, the height of rebum nozzles, the stoichiometric ratio in reburn zone, the rebum fuel fraction and the rebum coal fineness on NOx reduction efficiency and unbumed carbon in fly ash. The results indicate that the NOx reduction efficiency reaches the largest value when the relative height of rebum nozzles is about 0.21 and the stoichiometric ratio is between 0.8 and 0.9 in rebum zone; NOx reduction efficiency increases with reburn zone length, rebum fuel fraction and the decrease of reburn coal particle size; the smaller the coal particle size is, the better the burnout performance of coal is.

  15. Investigation of activity release from bituminized intermediate-level waste forms under thermal stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the consequences of a fire during fabrication, intermediate storage and transport of bituminized NaNO3 waste forms, the fractions of plutonium released from the waste forms were assessed. For this purpose, laboratory tests were made with PuO2-containing specimens as well as a field test with specimens containing Eu2O3. By the evaluation of plutonium release in the laboratory and by the determination of the total sodium release and the relative Eu/Na release in the field tests the plutonium release can be deduced from full-scale specimens. The results show that for bituminized waste forms with high NaNO3 contents (approx. 36 wt%) the average plutonium release obtained in laboratory testing is 15%. In the field tests (IAEA fire test conditions) an average Eu release of 8% was found. These results justify the statement that also for waste forms in open 175 L drum inserts a maximum plutonium release of about 15% can be expected. From the time-dependence of Eu/Na release in the field tests an induction period of 15-20 minutes between the start of testing and the first Na/Eu release can be derived. The maximum differential Na/Eu release occurs after a test period of 45 to 60 minutes duration and after 90 to 105 minutes (tests K2 and K4, respectively); after that time also the highest temperatures in the products are measured. The release values were determined for products in open 175 L drum inserts which in this form are not eligible for intermediate and ultimate storage. For bituminized waste forms in concrete packages (lost concrete shieldings) a delayed increase in temperature to only 70-80 deg. C takes place (4-5 hours after extinction of the fire) if the fire lasts 45 minutes. The concrete package remains intact under test conditions. This means that activity release from bituminized waste forms packaged in this way can be ruled out in the case under consideration. (author)

  16. Co-pyrolysis of coal with organic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straka, P.; Buchtele, J. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The co-pyrolysis of high volatile A bituminous coal with solid organic materials (proteins, cellulose, polyisoprene, polystyrene, polyethylene-glycolterephtalate-PEGT) at a high temperature conditions was investigated. Aim of the work was to evaluate, firstly, the changes of the texture and of the porous system of solid phase after high temperature treatment in presence of different types of macromolecular solids, secondly, properties and composition of the tar and gas. Considered organic solids are important waste components. During their co-pyrolysis the high volatile bituminous coal acts as a hydrogen donor in the temperature rank 220-480{degrees}C. In the rank 500- 1000{degrees}C the solid phase is formed. The co-pyrolysis was carried out at heating rate 3 K/min. It was found that an amount of organic solid (5-10%) affects important changes in the optical texture forms of solid phase, in the pore distribution and in the internal surface area. Transport large pores volume decreases in presence of PEGT, polystyrene and cellulose and increases in presence of proteins and polyisoprene. (image analysis measurements show that the tendency of coal to create coarse pores during co-pyrolysis is very strong and increases with increasing amount of organic solid in blend). An addition of considered materials changes the sorption ability (methylene blue test, iodine adsorption test), moreover, the reactivity of the solid phase.

  17. Enteric virus removal inactivation by coal-based media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.; Chaudhuri, M. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-02-01

    Four coal-based media, viz. alum-pretreated or ferric hydroxide-impregnated Giridih bituminous coal and lignite (alum-GBC, Fe-GBC; alum-lignite and Fe-Lignite) were laboratory tested to assess their potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses in water. Batch-sorption screening tests, employing a poliovirus-spiked canal water, indicated high poliovirus sorption by Fe-GBC and alum-GBC in a short contact time of 5 min. Based on the results of further batch-sorption tests, using silver incorporated media (alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC-Ag and Fe-GBC-Ag), as well as aesthetic water quality consideration and previous findings on removal of coliforms and turbidity, alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC and alum-GBC-AG were included in downflow column studies employing poliovirus-spiked canal water. All three media showed potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses. In a separate column study employing a joint challenge of poliovirus and rotavirus, alum/Ag-GBC removed 59.3-86.5% of the viruses along with more than 99% reduction in indigenous heterotrophic bacteria. Alum/silver-pretreated bituminous coal medium appears promising for use in household water filters in rural areas of the developing world. However, improved medium preparation to further enhance its efficiency is needed; also, its efficacy in removing/inactivating indigenous enteric bacteria, viruses and protozoa has to be ensured and practicalities or economics of application need to be considered.

  18. Proximate analysis of coal and solid products from coal conversion by thermogravimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacchelli, A.; Selucky, M.

    1983-01-01

    Proximate analysis of coals consists of the determination of moisture, volatile matter, ash and fixed carbon in a sample. This report shows that this analysis can be accomplished using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) as a procedure which can simulate all conditions involved. The influence of various variables, such as sample size, purge gas flow rate, temperature program and coal rank have been studied using coal samples ranging in rank from low volatile bituminous coals to lignites. The TGA procedure practically eliminates sample contact with ambient air and reduces sample handling to detemining (automatically) its original weight before the start of the analysis. The whole proximate analysis is essentially a one-step procedure. The use of oxygen after volatile matter removal allows direct burning of fixed carbon as a direct determination of its weight. The method is fast and well repeatable and is recommended as a semiroutine procedure, especially for very small samples from minibomb experiments, or where additional information on the course of sample devolatilization is of interest, such as in the analysis of pyridine and toluene extracts and the various insoluble materials form coal conversion experiments. 7 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Development and evaluation of highly-loaded coal slurries. Phase I summary report, October 15, 1977-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffee, R.S.

    1979-05-01

    Slurry fuels comprised of either bituminous, subbituminous, or lignite coal, and either aqeuous media or emulsions of No. 6 oil in water as the carrier were developed and evaluated at solids loadings up to 70% by weight. Emphasis was placed on aqueous slurries of bituminous coal. These slurries were developed for use in place of No. 6 oil in oil-fired burners. High solids loadings were attained by use of bimodal particle size distributions, which are blends of coarse-grind coal (approx. 50 to 85% -50 mesh) and fine-grind coal (generally 90% -200 mesh). The effect of the blends on slurry viscosity was determined to find the blends that minimize viscosity. The effect of mill conditions on particle size distribution was determined for each coal, using a hammermill pulverizer. A large number of water-soluble resins were evaluated for effect on slurry stability and viscosity. The best of these was found to be hydroxypropylated corn starch. Slurries based on the use of 3% solutions of the starch in water were prepared with up to 70% by weight bituminous coal and up to 65% subbituminous coal. The slurries are pourable pseudo-plastic fluids having room-temperature viscosities in the range of 550 to 1100 cp at a shear rate of 3000 sec/sup -1/, depending on the type of coal, solids loading, and particle size distribution. None of the slurries exhibited hard pack settling, even after room-temperature storage up to 74 days. Oil-in-water emulsions made with polyethylene glycol (23) lauryl ether as an emulsifier were found to be stable with respect to phase separation when stored at 160/sup 0/F. Slurries made with these emulsions do not exhibit hard pack settling after one week storage at 160/sup 0/F.

  20. Injury experience in coal mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

  1. Using ground and intact coal Samples to evaluate hydrocarbon fate during supercritical CO2 injection into coal beds: effects of particle size and coal moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jon; Hackley, Paul C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Warwick, Peter D.; Burruss, Robert

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the potential for mobilizing organic compounds from coal beds during geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage (sequestration), a series of solvent extractions using dichloromethane (DCM) and using supercritical CO2 (40 °C and 10 MPa) were conducted on a set of coal samples collected from Louisiana and Ohio. The coal samples studied range in rank from lignite A to high volatile A bituminous, and were characterized using proximate, ultimate, organic petrography, and sorption isotherm analyses. Sorption isotherm analyses of gaseous CO2 and methane show a general increase in gas storage capacity with coal rank, consistent with findings from previous studies. In the solvent extractions, both dry, ground coal samples and moist, intact core plug samples were used to evaluate effects of variations in particle size and moisture content. Samples were spiked with perdeuterated surrogate compounds prior to extraction, and extracts were analyzed via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The DCM extracts generally contained the highest concentrations of organic compounds, indicating the existence of additional hydrocarbons within the coal matrix that were not mobilized during supercritical CO2 extractions. Concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic compounds measured in supercritical CO2 extracts of core plug samples generally are lower than concentrations in corresponding extracts of dry, ground coal samples, due to differences in particle size and moisture content. Changes in the amount of extracted compounds and in surrogate recovery measured during consecutive supercritical CO2extractions of core plug samples appear to reflect the transition from a water-wet to a CO2-wet system. Changes in coal core plug mass during supercritical CO2 extraction range from 3.4% to 14%, indicating that a substantial portion of coal moisture is retained in the low-rank coal samples. Moisture retention within core plug samples, especially in low-rank coals, appears to inhibit

  2. Inorganic chemistry, petrography and palaeobotany of Permian coals in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, G.R.; McLoughlin, S.; Drinnan, A.N.; Finkelman, R.B.; Willett, J.C.; Chiehowsky, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Sampled outcrops of Permian coal seams of the Bainmedart Coal Measures in the Lambert Graben, eastern Antarctica, have been analysed for their proximates, ultimates, ash constituents and trace elements. A similar series of samples has been analysed for their principle maceral and microlithotype components and vitrinite reflectance. The coals are sub-bituminous to high volatile bituminous in rank; maturity increases markedly in southern exposures around Radok Lake where the oldest part of the succession is exposed and some strata have been intruded by mafic dykes and ultramafic sills. The coal ash is mostly silica and aluminium oxides, indicating that the mineral ash component is mostly quartz and various clay minerals. The ratio of silica to aluminium oxides appears to increase in an upward stratigraphic direction. The coal macerals include a relatively high liptinite content (mainly sporinite) that is significantly higher than for typical Gondwana coals. Greater degrees of weathering within the floodbasin/peat mire environments associated with climatic drying towards the end of the Permian might account for both preferential sporopollenin preservation and increased silica:aluminium oxide ratios up-section. Correlation of the coal maceral components to adjacent peninsula India coals indicates the closest comparative coals of similar age and rank occur within the Godavari Basin, rather then the Mahanadi Basin, which is traditionally interpreted to have been contiguous with the Lambert Graben before Gondwanan breakup. The petrological characteristics suggest that either previous interpretations of Palaeozoic basin alignments between Antarctica and India are incorrect, or that environmental settings and post-Permian burial histories of these basins were strongly independent of their tectonic juxtaposition. A permineralized peat bed within the succession reveals that the coals predominantly comprise wood- and leaf-rich debris derived from low-diversity forest

  3. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  4. Low-Rank Coal Grinding Performance Versus Power Plant Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajive Ganguli; Sukumar Bandopadhyay

    2008-12-31

    The intent of this project was to demonstrate that Alaskan low-rank coal, which is high in volatile content, need not be ground as fine as bituminous coal (typically low in volatile content) for optimum combustion in power plants. The grind or particle size distribution (PSD), which is quantified by percentage of pulverized coal passing 74 microns (200 mesh), affects the pulverizer throughput in power plants. The finer the grind, the lower the throughput. For a power plant to maintain combustion levels, throughput needs to be high. The problem of particle size is compounded for Alaskan coal since it has a low Hardgrove grindability index (HGI); that is, it is difficult to grind. If the thesis of this project is demonstrated, then Alaskan coal need not be ground to the industry standard, thereby alleviating somewhat the low HGI issue (and, hopefully, furthering the salability of Alaskan coal). This project studied the relationship between PSD and power plant efficiency, emissions, and mill power consumption for low-rank high-volatile-content Alaskan coal. The emissions studied were CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and Hg (only two tests). The tested PSD range was 42 to 81 percent passing 76 microns. Within the tested range, there was very little correlation between PSD and power plant efficiency, CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2}. Hg emissions were very low and, therefore, did not allow comparison between grind sizes. Mill power consumption was lower for coarser grinds.

  5. Development of zero conditioning procedure for coal reverse flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.P. Patil; J.S. Laskowski [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Mining Engineering Department

    2008-04-15

    The zero conditioning method was developed to facilitate the flotation of gangue minerals in the reverse coal flotation process. Batch and continuous methods were developed to maintain the zero conditioning principle during reverse flotation. Batch zero conditioning was achieved by adding the required amount of DTAB in one step, as soon as the air was introduced into the system. The continuous zero conditioning method involves uninterrupted addition of DTAB through a specially built sparger in the form of aerosol during the flotation experiment. This produces active bubbles that carry collector. The addition of DTAB in the form of aerosol during reverse flotation proved to be better in reducing the ash of a sub-bituminous (LS-26) coal from 34.7% to 22.9% with a froth product (gangue) yield of 36.8% without any depressant. In the presence of coal depressant (dextrin, 0.5 kg/t), the ash content of LS-26 coal was reduced from 34.7% to 16.5% at a clean coal yield of 55%, whereas the conventional (forward) flotation with fuel oil provided a clean coal containing 16.5% ash with only 29.2% yield. These results prove that flotation of gangue minerals is very much improved by maintaining zero conditioning time conditions in a coal reverse flotation process.

  6. A Method to Estimate the Dynamic Displacement and Stress of a Multi-layered Pavement with Bituminous or Concrete Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng LU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, a method to estimate the dynamic characteristics of a multilayered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials is proposed. A mechanical model is established to investigate the dynamic displacement and stress of the multi-layered pavement structure. Both the flexible and the rigid pavements, corresponding to bituminous materials and concrete materials, respectively, are studied. The theoretical solutions of the multi-layered pavement structure are deduced considering the compatibility condition at the interface of the structural layers. By introducing FFT (Fast Fourier Transform algorithm, some numerical results are presented. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental result implied that the proposed method is reasonable in predicting the stress and displacement of a multi-layered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6071

  7. Effects of Surface Chemistry on the Porous Structure of Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radovic, Ljubisa R; Hatcher, Patrick G

    1997-05-01

    In this report, 129 Xe nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of xenon gas adsorbed in coal is used to describe some poorly understood features of coal microporous structure, particularly in establishing that a connected network exists, the type of connectivity, and its changes with the rank of coal. Micropore size scale and distribution are also considered. Two methods are developed which are new and versatile tools for the investigation of porous structure. Both utilize xenon gas that is in motion, while undergoing diffusion or exchange in coal, to describe the connectivity of the micropore structure of coal. Time tracking of the adsorption process by NMR, selective saturation, and saturation transfer techniques were used to obtain new information on the coal rank dependence of porous structure. In addition, an existing 129 Xe chemical shift-pore diameter model was used to calculate micropore diameters for coals, as well as for a microporous carbon, before and after pore-size alteration. In the initial study performed, straightforward 129 Xe NMR spectra at equilibrium xenon adsorption at a series of pressures were acquired for a rank-varied set of six coals. Acquisition of the NMR signal as an echo was tested and found to improve spectral quality. The spectra were used to calculate micropore diameters for the six coals. These range from 5.6 to 7.5 and exhibit a minimum value for the intermediate coal rank. The smallest pores occur in coals of about 82-85% carbon; at both lower and higher coal ranks, the average micropore size tends to be larger. The changes in the spectra with coal rank and surface area were explored. Signal linewidths were found to decrease with increasing coal rank and were interpreted in terms of increasing chemical or physical homogeneity of the coal as rank increases. The packing density of powdered coal was found to alter the spectral appearance in a high volatile bituminous coal, which is preliminary evidence that exchange affects the

  8. Coal Rank and Stratigraphy of Pennsylvanian Coal and Coaly Shale Samples, Young County, North-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Edgar H.; Breton, Caroline; Hackley, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance measurements were made to determine the rank of selected subsurface coal and coaly shale samples from Young County, north-central Texas, for the National Coal Resources Database System State Cooperative Program conducted by the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin. This research is the continuation of a pilot study that began in adjacent Archer County, and forms part of a larger investigation of the coalbed methane resource potential of Pennsylvanian coals in north-central Texas. A total of 57 samples of coal and coaly shale fragments were hand-picked from drill cuttings from depths of about 2,000 ft in five wells, and Ro determinations were made on an initial 10-sample subset. Electric-log correlation of the sampled wells indicates that the collected samples represent coal and coaly shale layers in the Strawn (Pennsylvanian), Canyon (Pennsylvanian), and Cisco (Pennsylvanian-Permian) Groups. Coal rank in the initial sample subset ranges from lignite (Ro=0.39), in a sample from the Cisco Group at a depth of 310 to 320 ft, to high volatile bituminous A coal (Ro=0.91) in a sample from the lower part of the Canyon Group at a depth of 2,030 to 2,040 ft.

  9. Fifth symposium on surface mining and reclamation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Fifth Symposium on Surface Mining and Reclamation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Twenty-six papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include spoil bank revegetation, use of aerial photography, reclamation for row crop production, hydrology, computer programs related to this work, subirrigated alluvial valley floors, reclamation on steep slopes, mountain top removal, surface mine road design, successional processes involved in reclamation, land use planning, etc. (LTN)

  10. The Influence Of Mass Fraction Of Dressed Coal On Ignition Conditions Of Composite Liquid Fuel Droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlegel Nikita E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The laws of condition modification of inert heat and ignition in an oxidant flow of composite liquid fuel droplet were studied by the developed experimental setup. Investigations were for composite liquid fuel composition based on the waste of bituminous and nonbaking coal processing, appropriate carbon dust, water, used motor oil. The characteristics of boundary layer inertia heat of composite liquid fuel droplet, thermal decomposition of coal organic part, the yield of volatiles and evaporation of liquid combustion component, ignition of the gas mixture and coke residue were defined.

  11. Assessing radioactive concentrates and waste vapor condensate in solidifying radioactive wastes by bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview is presented of chemical and radiochemical methods used in the world for the analysis of the concentrate of liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants destined for bituminization. Most methods are also suitable for an analysis of the condensate of waste vapors produced in bituminization. The methods of analysis of the radioactive concentrate from the V-1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice and of the waste vapors condensate were developed and tested in practice. Gross gamma activity was measured using a well-type Na(Tl) scintillation detector, the content of radionuclides was determined using semiconductor Ge(Li) spectrometry. The concentration of boric acid in the concentrate was determined by titration with mannite; in the condensate, using spectrophotometry with curcumine. The content of nitrates in both the concentrate and the condensate was determined spectrophotometrically using salicylic acid, the content of nitrites was determined by spectrophotometry using sulfanilic acid and α-naphthylamine. Carbonates and chlorides were determined by titration, sodium and potassium by flame photometry. The content of organic acids was measured by gravimetry of extracted methyl esters, the content of surfactants by spectrophotometry. Infrared spectrophotometry was used in determining hydrocarbons in the waste vapor condensate. The measured value range and the measurement errors are shown for each method. (A.K.)

  12. Effects of coals on direct reduction roasting of siderite ore from Jiayuguan%煤种对嘉峪关某菱铁矿直接还原的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫树芳; 孙体昌; 许言

    2012-01-01

    In order to research effect of coal on the process of direct reduction-magnetic separation of siderite, comparative tests of two coals were conducted under conditions for different consumptions of coal, and the influence mechanisms of ash and volatility index of the two coals for direct reduction process were investigated by means of XRD and SEM. The results show that: under conditions using the two coals, the iron grades of the products decrease according to coal consumption increasing; the recovery rate for using bituminous coal increases first and then reduces with coal dosage increasing, and the recovery rate for using stone coal increases with coal dosage increasing. In the same coal consumption, the roasting iron particles for using bituminous coal are bigger than those for using stone coals, and obviously gather to the edge of ore. It is primarily that the ash of bituminous coal is lower than that of stone coal, and the volatility of bituminous coal is higher than that of stone coal, which leads to the speed of siderite direct-reducting relatively unstable.%为研究煤种对某菱铁矿直接还原-磁选的影响,进行两种煤在不同煤用量条件下的对比试验,并运用XRD 和SEM探讨两种煤的灰分及挥发分指标对直接还原过程的影响机理.结果表明:在采用两种煤的条件下,还原铁的品位都随煤用量的增加而降低,烟煤回收率随煤用量增加先增加后降低,石煤回收率随煤用量增加而增加.在同样煤用量时,烟煤焙烧产物铁颗粒较石煤大且向矿石边缘积聚明显,主要是与石煤相比,烟煤灰分较低,挥发分较高,导致烟煤对菱铁矿直接还原的速度不平稳.

  13. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B) Production as Landfill Liner

    OpenAIRE

    Müfide Banar; Yücel Güney; Aysun Özkan; Zerrin Günkaya; Eren Bayrakcı; Derya Ulutaş

    2016-01-01

    Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW) was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded...

  14. Small boiler uses waste coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  15. 不同煤阶热解半焦的FT-Raman光谱研究%FT-Raman spectroscopic characterisation of chars from the pyrolysis of coals of varying rank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-jiang Li; Chun-zhu Li

    2005-01-01

    A brown coal, a high-volatile bituminous coal and a low-volatile bituminous coal were pyrolysed at a slow heating rate in a thermogravimetric analyser. The char samples were deconvoluted with 10 Gaussian bands representing the typical structures found in highly disordered carbon materials. Both total Raman intensity (peak area) and the Raman band intensity ratios from spectral deconvolution are useful parameters for the description of the structural features of coal chars. While the chars from the brown coal,the high-volatile bituminous coal and the low-volatile bituminous coal differ significantly at lowpyrolysis temperatures (e.g.600℃), the differences diminish with increasing pyrolysis temperature to 800℃ or 900℃. The ion-exchangeable Na in brown coal affects the char-forming reactions taking place during pyrolysis.%在热天平上采用慢速升温制备了褐煤、高挥发分烟煤和低挥发分烟煤的半焦.采用FT-Raman光谱对半焦进行了分析.半焦800cm-1至1800cm-1的Raman光谱可分解为10个谱带,以表征高度无序炭材料中的典型结构.光谱和谱带的强度比都可用来描述半焦的结构特征.在600℃低温热解时,三种煤半焦的结构差异明显.随热解温度升至800℃或900℃,这种差别消失.褐煤中可交换的钠离子影响热解过程中的成焦反应.

