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Sample records for bituminous coal industry

  1. Economy of bituminous coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Hochstetter, H.

    1944-05-11

    The influence of various factors on the production cost of (Janina) bituminous coal hydrogenation is analyzed briefly. The initial reckoning yielded a production cost of 188 marks per metric ton of gasoline and middle oils. The savings concomitant to changes of one percent in gasification, one percent in utilization of purified coal, one percent raising of space/time yield, one percent increase in throughput, one percent in coal concentration in the paste, and one percent in low temperature carbonization yield are listed. Factors affecting hydrogen consumption are listed in a table. Investigations showed the carbon-richest coal to produce a deviation in the effect of gasification upon the working costs by only 10 percent when compared with the Janina coal. Thus, the values listed were considered as guidelines for all kinds of bituminous coal. The calculations admitted the following conclusions: a maximum concentration of coal in the paste is desirable; one can assume a 2 percent reduction in the utilization with a 10 percent increase in throughput, as long as no changes in low temperature carbonization yield take place by changing the distribution in oil production; this configuration would change if the major concern were gas production instead of working costs, or if hydrogen production were the bottleneck. 1 table.

  2. Firing a sub-bituminous coal in pulverized coal boilers configured for bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Spitz; R. Saveliev; M. Perelman; E. Korytni; B. Chudnovsky; A. Talanker; E. Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2008-07-15

    It is important to adapt utility boilers to sub-bituminous coals to take advantage of their environmental benefits while limiting operation risks. We discuss the performance impact that Adaro, an Indonesian sub-bituminous coal with high moisture content, has on opposite-wall and tangentially-fired utility boilers which were designed for bituminous coals. Numerical simulations were made with GLACIER, a computational-fluid-dynamic code, to depict combustion behavior. The predictions were verified with full-scale test results. For analysis of the operational parameters for firing Adaro coal in both boilers, we used EXPERT system, an on-line supervision system developed by Israel Electric Corporation. It was concluded that firing Adaro coal, compared to a typical bituminous coal, lowers NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions, lowers LOI content and improves fouling behavior but can cause load limitation which impacts flexible operation. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. 30 CFR 716.4 - Special bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines. 716.4 Section... INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.4 Special bituminous coal mines. (a) Definition. Special bituminous coal surface mines as used in this section means those bituminous...

  4. Pretreatment of bituminous coal for hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer, H.

    1943-03-29

    Bituminous coal became plastic at certain temperature ranges and swelled, causing plugging of preheater tubes. With few exceptions, this problem was encountered only when hydrogenating bituminous coal. This swelling often appeared in the coking of coals, and for the majority of the cases it was found that efforts to reduce the baking ability of bituminous coal also reduced the swelling of coal paste in the preheater tubes. Three methods of pretreatment to reduce swelling were preheating, oxidation (anoxidation), and sulfur treatment. The preheating by hot nitrogen at 250 atm for 3 hours showed no improvement in swelling characteristics, but produced a greater asphalt content and a lower amount of gasification. Absorption of oxygen was shown to increase the viscosity of the coal paste, while preheating in a vacuum showed no effects. Oxidation (anoxidation) increased the splitting and gasification and gave higher asphalt content. The baking ability of Saar coal could be destroyed by addition of 2.5% sulfur and heating for 1/sup 1///sub 2/ hours at 110/sup 0/C, in a stream of H/sub 2/S. The volatile content dropped significantly when the same coal was heated to 200/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C. When neutralized Saar coal was dried under a stream of H/sub 2/S, only slight deterioration of the yield was noted with equal degree of gasification. It was concluded that a more or less distinct improvement would be observed from the absorption of sulfur, but that residue processing would have to be altered to account for the sulfur content.

  5. Processing of bituminous coal tar at high temperature with bituminous coal additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Hartmann, G.B.; Hupfer, H.; Leonhardt, P.

    1943-05-10

    In short tests, results of the effects of a bituminous coal addition to the processing of tar and pitch were obtainable. Coal used was that from the Heinitz Mines (Upper Silesian), saturated with 1--1.2% iron sulphate. On a mixture of bituminous coal tar residue and tar oil, with a relatively low level of solids and asphalt, a substitution was made for the addition of 2% alkalized iron-grude-catalyst with 20% coal. The same yield was reached using a straight-run procedure. The coal gave somewhat more gasification and additional asphalt in the sludge without increasing the solids content correspondingly. In spite of this, the carbonization results were somewhat improved, which led one to conclude that the coal addition fostered the decomposition of the tar asphalt, and, that the asphalt from the coal could be better carbonized than that out of the tar. One found, also, that the tar mixture with coal additive permitted trouble-free hydrogenation to gasoline and middle oil. Still another short test met with success. A bituminous coal tar pitch containing 24% benzene solids and 36% asphalt, which could not be processed with iron catalyst or even molybdenum-grude, was hydrogenated to gasoline and middle oil with a usable yield of .25 by a 20--25% addition of coal. Here too, the carbonization results were good. The addition of coal had no notable influence on the properties of the resulting oils. The document included test procedures. 11 tables.

  6. Hydrogenation balances for bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelscher

    1944-02-11

    This report was intended to set up predictive curves concerning how certain variables involved in coal hydrogenation output would change in response to changes in certain operational or input variables, for hydrogenation of Gelsenberg coal. The particular dependences investigated in the article were the following: (1) for liquid phase, the dependence of oil output, amount of product to be distilled, and hydrogen use upon the ash content of the coal, the carbon content of the coal, and the percentage of formation of gases, and (2) for vapor phase, the dependence of gasoline yield, hydrogen use, and excess hydrocarbon gas products on the percentage of gasification in the 6434 step. Within certain limits of validity, these dependences seemed mostly to be linear and were illustrated in graphs in the report (most of which were very hard to read on the microfilm image). The limits of validity were 2 to 8% ash content, 80 to 86.2% carbon content, 20 to 25% gasification in liquid phase, and 17 to 25% gasification in the 6434 vapor phase. As an example of the data and calculations, it was observed that at 2% ash content, there was 628 kg of oil output in the liquid phase, at 4% ash content, there was 621 kg oil output, and at 8% ash content, there was 607 kg oil output, so it was calculated that oil output would decrease by 0.56% for each percent increase in ash content between 2% and 8%. 7 tables, 2 graphs.

  7. Nigerian bituminous coal as a fuel-coal. | OGUGBUAJA | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian bituminous coal as a fuel-coal. V O OGUGBUAJA, C L NDIOKWERE, G A DIMARI. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v6i2.16113 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

  8. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 13. Gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the thirteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal, from July 31, 1984 to August 11, 1984. 6 refs., 22 figs., 20 tabs.

  9. The X-ray fluorescent method for determination of total sulphur in bituminous coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widowska-Kusmierska, J.; Siess, K.

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescent technique for the determination of total sulphur covering concentrations from 0,1 to 10% has been applied for bituminous coals showing a great variability in qualitative and quantitative composition of mineral matter (ash). The described method is a quick one giving results during one hour. The obtained good accuracy of determinations gives prospects for wide industrial application. (author)

  10. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 9. Gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the ninth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal. The period of gasificastion test was September 13 to October 12, 1983. 9 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  11. Pretreatment of bituminous coal for hydrogenation (older experiments)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer, H.

    1943-03-29

    The tendency for coal paste to become plastic inside a certain temperature range, which sometimes caused plugging in the preheater tubes, was observed only in bituminous coal. This phenomenon, called swelling, was seen as parallel to the increase in volume of the coal in coking or carbonization, which had been observed with melting bituminous coal. Although the parallel did not hold for all cases, the frequent simultaneous occurrence of the two phenomena suggested the possibility that those treatments of coal which reduced its baking ability would also improve its behavior in the preheater. Unequivocal results were not obtained, but certain predictions could be made about a pretreatment of coal for hydrogenation. (1) With preheating, no influence with regard to pressure plugging was detected in Brassert coal, although Saar coal Louisenthal, preheated, produced a better asphalt content and lower gasification experimentally. (2) Change in coal due to anoxidation increased the viscosity of the coal paste, while preheating in vacuum had no effect. (3) The baking ability of Saar coal could be destroyed by a sulfur treatment, without appreciably diminishing the volatile content. In general, a distinct improvement was observed with the absorption of sulfur.

  12. Gamma radiation hazard to miners in bituminous coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skubacz, K.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation hazard to miners working in 16 bituminous coal mines was determined by a thermoluminescence method. While the miners exposure to gamma radiation is higher than that of the general population, the yearly dose was never found to exceed 5 mSv in any investigated person. Factors contributing to the estimate of the exposure hazard and the need for individual dose monitoring in mines are discussed in more detail. 3 refs., 4 figs. (author)

  13. An experimental evaluation of coke production from bituminous coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaloc, M.; Janik, M.; Rojak, A.

    1981-01-01

    Results of studies of laboratory coking of bituminous coal tar are presented, which verify the technical feasibility and suitability of this engineering process for coke production. Thanks to the closed-system character of the process, it is suitable for technological and hygienic reasons. The yield of pitch coke is higher by comparison with that from chamber coking; also the properties of this coke are better; it is suitable for more varied applications, including the production of large-diameter graphite electrodes.

  14. Natural radioactivity associated with bituminous coal mining in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogun, F.A.; Mokobia, C.E.; Fasasi, M.K.; Ogundare, F.O.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma spectroscopic method was used to determine the natural radioactivity associated with the mining of Nigerian bituminous coal for the purpose of determining the radiological implications of coal mining in the country. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides detected range from 0.20±0.002 to 48.42±5.32 Bq kg -1 . The overall natural radionuclide contribution to the radioactivity of the environment was found to be 404.16±23.44 Bq kg -1 . Of this, coal waste (tailing) alone contributed 49.5% representing the largest contribution. Coal contributed just 5.5%. A comparison of the concentrations obtained in this work for coal with those from other parts of the world indicates that the radioactivity content of the Nigerian bituminous coal is not significantly different. The outdoor and indoor exposure rates in air 1 m above the ground are estimated to be (6.31±1.20)x10 -8 and (7.57±1.20) x10 -8 Gy h -1 , respectively, for the mining environment. These values compare very well with the global values reported by UNSCEAR: 5x10 -8 and 6x10 -8 Gy h -1 , respectively. The resulting annual effective dose equivalent estimated is (4.49±0.74)x10 -4 Sv yr -1 . This also compares favourably with the global value -4x10 -4 Sv yr -1 , reported by UNSCEAR

  15. Chemical and Pyrolytic Thermogravimetric Characterization of Nigerian Bituminous Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyakuma Bemgba Bevan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of new coal deposits in Nigeria presents solutions for nation’s energy crises and prospects for socioeconomic growth and sustainable development. Furthermore, the quest for sustainable energy to limit global warming, climate change, and environmental degradation has necessitated the exploration of alternatives using cleaner technologies such as coal pyrolysis. However, a lack of comprehensive data on physico-chemical and thermal properties of Nigerian coals has greatly limited their utilization. Therefore, the physico-chemical properties, rank (classification, and thermal decomposition profiles of two Nigerian bituminous coals – Afuze (AFZ and Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ – were examined in this study. The results indicate that the coals contain high proportions of C, H, N, S, O and a sufficiently high heating value (HHV for energy conversion. The coal classification revealed that the Afuze (AFZ coal possesses a higher rank, maturity, and coal properties compared to the Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ coal. A thermal analysis demonstrated that coal pyrolysis in both cases occurred in three stages; drying (30-200 °C, devolatilization (200-600 °C, and char decomposition (600-1000 °C. The results also indicated that pyrolysis at 1000 °C is not sufficient for complete pyrolysis. In general, the thermochemical and pyrolytic fuel properties indicate that the coal from both places can potentially be utilized for future clean energy applications.

  16. Low NOx firing systems for bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyrim, W.; Scheffknecht, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the case of lignite fluidized boilers the denitrification down to less than 200 mg/m 3 was possible with primary measures on the firing side only. On account of the excellent results achieved with the reconstructed plants the firing systems for the new generation of brown coal fire steam generators with a capacity of 800 MW and more is designed in a similar way. For bituminous coal fire steam generators the primary measures on the firing side are nor sufficient to keep the German NO x emission limit. Therefore these units had to be retrofitted with a SCR-DENOX plant. The experience with the new firing system made in a 110 MW steam generator in Austria with a wide range of fuels is introduced. One of the largest bituminous coal fired once-trough steam generator built by EVT is the boiler for the power station Bexbach I (750 MW). The firing system is designed as a tangential firing system with 32 jet burners. These are arranged in pairs in the corners and divided into 4 burner levels with 4 burner pairs each. One mill is allocated to each burner level. An important characteristic feature is that the four bowl mills are arranged on one side of the steam generator. The plant is constructed with upper air nozzles which are arranged above the top burner level for the reduced of nitrogen oxides. During tests at steam generator with similar design, the nO x formation could be reduced from 750 to 500 mg/m 3 s.t.p. (dry, 6% O 2 ) with an addition of upper air of 20% at 100% unit capacity and constant total flow. As a main approach for the further reduction of the primary NO x emission at bituminous coal fired steam generators with tangential firing systems, the experience gained from the firing of brown coal has also been taken into account. A fundamental aspect in this respect was the vertical air staging in the direction of the furnace height. The results of many tests in a test reactor have shown that the differences of the achievable NO x values of brown and

  17. Co-pyrolysis characteristic of biomass and bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Aibin; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangsuo

    2015-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of biomass and bituminous coal have been studied in this work. The temperature was up to 900°C with the heating rates of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C/min. Rice straw, saw dust, microcrystalline cellulose, lignin and Shenfu bituminous coal were chosen as samples. Six different biomass ratios were used. The individual thermal behavior of each sample was obtained. The experimental weight fractions of the blended samples and the calculated values were compared. The results show that the weight fractions of the blended samples behave differently with calculated ones during the co-pyrolysis process. With the increasing biomass ratio, relative deviations between experimental weight fractions and calculated ones are larger. H/C molar ratio, heat transfer properties of biomass would affect to the interaction between biomass and coal. The maximum degradation rates are slower than the calculated ones. The activation energy distributions also changed by adding some biomass into coal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Calorific efficiency of bituminous coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, H.; Schappert, H.

    1942-02-20

    The calorific efficiency of coal hydrogenation was the relation between the calories contained in the desired final product, that is, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (L.P.G.), and the calories contained in the coal required to produce the desired final product. A table of the efficiency of the power plant was given. Calorific efficiency of hydrogen production was then discussed, with figure 1 showing the heat flow diagram; tables 1 and 2 contained data for the coke plant and the water gas plant, respectively. Calorific efficiency of hydrogenation proper was discussed, with figure 2 showing the heat flow diagram for the production of aviation gasoline, and with the corresponding energy values given in table 3. The next topic of discussion was the possibility of increasing the calorific efficiency of total hydrogenation by: introduction of Linde process, utilization of kiln residues, introduction of paste heat exchange, and recovering the waste heat from the hot letdown and products. Table 4 gave data on the hydrogenation for aviation gasoline. The efficiency of hydrogen production was 26.3% without counting possible improvements or by-products for the process. The efficiency of the hydrogenation process itself was 49.0% for production of aviation gasoline and 51.1% for production of auto gasoline. However, for combined hydrogenation and hydrogen production, the efficiencies became 27.2% and 28.9% respectively. If all of the improvements mentioned above (including hydrogen production by Linde-process decomposition of product gases) were introduced, the efficiencies would rise to about 34.6% and 36.8%, respectively. 5 diagrams, 4 tables

  19. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the bituminous coal resources of the United States, identifies those resources which are potentially amenable to Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), identifies products and markets in the vicinity of selected target areas, identifies UCG concepts, describes the state of the art of UCG in bituminous coal, and presents three R and D programs for development of the technology to the point of commercial viability. Of the 670 billion tons of bituminous coal remaining in-place as identified by the National Coal Data System, 32.2 billion tons or 4.8% of the total are potentially amenable to UCG technology. The identified amenable resource was located in ten states: Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. The principal criteria which eliminated 87.3% of the resource was the minimum thickness (42 inches). Three R and D programs were developed using three different concepts at two different sites. Open Borehole, Hydraulic Fracture, and Electrolinking concepts were developed. The total program costs for each concept were not significantly different. The study concludes that much of the historical information based on UCG in bituminous coals is not usable due to the poor siting of the early field tests and a lack of adequate diagnostic equipment. This information gap requires that much of the early work be redone in view of the much improved understanding of the role of geology and hydrology in the process and the recent development of analytical tools and methods.

  20. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  1. Development of bituminous coal chambers with respect to throughput

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schappert, H.

    1942-10-17

    This short report compared three coal liquefaction plants in Germany which operated principally on bituminous coal and which had been built a few years apart in time. From the earliest plant (Scholven) to the latest (Blechhammer), the liquid-phase throughput had been almost tripled, partly because of the change from 300-atm to 700-atm operation, and partly because of the use of heat exchange to heat the coal paste part way to reaction temperature. This introduction of coal paste heat exchange reduced the load on preheaters so much that the amount of heat necessary in the preheater to heat one (metric) ton of coal paste to reaction temperature was reduced from 320,000 kcal to 170,000 kcal. Another development in the middle plant (Gelsenberg) was the addition of a portion of the cold coal paste at the input to the second reaction oven in each chamber, letting the heat of reaction itself heat that paste to reaction temperature (and at the same time regulating the temperature of the reaction better). Finally it was noted that for the production of a given amount of synthetic fuel, Blechhammer needed only about half as many reaction chambers as did Scholven.

  2. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2005-11-01

    Prolonged exposure to airborne respirable coal dust is responsible for coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), commonly called black lung. Health research studies have identified that the prevalence and severity of CWP are directly related to both the amount of dust exposure and the coal rank. The amount of airborne respirable dust (ARD) smaller than 10 micrometers generated from breakage of different coals varies widely. To investigate the cause, researchers for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have conducted experiments to identify the causes of airborne respirable dust liberation. Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals from eight mines. The results indicate that the proximate analysis of a coal sample can provide a very good indicator of the potential for a dust problem. For application to the coal mining, processing, and utilization industries, data from 977 US coal seams compiled by the Department of Energy (DoE) has been used to calculate this dust generation potential from an equation based on the NIOSH measured data. A simple procedure for this calculation is provided. 1 fig.

  3. The hydrogasification of lignite and sub-bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, B.; Fallon, P. T.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-02-01

    A North Dakota lignite and a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogenated at up to 900°C and 2500 psi hydrogen pressure. Yields of gaseous hydrocarbons and aromatic liquids have been studied as a function of temperature, pressure, residence time, feed rates and H2/coal ratio. Coal feed rates in excess of 10 lb/hr have been achieved in the 1 in. I. D.×8 ft reactor and methane concentration as high as 55% have been observed. A four-step reaction model was developed for the production and decomposition of the hydrocarbon products. A single object function formulated from the weighted errors for the four dependent process, variables, CH4, C2H6, BTX, and oil yields, was minimized using a program containing three independent iterative techniques. The results of the nonlinear regression analysis for lignite show that a first-order chemical reaction model with respect to C conversion satisfactorily describes the dilute phase hydrogenation. The activation energy for the initial products formation was estimated to be 42,700 cal/gmole and the power of hydrogen partial pressure was found to be +0.14. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.83. The mechanism, the rate expressions, and the design curves developed can be used for scale-up and reactor design.

  4. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  5. Study on the coprocessing of Xingiang Heishan bituminous coal with Tahe petroleum residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.; Zhao, P.; Li, K. [China Shenhua Coal to Liquefaction Corporation Ltd., Ordo (China)

    2007-02-15

    The reaction process of coprocessing Xinjiang Heishan bituminous coal and petroleum residue from Tahe petroleum chemical corporation was studied by using a Japanese vibrating horizontal autoclave. The effects of different petroleum residual addition on coal liquefaction was investigated and compared with the liquefaction result under the condition of exclusive Heishan bituminous coal. The results show that compared with the liquefaction results with only Heishan bituminous coal, coal-residual coprocessing has the characteristics of low hydrogen consumption, low gas and high oil yield. Coal conversion and oil yield was increased with proper addition of petroleum residues. In this experimental system, the optimum addition of petroleum residue is 20%. Coal conversion and oil yield are increased by 1.5% and 11% respectively. 2 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  6. Surface Properties of Photo-Oxidized Bituminous Coals: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Natural weathering has a detrimental effect on the hydrophobic nature of coal, which in turn can influence clean-coal recovery during flotation. Few techniques are available that can establish the quality of coal surfaces and that have a short analysis time to provide input for process control. Luminescence emissions which can be quantified with an optical microscope and photometer system, are measurably influenced by degree of weathering as well as by mild storage deterioration. In addition, it has been shown that when vitrinite is irradiated with a relatively high intensity flux of violet- or ultraviolet- light in the presence of air, photo-oxidation of the surface occurs. The combination of measuring the change in luminescence emission intensity with degree of surface oxidation provided the impetus for the current investigation. The principal aim of this research was to determine whether clear correlations could be established among surface oxygen functionality, hydrophobicity induced by photo-oxidation, and measurements of luminescence intensity and alteration. If successful, the project would result in quantitative luminescence techniques based on optical microscopy that would provide a measure of the changes in surface properties as a function of oxidation and relate them to coal cleanability. Two analytical techniques were designed to achieve these goals. Polished surfaces of vitrain bands or a narrow size fraction of powdered vitrain concentrates were photo-oxidized using violet or ultraviolet light fluxes and then changes in surface properties and chemistry were measured using a variety of near-surface analytical techniques. Results from this investigation demonstrate that quantitative luminescence intensity measurements can be performed on fracture surfaces of bituminous rank coals (vitrains) and that the data obtained do reveal significant variations depending upon the level of surface oxidation. Photo-oxidation induced by violet or ultraviolet light

  7. A new radiometric instrument designed to measure the parameters of bituminous coal on transport belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, P.