  16. JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Patton

    2006-12-31

    The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

  17. Biomarker geochemistry of bituminous shale sequence and crude oil in the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara-Gulbay, Reyhan; Erdogan, Mert; Korkmaz, Sadettin; Kadinkiz, Gökhan

    2016-04-01

    In the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, bituminous shale sequence with thickness ranging between 72 and 160 m occurs in lacustrine deposits of Upper Miocene-Pliocene age. The live oil has also been observed in this bituminous shale sequence. Rock-Eval/TOC, GC and GC-MS analyses were conducted on selected bituminous shale samples from four borehole (key-12/1, key-12/2, key-12/3 key-12/4) and one crude oil sample from a borehole (key-12/2) in the basin. In this study, organic matter type, maturity and depositional environment of bituminous shale are evaluated and the origin of crude oil is determined by the bituminous shale-crude oil correlation. The total organic carbon (TOC) values of the bituminous shale samples range from 1.21-13.98 wt% with an average TOC value of 4.75wt%. The bituminous shale sequence is characterized by high HI (127-662 mg HC/g TOC) and low OI (7-50 mgCO2/TOC). Tmax varies from 332-419ᵒC. Very low Pr/Ph ratios of bituminous shale (0.09-0.22) are indicative of anoxic depositional conditions. C27 is dominate sterane for bituminous shale and crude oil samples with C27>C29>C28. Normal steranes are more dominant compare to iso- and diasteranes. Ouite high sterane/hopane ratios (1.14-2.70) indicate dominant algal organic matter input for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. C31R/hopane ratio for bituminous shale and crude oil samples are very low (0.09-0.13) and these ratio show a lacustrine depositional envirronment for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. Sterane and terpane distributions of bituminous shale and crude oil are very similar. A very good correlation in terms of biomarker between bituminous shale and crude oil samples indicate that source rock of crude oil is bituminous shale. The 22S/(22R + 22S) C32 homohopane ratios of bituminous shale and crude oil samples are found to be 0.56 and 0.61, indicating that homohopane isomerization has attained equilibrium and bituminous shale and crude oil are

  18. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141574 Chen Hao(Exploration and Development Research Institute,Daqing Oilfield Company,Daqing 163712,China)High-Resolution Sequences and Coal Accumulating Laws in Nantun Formation of Huhe Lake Sag(Petroleum Geology&Oilfield Development in Daqing,ISSN1000-3754,CN23-1286/TQ,32(4),2013,p.15-19,5 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:coal accumulation regularity,coal

  19. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091159 Gao Yan(No.3 Prospecting Team of Anhui Bureau of Coal Geology,Suzhou 234000,China) Effect of Depositional Environment of Coal-Bearing Stratum on Major Coal Seams in Suntan Coalmine,Anhui Province(Geology of Anhui,ISSN 1005- 6157,CN34-1111/P,18(2),2008,p.114 -117,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)

  20. Comparative study of semi-industrial-scale flames of pulverized coals and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballester, J.; Barroso, J.; Cerecedo, L.M.; Ichaso, R. [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2005-05-01

    Three p.f. flames have been studied in a semi-industrial furnace, using different fuels: a bituminous coal, a lignite, and a biomass (oak sawdust). The operating conditions were exactly the same for the two coals, and very similar to those for the biornass flame. The objective was to evaluate the impact of differences in fuel composition on flame characteristics, through measurement of the spatial distribution of the main parameters: temperature and concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons, and N{sub 2}O. The higher volatiles content in the lignite leads to higher temperatures and more intense combustion than the bituminous coal. Nevertheless, as might be expected, more marked differences are observed between the flames from the biomass and coals. The much higher volatiles content of the wood results in a more intense flame close to the burner, as indicated by visual observations and by concentrations of unburnt gases (CO and unburnt hydrocarbons) in that zone. It is remarkable that the combustion zone extends further for the biomass; while unburnt species were very low for the coals at an axial distance of 1 m, high values were detected for the pulverized oak. The measurements suggest that two stages can be distinguished in the biomass flame: a zone of intense combustion close to the burner, followed by a second region where the large biomass particles gradually devolatilize and are consumed.

  1. Speciation and Attenuation of Arsenic and Selenium at Coal Combustion By-Product Management Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ladwig; B. Hensel; D. Wallschlager; L. Lee; I Murarka

    2005-10-19

    Field leachate samples are being collected from coal combustion product (CCP) management sites from several geographic locations in the United States to provide broad characterization of major and trace constituents in the leachate. In addition, speciation of arsenic, selenium, chromium, and mercury in the leachates is being determined. Through 2003, 35 samples were collected at 14 sites representing a variety of CCP types, management approaches, and source coals. Samples have been collected from leachate wells, leachate collection systems, drive-point piezometers, lysimeters, the ash/water interface at impoundments, impoundment outfalls and inlets, and seeps. Additional sampling at 23 sites has been conducted in 2004 or is planned for 2005. First-year results suggest distinct differences in the chemical composition of leachate from landfills and impoundments, and from bituminous and subbituminous coals. Concentrations of most constituents were generally higher in landfill leachate than in impoundment leachate. Sulfate, sodium, aluminum, molybdenum, vanadium, cadmium, mercury and selenium concentrations were higher in leachates for ash from subbituminous source coal. Calcium, boron, lithium, strontium, arsenic, antimony, and nickel were higher for ash from bituminous source coal. These variations will be explored in more detail when additional data from the 2004 and 2005 samples become available.

  2. Parametric study of reburning of nitrogen oxide for superfine pulverized coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Reburning study on combustion of one Chinese bituminous coal in N2/O2 is carried out on a drop tube furnace. • Superfine pulverized coal owns its advantage on NOx abatement, providing atmospheric parameters are properly controlled. • When medium reburning fraction (RF20 to RF25) is applied, reduction efficiency is greatly improved for fine particle. • Reduction efficiency is more satisfactory for fine particle than regular size when oxygen concentration drops to 2% vol. • The yield peak of HCN and CH4 seems not be decisive for different particle size, but works for different reburning fraction. - Abstract: An experimental investigation of process parameters design by superfine pulverized coal reburning on NOx reduction is carried out in a one-dimensional bench-scale combustion system. Reburning effectiveness for initial levels ranging from 600 to 650 ppm is evaluated. It is found that for Shenhua bituminous coal, NOx reduction performance of superfine pulverized coal owns its unique advantage, 50% higher than conventional particle size. Medium reburning fuel fraction (RF20∼RF25) and low oxygen concentration are recommended to be ensured in this experiment. The yield of HCN and CH4 along the furnace axis does not seem to be decisive on the effect of particle size, but is closely related to the effect of reburning fuel fraction. Both exhaust and in-flame measurements are reported in this paper to provide valuable experimental data for practical engineering applications

  3. Preparation of coal water mixtures: effect of the nature of the coal and improvement of the quality of the suspensions by altering the particle properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elomrani, M.; Brunello, J.M.; Nomine, M.

    1989-04-01

    Since 1983, CERCHAR has been studying coal-water mixtures (CWM) with the objective of valorizing some waste and fine products from washing plants. It appeared through this study that the nature of coal is a decisive parameter in the formulation and preparation of coal-water suspensions. Indeed, in identical operatory conditions, the high-rank coals (bituminous and anthracite) give more concentrated suspensions than those realized from low-rank coals (lignite and high volatile bituminous). This difference in behaviour can be explained by properties related to rank such as ratio of oxygen/carbon (O/C), capacity of water absorption, state of surface and shape of particles. Diluted milling was the preparation mode used (50 to 55 wt.% of solids), followed by filtration and mixing with additives. With this procedure, the desired rheological properties were not obtained when using low-rank coals. Another procedure was devised in which the coal is wet milled in the presence of additives and at high coal concentration (about 70 wt.% of solids). The interest of this procedure is to simplify drastically the process flow sheet, but the control of the wet milling at a high concentration is much more difficult. CERCHAR succeeded in developing a two-stage, high-slurry concentration, wet-milling process allowing the preparation of better quality, high-concentration suspensions than those obtained from the classical procedure. This innovative process was patented. The quality improvement can be explained by the effect of this procedure on particle size distribution, state of surface and shape of particles.

  4. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110359 Feng Lijuan(Graduate School,Southwest Petroleum University,Chengdu 610500,China);Guo Dali Experimental Study on the Stress Sensitivity of Coal and Its Impact on the Filtration of the Fracturing Fluid(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(2),2010,p.14-17,4 illus.,5 tables,9 refs.)Key words:coal seam,stressIn the paper,the relationship between the stress and permeability in the coal r

  5. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Technical progress report, August 1992--November 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Saini, A.K.; Burgess, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1992-12-01

    During this quarterly period progress has been made in the following three subjects related to the effects of low-temperature thermal and catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. First, the liquefaction behavior of three bituminous coals with a carbon content ranging from 77% to 85% was evaluated spectroscopically by {sup 13}C NMR and pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to delineate the structural changes that occur in the coal during liquefaction. Complementary data includes ultimate and proximate analysis, along with optical microscopy for maceral determinations. Even though these are all bituminous coals they exhibit quite different physical and chemical characteristics. The coals vary in rank, ranging from HvC b to HvA b, in petrographic composition, different maceral percentages, and in chemical nature, percent of carbon and of volatiles. It is these variations that govern the products, their distribution, and conversion percentages. Some of the products formed can be traced to a specific maceral group. Second, pyrolysis-GC-MS and FTIR techniques were used to characterize Wyodak coal before and after drying in vacuum and in air and the residues from its thermal and catalytic liquefactions. The analysis of the air-dried coal shows a decrease in the phenolic type structures in the coal network and increase in the carbonyl structures as the oxidative drying proceeds. An enhanced decrease in the carbonyl structure is observed in the liquefaction residues from the raw coal as compared to that of the vacuum dried coal. The analyses of the liquefaction residues of the air-dried coal show an increase in the ether linkages which may have a negative impact on liquefaction. The extent of the solvent adduction also increases during liquefaction with the extent of oxidation of the coal. Finally, the effects of reaction conditions were investigated on conversion of low-rank coals using a Texas subbituminous coal.

  6. Characterization of coal-derived hydrocarbons and source-rock potential of coal beds, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, D.D.; Clayton, J.L.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Coal beds are considered to be a major source of nonassociated gas in the Rocky Mountain basins of the United States. In the San Juan basin of northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado, significant quantities of natural gas are being produced from coal beds of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and from adjacent sandstone reservoirs. Analysis of gas samples from the various gas-producing intervals provided a means of determining their origin and of evaluating coal beds as source rocks. The rank of coal beds in the Fruitland Formation in the central part of the San Juan basin, where major gas production occurs, increases to the northeast and ranges from high-volatile B bituminous coal to medium-volatile bituminous coal (Rm values range from 0.70 to 1.45%). On the basis of chemical, isotopic and coal-rank data, the gases are interpreted to be thermogenic. Gases from the coal beds show little isotopic variation (??13C1 values range -43.6 to -40.5 ppt), are chemically dry (C1/C1-5 values are > 0.99), and contain significant amounts of CO2 (as much as 6%). These gases are interpreted to have resulted from devolatilization of the humic-type bituminous coal that is composed mainly of vitrinite. The primary products of this process are CH4, CO2 and H2O. The coal-generated, methane-rich gas is usually contained in the coal beds of the Fruitland Formation, and has not been expelled and has not migrated into the adjacent sandstone reservoirs. In addition, the coal-bed reservoirs produce a distinctive bicarbonate-type connate water and have higher reservoir pressures than adjacent sandstones. The combination of these factors indicates that coal beds are a closed reservoir system created by the gases, waters, and associated pressures in the micropore coal structure. In contrast, gases produced from overlying sandstones in the Fruitland Formation and underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone have a wider range of isotopic values (??13C1 values range from -43.5 to -38

  7. Effective Diffusion Coefficients in Coal Chars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Jensen, Anker

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of effective diffusion coefficients in char particles is important when interpreting experimental reactivity measurements and modeling char combustion or NO and N2O reduction. In this work, NO and N2O reaction with a bituminous coal char was studied in a fixed-bed quartz glass reactor....... Particle sizes in the range 0.05-5 mm were tested, and the effective diffusion coefficients were estimated from measured effectiveness factors using the Thiele modulus. At 1079 K the effective diffusion coefficients were 5.5 X 10(-6) m(2)/s and 6.8 X 10(-6) m(2)/s for N2O and NO, respectively....... The experimental results were compared with theoretical values calculated from the mean pore radius and the cross-linked pore model. The method of mean pore radius underestimated the effective diffusion coefficient more than an order of magnitude. Using the cross-linked pore model, the bimodal pore size...

  8. Valuation of investments in natural resources using contingent-claim framework with application to bituminous coal developments in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Brennan and Schwartz [Brennan M, Schwartz E. Evaluating natural resource investment. Journal of Business 1985;58:135-57] point out in their pioneering work, the valuation of natural resources projects is particularly difficult due to the high degree of uncertainty in output prices of resources. In general, there are two competing procedures to evaluate risky projects in natural resources developments. One is decision analytic, based on traditional discounted cash flow and stochastic dynamic programming [Fleten SE, Maribu KM, Wangensteen I. Optimal investment strategies in decentralized renewable power generation under uncertainty. Energy 2007;32:803-15; Smith J, McCardle K. Valuing oil properties: integrating option pricing and decision analysis approaches. Operations Research 1998;46(2):198-217; Szklo AS, Carneiro JTG, Machado G. Break-even price for upstream activities in Brazil: evaluation of the opportunity cost of oil production delay in a non-mature sedimentary production region. Energy 2008;33:589-600], and the other is contingent claims analysis, based on the no-arbitrage theory of financial markets [Brennan M, Schwartz E. Evaluating natural resource investment. Journal of Business 1985;58:135-57; Emhjellen M, Alaouze CM. A comparison of discounted cash flow and modern asset pricing methods - project selection and policy implications. Energy Policy 2003;31:1213-20; Laughton D. The management of flexibility in the upstream petroleum industry. The Energy Journal 1998;19:83-114; Paddock L, Siegel D, Smith J. Option valuation of claims on real assets: the case of offshore petroleum leases. Quarterly Journal of Economics 1988;103(3):479-508; Schwartz ES. Valuing long-term commodity assets. Journal of Energy Finance and Development 1998;3(2):85-99; Sezgen O, Goldman CA, Krishnarao P. Option value of electricity demand response. Energy 2007;32:108-19]. In this paper, we use the second approach to develop a new model, and the main contributions are providing a tractable and realistic means of incorporating the option value and optimal timing into the investment decision in natural resources and presenting an example that shows option and timing considerations to be important. We demonstrated the validity of the model using both numerical analysis and real data.

  9. Valuation of investments in natural resources using contingent-claim framework with application to bituminous coal developments in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Brennan and Schwartz [Brennan M, Schwartz E. Evaluating natural resource investment. Journal of Business 1985;58:135-57] point out in their pioneering work, the valuation of natural resources projects is particularly difficult due to the high degree of uncertainty in output prices of resources. In general, there are two competing procedures to evaluate risky projects in natural resources developments. One is decision analytic, based on traditional discounted cash flow and stochastic dynamic programming [Fleten SE, Maribu KM, Wangensteen I. Optimal investment strategies in decentralized renewable power generation under uncertainty. Energy 2007;32:803-15; Smith J, McCardle K. Valuing oil properties: integrating option pricing and decision analysis approaches. Operations Research 1998;46(2):198-217; Szklo AS, Carneiro JTG, Machado G. Break-even price for upstream activities in Brazil: evaluation of the opportunity cost of oil production delay in a non-mature sedimentary production region. Energy 2008;33:589-600], and the other is contingent claims analysis, based on the no-arbitrage theory of financial markets [Brennan M, Schwartz E. Evaluating natural resource investment. Journal of Business 1985;58:135-57; Emhjellen M, Alaouze CM. A comparison of discounted cash flow and modern asset pricing methods - project selection and policy implications. Energy Policy 2003;31:1213-20; Laughton D. The management of flexibility in the upstream petroleum industry. The Energy Journal 1998;19:83-114; Paddock L, Siegel D, Smith J. Option valuation of claims on real assets: the case of offshore petroleum leases. Quarterly Journal of Economics 1988;103(3):479-508; Schwartz ES. Valuing long-term commodity assets. Journal of Energy Finance and Development 1998;3(2):85-99; Sezgen O, Goldman CA, Krishnarao P. Option value of electricity demand response. Energy 2007;32:108-19]. In this paper, we use the second approach to develop a new model, and the main contributions are providing a tractable and realistic means of incorporating the option value and optimal timing into the investment decision in natural resources and presenting an example that shows option and timing considerations to be important. We demonstrated the validity of the model using both numerical analysis and real data. (author)

  10. Partitioning of selected trace elements in coal combustion products from two coal-burning power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Engle, Mark A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Jones, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Samples of feed coal (FC), bottom ash (BA), economizer fly ash (EFA), and fly ash (FA) were collected from power plants in the Central Appalachian basin and Colorado Plateau to determine the partitioning of As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in coal combustion products (CCPs). The Appalachian plant burns a high-sulfur (about 3.9 wt.%) bituminous coal from the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed and operates with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), with flue gas temperatures of about 163 °C in the ESPs. At this plant, As, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in FA samples, compared to BA and EFA. A mass balance (not including the FGD process) suggests that the following percentages of trace elements are captured in FA: As (48%), Cr (58%), Pb (54%), Se (20%), and Hg (2%). The relatively high temperatures of the flue gas in the ESPs and low amounts of unburned C in FA (0.5% loss-on-ignition for FA) may have led to the low amount of Hg captured in FA. The Colorado Plateau plant burns a blend of three low-S (about 0.74 wt.%) bituminous coals from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and operates with fabric filters (FFs). Flue gas temperatures in the baghouses are about 104 °C. The elements As, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in the fine-grained fly ash product (FAP) produced by cyclone separators, compared to the other CCPs at this plant. The median concentration of Hg in FA (0.0983 ppm) at the Colorado Plateau plant is significantly higher than that for the Appalachian plant (0.0315 ppm); this higher concentration is related to the efficiency of FFs in Hg capture, the relatively low temperatures of flue gas in the baghouses (particularly in downstream compartments), and the amount of unburned C in FA (0.29% loss-on-ignition for FA).

  11. Osmosis-induced swelling of Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste in constant total stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcke, E.; Marien, A.; Smets, S.; Li, X.; Mokni, N.; Olivella, S.; Sillen, X.

    2010-11-01

    In geological disposal conditions, contact of Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste, which contains high amounts of the hygroscopic and highly soluble NaNO 3, with groundwater will result in water uptake and swelling of the waste, and in subsequent leaching of the embedded NaNO 3 and radionuclides. The swelling of and the NaNO 3 leaching from non-radioactive Eurobitum samples, comprised between two stainless steel filters and in contact with 0.1 M KOH, was studied in restricted (semi-confined) swelling conditions, i.e. under a constant total stress, or counterpressure, of 2.2, 3.3, or 4.4 MPa ( i.e. oedometer conditions). Four tests were stopped after hydration times between 800 and 1500 days, and the samples were analyzed by micro-focus X-ray Computer Tomography (μCT) and by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). The complete set of data enabled a consistent interpretation of the observations and lead to an improved understanding of the phenomenology of the water uptake, swelling, and NaNO 3 leaching in restricted swelling conditions. Under the studied conditions, the bituminous matrix surrounding the NaNO 3 crystals and pores with NaNO 3 solution behaved as a highly efficient semi-permeable membrane, i.e. osmotic processes occurred. In the main part of the leached layers, a high average NaNO 3 concentration and related to this a high osmotic pressure prevailed, explaining why in the studied range the swelling was not measurably affected by the counterpressure. At the interface with the stainless steel filters, a low permeable re-compressed bitumen layer was formed, contributing to the slow release of NaNO 3 compared to the water uptake rate. A fully coupled Chemo-Hydro-Mechanical (CHM) constitutive model has been developed that integrates the key processes involved and that reproduces satisfactorily the results; this is presented in another work. Combination of the experimental and the modelling study allow to conclude that under semi

  12. Mechanical properties of hot bituminous mixes manufactured with recycled aggregate of Silestone® waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, M. C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research project which analyzes the viability of incorporating waste material from decorative quartz solid surfacing in the manufacture of hot bituminous mixes. For this purpose, various bituminous mixes were manufactured with waste aggregate in different percentage. A set of tests were carried out that permitted the characterization of the mechanical behavior of these mixes. The results of these tests were similar to the results obtained when conventional mixes made from virgin quarry aggregate were tested. The results for moisture sensitivity as well as for wheel track rutting on mixes showed the optimal performance of this waste material even under very demanding traffic conditions. Laboratory studies showed that the use of this waste material in the manufacture of bituminous mixes is technically viable and can provide high-quality recycled aggregates at a very low cost, which can be used in the pavement of road.

    Este artículo muestra los resultados de un proyecto de investigación que tiene por objeto analizar la viabilidad de incorporación de residuos procedentes de piedra decorativa en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas en caliente. Para ello se fabricaron mezclas con áridos reciclados de residuos procedentes de piedra decorativa en distintos porcentajes, realizando un conjunto de ensayos que posibilitaron caracterizar el comportamiento mecánico de dichas mezclas. Los resultados obtenidos fueron similares a los de las mezclas convencionales fabricadas con áridos vírgenes procedentes de cantera. Los valores de resistencia conservada ante la acción del agua y deformación en pista, pusieron de manifiesto la aptitud del residuo incluso ante las condiciones de tráfico más exigentes. Los trabajos realizados en el laboratorio indican que la utilización del residuo en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas es técnicamente viable, pudiendo obtenerse áridos reciclados de gran calidad y

  13. Semi-coke briquettes: towards reducing emissions of primary PM2.5, particulate carbon, and carbon monoxide from household coal combustion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Jiang, Jingkun; Duan, Lei; Ge, Su; Zhang, Qi; Deng, Jianguo; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Direct household use of unprocessed raw coals for cooking and heating without any air pollution control device has caused serious indoor and outdoor environment problems by emitting particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. This study examined household emission reduction by switching from unprocessed bituminous and anthracite coals to processed semi-coke briquettes. Two typical stoves were used to test emission characteristics when burning 20 raw coal samples commonly used in residential heating activities and 15 semi-coke briquette samples which were made from bituminous coals by industrial carbonization treatment. The carbonization treatment removes volatile compounds from raw coals which are the major precursors for PM formation and carbon emission. The average emission factors of primary PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and carbon monoxide for the tested semi-coke briquettes are much lower than those of the tested raw coals. Based on the current coal consumption data in China, switching to semi-coke briquettes can reduce average emission factors of these species by about 92%, 98%, 91%, and 34%, respectively. Additionally, semi-coke briquette has relatively lower price and higher burnout ratio. The replacement of raw coals with semi-coke briquettes is a feasible path to reduce pollution emissions from household activities.

  14. Geochemical characteristics of Galandrud coal in central Alborz, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ardebili Leila; Babazadeh Vasef; Mammadov Mousa; Navi Pedram

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the geochemistry of trace elements and parameters of coal quality of bituminous coal belonging to the upper Triassic-lower Jurassic era,collected from the Galandrud region in Central Alborz,northern Iran.Galandrud coal on an air-dried basis are characterized by broad variation in the amount of ash (ranging from 6.4% to 12.73%),a high content of volatile matter (33.32-37.45%) and high gross calorific values (7430-8880 kcal/kg).The mineral matter of the coal samples studied is made up of dolomite (>90%),quartz,sphalerite,galena,pyrite and clay minerals.Major elements are positively correlated with ash content suggesting an association with inorganic constituents.Based on statistical analyses,concentrations of trace elements such as Co (51.3 × 106-152.9 × 10 -6),Ba (368 × 10 -6-3297.4 ×10-6),Cr (65.5 × 10 6-194.2 × 10 6),Mo (5.6 × 10-6-18.2 × 10-6),Ni (72.9 × 10-6-152.9 × 10-6) and V (245.5 × 10-6-520 × 10-6) are higher than world coal averages.However,low concentration of some volatile elements such as As,Hg and U are present in low concentrations of the various types of coal studied.

  15. Coal pyrolysis and char burnout under conventional and oxy-fuel conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Makhadmeh, L.; Maier, J.; Scheffknecht, G. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2009-07-01

    Coal utilization processes such as combustion or gasification generally involve several steps i.e., the devolatilization of organic materials, homogeneous reactions of volatile matter with the reactant gases, and heterogeneous reactions of the solid (char) with the reactant gases. Most of the reported work about coal pyrolysis and char burnout were performed at low temperatures under environmental conditions related to the air firing process with single particle tests. In this work, coal combustion under oxy-fuel conditions is investigated by studying coal pyrolysis and char combustion separately in practical scales, with the emphasis on improving the understanding of the effect of a CO{sub 2}-rich gas environment on coal pyrolysis and char burnout. Two coals, Klein Kopje a medium volatile bituminous coal and a low-rank coal, Lausitz coal were used. Coal pyrolysis in CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} environments were performed for both coals at different temperatures in an entrained flow reactor. Overall mass release, pyrolysis gas concentrations, and char characterization were performed. For char characterization ultimate analysis, particle size, and BET surface area were measured. Chars for both coals were collected at 1150 C in both CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} environments. Char combustion was performed in a once-through 20 kW test facility in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} atmospheres. Besides coal quality, oxygen partial pressure was chosen as a variable to study the effect of the gas environment on char burnout. In general, it is found that the CO{sub 2} environment and coal rank have a significant effect on coal pyrolysis and char burnout. (orig.)

  16. Coal diesel combined-cycle project. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    One of the projects selected for funding is a project for the design, construction, and operation of a nominal 90 ton-per-day 14-megawatt electrical (MWe), diesel engine-based, combined-cycle demonstration plant using coal-water fuels (CWF). The project, named the Coal Diesel Combined-Cycle Project, is to be located at a power generation facility at Easton Utilities Commission`s Plant No. 2 in Easton, Talbot County, Maryland, and will use Cooper-Bessemer diesel engine technology. The integrated system performance to be demonstrated will involve all of the subsystems, including coal-cleaning and slurrying systems; a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, a dry flue gas scrubber, and a baghouse; two modified diesel engines; a heat recovery steam generation system; a steam cycle; and the required balance of plant systems. The base feedstock for the project is bituminous coal from Ohio. The purpose of this Comprehensive Report is to comply with Public Law 102-154, which directs the DOE to prepare a full and comprehensive report to Congress on each project selected for award under the CCT-V Program.

  17. Effects of coal storage in air on physical and chemical properties of coal and on gas adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Solano-Acosta, W.; Schimmelmann, A.; Drobniak, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates changes in the high-volatile bituminous Lower Block Coal Member from Indiana owing to moisture availability and oxidation in air at ambient pressure and temperature over storage time. Specifically, it investigates changes in chemistry, in surface area, and pore structure, as well as changes in methane and carbon dioxide adsorption capacities. Our results document that the methane adsorption capacity increased by 40%, whereas CO2 adsorption capacity increased by 18% during a 13-month time period. These changes in adsorption are accompanied by changes in chemistry and surface area of the coal. The observed changes in adsorption capacity indicate that special care must be taken when collecting samples and preserving coals until adsorption characteristics are measured in the laboratory. High-pressure isotherms from partially dried coal samples would likely cause overestimation of gas adsorption capacities, lead to a miscalculation of coal-bed methane prospects, and provide deceptively optimistic prognoses for recovery of coal-bed methane or capture of anthropogenic CO2. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancing the Properties of Coal Briquette Using Spear Grass (Imperata Cylindrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaora Stellamaris OGBUAGU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been carried out on utilizing agricultural wastes (spear grass to enhance the properties of coal briquette. The proximate analysis of the plant material was carried out alongside with a sample of coal (sub-bituminous coal. Briquettes of different compositions were produced by blending the plant material with the coal at various concentrations: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 100%, using cassava starch as a binder and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 as desulfurizing agent. The properties of the briquettes were compared. It was found that the ignition, burning rate and reduction in smoke emission showed improvement with increase in biomass concentration. Compressive strength and cooking efficiency (water boiling time and specific fuel consumption showed initial improvement and rendered to decrease with briquette containing 30% biomass.

  19. KINETIC STUDY OF COAL AND BIOMASS CO-PYROLYSIS USING THERMOGRAVIMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping; Hedges, Sheila; Chaudharib, Kiran; Turtonb, Richard

    2013-10-29

    The objectives of this study are to investigate thermal behavior of coal and biomass blends in inert gas environment at low heating rates and to develop a simplified kinetic model using model fitting techniques based on TGA experimental data. Differences in thermal behavior and reactivity in co-pyrolysis of Powder River Basin (PRB) sub-bituminous coal and pelletized southern yellow pine wood sawdust blends at low heating rates are observed. Coal/wood blends have higher reactivity compared to coal alone in the lower temperature due to the high volatile matter content of wood. As heating rates increase, weight loss rates increase. The experiment data obtained from TGA has a better fit with proposed two step first order reactions model compared single first order reaction model.

  20. Identification of admixture for pelletization and strength enhancement of sintered coal pond ash aggregate through statistically designed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sintered aggregate using pond ash from lignite and bituminous coal source. • Identification of admixtures and its dosage through design of experiments. • Clay, bentonite and kaolinite as binders enhance the strength of aggregate. • Use of calcium hydroxide with clay binder enhanced pelletization efficiency. • Use of borax with clay binders enhanced the strength of aggregate. - Abstract: Statistically designed experiments using Response Surface Methodology have been undertaken to identify the parameters influencing manufacturing process and properties of aggregate using coal pond ash (generated from bituminous and lignite coal sources). Based on the preliminary studies, Ca(OH)2 and borax have been identified as pelletization and strength enhancing admixture respectively. Pelletization efficiency of bituminous and lignite pond ash increased with an increase in binder and Ca(OH)2 dosage to 20–98% and 50–98% respectively, with proportionate quantity of water. Sintering has been used as a hardening method with temperature range of 900 °C and 1100 °C for a duration range of 45–120 min. Phase composition and sintered microstructure of aggregate has been reported using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The ten percent fines value of aggregate with clay binder was 5.5 tonne as against a value of 4.5 tonne with aggregate with bentonite binder. Among the binders studied, bentonite resulted in high volume utilization of pond ash, i.e. up to 88%

  1. Evaluation of paramagnetic species in coals with iodine doping technique; Yoso tenkaho wo mochiita sekitanchu no jojiseishu no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, S.; Kumagai, H.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of coals was considered by using iodine doping technique. Sub-bituminous coal (WA) and bituminous coal (UF) were used to observe EPR spectra using microwaves. With the UF coal, strength of the narrow component of the spectra was found constant regardless of amount of the doped iodine, wherein radicals without interaction with iodine were detected. Strength of the broad component increased with the iodine doping amount, where in deviation of {pi} electrons was detected, which have been generated as a result of interaction between aromatic rings and iodine in the coals. Spin concentration of the WA coal with low coalification degree is constant regardless of the iodine doping amount, and the interaction of the iodine with the aromatic rings was found small. The higher the coalification degree, the more the aromatic ring structure grows, and electron donor capability for the iodine increases. In a system with the entire spin being uniform, the spectrum height shows a saturation phenomenon against increase in microwave output. A non-uniform system, in which the oriented spin forms small groups and is in local thermal equilibrium, does not show saturation, but increases monotonously. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Biological markers in bitumens and pyrolyzates of Upper Cretaceous bituminous chalks from the Ghareb Formation (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullkötter, Jürgen; Aizenshtat, Zeev; Spiro, Baruch

    1984-01-01

    The sterane and triterpane distributions of three bituminous chalks from the Upper Cretaceous Ghareb Formation (Israel) were investigated both in the original extractable bitumens and in extracts obtained after pyrolysis of whole rock and isolated kerogen samples at 450°C. Pyrolysis was performed in a closed system under hydrous (whole rock) and anhydrous conditions (isolated kerogens). The carbon number distributions of steranes and triterpanes differ significantly between original bitumen and pyrolyzates. Unlike the bitumens in which diasteranes were not detected, the anhydrous pyrolyzates contain small amounts of diasteranes. The presence of water during pyrolysis leads to an increase of sterane isomerization, the abundant formation of diasteranes and an increase of the 18α( H)- trisnorneohopane/17α( H)- trisnorhopane ratio. Sterane isomerization maturation parameters show a closer match between original bitumen and pyrolyzates after pyrolysis in a closed system when compared with an open system.

  3. Uraniferous lignites and bituminous clays of the Serres Basin. Pt. A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lignites of the southern area (Christos-Vissiani-Lefkes-Perdikari) and the bituminous clay silts of the northern area (Maramena, Ano Metohi, Chrysopigi) are the main uraniferous beds in the Serres Basin. The sediments of the basin (Upper Miocene to recent) have been stratigraphically divided into three informal unities: the Lefkon, Georgios and Spilia formations. The uraniferous lignites pertaining to the Lefkon limnic-fluvial formation are developed into two discrete horizons, the upper Double Seam and the lower Main Seam. The bituminous clays are of the same age with the lignites, those of Maramena being, however, younger, equivalent to the marine and brackish Georgios formation. The continuity, thickness and dip of the strata reveal considerable regional changes resulting from the intense tectonism of the basin. Further to the surface works the upper lignites have been reached through small excavations and also about 100 boreholes totalling 10,000 m have been drilled. The composition of the organic constituents and the calorific value show a dull transitional to shiny hard lignite with ash rich in pyrite and sulphur. There have been no discrete U minerals detected, while the electron microprobe analysis showed that the uranium is uniformly disseminated into the lignite mass, mainly absorbed through its humic acids. More than 75% of the uranium is extractable, the control of its combustion conditions being, however, a major problem. The potential reserves have been up to date estimated to be of over 4,000 tons (uranium metal), this figure resulting mainly from data evaluated from the borehole γ-ray logs using the computer programmes LOGFILE and LOGPLOT developed at the Radioactive Raw Materials Dept. of the Greek AEC. (author)

  4. Comparative study of test methods for bituminized and other low- and medium-level solidified waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of the behaviour of bituminized or cemented simulated low- or medium-level radioactive waste in contact with water or salt solutions have been investigated. The solubility (approximately 0.5%) and the diffusion coefficient (approximately 5.10-8 cm2/sec) determining transort of water in pure bitumen have been measured for Mexphalte 40/50 at room temperature. A weighing method has been used to study water uptake and swelling of bituminized sodium nitrate, sodium sulphate or cation-exchange resin. The swelling of samples in contact with water was in some cases very pronounced. In strong salt solutions the tendency to swell is much less. The particle size of the embedded waste material is an important parameter. Thermal pre-treatment of cation-exchange resin before bituminization does not seem to improve the quality of the final product. The interaction between bituminized-exchange resin and concrete barrier materials has been studied. Microbial degradation of bitumen and bituminized waste under aerobic conditions has been investigated. It is probably of minor importance as far as leaching is concerned. A method for measuring leaching from a plane surface of cemented waste has been developed. The method avoids the problem of cracks between the sample and the container. Leaching from cemented sodium nitrate or sulphate was investigated. Absorption of CO2 from the atmosphere was found to have only minor effect on Cs- and Na-leaching but gave a pronounced decrease in Ca-leaching. The use of silica-fume as an additive to cemented sodium nitrate decreased the leach rate by a factor 4. (author)

  5. The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Richard; Gray, Gordon; Evans, Robert

    2014-07-31

    The Mesaba Energy Project is a nominal 600 MW integrated gasification combine cycle power project located in Northeastern Minnesota. It was selected to receive financial assistance pursuant to code of federal regulations (?CFR?) 10 CFR 600 through a competitive solicitation under Round 2 of the Department of Energy?s Clean Coal Power Initiative, which had two stated goals: (1) to demonstrate advanced coal-based technologies that can be commercialized at electric utility scale, and (2) to accelerate the likelihood of deploying demonstrated technologies for widespread commercial use in the electric power sector. The Project was selected in 2004 to receive a total of $36 million. The DOE portion that was equally cost shared in Budget Period 1 amounted to about $22.5 million. Budget Period 1 activities focused on the Project Definition Phase and included: project development, preliminary engineering, environmental permitting, regulatory approvals and financing to reach financial close and start of construction. The Project is based on ConocoPhillips? E-Gas? Technology and is designed to be fuel flexible with the ability to process sub-bituminous coal, a blend of sub-bituminous coal and petroleum coke and Illinois # 6 bituminous coal. Major objectives include the establishment of a reference plant design for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (?IGCC?) technology featuring advanced full slurry quench, multiple train gasification, integration of the air separation unit, and the demonstration of 90% operational availability and improved thermal efficiency relative to previous demonstration projects. In addition, the Project would demonstrate substantial environmental benefits, as compared with conventional technology, through dramatically lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and mercury. Major milestones achieved in support of fulfilling the above goals include obtaining Site, High Voltage

  6. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  7. Effect of the surface oxygen groups on methane adsorption on coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shixiong; Wen, Jie; Yu, Xiaopeng; Chu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the influence of surface oxygen groups on methane adsorption on coals, one bituminous coal was modified with H2O2, (NH4)2S2O8 and HNO3 respectively, to prepare coal samples with different surface properties. The oxygen groups on coal surface were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The textures of the coal samples were investigated by N2 adsorption at 77 K. Their surface morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The methane adsorption behaviors of these coal samples were measured at 303 K in pressure range of 0-5.3 MPa by volumetric method. The adsorption data of methane were fitted to the Langmuir model and Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) model. The fitting results showed that the D-A model fitted the isotherm data better than the Langmuir model. It was observed that there was, in general, a positive correlation between the methane saturated adsorption capacity and the micropore volume of coals while a negative correlation between methane saturated adsorption capacity and the Ototal/Ctotal. The methane adsorption capacity was determined by the coal surface chemistry when the microporosity parameters of two samples were similar. Coal with a higher amount of oxygen surface groups, and consequently with a less hydrophobic character, had lower methane adsorption capacity.

  8. Unburned Carbon Loss in Fly Ash of CFB Boilers Burning Hard Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Junfu(吕俊复); WANG Qimin(王启民); LI Yong(黎永); YUE Guangxi(岳光溪); Yam Y.Lee; Baldur Eliasson; SHEN Jiezhong(沈解忠); YU Long(于龙)

    2003-01-01

    The unburned carbon loss in fly ash of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers, most of which are burning active fuels such as lignite or peat, is normally very low. However, most CFB boilers in China usually burn hard coals such as anthracite and bituminous coal and coal wastes, so the carbon content in the fly ash from these boilers is higher than expected. This paper investigates the source of unburned carbon in the fly ash of CFB boilers burning hard coal through a series of field tests and laboratory investigations. The char behavior during combustion, including fragmentation and deactivation, which is related to the parent coal, has an important impact on the carbon burnout in CFB boilers. The research shows that char deactivation occurs during char burnout in fluidized bed combustion, especially for large particles of low rank coal. The uneven mixing of solids and air in the core region of the furnace also causes poor burnout of carbon in CFB fly ash. An index describing the volatile content (as dry ash free basis) over the heating value is proposed to present the coal rank. The coal combustion efficiency is shown to be strongly connected with this coal index. Several changes in the CFB boiler design are suggested to reduce the unburned carbon loss in the fly ash.

  9. Petrographic and geochemical characterization of pale and dark brown coal from Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Q.; Xilin, R.; Dazhong, T.; Jian, X.; Wolf, M. [Aachen University, Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen lignite samples from the province of Yunnan were analysed by organic petrography and geochemistry. Twelve of the samples represent the very pale (yellow) Baipao coal, the other three were normal coals of a medium brown colour. The Baipao coal consists mainly of mineral-bituminous groundmass, whereas the normal coal is characterised by well-preserved tissues derived from gymnosperm wood. Up to 190 mg/g C{sub org} of extract is extractable from the Baipao coal; only 63 mg/g C{sub org} from the normal coal. The n-alkaline fraction of the Baipao coal extract consists of high amounts of hopanes and shows the predominance of nor-abietane within the diterpenoids present. The first group of compounds points to intensive bacterial activity, while the second compound indicates not only that gymnosperms are present but also that a relatively oxygen-rich environment existed at the time of deposition. From the petrographic and organic geochemical characteristics it is concluded that the Baipao coal was formed from the same plant source material as the normal coal, but underwent stronger decay. 22 refs., 11 figs., 2 plates, 8 tabs.

  10. Radon concentration measurements in the AMASRA coal mine, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the results of atmospheric radon measurements that were performed for the Amasra underground coal mine in Zonguldak bituminous coal basin (Turkey) are presented. The radon measurements were performed for 40 days between November 2004 and December 2004 using passive nuclear etched track detectors. The radon concentrations vary from a minimum value 49 Bq m-3 in a site located at +40 m to a maximum value 223 Bq m-3 in a site located at -100 m. Mean concentration is 117 (Bq m-3). This value is well below the action level of 500-1500 Bq m-3 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (1993). The mean effective dose value for workers of this mine of 3.4 μSv per day was obtained. This result shows that protection against radiological hazards would not be necessary for workers of this mine(2). (authors)

  11. Co-pyrolysis of hydrothermally upgraded brown coal and wax prepared from waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouichi Miura; Susan A. Roces; Monthicha Pattatapanusak; Hiroyuki Nakagawa; Ryuichi Ashida; Masato Morimoto [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    We have recently presented a hydrothermal extraction method that not only removes water from brown coal but also upgrades the coal and extracts low molecular mass compounds simultaneously. The upgraded coal contained much less oxygen than the raw coal. However, it still needs to be further upgraded to be utilized as a substitute for bituminous coal. In this study co-pyrolysis of the upgraded coals and waxes formed from waste plastics was investigated for this purpose. Waxes were prepared through pyrolysis of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyethylene terephtalate. Upgraded coals were then impregnated with the waxes in an autoclave at 200{sup o}C under pressure. The mixtures of coal and wax were rapidly heated up to 1040{sup o}C at about 3000{sup o}C/s using a Curie point pyrolyzer in an inert atmosphere. The char yield was greatly enhanced by a factor of 1.1 to 1.3 compared to the char yield obtained when the upgraded coals and waxes were pyrolyzed independently. Even under a slower heating rate (0.17{sup o}C/s) the char yields increased by a factor of 1.2 for the all mixtures of the upgraded coal and waxes. Since no such effect was found when the raw brown coal was impregnated with waxes, it was suggested that the modification of the structure of brown coal by the hydrothermal extraction could enhance interactions between the coal and the wax when co-pyrolyzed. Effect of wax mixing ratio on co-pyrolysis behavior was also examined. The char yield dramatically increased when the ratio exceeded about 0.3 g/g for the pyrolysis of both under slow and rapid heating rates. This trend coincided with that of the swelling ratio of the upgraded coal impregnated with wax, indicating that some physical change by wax-impregnation affected the co-pyrolysis behavior. 5 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Experimental study on the minimum ignition temperature of coal dust clouds in oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dejian; Norman, Frederik; Verplaetsen, Filip; Van den Bulck, Eric

    2016-04-15

    BAM furnace apparatus tests were conducted to investigate the minimum ignition temperature of coal dusts (MITC) in O2/CO2 atmospheres with an O2 mole fraction from 20 to 50%. Three coal dusts: Indonesian Sebuku coal, Pittsburgh No.8 coal and South African coal were tested. Experimental results showed that the dust explosion risk increases significantly with increasing O2 mole fraction by reducing the minimum ignition temperature for the three tested coal dust clouds dramatically (even by 100°C). Compared with conventional combustion, the inhibiting effect of CO2 was found to be comparatively large in dust clouds, particularly for the coal dusts with high volatile content. The retardation effect of the moisture content on the ignition of dust clouds was also found to be pronounced. In addition, a modified steady-state mathematical model based on heterogeneous reaction was proposed to interpret the observed experimental phenomena and to estimate the ignition mechanism of coal dust clouds under minimum ignition temperature conditions. The analysis revealed that heterogeneous ignition dominates the ignition mechanism for sub-/bituminous coal dusts under minimum ignition temperature conditions, but the decrease of coal maturity facilitates homogeneous ignition. These results improve our understanding of the ignition behaviour and the explosion risk of coal dust clouds in oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres. PMID:26799218

  13. Application of neutron-induced and natural gamma-ray spectrometry for evaluation of coal parameters in the laboratory and in-situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental investigations of the three laboratory nuclear techniques (natural gamma-ray, neutron capture gamma-ray and neutron activation analysis) have been applied for quantitative determination of coal parameters. Natural gamma-ray measurements of carboniferous rocks of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin have shown that the specific activity of shale and mudstone is higher than that of bituminous coal. The determination of ash content, calorific value and carbon content by natural gamma-ray spectrometry was feasible. An elemental analysis of principal elements in coal was performed by neutron capture gamma-ray measurements. The major constituents of mineral components of coal were determined by means of neutron activation analysis. Fields experiments of the two neutron induced gamma-ray spectrometric logging methods (neutron-gamma and neutron activation) have been used for quantitative determination of coal quality parameters. 74 refs, 40 figs, 15 tabs

  14. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111830 Cai Hou’an(State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safety Mining,China University of Mining and Technology,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin The Discovery of Thrust Nappe Structure in Zhangwu-Heishan Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance for Coal-Searching(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(5),2010,p.1-6,5 illus.,31 refs.)Key words:coalfield prediction,nappe structure,Liaoning Province Zhangwu-Heishan area in west Liaoning Province is an important perspective area for alternative resources in the periphery of Fuxin Basin.Based on r

  15. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122522 Guo Dongxin ( School of Energy Resource,China University of Geosciences,Bei-jing 100083,China );Tang Shuheng Sequence Strata and the Coal Accumulation of Wunite Coafield,Inner Mongolia ( Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155 / P,39 ( 6 ), 2011,p.1-5,5illus.,16refs. ) Key words:sequence stratigraphy,coal accumulation regularity,Inner Mongolia Based on the study of the stratigraphy sequence of the Bayanhua Formation of Lower Cretaceous in Wunite coafield ,

  16. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 1996 Annual Summary of Coal Liquefaction and Gasification; 1996 nendo new sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gasuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    In reference to the results of the research and development under the fiscal 1996 New Sunshine Project, a report was summed up on coal liquefaction and coal gasification. As to the R and D of coal liquefaction technology, researches were conducted on liquefaction characteristics and engineering properties by coal kind, catalysts for coal liquefaction, liquefaction reaction of coal and reformation utilization of the liquefied products, liquefaction reaction mechanism and coking mechanism, solubility of coal in solvent and catalytic reaction mechanism, solvent reaction mechanism by hydrogen donor solvent, etc. Concerning the R and D of coal gasification technology, made were the basic study of eco-technology adaptable gasification technology and the study of coal gasification enhancing technology. Further, as to the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, carried out were the study in pilot plants and the support study of pilot plants. Additionally, R and D were done of the basic technology of coal liquefaction such as upgrading technology and environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction technology, and of coal hydrogasification technology. 3 refs., 81 figs., 25 tabs.