    1993-01-01

    A new radiometric instrument developed in Czechoslovakia, for the measurement of ash content of bituminous coal, and for the determination of approximate values of moisture and weight is described. (Author)

  8. The Case of Coal Water Slurry Fuel for Industrial Use in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Irfan; Mohammad A. Irfan; Afzal Khan; Irfan Ullah; Noman Wazir

    2015-01-01

    This research presents the case for design and development of Coal Water Slurry (CWS) Plant for industrial use in Pakistan. After exclusive comparison between coal quality quantification for CWS it was found that Darra mines at Pakistan provide best coal for CWS. Highly volatile, A and B Bituminous coal and Sub-Bituminous coal is selected for making CWS because of its low Sulfur contents, Ash contents and high heating value through experimentation. The purpose of this research was to present ...

  9. Fuel-oils from co-pyrolysis of scrap tyres with coal and a bituminous waste. Influence of oven configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo Muñoz, Beatriz; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Two wastes from the tyre recycling industry – the fibers used as reinforcing material and tyre crumbs – were pyrolyzed in two ovens of different configuration. Blends with a low rank coal and a bituminous waste were also prepared to modify the composition of the oils obtained from the pyrolysis of the tyre wastes. Elemental analysis, calorific value, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography were used to determine the oil composition. A comparative study taking int...

  10. Effect of bituminous coal properties on carbon dioxide and methane high pressure sorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich; Sýkorová, Ivana; Machovič, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 139, JAN 1 (2015), s. 115-124 ISSN 0016-2361 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : bituminous coal * sorption capacity * maceral composition * Upper Silesian Coal Basin Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.611, year: 2015

  11. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  12. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  13. Development of advanced air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal IGCC gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaimov Nikolay A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC technology has two main advantages: high efficiency, and low levels of harmful emissions. Key element of IGCC is gasifier, which converts solid fuel into a combustible synthesis gas. One of the most promising gasifiers is air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal gasifier developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI. The most obvious way to develop advanced gasifier is improvement of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. Modernization of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier is made by changing the regime parameters in order to improve its cold gas efficiency (CGE and environmental performance, namely H2/CO ratio. The first change is supply of high temperature (900°C steam in gasifier second stage. And the second change is additional heating of blast air to 900°C.

  14. Development of advanced air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal IGCC gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaimov, Nikolay A.; Ryzhkov, Alexander F.

    2017-10-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has two main advantages: high efficiency, and low levels of harmful emissions. Key element of IGCC is gasifier, which converts solid fuel into a combustible synthesis gas. One of the most promising gasifiers is air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal gasifier developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI). The most obvious way to develop advanced gasifier is improvement of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. Modernization of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier is made by changing the regime parameters in order to improve its cold gas efficiency (CGE) and environmental performance, namely H2/CO ratio. The first change is supply of high temperature (900°C) steam in gasifier second stage. And the second change is additional heating of blast air to 900°C.

  15. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  16. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  17. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  18. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  19. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  20. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  1. Application of laser microprobe (LAMMA 1000) to "fingerprinting" of coal constituents in bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Hercules, D.M.; Morelli, J.J.; Sellers, G.A.; Mattern, D.; Thompson-Rizer, C. L.; Brown, F.W.; Millay, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    A laser microprobe (LAMMA-1000) microchemical analysis of vitrinites of different morphologies but similar reflectances within the same bituminous coal bed indicates distinct "fingerprint" spectra. The banded form of vitrinite contains Li, Ti, Ba, Sr, F, and Cl which were not detected in the nonbanded vitrinite. These differences may indicate a different plant source or the introduction of these elements from fluids mobilized during diagenesis. The nonbanded vitrinite (called corpocollinite), which was contained in a pyrite coal-ball seed fern permineralization of Myeloxylon, may have been protected from influx of these elements due to entrapment by pyrite during an early peat stage. An ion at M/Z 65, which is characteristic of the banded vitrinite, may indicate C5H5+ and, perhaps a difference in the chemical structure of the two vitrinites. These results demonstrate that "fingerprint" spectra can be obtained from vitrinite macerals by LAMMA and that these "fingerprints" have genetic implications. ?? 1987.

  2. Research on the thermal decomposition of Mongolian Baganuur lignite and Naryn sukhait bituminous coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ariunaa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The technical characteristics, elemental composition of the organic and mineral matters, ash melting behaviors and carbonization and gasification reactivities of coals from Baganuur and Naryn sukhait deposits were investigated. The results of proximate and ultimate analysis confirmed that the coal from Baganuur deposit can be graded as a low rank lignite B2 mark coal and Naryn sukhait coal is a bituminous G mark one. The carbonization and gasification experiments were performed using TGA apparatus and fixed bed quartz reactor. The data obtained with two experimental reactors showed that Baganuur lignite had lower thermal stability and much higher CO2 gasification reactivity at 950°C as compared to those for Naryn sukhait bituminous coal.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 16 (42, 2015, 22-29

  3. Analysis of the use of coal tar as a binder in bituminous mixtures, using Marshall and Ramcodes methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Díaz, R.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an alternative use of coal tar, a by-product of the steel industry, given the problems of accumulation and negative environmental impact. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the incorporation of coal tar as a binder in paving mixtures. First, this paper presents the origin, description of the main characteristics, and properties of tar. Then, this paper evaluates the mix of coal tar by means of the RAMCODES and Marshall methodologies to determine its resistance. The results of the tests explain the physical and mechanical properties of the mix. Taking into account the results of both methods, this paper makes a comparison to determine the suitability of the RAMCODES methodology in the mix design. Finally, it analyzes the alternatives to coal tar that can be used as binders in bituminous mixes for pavement and the advantages of their uses under some specific conditions.

  4. Highly crystalline Zeolite-A from flyash of bituminous and lignite coal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayalu, S S; Udhoji, J S; Munshi, K N; Hasan, M Z

    2001-11-16

    Flyash is being generated in voluminous amounts by large scale coal combustion process. It poses a serious threat to thermal power industries specifically, in India, wherein the percent of utilisation of flyash is very poor (3-5%). In view of this problem, newer methods of its disposal and utilisation are being explored. The synthesis of zeolite from flyash appears to be one of the most promising alternatives as it has emphasis on value addition to waste material. Flyashes originating from different sources of coal differ in their characteristics and have implications in this work on Zeolite-A production. These factors have been thoroughly investigated and the conditions favourable for formation of Zeolite-A have been delineated. The reactivity of flyash towards zeolite formation is directly dependent on the SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) ratio, Fe(2)O(3) and CaO content. Amongst the flyashes investigated, so far the sub-bituminous coal based flyash with SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) ratio of 3.47 appears to be a suitable substrate for Zeolite-A synthesis. These zeolites have been characterised with respect to XRD crystallinity, calcium binding capacity (CBC) and sorption capacity, wherein the crystallinity ranges from 50 to 100%, the CBC ranges from 290 to 560meq/100g and sorption capacity ranges from 16.6 to 23.8%.

  5. Mineral matter in Spanish bituminous and brown coals. Part 2: mineral matter quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Martinez Alonso, A.; Tascon, J.M.D. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon y sus Derivados, Oviedo (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    A number of methods for mineral matter quantification were applied to a set of Spanish coals. Bituminous coals of different rank from the Asturian Central basin and brown coals from Galician basins were studied. Normative analysis was shown to be an adequate procedure for determining the concentrations of individual mineral species. It was found that mineral constituents of Asturian bituminous coals are, in decreasing abundance order, clay minerals (muscovite, kaolinite), quartz and carbonates. In the case of Galician brown coals kaolinite is the most abundant mineral, followed by quartz and pyrite. Extraction with ammonium acetate and oxidation with hydrogen peroxide yielded equivalent values for the concentrations of alkali and alkaline-earth elements bound to organic matter in brown coals. A series of direct and indirect procedures as well as numerical methods for determining the total mineral matter content of coals were compared. Optimum methods for determining the total mineral matter contents of bituminous coals were low-temperature ashing (LTA) and acid demineralisation. The sum of the LTA yield of ammonium acetate-extracted coal and the total concentration of ion-exchanged elements provided the most reliable results for brown coals. Correction formulae from ash yield previously derived for coals from other basins yielded only slightly satisfactory results for the Spanish coals under study. Results obtained evidence the importance of correctly establishing the nature and concentration of clay minerals present in coal. Also, the convenience of carrying out more comprehensive work to unequivocally establish the mineral matter/ash factors for the various types of Spanish coals is suggested. 65 refs., 6 tabs.

  6. Processing of a Silesian bituminous coal tar mixture at 600 atm to heavy oil excess in a 10-liter oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer, H.

    1942-10-28

    An analysis was made of a bituminous coal tar mixture for consideration as raw material for Blechhammer. A breakdown of the composition and yield charts is provided. A table compared it to a coke tar pitch and a bituminous tar mixture from a different carbonization process and its yields were approximately between the yield values of these two. Although the sludge extraction produced sufficient yields in the experiment, the yields would not be as good within full-scale industry. A day by day progress description of the experimentation is provided including all operational details. The experimental results and the pros and cons are summarized briefly. Fifteen tables of data provide analysis of all the elements tested.

  7. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  8. Carbon Isotope Analyses of Individual Hydrocarbon Molecules in Bituminous Coal, Oil Shale and Murchison Meteorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungsook Kim

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the origin of organic matter in meteorite, terrestrial rocks which contain organic compounds similar to the ones found in carbonaceous chondrites are studied and compared with Murchison meteorite. Hydrocarbon molecules were extracted by benzene and methanol from bituminous coal and oil shale and the extracts were partitioned into aliphatic, aromatic, and polar fractions by silica gel column chromatography. Carbon isotopic ratios in each fractions were analysed by GC-C-IRMS. Molecular compound identifications were carried by GC-MS Engine. Bituminous coal and oil shale show the organic compound composition similar to that of meteorite. Oil shale has a wide range of δ(13C, -20.1%_0 - -54.4%_0 compared to bituminous coal, -25.2%_0 - -34.3%_0. Delta values of several molecular compounds in two terrestrial samples are different. They show several distinct distributions in isotopic ratios compared to those of meteorite; Murchison meteorite has a range of δ(13C from -13%_0 to +30%_0. These results provide interpretation for the source and the formation condition of each rock, in particular alteration and migration processes of organic matter. Especially, they show an important clue whether some hydrocarbon molecules observed in meteorite are indigenous or not.

  9. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Lab.

    2002-06-01

    Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals to investigate the various factors influencing airborne respirable dust generation. Bituminous coal samples from 8 mines (5 U.S. and 3 Polish) were uniformly prepared and processed through a double roll crusher located in a low air velocity wind tunnel. Experimental factors studied included inherent coal seam constituents, specific energy of crushing, product size characteristics, dust cloud electrostatic field, and specific quantity of airborne respirable dust generated. A combination of factors is associated with the generation of airborne respirable dust. One factor involved is the effect of coal rank, described by the inherent moist fuel ratio, on the product size characteristics. However, since coals of high moist fuel ratio (high rank) are generally more extensively cleated, it is suggested that the degree of cleating is directly responsible for the quantity of respirable-sized particles produced in the crushed product material for eastern U.S. coals. This is implied by the relationship of ash content and at least one mineral constituent (pyrite, determined from pyritic sulfur analysis) to the percentage of airborne respirable dust. A clear delineation of coals, based on well-known proximate analysis characteristics, that generate the most respirable dust appears to be possible. It was also shown that the dust-generating characteristics of coals could be reasonably described by both the moist fuel ratio and the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI). These results show a clear distinction between eastern and western U.S. coals. However, no consistent distinction for Polish coal was observed.

  10. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  11. Synergistic effect on thermal behavior during co-pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass model components blend with bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shuzhong; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Lin; Meng, Haiyu

    2014-10-01

    Co-thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass and coal has been investigated as an effective way to reduce the carbon footprint. Successful evaluating on thermal behavior of the co-pyrolysis is prerequisite for predicting performance and optimizing efficiency of this process. In this paper, pyrolysis and kinetics characteristics of three kinds of lignocellulosic biomass model components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) blended with a kind of Chinese bituminous coal were explored by thermogravimetric analyzer and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. The results indicated that the addition of model compounds had different synergistic effects on thermal behavior of the bituminous coal. The cellulose showed positive synergistic effects on the thermal decomposition of the coal bituminous coal with lower char yield than calculated value. For hemicellulose and lignin, whether positive or negative synergistic was related to the mixed ratio and temperature range. The distribution of the average activation energy values for the mixtures showed nonadditivity performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The projects of reducing environmental pollution at the collieries belonging to Petrosani Autonomous Bituminous Coal Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arad, V.; Arad, S.; Costinas, B.; Marchis, G.

    1997-01-01

    The economic development in the Jiu Valley, as practised in the mining and processing of bituminous coal, has had a dynamic character without taking into account, however, the harmful impact on the environment. The most severe problem of environmental pollution in the Jiu Valley is that of the pollution of the Jiu River due to the discharge of waste water from the technological processes of mining and processing coal. This paper presents some solutions for reducing this environmental pollution, especially the Jiu water pollution. 1 ref

  13. The Indonesian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.; Daulay, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this comprehensive article the authors describe the origins and progress of the Indonesian coal industry and the role it plays, and will play, in the domestic energy scene and world coal trade. In the '80s, the Indonesian coal industry laid the basis for major expansion such that coal production rose from under a million tonnes in 1983 to 10.6 million tonnes in 1990, 50.9 million tonnes by 1996 and 61.2 million tonnes in 1992. At the same time, exports have increased from 0.4 million tonnes to 44.8 million tonnes. Current export levels are higher than originally expected, due in part to a slow down in the construction of electric power stations and a partial switch to natural gas. This has slowed the rate at which domestic coal demand has built up. The majority of coals currently exported are low rank steam coals, but some of the higher rank and very low ash coals are used for blast furnace injection, and a very small proportion may even be used within coking blends, even though they have poor coking properties. The Indonesian coal industry has developed very rapidly over the last six years to become a significant exporter, especially within the ASEAN context. The resources base appears to be large enough to support further increases in production above those already planned. It is probable that resources and reserves can be increased above the current levels. It is likely that some reserves of high value coals can be found, but it is also probable that the majority of additions to reserves will be lower in rank (and therefore quality) compared with the average of coals currently being mined. Reserves of qualities suitable for export will support that industry for a considerable period of time. However, in the longer term, the emphasis of production will increasingly swing to the domestic market

  14. Distribution of inorganic and organic substances in the hydrocyclone separated Slovak sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton Zubrik; Slavomir Hredzak; Ludmila Turcaniova; Michal Lovas; Ingo Bergmann; Klaus Dieter Becker; Maria Lukcova; Vladimir Sepelak [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Institute of Geotechnics

    2010-08-15

    A low-rank Slovak sub-bituminous coal from the Handlova deposit was physically treated by washing in a water-only cyclone with the goal to find the separation effect for inorganic (mainly Fe-bearing minerals) and organic substances (humic acids, diterpanes). A high-quality coal product with the ash content in the dry matter of 9.02% and carbon content of C{sup d} = 68.12% at a mass yield of 29.51% was obtained using the water-only cyclone processing. At first, the physically treated coal samples were detailed characterized by XRD, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, FT-IR and HR-TEM. In addition to non-crystalline organic coal components, inorganic compounds belonging to silicate minerals (kaolinite, muscovite and quartz) as well as to Fe-bearing sulphide minerals (pyrite) were identified in the sub-bituminous coal by XRD. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy detected the presence of iron carbonate (siderite), iron-containing clay mineral and two sulphur-containing minerals (pyrite, jarosite) in the untreated coal. On the other hand, only one Fe-bearing mineral, (pyrite) was found in the washed coal. Effect of the physical separation is also demonstrated in FT-IR spectra, where the peak at 1040 cm{sup -1} representing the silicate component in the untreated sample is not detectable in the washed coal sample. Presence of extractive organic substances, i.e. humic acids and tetracyclic diterpane (16a(H)-phyllocladane), in the hydrocyclone products is also evidenced. It was confirmed that the isolated diterpenoic compound is attendant in the washed product with the lowest ash content and it is assimilated with the organic part of coal. Surprisingly, humic acids were found in the highest concentration in the slurry that has the highest content of ash (63.14%). 54 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Biowaste utilization in the process of co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howaniec, Natalia; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biowaste utilization in co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite gives the benefits of stable supplies of a primary energy source – coal and utilization of a zero-emission, waste material (i.e. agriculture waste, sewage sludge, etc.) with higher process efficiency and lower negative environmental impact than biomass or coal gasification, respectively. The main focus of the study presented is co-gasification of bituminous coal or lignite with biowaste to hydrogen-rich gas. The experiments were performed in the laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor installation at 700 and 900 °C. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with a color map of studied data were applied in the selection of the optimal operating parameters for biowaste utilization in the co-gasification process based on the experimental data of gasification/co-gasification process as well as physical and chemical properties of fuels tested. The experimental results showed that the carbon conversion rate in co-gasification increased with increasing biomass content in a fuel. The total gas volume and hydrogen volume in co-gasification were higher than the values expected based on the results of the gasification process of the fuels analyzed. - Highlights: • Biowaste co-gasification with bituminous coal/lignite to hydrogen-rich gas. • Steam co-gasification in laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor at 700 and 900 °C. • Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with color map of experimental data. • Carbon conversion increase with increasing biomass content. • The highest total gas and hydrogen volume in co-gasification of C-B20 blend at 900C.

  16. An evaluation of fracture toughness of bituminous coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The role of fracture mechanics in the design of rock structures is vitally important. However, because of the complexities of rock structures and lack of understanding of the fundamentals of the failure mechanism, it has become customary to use the engineering properties approach in the design of stable rock structures. Recently considerable attention has been given and attempts are being made to apply the fracture mechanics approach to the design of safe mining structures. In mining engineering the fracture mechanics may be applied to calculate the formation of fracture zones around mine opening, thus estimating support requirements and formulating guide lines for the selection of mine roadway support system. The research work presented here is concerned with the evaluation of fracture toughness of coal under laboratory conditions. Diametral compression test method is used to determine the fracture toughness parameter of coal in the opening model failure. The effect of crack length and dimensionless crack length on the fracture toughness was studied also. A laboratory investigation of fracture toughness of coal in tensile mode failure has led to the conclusion that fracture toughness could be treated as a material property. (author)

  17. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: potential UCG products and markets. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-31

    The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) The US will continue to require new sources of energy fuels and substitutes for petrochemical feedstocks into the foreseeable future. Most of this requirement will be met using coal. However, the cost of mining, transporting, cleaning, and preparing coal, disposing of ash or slag and scrubbing stack gases continues to rise; particularly, in the Eastern US where the need is greatest. UCG avoids these pitfalls and, as such, should be considered a viable alternative to the mining of deeper coals. (2) Of the two possible product gases LBG and MBG, MBG is the most versatile. (3) The most logical use for UCG product in the Eastern US is to generate power on-site using a combined-cycle or co-generation system. Either low or medium Btu gas (LBG or MBG) can be used. (4) UCG should be an option whenever surface gasification is considered; particularly, in areas where deeper, higher sulfur coal is located. (5) There are environmental and social benefits to use of UCG over surface gasification in the Eastern US. (6) A site could be chosen almost anywhere in the Illinois and Ohio area where amenable UCG coal has been determined due to the existence of existing transportation or transmission systems. (7) The technology needs to be demonstrated and the potential economic viability determined at a site in the East-North-Central US which has commercial quantities of amenable bituminous coal before utilities will show significant interest.

  18. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates

  19. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  20. A note on the market potential of low-volatile bituminous coal, Willow Creek property, northeastern British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry Ryan; Ted Todoschuk; Bob Lane [British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The international coking coal market is very competitive and is segmented into many non inter changeable coal products. Two products, that are more in demand than many are, low-volatile bituminous high rank coking coal for blends into coke ovens, and low-volatile bituminous coal for pulverization and injection into blast furnaces (PCI coal). The Willow Creek property contains coal that may be suitable for these two markets. The higher priced market is the low-volatile coking coal market where up to 30% of this coal can be added into coal blends for coke ovens. This is a higher priced market than the PCI market and it is advantageous for mines if possible to switch from the low-volatile PCI market to the low-volatile coking coal market. Low-volatile coking coal is also in short supply as reserves in the US and other countries are running out. This note looks at the possible use of 7 Seam from the Willow Creek property in northeastern British Columbia as a low-volatile component in a standard coke oven blend. The Willow Creek property is located 40 kilometres west of Chetwynd and overlies seams in the Gething Formation. 15 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. ANALYSIS OF COAL TAR COMPOSITIONS PRODUCED FROM SUB-BITUMINOUS KALIMANTAN COAL TAR

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti; Astrilia Damayanti

    2016-01-01

    Coal tar is a liquid by-product of coal pyrolysis processes. This liquid oil mixture contains various kinds of useful compounds such as benzoic aromatic compounds and phenolic compounds. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. The coal tar was collected by pyrolysis process of coal obtained from PT Kaltim Prima Coal and Arutmin-Kalimantan. The experiments typically occurred at the atmo...

  2. Applied Technological Direction of Power Plant Ash and Slag Waste Management when Kuznetsk Bituminous Coal is Burned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihach Snejana A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently a lot of power plants have a problem with storage of coal combustion solid by-products (ash and slag. Holding capacity of existing power plants available ash dumps were enlarged and modernized repeatedly. Many plants have two or even three of them. Today new ash dump construction is economically inconvenient due to need to assign new plots of land and their inconveniently big distance from a plant, which increase ash and slag transportation expenses. The goal of our research work is to find promising directions for ash and slag waste mass utilization based on Kuznetsk bituminous coals experimental data on ultimate composition and properties. The experimental research of ash, slag and their mixture samples from ash dumps brought us to conclusion that the most promising direction for these materials application in large quantities is construction industry including road construction. Be-sides, we lined up some other directions for ash, slag, and ash and slag mixture possible application. These directions might not provide mass utilization but they are promising from a point of view of the researched waste properties.

  3. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristic Study of Shenmu Bituminous Coal Combustion with Online TG-MS-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guanfu

    2018-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of Shenmu bituminous pulverized coal (SBC) were comprehensively investigated with a combined TG-MS-FTIR system by considering the effect of particle size, heating rate and total flowrate. The combustion products were accurately quantified by normalization and numerical analysis of MS results. The results indicate that the decrease of the particle size, heating rate and total flowrate result in lower ignition and burnout temperatures. The activation energy tends to be lower with smaller particle size, lower heating rate and total flowrate. The MS and FTIR results demonstrate that lower concentrations of different products, such as NO, NO2, HCN, CH4 and SO2 were produced with smaller particle size, slower heating rate and lower total flowrate. The decrease of particle size would lead to more contact area with oxygen and slower heating rate could provide more sufficient time for the diffusion. High total flowrate would reduce the oxygen adsorbability on the coal particle surface and shorten the residence time of oxygen, which makes the ignition difficult to occur. This work will guide to understand the combustion kinetics of pulverized coals and be beneficial to control the formation of pollutants.

  5. Elemental analysis of Indonesian and Australian bituminous coal used at Kapar Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muneer Saleh; Ahmad Suhaimi

    2008-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analytical (INAA) technique is used for the determination of thirty elements in five coal samples collected from Kapar power station, imported from Indonesia and Australia. Analyses of the samples are being associated with standards. All irradiation were performed in the nuclear reactor of Malaysia Nuclear Agency (MNA). samples were counted by Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector for short period irradiations at MNA, while for the long period irradiations the samples were counted at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The concentrations of thirty elements have been determined: The major components are Cl, Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Ti, and Na with the mean concentrations in the range between 70±69 ppm-6100±1639 ppm; and the trace elements are Zr, V, Mn, Sc, Cr, Co, As, Br, Rb, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Th, U and Ta with the mean concentrations in the range between 0.1381±0.0202 - 69.0±2.8 ppm. The results have been compared to the reported data of eight coal samples from the United States and the reported data of Australian bituminous coal. (Author)

  6. Cigarette smoking and federal black lung benefits in bituminous coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, T M; Collins, L C; Snider, H L; Anderson, W H

    1989-02-01

    The records of 1000 consecutive coal miners applying for benefits under the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act were examined to determine the contribution of age, dust accumulation, and cigarette smoking to the profile of the miner who satisfies the current pulmonary criteria for disability. Using the presence of pneumoconiosis on chest radiograph as the indication of significant coal dust accumulation, the miners were separated into Group A--those without pneumoconiosis (n = 316) and Group B--those with pneumoconiosis (n = 684). The federal spirometric criteria for disability identified 55/316 miners in Group A (14.5%) and 99/684 miners in Group B (17.4%) potentially eligible for an award (P = .27). The mean ages of miners in both groups did not differ significantly, nor was there difference in the mean ages of groups that did or did not meet the federal criteria. In both groups, those miners potentially eligible for a financial award smoked more cigarettes than did their counterparts (Group A, 31.0 v 18.5 pack-years, P less than .001; Group B, 31.3 v 23.6 pack-years, P less than .001). There was no difference in the smoking histories of the miners from either group who met the federal criteria. Our data indicate that, in the case of bituminous coal miners, the present federal legislation intended to identify and remunerate those who suffer lung impairment from chronic occupational exposure to coal dust is biased in favor of those who sustain additional damage to their ventilatory capacity by smoking cigarettes.

  7. ANALYSIS OF COAL TAR COMPOSITIONS PRODUCED FROM SUB-BITUMINOUS KALIMANTAN COAL TAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coal tar is a liquid by-product of coal pyrolysis processes. This liquid oil mixture contains various kind of useful compounds such as benzoic aromatic compounds and phenolic compounds. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. The coal tar was collected by pyrolysis process of coal obtained from PT Kaltim Prima Coal and Arutmin-Kalimantan. The experiments typically occurred at the atmospheric pressure in a laboratory furnace at temperatures ranging from 300 to 550oC with a heating rate of 10oC/min and a holding time of 1 hour at the pyrolysis temperature. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS was used to analyze the coal tar components. The obtained coal tar has the viscosity of 3.12 cp, the density of 2.78 g/cm3, the calorific value of 11,048.44 cal/g, and the molecular weight of 222.67. The analysis result showed that the coal tar contained more than 78 chemical compounds such as benzene, cresol, phenol, xylene, naphtalene, etc. The total phenolic compounds contained in coal tar is 33.25% (PT KPC and 17.58% (Arutmin-Kalimantan. The total naphtalene compounds contained in coal tar is 14.15% (PT KPC and 17.13% (ArutminKalimantan.

  8. Non-catalytic co-gasification of sub-bituminous coal and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyendu, Guevara Che

    Fluidization characteristics and co-gasification of pulverized sub-bituminous coal, hybrid poplar wood, corn stover, switchgrass, and their mixtures were investigated. Co-gasification studies were performed over temperature range from 700°C to 900°C in different media (N2, CO2, steam) using a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. In fluidization experiments, pressure drop (Delta P) observed for coal-biomass mixtures was higher than those of single coal and biomass bed materials in the complete fluidization regime. There was no systematic trend observed for minimum fluidization velocity ( Umf) with increasing biomass content. However, porosity at minimum fluidization (εmf) increased with increasing biomass content. Channeling effects were observed in biomass bed materials and coal bed with 40 wt.% and 50 wt.% biomass content at low gas flowrates. The effect of coal pressure overshoot reduced with increasing biomass content. Co-gasification of coal and corn stover mixtures showed minor interactions. Synergetic effects were observed with 10 wt.% corn stover. Coal mixed with corn stover formed agglomerates during co-gasification experiments and the effect was severe with increase in corn stover content and at 900°C. Syngas (H2 + CO) concentrations obtained using CO2 as co-gasification medium were higher (~78 vol.% at 700°C, ~87 vol.% at 800°C, ~93 vol.% at 900°C) than those obtained with N2 medium (~60 vol.% at 700°C, ~65 vol.% at 800°C, ~75 vol.% at 900°C). Experiments involving co-gasification of coal with poplar showed no synergetic effects. Experimental yields were identical to predicted yields. However, synergetic effects were observed on H2 production when steam was used as the co-gasification medium. Additionally, the presence of steam increased H2/CO ratio up to 2.5 with 10 wt.% hybrid poplar content. Overall, char and tar yields decreased with increasing temperature and increasing biomass content, which led to increase in product gas.

  9. Note on the chemical composition of the asphalts of bituminous coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boente, L.

    1942-10-13

    This report was written not as a result of extensive unified experiments, but as a result of collected observations during the course of various investigations. It interpreted two of the major groups of constituents of the asphalts from hydrogenation of bituminous coal as the following: (1) highly condensed aromatics (including heterocyclic compounds with oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur in the rings) (a) in dehydrogenated form, or (b) in partially hydrogenated form, and (2) reaction products from labile, partially hydrogenated highly condensed aromatics (a) through oxidation reactions, or (b) through condensation and polymerization reactions. These types of compounds seemed to come from rather symmetric precursors that were not split during pressure hydrogenation, as were most constituents of coal, but were dehydrogenated instead. The types of compounds mentioned above shared several properties with the asphalts, including precipitation and adsorption properties. Some examples given of Group 1 compounds were coronene and several derived from it, as well as napthoxanthene, carbazole, and diphenylene sulfide. One example given to illustrate Group 2 was some hypothetical reactions of a proposed hexakeideca-hydrocoronene.

  10. Temperature induced development of porous structure of bituminous coal chars at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Howaniec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The porous structure of chars affects their reactivity in gasification, having an impact on the course and product distribution of the process. The shape, size and connections between pores determine the mechanical properties of chars, as well as heat and mass transport in thermochemical processing. In the study the combined effects of temperature in the range of 973–1273 °K and elevated pressure of 3 MPa on the development of porous structure of bituminous coal chars were investigated. Relatively low heating rate and long residence time characteristic for the in-situ coal conversion were applied. The increase in the temperature to 1173 °K under pressurized conditions resulted in the enhancement of porous structure development reflected in the values of the specific surface area, total pore volume, micropore area and volume, as well as ratio of the micropore volume to the total pore volume. These effects were attributed to the enhanced vaporization and devolatilization, as well as swelling behavior along the increase of temperature and under high pressure, followed by a collapse of pores over certain temperature value. This proves the strong dependence of the porous structure of chars not only on the pyrolysis process conditions but also on the physical and chemical properties of the parent fuel.

  11. Potential of water-washing of rape straw on thermal properties and interactions during co-combustion with bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiulin; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal properties and interactions during co-combustion of rape straw (RS) before and after water-washing with bituminous coal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the properties and interactions during co-combustion of RS with bituminous coal (at 10, 20, 40 and 60% RS). The feasibility and potential of water-washing as an RS pre-treatment was also explored. Reactivity and the amount of heat released followed a quadratic trend, while changes to the degree of interactions between the fuels conformed to a cosine curve. Water-washing increased the ignition and burn-out temperatures and slightly decreased reactivity. Demineralization negatively affected the previously synergistic co-firing relationship, nevertheless, the amount of heat released increased by 10.28% and the average activation energy (146kJ/mol) was lower than that of the unwashed blend (186kJ/mol). Overall, water-washing of RS could prove a useful pre-treatment before co-combustion with bituminous coal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślik, Ewelina; Konieczny, Tomasz; Bobik, Bartłomiej

    2018-01-01

    One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures of bituminous coal with different types of solid waste (5, 10 and 15% of mass fraction) were used. Solid waste types consisted of: printed, colored PE caps, fragmented cable trunking, fragmented car gaskets and shredded tires from trucks. During the incineration of a given mixture of municipal waste with bituminous coal, the velocity of exhaust gas was specified, the concentration and mass flow of fly ash were determined together with the physico-chemical parameters of the exhaust gas, the samples of emitted fly ash were taken as the test material. Particle size analysis of fly ash was performed using laser particle sizer Fritch Analysette 22. The PM10 share from all fly ashes from incineration of mixtures was about 100%. Differences were noted between PM2.5 and PM1.

  13. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Ewelina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures of bituminous coal with different types of solid waste (5, 10 and 15% of mass fraction were used. Solid waste types consisted of: printed, colored PE caps, fragmented cable trunking, fragmented car gaskets and shredded tires from trucks. During the incineration of a given mixture of municipal waste with bituminous coal, the velocity of exhaust gas was specified, the concentration and mass flow of fly ash were determined together with the physico-chemical parameters of the exhaust gas, the samples of emitted fly ash were taken as the test material. Particle size analysis of fly ash was performed using laser particle sizer Fritch Analysette 22. The PM10 share from all fly ashes from incineration of mixtures was about 100%. Differences were noted between PM2.5 and PM1.

  14. Co-gasification of bituminous coal and hydrochar derived from municipal solid waste: Reactivity and synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Guo, Qinghua; He, Qing; Ding, Lu; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the influences of gasification temperature and blended ratio on co-gasification reactivity and synergy of Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) and municipal solid waste-derived hydrochar (HTC) were investigated using TGA. Additionally, active alkaline and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) transformation during co-gasification was quantitatively analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer for correlating synergy on co-gasification reactivity. The results showed that higher char gasification reactivity existed at higher HTC char proportion and gasification temperature, and the main synergy behaviour on co-gasification reactivity was performed as synergistic effect. Enhanced synergistic effect at lower temperature was mainly resulted from more obviously inhibiting the primary AAEM (i.e. active Ca) transformation, and weak synergistic effect still existed at higher temperature since more active K with prominent catalysis was retained. Furthermore, more active HTC-derived AAEM remaining in SF sample during co-gasification would lead to enhanced synergistic effect as HTC char proportion increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface composition of silica particles embedded in an Australian bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, B; Pigram, P J; Lamb, R N

    1999-07-01

    The composition and structure of the surface layers of a series of silica particles (10-20 microns across), embedded in a bituminous coal from the Whybrow seam, Sydney Basin, Australia, have been characterized in situ using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOFSIMS), ion imaging, and depth profiling. The silica particles investigated are typically encased in a multilayered shell, the composition of which differs from average composition of both the silica and the bulk coal. The analysis directly demonstrates the presence of a silanol-rich (Si-OH) interfacial layer 3 nm in thickness. This silanol-rich region separates the bulk silica and a complex non-silica layer encasing the particles. The interfacial region also shows significant lithium enrichment (approximately fivefold over bulk) which implies diffusion and precipitation of lithium-containing species during the authigenetic formation of the surface layers of the silica grains. The outer layer encasing the silica particles is 10 nm in thickness and is composed of clays and carbonates, and, in some cases, includes organic material. The elemental constituents of this layer include aluminium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, and lesser amounts of titanium and copper. The variation in the aluminium concentration from the outermost surface to the deeper layers is less than that of other non-silica species. A relatively high amount of calcium is found associated with the silica bulk. Although only non-respirable-sized silica particles are examined in this work, the methods of analysis developed have potential in providing an insight into the surface composition of respirable particles and in further studies of the surface bioavailability of silica species.

  16. Indian coal industry: Growth perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Growth perspective of Indian coal industry and their environmental aspects, are discussed. The complete coal chain comprises of mining including preparation and processing, transport, usage and disposal of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. Proper environmental protection measures are therefore, required to be integrated at every stage. At mining stage, land reclamation, restoration of surface damaged by subsidence and proper treatment of effluents are the minimum requirement for effective environmental protection. Since coal will continue to be the major source of commercial energy in coming decades initiative will have to be taken in making coal a clean fuel from the point of view of its usage in different industries. Washing of high ash coals for reducing the ash content will go a long way in reducing the atmospheric pollution through better plant performance and reduced environmental pollution at the power plants. (author)

  17. Pyrolysis and liquefaction of acetone and mixed acetone/ tetralin swelled Mukah Balingian Malaysian sub-bituminous coal-The effect on coal conversion and oil yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Pauzi Abdullah; Mohd Azlan Mohd Ishak; Khudzir Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The effect of swelling on Mukah Balingian (MB) Malaysian sub-bituminous coal macrostructure was observed by pyrolysing the swelled coal via thermogravimetry under nitrogen at ambient pressure. The DTG curves of the pyrolyzed swelled coal samples show the presence of evolution peaks at temperature ranging from 235 - 295 degree Celsius that are due to releasing of light molecular weight hydrocarbons. These peaks, however, were not present in the untreated coal, indicating some changes in the coal macrostructure has occurred in the swelled coal samples. The global pyrolysis kinetics for coal that follows the first-order decomposition reaction was used to evaluate the activation energy of the pyrolyzed untreated and swelled coal samples. The results thus far have shown that the activation energy for the acetone and mixed acetone/ tetralin-swelled coal samples exhibit lower values than untreated coal, indicating less energy is required during the pyrolysis process due to the weakening of the coal-coal macromolecular interaction network. Moreover, liquefaction on the swelled coal samples that was carried out at temperatures ranging from 360 to 450 degree Celsius at 4 MPa of nitrogen pressure showed the enhancement of the coal conversion and oil yield at temperature of 420 degree Celsius, with retrogressive reaction started to dominate at higher temperature as indicated by decreased and increased in oil yield and high molecular weight pre-asphaltene, respectively. These observations suggest that the solvent swelling pre-treatment using acetone and mixed acetone/ tetralin can improve the coal conversion and oil yields at less severe liquefaction condition. (author)

  18. Multinomial logit analysis of injury severity in U.S. underground bituminous coal mines, 1975-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J D; Passmore, D L

    1985-10-01

    Relationships among mine and injured miner characteristics and degrees of injury are examined for 91 404 injuries in underground bituminous coal mines in the United States from 1975 through 1982. Injury severity varies by the mining system, geographical region, circumstances surrounding the injury, the injured miner's age, whether the miner was using powered equipment, the year in which the injury occurred and the location in the mine where the injury happened. Injury severity is not related to the injured miner's total mining experience, job experience and experience in the mine in which the injury occurred.

  19. Australia's coal industry bottoms out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.E.

    2000-01-01

    The last decade has been a tough period for the Australian coal industry, despite increases in production, productivity and exports. Profitability has fallen, mines have closed and ownerships have changed hands. The start of the new millennium seems to be heralding in a welcome change of fortune for the Australian coal industry, with signs that a recovery is finally arriving. Coal provides around 26% of global primary energy needs (compared with oil at 40%, gas at 24%, nuclear at 7% and renewables at 3%) and generates about 37% of the world's electricity (compared with renewables at 21%, nuclear at 17%, gas at 16% and oil at 9%). This is in spite of the adverse publicity that coal has been receiving regarding its contribution to the Greenhouse Effect, even relative to other fossil fuels, principally natural gas

  20. Australian coal industry continues expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent saleable Australian black coal production figures are given along with trends in development of new operations and new technology aiming to provide a sound basis for the continuing expansion of the Australian coal industry. Export prices from 1982 to 1991 to Japan (Australia's major export market) are provided, together with Australian dollar return to exporters at the exchange rate prevailing at the start of each contract year. An increased demand for steaming coal is expected, thus maintaining Australia's position as the world's larger exporter. 4 tabs

  1. Hydrogen from the two-stage pyrolysis of bituminous coal/waste plastics mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, Vlastimil; Bičáková, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 15 (2011), s. 9014-9022 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : hydrogen * two-stage pyrolysis * coal Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 4.054, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360319911007622

  2. Co-combustion of bituminous coal and biomass fuel blends: Thermochemical characterization, potential utilization and environmental advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui

    2016-10-01

    The thermochemical characteristics and gaseous trace pollutant behaviors during co-combustion medium-to-low ash bituminous coal with typical biomass residues (corn stalk and sawdust) were investigated. Lowering of ignition index, burnout temperature and activation energy in the major combustion stage are observed in the coal/biomass blends. The blending proportion of 20% and 30% are regarded as the optimum blends for corn stalk and sawdust, respectively, in according the limitations of heating value, activation energy, flame stability and base/acid ratio. The reductions of gaseous As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) were 4.5%, 7.8%, 6.3%, 9.8%, 9.4% and 17.4%, respectively, when co-combustion coal with 20% corn stalk. The elevated capture of trace elements were found in coal/corn stalk blend, while the coal/sawdust blend has the better PAHs control potential. The reduction mechanisms of gaseous trace pollutants were attributed to the fuel property, ash composition and relative residence time during combustion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Controls on coalbed methane potential and gas sorption characteristics of high-volatile bituminous coals in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Acosta, Wilfrido

    distribution, and adsorption experiments at high and low gas pressures are employed to estimate reservoir gas capacity and to characterize high volatile bituminous coals of Indiana for potential future CO2 sequestration. Understanding the mechanisms and geologic conditions that control the occurrence of gas in coal allows us to better characterize: (1) CBM reservoirs for their potential economic use, and (2) coal seams as future receptacles of anthropogenic carbon dioxide.

  4. Dependence of carbon dioxide sorption on the petrographic composition of bituminous coals from the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Sýkorová, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2011), s. 312-323 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/08/1146; GA AV ČR IAA300460804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : bituminous coal * sorption capacity * maceral composition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.248, year: 2011

  5. Amenability of some Witbank bituminous ultra fine coals to binderless briquetting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mangena, SJ

    2004-10-15

    Full Text Available briquetting press, at various feed moisture contents. The formed briquettes were then tested for compressive strength and water resistance and the values correlated with the coal characteristics and the briquetting conditions. The coals were found...

  6. XRD and FT–IR investigations of sub-bituminous Assam coals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    ash content (5⋅70 %wt). The percentage of ash is of signi- ficance in the usefulness of coals. On the other hand, the highest ash containing Tipong coal has lower sulphur content with a value of 4⋅14 (%wt). The composition of ash varies with the rank of coal and in some cases, variations are observed in the same seam.

  7. Research on Reasonable Particle Size of Coal Blends for Blast Furnace Injection: Semi Coke and Bituminous Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyang; Xu, Runsheng; Song, Tengfei; Zhang, Pengcheng

    Semi coke, a byproduct in the chemical industry, is a new fuel for blast furnace injection in China. In this study, semi coke and bitumite were milled into different size, ranged from 0.147mm to under 0.074mm. The content of volatile matter and ash, which affect the combustibility of semi coke, were measured using muffle furnace. The mixture, in which the proportion of coal in different sizes changed, was blend by semi coke and bitumite with different size. Activation energy calculation and the comprehensive combustion characteristic index of all kinds of blends was also discussed. The result obtained by Thermogravimetry -Derivative Thermogravimetry curves indicates that the smaller the size of mixture is, the lower for the characteristic temperature, and the better for its combustibility, Semi coke can be a substitute for anthracite in blast furnace injection.