  17. Lab-Scale Investigations During Combustion of Agricultural Residues and Selected Polish Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordylewski Włodzimierz K.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary lab-scale investigations were conducted on slagging abatement in biomass-firing by fuel mixing. Three agriculture biomass fuels and olive cake were used in the experiments. Polish lignites and bituminous coals were examined as anti-sintering additives. The effects of chlorine release, potassium retention and ash sintering were examined by heating samples of biomass fuels and additives in the muffle oven and, next, firing them in the laboratory down-fired furnace at the temperature in the range of 800-1150ºC. The obtained slag samples were analysed on: chlorine and potassium content, sintering tendency and crystalline components. Among the examined coals lignite from Turów mine and bituminous coal from Bolesław Śmiały mine appeared to be the most effective in potassium retention in aluminosilicate and chlorine release from slag. Possibly the major factor of these coals which reduced ash sintering was relatively high content of kaolinite

  18. Intrinsic and extrinsic defects in a family of coal-derived graphene quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter, we report on the high frequency (239.2 and 336 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) studies performed on graphene quantum dots (GQDs), prepared through a wet chemistry route from three types of coal: (a) bituminous, (b) anthracite, and (c) coke; and from non-coal derived GQDs. The microwave frequency-, power-, and temperature-dependent ESR spectra coupled with computer-aided simulations reveal four distinct magnetic defect centers. In bituminous- and anthracite-derived GQDs, we have identified two of them as intrinsic carbon-centered magnetic defect centers (a broad signal of peak to peak width = 697 (10−4 T), g = 2.0023; and a narrow signal of peak to peak width = 60 (10−4 T), g = 2.003). The third defect center is Mn2+ (6S5/2, 3d5) (signal width = 61 (10−4 T), g = 2.0023, Aiso = 93(10−4 T)), and the fourth defect is identified as Cu2+ (2D5/2, 3d9) (g⊥ = 2.048 and g‖ = 2.279), previously undetected. Coke-derived and non-coal derived GQDs show Mn2+ and two-carbon related signals, and no Cu2+ signal. The extrinsic impurities most likely originate from the starting coal. Furthermore, Raman, photoluminescence, and ESR measurements detected no noticeable changes in the properties of the bituminous GQDs after one year. This study highlights the importance of employing high frequency ESR spectroscopy in identifying the (magnetic) defects, which are roadblocks for spin relaxation times of graphene-based materials. These defects would not have been possible to probe by other spin transport measurements

  19. Ash formation under pressurized pulverized coal combustion conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila Latorre, Aura Cecilia

    Coal combustion is a source of inorganic particulate matter (ash), which can deposit in boilers and also be emitted into the atmosphere becoming part of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). In order to decrease coal combustion emissions per unit of power produced, higher efficiency systems have been proposed, including systems operating at elevated pressures. These new operating conditions will affect pollutant formation mechanisms, particularly those associated with the conversion of mineral matter to ash. Ash particle formation mechanisms are particularly sensitive to changes in pressure as they are related to the structure of coal char particles at early stages of combustion. To assess the importance of pressure on ash particle formation, pyrolyzed chars and ash particles from pressurized pulverized combustion of two bituminous and one subbituminous U.S. coals at operating pressures up to 30 atm were studied. Pressure changes the distribution of char particle types, changing the spatial distribution of the minerals during the combustion process and therefore affecting particle formation mechanisms. Chars were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and classified into two different types (cenospheric and solid) depending on porosity and wall thickness. A correlation for estimating the amount of these cenospheric char particles was then proposed for bituminous coals based on the operating conditions and coal maceral analysis. The ash particle size distribution of the coals combusted at different operating pressures was measured using Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM). The results of the char characterization and ash particle size distribution measurements were then incorporated into an ash particle formation algorithm that was proposed and implemented. The model predicts ash particle size and composition distributions at elevated pressures under conditions of complete char burnout. Ash predictions were calculated by first

  20. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132555 Bao Yuan(School of Resources and Geosciences,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Wei Chongtao Simulation of Geological Evolution History of the Upper Permian Coal Seam No.8in Shuigonghe Syncline,Zhina Coalfield,Guizhou Province(Coal Geology&Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,40(6),2012,p.13-16,23,1illus.,1table,17refs.)

  1. Annotated bibliography on selected areas of coal mining research and development. Report prepared for the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The Congressional Research Service has completed an annotated bibliography on coal mining research and development. Although the completion of the study was delayed in order to permit CRS analysts to search the libraries of Bituminous Coal, Research Inc., and the Bureau of Mines in the Pittsburgh area, current re-emphasis on the use of coal as an energy source indicates a sustained relevance. The bibliography presents key references to coal-mining R and D under six subject headings keyed to issues of central concern in coal production: (1) mine health and safety, (2) methane recovery, (3) 1-hour rescuer, (4) use of diesels underground, (5) coal preparation, and (6) manpower development in coal mining.

  2. Coal 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  3. Occupational and traning requirements for expanded coal production (as of October 1980). [Forecasting to 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    This study was initiated because of the anticipated rapid growth in trained personnel requirements in bituminous coal mining, and because the industry had already experienced significant problems in recruiting skilled manpower in the course of its employment expansion during the 1970's. Employment in bituminous coal mining is projected to nearly double, from 234,000 in 1977 to 456,000 in 1995, as the net result of a projected threefold increase in coal output to nearly 2.0 billion in 1995 and of an expected significant improvement in overall productivity. A large proportion of current coal mining employees are in occupations which require significant amounts of training for effective work performance. Employment growth to 1955 will be most rapid in those occupations requiring the greatest training or educational preparation. The new training infrastructure which has emerged to meet these needs includes both internal, company-operated training programs and those offered by various external providers. Among the latter are: Vocational schools, community colleges, and university extension departments; public agencies, such as MSHA and state mining departments; coal industry trade associations; and vendors or training consultant groups. The Conference Board survey of coal industry training programs, conducted in late 1979, was designed to provide comprehensive data on the scope of the coal industry's own training activities and on related training issues, based on a mail questionnaire survey addressed to all companies producing 300,000 or more tons per year. The training programs are described with emphasis on time changes, regional effects and implications for a coordinated plan.

  4. Oil-generating potential of Tertiary coals and other organic-rich sediments of the Nyalau Formation, onshore Sarawak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasiah, A.W. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Geology

    1999-02-01

    The oil-generating potential of coals and other organic-rich sediments from the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene Nyalau Formation, the offshore extension of which is believed to be a major source rock, is evaluated. Coals of the Nyalau Formation are typically dominated by vitrinite, with moderate and low amounts of exinite and inertinite, respectively. Significant amounts of clay minerals are present in these coals and those containing between 15 to 65% mineral matter by volume are termed carbargilite. The samples analysed range from sub-bituminous to high-volatile bituminous rank. Good oil-generating potential is anticipated from these coals and carbargilites with moderate to rich exinite content (15-35%). This is supported by their high hydrogen indices. Petrographically, the most significant evidence of the oil-generating potential of these coals is the generation of petroleum-like materials (exsudatinite) visible under the microscope. The precursor of exsudatinite is the maceral bituminite which readily expels or mobilizes to hydrocarbon-like material in the form of oil smears.

  5. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  6. Variations in coal characteristics and their possible implications for CO2 sequestration: Tanquary injection site, southeastern Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, D.G.; Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Rupp, J.A.; Harpalani, S.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Regional Sequestration Partnership program, the potential for sequestering CO2 in the largest bituminous coal reserve in United States - the Illinois Basin - is being assessed at the Tanquary site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois. To accomplish the main project objectives, which are to determine CO2 injection rates and storage capacity, we developed a detailed coal characterization program. The targeted Springfield Coal occurs at 274m (900ft) depth, is 2.1m (7ft) thick, and is of high volatile B bituminous rank, having an average vitrinite reflectance (Ro) of 0.63%. Desorbed Springfield Coal gas content in cores from four wells ~15 to ~30m (50 to 100ft) apart varies from 4.7-6.6cm3/g (150 to 210scf/ton, dmmf) and consists, generally, of >92% CH4 with lesser amounts of N2 and then CO2. Adsorption isotherms indicate that at least three molecules of CO2 can be stored for each displaced CH4 molecule. Whole seam petrographic composition, which affects sequestration potential, averages 76.5% vitrinite, 4.2% liptinite, 11.6% inertinite, and 7.7% mineral matter. Sulfur content averages 1.59%. Well-developed coal cleats with 1 to 2cm spacing contain partial calcite and/or kaolinite fillings that may decrease coal permeability. The shallow geophysical induction log curves show much higher resistivity in the lower part of the Springfield Coal than the medium or deep curves because of invasion by freshwater drilling fluid, possibly indicating higher permeability. Gamma-ray and bulk density vary, reflecting differences in maceral, ash, and pyrite content. Because coal properties vary across the basin, it is critical to characterize injection site coals to best predict the potential for CO2 injection and storage capacity. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  7. A study of bituminous pavements to determine a correlation between pavement structure designs and tripping of asphalt cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, B. R.

    1984-03-01

    After detecting a few cases of stripping of asphalt cement from the aggregate in bituminous pavement, there was concern that stripping might be a widespread problem in the state. It is agreed that water is the cause of stripping, and it was the opinion of some that pavements on granular bases would be less likely to strip because of supposedly better drainage characteristics. Differently designed pavement structures in all areas of the state were investigated to determine if there is a correlation between base and pavement design and stripping. Stripping was not as widespread as had been feared and there was less stripping in fulldepth bituminous base and pavement constructed over a lime-treated subgrade than in pavements constructed oer granular bases. This was contrary to what some had theorized.

  8. Study on the cause of the fire and explosion incident at Bituminization Demonstration Facility of PNC Tokai Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 11, 1997, a fire and explosion incident occurred in Bituminization Demonstration Facility (BDF) at Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). The cause of the incident was thoroughly investigated and after thirty meetings of 'Investigation Committee of Science and Technology Agency (STA)'. STA reported possible cause of this incident. Continually detailed investigation was discussed at 'Follow-up Committee of STA'. Based on the results of five meetings, JNC concluded that the main cause of fire was frictional heating and viscous heating in the extruder, which provided an unusually high temperature in the bituminized product at filling, since there was no chemical analysis data suggesting the generation of chemical heat. It is considered that these excessive heat generations were due to the decreased feed rate of liquid waste to the extruder. The Follow-up Committee almost agreed to this conclusion. This paper describes general information concerning the incident and details of the cause of the incident. (author)

  9. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, Frank J; Schields, Gene L; Jha, Mehesh C; Moro, Nick

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel™ column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications.

  10. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid--solid reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani [U.S. Department of Energy/NETL; Riley, Jarrett [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tian, Hanjing [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Richards, George [U.S. Department of Energy/NETL

    2016-01-01

    Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe2O4) and calcium ferrite (CaFe2O4). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe2O4 and CaFe2O4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO2) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  11. Coal-oil coprocessing at HTI - development and improvement of the technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalzer, R.H.; Lee, L.K.; Hu, J.; Comolli, A. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Co-Processing refers to the combined processing of coal and petroleum-derived heavy oil feedstocks. The coal feedstocks used are those typically utilized in direct coal liquefaction: bituminous, subbituminous, and lignites. Petroleum-derived oil, is typically a petroleum residuum, containing at least 70 W% material boiling above 525{degrees}C. The combined coal and oil feedstocks are processed simultaneously with the dual objective of liquefying the coal and upgrading the petroleum-derived residuum to lower boiling (<525{degrees}C) premium products. HTI`s investigation of the Co-Processing technology has included work performed in laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The concept of co-processing technology is quite simple and a natural outgrowth of the work done with direct coal liquefaction. A 36 month program to evaluate new process concepts in coal-oil coprocessing at the bench-scale was begun in September 1994 and runs until September 1997. Included in this continuous bench-scale program are provisions to examine new improvements in areas such as: interstage product separation, feedstock concentrations (coal/oil), improved supported/dispersed catalysts, optimization of reactor temperature sequencing, and in-line hydrotreating. This does not preclude other ideas from DOE contracts and other sources that can lead to improved product quality and economics. This research work has led to important findings which significantly increased liquid yields, improved product quality, and improved process economics.

  12. The bituminization in Marcoule and la Hague plants. Description of the processes and the fire risk prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical precipitation is an efficient process to decontaminate liquid effluents and has been selected as early as 1966 for the liquid waste treatment of MARCOULE. The process has been designed by the French CEA and improved along the time. The first implementation in LA HAGUE was for the STE 2 facility (Station de Traitement d'Effluents no 2). A new facility, STE 3, has been commissioned in 1989 in LA HAGUE, benefiting from these previous experience and therefore contributing into a drastic reduction of liquid discharges. The sludges coming from the treatment in MARCOULE and STE 3 are bituminized into continuous extruders. The resulting waste is kept in interim storage, waiting for final disposal. The industrial production, up to now, is close to 10000 drums (55 gallons) in LA HAGUE and 60000 drums in MARCOULE. A retrieval operation of the MARCOULE drums from the present storage has been launched to send them into a recently built interim storage operating since the beginning of 2000. At the present time, in LA HAGUE, evaporation has been preferred to chemical precipitation for the treatment of liquid effluents. After concentration, the effluents go to the vitrification and the volume of resulting waste is much smaller. However, bituminization is still the preferred option for the 10000 m3 of sludges resulting from the STE 2 operations which are being stored in tanks. A complete reevaluation of the operation safety measures of bituminization has been made lately in both plants following recent incidents on other installations. The paper describes the chemical precipitation and the bituminization processes and focuses on safety measures which are implemented for prevention, detection and fight. (authors)

  13. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  14. Relations between flash pyrolysis reactivity and oil/gas products from coals of different rank; Sekitankado no kotonaru shushu no sekitan no flash pyrolysis hannosei to gas oyobi eki seiseibutsu no kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, T.; Kishino, M.; Sakanishi, K.; Korai, Y.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    Curie point flash pyrolysis (FP) reactivity was studied experimentally using three kinds of coals with different coal ranks such as Yallourn brown coal, Tanitoharum sub-bituminous coal and Wandoan sub-bituminous coal. Experiment was performed using a curie point pyrolyzer in carrier gas of 20ml/min in gas flow rate at 450, 590 and 740{degree}C for 5sec. The experimental results were as follows. Each gas component obviously increased at 450-590{degree}C, however, C4-C6 gases drastically decreased at 590-740{degree}C accompanying reduction of the whole gas quantity. All of each polar component remarkably increased at 450-590{degree}C. Yallourn brown coal with high Owt%, in particular, contained a large amount of alkyl-hydroxybenzene group. The amount of cresol of all of three coal specimens also increased at 740{degree}C. It was thus suggested that this is coal constituent molecules derived from cutting of methylene-ether bridged bond by higher-temperature FP. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  16. Analysis and modeling of 3D complex modulus tests on hot and warm bituminous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Nguyen Hoang; Sauzéat, Cédric; Di Benedetto, Hervé; González-León, Juan A.; Barreto, Gilles; Nicolaï, Aurélia; Jakubowski, Marc

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the results of laboratory testing of hot and warm bituminous mixtures containing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP). Complex modulus measurements, using the tension-compression test on cylindrical specimens, were conducted to determine linear viscoelastic (LVE) behavior. Sinusoidal cyclic loadings, with strain amplitude of approximately 50ṡ10-6, were applied at several temperatures (from -25 to +45 °C) and frequencies (from 0.03 Hz to 10 Hz). In addition to axial stresses and strains, radial strains were also measured. The complex modulus E ∗ and complex Poisson's ratios ν ∗ were then obtained in two perpendicular directions. Measured values in these two directions do not indicate anisotropy on Poisson's ratio. The time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP) was verified with good approximation in one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) conditions for the same values of shift factor. Experimental results were modeled using the 2S2P1D model previously developed at the University of Lyon/ENTPE. In addition, specific analysis showed that eventual damage created during complex modulus test is very small and is equivalent to the effect of an increase of temperature of about 0.25 °C.

  17. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  18. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  19. Investigations into the pyrolytic behaviour of coal/biomass blends using thermogravimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuthaluru, H.B. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2004-04-01

    Investigations into the pyrolytic behaviour during co-pyrolysis of coal, biomass materials and coal/biomass blends prepared at different ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70 and 50:50) have been conducted using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus. The coal sample selected was Collie sub-bituminous coal from Western Australia, while wood waste (WW) and wheat straw (WS) were used as biomass samples. Three thermal events were identified during the pyrolysis. The first two were dominated by the biomass pyrolysis, while the third was linked to the coal pyrolysis, which occurred at much higher temperatures. No interactions were seen between the coal and biomass during co-pyrolysis. The pyrolytic characteristics of the blends followed those of the parent fuels in an additive manner. Among the tested blends, 20:80 blends showed the lowest activation energies of 90.9 and 78.7 kJ mol{sup -1} for coal/WW and coal/WS blends respectively. The optimum blend ratio for pyrolysis of coal/WS was 50:50 with a high degradation rate in all the thermal events and a higher mass loss over the course of the co-pyrolysis compared to coal/WW blends examined. The reaction orders in these experiments were in the range of 0.21-1.60, thus having a significant effect on the overall reaction rate. Besides the pyrolysis of coal alone, the 50:50 coal/biomass blends had the highest reaction rate, ranging 1x10{sup 9}-2x10{sup 9} min{sup -1}. The experimental results may provide useful data for power generation industries for the development of co-firing options with biomass. (Author)

  20. The application of spectrum standardization method for carbon analysis in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiongwei; Fu, Yangting; Li, Zheng; Liu, Jianming; Ni, Weidou

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbon content in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is limited by its low measurement precision and accuracy. A spectrum standardization method was proposed to achieve both reproducible and accurate results for the quantitative analysis of carbon content in coal with LIBS. The proposed method utilized the molecular carbon emissions to compensate the diminution of atomic carbon emission caused by matrix effect. The compensated carbon line intensities were further converted into an assumed standard state with fixed plasma temperature, electron density, and total number density of elemental carbon, which is proportional to its concentration in the coal samples. In addition, in order to obtained better compensation for total carbon number density fluctuations, an iterative algorithm was applied, which is different from our previous standardization calculations. The modified spectrum standardization model was applied to the measurement of carbon content in 24 bituminous coal sa...

  1. Priority pollutants and associated constituents in untreated and treated discharges from coal mining or processing facilities in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Keith B.C. Brady,

    2015-01-01

    Clean sampling and analysis procedures were used to quantify more than 70 inorganic constituents, including 35 potentially toxic or hazardous constituents, organic carbon, and other characteristics of untreated (influent) and treated (effluent) coal-mine discharges (CMD) at 38 permitted coal-mining or coal-processing facilities in the bituminous coalfield and 4 facilities in the anthracite coalfield of Pennsylvania. Of the 42 facilities sampled during 2011, 26 were surface mines, 11 were underground mines, and 5 were coal refuse disposal operations. Treatment of CMD with caustic soda (NaOH), lime (CaO or Ca(OH)2), flocculent, or limestone was ongoing at 21%, 40%, 6%, and 4% of the facilities, respectively; no chemicals were added at the remaining facilities. All facilities with CMD treatment incorporated structures for active or passive aeration and settling of metal-rich precipitate.

  2. Treatment of Egyptian Maghara coal by plasma ozone synthesized by silent discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Salem, M A; Garamoon, A A; Hassouba, M A

    2003-01-01

    A sample of pyrite rich bituminous coal collected from the main coal seam of Maghara mine, northern sinai, was treated by ozone plasma. The latter was synthesized using silent discharge method (10 kv a.c. and 50 hz). The room temperature Moessbauer spectra of untreated coal sample was easily fitted to two doublet, whose parameters matched those of pyrite (FeS sub 2) and sulfate (FeSO sub 4.H sub 2 O) in addition to hematite. After treatment by ozone plasma, a doublet ascribed to pyrite was observed. The extent of pyrite oxidation to jarosite (Fe sub 2 (SO sub 4) sub 3. nH sub 2 O) was monitored by their relative spectral areas, the incomplete oxidation of pyrite may be attributed to the presence of calcium sulfate layer which acts a screen of ozone.