  8. Industry at odds over export coal prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarwood, Ken.

    1993-01-01

    The United Mine Workers' Union claims that Australia is not getting enough for its coal. Moreover, coal company executives argue that the open market policy was failing the industry and that the export customers were manipulating Australian producers. Consequently, the unions are calling for Federal Government intervention and support the establishment of a national coal authority to co-ordinate the marketing of coal and investment in the industry. ills

  9. Influence of natural weathering of two medium-volatile bituminous coals of similar rank on coke quality; Influencia de la alteracion meteorica de dos carbones coquizables con contenido medio de materia volatil en la calidad del coque producido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal, M.D.; Diez, M.A.; Alvarez, R.; Barriocanal, C.; Canga, C.S.; Pis, J.J. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon. Oviedo (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    The study of the weathering of the two bituminous coals stored at the INCAR stockyard and its influence on coke quality is presented. These coals of similar rank are present in industrial blends used by the Corporation Siderurgica Integral (CSI) for the production of blast-furnace coke. Of all the techniques used to determine the degree of weathering, via thermoplastic properties. Gieseler plastometry was found to be the most sensitive. Coking tests were carried out in the semi-industrial coking plant at INCAR. The effect of weathering on each coal series is completely different. Weathering produces a loss of maximum fluidity accompanied by a decrease in aliphatic hydrogen in both coals. However, the los rate is different in each case. Coke quality clearly decreases in one, while in the other improves at first but then gradually deteriorates. An improvement in coke quality due to weathering not only affects some high-volatile coals as it is well known but also medium-volatile coals. (Author) 16 refs.

  10. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  11. The Environmental Impacts Of The Coal Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtsev, Sergey; Efimov, Viktor; Korchagina, Tatyana

    2017-11-01

    The article analyzes the main indicators of the Russian coal industry's impact on the environment: the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere for the year 2016 compared with 2015. It also identifies actual values of the environmental safety targets of the coal industry and the main investments in the nature protection. For prevention, restriction and minimization the negative impact on the environment, the coal industry has proposed the packages of managerial and technical measures.

  12. XRD and FT–IR investigations of sub-bituminous Assam coals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    extremely difficult and therefore, research on coal structure is still a challenging task and continues to be pursued intensively. The investigation of the chemical structure of coal has led to comprehensive and well-defined results on the basis of development of spectroscopic methods. These are FTIR, UV-visible spectroscopy, ...

  13. Data for comparing hydrogenation with low temperature carbonization (L. T. C. ) of bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahr

    1943-05-24

    A chart is presented with three main headings for processes applied to coal with 7,000 heat units/kg and 8% H/sub 2/O: (A) Lurgi Spuelgas (rinsing gas) Carbonization for Upper Silesia, and (B) Brennstoff-Technik (B.T.) Carbonization for Upper Silesia, and (C) Coke Plant for Upper Silesia. The following were given for each heading: coke yield at 7,000 heat units and 5% H/sub 2/O; tar yield; LTC gas; heat requirements for the kiln drum; production involving coal for weak gas; power requirements; steam requirements; coal for current and steam; and tar processing. Coke with 0% H/sub 2/O based on a dry coal basis showed yields of 72.5% for (A), 75.0% for (B), and 71.0% for (C). Coke with 5% H/sub 2/O based on anhydrated dry coal showed 70.2% for (A), 72.5% for (B), and 68.7% for (C). Particle sizes that were 20 mm in size or larger constituted 82.3% of (A), 71.6% of (B), and 85.0% of (C). Volatile constituents were given as 7.0% for (A), 9.0% for (B), and 7.0% for (C). Tar yield based on dry coal was 9.2% for (A), 8.5% for (B), and 4.0% for (C). Tar yield based on anhydrated dry coal was 10.1% for (A), 9.8% for (B), and 5.0% for (C). Power requirements in KW hr/hr for 1 million tons dry coal were 2,100 for (A), 3,100 for (B), and 2,000 for (C). Coal for current and steam for 1 million tons anhydrated dry coal were 12,900 tons/yr for (A), 12,000 tons/yr for (B), and 20,000 tons/yr for (C). 1 table

  14. Adapting palynological preparation methods in subbituminous and bituminous coals from Colombia to improve palynofacies and hydrocarbon source rock evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandon, Astrid; Arango, Fredy [Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Calle 65, 78-28, Medellin (Colombia); Parra, Norberto [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Calle 59A, 63-020, Medellin (Colombia); Gorin, Georges E. [Dpmt. Geology-Paleontology, University of Geneva, 13 rue des Maraichers, 1205 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-01-21

    Apart from their potential as fossil fuel, bituminous and subbituminous coals in Colombia may prove to be potential source rocks for the generation of hydrocarbons. The assessment of such properties requires the combination of petrographic and palynofacies studies. The latter correspond to the microscopic investigation in transmitted white and reflected UV lights of sedimentary organic matter insoluble in organic and inorganic solvents. To date, mineral acid and Schulze methods have failed to produce good samples of palynofacies constituents from Cenozoic coals in Colombia, so that the latter method had to be modified. The main modifications consist in adapting the KClO{sub 3} to HNO{sub 3} ratio in the Schulze mixture and introducing two extra phases of oxidation with NaOH and NH{sub 4}OH, which permit the washing off of humic substances. This method yields the full spectrum of palynofacies constituents, which are not destroyed or damaged by the alkali treatment. Neither is their fluorescence colour affected by the initial acid treatment. On the contrary, the particle fluorescence intensity tends to increase because of the dissolution of humic acids, making their identification easier. The achievements of the modified method are threefold: 1) it permits the correlation between macerals in petrographic polished sections and their equivalent in palynofacies slides, making the two methods complementary; 2) palynofacies provides a better identification of sporomorphs than petrography, resulting in better paleoenvironmental interpretations; 3) palynofacies tend to give a more precise quantitative evaluation of the liptinitic constituents, and consequently, of the coal hydrocarbon generation potential. (author)

  15. The influence of seam height on lost-time injury and fatality rates at small underground bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, R H; Fotta, B; Mallett, L G

    2001-11-01

    Due to variations in the thickness of U.S. coal seams, there is great variability in the height of the roof where underground miners work. Restrictions imposed by low seam heights have important safety consequences. As the height of their workplace decreases, miners must stoop, duck walk, or crawl, and their vision, posture, and mobility become increasingly restricted. Low seam height also places important restrictions on the design of mobile equipment and other mining machinery. Using the employment and injury data reported to the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) from 1990 to 1996, small underground bituminous coal mines with less than 50 employees were stratified by average coal seam height according to the following categories: low ( or =61"). Injury rates for both nonfatal days lost and fatality cases were examined by seam height and leading type of injury incidents. The leading types of incidents associated with fatalities were roof falls and powered haulage equipment. In comparison to high-seam mines, miners working in low or medium seams are at higher risk of being killed by powered haulage equipment, roof bolting machines, and falls of unsupported roof. The leading types of incidents associated with nonfatal injuries were handling materials and powered haulage. As mining height decreases, miners are at increasingly higher risk of having a nonfatal injury from incidents involving roof bolting machines, load-haul-dump equipment, personnel carriers, and powered haulage conveyors. As mining height increases, miners are at increasingly higher risk of having a nonfatal injury from slips and falls and incidents involving shuttle cars and roof and rib falls. Knee injuries are a particularly severe problem in low-seam mines. The rate of injuries to miners while crawling or kneeling is 10 times higher in low seams than in high seams.

  16. The coal industry and its greenhouse challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Australian coal industry is actively involved in greenhouse gas emission management and abatement issues. An Australian Coal Association (ACA) position paper on greenhouse in November 1989, recommended a number of strategies to minimise the greenhouse effect, including the enhancement of energy utilisation efficiency, improved energy conversion efficiency at coal-fired power stations, expanded use of solar heating, and improved recycling. All of the strategies have been implemented to various degrees. The management and abatement of greenhouse gas emissions within the coal industry has been approached from an individual operational level, and a 'higher' industry level

  17. Thermodynamic analysis and economic evaluation of a 1000 MW bituminous coal fired power plant incorporating low-temperature pre-drying (LTPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Cheng; Xu, Gang; Zhu, Mingming; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Dongke

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved design of coal pre-drying using flue gas waste heat was proposed. • 0.4% energy efficiency increase was achieved with the proposed system. • The additional net economic benefit of the proposed system is $1.91 M per year. • Proposed concept can be widely applied to improve coal-fired power plant efficiency. - Abstract: Low-temperature pre-drying (LTPD) of lignite has been identified as an effective approach to improve the efficiency of lignite fired power plants. In this study, an improved concept for the pre-drying of medium moisture bituminous coals using flue gas waste heat was proposed and its feasibility was assessed. In the proposed configuration, the boiler exhaust flue gas is drawn to dryers to heat and pre-dry the raw coal, removing a large proportion of the coal moisture and leading to an improvement in the energy efficiency of the power plant. Thermodynamic analysis and economic evaluation were performed based on a typical 1000 MW bituminous coal fired power plant incorporating the proposed LTPD concept. The results showed that the net power plant efficiency gain is as much as 0.4 percentage point with additional net power output of 9.3 MW as compared to the reference plant without coal pre-drying. This was attributed to the reduction in the moisture content from 10.3 to 2.7 wt%. The additional net economic benefit attained due to the coal pre-drying was estimated to reach $1.91 M per year. This work provides a broadly applicable and economically feasible approach to further improve the energy efficiency of power plants firing coals with medium moisture contents.

  18. Coal industry defies recession with record exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Denis.

    1994-01-01

    Despite the worldwide recession which has adversely affected many commodities, the New South Wales coal industry achieved record production and exports during 1992-93. Although saleable coal production increased by only a modest 0.7%, experts rose by an impressive 7.1% to 57.4 million tonnes. Coking coal jumped by 14.6% to 23.6 million tonnes while thermal coal increased by 2.7% to 33.8 million tonnes. The value of coal experts amounted at $3.1 million. 1 tab

  19. Study on co-pyrolysis characteristics of rice straw and Shenfu bituminous coal blends in a fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Aibin; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangsuo

    2014-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis behaviors of rice straw and Shenfu bituminous coal were studied in a fixed bed reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. The pyrolysis temperatures were 700°C, 800°C and 900°C, respectively. Six different biomass ratios were used. Gas, tar components were analyzed by a gas chromatograph and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry respectively. Under co-pyrolysis conditions, the gas volume yields are higher than the calculated values. Co-pyrolysis tar contains more phenolics, less oxygenate compounds than calculated values. The addition of biomass changes the atmosphere during the pyrolysis process and promotes tar decomposition. The SEM results show that the differences between the blended char and their parents char are not significant. The results of char yields and ultimate analysis also show that no significant interactions exist between the two kinds of particles. The changes of gas yield and components are caused by the secondary reactions and tar decomposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recommended procedures and techniques for the petrographic description of bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.; Thompson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Modern coal petrology requires rapid and precise description of great numbers of coal core or bench samples in order to acquire the information required to understand and predict vertical and lateral variation of coal quality for correlation with coal-bed thickness, depositional environment, suitability for technological uses, etc. Procedures for coal description vary in accordance with the objectives of the description. To achieve our aim of acquiring the maximum amount of quantitative information within the shortest period of time, we have adopted a combined megascopic-microscopic procedure. Megascopic analysis is used to identify the distinctive lithologies present, and microscopic analysis is required only to describe representative examples of the mixed lithologies observed. This procedure greatly decreases the number of microscopic analyses needed for adequate description of a sample. For quantitative megascopic description of coal microlithotypes, microlithotype assemblages, and lithotypes, we use (V) for vitrite or vitrain, (E) for liptite, (I) for inertite or fusain, (M) for mineral layers or lenses other than iron sulfide, (S) for iron sulfide, and (X1), (X2), etc. for mixed lithologies. Microscopic description is expressed in terms of V representing the vitrinite maceral group, E the exinite group, I the inertinite group, and M mineral components. volume percentages are expressed as subscripts. Thus (V)20(V80E10I5M5)80 indicates a lithotype or assemblage of microlithotypes consisting of 20 vol. % vitrite and 80% of a mixed lithology having a modal maceral composition V80E10I5M5. This bulk composition can alternatively be recalculated and described as V84E8I4M4. To generate these quantitative data rapidly and accurately, we utilize an automated image analysis system (AIAS). Plots of VEIM data on easily constructed ternary diagrams provide readily comprehended illustrations of the range of modal composition of the lithologic units making up a given coal

  1. Geodynamic methods for assessing methane distribution in bituminous coal deposits and measures to intensify methane fluxes during mine gas drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Гончаров

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores states of methane within the coal bearing stratum and shows heavy dependency of the intrastratal gas migration on the forms of porous space and petrographic properties of coal. The adsorbed methane is found to be predominant in the coal of Kuznetsk Basin. Different forms of coal diffusion and filtration are described revealing their dependency on geological and thermodynamic conditions. The paper provides justification for the primary focus on geodynamic processes when designing gas drainage systems and applicability of morphometric methods and remote sensing data for their identification. The significance of researches into the processes activating exothermic reactions resulting in methane transition to free state is explained. The paper presents the results of using seismic-acoustic stimulation techniques as one of the practical approaches to addressing this issue. Results of successful industrial testing have been compared with the results of numerical modelling of stress-strain state, which can also be managed through seismic-acoustic stimulation.

  2. Hydrogen production by two-stage co-pyrolysis of bituminous coal-polymers mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel; Kříž, Vlastimil

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2008), s. 77-82 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : co-pyrolysis * coal * polymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  3. Down-scaling of bituminous coal mining, restructuring of steel works and heavy engineering in the Ostrava region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusáček, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2005), s. 3-12 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS3086005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Ostrava region * restructuring * steemaking and heavy industry * downscaling of coal- mining Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  4. Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

    1980-10-01

    The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

  5. Effects of Steam and CO2 in the Fluidizing Gas when Using Bituminous Coal in Chemical-Looping Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leion, H.; Lyngfelt, A.; Mattisson, T.

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology where an oxygen carrier is used to transfer oxygen from the combustion air to the fuel in order to avoid direct contact between air and fuel. Thus, the CO2 is inherently separated from the flue gases with a potential for considerably lower energy penalty and cost compared to other techniques for CO2 separation. The oxygen carrier is circulated between two reactors, a fuel and an air reactor, where the flue gas from the air reactor contains oxygen depleted air and the flue gas from the fuel reactor contains mainly CO2 and H2O. The water can easily be condensed and the remaining CO2 can be transported for underground storage. Most of the prior work with CLC has focused on using natural gas and syngas as fuel and oxygen carrying material normally produced from pure chemicals. However, recent work on adapting the CLC process for solid fuels with ores and natural minerals as oxygen carrier shows promising results. This paper will present results from reactivity investigations in a laboratory fluidized-bed reactor system using previously investigated natural mineral ilmenite as oxygen carrier and a bituminous Colombian coal as fuel. Experiments were conducted at a temperature of 970°C with N2, steam, and/or CO2 in the fluidizing gas. Synergy effects between steam and CO2 on fuel conversion was noted. The results show that the fuel conversion was a roughly a factor 5 faster with steam as compared to CO2 in the fluidizing gas.

  6. The New South Wales coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The New South Wales coal industry contributes about $3.3 billion, or 43%, to Australia's coal export income. It is stated that the industry has made many changes in its 200 years history and prepares to adjust to new circumstances and practices. Among the changes outlined has been the move from hand mining to advanced technology and in the new approach to minesite rehabilitation

  7. Production costs of auto gasoline and DHD feed from bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-11-04

    This report consists of three tables. The first table shows data concerning the 700 atm liquid phase and a production capacity of 146,000 tons/yr of gasoline and middle oil. The cost is shown in Reichsmarks per ton of gasoline and middle oil for individual areas such as: 1.73 tons of hydrogenation coal, with 10% water and 4% ash as being 40 RM, 1900 m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/ being 83.50 RM, catalysts and chemicals being 2.40 RM, power being 32.0 RM, and wages, materials, operating materials and laboratory costs as being 19.6 RM. The total of all areas listed was 211.60 RM/ton of gasoline and middle oil. The second table is for the 300 atm vapor phase showing RM/ton of auto gasoline and RM/ton 170/sup 0/-endpoint gasoline based on the gasoline being free of C/sub 4/. This is given for liquid phase gasoline and middle oil, hydrogen, liquid petroleum gasoline credit, hydrogenation gas credit, catalyst and chemicals, power, wages, repairs, fire protection and taxes, amortization, general, 3% interest, and 5% interest. The same information given in the second chart is also given in the third chart except it was for a 700 atm vapor phase operation. The 300 atm-process seemed to have slightly higher cost than the 700 atm process, partly because of using more hydrogen and more expensive catalyst. 3 tables

  8. Changes in optical properties, chemistry, and micropore and mesopore characteristics of bituminous coal at the contact with dikes in the Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Schimmelmann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in high-volatile bituminous coal (Pennsylvanian) near contacts with two volcanic intrusions in Illinois were investigated with respect to optical properties, coal chemistry, and coal pore structure. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) increases from 0.62% to 5.03% within a distance of 5.5??m from the larger dike, and from 0.63% to 3.71% within 3.3??m from the small dike. Elemental chemistry of the coal shows distinct reductions in hydrogen and nitrogen content close to the intrusions. No trend was observed for total sulfur content, but decreases in sulfate content towards the dikes indicate thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Contact-metamorphism has a dramatic effect on coal porosity, and microporosity in particular. Around the large dike, the micropore volume, after a slight initial increase, progressively decreases from 0.0417??cm3/g in coal situated 4.7??m from the intrusive contact to 0.0126??cm3/g at the contact. Strongly decreasing mesopore and micropore volumes in the altered zone, together with frequent cleat and fracture filling by calcite, indicate deteriorating conditions for both coalbed gas sorption and gas transmissibility. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in optical properties, chemistry, and micropore and mesopore characteristics of bituminous coal at the contact with dikes in the Illinois Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastalerz, M.; Drobniak, A. [Indiana University, Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Schimmelmann, A. [Indiana University, Dept. of Geological Sciences, Bloomington, IN 47405-1405 (United States)

    2009-01-31

    Changes in high-volatile bituminous coal (Pennsylvanian) near contacts with two volcanic intrusions in Illinois were investigated with respect to optical properties, coal chemistry, and coal pore structure. Vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) increases from 0.62% to 5.03% within a distance of 5.5 m from the larger dike, and from 0.63% to 3.71% within 3.3 m from the small dike. Elemental chemistry of the coal shows distinct reductions in hydrogen and nitrogen content close to the intrusions. No trend was observed for total sulfur content, but decreases in sulfate content towards the dikes indicate thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Contact-metamorphism has a dramatic effect on coal porosity, and microporosity in particular. Around the large dike, the micropore volume, after a slight initial increase, progressively decreases from 0.0417 cm{sup 3}/g in coal situated 4.7 m from the intrusive contact to 0.0126 cm{sup 3}/g at the contact. Strongly decreasing mesopore and micropore volumes in the altered zone, together with frequent cleat and fracture filling by calcite, indicate deteriorating conditions for both coalbed gas sorption and gas transmissibility. (author)

  10. The restructuring of the international coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, D.; Welham, K.

    2000-01-01

    The international coal industry is now becoming a global industry emerging from a history of production for national purposes and isolated regional markets. The participants in the market are also changing; the oil companies have come and gone and production is now in the hands of specialist mining companies. This has implications for the way the industry is organized. Deregulation in the electricity market means that coal mining companies face the challenge of entering into the new millennium in a more competitive market but companies may also have the opportunity to differentiate their product through risk management. (orig.)

  11. Comparative study on combined co-pyrolysis/gasification of walnut shell and bituminous coal by conventional and congruent-mass thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Fan, Di; Zheng, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Combined co-pyrolysis/gasification of bituminous coal (BC) and walnut shell (WS) are comparatively studied with both conventional and congruent-mass thermogravimertric analysis (TGA) methods. The results indicate that BC and WS exhibit additivity in the co-pyrolysis step. However, the gasification reactivity of chars in subsequent gasification step exhibits remarkable sample-mass dependence, which causes the illusions in synergy and inhibition effects when conventional TGA tests are conducted. A congruent-mass TGA method has been developed to overcome the limitations of the conventional TGA mode. One of the advantages of this method is that it can reduce to a minimum the effect of sample mass on reactivity. Thus, the degree of synergy or inhibition can be directly estimated from the deviation of the experimental TG curves between the two separated and blended samples. We recommend this method in studying the co-processing behavior between coal and biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Real-time analysis of soot emissions from bituminous coal pyrolysis and combustion with a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shaokai; Zhang, Yang; Meng, Junwang; Shu, Jinian

    2009-01-15

    This paper reports on-line analyses of the soot emissions from the Inner Mongolia bituminous coal combustion and pyrolysis processes with a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-ATOFMS). The soot particles are generated by heating a small amount of screened coal powder in synthetic air and nitrogen atmosphere in a tubular oven. The vacuum ultraviolet photoionization time-of-flight (VUV-TOF) mass spectra of the soot particles emitted from combustion and pyrolysis at different oven temperatures and different stages are obtained. The VUV-TOF mass spectra are assigned with the references of the results of the off-line GC/MS analysis.

  13. Bituminous coal production in the Appalachian basin: past, present, and future: Chapter D.3 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Polyak, Désirée E.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Although small quantities of coal first were produced from the Appalachian basin in the early 1700s, the first production statistics of significance were gathered during the census of 1830 (Eavenson, 1942). Since then, about 35 billion short tons of bituminous coal have been produced from the Appalachian basin from an original potential coal reserve (PCR(o)) estimated to range from about 60 to 90 billion short tons. The term “reserve” refers to economically producible coal, and a “potential coal reserve” (PCR(n)) is an estimate of the amount of coal economically recoverable in a region (State, coal field) over a defined time period (n = number of years) and under a range of economic, societal, and technological conditions. Thus, the current cumulative production plus the PCR(n) equals an estimated cumulative production (ECP(n)). The maps in this report (oversized figures 1, 2, 3, and 4) were produced from a digital database of historical and current coal production records by county. Sources of the original data include various State geological surveys, the U.S. Geological Survey, the former U.S. Bureau of Mines, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Coal Resource Assessment Project.

  14. Effect of the temperature of different combustion zones in the boiler grate on changes in physical and chemical parameters of bituminous coal and slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Rompalski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the influence of the temperature of characteristic zones of coal combustion in a stoker fired boiler (drying, degassing, and burn-out, on changes in physical and chemical parameters of bituminous coal and slags. This information is important as it helps identify the impact of coal properties on the accumulation of trace elements, primarily mercury, in combustion waste. The study is the continuation of research work on the impact of mercury compounds accumulated in combustion waste on the natural environment (mercury from landfills of slag, and fly ash. Studies were undertaken because no in-depth analysis of the impact of the temperature of particular zones of stoker fired boilers on the physical and chemical parameters of the post-process slag, including mercury content, had been reported in literature. Both of the coals examined, classified as bituminous coal according to the International Classification of Seam Coals and of type 32.1 according to the PN-G-97002:1982 standard, showed an average mercury content of 0.0849 μg/g. In the chemical composition determined for the ash derived from burnt coal, the dominance of SiO2 and Al2O3 over other oxides was found. This feature results in the increase of the softening temperature and ash melting and, therefore, during the combustion of coal tested in a stoker fired boiler, only ash was subjected to the sintering process. Mercury content in the other examined samples taken from various locations of the stoker fired boiler (drying – 32–1050 °C, degassing – 1050–1020 °C, and burn-out – 1020–400 °C varied from 0.0668 to 0.0009 μg/g and was determined with the use of a LECO atomic absorption spectrometer. The analyses of the elemental composition, performed with the application of XRF spectrometry, for ash obtained from samples collected from different sampling points of the stoker fired boiler showed that the largest concentration of

  15. Impact of petroleum industry horizontal divestiture on the coal market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, D.L.; Dymond, L.H.; Marris, R.L.

    1979-06-22

    Volume 2 contains appendices as follows: coal supply curves, coal supply model modifications, coal mine financing data, legislative proposals for horizontal divestiture, overview of oil companies in coal industry (including their coal reserves) and the major sources of data and bibliography. (LTN)

  16. Thermal relaxation of bituminous coal to improve donation ability of hydrogen radicals in flash pyrolysis; Sekitan kozo kanwa ni yoru suiso radical kyoyo noryoku no kojo wo mezashita netsubunkai mae shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    In terms of coal conversion reaction, the behavior of bituminous coal heated beyond a glass transition point was examined on the basis of pyrolyzed products, and the effect of an increase in proton mobility on promotion of coal decomposition was evaluated. In experiment, after Illinois bituminous coal specimen was heated up to a specific temperature in N2 or He gas flow at a rate of 5K/min, the specimen was directly transferred to a pyrolyzer for instantaneous pyrolysis. As the experimental result, the glass transition temperature of the Illinois coal specimen was calculated to be 589K from a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profile. From the pyrolysis result of the Illinois coal specimen heated up to 623K, the char yield decreased by 3kg as compared with that of the original coal, while the tar yield increased by 4kg up to 27kg per 100kg of the original coal. This tar increase was larger than that of cooled coal. These results suggested that the donation of hydrogen radicals to coal fragments is improved with an increase in proton mobility. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Capitalist collective action: competition, cooperation and conflict in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Bowman [City University of New York, New York, NY (USA). Queens College

    2006-11-15

    This volume presents a theory of capitalist collective action and a case study of the pre-World War II American coal industry to which the theory is applied. The author examines the irony of capitalist firms that do not want to compete with each other, but often cannot avoid doing so. He then explains under what conditions businesses would be able to organize their competition and identifies the economic and political factors that facilitate or inhibit this organization. The case study not only illustrates the theory, but demonstrates how the competitive relations of capitalist firms are critically important determinants of their political behavior. The author argues that the traditional Marxist concern with conflict between workers and capitalists should be supplemented with a concern for the competitive conflicts among capitalists. Contents are: 1: 1. Economic competition and market organization: the logic of capitalist collective action; 2. Forms of capitalist collective action; Part II: 3. Price and wage games in the bituminous coal industry; 4. Workers organize capitalists: collective bargaining and market organization, 1880-1914; 5. The coal industry on the defensive, 1916-1922; 6. Labor-capital conflict and the disorganization of the coal market, 1921-1928; 7. From free competition to state intervention; Part III: 8. Capitalists, workers, and the state; Bibliography; Indexes. This text was originally published in 1989 in hardback (ISBN 0-521-36265-2).

  18. Australia's export coal industry: a project of the Coal Australia Promotion Program. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This booklet presents an overview of the Australian coal industry, emphasises the advantages of using Australian coal and outlines government policies, both Commonwealth and State, which impact on coal mine development, mine ownership and coal exports. It also provides information on the operations and products of each producer supplying coal and coke to export markets and gives contact details for each. The emphasis is on black coal, but information on coal briquettes and coke is also provided. Basic information on the rail networks used for the haulage of export coal and on each of the bulk coal loading terminals is also included.(Author). 3 figs., photos

  19. Bituminization of liquid radioactive waste. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G'oshev, G.S.; Gradev, G.D.; Stefanova, I.G.; Milusheva, A.G.; Guteva, E.S.; Stefanov, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    The elaborated technology for bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes (salt concentrates) is characterized by the fact that the bituminization process takes place in two stages: concentration of the liquid residue and evaporation of the water with simultaneous homogeneous incorporation of the salts in the melted bitumen. An experimental installation for bituminization of salt concentrates was designed on the basis of this technology. The experience accumulated during the design and construction of the installation for bituminization of salt concentrates could be used for designing and constructing an industrial installation for bituminization of the liquid residue of the nuclear power plants. 2 tabs., 3 figs., 3 refs

  20. Relations among pH, sulfate, and metals concentrations in anthracite and bituminous coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, III, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Water-quality data for discharges from 140 abandoned mines in the Bituminous and Anthracite Coalfields of Pennsylvania illustrate relations among pH, sulfate, and dissolved metal concentrations. The pH for the 140 samples ranged from 2.7 to 7.3, with two modes at pH 2.5 to 4 (acidic) and 6 to 7 (near neutral). Generally, flow rates were smaller and solute concentrations were greater for low-pH samples; flow rates increased with pH. Although the pH distribution was similar for the bituminous and anthracite subsets, the bituminous discharges had smaller median flow rates, greater concentrations of sulfate, iron, and aluminum, and smaller concentrations of barium and lead than anthracite discharges with the same pH values. The observed relations between the pH and constituent concentrations can be attributed to (1) dilution of acidic water by alkaline ground water; (2) solubility control of aluminum, iron, manganese, barium, and lead by hydroxide, sulfate, and/or carbonate minerals; and (3) aqueous sulfate-complex formation. The formation of AlSO4+ and AlHSO4+2 complexes adds to the total dissolved aluminum concentration at pH of equilibrium with aluminum hydroxide or hydroxysulfate minerals and can account for 10 to 20 times greater concentrations of dissolved aluminum in bituminous discharges compared to anthracite discharges at similar pH. Sulfate complexation also can account for 10 to 30 times greater concentrations of dissolved ferric iron concentrations at equilibrium with ferrihydrite (Fe(OH)3) and/or schwertmannite (Fe8O8(OH)4.5(SO4)1.75) at pH of 3 to 5. In contrast, lower barium and lead concentrations in bituminous than anthracite discharges indicates elevated sulfate concentration could decrease mobility of these metals by the formation of insoluble minerals such as barite (BaSO4) or anglesite (PbSO4). Most samples were saturated with barite, but none were saturated with anglesite. Hence, lead concentrations could be controlled by coprecipitation with

  1. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Zhou, Hongcang; Fan, Junjie; Zhao, Houyin; Zhou, Tuo; Hack, Pauline; Chan, Chia-Chun; Liou, Jian-Chang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2008-12-15

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150 degrees C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. This was also true when limestone was added while cofiring coal and chicken waste because the gaseous chlorine was reduced in the freeboard of the fluidized bed combustor, where the temperature was generally below 650 degrees C without addition of the secondary air. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650 degrees C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be

  2. Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolat Peter

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In march 1998 at the conference „Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems“ in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and a cost of electricity of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. The goal is believed to be achievable by the first quarter of the next century. The vision 21 is presented with several possible concepts. One of them is based on coal gasification with following hydrogen separation. The obtained hydrogen is used as a fuel for the cogeneration unit with fuel cells. The remaining gas can be liquefied and utilised as a fuel in the automotive industry or further chemically processed. The concept has several important features. Firstly, a very clean low cost electricity production. Secondly, it is comprised of fuel processing section and power processing section. The two sections need not to be co-located. In the world of the deregulated electricity generation this offers a major advantage. The technologies of fuel processing section – coal gasification and hydrogen separation have been successfully developed in the last two decades. A specificity of the fuel processing section of this concept is to obtain hydrogen rich gas with very low concentrations of substances, as CO, which cause a poisoning of electrodes of fuel cells leading to the decreasing fuel cells efficiency. Fuel cells, specially highly efficient coal-gas SOFC and MCFC, are expected to be commercially available by 2020. The natural-gas MCFC and SOFC plants should enter the commercial marketplace by the year 2002.

  3. Systems analysis on the humanization of industrial life in the coal mining industry. Pt. 2. Results. Systemanalyse zur Humanisierung des Arbeitslebens im Steinkohlenbergbau. T. 2. Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Volume No. 8 of the series of papers quantifies the system of aims, i.e. it defines synthetic data of laws and regulations of mining of DIN standards, and VDI guidelines, of generally accepted rules of engineering as well as of certified findings of industrial science as minimum requirements. This definition is followed by the examination of the type of medium-term development to be expected in the bituminous coal mining industry of the Ruhrkohle AG up to the year 1985. Then the general aims 1 and 2 given in volume No. 7 are described in detail. These descriptions constitute an excellent summary of the present state of knowledge concerning the improvement of working conditions in the bituminous coal mining industry. Finally, a study on the transferability of research findings is given. One statement is of special importance, i.e., that transferability is not characterized by technological feasibility alone which depends to a high degree on marginal, organizational conditions within the company, e.g., on the information system, on its hierarchical structure, on the company's policy, and on departamental policy. In this study, only the technological transferability is examined. To enable us to assess it, appropriate statements are made in a brief description of the research project carried out since 1974, which was sponsored within the action programme ''Humanization of Industrial Life''.

  4. Residual coal exploitation and its impact on sustainable development of the coal industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yujiang; Feng, Guorui; Zhang, Min; Ren, Hongrui; Bai, Jinwen; Guo, Yuxia; Jiang, Haina; Kang, Lixun

    2016-01-01

    Although China owns large coal reserves, it now faces the problem of depletion of its coal resources in advance. The coal-based energy mix in China will not change in the short term, and a means of delaying the coal resources depletion is therefore urgently required. The residual coal was exploited first with a lower recovery percentage and was evaluated as commercially valuable damaged coal. This approach is in comparison to past evaluations when the residual coal was allocated as exploitation losses. Coal recovery rates, the calculation method of residual coal reserves and statistics of its mines in China were given. On this basis, a discussion concerning the impacts on the delay of China's coal depletion, development of coal exploitation and sustainable developments, as well as technologies and relevant policies, were presented. It is considered that the exploitation of residual coal can effectively delay China's coal depletion, inhibit the construction of new mines, redress the imbalance between supply and demand of coal in eastern China, improve the mining area environment and guarantee social stability. The Chinese government supports the exploitation technologies of residual coal. Hence, exploiting residual coal is of considerable importance in sustainable development of the coal industry in China. - Highlights: •Pay attention to residual coal under changing energy-mix environment in China. •Estimate residual coal reserves and investigate its exploitation mines. •Discuss impacts of residual coal exploitation on delay of coal depletion in China. •Discuss impacts on coal mining industry and residual coal exploitation technology. •Give corresponding policy prescriptions.

  5. Rapid co-pyrolysis of rice straw and a bituminous coal in a high-frequency furnace and gasification of the residual char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Dai, Zheng-hua; Zhou, Zhi-jie; Chen, Xue-li; Yu, Guang-suo; Wang, Fu-chen

    2012-04-01

    Rapid pyrolysis of rice straw (RS) and Shenfu bituminous coal (SB) separately, and rapid co-pyrolysis of RS/SB blends (mass ratio 1:4, 1:4, and 4:1), were carried out in a high-frequency furnace which can ensure both high heating rate and satisfying contact of fuel particles. Synergies between RS and SB during rapid co-pyrolysis were investigated. Intrinsic and morphological structures of residual char from co-pyrolysis, and their effects on gasification characteristics were also studied. Synergies occurred during rapid co-pyrolysis of RS and SB (RS/SB=1:4) resulting in decreasing char yields and increasing volatile yields. Synergies also happened during gasification of the char derived from co-pyrolysis of RS and SB with mass ratio of 1:4. The increased mass ratio of RS to SB did not only weaken synergies during co-pyrolysis, but significantly reduced the gasification rates of the co-pyrolysis char compared to the calculated values. Results can help to optimize co-conversion process of biomass/coal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of Porous Structure Parameters of Biomass Chars Versus Bituminous Coal and Lignite Carbonized at High Pressure and Temperature—A Chemometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Smoliński

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the porous structure of carbonized materials affect their physical properties, such as density or strength, their sorption capacity, and their reactivity in thermochemical processing, determining both their applicability as fuels or sorbents and their efficiency in various processes. The porous structure of chars is shaped by the combined effects of physical and chemical properties of a carbonaceous material and the operating parameters applied in the carbonization process. In the study presented, the experimental dataset covering parameters of various fuels, ranging from biomass through lignite to bituminous coal, and chars produced at 1273 K and under the pressure of 1, 2, 3, and 4 MPa was analyzed with the application of the advanced method of data exploration. The principal component analysis showed that the sample of the highest coal rank was characterized by lower values of parameters reflecting the development of the porous structure of chars. A negative correlation was also observed between the carbon content in a fuel and the evolution of the porous structure of chars at high pressure. The highest total pore volume of chars produced under 1 and 3 MPa and the highest micropore surface area under 3 MPa were reported for a carbonized fuel sample of the highest moisture content.

  7. Measurement of the Industrial Collaboration of the Diversified Coal Industry: China Coal Energy Company as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Mao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the diversified development of coal enterprises in China, the industries related to coal, including coal chemical, electric power, transportation, and building materials, have witnessed rapid development. There is a collaboration relation between the coal industries and most of the aforementioned industries. Based on the synergy theory and the theory of industrial cooperation, the collaboration among coal industries is assessed in this research. Examining China Coal Energy Company as an example, this research divides the compound enterprise system into subsystems such as coal-electric, coal-chemical, and coal-equipment. Next, collaboration indices, including market, scale, and management, are created for each subsystem. Then, the overall collaboration degree of the China Coal Energy Company since it was listed was calculated by standardizing data and estimating the order degree of order parameters and subsystems. Thus, a model measuring the industrial collaboration degree of coal enterprises was established to quantitatively reflect the collaboration degree between various industries. At the same time, the factors influencing the collaboration effect between various industries were analyzed so as to improve this effect, which then can provide a decision basis for enterprises.

  8. Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Campbell

    2008-12-31

    This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

  9. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Cieślik Ewelina; Konieczny Tomasz; Bobik Bartłomiej

    2018-01-01

    One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures ...

  10. China’s Strategic Choice of the Coal Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zhengquan; Niu, Dongxiao; Wang, Daojuan

    2012-01-01

    Coal mining industry is one of the most influential industries on environment pollution. In recent years, most studies have shown that green and circular economy is the way to solve the deteriorative environment issue. After introducing green economy theory, including background, concept...... of circular economy model, promoting coal industrial technological progress, improving management and security technological innovation....

  11. E-commerce and the coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolza, D.

    2000-01-01

    Industry observers currently peg the share of 'spot' contracts in Australia's black coal export market (valued at $9 billion a year) at 15%, compared with only 5% of market share four years ago. This quantum shift in purchasing habits is being driven largely by abundant coal supplies, a multi-source availability of coal, and falling prices - a scenario that is expected to remain unchanged for at least the next three to five years. Contracts are not only becoming shorter, they are also dealing with lower tonnages. And, unlike under older long term contracts, where prices are reset every one to two years, under the modern versions prices are being reset every three to six months. As buyers push to achieve more competitive pricing outcomes and maximise the supply of competitively priced fuel, this forces everyone associated with operating power plants to look for ways to reduce costs and implement higher levels of efficiency, by saving time and paperwork. Net-based trading in coal is happening. The major buyers and sellers operate most of the existing sites. Buyers see the Net as a means of reducing the cost of their fuel; sellers see it as a means of better displaying the product they offer. The use of the Net is seen as providing improved market intelligence, greater transparency, better marketing and service levels and enhanced efficiencies. The one-to-one approach remains a fixture and its future is assured. However, whether the Net will ultimately support independent trading sites similar to those whose income will come from brokering deals is hard to judge. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Energy Technology and Exploration and Mining

  12. Study on the structure and gasification characteristics of selected South African bituminous coal in fluidised bed gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available . The microstructural characteristics of the parent coals and their resultant chars were determined using XRD, FTIR, Raman and petrographic analysis. The microstructural changes that occurred in the organic (maceral) and the inorganic (mineral) fractions of the selected...

  13. Study on the structure and gasification characteristics of selected South African bituminous coals in fluidised bed gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . The microstructural characteristics of the parent coals and their resultant chars were determined using XRD, FT-IR, Raman and petrographic analysis. The microstructural changes that occurred in the organic (maceral) and the inorganic (mineral) fractions...

  14. Discussion on Wastewater Treatment Process of Coal Chemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongyan; Lun, Weijie; Wei, Junjie

    2017-12-01

    Coal chemical wastewater has such characteristics as high concentration of oil, ammonia nitrogen and COD. In this paper, treatment process of coal chemical industry is described mainly, such as pretreatment process, biochemical treatment process and polishing process. Through the recovery of phenol and ammonia and the treatment of wastewater from abroad, the new technology of wastewater treatment in coal chemical industry was expounded. Finally, The development of coal chemical wastewater treatment technology is prospected, and the pretreatment technology is emphasized. According to the diversification and utilization of water, zero discharge of coal chemical wastewater will be fulfilled.

  15. One coal miner's perspective on the present United States coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.E. [Murray Energy Corp., Pepper Pike, OH (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The President and CEO of the Murray Energy Corporation presented his observations on and concerns about the coal and energy industries in the USA, as a coal miner and an energy trader. He outlines the coal mining operations of the Murray Energy Corporation. He offers critical comments about, for example, some unscrupulous energy trading activities, the future of Powder River Basin coal (which he believes may be curtailed by the introduction of clean coal technologies), the lack of expertise in coal mining, the need to revise the law concerning coal company bankruptcies, the need for the government to provide a means to secure bonds, the need to liberalize black lung disease benefits, and the factors deterring improvement of the performance of the eastern coal industry. He criticises current policy and puts forward some recommendations.

  16. Flow sheet at Lu-Op plant for auto gasoline for 170/sup 0/ E. P. gasoline for DHD from bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-11-02

    Several tables with varied information concerning gasoline production are presented. The first table concerned the 700 atm liquid phase running to produce: (1) gasoline and middle oil or (2) 32% heavy oil excess. This gave information such as the rate of primary crusing, drying, paste milling and pressing, gas circulation, oil washing, compression, centrifuge plant operations, kiln plant operations, cold catchpot products, and yields. It also gave stall sizes. The second and third charts contained information for the 300 atm and 700 atm vapor phase processes with subdivisions for auto gasoline and 170/sup 0/C endpoint gasoline. It showed rates for injection pumps, gas circulation, compression, yield from columns, L.P.G. production, gasoline stabilization and wash, hydrogenation gas production with 95% recovery, percent of aromatic recovery, and total hydrogen consumption. The fourth chart concerned hydrogen production for the Lu-Op plant from bituminous coal. The first major category was coke with subcategories of DHD gasoline in the 700 atm vapor phase system and in the 300 atm vapor phase system. The second category was hydrogenation gas splitting with the same subcategories as above. A table of power requirements for 170/sup 0/C endpoint gasoline including the liquid phase and hydrogen production for 300 atm and 700 atm vapor phase processes is included. 5 tables

  17. Technical note: Guide to groundwater monitoring for the coal industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well established in literature that the environmental impacts associated with the coal industry are numerous. In respect of South Africa's groundwater resources the major impact of the coal industry is a reduction in groundwater quantity and quality. There is therefore a need to proactively prevent or minimise these ...