  3. An assessment of acid wash and bioleaching pre-treating options to remove mercury from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura C. Dronen; April E. Moore; Evguenii I. Kozliak; Wayne S. Seames [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is expected to begin regulating the release of vapor-phase mercury from coal-fired power plants in the year 2007. Chemical pre-treatment methods were investigated for mercury removal effectiveness from pulverized low-sulfur North Dakota lignite coal. More limited results were obtained for a pulverized high-sulfur Blacksville bituminous coal. A two-step acid wash treatment showed removal rates of 60 90%, compared to one-step treatments with concentrated HCl, which yielded removals of 30 38%. Removal effectiveness is similar for first step solvents of water, pH 5.0 acid, or pH 2.0 acid followed by concentrated HCl as the second step solvent, and is independent of first step incubation time. Neither of two bacterial strains, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and T. thiooxidans, was found effective for mercury removal. 23 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations

  5. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  6. Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob

    This Ph.D. thesis describes an experimental and modeling investigation of the thermal conversion of coal and an experimental investigation of the emission of NO from char combustion in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres. The motivation for the work has been the prospective use of the technology “Oxy......-Fuel Combustion” as a mean of CO2 abatement in large scale energy conversion. Entrained Flow Reactor (EFR) experiments have been conducted in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 mixtures in the temperature interval 1173 K – 1673 K using inlet O2 concentrations between 5 – 28 vol. %. Bituminous coal has been used as fuel in all....... % it was found that char conversion rate was lowered in O2/CO2 compared to O2/N2. This is caused by the lower diffusion coefficient of O2 in CO2 (~ 22 %) that limits the reaction rate in zone III compared to combustion in O2/N2. Using char sampled in the EFR experiments ThermoGravimetric Analyzer (TGA...

  7. Etude Climat no. 42 'Power sector in Phase 2 of the EU ETS: fewer CO2 emissions, but just as much coal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Reports' offer in-depth analyses on a given subject. This issue addresses the following points: Since 2005, 1,453 power and combined heat and power (CHP) generation plants have participated in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme, or EU ETS, which requires them to comply with an annual CO2 emission cap set by the European Commission. Thermal power plants that use coal (bituminous coal, lignite, and other kinds of coal) and natural gas as their primary fuel jointly account for 86% of the generation capacity included in the EU ETS. There are twice as many gas-fired power plants as coal-fired ones, with 671 gas-fired power plants compared with 352 coal-fired ones

  8. The interpretation of thermoanalytic determinations of superior coals in agreement with the mineralogical structure of the inorganic mass and the mineralogy of the loamy deposits accompanying them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matei, A.; Traista, E.; Rebrisoreanu, M.; Barabas, G. [University of Petrosani, Petrosani (Romania)

    2002-05-01

    Jiu Valley coalfield is the most important bituminous coal deposit in Romania. Coal studies made by thermal analysis pick up some difficulties. Because coal is constituted into two large ranges of substances, organic and inorganic matter, interferences appear during the thermal analyses between the organic matter oxidation on one hand, which causes thermal effects accompanied by mass loss, and the inorganic structure modification on the other hand, which generally causes endothermic effects sometimes accompanied by mass loss. For this reason, the derivatograms are difficult to interprete and they may often be made between temperature ranges. In this paper are presented the results obtained for coal sampled from the eastern part of Jiu Valley coalfield. In order to obtain useful information for coal mineral constituents determination, excepting classical methods such as chemical analysis, some special methods like X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and infrared absorption were used.

  9. Investigation on thermochemical behaviour of low rank Malaysian coal, oil palm biomass and their blends during pyrolysis via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idris, S.S.; Rahman, N.A.; Ismail, K.; Alias, A.B.; Rashid, Z.A.; Aris, M.J. [University of Teknol MARA Malaysia, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Chemical Engineering

    2010-06-15

    This study aims to investigate the behaviour of Malaysian sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian), oil palm biomass (empty fruit bunches (EFB), kernel shell (PKS) and mesocarp fibre (PMF)) and their respective blends during pyrolysis using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The coal/palm biomass blends were prepared at six different weight ratios and experiments were carried out under dynamic conditions using nitrogen as inert gas at various heating rates to ramp the temperature from 25 to 900{sup o}C. The derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) results show that thermal decomposition of EFB, PMF and PKS exhibit one, two and three distinct evolution profiles, respectively. Apparently, the thermal profiles of the coal/oil palm biomass blends appear to correlate with the percentage of biomass added in the blends, thus, suggesting lack of interaction between the coal and palm biomass. First-order reaction model were used to determine the kinetics parameters for the pyrolysis of coal, palm biomass and their respective blends.

  10. A Study of Adsorptive Characteristics of Australian Coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Y. P.; Tsai, L. L.

    2012-04-01

    Ever since the Kyoto Protocol, controlling carbon dioxide emission and reducing its content in atmosphere are very important environmental issues up to today. One of the effective methods for permanent sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 is to inject CO2 into deep, unminable coal seams and recover coal bed methane at the same time. CO2-ECBM technology had been proved to be very promising to meet the needs of both environment and energy. Beside other external environment factors, capacity of CO2 adsorption and CH4 desorption are the most influencing factors in selection of sites for the geological storage of CO2. Therefore, the objective of this study is to understand the relationship between gas adsorption and CO2 sequestration, by various experiments for the characterization of Australian of coals. Generally speaking, coal seam gas comprises mostly of CH4, CO2, C2H6, and N2. However, some of the Australian coals were reported with significant amount of CO2 up to 90%, which might strongly affect their capacity of CO2 capture and storage (CCS). High to medium volatile bituminous coals from Sydney Basin and Bowen Basin, southeast Australia were selected in this study. Experiments include maceral composition and vitrinite reflectance measurements, petrographic analysis, Proximate analysis, Ultimate analysis, specific surface area analysis as well as CO2 and CH4 adsorption experiments were performed. Parameters for difference adsorption functions (Langmuir, BET, D-R and D-A) were then calculated to fit their adsorption isotherms the best fitting curve can then be found. Among these adsorption functions, Langmuir is the most basic and commonly used function theory. The results of all experiments were synthesized to discuss the relations among each other, so as to establish the relationship between gas adsorption and coal characteristics.

  11. Oxydesulfurization of coal by acidic iron sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mixon, D.A.; Vermeulen, T.

    1981-08-01

    To facilitate by-product recovery and eliminate elemental sulfur formation in coal oxydesulfurization, high-sulfur bituminous coal has been treated with aqueous ferric sulfate/sulfuric acid and oxygen at 100 to 150/sup 0/C. The rate of pyrite oxidation increases with oxygen partial pressure, temperature, and fineness of grinding. This reaction rate is relatively insensitive to sulfuric acid and ferric sulfate concentrations, so that pyrite removal may be satisfactorily performed in solutions containing 25% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and 12% Fe/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ (weight percentages relative to total H/sub 2/O plus H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/); preliminary data suggest that such a leaching solution is only mildly corrosive to T316 stainless steel, at 150/sup 0/C or below, in the presence of oxygen. To provide an accurate assessment of coal oxydesulfurization stoichiometry, an analytical technique based on uv spectrophotometry has been developed for the determination of elemental sulfur in coal. Prepared coal samples are extracted for 24 hours with cyclohexane. Other exploratory oxydesulfurization runs have shown that vanadium oxides are not effective catalysts at 100/sup 0/C, with oxygen. Nor are lauryl sulfate or sulfates of zinc, copper, or manganese effective additives in the ferric sulfate/sulfuric acid/oxygen system at 150/sup 0/C. Elemental chlorine has been shown to be capable of removing significant amounts of organic sulfur from coal, at 74/sup 0/C, but suffers the drawback of chlorinating the coal's orgaic matrix. Hydrogen peroxide in aqueous sulfuric acid is an effective reagent for pyrite removal at 100/sup 0/C, but is unduly expensive.

  12. Experimental investigation on NO{sub x} emission and carbon burnout from a radially biased pulverized coal whirl burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Shan; Hui, Shi' en; Zhou, Qulan; Xu, Tongmo; Hu, Hongli [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Taisheng [Dongfang Boiler Group Co., Ltd., Zigong, Sichuan 643001 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Experiments have been performed on 1 MW pulverized coal (pc) furnace in order to investigate the characteristics of coal combustion and NO{sub x} emission from a new type of radially biased dual register whirl burner. The burner is characterized by a primary air pipe with a continuously changing cross-section and an impact ring. The mixture of pulverized coal and air inside the primary pipe is split into two streams, which are the outer pc rich annular jet and the inner pc lean annular jet respectively. Three Chinese coals, which are high rank bituminous coal, low rank bituminous coal and meager coal respectively, are used in the experiments. We examine the influences of various parameters such as the relative position of the over-fire air (OFA) nozzle, over-fire air ratio (19.1%), primary air ratio, inner secondary air ratio, outer secondary air ratio, inner secondary air swirling intensity, and outer secondary air swirling intensity on NO{sub x} formation and unburned carbon in fly ash. With the primary air ratio increasing from 13.4% to 23.4%, the value of the NO{sub x} emission of the SH coal decreases by 26.7% at first, and then increases by 21.7%. In contrast, the value of the carbon in fly ash (C{sub FA}) increases by 40.1% at first, and then decreases by 58.3%. According to the experimental results, the influence of each individual parameter on NO{sub x} formation and unburned carbon in fly ash agrees well with the existing literature. In this study, the influences of various combinations of these parameters are also examined, thus providing some reference for the design of the radial biased whirl burner, the configuration of the furnace and the distribution of the air. (author)

  13. Refining and end use study of coal liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two direct coal liquids were evaluated by linear programming analysis to determine their value as petroleum refinery feedstock. The first liquid, DL1, was produced from bitiuminous coal using the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc.(HTI) two-stage hydrogenation process in Proof of Concept Run No.1, POC-1. The second liquid, DL2,was produced from sub-bituminous coal using a three-stage HTI process in Proof of Concept Run No. 2, POC-2; the third stage being a severe hydrogenation process. A linear programming (LP) model was developed which simulates a generic 150,000 barrel per day refinery in the Midwest U.S. Data from upgrading tests conducted on the coal liquids and related petroleum fractions in the pilot plant testing phase of the Refining and End Use Study was inputed into the model. The coal liquids were compared against a generic petroleum crude feedstock. under two scenarios. In the first scenario, it was assumed that the refinery capacity and product slate/volumes were fixed. The coal liquids would be used to replace a portion of the generic crude. The LP results showed that the DL1 material had essentially the same value as the generic crude. Due to its higher quality, the DL2 material had a value of approximately 0.60 $/barrel higher than the petroleum crude. In the second scenario, it was assumed that a market opportunity exists to increase production by one-third. This requires a refinery expansion. The feedstock for this scenario could be either 100% petroleum crude or a combination of petroleum crude and the direct coal liquids. Linear programming analysis showed that the capital cost of the refinery expansion was significantly less when coal liquids are utilized. In addition, the pilot plant testing showed that both of the direct coal liquids demonstrated superior catalytic cracking and naphtha reforming yields. Depending on the coal liquid flow rate, the value of the DL1 material was 2.5-4.0 $/barrel greater than the base petroleum crude, while the DL2

  14. EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Final technical progress report, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-02-01

    All objectives in the EDS Cooperative Agreement for Phases III-B through V have been achieved for the RCLU pilot plants. EDS operations have been successfully demonstrated in both the once-through and bottoms recycle modes for coals of rank ranging from bituminous to lignitic. An extensive data base detailing the effects of process variable changes on yields, conversions and product qualities for each coal has been established. Continuous bottoms recycle operations demonstrated increased overall conversion and improved product slate flexibility over once-through operations. The hydrodynamics of the liquefaction reactor in RCLU were characterized through tests using radioactive tracers in the gas and slurry phases. RCLU was shown to have longer liquid residence times than ECLP. Support work during ECLP operations contributed to resolving differences between ECLP conversions and product yields and those of the small pilot plants. Solvent hydrogenation studies during Phases IIIB-V of the EDS program focused on long term activity maintenance of the Ni-MO-10 catalyst. Process variable studies for solvents from various coals (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignitic), catalyst screening evaluations, and support of ECLP solvent hydrogenation operations. Product quality studies indicate that highly cyclic EDS naphthas represent unique and outstanding catalytic reforming feedstocks. High volumes of high octane motor gasoline blendstock are produced while liberating a considerable quantity of high purity hydrogen.

  15. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E. Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  16. Application of infiltrated LSCM-GDC oxide anode in direct carbon/coal fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiangling; Arenillas, Ana; Irvine, John T S

    2016-08-15

    Hybrid direct carbon/coal fuel cells (HDCFCs) utilise an anode based upon a molten carbonate salt with an oxide conducting solid electrolyte for direct carbon/coal conversion. They can be fuelled by a wide range of carbon sources, and offer higher potential chemical to electrical energy conversion efficiency and have the potential to decrease CO2 emissions compared to coal-fired power plants. In this study, the application of (La, Sr)(Cr, Mn)O3 (LSCM) and (Gd, Ce)O2 (GDC) oxide anodes was explored in a HDCFC system running with two different carbon fuels, an organic xerogel and a raw bituminous coal. The electrochemical performance of the HDCFC based on a 1-2 mm thick 8 mol% yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and the GDC-LSCM anode fabricated by wet impregnation procedures was characterized and discussed. The infiltrated oxide anode showed a significantly higher performance than the conventional Ni-YSZ anode, without suffering from impurity formation under HDCFC operation conditions. Total polarisation resistance (Rp) reached 0.8-0.9 Ω cm(2) from DCFC with an oxide anode on xerogel and bituminous coal at 750 °C, with open circuit voltage (OCV) values in the range 1.1-1.2 V on both carbon forms. These indicated the potential application of LSCM-GDC oxide anode in HDCFCs. The chemical compatibility of LSCM/GDC with carbon/carbonate investigation revealed the emergence of an A2BO4 type oxide in place of an ABO3 perovskite structure in the LSCM in a reducing environment, due to Li attack as a result of intimate contact between the LSCM and Li2CO3, with GDC being stable under identical conditions. Such reaction between LSCM and Li2CO3 was not observed on a LSCM-YSZ pellet treated with Li-K carbonate in 5% H2/Ar at 700 °C, nor on a GDC-LSCM anode after HDCFC operation. The HDCFC durability tests of GDC-LSCM oxide on a xerogel and on raw bituminous coal were performed under potentiostatic operation at 0.7 V at 750 °C. The degradation mechanisms were

  17. Preliminary investigation of the effects of coal-water slurry fuels on the combustion in GE coal fueled diesel engine (Task 1. 1. 2. 2. 1, Fuels)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    In prior work with the coal fired diesel research engine, a necessity to determine the sensitivity of the engine to a wider range of fuels was resolved and included in the R and D Test Plan submitted on 2/9/89. In general, the economic viability and universal acceptance of the commercial engine will be a factor of its ability to tolerate the widest range of source fuels with minimal fuel beneficiation. As detailed in the R and D Test Plan, a preliminary investigation on the effects of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels on the combustion in a GE single cylinder test engine was conducted. The following conclusions are obtained from this investigation. All the test CWS fuels were successfully burned in the GE engine combustion system. They include: 3 to 15 microns mean particle size; 0.7 to 2.8% ash level; KY Blue Gem and PA Mariana bituminous coal, WY Kemmer and Spring Creek Sub-Bituminous coal; coal beneficiated with physical and chemical processes; two kinds of additives for OTISCA CWS; and burnout is not effected by ash or particle size within the test range. For each kind of CWS fuel, the detail design parameters of the fuel injection system has to be compatible. With sufficiently high fuel injection pressure, the 3 micron mean particle size OTISCA fuel burns faster than the 5 micron ones. For OTISCA fuel, the burn rate using Ammonium Lignosulfonate as additive is faster than using Ammonium Condensed Naphthalene Sulfonate. Appendices contain data on heat release, fuel characterization reports from two laboratories, general engine test data, and particulate size distribution. 3 refs.

  18. Mobile phase in coals: its nature and modes of release. Technical progress report, September-November 1985 and December 1985-February 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derbyshire, F.J.

    1986-04-01

    Studies have been continued in probing the molecular phase-network concept of coal structure through the catalytic hydrogenation of coals in the absence of solvent. Experiments have now been conducted using a Spanish lignite and a sample of Illinois No. 6, in addition to three coals examined previously. Earlier findings, that low-rank coals are more reactive than bituminous coals at 350/sup 0/C, have been confirmed. In an attempt to minimize the loss of volatile liquids during product work-up, the temperature used for solvent stripping was lowered from 110/sup 0/C to 50/sup 0/C. This expedient has not proved to be satisfactory as it results in excessive retention of solvent in the products. Two series of coal samples have been prepared by the catalytic hydrogenation of a bituminous and a subbituminous coal, for different times at 400 C and will be examined by Dr. Lynch (CSIRO, Australia) using /sup 1/H NMR. The principal aim of the study is to investigate the change in coal molecular phase content, as determined by pulsed /sup 1/H free induction decay, which is brought about by partial liquefaction. To address the question of whether the molecular phase plays an important role in the early stages of dry catalytic hydrogenation, a number of experiments were performed on coals which had first been extracted in chloroform. The removal of the chloroform-soluble liquids appeared to have little effect upon the initial rate of liquefaction. It is suggested that the MoS/sub 2/ catalyst may be mobile within the coal structure at the reaction temperatures used, which could explain the effectiveness of this catalyst at short reaction times. A preparative scale, high performance liquid chromatography system has been assembled to allow the separation of liquefaction products into different compound classes. The separated fraction will be examined in detail by GC-MS. 7 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Research on coal staged conversion poly-generation system based on fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingjiang Ni; Chao Li; Mengxiang Fang; Qinhui Wang; Zhongyang Luo; Kefa Cen

    2014-01-01

    A new coal staged conversion poly-generation system combined coal combustion and pyrolysis has been developed for clean and high efficient utilization of coal. Coal is the first pyrolysed in a fluidized pyrolyzer. The pyrolysis gas is then purified and used for chemical product or liquid fuel production. Tar is collected during purification and can be processed to extract high value product and to make liquid fuels by hydro-refining. Semi-coke from the pyrolysis reactor is burned in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor for heat or power generation. The system can realize coal multi-product generation and has a great potential to increase coal utilization value. A 1 MW poly-generation system pilot plant and a 12 MW CFB gas, tar, heat and power poly-generation system was erected. The experimental study focused on the two fluidized bed operation and characterization of gas, tar and char yields and compositions. The results showed that the system could operate stable, and produce about 0.12 m3/kg gas with 22 MJ/m3 heating value and about 10 wt%tar when using Huainan bituminous coal under pyrolysis temperature between 500 and 600 ?C. The produced gases were mainly H2, CH4, CO, CO2, C2H4, C2H6, C3H6 and C3H8. The CFB combustor can burn semi-coke steadily. The application prospect of the new system was discussed.

  20. Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of The Fuel Society of Japan (1991). 28th Coal Science Conference/91st Coke Meeting; (Sha) nenryo kyokai godo taikai happyo ronbunshu (1991). Dai 28 kai sekitan kagaku kaigi dai 91 kai cokes tokubetsukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-07

    Relating to coke, studies are made on the rapid coke production method, oven investigation during carbonization, and operational management/control. As to coal science, studies are mainly on the brown coal two-stage liquefaction (BCL) method, and data on the pilot plant and PSU are reported. Concerning bituminous coal liquefaction, PSU data mostly including the NEDOL process, and characteristics of liquefaction residue and its effective utilization by thermal decomposition are reported. Regarding the liquefaction mechanism, an experimentally extensive study on catalyst, solvent and reaction conditions is made using model materials and coal itself on the bench scale and also in the pilot plant. Engineering subjects on residue, solvent deashing, scale attachment and coprocessing are also reported. Relations of decomposition process to coal chemical structure changes and reaction conditions are investigated. As to coal gasification, studies, which are not many, are conducted on material balance, heat balance, and image characteristics of char for gasification and factors controlling reactivity.

  1. Relations between functionality and macromolecular properties of alterated coals: the behaviour in solubility and swelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Gruber, R.; Bimer, J.; Salbut, P.D.; Djega-Mariadassou, G.; Kruchinin, A.V.; Kuznetsova, L.I. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemico-Metallurgical Processes, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Describes the study of the effects of chemical alteration of brown and bituminous coals on the solubility and swelling behaviour. A variety of chemical procedures such as ion-exchange with HCl, O-methylation and reductive methylation, reduction with LiAlH{sub 4} and with K/isopropanol in THF and oxidation with performic acid was applied in order to vary the oxygen functionality, the content of the alkyl substitutes and the proportion of aromatic to hydroaromatic rings. The extent of degradation of the macromolecular structure was evaluated as a function of chemical alteration. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  3. A new model of coal-water interaction and relevance for dewatering. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suuberg, E.M.; Yun, Y.; Lilly, W.D.; Leung, K.; Gates, T.; Otake, Y.; Deevi, S.C.

    1995-02-01

    This project was concerned with developing an improved understanding of how moisture is held in coals. There is a concern that the historically held view, that capillary condensation in pores plays a significant role, could not be correct, since the coal shrinks and swells in response to moisture loss and gain. Thus there is no well-defined pore system for holding the moisture. This appears true for a range of ranks from lignite to high volatile bituminous coal. Instead, it appears that something more like classical swelling of coals in solvents is responsible. This study examined this hypothesis by various means, considering both the mixing thermodynamics of coal and water (or coal and other swelling solvents) and by examining coal`s elastic response. The conclusion is that water does indeed behave like many other swelling solvents, but is a somewhat poor swelling solvent. The structure of the water swollen coal appears to remain fairly glassy, implying that many non-covalent crosslinks remain unbroken. The water interacts with coal only at certain types of adsorption sites. This is consistent with a second historical view that polar functionality is responsible for water retention. The filling of these sites, somewhat surprisingly, appeared to involve a strong enthalpic driving force, rather than the entropic driving force that characterizes solvent swelling in other solvents. The practical importance of these results for thermal dewatering processes is that the historical view is supported. That is, that pyrolytic polar group removal is necessary. An alternative suggestion, based upon attempts to further crosslink coal, has not received support.