  18. An imbalanced development of coal and electricity industries in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing

    2007-01-01

    China's coal and electricity industries have a strong reliance on each other, however, because of excessive invasion of government, it is difficult for these two industries to form a stable, reasonable, and transaction cost-saving relationships, but long-run disputes and quarrels. This paper discusses the pricing policies and transaction relationship between these two industries from the historical perspective. It begins with the discussion of coal. Coal market has become competitive since 1980 due to the system of dual track approach, but coal sold to electricity was still tightly controlled by government-guided pricing. Then the paper examines electricity investment and tariff reform. Unlike coal, entry to electricity generation sector was gradually relaxed but generation and retailing tariffs are still strictly regulated. As energy demand and prices soared after 2002, coal and electricity enterprises are all unsatisfied with the rule of price setting of coal sold to electricity industry. This paper concludes that the deliberate low coal price policy does protect electricity industry from fuel cost fluctuation but harm coal industry. Allocative and productive efficiency are difficult to achieve in the long run

  19. NSW coal industry overview and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.

    2003-01-01

    Australia is the fourth-largest coal producer in the world, after China, the USA and India. In 2001, Australia produced some 257 Million tonnes (Mt) of hard coal, with almost 45% of this coming from NSW. Australia is the world's largest exporter of hard coal. In 2001, Australia exported some 193 Mt of hard coal, well ahead of its nearest rival, China, at 91 Mt and South Africa and Indonesia at 69 and 66 Mt respectively. Of the total coal exports from Australia in 2001, nearly 40% came from NSW. Trade in coal is forecast to continue its growth, particularly for thermal coal. Substantial growth in Asian demand for thermal coal is forecast over the next decade. Asian demand is expected to increase from 193 Mt in 2000 to 333 Mt in 2020. By 2020, Asian demand is expected to make up 62% of world seaborne thermal coal trade

  20. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The international coal market trends are outlined and the place of Australian coal industry is discussed. It is shown that while the world supply and demand for coal has begun to tighten, the demand for coal is expected to remain strong in both Asia and Europe. Consequently, in 1991-1992 Australian black coal production and export returns are forecast to rise by 4% and 7% respectively. 1 fig

  1. Promoting coal industry in China through innovative financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Geng

    1997-01-01

    Since energy has constituted itself a bottleneck in the economic development in China, the development of energy has long become an important element of the country's policies on the industry. Policies and credit operations of the state development bank in support of coal development in China are discussed. To support the coal industrial growth of the country, the State Development Bank has been engaging itself in the coal credit operations. At present in China, 90 % of the funds for the large and medium-sized coal projects are loans from the state banks with the rest 10 % being foreign investment. Actions to attract more foreign investment for China are discussed. (R.P.)

  2. The Philippine coal industry its challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon, Francisco B.

    1997-01-01

    The demand for energy has been increasing over the years especially with the country's accelerated economic growth as we move closer its vision of industrialization by the turn of the century. Pursuant to this, the Department of Energy (DOE) was mandated to ensure the country's energy supply availability at affordable costs with due consideration to environmental concerns. Likewise, our organization, the Philippine Chamber of Coal Mines, Inc. (PHILCOAL), an association of local coal producers has taken the role of continuing its task of promoting the development and growth of the coal industry and to cooperate with the governmental agencies in their program of accelerating the development; growth and stability of the energy's coal sector. This paper will present a brief overview of the current situation of the coal industry, citing among others the country's coal reserves, quality, the industry's performance and the coal supply and demand projected for a five-year period. This paper shall also briefly discuss the government's plan to intensify coal exploration efforts so as to ensure the expansion of the country's production capabilities, the establishment of more terminals and infrastructures and accelerate the implementation of mine-mouth power generation and co-regeneration projects in potential coal areas. The implementation of the government's plan for the coal sector will require substantial capital and this paper will cite the principal areas where local and foreign project can come in. Finally this paper conclusively state that the country will remain a net importer of coal on account of the inability of local coal producers to meet increasing rate and coal demand. (author)

  3. Environmental problems caused by bituminous schist and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmas, N.; Aykul, H.; Erarslan, K.; Ediz, I.G.

    1998-01-01

    Schist, as a disposal of mine, has harmful effects on environment. however, several manners can be utilized to prevent the environmental destruction as well as an economical benefit is gained. In this study, environmental problems caused by bituminous schist and other disposals have been investigated on a specific lignite coal mine where schist is disposed as waste material. Pollution and damage on land and in water sources around the coal district and the villages have been observed, recorded and several solutions to environmental problems have been proposed. Discussed proposals will not only solve the environmental pollution problem but also provide waste management facility. Industrial structure of the district enables such a disposal to be used as an economical raw material. Besides, general effects of the coal mine and the power plant nearby have been discussed from environmental point of view, too. 7 refs

  4. Radioactivity of combustion residues from coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vom Berg, W.; Puch, K.H.

    1996-01-01

    Each year in Germany, about 18 mill. t of combustion residues are produced from the combustion of bituminous coal and lignite. They are utilized to a great extent in the construction industry and in mining. During the combustion of coal, the radio-nuclides remain predominantly in the ash. The radionuclide concentration in lignite ash is within the range of that in natural soil. The combustion residues of bituminous coal contain radio-nuclides of a similar order of magnitude as also can occur in natural rock. The utilization of combustion residues in construction materials makes a negligible contribution to radiation exposure through retention in buildings. (orig.) [de

  5. Coal chemical industry and its sustainable development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Kechang; Li, Wenying; Zhao, Wei

    2010-01-01

    China is rich in coal resource, which is vital for energy security in this country. In early 21st century, the coal chemical industry in China will be oriented to the development of high efficiency, safety, cleanliness, and optimum utilization. In this review, the authors present an introduction to the utilization status of primary energy production and consumption in China. Since 2005, fundamental research studies, supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Chinese National Basic Research Program, have been carried out at Taiyuan University of Technology. The Ministry stresses that the new coal chemical industry should be developed in a sustainable manner to realize effective utilization of energy. Moreover, upgrading the high technology to improve actively the recycling processes of coal chemical engineering is of strategic importance to realize the modern coal chemical engineering.

  6. Clean coal technologies in Japan: technological innovation in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    This brochure reviews the history clean coal technologies (CCT) in Japan and systematically describes the present state of CCT insofar. The brochure contains three parts. Part 1. CCT classifications; Part 2. CCT overview; and Part 3. Future outlook for CCT. The main section is part 2 which includes 1) technologies for coal resources development; 2) coal-fired power generation technologies - combustion technologies and gasification technologies; 3) iron making and general industry technologies; 4) multi-purpose coal utilization technologies - liquefaction technologies, pyrolysis technologies, powdering, fluidization, and co-utilisation technologies, and de-ashing and reforming technologies; 5) Environmental protection technologies - CO{sub 2} recovery technologies; flue gas treatment and gas cleaning technologies, and technologies to effectively use coal has; 6) basic technologies for advanced coal utilization; and 7) co-production systems.

  7. A newer concept of setting up coal refineries in coal utilising industries through environmentally sound clean coal technology of organosuper refining of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the losses of premium organic matter of coal and its immense potential energy which is present in the form of stronger interatomic and intramolecular bonding energies, a newer and convenient technique of recovering the premium organic matter from low grade coals by organosuper-refining technique which operates under ambient pressure conditions has been developed. The residual coal obtained can be used as environmentally clean fuel or as a feedstock for the industries based on carbonization and gasification. It is suggested that a beginning be made by setting up coal refineries in coal utilizing industries on the basis of the presently developed new technology of organosuper-refining of coals to recover premium grade organic chemical feed stocks from coals before utilizing coal by techniques such as bubble bed or recirculatory fluidized bed or pulverized coal combustion in thermal power stations, carbonization in steel plants or other carbonization units, gasification in fertilizer industries or in integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. Thus, coal refineries may produce value added aromatic chemical feed stocks, formed coke or coke manufacturing; and carbon fillers for polymers. (author). 100 refs., 1 fig

  8. Chances of coal in European power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukaszczyk, Zygmunt; Badura, Henryk

    2017-11-01

    Poland's accession to the European Union has reduced the remnants of import barriers. Moreover, the consolidation and commercialization of the energy sector, the implementation of climate package elements and a whole host of other determinants have caused hard coal mining to begin functioning in a highly competitive market, and its negotiating position, as well as the possibility of survival, depends not only on the level of coal prices in international markets, but also on internal competition. This paper discusses the position of power coal on international markets and presents some current problems concerning the functioning of particular segments of the hard coal market in the European Union and Poland in terms of opportunities and threats that are a result of climate and energy policy.

  9. Crowding-out effect of coal industry investment in coal mining area: taking Shanxi province in China as a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lei, Yalin; Xu, Qun; Wu, Sanmang; Yan, Dan; Chen, Jiabin

    2017-10-01

    The rapid development of coal industry in Shanxi province in China has important effects on its economic development. A large amount of money has been invested into the coal industry and other related industries during the recent years. However, research on the investment effect of Shanxi's coal industry was rare. In order to analyze the investment effect of coal industry, based on the crowding-out effect model, cointegration test, and the data available in Shanxi Statistical Yearbooks, this paper calculates the effect between coal industry investment and other 17 industry investment. The results show that the investment of coal industry produces crowding-out effect on food industry, building materials industry, and machinery industry. Increasing 1% of the coal industry investment can reduce 0.25% of the food industry investment, or 0.6% of building materials industry investment, or 0.52% of the machinery industry investment, which implies that Shanxi province should adjust coal industrial structure, promote the balance development of coal industry and other industries, so as to promote its economic growth.

  10. Indian coal industry for a quantum jump ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhary, S.K. (Coal India Ltd., Calcutta (India))

    1992-12-01

    A broad overview is presented by India's coal industry with special reference to Coal India Ltd. (CIL) which contributes about 90% of total coal production. Coal is by far the most abundant energy source in India. Figures show the increase in production from opencast and underground mining (roughly in the ratio 2:1) since 1980, and projections for continued production in 2001-02. Technologies needed to realize the projected growth are discussed. Improved equipment, haulage facilities and communications systems should continue to contribute to the production capacity of large opencast mines. Mechanisation of the bord and pillar system is envisaged as the key to rapid growth in underground production. A vast potential has been identified in the beneficiation of non-coking coal to meet demands for use of power coal power generation. Several new technologies are being tried at CIL to aid exploration, and computerization is being applied in several areas within the industry. A COALNET Plan is being implemented to establish an integrated information management system covering operations throughout the company. Improvements are being made in the rail transport, distribution and quality control of coal. Attention is being paid to the environmental impacts of coal mining. 5 tabs., 3 photos.

  11. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  12. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  13. Valuation of investments in natural resources using contingent-claim framework with application to bituminous coal developments in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Chaehwan

    2009-01-01

    As Brennan and Schwartz [Brennan M, Schwartz E. Evaluating natural resource investment. Journal of Business 1985;58:135-57] point out in their pioneering work, the valuation of natural resources projects is particularly difficult due to the high degree of uncertainty in output prices of resources. In general, there are two competing procedures to evaluate risky projects in natural resources developments. One is decision analytic, based on traditional discounted cash flow and stochastic dynamic programming [Fleten SE, Maribu KM, Wangensteen I. Optimal investment strategies in decentralized renewable power generation under uncertainty. Energy 2007;32:803-15; Smith J, McCardle K. Valuing oil properties: integrating option pricing and decision analysis approaches. Operations Research 1998;46(2):198-217; Szklo AS, Carneiro JTG, Machado G. Break-even price for upstream activities in Brazil: evaluation of the opportunity cost of oil production delay in a non-mature sedimentary production region. Energy 2008;33:589-600], and the other is contingent claims analysis, based on the no-arbitrage theory of financial markets [Brennan M, Schwartz E. Evaluating natural resource investment. Journal of Business 1985;58:135-57; Emhjellen M, Alaouze CM. A comparison of discounted cash flow and modern asset pricing methods - project selection and policy implications. Energy Policy 2003;31:1213-20; Laughton D. The management of flexibility in the upstream petroleum industry. The Energy Journal 1998;19:83-114; Paddock L, Siegel D, Smith J. Option valuation of claims on real assets: the case of offshore petroleum leases. Quarterly Journal of Economics 1988;103(3):479-508; Schwartz ES. Valuing long-term commodity assets. Journal of Energy Finance and Development 1998;3(2):85-99; Sezgen O, Goldman CA, Krishnarao P. Option value of electricity demand response. Energy 2007;32:108-19]. In this paper, we use the second approach to develop a new model, and the main contributions are providing a

  14. Digging Deeper: Crisis Management in the Coal Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara M.; Horsley, J. Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This study explores crisis management/communication practices within the coal industry through the lens of high reliability organization (HRO) concepts and sensemaking theory. In-depth interviews with industry executives and an analysis of an emergency procedures manual were used to provide an exploratory examination of the status of crisis…

  15. Managing Scarce Water Resources in China's Coal Power Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhongnan

    2016-06-01

    Coal power generation capacity is expanding rapidly in the arid northwest regions in China. Its impact on water resources is attracting growing concerns from policy-makers, researchers, as well as mass media. This paper briefly describes the situation of electricity-water conflict in China and provides a comprehensive review on a variety of water resources management policies in China's coal power industry. These policies range from mandatory regulations to incentive-based instruments, covering water withdrawal standards, technological requirements on water saving, unconventional water resources utilization (such as reclaimed municipal wastewater, seawater, and mine water), water resources fee, and water permit transfer. Implementing these policies jointly is of crucial importance for alleviating the water stress from the expanding coal power industry in China.

  16. The South African coal industry - a millennium review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, G.H.; Phillips, H.R. [University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2001-06-01

    South Africa is a significant contributor to southern Africa and Europe's coal needs and is expected to remain in this important position for the foreseeable future. This review paper of the South African coal mining industry highlights that, although abundant, the easily mineable reserves will become depleted within the next quarter century. Socio-economic issues of unique, local importance such as the HIV/AIDS pandemic as well as policies propagated by South Africa's post-apartheid government are detailed, as are programmes in research and development that will ensure that South Africa's long term coal industry is, at the every least, maintained. 11 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Appalachian basin bituminous coal: sulfur content and potential sulfur dioxide emissions of coal mined for electrical power generation: Chapter G.5 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Milici, Robert C.; Freeman, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Data from 157 counties in the Appalachian basin of average sulfur content of coal mined for electrical power generation from 1983 through 2005 show a general decrease in the number of counties where coal mining has occurred and a decrease in the number of counties where higher sulfur coals (>2 percent sulfur) were mined. Calculated potential SO2 emissions (assuming no post-combustion SO2 removal) show a corresponding decrease over the same period of time.

  18. Electronic commerce: wiring the coal industry for new data technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.A.

    1998-07-01

    Industry pundits predict that coal by wire may some day replace much of the industry`s long-distance shipping requirements and their attendant costs, but data by wire, also known as electronic commerce (EC) can today offer coal producers and customers the means to gather and send large volumes of data cheaply and quickly. EC`s major components - electronic data interchange (EDI), bar-coding, smart codes, radio frequency `D`, and the internet - can reduce costs in equipment-intensive industries such as mining. The US National Mining Association sponsored a forum to discuss these alternatives at its 1998 Electronic Commerce Summit held in Tuscon, Arizona, 18-20 May. A report is given of discussions at the forum and contacts are given for sources of EDI information.

  19. World coal trade 2006 - another successful year for the industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. [e-coal.com (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    The international coal industry enjoyed another successful year in 2006, with new records set and firm prices remaining after the previous strong years for the producers. This was of course not without the various problems and changes that occur each year. This article reviews the main issues and trends that came to light in 2006. 13 figs., 5 tabs., 3 photos.

  20. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  1. Rapid development of China's coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, H.

    1978-11-01

    Since China relies mainly on coal for fuel, the development of the industry has a direct bearing on the national economic growth. The aim is to double the present output after ten years of hard work, produce as much again as in 1987 by the end of this century and mechanize the mines as soon as possible. In the next ten years China is planning to build, step by step, a number of large coal mining bases mainly in east, central--south and northeast China, and at the same time expand the Kailan, Tatung, and several other big coal centers. The aim is to achieve regional selfsufficiency. The key to speedy development of the coal industry lies in mechanization. Many mines have, in the last few years, geared their efforts to this requirement. Although productivity and some major economic and technical standards in China's coal industry today compare unfavorably with the world's advanced levels, Chinese miners and management alike are determined to catch up with and surpass world standards in the shortest possible time. The target is to achieve full mechanization within the next ten years. The biggest mines will be equipped with coal cutters and tunnelling machines, continuous transport facilities, automatic winders, preparation plants, and computerized communications and dispatching systems. China must rely on its own abilities to achieve this aim but at the same time will not hesitate to import some of the world's most advanced techniques and equipment. Measures will have to be taken to raise the scientific and technical level of the workforce to meet the needs of mechanization.

  2. Report on results for fiscal 1997 (B edition) on development of coal liquefaction technology. Development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology (research by pilot plant) 1/2; 1997 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (B ban). Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu) 2/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This paper reports the operation of a pilot plant of a bituminous coal liquefaction technology as the 1/2 report. The operation research of the Run-2 through the Run-4-2 was conducted using, as the material, tanitoharum coal which is operating basis coal. The Run-2 achieved a coal charging continuous operation for 42 days. During the operation of 80% slurry supply load, various data were obtained including material balance under the NEDOL standard liquefaction conditions, with a liquefaction yield of 54% daf coal achieved. Steam blowing into the heating tube was found effective as measures to cope with coking generation in the heating furnace of a vacuum distillation tower. The softening point of liquefaction residuals was improved to 178 degrees C through the extracting adjustment of reduced pressure heavy gravity light oil fraction for washing. The Run-3/4-1 achieved a plant load ratio of 100% and a long-term coal charging continuous operation for 80 days, while the Run-3 achieved a slurry supply load of 100% under the NEDOL standard liquefaction conditions. The Run-4-1 achieved a high liquefaction yield of 58wt% daf coal. Performance was confirmed of a neutron beam source irradiation apparatus/measuring system and a tracer injection equipment. (NEDO)

  3. Development trends in the Lusatian brown coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwirten, D.

    1994-01-01

    Lusatia has lived on and with brown coal for over 200 years. Brown coal changed what was once a region in which forestry and agriculture predominated into an industrial region. Thanks to its good combustion properties and high energy yield brown coal very soon became known and popular. It was always the driving force for a rapid development which resulted in an economically sound and technically up-to-date industry in Lusatia. This powerful status of brown coal was however soon exploited for aims which were bound to lead to the downfall of two social structures (during the years from 1933 to 1990) by reason of a regime of unconditional autarchy. The economic and technical development thus initiated certainly brought many advantages, but it also had serious diadvantages. Constant increases in production, as a result of which planned rated outputs were intentionally disregarded, were the rule because production targets had to be met or exceeded. Economic inefficiency led to a scarcity of labour and a shortage of finances. Environmental aims had no priority since production was the absolute, primary objective. Consequently, this regime of economic autarchy ended in an one-way street as far as industry was concerned, a situation which was accompanied by an unexampled destruction of the natural basic living conditions and direct, threatening health hazards to man and nature. The year 1990 saw the beginning of the transition from planned controlled economy to free market economy. The reorganization of the former large combines as corporations was not however merely a formal change, but internally also represented a transformation. The brown coal mining industry manifested its new intention and determination to be economically competitive and unsubsidized in future, to operate in such a way as to be compatible with the environment and to exploit reserves carefully, as well as to render its activities socially compatible. (orig.) [de

  4. Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-15

    The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

  5. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: rotating components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W. R.; Horton, J. R.; Boudreau, W. F.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1978-04-01

    At the request of the Major Facilities Project Management Division of the Energy Research and Development Administration, Fossil Energy Division, a study was undertaken to determine the capabilities of U.S. industry to supply the rotating equipment needed for future coal conversion facilities. Furthermore, problem areas were to be identified and research and development needs determined for producing advanced designs of the required equipment: Pumps, compressors, hydraulic turbines, and gas expanders. It has been concluded that equipment for essentially all clean-stream applications likely to be encountered in coal conversion facilities is generally available except high-pressure oxygen compressors. These oxygen compressors as well as slurry pumps need to be developed or significantly upgraded. Also, fans and blower for dirty-gas streams need developmental work, as do expanders for high-temperature service. Hydraulic turbines, which were not specified but which might be used for slurry applications in future coal conversion plants, are not available.

  6. A supply chain based assessment of water issues in the coal industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Lingying; Liu Pei; Ma Linwei; Li Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Shortages of water and geographically uneven distribution of coal and water pose great challenges to sustainable development of the coal industry in China. In this paper, we illustrate the major challenges existing in the coal industry from a supply chain viewpoint, and propose technical and policy suggestions to address them. First, we provide quantitative information about water withdrawal, consumption, waste water recycling and treatment and pollution from coal mining, preparation, to final conversion for China's power generation and coal-to-chemical industry. We then analyze scenarios of water use in China's coal industry between 2020 and 2030. Our results show that water issues are becoming increasingly severe constraints for coal development in China, especially in North and West China, where water is more scarce and ecological systems are more vulnerable than other regions. Without implementing effective water-saving measures or regulations the water demand in the coal industry could dramatically increase and probably exceed China's water supply capacity in the near-term future, bringing substantial uncertainty to sustainable development of China's energy economy. We also illustrate that coal-fired power generation, with appropriate technical improvement and proper policy supports, has the greatest potential for water savings in the coal industry. Our conclusions also underscore the importance of expanding energy efficiency and renewable energy in China so as to limit the country's dependence on coal. - Highlights: ► We provide information of water supply and use in the coal industry in China. ► We analyze scenarios of water use in China's coal industry between 2020 and 2030. ► Water issues are becoming severe constrains for the coal industry in China. ► The water demand in the coal industry could exceed China's water supply capacity. ► Coal-fired power generation has great potential for water savings.

  7. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, W. A.; Slade, E. C.

    1978-06-01

    A survey of the industrial capabilities of the valve and valve-actuator industry to supply large, high-pressure stop valves for the future coal conversion industry is presented in this report. Also discussed are development and testing capabilities of valve and valve-actuator manufacturers and anticipated lead times required to manufacture advanced design valves for the most stringent service applications. Results indicate that the valve and valve-actuator industry is capable of manufacturing in quantity equipment of the size and for the pressure and temperature ranges which would be required in the coal conversion industry. Valve manufacturers do not, however, have sufficient product application experience to predict the continuing functional ability of valves used for lock-hopper feeders, slurry feeders, and slag-char letdown service. Developmental and testing efforts to modify existing valve designs or to develop new valve concepts for these applications were estimated to range from 1 to 6 years. A testing facility to simulate actuation of critical valves under service conditions would be beneficial.

  8. Multi - party Game Analysis of Coal Industry and Industry Regulation Policy Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tianqi

    2018-01-01

    In the face of the frequent occurrence of coal mine safety accidents, this paper analyses the relationship between central and local governments, coal mining enterprises and miners from the perspective of multi - group game. In the actual production, the decision of one of the three groups can affect the game strategy of the other of the three, so we should assume the corresponding game order. In this order, the game analysis of the income and decision of the three is carried out, and the game decision of the government, the enterprise and the workers is obtained through the establishment of the benefit matrix and so on. And then on the existing system to optimize the coal industry regulation proposed practical recommendations to reduce the frequency of industry safety accidents, optimize the industry production environment.

  9. Pyrolisator Coal to be Cokes (Coal Cokes Casting Metal Industry Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukamto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolisis of coal is partial combustion to reduce total moisture, volatile matter and sulfur contens and increase the calorific value of coal. The results of pyrolysis of coal is coke. At the laboratory level studies, pyrolisis done in batch using different calorie, namely 5800, 6000, 6300 kcal/kg and a time of 15-60 minutes and the temperature 400-800°C. Maximum results obtained total moisture (0.44%, fixed carbon (89%, volatile matter (2.4%, sulfur content (undetected and ash (7.2%. Then applied to the scale miniplant with continuous processes using multitube pyrolisator which are designed to operate in the temperature range 400-800°C and a flow rate of 240-730 kg/h, obtained coal cokes that meets industry quality standards, namely TM (0.42%, FC (90.40%, VM (2.16%, S (not detected, Ash (6.8% incalori 6300 kcal/h, a flow rate of 240 kg / h and temperatures between 600-700°C

  10. Economics of the coal industry east of the Mississippi, 1973-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Government regulations on health, safety and environment have been poppular blamed for the declining productivity in U.S. coal mines since 1970. The stagnation in the coal industry east of the Mississippi is alleged to have been caused by this declining productivity and by the growth of cheaper and cleaner coal production west of the Mississippi. Economic evidence suggests, however, that productivity declines were more due to a relative lowering of labor costs in comparison with coal prices and due to work stoppages. The development of western coals fields was spurred by growth in local demand and had only a relatively small impact on coal production east of the Mississippi. Problems of the eastern coal industry are rooted mainly in slow economic growth in eastern U.S. which must be addressed in the long-term interests of the eastern coal industry. ?? 1987.

  11. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.; Marr, J.

    1990-04-01

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO 2 emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  12. Coal, the metamorphoses of an industry. The new geopolitics of the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Amouroux, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Coal consumption is growing up so fast and coal reserves are so abundant that coal might overtake petroleum in the future. The worldwide environment will not gain anything in this evolution except if 'clean coal' technologies make a significant jump. What is the driving force of this coal development? The pitfall encountered by nuclear energy and the rise of natural gas prices have been favorable conditions for the development of coal but they cannot hide the worldwide metamorphosis of coal industry. From China, undisputed world leader, to the USA, without omitting India, Russia and the big exporting countries (Australia, Indonesia, South Africa, Colombia), a new map is drawing up. In all these countries, coal companies are concentrating and internationalizing, open new strip mines and new commercial paths. The understanding of this metamorphosis has become one of the keys of the energy prospective and geopolitics of the 21. century. Content: 1 - entering the 21. century with the energy source of the 19. century?; 2 - consumption growth: new trends; 3 - the USA: the Saudi Arabia of coal; 4 - the unexpected rebirth of coal in Russia; 5 - China, world leader of coal industry; 6 - India and south-east Asia are entering the race; 7 - the rise of exporting industries; 8 - international markets and competitive dynamics of industries; 9 - advantage and drawbacks of coal during the coming decades; 10 - will clean coal technologies be ready on time?; 11 - technical appendix. (J.S.)

  13. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  14. Total Factor Productivity Growth, Technical Progress & Efficiency Change in Vietnam Coal Industry - Nonparametric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Vu Hung

    2018-03-01

    This research applies Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach to analyze Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and efficiency changes in Vietnam coal mining industry from 2007 to 2013. The TFP of Vietnam coal mining companies decreased due to slow technological progress and unimproved efficiency. The decadence of technical efficiency in many enterprises proved that the coal mining industry has a large potential to increase productivity through technical efficiency improvement. Enhancing human resource training, technology and research & development investment could help the industry to improve efficiency and productivity in Vietnam coal mining industry.

  15. 75 FR 57849 - Maintenance of Incombustible Content of Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... With Constitutionally Protected Property Rights E. Executive Order 12988: Civil Justice Reform F... poverty of families and children. This ETS impacts only the underground bituminous coal mine industry... analysis is required. E. Executive Order 12988: Civil Justice Reform This ETS was written to provide a...

  16. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  17. The impact of resource tax reform on China's coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huihui; Chen, ZhanMing; Wang, Jianliang; Fan, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Contributing to approximately two-thirds of primary energy consumption, coal usage is the focus of China's energy policies. To regulate the resource taxation system and reduce the burden of coal enterprises, the Chinese government launched a reform of its resource tax system in 2014 for coal, introducing the ad valorem system to replace the volume-based system that had been in place for the preceding thirty years. To assess the impact of the tax reform, this paper constructs two-stage dynamic game models by taking the coal and coal-fired power industries as the players. The market situations of shortage and oversupply are investigated separately. Empirical data are collected to estimate the model parameters for numerical simulations. The model results suggest that the tax reform will reduce both coal prices and the coal industry profitability if the tax levied on each ton of coal is maintained at the same level as before the reform, regardless of whether the market is in a shortage or an oversupply situation. However, the increased buyer's power will amplify the effect of the tax reform. The numerical simulations also provide an estimation of the tax rate of the ad valorem system that maintains the profit of the coal industry. Considering the demand and supply situations in China's coal market, policy recommendations are provided to guide further reform of China's resource tax system. - Highlights: • The paper examines the influence of resource tax reform on China's coal industry. • We construct two-stage game models between coal and coal-fired power industries. • Market situations of shortage and oversupply are studied in two taxation systems. • Coal price will decrease if maintaining the tax levied on each ton of coal the same. • To achieve the reform objective, the ad valorem tax rate should not be set too high.

  18. The US coal industry, 1970--1990: Two decades of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report, is to provide a comprehensive overview of the US coal industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that occurred, their causes, and their effects. The report presents and analyzes data compiled by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on the US coal industry, as well as EIA data on other energy sources and information from non-EIA sources where relevant. These data are used to reveal trends in coal production, consumption, distribution, and prices. Trends in coal mining productivity and employment are also examined, and the profitability of major energy companies' coal operations is tracked over the 1977 through 1990 period. Analysis of the data indicates the impacts on the coal industry of major events such as the oil embargo, technological breakthroughs, and Federal and State laws and regulations affecting the industry

  19. Coal in Europe: what future?: prospects of the coal industry and impacts study of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudianto, E.

    2006-12-01

    From the industrial revolution to the 1960's, coal was massively consumed in Europe and its utilization was constantly raised. In the aftermath of World War II, coal had also an important part in reconstruction of Western Europe's economy. However, since the late 1960's, its demand has been declining. There is a (mis)conception from a number of policy makers that saying coal mining and utilizations in Europe is unnecessary. Therefore in the European Union (EU) Green Paper 2000, coal is described as an 'undesirable' fuel and the production of coal on the basis of economic criteria has no prospect. Furthermore, the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol in reducing greenhouse gases emission has aggravated this view. Faced with this situation, the quest for the future of coal industry (mining and utilization) in the lines of an energy policy is unavoidable. This dissertation did a profound inquiry trying to seek answers for several questions: Does the European Union still need coal? If coal is going to play a part in the EU, where should the EU get the coal from? What should be done to diminish negative environmental impacts of coal mining and utilization? and finally in regard to the CO 2 emission concerns, what will the state of the coal industry in the future in the EU? To enhance the analysis, a system dynamic model, called the Dynamics Coal for Europe (the DCE) was developed. The DCE is an Energy-Economy-Environment model. It synthesizes the perspectives of several disciplines, including geology, technology, economy and environment. It integrates several modules including exploration, production, pricing, demand, import and emission. Finally, the model emphasizes the impact of delays and feed-back in both the physical processes and the information and decision-making processes of the system. The calibration process for the DCE shows that the model reproduces past numbers on the scale well for several variables. Based on the results of this calibration process, it can

  20. Conceptual approaches to forming a strategy of innovation-based development of the coal industry

    OpenAIRE

    DRACHUK YU. Z.; RASSUZHDAY L.M.; TRUSHKINA N.V.

    2014-01-01

    The paper substantiates conceptual approaches to forming a strategy of innovation-based development of the national coal industry, which consist in defining the basis for using a portfolio approach to the management of innovation projects at the enterprise; consideration of uncertainty and risk factors when evaluating innovation projects; government regulation of market mechanisms in the implementation of innovation-based development of the coal industry; prove of coal-mining enterprises’ cap...

  1. Energy survey of the coal based sponge iron industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant R. Dey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey is made on a typical coal based Indian sponge iron plant of capacity 500 t/d in order to identify the largest energy losses and find ways to increase the efficiency. The required data are obtained by measurements or taken from production industries. The process efficiency is about 51.31%. The energy balances of the process show that the gap between theoretical and actual energy consumption is 45.2% and the exhausts make up the largest loss of 43.5%. A huge amount of waste gas is generated during operation and substantial part of it associated with the waste gas, remains unutilized. The energy content in the exhaust gases which is found at useful temperature can be used in three different ways: by internal use; by external energy supply; or by power generation. The four possible potential areas are identified where energy is being lost and untapped. The largest improvements would be made by design modifications adopting a novel energy conservation scenario by process integration and thereby decreasing the coal and water consumption and by decreasing the cold fresh air.

  2. Computer application in coal preparation industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, M.; Wu, L.; Ni, Q. (China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China))

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several packages of microcomputer programs developed for designing and managing the coal preparation plants. Three parts are included: Coal Cleaning Package (CCP), Coal Preparation Optimization Program (CPO) and Coal Preparation Computer Aided Design System (CPCAD). The function of CCP is: evaluating and predicting coal cleaning result. Coal presentation process modelling and optimization; coal preparation flowsheet design and optimization. The CPO is a nonlinear optimization program. It can simulate and optimize the profit for different flowsheet to get the best combination of the final products. The CPCAD was developed based upon AutoCAD and makes full use of AutoLISP, digitizer menus and AutoCAD commands, combining the functions provided by AutoCAD and the principle used in conventional coal preparation plant design, forming a designer-oriented CPCAD system. These packages have proved to be reliable, flexible and easy to learn and use. They are a powerful tool for coal preparation plant design and management. (orig.).

  3. Fluid-dynamical and poro-elastic coupling of gas permeability of inert and sorbing gases on an Australian sub-bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensterblum, Y.; Krooss, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    The interaction and the coupling of slip-flow, a fluid dynamic phenomenon, and the cleat volume compressibility which is a poroelastic phenomenon has been investigated on two samples from the Taroom coal measure, Surat Basin, Queensland Australia. Measurements were performed using inert (helium and argon) and sorbing gases (nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide) at controlled effective stress. We observed the following regular sequence of permeability coefficients for the different gases: Helium >> argon => nitrogen > methane >> CO2 Even after slip-flow correction, different intrinsic permeability coefficients are obtained for the same sample if different gases are used in the tests. The permeability values determined with helium are largest while those measured with CO2 are lowest. Inert gases like helium and argon show higher apparent- and even slip flow-corrected permeability coefficients than sorbing gases like methane or carbon dioxide. This observation is contrary to the prediction that the slip-flow corrected permeability have to be the same for all gases. The cleat volume compressibility cf was evaluated using the 'matchstick approach' [1, 2]. The cleat volume compressibility coefficients cf are almost identical for the two samples taken from the same well. However, for one sample a strong dependence of the cf with the mean pore pressure was observed. This is attributed to a strong slip-flow effect caused by a narrow cleat system as compared to the sister sample. The cleat volume compressibility coefficient cf is almost the same for inert and sorbing gases. We conclude that the occurrence of slip-flow in coals is able to compensate the permeability reduction resulting from increasing effective stress. This should lead to a much higher productivity of coal bed methane reservoirs in the third production phase (pseudo-steady state phase; [3]). This conclusion appears to be also valid for shale gas and tight gas reservoirs, where the gas transport takes place in

  4. The effect of China's globalisation on the South African coal mining equipment (OEM) industry / Ramona Naidoo

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, Ramona

    2007-01-01

    The study looks at the mining equipment industry as coal mining equipment is a subsector within this industry. This study seeks to create an understanding of how the coal mining equipment industry in South Africa is affected by the emergence of China as a mining equipment supplier. China's globalisation is set to continue and will impact all industries. China's African Policy will also impact the African continent, as China will continue to invest and use Africa's mineral resources. Sourcing ...

  5. Research on the competitiveness and development strategy of china's modern coal chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Han, Y. J.; Yu, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    China's modern coal chemical industry has grown into a certain scale after over a decade of development, and remarkable progress has been made in key technologies. But as oil price collapsed since 2015, the economic benefit of the industry also slumped, with loud controversies in China over the necessity of modern coal chemical industry. The research believes that the modern coal chemical industry plays a positive role in the clean and sustainable exploitation of coal in China. It makes profit when oil price is no lower than 60/bbl, and outperforms petrochemical in terms of cost effectiveness when the price is between 60/bbl and 80/bbl. Given the low oil price and challenges posed by environmental protection and water restraints, we suggest that the state announce a guideline quickly, with adjusted tax policies and an encouragement to technological innovation, so that the modern coal chemical industry in China can grow sound and stable.

  6. The contemporary coal industry: dancing to faster music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R. [World Coal Institute, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    Within a framework that supports sustainable development, the issues of changing coal markets, environmental policy and climate change, and the positive marketing of coal as a solution to energy demand are discussed. Changes affect both domestic and international markets, and each subset of the market is different. In Europe, coal consumption is declining in contrast with expanding Asian energy markets. Clean coal technologies improve efficiency and make coal more acceptable. The greatest reductions in carbon dioxide emissions can be realized within the least efficient areas of coal consumption, in particular the domestic markets in Asia, eastern Europe, and Africa.

  7. Bio-coal briquettes made from South Sumatera low rank coal and palm shell charcoal for using in small industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipahutar Riman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to blend the South Sumatera low rank coal and palm shell charcoal for producing bio-coal briquettes which have better fuel properties. The experimental study for making bio-coal briquettes was carried out to examine the effect of raw material composition and binder type on the quality of the briquettes produced. A screw conveyor machine equipped with a three blade stirred and designed with the length of 40 cm, mixing process diameter of 10 cm and the capacity of 2 kg bio-coal briquettes per hour was used to produce bio-coal briquettes ready to use in small industries. Proxymate analyses of the South Sumatera low rank coal, palm shell charcoals and bio-coal briquettes were conducted in accordance with the American Society of Testings and Materials (ASTM standards and the calorific value was determined by using a Bomb calorimeter. The experimental results showed that the calorific value of bio-coal briquette was greatly influenced by the raw material composition and the binder type. The highest calorific value was 6438 (cal/g at the sampel of SSC65-PSC20-B15(2.

  8. Statistical Analysis of Sino-U.S. Coal Mining Industry Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Guiling Wei

    2011-01-01

    Both China and the United States are large countries in coal production and consumption, however, the safety conditions of coal mining production in China are much worse than that of the U.S.. Although the Chinese Administration of Coal Mine Safety improved safety measures to tighten control on coal mining industry, the number of accidents, death toll and fatality rate per million tons were much higher than those of the U.S. in recent years. Based on the statistical analysis of Sino-U.S. coal...

  9. Question marks of the Czech coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopita, M.; Pesek, J.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of brown and black coal mining in the Czech Republic is presented, and problems of the extent of coal reserves and of the profitability of deep black coal mining are discussed. Costs of coal mining in foreign countries are given. Coal mining in the Czech Republic can be expected to be loss-making unless coal prices are increased. Since coal resources in the Czech Republic are limited, additional nuclear power plants will have to be constructed or else coal for power generation will have to be imported. The environmental aspects of coal mining and burning are discussed. Medium-term and long-term solutions to reduce the environmental burden include thermal power plant desulfurization, application of the fluidized-bed combustion regime to coals with large ash and/or sulfur contents, and introduction of gas in towns and power plants. In the short run, large-scale consumers in towns and coal basins should be obliged to accumulate reserves of low-sulfur coal for later use. (J.B.). 2 tabs., 3 figs., 8 refs

  10. Evaluation of co-cokes from bituminous coal with vacuum resid or decant oil, and evaluation of anthracites, as precursors to graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyathi, Mhlwazi S.

    2011-12-01

    Graphite is utilized as a neutron moderator and structural component in some nuclear reactor designs. During the reactor operaction the structure of graphite is damaged by collision with fast neutrons. Graphite's resistance to this damage determines its lifetime in the reactor. On neutron irradiation, isotropic or near-isotropic graphite experiences less structural damage than anisotropic graphite. The degree of anisotropy in a graphite artifact is dependent on the structure of its precursor coke. Currently, there exist concerns over a short supply of traditional precursor coke, primarily due to a steadily increasing price of petroleum. The main goal of this study was to study the anisotropic and isotropic properties of graphitized co-cokes and anthracites as a way of investigating the possibility of synthesizing isotropic or near-isotropic graphite from co-cokes and anthracites. Demonstrating the ability to form isotropic or near-isotropic graphite would mean that co-cokes and anthracites have a potential use as filler material in the synthesis of nuclear graphite. The approach used to control the co-coke structure was to vary the reaction conditions. Co-cokes were produced by coking 4:1 blends of vacuum resid/coal and decant oil/coal at temperatures of 465 and 500 °C for reaction times of 12 and 18 hours under autogenous pressure. Co-cokes obtained were calcined at 1420 °C and graphitized at 3000 °C for 24 hours. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed oxidation and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the products. It was found that higher reaction temperature (500 °C) or shorter reaction time (12 hours) leads to an increase in co-coke structural disorder and an increase in the amount of mosaic carbon at the expense of textural components that are necessary for the formation of anisotropic structure, namely, domains and flow domains. Characterization of graphitized co-cokes showed that the quality, as expressed by the degree of

  11. Coals of Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, E.R.; Rohrbacher, T.J.; Gluskoter, H.; Fodor, B.; Gombar, G.; Sebestyen, I.

    1999-07-01

    As part of the activities conducted under the U.S. Hungarian Science and Technology Fund, a total of 39 samples from five coal mines in Hungary were selected for standard coal analyses and major, minor and trace elements analysis. The mine areas sampled were selected to provide a spectrum of coal quality information for comparison with other coal areas in central Europe and worldwide. All of the areas are of major importance in the energy budget of Hungary. The five sample sites contain coal in rocks of Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene age. The coals, from four underground and one surface mine, range in rank from high volatile bituminous to lignite B. Most of the coal produced from the mines sampled is used to generate electricity. Some of the power plants that utilize the coals also provide heat for domestic and process usage. The standard coal analysis program is based on tests performed in accordance with standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Proximate and ultimate analyses were supplemented by determinations of the heating value, equilibrium moisture, forms of sulfur, free-swelling index, ash fusion temperatures (both reducing and oxidizing), apparent specific gravity and Hardgrove Grindability index. The major, minor and trace element analyses were performed in accordance with standardized procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey. The analytical results will be available in the International Coal Quality Data Base of the USGS. The results of the program provide data for comparison with test data from Europe and information of value to potential investors or cooperators in the coal industry of Hungary and Central Europe.