  4. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  5. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  6. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  7. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  8. Studies of the fate of sulfur trioxide in coal-fired utility boilers based on modified selected condensation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Zhou, Hongcang; Jiang, Wu; Chen, Chien-Wei; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2010-05-01

    The formation of sulfur trioxide (SO(3)) in coal-fired utility boilers can have negative effects on boiler performance and operation, such as fouling and corrosion of equipment, efficiency loss in the air preheater (APH), increase in stack opacity, and the formation of PM(2.5). Sulfur trioxide can also compete with mercury when bonding with injected activated carbons. Tests in a lab-scale reactor confirmed there are major interferences between fly ash and SO(3) during SO(3) sampling. A modified SO(3) procedure to maximize the elimination of measurement biases, based on the inertial-filter-sampling and the selective-condensation-collecting of SO(3), was applied in SO(3) tests in three full-scale utility boilers. For the two units burning bituminous coal, SO(3) levels starting at 20 to 25 ppmv at the inlet to the selective catalytic reduction (SCR), increased slightly across the SCR, owing to catalytic conversion of SO(2) to SO(3,) and then declined in other air pollutant control device (APCD) modules downstream to approximately 5 ppmv and 15 ppmv at the two sites, respectively. In the unit burning sub-bituminous coal, the much lower initial concentration of SO(3) estimated to be approximately 1.5 ppmv at the inlet to the SCR was reduced to about 0.8 ppmv across the SCR and to about 0.3 ppmv at the exit of the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD). The SO(3) removal efficiency across the WFGD scrubbers at the three sites was generally 35% or less. Reductions in SO(3) across either the APH or the dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in units burning high-sulfur bituminous coal were attributed to operating temperatures being below the dew point of SO(3).

  9. Mercury capture by selected Bulgarian fly ashes: Influence of coal rank and fly ash carbon pore structure on capture efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, I.J.; Hower, J.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Vassilev, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury capture by fly ash C was investigated at five lignite- and subbituminous-coal-burning Bulgarian power plants (Republika, Bobov Dol, Maritza East 2, Maritza East 3, and Sliven). Although the C content of the ashes is low, never exceeding 1.6%, the Hg capture on a unit C basis demonstrates that the low-rank-coal-derived fly ash carbons are more efficient in capturing Hg than fly ash carbons from bituminous-fired power plants. While some low-C and low-Hg fly ashes do not reveal any trends of Hg versus C, the 2nd and, in particular, the 3rd electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows at the Republika power plant do have sufficient fly ash C range and experience flue gas sufficiently cool to capture measurable amounts of Hg. The Republika 3rd ESP row exhibits an increase in Hg with increasing C, as observed in other power plants, for example, in Kentucky power plants burning Appalachian-sourced bituminous coals. Mercury/C decreases with an increase in fly ash C, suggesting that some of the C is isolated from the flue gas stream and does not contribute to Hg capture. Mercury capture increases with an increase in Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and micropore surface area. The differences in Hg capture between the Bulgarian plants burning low-rank coal and high volatile bituminous-fed Kentucky power plants suggests that the variations in C forms resulting from the combustion of the different ranks also influence the efficiency of Hg capture. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Organic petrology and geochemistry of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl, north-central Afghanistan: Depositional environment and source rock potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Sanfilipo, John

    2016-01-01

    Organic geochemistry and petrology of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl outcrop samples from Madr village in north-central Afghanistan were characterized via an integrated analytical approach to evaluate depositional environment and source rock potential. Multiple proxies suggest the organic-rich (TOC ∼6 wt.%) bituminous marls are ‘immature’ for oil generation (e.g., vitrinite Ro  1) indicating organic input from marine algae and/or bacterial biomass, and sterane/hopane ratios are low (0.12–0.14). Monoaromatic steroids are dominated by C28clearly indicating a marine setting. High gammacerane index values (∼0.9) are consistent with anoxia stratification and may indicate intermittent saline-hypersaline conditions. Stable C isotope ratios also suggest a marine depositional scenario for the Suzak samples, consistent with the presence of marine foraminifera including abundant planktic globigerinida(?) and rare benthic discocyclina(?) and nummulites(?). Biomarker 2α-methylhopane for photosynthetic cyanobacteria implies shallow photic zone deposition of Madr marls and 3β-methylhopane indicates presence of methanotrophic archaea in the microbial consortium. The data presented herein are consistent with deposition of Suzak bituminous marls in shallow stratified waters of a restricted marine basin associated with the southeastern incipient or proto-Paratethys. Geochemical proxies from Suzak rock extracts (S content, high polar content, C isotopes, normal (αααR) C27–29 steranes, and C29/C30 and C26/C25 hopane ratios) are similar to extant data from Paleogene oils produced to the north in the Afghan-Tajik Basin. This observation may indicate laterally equivalent strata are effective source rocks as suggested by previous workers; however, further work is needed to strengthen oil-source correlations.

  11. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140318Chen Xinwei(Reserves Evaluation Center of Xinjiang,Urumqi 830000,China);Li Shaohu Analysis on Sequence Stratigraphy Based on Jurassic Outcrop in Kuqa-Bai Coalfield(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,32(1),2013,p.77-82,2illus.,12refs.,with English abstract)Key words:sequence stratigraphy,coal accumulation regularity,Xinjiang

  12. Coal - proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-14

    This Standard establishes a practice for the proximate analysis of coal, that is, the coal is analysed for the content of moisture, ash and volatile matter; fixed carbon is calculated. The standard provides a basis for the comparison of coals.

  13. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  14. Release of mercury vapor from coal combustion ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heebink, Loreal V; Hassett, David J

    2002-08-01

    The long-term stability of Hg in coal combustion by-products (CCBs) was evaluated at ambient and near-ambient temperatures. Six CCB samples with atypically high levels of total Hg were selected for study assuming a greater potential for release of measurable amounts of Hg vapor. The samples selected included two fly ash samples from U.S. eastern bituminous coal, two fly ash samples from South African low-rank coal, one fly ash from Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal blended with petroleum coke, and one PRB subbituminous coal fly ash incorporated with flue gas desulfurization material. Air scrubbed of Hg was passed through compacted 100-g aliquots of each sample at 1 mL/min and vented to a gold-coated quartz trap to collect released Hg vapor. The samples were maintained at ambient and near-ambient (37 degrees C) temperatures. All samples released low-picogram levels of Hg after 90 days. No pattern was evident to link the total Hg content to the rate of release of Hg vapor. An average of 0.030 pg Hg/g CCB/day was released from the samples, which equates to 2.2 x 10(-8) lb Hg/ton CCB/year. If this were applied to a coal-fired power plant production of 200,000 tons of fly ash per year, there would be a maximum potential release of 0.0044 lb, or 2.00 g, of Hg per year. Experiments are continuing to determine long-term vapor release of Hg from CCBs. All samples have been set up in duplicate at ambient temperature with an improved apparatus to reevaluate results reported in this article. PMID:12184691

  15. Combustion and NOx Emission Behavior of Chinese Coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHonggang; XIEKechang

    2002-01-01

    Seven Chinese coals ranking from anthracite to sub-bituminous from the Shanxi province were selected for study to forecast the combustion and NOx emission behavior.Three UK,one Indonesia and one South Africa coal was included in the study for reference.A flat flame-turbulent jet apparatus was employed to assess flame stability,ignition performance and NOx emission behavior for the initial stage of devolatilization and combustion. This apparatus can simulate particle heating rates,maximum temperatures and the influence of the turbulent fluid interactionson the fate of volatiles.To simulate processes occurring over longer residence time, additional devolatilization experiments were performed in a drop tube furnace.Char reactivity was studied through thermogravimetric analysis.Finally,fouling propensity was studied with the aid of a purpose-built laboratory combustor that enabled the characteristics of the ash deposit to be assessed empirically.The results show that Chinese coals do not appear to possess unusual features in respect of NOx formation,flame stability and ignition,char burnout and ash slagging.The range of coals available in China appears sufficiently broad that suits all requirements.In particular,Shenfu coal,with its initial fast devolatilization and nitrogen release rates and its low initial nitrogen content and high char reactivity,will perform well when fired in industrial boilers as far as NOx emission,flame stability and combustion efficiency are concerned.Pingshuo coal exhibits high char reactivity and an attractive slagging performance suggesting that this fuel represents a good compromise between NOx emission and overall plant efficiency.

  16. Characterization of the coal of the Cauca Valley in the Swallows sector, Cali Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the geologic, physical-chemical and petrography characteristics of the coal of the Cauca valley, are indispensable for the knowledge of the Colombian coal. For technical and logistical reasons the sector Cerro Golondrinas was chosen, near to the Cali city, where were taken samplings in many mines realizing analysis and interpretation of the results. The importance of the development of the pacific region in the industrial aspect it is excellent. Therefore, the best knowledge in its energy resources is basic for an appropriate use. It was possible to determine the presence of bituminous coal high volatile A, with a heating, dry power free of ashy (slcz), around 8.000 calories for gram, also, a content average of 6% of hydrogen with a relationship H/C (slcz) near to 8 x 102, that which gives to these coal the possibility of being used in gasification processes and liquefaction. The mill index shows an average of 46 corresponding to the range of coal of the area that which means that in the mill they should be kept in mind the conditions that require fairly hard coal. Even when there was not a mathematical correlation of the mill index with the ashes, the variability and the quantity of these last it is also an important parameter to keep in mind in the preparation of the coal. The same composition of the ashes is also variable in the whole area: of 75 samples of analyzed ashes, 56% is classified as bituminous and 44%, as lignite, in most of them was a deposition factor (slagging) low and an fouling factor, also low, that which indicates that these ashes don't present problems of accumulation of deposits in the combustion processes. The temperature of initial deformation in reducing atmosphere (itr) it reveals the presence of two populations, one with the maximum between 1.100 and 1.200 Celsius Degree and another with the maximum, superior to 1.500 Celsius Degree, fact that should be kept in mind for the correct use of the coal. One can say that the coal

  17. Effect of Colombian coal rank and its feeding technology on substitute natural gas production by entrained gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Pérez-Bayer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coal rank (from sub-bituminous to semi-anthracite and type of fuel feeding technology (slurry and dry on the production of substitute natural gas (SNG in entrained flow gasifiers is studied. Ten coals from important Colombian mines were selected. The process is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium using Aspen Plus, and its performance is evaluated in function of output parameters that include SNG heating value, Wobbe index, coal conversion efficiency, cold gas efficiency, process efficiency, global efficiency, and SNG production rate, among others. In descending order, the coal-to-SNG process improves energetically with the use of coals with: higher volatile-matter to fixed-carbon ratio, lower ash content, higher C+H/O ratio, and higher coal heating value. The overall energy efficiency of the slurry-feed technology (S-FT to produce SNG by gasification is 17% higher than the dry-feed technology (D-FT, possibly as a consequence of the higher CH4 concentration in the syngas (around 7 vol. % when the coal is fed as aqueous slurry. As the simulated SNG meets the natural gas (NG quality standards in Colombia, the substitute gaseous fuel could be directly transported through pipelines. Therefore, the coal-to-SNG process is a technically feasible and unconventional alternative for NG production.

  18. Behaviour of bituminized waste under gamma irradiation. Effect of STE3 decontamination process components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid wastes of light and medium activity are treated by chemical co-precipitation and sludge are mixed with bitumen. Irradiation is responsible of gas production and potential swelling of the embedded. It prevails on limitation of filling of storage containers and activity to 140 Ci. The aim of this work is the study of influence of the components of the decontamination process on the behaviour of bituminous wastes, in order to control swelling and to state radiolysis mechanisms, both for production and storage of wastes. For pure bitumen, mechanism of production of H2 and CH4 are specified. Oxygen consumption, localised on the surface of samples, leads to conversion of aromatic oils and resins to asphaltenes, by a chain reaction mechanism. CO2 et CO are reaction products of gaseous oxygen, respectively with bitumen and light hydrocarbons. The composition of bitumen is slightly modified to heavier and higher polarity products, with parallel hardening. NaNO3, Na2SO4, BaSO4, PPFNi, K2SO4, NiSO4, et diatoms DIT3R et DIC3 have strictly a dilution effect towards gas generation. CoS, above 1% embedded, strongly inhibits production of H2, CH4 and light hydrocarbons. Degradation of bitumen being reduced, a radical mechanism with both radicals H· et R· might exist. Kinetic shows that a bi-radicals mechanism (or more) is probable. In the same way, Raney's nickel induces a important decrease of production of H2, CH4 et C2, with a capacity of 7,7 ml/g. Swelling depends on dimension of sample gas production and dose rate. Solid content and particle size are not determining parameters. Low swelling is obtained for penetrability higher than 70 1/10 mm, This can be realised by addition of a solvent as TBP and by increasing temperature above 40 deg C. Rheological characterizations (oscillation and creeping mode) have not been successful to correlate swelling with a physical parameter. (author)

  19. Effect of reaction temperature on the PM10 features during coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal-fired power plants produce fine fly ash consisting of particulate matter (PM). Particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) is of significant concern because of its adverse environmental and health impacts. This paper studied the effect of reaction temperature on particulate matter (PM10) emission and its chemical composition. The emission characteristics and elemental partition of PM10 from coal combustion were investigated in a drop tube furnace. The paper discussed the experimental apparatus and conditions as well as the coal properties and sample analysis. Liupanshui (LPS) bituminous coal from China was used for the study. The fuel composition of LPS coal and the composition of low temperature ash of Chinese LPS coal were described. The paper also presented the results of the study with reference to particle size distribution and emission characteristic of PM10; elemental partition within PM10; and effect of the reaction temperature on elemental partition within PM10. The PM mass size distribution was found to be bimodal. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  20. A Combined Raman Spectroscopic and Thermogravimetric Analysis Study on Oxidation of Coal with Different Ranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy and nonisothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA measurements have been reported for different rank coals (lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite and the relationship between the measurements was examined. It was found that the Raman spectra parameters can be used to characterize structure changes in the different rank coals, such as the band area ratios based on the curve-fitted results. Higher ranked coal was found to have higher values of IGR/IAll and IG+GR/IAll but lower values of ID/I(G+GR, IDL/I(G+GR, IS+SL/I(G+GR, and I(GL+GL'/I(G+GR. The oxidation properties of the coal samples were characterized by the reactivity indexes Tig, T20%, and Tmax from TGA data which were found to correlate well with the band area ratios of IGR/IAll, IG+GR/IAll, and IS+SL/I(G+GR. Based on these correlations, the Raman band area ratios were found to correlate with the oxidation activity of coal providing additional structural information which can be used to understand the changes in the TGA measurements.

  1. Burnout synergic or inhibiting effects in combustion assays of coal/sawdust blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ximena Garcia; Ximena Matus; Claudia Ulloa; Alfredo L. Gordon [University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Characterization of chars and charcoal and combustion assays of coal/ pine sawdust blends were carried on to evaluate the burnout, under conditions similar to those found in pulverized coal combustion. A drop tube furnace (DTF) was used to generate chars from three coals of different rank (Bitsch, a lignite; Lemington, a bituminous HV coal; and LD, a semianthracite) and charcoal from sawdust (S). Burning profiles, as well as morphological and optical characterization of these chars were obtained and discussed. Pulverized samples of pure constituents and sawdust/coal blends (5, 10 and 20%wt of S) were burned in the DTF reactor. Samples of combustion residues were collected for characterization. Depending on blend composition and the rank of the coal being blended, positive and negative deviations with respect to the expected weighted average value of the burnout were measured. This behavior is related both, to the duration of the step by which simultaneous burning of char and charcoal take place, and to the sawdust content in the blend. The optical analysis of combustion residues supports this conclusion. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  3. Carbon dioxide emission factors for U.S. coal by origin and destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method that uses published data to calculate locally robust CO2 emission factors for U.S. coal. The method is demonstrated by calculating CO2 emission factors by coal origin (223 counties, in 1999) and destination (479 power plants, in 2005). Locally robust CO2 emission factors should improve the accuracy and verification of greenhouse gas emission measurements from individual coal-fired power plants. Based largely on the county origin, average emission factors for U.S. lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite coal produced during 1999 were 92.97,91.97,88.20, and 98.91 kg CO2/GJgross, respectively. However, greater variation is observed within these rank classes than between them, which limits the reliability of CO2 emission factors specified by coal rank. Emission factors calculated by destination (power plant) showed greater variation than those listed in the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), which exhibit an unlikely uniformity that is inconsistent with the natural variation of CO2 emission factors for U.S. coal. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Coal mining in northeast India: an overview of environmental issues and treatment approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mayuri Chabukdhara; O.P.Singh

    2016-01-01

    Northeast India has a good deposit of sub-bituminous tertiary coal.The northeast Indian coals have unusual physico-chemical characteristics such as high sulfur,volatile matter and vitrinite content,and low ash content.In addition,many environmental sensitive organic and mineral bound elements such as Fe,Mg,Bi,Al,V,Cu,Cd,Ni,Pb,and Mn etc.remain enriched in these coals.Such characteristics are associated with more severe environmental impacts due to mining and its utilization in coal based industries.Environmental challenges include large scale landscape damage,soil erosion,loss of forest ecosystem and wildlife habitat,air,water and soil pollution.Several physical and chemical methods are reported in literature for the removal of mineral matter,total sulfur and different forms of sulfur from high sulfur coal in northeast India.This paper may help different researchers and stakeholders to understand current state of research in the field.Initiatives may be taken towards sustainable use of coal resources by adopting innovative clean technologies and by implementing effective control measures and regulatory policies.

  5. Metamorphism of mineral matter in coal from the Bukit Asam deposit, south Sumatra, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susilawati, Rita; Ward, Colin R.

    2006-10-02

    The coal of the Miocene Bukit Asam deposit in south Sumatra is mostly sub-bituminous in rank, consistent with regional trends due to burial processes. However, effects associated with Plio-Pleistocene igneous intrusions have produced coal with vitrinite reflectance up to at least 4.17% (anthracite) in different parts of the deposit. The un-metamorphosed to slightly metamorphosed coals, with Rv{sub max} values of 0.45-0.65%, contain a mineral assemblage made up almost entirely of well-ordered kaolinite and quartz. The more strongly heat-affected coals, with Rv{sub max} values of more than 1.0%, are dominated by irregularly and regularly interstratified illite/smectite, poorly crystallized kaolinite and paragonite (Na mica), with chlorite in some of the anthracite materials. Kaolinite is abundant in the partings of the lower-rank coals, but is absent from the partings in the higher-rank areas, even at similar horizons in the same coal seam. Regularly interstratified illite/smectite, which is totally absent from the partings in the lower-rank coals, dominates the mineralogy in the partings associated with the higher-rank coal beds. A number of reactions involving the alteration of silicate minerals appear to have occurred in both the coal and the associated non-coal lithologies during the thermal metamorphism generated by the intrusions. The most prominent involve the disappearance of kaolinite, the appearance of irregularly interstratified illite/smectite, and the formation of regular I/S, paragonite and chlorite. Although regular I/S is identified in all of the non-coal partings associated with the higher-rank coals, illite/smectite with an ordered structure is only recognised in the coal samples collected from near the bases of the seams. The I/S in the coal samples adjacent to the floor of the highest rank seam also appears to have a greater proportion of illitic components. The availability of sodium and other non-mineral inorganic elements in the original coal

  6. Effect of solid additives on pyrolysis behaviour of Makerwal coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, T.; Nisar, J.; Awan, I.A.; Ahmad, I. [University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan)

    2009-02-15

    The method used in this study provides a quantitative description of the relationship between the chemical structure of coal and the physical and chemical properties of the resultant pyrolysis products (gas, tar, liquid, and char). The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of inorganic solid additives (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, CaCO{sub 3}, MgCO{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaSO{sub 4},), on flash pyrolysis of high volatile bituminous coal samples from Makerwal coalfields by using open tubular type pyrolyzer coupled with gas chromatography. Two different coal samples were selected for this purpose. The sampling apparatus consisted of two traps in order to separate the products into fractions on the basis of their volatility such as tar, liquid, and gaseous fractions. The product yields released from each sample in their raw, de-mineralized and salt treated form were monitored. The gaseous fractions were directly introduced to GC for identification. The gases were C{sub 1}-C{sub 5}, hydrocarbons. The pyrolysis was carried out at 690{sup o}C. Some evaluations and comparisons, from the results obtained, are presented.

  7. Co-gasification of oil sand coke with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejahati, Farshid; Gupta, Rajender [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Gasification of oil sand delayed coke with sub-bituminous and lignite coals was performed in an atmospheric entrained flow gasifier using steam and oxygen as gasifying agents. The underlying objective of this work was to assess the effects of the operating variables (i.e. temperature, oxygen and steam concentrations) and coal/coke blending ratio on gasification performance in a high-temperature in order to find the possible synergies in co-gasification of the fuels. Experiments were conducted at 1,400 C, using steam and oxygen to carbon weight ratios of (0.36-1.08) and (0.07-0.2), respectively in N{sub 2} carrier gas. The coke to coal weight ratios of 1/3, 1/2, and 2/3 were used for the blending tests. Particle size of 53-90 {mu}m with d{sub 50} = 75 {mu}m were used. In terms of char reactivity, blending did not show any significant positive effect. Slight deviations from linear additive line are in the order of experiment error. Gasification efficiency was also following a linear additive trend once more pointing out the lack of synergy in entrained flow gasification systems. The results however, showed that higher coke content clearly favored the H{sub 2} production.

  8. Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

    2009-09-14

    scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

  9. Oxy-fuel combustion of millimeter-sized coal char: Particle temperatures and NO formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Navascués, Leyre Gómez; Nielsen, Joachim Bachmann;

    2013-01-01

    In this work, differences in particle temperature and NO yield during char oxidation in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres, respectively, have been examined. A laboratory scale fixed bed reactor, operated isothermally at 1073 K, was used for combustion of millimeter-sized lignite and bituminous coal char...... increased with mass loading, by as much as 700 K above the furnace set point. The formation of NO from lignite char was not influenced by the change from N2 to CO2 whereas the NO yield from bituminous coal char was considerably lower in O2/CO2 compared O2/N2. For both chars the conversion to NO decreased...... particles in 5–80 vol.% O2. Experiments were carried out with both single particles of different sizes (1.3–543 mg) and multiple particles (30–50 mg). Particle temperatures and structural changes were recorded by a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) camera during the experiments. The particle surface temperatures...

  10. Characterization of interactions of coal surface with solvent by flow microcalorimetric measurement. 3; Netsuryo sokutei ni yoru sekitan hyomen to yozai tono sogo sayo no hyoka. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, N.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Kotanigawa, T. [Japan International Corporation Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    An investigation was given on the relationship between methanol adsorbing behavior of reformed coal surface and oxygen containing functional groups in coal. Akabira bituminous coal was air-oxidized or Yallourn brown coal was decarbonated in oil as a reformation treatment. Both of the treated and untreated coals showed an adsorption heat curve of the Langmuir type. The Akabira coal had its oxygen content and the adsorption heat increased as a result of the air oxidizing reformation treatment. The Yallourn coal had its oxygen content and adsorption heat decreased as a result decarbonation reformation treatment. Oxygen containing functional groups act as strong adsorption sites for methanol, and the maximum adsorption amount depends on oxygen content in the coals. Since the coal surface is non-uniform in terms of energy, methanol is adsorbed first into sites with higher molar adsorption heat, and then into lower sites sequentially. Therefore, distribution of the molar adsorption heat can be derived from the relationship between adsorption amount and adsorption heat by changing methanol adsorption amount. The distribution of molar adsorption heat becomes broader when the oxygen content is high, and narrower when low. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Japan`s Sunshine Project. 1991 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification; 1991 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gas ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    Out of the research and development on the 1991 Sunshine Project, the results of coal liquefaction/gasification are reported. The basic research of coal liquefaction/gasification is conducted. The research plan for a 150 ton/day scale pilot plant (PP) is worked out for the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology by NEDOL process. Data of PSU (Process Support Units) operation, especially, are studied. Concerning the data obtained through dismantling of the 50 ton/day PP in Australia which uses Australian Victoria coal due to completion of its operation and also obtained from its support research, they are reflected in the design of a demonstration plant, and the results are arranged for study. Research and development on refining technology of coal-derived liquid such as Illinois coal liquid and on application technology of its products are made. For the development of coal-use hydrogen production technology, conducted is the research of a high temperature gasification PP by entrained flow bed process which is the core of the coal gasification technology. Elementary study with a 2 ton/day furnace is made for the development of the entrained flow bed coal gasification combined cycle power generation system. Also conducted are PP construction, adjusting operation and the overall research operation.

  12. Respiratory protection: Associated factors and effectiveness of respirator use among underground coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.F.; Wang, M.L.; Seixas, N.; Ducatman, A.; Petsonk, E.L. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The authors investigated factors associated with the use of respiratory protection and explored the effectiveness of respirators among coal miners. Methods Between 1987 and 1992, respiratory symptoms, smoking, lung function, and dust exposures were assessed longitudinally among 185 underground bituminous coal miners. Self-reported use of respiratory protection was expressed as mean percent time wearing a respirator. Miners' respirator use increased with mean dust concentration, but decreased with tobacco consumption. Increasing age was associated with greater respirator use. Miners who had respiratory symptoms at the initial survey subsequently reported greater use of respirators. A significant protective association was found between the miners' respirator use and FEV1 levels at both the initial and follow-up surveys. These results provide additional evidence that respirator use is protective of lung health. When respiratory protection programs are developed, factors that may affect respirator use behavior, such as age, smoking, and respiratory symptoms, should be considered.

  13. Influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions in pulverized coal combustion boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Feng(魏风); ZHANG Jun-ying(张军营); TANG Bi-guang(唐必光); ZHENG Chu-guang(郑楚光)

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports a field testing of full scale PCC (Pulverized Coal Combustion) boiler study into the influence of constricted air distribution on NOx emissions at unit 3 (125 MW power units, 420 t/h boiler) of Guixi power station, Jiangxi and puts forward the methods to decrease NOx emissions and the principle of boiler operation and regulation through analyzing NOx emissions state under real running condition. Based on boiler constricted air distribution, the experiment mainly tested the influence of primary air, excessive air, boiler load and milling sets (tertiary air) on NOx emissions and found its influence characteristics. A degraded bituminous coal is simply adopted to avoid the test results from other factors.

  14. Use of coals for cocombustion with Estonian shale oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.; Melnikov, D. A.; Vereshetin, V. A.; Attikas, Raivo

    2016-03-01

    The article reports the results of investigation into the possibility of using off-design coals as an additional fuel in connection with predicted reduction in the heat of combustion of shale oil and more stringent environmental regulations on harmful emissions. For this purpose, a mathematical model of a TP-101 boiler at the Estonian Power Plant has been constructed and verified; the model describes the boiler's current state. On the basis of the process flow chart, the experience of operating the boiler, the relevant regulations, and the environmental requirement criteria for evaluation of the equipment operation in terms of reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety have been developed. These criteria underlie the analysis of the calculated operating parameters of the boiler and the boiler plant as a whole upon combustion with various shale-oil-to-coal ratios. The computational study shows that, at the minimal load, the normal operation of the boiler is ensured almost within the entire range of the parts by the heat rate of coal. With the decreasing load on the boiler, the normal equipment operation region narrows. The basic limitation factors are the temperature of the steam in the superheater, the temperature of the combustion products at the furnace outlet and the flow rate of the combustion air and flue gases. As a result, the parts by heat rate of lignite and bituminous coal have been determined that ensure reliable and efficient operation of the equipment. The efficiency of the boiler with the recommended lignite-to-coal ratio is higher than that achieved when burning the design shale oil. Based on the evaluation of the environmental performance of the boiler, the necessary additional measures to reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere have been determined.

  15. Reconnaissance of the water resources and potential effects of mining of the Joliet-Fromberg coal tract, Carbon County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Joliet-Fromberg coal tract in Carbon County, Montana, contains subbituminous to bituminous coal suitable for underground mining. A reconnaissance study of the area was conducted to identify water resources of the coal tract and to determine general effects that underground mining could have on the water resources. Surface-water resources consist of Elbow Creek, a small perennial stream that drains most of the area, plus irrigation water diverted into the basin from Rock Creek and the Clarks Fork Yellowstone River. Groundwater resources consist of sandstone aquifers in several formations of Late Cretaceous age and alluvial aquifers of Pleistocene and Holocene age. Chemical analyses were made of water in Elbow Creek and water from seven wells in the area. Water from Elbow Creek is suitable for use by all livestock, based on the concentration of dissolved solids. Water from most sampled wells had dissolved-solids concentrations larger than the maximum (500 milligrams/L) recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for public water supply. Effects of underground mining on water resources would be minimal. The Bridger coal bed in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Sandstone has no significant hydraulic connection with Elbow Creek in most of the area and the Bridger coal bed does not appear to be a significant aquifer. Mining and dewatering of the coal could temporarily lower water levels in aquifers overlying the coal if mining causes subsidence and fracturing of rocks above the mine workings. (USGS)

  16. Comparison of pilot-scale furnace experiments and predictions to full-scale boiler performance of compliance coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, L.S. [Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States); Clarkson, R.J. [Southern Co. Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Stallings, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A series of compliance coals have been fired in the Southern Company Services and Southern Research Institute pilot-scale Combustion Research Facility, with the goal of predicting NO{sub x} emissions, unburned carbon levels, and other operating parameters. The research was financed by a tailored collaboration between Alabama Power and the Electric Power Research Institute. The coals included a South American coal, a Powder River Basin coal, and several local Alabama bituminous coals. They were fired in conventional and low NO{sub x} firing modes, where some of the coals were fired in a tangential-fired simulation, others as wall-fired, and some in both types of firing. Two of Alabama Power`s boilers were used as the plants simulated in the pilot-scale experiments, along with a Gulf Power boiler. The results of the NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon from the pilot furnace testing are presented and compared to the limited full-scale boiler data available on these coals.

  17. Alpha radioactivity study in coal-ash of thermal power plant using solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal combustion in power plants in India produces large quantities coal related wastes, for example flyash and bottom ash. Coal is known to contain trace quantities of naturally occurring radionuclides including uranium. Thus coal ash is also expected to contain those radionuclides. Flyash has become the subject of worldwide interest because of its diverse uses as in the manufacturing of cement, bricks, blocks, etc. Due to presence of higher concentration of primordial radionuclide content it may cause a potential health risk to people. The power plant- ash, if not properly disposed, will be a serious threat to the ambient environment. So it is essential to investigate the presence of radioactivity in the coal ash samples collected from different thermal power plants. In the present work, an attempt has been made to estimate the alpha activity in the coal ash samples collected from Kolaghat Thermal Power Plant, West Bengal using CR-39 plates - a very useful solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD). It is one of the largest thermal power generation centres in West Bengal. This thermal power plant uses sub-bituminous coal from the nearby coalfields. The alpha activity of the samples varies from 1052-3571 Bq/kg. The analysis indicates high level of alpha activity in both fly and bottom ash and the level of activity are maximum among all power plant flyash of India reported so far. (author)

  18. Maceral Characteristics and Vitrinite Reflectance Variation of The High Rank Coals, South Walker Creek, Bowen Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep K. Permana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i2.156The Permian coals of the South Walker Creek area, with a vitrinite reflectance (Rvmax of 1.7 to 1.95% (low-volatile bituminous to semi-anthracite, are one of the highest rank coals currently mined in the Bowen Basin for the pulverized coal injection (PCI market. Studies of petrology of this coal seam have identified that the maceral composition of the coals are dominated by inertinite with lesser vitrinite, and only minor amounts of liptinite. Clay minerals, quartz, and carbonates can be seen under the optical microscope. The mineral matter occurs in association with vitrinite and inertinite macerals as syngenetic and epigenetic mineral phases. The irregular pattern of the vitrinite reflectance profile from the top to the bottom of the seam may represent a response in the organic matter to an uneven heat distribution from such hydrothermal influence. Examination of the maceral and vitrinite reflectance characteristics suggest that the mineralogical variation within the coal seam at South Walker Creek may have been controlled by various geological processes, including sediment input into the peat swamp during deposition, mineralogical changes associated with the rank advance process or metamorphism, and/or hydrothermal effects due to post depositional fluid migration through the coal seam.

  19. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  20. Colombian coal focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warden-Fernandez, J.; Rodriguez, L.E. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-01

    The paper reviews the development of Colombia's coal industry over recent years. Colombia has recently modernised its mining code, Law 685 of 2001 concerning mineral rights and including the concept of sustainable development. The article discusses the legislation, analyses trends in Columbia's income from the coal and mineral industries (nickel, gold, emerald), and briefly discusses coal reserves, mining projects, coal exports and markets for Colombian coal. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Rađenović A.

    2006-01-01

    Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates),minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fract...

  2. Horizontal degasification and characterization of coals in the Sabinas Sub-basin, Mexico: implications for CBM production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentzis, T.; Murray, K.; Klinger, R.; Santillan, M. [CDX Canada Co., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    The Sabinas sub-basin in northern Mexico contains gassy coals in the Upper Cretaceous Los Olmos Formation, based on both historical evidence and current desorption testing. The 'Double Seam' coal is present at shallow depth (< 500 m), has high vitrinite content (> 86 vol%), is well-cleated, shows high diffusivity (average tau) value is 56 hours) and has high natural fracture permeability (> 30 mD) in the minesites. The coal averages 2.2 m in thickness but has a high ash content (32 wt%). A tonstein band is present in the middle of the Double Seam, consisting of vitrinite and inertinite embedded in a matrix of fine clays and quartz. Average desorbed gas content of this medium-volatile bituminous coal (Ro{sub max} = 1.30%) is highest in Mine V (Esmeralda Mine at > 9.0 cm{sup 3}/g). Maximum methane adsorption at an equivalent depth of 300 m is 15 cm{sup 3}/g (as-received basisarb). Coal bed methane is mainly methane (98%) with heating value of 38.21 MJ/m{sup 3} (1026 Btu/ft{sup 3}). The coal is under-pressured and reported to be dry, with possibly free gas in the cleat/fracture system and absence of discrete mineralization. In-seam horizontal drilling prior to longwall mining has resulted in the significant reduction of in-situ gas contents and in an increase of mined coal production per shift. The Sabinas sub-basin coals are suitable for a full-scale coal bed methane (CBM) development using in-seam single horizontal and multi-lateral horizontal drilling. Similarities, but also differences, exist between the Sabinas coals in Mexico and the same coals in the Maverick Basin, Texas.

  3. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  4. Ultra-Low Carbon Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants through Bio-Oil Co-Firing and Biochar Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qi; Mba Wright, Mark; Brown, Robert C

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates a novel strategy of reducing carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants through co-firing bio-oil and sequestering biochar in agricultural lands. The heavy end fraction of bio-oil recovered from corn stover fast pyrolysis is blended and co-fired with bituminous coal to form a bio-oil co-firing fuel (BCF). Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kWh electricity produced vary from 1.02 to 0.26 kg CO2-eq among different cases, with BCF heavy end fractions ranging from 10% to 60%, which corresponds to a GHG emissions reduction of 2.9% to 74.9% compared with that from traditional bituminous coal power plants. We found a heavy end fraction between 34.8% and 37.3% is required to meet the Clean Power Plan's emission regulation for new coal-fired power plants. The minimum electricity selling prices are predicted to increase from 8.8 to 14.9 cents/kWh, with heavy end fractions ranging from 30% to 60%. A minimum carbon price of $67.4 ± 13 per metric ton of CO2-eq was estimated to make BCF power commercially viable for the base case. These results suggest that BCF co-firing is an attractive pathway for clean power generation in existing power plants with a potential for significant reductions in carbon emissions. PMID:26545153

  5. Ultra-Low Carbon Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants through Bio-Oil Co-Firing and Biochar Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qi; Mba Wright, Mark; Brown, Robert C

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates a novel strategy of reducing carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants through co-firing bio-oil and sequestering biochar in agricultural lands. The heavy end fraction of bio-oil recovered from corn stover fast pyrolysis is blended and co-fired with bituminous coal to form a bio-oil co-firing fuel (BCF). Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kWh electricity produced vary from 1.02 to 0.26 kg CO2-eq among different cases, with BCF heavy end fractions ranging from 10% to 60%, which corresponds to a GHG emissions reduction of 2.9% to 74.9% compared with that from traditional bituminous coal power plants. We found a heavy end fraction between 34.8% and 37.3% is required to meet the Clean Power Plan's emission regulation for new coal-fired power plants. The minimum electricity selling prices are predicted to increase from 8.8 to 14.9 cents/kWh, with heavy end fractions ranging from 30% to 60%. A minimum carbon price of $67.4 ± 13 per metric ton of CO2-eq was estimated to make BCF power commercially viable for the base case. These results suggest that BCF co-firing is an attractive pathway for clean power generation in existing power plants with a potential for significant reductions in carbon emissions.

  6. The effect of additive chemicals on the viscosity of coal-petroleum coke-water slurry fuel for a gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S.J.; Choi, Y.C.; Lee, J.G. [Korean Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Republic of Korea)

    2009-09-15

    As a preliminary study for the gasification of an anthracite and petroleum coke mixture, viscosity was measured at various temperatures (20-50{sup o}C, slurry concentrations (60-70 wt%) and additive amounts (0-0.8 wt%) by using an LV-II type viscometer. In addition, four types of different additives, sodium naphthalene sulfonate, poly(methyl methacrylate), polypropylene and a polypropylene glycol based additive, were applied to Korean anthracite, petroleum coke and mixtures of these materials, and the viscosity data were compared. Viscosity dependency values for coal, anthracite, bituminous and sub-bituminous coal, were compared, and it was found that a high content of moisture and particularly ash increases CWS viscosity. The four types of additives tested in this research can effectively diminish the viscosity of coal and especially petroleum coke-water slurry by more than 70% to 95%, respectively. Moreover, the sodium naphthalene sulfonate-based additive reduced the viscosity of coal and petroleum coke-water slurry best, especially at concentrations in excess of 65 wt%. Based on these results, highly loaded slurry created by mixing anthracite and petroleum coke with additives was achieved.

  7. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The

  8. Permeability Evolution of Shale and Coal Under Differential Sorption of He, CH4 And CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, H.; Elsworth, D.; Marone, C. J.; Mathews, J.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon dioxide injection in coal seams or in shales may be an option for geological sequestration of CO2 each with concurrent methane production. Permeability of the fractured porous medium is a crucial parameter influencing injectivity of CO2. The evolution of permeability is further complicated by dynamic changes in the coal/shale shrinkage/swelling with the reduction/increase in gas content. Complex geomechanical processes (transport of gas, adsorption, desorption, adjusting horizontal stresses and vertical strains) and chemical interaction between CO2, water and mineral matter content are some factors responsible for the various responses in permeability evolution. Adsorption of CO2 in micropores may result in matrix swelling therefore closing the existing natural fractures and lowering the ability of fluid flow. On the other hand presence of water may react with CO2 forming carbonic acid and removing carbonaceous mineral matter - either increasing or decreasing permeability. To address these issues we report experimental measurements of permeability evolution in shales infiltrated by helium, methane and carbon dioxide under varying pore pressure and deviatoric stresses. The role of gas (CO2 and CH4) adsorption and desorption under variable moisture contents and pore pressures have also been examined for sub-bituminous coals. Adsorption of CO2 in Coal and shale reduces the reservoir permeability even when the fractured media are mechanically unconstrained. However we found that permeability loss is temporary. In the specific case of Marcellus shale, adsorption of CO2 in the sample reduces the permeability to half the original value. Permeability values returns to its original value if sample is allowed to interact for sufficient time. Variation of permeability with deviotoric stress suggests the compaction band formation above a threshold value of stress. These deformations are permanent and shale loses its permeability. Several observations on permeability

  9. Selective Adsorption and Selective Transport Diffusion of CO2-CH4 Binary Mixture in Coal Ultramicropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongliang; Feng, Yanhui; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-09-01

    The adsorption and diffusion of the CO2-CH4 mixture in coal and the underlying mechanisms significantly affect the design and operation of any CO2-enhanced coal-bed methane recovery (CO2-ECBM) project. In this study, bituminous coal was fabricated based on the Wiser molecular model and its ultramicroporous parameters were evaluated; molecular simulations were established through Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) and Molecular Dynamic (MD) methods to study the effects of temperature, pressure, and species bulk mole fraction on the adsorption isotherms, adsorption selectivity, three distinct diffusion coefficients, and diffusivity selectivity of the binary mixture in the coal ultramicropores. It turns out that the absolute adsorption amount of each species in the mixture decreases as temperature increases, but increases as its own bulk mole fraction increases. The self-, corrected, and transport diffusion coefficients of pure CO2 and pure CH4 all increase as temperature or/and their own bulk mole fractions increase. Compared to CH4, the adsorption and diffusion of CO2 are preferential in the coal ultramicropores. Adsorption selectivity and diffusivity selectivity were simultaneously employed to reveal that the optimal injection depth for CO2-ECBM is 800-1000 m at 308-323 K temperature and 8.0-10.0 MPa. PMID:27518119

  10. Task 27 -- Alaskan low-rank coal-water fuel demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Development of coal-water-fuel (CWF) technology has to-date been predicated on the use of high-rank bituminous coal only, and until now the high inherent moisture content of low-rank coal has precluded its use for CWF production. The unique feature of the Alaskan project is the integration of hot-water-drying (HWD) into CWF technology as a beneficiation process. Hot-water-drying is an EERC developed technology unavailable to the competition that allows the range of CWF feedstock to be extended to low-rank coals. The primary objective of the Alaskan Project, is to promote interest in the CWF marketplace by demonstrating the commercial viability of low-rank coal-water-fuel (LRCWF). While commercialization plans cannot be finalized until the implementation and results of the Alaskan LRCWF Project are known and evaluated, this report has been prepared to specifically address issues concerning business objectives for the project, and outline a market development plan for meeting those objectives.

  11. Optimized geometry for bulk coal PGNAA with external moderation of the source neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, C.; Salgado, J.; Carvalho, F.G. [Nuclear and Technical Inst., Sacavem (Portugal). Dept. of Physics

    1995-10-01

    A simulation study of a PGNAA system for the analysis of coal with a {sup 252}Cf neutron source has been carried out using the MCNP code to investigate the effect on the system response of variable thickness, density and composition of the sample when the source is placed at the center of a moderating sphere of polyethylene. Results for different radii of the moderating sphere are reported. The results show that the geometry of the measuring arrangement can be chosen so that the {gamma} count rate/wt% of an arbitrary element (including hydrogen) is independent both of the hydrogen content of the coal, {omega}{sub H}, expressed as a mass fraction, and of the bulk density, d, or volume hydrogen content of the sample {nu}{sub H}, at least in the range of {omega}{sub H}-values commonly found in bituminous coals. The system response, defined as the magnitude of the output signal/wt% of an arbitrary element in the coal composition is then independent of composition and bulk density of the coal sample. (author).

  12. Optimized geometry for bulk coal PGNAA with external moderation of the source neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C.; Salgado, J.; Carvalho, F. G.

    1995-10-01

    A simulation study of a PGNAA system for the analysis of coal with a 252Cf neutron source has been carried out using the MCNP code to investigate the effect on the system response of variable thickness, density and composition of the sample when the source is placed at the center of a moderating sphere of polyethylene. Results for different radii of the moderating sphere are reported. The results show that the geometry of the measuring arrangement can be chosen so that the γ count rate/wt % of an arbitrary element (including hydrogen) is independent both of the hydrogen content of the coal, ωH, expressed as a mass fraction, and of the bulk density, d, or volume hydrogen content of the sample νH, at least in the range of ωH-values commonly found in bituminous coals. The system response, defined as the magnitude of the output signal/wt % of an arbitrary element in the coal composition is then independent of composition and bulk density of the coal sample.

  13. The effect of mineral matrix and seam thickness on reflectance of vitrinite in high coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentzis, T. (Alberta Research Council, Devon (Canada)); Goodarzi, F.; Snowdon, L.R.; Labonte, M. (Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Bustin, R.M. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1991-06-01

    The variation of vitrinite reflectance with respect to mineral matrix (lithology), thickness of coal seams and coal lenses, as well as type of organic matter was studied from two cores in a 550-m sedimentary succession from the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Kootenay Group. The data obtained indicate that reflectance in high- to low-volatile bituminous coals (% R{sub o}, max = 0.8 - 1.35) with depth of burial is affected by the percentage of organic matter in the samples. A positive correlation between the % R{sub o} and the percent of organic matter and a negative correlation with the percent of mineral matter were shown to exist. It was also observed that the thicker the coal interval, the higher the reflectance. Thick coal seams (greater than 1 m) with mineral content of less than 20% generally exhibited higher vitrinite reflectance than thin coaly lenses (15-30 cm thick) with mineral content of greater than 20%. Vitrinite dispersed in sandstone - and, to a lesser extent, siltstone and carbonaceous shale - had the lowest reflectance. Variations in vitrinite reflectance were attributed to chemical differences in the organic matter, possibly induced by degradation and diagenesis syn- or postdepositionally, the effect of geocatalysts present in the sediments, and possibly variations in thermal conductivity in the succession. Any differences in vitrinite reflectance of organic matter observed would be of great significance in the time-temperature history of a sediment needed to generate hydrocarbons.

  14. Development and evaluation of coal/water mixture combustion technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffee, R.S.; Rossmeissl, N.P.; Skolnik, E.G.; McHale, E.T.

    1981-08-01

    The objective was to advance the technology for the preparation, storage, handling and combustion of highly-loaded coal/water mixtures. A systematic program to prepare and experimentally evaluate coal/water mixtures was conducted to develop mixtures which (1) burn efficiently using combustion chambers and burners designed for oil, (2) can be provided at a cost less than that of No. 6 oil, and (3) can be easily transported and stored. The program consisted of three principal tasks. The first was a literature survey relevant to coal/water mixture technology. The second involved slurry preparation and evaluation of rheological and stability properties, and processing techniques. The third consisted of combustion tests to characterize equipment and slurry parameters. The first task comprised a complete search of the literature, results of which are tabulated in Appendix A. Task 2 was involved with the evaluation of composition and process variables on slurry rheology and stability. Three bituminous coals, representing a range of values of volatile content, ash content, and hardness were used in the slurries. Task 3 was concerned with the combustion behavior of coal/water slurry. The studies involved first upgrading of an experimental furnace facility, which was used to burn slurry fuels, with emphasis on studying the effect on combustion of slurry properties such as viscosity and particle size, and the effect of equipment parameters such as secondary air preheat and atomization.

  15. Effects of coal composition and flotation reagents on the water resistance of binderless briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motaung, S.R.; Mangena, S.J.; de Korte, G.J. [Syngas & Coal Technology, Sasolburg (South Africa)

    2007-10-15

    The difference in the physical properties, particularly the water resistance or wet strength, of the binderless coal briquettes produced from flotation feed and concentrate was investigated using six bituminous coals from two collieries in the Witbank Coalfield. The coal samples were analyzed for their proximate, petrographic, and mineralogical properties. The presence, in the flotation concentrates, of the reagents used during the froth flotation process was also investigated using gas chromatography. Pillow-shaped binderless briquettes were produced from coal samples at various moisture contents and a pressure of approximately 17 MPA using a Komarek B-100A double-roll press. The briquettes were tested for some physical properties (i.e., dry- and wet-compressive strengths), which were thereafter compared with the properties determined for the coal samples. The binderless briquettes produced from the flotation concentrates were more water-resistant than those produced from the flotation feed. The flotation feed and concentrates of the coals tested were found to have similar petrographic properties. As expected, the ash and kaolinite contents were found to be lower in the flotation concentrates than in the flotation feed. Flotation reagents were detected in the flotation concentrates from both collieries. From the results obtained it is concluded that the increased water resistance of the binderless briquettes produced from flotation concentrates of the coals tested is due to a combination of the fineness of the coal particles, assisted by the amount of reactive macerals (most particularly vitrinite) with the lower ash and kaolinite contents, together with the presence of the flotation reagents, particularly the collector, in the flotation concentrate.

  16. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  17. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    While the black coal markets are expanding worldwide in 2011, the consumption of black coal in Germany stagnated in spite of positive economic impacts. A strong long-term decline may be expected by the structural change in the energy sector and the energy policy turnaround in Germany. Also, the accelerated phasing out nuclear power in 2011 brought any increases for the black coal. Now the discharge of domestic black coal until 2018 has become definitive. The imported coal now covers almost 80 % of the German black coal market.

  18. Intrinsic and extrinsic defects in a family of coal-derived graphene quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: ssingam@ncsu.edu, E-mail: tour@rice.edu [Materials Science Division, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Tol, Johan van [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 E. Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Ye, Ruquan [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tour, James M., E-mail: ssingam@ncsu.edu, E-mail: tour@rice.edu [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2015-11-23

    In this letter, we report on the high frequency (239.2 and 336 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) studies performed on graphene quantum dots (GQDs), prepared through a wet chemistry route from three types of coal: (a) bituminous, (b) anthracite, and (c) coke; and from non-coal derived GQDs. The microwave frequency-, power-, and temperature-dependent ESR spectra coupled with computer-aided simulations reveal four distinct magnetic defect centers. In bituminous- and anthracite-derived GQDs, we have identified two of them as intrinsic carbon-centered magnetic defect centers (a broad signal of peak to peak width = 697 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.0023; and a narrow signal of peak to peak width = 60 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.003). The third defect center is Mn{sup 2+} ({sup 6}S{sub 5/2}, 3d{sup 5}) (signal width = 61 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.0023, A{sub iso} = 93(10{sup −4} T)), and the fourth defect is identified as Cu{sup 2+} ({sup 2}D{sub 5/2}, 3d{sup 9}) (g{sub ⊥} = 2.048 and g{sub ‖} = 2.279), previously undetected. Coke-derived and non-coal derived GQDs show Mn{sup 2+} and two-carbon related signals, and no Cu{sup 2+} signal. The extrinsic impurities most likely originate from the starting coal. Furthermore, Raman, photoluminescence, and ESR measurements detected no noticeable changes in the properties of the bituminous GQDs after one year. This study highlights the importance of employing high frequency ESR spectroscopy in identifying the (magnetic) defects, which are roadblocks for spin relaxation times of graphene-based materials. These defects would not have been possible to probe by other spin transport measurements.

  19. Impact of air staging along furnace height on NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Weidong; Lin, Zhengchun; Kuang, Jinguo; Li, Youyi [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800, Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 20024 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Experiments were carried out on an electrically heated multi-path air inlet one-dimensional furnace to assess NO{sub x} emission characteristics of an overall air-staged (also termed air staging along furnace height) combustion of bituminous coal. The impact of main parameters of overall air-staged combustion technology, including burnout air position, air stoichiometric ratio, levels of burnout air (the number of burnout air arranged at different heights of the furnace), and the ratios of the burnout air flow rates and pulverized coal fineness of industrial interest, on NO{sub x} emission were simulated to study in the experimental furnace, as well as the impact of air staging on the carbon content of the fly ash produced. These results suggest that air-staged combustion affects a pronounced reduction in NO{sub x} emissions from the combustion of bituminous coal. The more deeply the air is staged, the further the NO{sub x} emission is reduced. Two-level air staging yields a greater reduction in NO{sub x} emission than single-level air staging. For pulverized coal of differing fineness, the best ratio between the burnout air rates in the two-level staging ranges from 0.6 to 0.3. In middle air-staged degree combustion with f{sub M} = 0.75, pulverized coal fineness, R{sub 90} (%), has a greater influence on NO{sub x} emission, whereas R{sub 90} has little influence on NO{sub x} emission for deep air-staged degree with f{sub M} = 0.61. Air-staged combustion with proper burnout air position has little effect on the burnout. For overall air-staged combustion, proper burnout air position and air-staged rate should be considered together in order to achieve high combustion efficiency. (author)

  20. Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolka-Danielowska, D. [University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland). Faculty of Earth Science

    2010-11-15

    The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations of Th-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: {sup 226}Ra - 85.4 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 40}K-689 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 232}Th - 100.8 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 235}U - 13.5 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 238}U - 50 Bq kg{sup -1} and {sup 228}Ac - 82.4 Bq kg{sup -1}.

  1. Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka-Danielowska, Danuta

    2010-11-01

    The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations ofTh-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: 226Ra - 85.4 Bq kg(-1), 40 K-689 Bq kg(-1), 232Th - 100.8 Bq kg(-1), 235U-13.5 Bq kg(-1), 238U-50 Bq kg(-1) and 228Ac - 82.4 Bq kg(-1).

  2. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  3. Development of the first coal seam gas exploration program in Indonesia: Reservoir properties of the Muaraenim Formation, south Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosrowidjojo, I.B. [R and D Centre for Oil and Gas Technology, LEMIGAS, Jakarta (Indonesia); Saghafi, A. [CSIRO Energy Technology, P O Box 330, Newcastle, NSW, 2300 (Australia)

    2009-09-01

    The Late Miocene Muaraenim Formation in southern Sumatra contains thick coal sequences, mostly of low rank ranging from lignite to sub-bituminous, and it is believed that these thick low rank coals are the most prospective for the production of coal seam gas (CSG), otherwise known as coalbed methane (CBM), in Indonesia. As part of a major CSG exploration project, gas exploration drilling operations are being undertaken in Rambutan Gasfields in the Muaraenim Formation to characterize the CSG potential of the coals. The first stage of the project, which is described here, was designed to examine the gas reservoir properties with a focus on coal gas storage capacity and compositional properties. Some five CSG exploration boreholes were drilled in the Rambutan Gasfield, south of Palembang. The exploration boreholes were drilled to depths of {proportional_to} 1000 m into the Muaraenim Formation. Five major coal seams were intersected by these holes between the depths of 450 and 1000 m. The petrography of coal samples collected from these seams showed that they are vitrinite rich, with vitrinite contents of more than 75% (on a mineral and moisture free basis). Gas contents of up to 5.8 m{sup 3}/t were measured for the coal samples. The gas desorbed from coal samples contain mainly methane (CH{sub 4}) ranging from 80 to 93% and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) ranging from 6 to 19%. The composition of the gas released into the production borehole/well is, however, much richer in CH{sub 4} with about 94 to 98% CH{sub 4} and less than 5% CO{sub 2}. The initial results of drilling and reservoir characterization studies indicate suitable gas recovery parameters for three of the five coal seams with a total thickness of more than 30 m. (author)

  4. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  5. Carbonization and demineralization of coals: A study by means of FT–IR spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Gómez-Serrano; M C Fernández-González; M L Rojas-Cervantes; M F Alexandre-Franco; A Macías-García

    2003-12-01

    Coal basically consists of two parts-a crystalline, inorganic part, and an amorphous, organic part. Based on this, we intended to study the changes that occurred on the composition and on the chemical structure of coals after carbonization at 1000 or 900°C and demineralization treatments with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. For this, four coals of different categories (or levels) were chosen: semianthracite (A–O) and high volatile bituminous coal (B–O), which are high level coals, and lignite (Li–O) and leonardite (Le–O), these being low level coals. The coals were first analysed in terms of their proximate and elemental compositions and then carbonized and demineralized. Also, the starting coals and the prepared samples were examined by infrared spectroscopy. In addition, a study of the optimization of the application of this technique for only A–O was carried out. For A–O and B–O, the spectra recorded intense absorption bands that are ascribable to vibration modes in mineral components as quartz and aluminosilicates, such as kaolinite. For Li–O and Le–O, the spectra displayed some other bands as well, also quite intense, which have been assigned to bond vibrations in functional groups and structures of their organic part. The carbonization of the coals resulted in significant changes in their inorganic part as the content of quartz increased and the content of aluminosilicates decreased. In addition, the thermal decomposition of mineral carbonates occurred. The carbonization greatly affects the organic part of the coals, especially in Li–O and Le–O, as most functional groups and structures are not thermally stable under heating conditions. With regard to demineralization, HF is a more effective agent than HCl, achieving products with higher organic content. The mass losses are higher in Li–O and Le–O than in A–O and B–O. So, the infrared spectroscopy allows the analysis of both inorganic and organic parts of the coals and of

  6. Emission factors and particulate matter size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential coal combustions in rural Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yifeng; Zhu, Chen; Min, Yujia; Xue, Miao; Ding, Junnan; Li, Wei; Wang, Bin; Shen, Huizhong; Wang, Rong; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

    2010-12-01

    Coal consumption is one important contributor to energy production, and is regarded as one of the most important sources of air pollutants that have considerable impacts on human health and climate change. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal combustion were studied in a typical stove. Emission factors (EFs) of 16 EPA priority PAHs from tested coals ranged from 6.25 ± 1.16 mg kg -1 (anthracite) to 253 ± 170 mg kg -1 (bituminous), with NAP and PHE dominated in gaseous and particulate phases, respectively. Size distributions of particulate phase PAHs from tested coals showed that they were mostly associated with particulate matter (PM) with size either between 0.7 and 2.1 μm or less than 0.4 μm (PM 0.4). In the latter category, not only were more PAHs present in PM 0.4, but also contained higher fractions of high molecular weight PAHs. Generally, there were more than 89% of total particulate phase PAHs associated with PM 2.5. Gas-particle partitioning of freshly emitted PAHs from residential coal combustions were thought to be mainly controlled by absorption rather than adsorption, which is similar to those from other sources. Besides, the influence of fuel properties and combustion conditions was further investigated by using stepwise regression analysis, which indicated that almost 57 ± 10% of total variations in PAH EFs can be accounted for by moisture and volatile matter content of coal in residential combustion.

  7. Effect of oxy-fuel combustion with steam addition on coal ignition and burnout in an entrained flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ignition temperature and burnout of a semi-anthracite and a high-volatile bituminous coal were studied under oxy-fuel combustion conditions in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The results obtained under oxy-fuel atmospheres (21%O2-79%CO2, 30%O2-70% O2 and 35%O2-65%CO2) were compared with those attained in air. The replacement of CO2 by 5, 10 and 20% of steam in the oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres was also evaluated in order to study the wet recirculation of flue gas. For the 21%O2-79%CO2 atmosphere, the results indicated that the ignition temperature was higher and the coal burnout was lower than in air. However, when the O2 concentration was increased to 30 and 35% in the oxy-fuel combustion atmosphere, the ignition temperature was lower and coal burnout was improved in comparison with air conditions. On the other hand, an increase in ignition temperature and a worsening of the coal burnout was observed when steam was added to the oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres though no relevant differences between the different steam concentrations were detected. -- Highlights: → The ignition temperature and the burnout of two thermal coals under oxy-fuel combustion conditions were determined. → The effect of the wet recirculation of flue gas on combustion behaviour was evaluated. → Addition of steam caused a worsening of the ignition temperature and coal burnout.

  8. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  10. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  11. Chemicals from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  12. Petrographic and geochemical contrasts and environmentally significant trace elements in marine-influenced coal seams, Yanzhou mining area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gaisheng; Yang, P.; Peng, Z.; Chou, C.-L.

    2004-01-01

    The Yanzhou mining area in west Shandong Province, China contains coals of Permian and Carboniferous age. The 31 and 32 seams of the Permian Shanxi Formation and seams 6, 15-17 of the Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation were analyzed for coal petrology, mineralogy and geochemical parameters. The parameters indicate that the coal is high volatile bituminous in rank. The coal is characterized by high vitrinite and low to medium inertinite and liptinite contents. These properties may be related to evolution of the coal forming environment from more reducing conditions in a marine influenced lower delta plain environment for the early Taiyuan coals to more oxidizing paleoenvironments in an upper delta plain for the upper Shanxi coal seams. The major mineral phases present in the coal are quartz, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Sulfur is one of the hazardous elements in coal. The major forms of sulfur in coal are pyritic, organic and sulfate sulfur. Pyritic and organic sulfur generally account for the bulk of the sulfur in coal. Elemental sulfur also occurs in coal, but only in trace to minor amounts. In this paper, the distribution and concentration of sulfur in the Yanzhou mining district are analyzed, and the forms of sulfur are studied. The sulfur content of the Taiyuan coal seams is considerably higher than that of the Shanxi coals. Organic sulfur content is positively correlated to total and pyritic sulfur. The vertical variation of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Th, U and sulfur contents in coal seam 3 of the Shanxi Formation in the Xinglongzhuang mine show that all these trace elements, with the exception of Th, are enriched in the top and bottom plies of the seam, and that their concentrations are also relatively high in the dirt bands within the seam. The pyritic sulfur is positively correlated with total sulfur, and both are enriched in the top, bottom and parting plies of the seam. The concentrations of the trace elements are closely related to sulfur and ash contents. Most of

  13. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  14. Coal in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper comprises a report on the coal industry in the Republic of South Africa. Stresses the importance of coal in the South African economy (meets 75% of the country's energy requirements and is in second place in the South African exports table). Covers deposits, production and prices, exports policy; winning methods, productivity and the various grades of coal. Also includes data on investments and refers to synthetic fuels from coal (Sasol I, II, III processes).

  15. Ignition and Combustion of Pulverized Coal and Biomass under Different Oxy-fuel O2/N2 and O2/CO2 Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami Firoozabadi, Seyed Reza

    This work studied the ignition and combustion of burning pulverized coals and biomasses particles under either conventional combustion in air or oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Oxy-fuel combustion is a 'clean-coal' process that takes place in O2/CO2 environments, which are achieved by removing nitrogen from the intake gases and recirculating large amounts of flue gases to the boiler. Removal of nitrogen from the combustion gases generates a high CO2-content, sequestration-ready gas at the boiler effluent. Flue gas recirculation moderates the high temperatures caused by the elevated oxygen partial pressure in the boiler. In this study, combustion of the fuels took place in a laboratory laminar-flow drop-tube furnace (DTF), electrically-heated to 1400 K, in environments containing various mole fractions of oxygen in either nitrogen or carbon-dioxide background gases. The experiments were conducted at two different gas conditions inside the furnace: (a) quiescent gas condition (i.e., no flow or inactive flow) and, (b) an active gas flow condition in both the injector and furnace. Eight coals from different ranks (anthracite, semi-snthracite, three bituminous, subbituminous and two lignites) and four biomasses from different sources were utilized in this work to study the ignition and combustion characteristics of solid fuels in O2/N2 or O2/CO2 environments. The main objective is to study the effect of replacing background N2 with CO2, increasing O2 mole fraction and fuel type and rank on a number of qualitative and quantitative parameters such as ignition/combustion mode, ignition temperature, ignition delay time, combustion temperatures, burnout times and envelope flame soot volume fractions. Regarding ignition, in the quiescent gas condition, bituminous and sub-bituminous coal particles experienced homogeneous ignition in both O2/N 2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres, while in the active gas flow condition, heterogeneous ignition was evident in O2/CO 2. Anthracite, semi

  16. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  17. Turning Coal Into Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's coal liquefaction industry is developing rapidly, but still needs improvement In its effort to become more self-sufficient in energy, China is turning to other countries, notably South Africa, to establish joint ventures in turning coal into oil. To China's Shenhua Group Corp. Ltd., one of the world's largest coal-producing companies, the government's 11th Five-Year

  18. Coal production 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  19. Development of oxidation heat of the coal left in the mined-out area of a longwall face: Modelling using the fluent software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraba B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A commercial CFD software program, Fluent, was used to study oxidation processes in the longwall mined-out (gob area. A three-dimensional model of the gob area with an advancing coal face has been developed. For the model, typical oxidation behavior of a bituminous coal from the Ostrava-Karviná District was incorporated as resulted from laboratory investigations. The longwall gob area was designed on the basis of the actual longwall face district. Detailed measurements in the district then enabled re-verification of the model outputs with actual data in situ. The main attention was paid to modelling the effect of grain size of the coal left in the mined-out area on the oxidation heat and gases evolution. Numerical simulations confirmed the existence of an 'optimal' zone for intense development of the spontaneous heating process in the gob area.

  20. A model combining spectrum standardization and dominant factor based partial least square method for carbon analysis in coal by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiongwei; Fu, Yangting; Li, Zheng; Ni, Weidou

    2014-01-01

    Successful quantitative measurement of carbon content in coal using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is suffered from relatively low precision and accuracy. In the present work, the spectrum standardization method was combined with the dominant factor based partial least square (PLS) method to improve the measurement accuracy of carbon content in coal by LIBS. The combination model employed the spectrum standardization method to convert the carbon line intensity into standard state for more accurately calculating the dominant carbon concentration, and then applied PLS with full spectrum information to correct the residual errors. The combination model was applied to the measurement of carbon content for 24 bituminous coal samples. The results demonstrated that the combination model could further improve the measurement accuracy compared with both our previously established spectrum standardization model and dominant factor based PLS model using spectral area normalized intensity for the dominant fa...

  1. CO{sub 2} SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2005-02-01

    .54%. Coal rank was high-volatile C to B bituminous. Comparison of the desorbed gas content (395 scf/ton, as received) at reservoir pressure (2,697 psi) with the sorption isotherm indicates that Lower Calvert Bluff coal at this well site is oversaturated, but lost gas may have been overestimated. This high gas content suggests that little or no depressurization would be required to initiate methane production. Sorption isotherms results indicate that the sorptive capacity of CO{sub 2} is about 2.5 times that of CH{sub 4} at 1,000 psia. This ratio is similar to that of higher rank bituminous coals from other basins (e.g., Carroll, and Pashin, 2003), and it is very low in comparison to results of other low-rank coals and to the values that we used in our preliminary reservoir modeling. If this value from the APCL2 well is representative, Wilcox coals in this area will sequester less CO{sub 2} on a per ton basis than we had earlier inferred. However, because measured methane contents are higher, enhanced coalbed methane production potential is greater than we earlier inferred. Pressure transient testing for determining coal fracture permeability will be conducted soon by Pinnacle Technologies. The data from these analyses will be used to finalize our coal model for the reservoir simulation phase of the project.

  2. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations.

  3. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ratti, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  4. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soncini, Ryan M; Means, Nicholas C; Weiland, Nathan T

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  5. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Activated carbons for natural gas storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical activation with steam or CO2 and by chemical activation with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size distribution, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam activation, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.

  6. Radionuclides in US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  7. The economics of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Global aspects of the production, consumption and trade in coal are described. World reserves and resources, production (both by region and country), international trade (exporters and importers), coal consumption (by region and sector), and the demand for primary energy (1960-1979). Each of the producing and consuming countries are discussed individually. The electricity sector and its future demand for coal, and the future demand for coking coal are covered. Prices for metallurgical and steam coal are also given. Statistics are presented in tables.

  8. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  9. Organic petrology of Paleocene Marcelina Formation coals, Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela: Tectonic controls on coal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, P.C.; Martinez, M.

    2007-01-01

    About 7??Mt of high volatile bituminous coal are produced annually from the four coal zones of the Upper Paleocene Marcelina Formation at the Paso Diablo open-pit mine of western Venezuela. As part of an ongoing coal quality study, we have characterized twenty-two coal channel samples from the mine using organic petrology techniques. Samples also were analyzed for proximate-ultimate parameters, forms of sulfur, free swelling index, ash fusion temperatures, and calorific value. Six of the samples represent incremental benches across the 12-13??m thick No. 4 bed, the stratigraphically lowest mined coal, which is also mined at the 10??km distant Mina Norte open-pit. Organic content of the No. 4 bed indicates an upward increase of woody vegetation and/or greater preservation of organic material throughout the life of the original mire(s). An upward increase in telovitrinite and corresponding decrease in detrovitrinite and inertinite illustrate this trend. In contrast, stratigraphically higher coal groups generally exhibit a 'dulling upward' trend. The generally high inertinite content, and low ash yield and sulfur content, suggest that the Paso Diablo coals were deposited in rain-fed raised mires, protected from clastic input and subjected to frequent oxidation and/or moisture stress. However, the two thinnest coal beds (both 0.7??m thick) are each characterized by lower inertinite and higher telovitrinite content relat