  12. Morphology and microstructure of co-pyrolysis char from bituminous coal blended with lignocellulosic biomass: Effects of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Wangcai; Chen, Lin; Meng, Haiyu; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Shuzhong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of biomass model compounds on co-pyrolysis char structure was investigated. • Transformation of carbon structure was explored by Raman and spectral deconvolution. • Evolution of surface morphology was quantitatively described by the fractal analysis. • Three biomass model compounds showed different influence on the structure evolution. - Abstract: Co-pyrolysis of coal and lignocellulose biomass and coal is the key step of other co-thermochemical conversion, and conversion of co-pyrolysis char is the rate-determining step of co-gasification and co-combustion. In this paper, the influence of biomass model compounds (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, abbreviated as CE, HCE and LIG) on the co-pyrolysis char structure transformation was investigated. Carbon structure and surface morphology of co-pyrolysis char were examined by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). A comprehensive comparison of Raman spectral deconvolution methods based on various fitting functions and peak numbers was explored, and Gaussian-Lorentzian-function with no less than nine peaks showed the best performance. Three biomass model show different effects on the transformation of microstructure structure. The addition of CE increased the ordering of char structure. HCE promoted the disordering degree of microstructure structure and reached the maximum at 50% HCE mass ratio. The microstructure structure changes of co-pyrolysis char for 25% and 50% LIG mass ratios were not evident, while 75% LIG increased the disordering degree of the co-pyrolysis char. Fractal analysis was applied for describing the char surface morphology quantitatively with two and three-dimensional fractal dimensions. CE decreased the fractal dimensions of co-pyrolysis, and the influence of HCE and LIG depended on the mass ratio.

  13. W(h)ither the coal industry? The long-term view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schobert, H.H.; Rusinko, F. Jr.; Mathews, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Global warming--real or imaginary, friend or foe, carbon dioxide emissions a threat to the planet, benign, or good for agriculture--while the debate rages on, the debaters occasionally seem to pause long enough to agree on one point: coal is the bad guy. There is little doubt that coal combustion must continue as a major contributor to the energy economy for the near to mid-term future. It is likely, though, those environmental pressures on conventional processes for coal utilization will only intensify. This factor alone makes questionable the long-term future. Environmental issues also severely impact the metallurgical coke industry. The traditional coal industry and coal markets of the 20th century are under increasingly intense assault. But why waste coal by burning it? Steady progress is being made in two directions for using coal as a valuable hydrocarbon resource. On the one hand, continuous improvements in computer-based structural modeling, which now include the ability to calculate not only a molecular structure that is consistent with chemical facts, but also some of the physical properties and even the incorporation of water. The increasing reasonableness of such structures places one on the verge of being able to do rational organic chemistry on coals, that is, deliberately to select coals as starting materials for certain desired chemical transformations that will produce high-value chemical products in good yields. This opens a route to chemicals from coal that does not rely on by-product coal tars as the feedstock. On the other hand, excellent opportunities also exist for coals as precursors to high-value carbon materials. Anthracites in particular represent an under-exploited, and as yet poorly explored, opportunity for conversion to graphitic materials. Taking coal in both directions high-value chemicals and premium carbon products represent profitable opportunities for innovation, leadership, and new directions for the coal industry in the 21st

  14. The nexus of the coal industry and the state in Australia: Historical dimensions and contemporary challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Hans A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a historical account of the close relationship between the coal mining industry and the federal and various state governments, thus over time building a state/coal industry nexus in Australia. It examines (1) an early colonial stage extending from the late 18th century to around the time of Federation in 1902 when the nexus emerged; (2) an intermediate stage from the early 20th century to the late 1970s when the nexus became solidified; and (3) a late stage from the early 1980s to the present day when the corporate sector came to dominate the nexus. Both Coalition and Australian Labor Party governments have consistently supported the exploitation of Australia's coal and natural gas, including recently coal seam gas, and supported the expansion of coal ports. An opposition movement has called for leaving coal and coal seam gas in the ground and shifting Australia’s energy production to renewable sources, particularly solar and wind energy. The article highlights how the nexus between coal mining and the state inhibits action on climate change. It argues this can be transcended by energy policy directed at socializing coal mining, wedded to a program of transitioning it to renewable energy production. - Highlights: • A close nexus exists between the coal industry and the state in Australia. • An anti-coal movement has developed in recent years in Australia. • Breaking the coal industry/state nexus requires socialization of energy production. • This would enable a shift from reliance on coal to renewable energy sources.

  15. Waste pyritic coal as a raw material for energetic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasiorek, J. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Poznan (Poland). Dept. of Research and Technology

    1997-11-01

    Results are presented of large laboratory studies on coal desulphurisation with foam flotation method improved by application of bioadsorption of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria to the modification of superficial properties of pyrite particulates from hydrophobic to hydrophillic ones. Results of coal desulfurization with and without bioadsorption have been compared. Bioadsorption improved pyritic sulfur removal by 30% (for coal from `Sierza mine`, coal size 0.3 to 0.102 mm, S pyritic content 1.69%) after 6-week adaptation of bacteria and 30 min of bioadsorption. Bacteria concentration in 5% water suspension of coal reached 22 {mu}g of biomass cm{sup -3}. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse and medium coal size fractions for clean coal from heavy media vessels, amounts 68.9 μg/kg, and most of the results lay below the mean value, while for rejects it amounts 95.5 μg/kg. It means that it is for around 25 μg/kg greater than in the clean coal. The arithmetic mean mercury content in raw coal smalls amounts around 118 mg/kg. The cleaning of smalls in jigs results in clean coal and steam coal blends characterized by mean mercury content 96.8 μg/kg and rejects with mean mercury content 184.5 μg/kg.

  17. Neo-industrialization of Kuzbass economy in innovative development of coal industry and machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balabanova Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of rental-resource model and access restrictions to capital and new technologies, the attempts to encourage import substitution made by the government do not generate innovative type of economic development and reconstruction of economy’s manufacturing industry competitive on the domestic market. In conditions of searching for a new model of Russian economy development the analysis of a number of problems such as industry degradation, reducing the competitiveness of Russian producers, the growth of structural imbalances and overcoming the negative macroeconomic trends becomes strategically important. This raises the value of neo-industrialization as the integrator of resource security, scientific and industrial potential of Russian economy and high capacity of the domestic market in the innovative development system. A special role neo-industrialization plays for the economic development of old industrial regions, which include Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia. Neo-industrial development of Kuzbass economy should be initiated by the technological modernization of mining machinery and innovative development of coal industry.

  18. Assessment of industrial energy options based on coal and nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.D.; Bowers, H.I.; Bryan, R.H.; Delene, J.G.; Hise, E.C.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Klepper, O.H.; Reed, S.A.; Spiewak, I.

    1975-07-01

    Industry consumes about 40 percent of the total primary energy used in the United States. Natural gas and oil, the major industrial fuels, are becoming scarce and expensive; therefore, there is a critical national need to develop alternative sources of industrial energy based on the more plentiful domestic fuels--coal and nuclear. This report gives the results of a comparative assessment of nuclear- and coal-based industrial energy systems which includes technical, environmental, economic, and resource aspects of industrial energy supply. The nuclear options examined were large commercial nuclear power plants (light-water reactors or high-temperature gas-cooled reactors) and a small [approximately 300-MW(t)] special-purpose pressurized-water reactor for industrial applications. Coal-based systems selected for study were those that appear capable of meeting environmental standards, especially with respect to sulfur dioxide; these are (1) conventional firing using either low- or high-sulfur coal with stack-gas scrubbing equipment, (2) fluidized-bed combustion using high-sulfur coal, (3) low- and intermediate-Btu gas, (4) high-Btu pipeline-quality gas, (5) solvent-refined coal, (6) liquid boiler fuels, and (7) methanol from coal. Results of the study indicated that both nuclear and coal fuel can alleviate the industrial energy deficit resulting from the decline in availability of natural gas and oil. However, because of its broader range of application and relative ease of implementation, coal is expected to be the more important substitute industrial fuel over the next 15 years. In the longer term, nuclear fuels could assume a major role for supplying industrial steam. (U.S.)

  19. New coal-fired generation: a summary of developments and impacts to the US coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, M. [RDI Consulting, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2001-07-01

    20 overheads/slides summarise the coverage of this presentation. RDI has identified close to 34000 NW of proposed new coal-fired generating capacity in the USA. The talk reviewed where new plants may be built, the coal combustion technologies they will employ, sources of coal supply and transport, and plant retirements and offsets. Government policy today favours construction of large plants to ensure security of supply in regions where new base loaded capacity is needed. Costs of producing power from coal and natural gas are compared. Impacts of new plants to coal suppliers and coal transporters are considered. RDI will publish a study on winners and losers in the race for new coal-fired generation in July 2001.

  20. GAS AND COAL EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRY DURING THE SOCIALIST INDUSTRIALIZATION PERIOD (1948-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS BULEARCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that since 1949 the extractive industry has undergone a strong process of restructuring when enterprises were nationalized and a strict control over all components of the economy was established. The new leadership of the country had the intention of developing the industrial sector as well, basically laying the foundations of the new Romanian economy where the industrial sector economy would bring considerable income. This program will lead to the development of the energy sector in Romania also, thus contributing to a great extent to the development and consolidation of coal and gas extraction. Despite of all the economic and social development achieved during the period 1950-1989, at the end of it, Romania ranked a marginal position in the European countries hierarchy since between its level of development and the market economy developed countries large gaps in respect to the main economic and social indicators occurred.

  1. Cold bituminous mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Delak, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Asphalt mix (short also asphalt) can be obtained from nature (natural asphalt) or produced technically (artificial asphalt), i. e. as a mix of bituminous binder, stone grain, and other additives that improve the asphalt properties. The beginnings of the use of asphalt can be traced from 6,000 to 4,000 BC since people back then knew some materials that contained bitumen as a binder. A more frequent use of the natural asphalt, however, starts around 3,000 BC. Different peoples used it primar...

  2. Aqueous radioactive waste bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.S.

    1980-08-01

    The bituminzation of decontamination and ion exchange resin stripping wastes with four grades of asphalt was investigated to determine the effects of asphalt type on the properties of the final products. All waste forms deformed readily under light loads indicating they would flow if not restrained. It was observed in all cases that product leaching rates increased as the hardness of the asphalt used to treat the waste increased. If bituminization is adopted for any Ontario Hydro aqueous radioactive wastes they should be treated with soft asphalt to obtain optimum leaching resistance and mechanical stability during interim storage should be provided by a corrosion resistant container

  3. E-commerce finally finds the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, M.

    2000-12-01

    In the last few months, new web sites have come online which are not only showcase for coal mining products and equipment but also act as sales platforms. A large set of sites deal with the purchase of coal and other raw materials. Most of them offer 24-hour news updates, a coal library and a reference section to help with financing, insurance and transportation of purchased coal. Another group focuses on the sale of equipment. Short writeups are given of 18 web sites. 1 photo.

  4. Market Structure Differences Impacting Australian Iron Ore and Metallurgical Coal Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Steelmaking relies on iron ore and metallurgical coal as main ingredients, the trade of which is hypothesized to theoretically change in tandem. However, strong correlation is not evident in historical trade prices of steelmaking inputs. To determine causes to this occurrence, the market factors that influence the Australian iron ore and metallurgical coal industries were studied. Data was collected over the past decade for worldwide resource production and trade quantities of crude steel, iron ore, and metallurgical coal. The data was analysed to reveal trends, allowing examination of the macroeconomic trade of metallurgical coal and iron ore with relation to worldwide and country specific steel production. It was determined that the influential growth of China’s steel production has spurred the growth of worldwide iron ore demand, which was met with increased production and supply, from Australia. The increased metallurgical coal demand has been met with increased production within China locally. Measures of supply elasticity were created for worldwide iron ore and metallurgical coal trade, where comparisons between Australia’s industries to the relevant greatest competitor were examined. The results, along with respective resource production data, highlighted the elevated competitive position that Australian iron ore producers enjoy compared to metallurgical coal producers. Trade characteristics revealed the different market structures that iron ore and metallurgical coal industries operate in, prompting a discussion of the effects these markets have on the two Australian industries.

  5. Nuclear techniques in the coal industry. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    With the aim of promoting advanced research and facilitating a more extensive application of nuclear techniques for environmental protection in the exploration and exploitation of coal, the IAEA established the present co-ordinated research programme (CRP) in 1989. This report includes an assessment of the current status and trends in nuclear techniques in the coal industry and the results obtained by the participants at the CRP. Proceedings of the final CRP on ''Nuclear Techniques in Exploration and Exploitation of Coal: On-line and Bulk Analysis and Evaluation of Potential Environmental Pollutants in Coal and Coke'', was held in Krakow, Poland, from 9 to 12 May 1994. Refs, figs, tabs

  6. The Kyoto Protocol and the coal industry in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana Rubio, Edgar

    1998-02-01

    In this article is studied the possible incidence of the commitments reached in the Kyoto Protocol on the coal market, making emphasis in the Colombian case. Projections, made in a study of Hill y Associates, points out that in a scenario of greenhouse gases emissions reduction, the market of the thermal coal will be seriously affected by the incidence on their demand

  7. Central Appalachia in advanced capitalism: its coal industry structure and coal operator associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walls, D.S.

    1978-01-01

    This study traces the origins of the notion that Appalachia constitutes a unique social-problem region, examines the models of Appalachian problems popularized during the 1960s, proposes an alternative framework for situating the Central Appalachian coalfields, and examines aspects of the coal industry's structure in the Central Appalachian region. The idea of Appalachia as a distinctive social problem region was created between 1890 and 1930 by a social movement affiliated with various Protestant church home mission boards and organizationally focused in the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers and Berea College. The movement stressed an environmental explanation of regional problems. During the 1960s, three explanatory models of Appalachian poverty and underdevelopment achieved prominence: the subculture of poverty model, the regional development model, and the internal colonialism model. Each contributed to a regionalized conception of Appalachian problems. Empirical studies show the subculture of poverty model to fail as an explanation of regional underdevelopment. In the absence of a critique of domination and a redistribution of power and wealth, the regional development model serves as a rationalization of existing structures of privilege. The internal colonialism model provides a critique of domination, but not the most appropriate one. This study argues that the above models should not be viewed as mutually exclusive formulations, and that they may be reconstructed to represent different dimensions of social existence.

  8. The South African coal mining industry: A need for a more efficient and collaborative supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pooe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that about two-thirds of global coal is used for power generation and that, in the next 20 years, over 70% of the demand for coal will come from China and India. Coal accounts for approximately 41% of the world's electricity generation. Demand for thermal coal is influenced by factors that include availability, prices of competing products such as oil, gas and nuclear power, and the demand for electricity. The aim of this article is to provide an exposition of supply chain dynamics within the South African coal mining industry and to argue for a more efficient and collaborative supply chain. The authors attempt to investigate at local and global level, the current trends pertaining to the level of reserves, production and consumption of coal. The article further demonstrates the shortcomings of current logistics in meeting the demand for coal in both domestic and export markets. The article draws from secondary data sourced from academic papers, government and agency documents in the exposition of the coal mining supply chain. The paper concludes by recommending the need for a scientific study on supply chain constraints facing the coal mining industry in South Africa.

  9. Secondary Industrial Minerals from Coal Fly Ash and Aluminium Anodising Waste Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugteren, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals that are extracted from the earth’s crust to be directly used for their properties are called industrial minerals. This research shows that such minerals can also be produced from industrial residues, hence the name secondary industrial minerals. In this thesis coal fly ash is chosen as one

  10. Reserve reporting in the United States coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubert, Emily

    2012-01-01

    United States energy policymaking can be better supported with accurate and consistent data on coal reserves, both in the public and private sectors. In particular, reserve data for coal and other energy resources should be directly comparable so that decision-makers can easily understand the relationship among available resources. Long-term policy and investment choices regarding energy security, the environment, and resource allocation depend on accurate information, but existing and easily available data on the magnitude of geologically, environmentally, economically, socially, and legally accessible coal reserves are of insufficient quality to guide such decisions. Even still, these data are often presented for use in policy and energy analysis. Currently, coal reserves are overstated relative to competitor energy resource reserves, in part because coal reporting standards have historically been more liberal and vague than standards for resources like natural gas. Overstating the marketable coal resource could lead to inefficient allocation of limited capital investment that can be difficult to reverse. US government bodies like the Energy Information Administration, United States Geological Survey, Securities and Exchange Commission, and Bureau of Land Management can help correct deficiencies by clarifying standards and collecting data that are relevant for decision-makers, such as energy-based reserve information. - Highlights: ► US Coal reserves are important to public and private policy and investment decisions. ► Poor quality data and coal reserve overreporting misrepresent reality. ► Choices made based on bad information can lead to long-term capital misallocation. ► Numerous government agencies are tasked with providing public data on coal reserves. ► Clearer, more restrictive reserves reporting standards can aid decision-makers.

  11. An example of change - the end of apartheid in the South African coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This publication reports on a visit by four British MPs to the South African Coal Industry (SACI), made under the auspices of the SACI Committee which represents all the major coal exporting companies of South Africa. It is a private industry which operates independently of both the Government and the Chamber of Mines and does not benefit from any Government Subsidies. The aim of the visit was to investigate the SACI against a background of international pressure against an industry which appears to be a major example of change in South Africa. The visit programme included presentations on the South African coal industry in general, industrial relations and safety and research in the mining industry. Visits were made to both an underground mine and an opencast mine, a collieries training college, hospital, school, mine village and a coal terminal. At the end of the visit the delegation drew the conclusions that the South African coal industry is now organised on a totally non-discriminatory basis, offering employment and promotion opportunities to all workers regardless of their race and that there is therefore no justification for singling out this industry as a victim of sanctions policy.

  12. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  13. Brown coal - on the way to industrial-scale upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speich, P.

    1981-01-01

    The main fields of development of Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG (Rheinbraun) in the field of brown coal upgrading are reported, i.e. production of synthesis gas, SNG, and liquid products. The Rheinbraun research programme involves the processes of high-temperature-Winkler gasification, hydrogasification, hydroliquefaction, tube stills, and methanation plants. In the long run, nuclear power will be indispensable for base load power supply so that brown coal can be upgraded instead of being used directly for electric power generation. (HS) [de

  14. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males' life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China.

  15. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males’ life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China. PMID:26845337

  16. Birth and first steps of mineral coal industry in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Amouroux, Jean-Marie

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes a brief history of the emergence of a mineral coal industry in the USA. He notices that wood has been the first source of energy used by settlers for housing heating, and then in industry and transports for heat and steam production. As demand and supply conditions were bad, coal production, although mining sites had been quickly identified and used, only emerged from the 1840's. Different kinds of coal (anthracite, bitumen) have been extracted depending on the region. Then, urbanisation and industrialisation created new opportunities for coal, and the share of coal regularly increased. The author describes how the coal industry was organised: seven regions, central position of Pittsburgh. He outlines the tremendous growth of coal production between 1840 and 1913; comments the distribution of this production among the different states. He describes and comments how this production has been industrialised. This industrialisation resulted in a dramatic increase of productivity between 1890 and 1910. He finally evokes the rather late creation of federal bodies

  17. Coal, the metamorphoses of an industry. The new geopolitics of the 21. century; Charbon, les metamorphoses d'une industrie. La nouvelle geopolitique du 21. siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Amouroux, J.M

    2008-07-01

    Coal consumption is growing up so fast and coal reserves are so abundant that coal might overtake petroleum in the future. The worldwide environment will not gain anything in this evolution except if 'clean coal' technologies make a significant jump. What is the driving force of this coal development? The pitfall encountered by nuclear energy and the rise of natural gas prices have been favorable conditions for the development of coal but they cannot hide the worldwide metamorphosis of coal industry. From China, undisputed world leader, to the USA, without omitting India, Russia and the big exporting countries (Australia, Indonesia, South Africa, Colombia), a new map is drawing up. In all these countries, coal companies are concentrating and internationalizing, open new strip mines and new commercial paths. The understanding of this metamorphosis has become one of the keys of the energy prospective and geopolitics of the 21. century. Content: 1 - entering the 21. century with the energy source of the 19. century?; 2 - consumption growth: new trends; 3 - the USA: the Saudi Arabia of coal; 4 - the unexpected rebirth of coal in Russia; 5 - China, world leader of coal industry; 6 - India and south-east Asia are entering the race; 7 - the rise of exporting industries; 8 - international markets and competitive dynamics of industries; 9 - advantage and drawbacks of coal during the coming decades; 10 - will clean coal technologies be ready on time?; 11 - technical appendix. (J.S.)

  18. Achievement report on developing coal liquefaction technologies in fiscal 1998 - edition B. Development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology (studies by using pilot plant) 1/2; 1998 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho B. 1/2. Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to improve the environment by substituting petroleum energy by coal, and by reducing emission of SOx and NOx, research and development has been performed on coal liquefaction technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements thereof in fiscal 1998. In the operation study RUN-5, the operation was carried out by using the Tanito Harum coal of Indonesia, and raising the slurry concentration to 50% by weight. The operation stability when the high concentration slurry was used was verified, and the liquefying reaction column fluidity property data, and the material balance and heat balance data were acquired by using the NAT method. In the RUN-6 and 7, for the purpose of verifying the applicability of the NEDOL process to the wide range of coal types as the process feature, the Adaro coal of Indonesia and the Ikejima coal of Japan were used, and the operation at high slurry concentration was performed at 80% load and under the standard NEDOL conditions. The operation stability when the upper and lower limit coals was used was verified, and the operability at high slurry concentration was identified. At the same time, the liquefying reaction column fluidity property data, and the material balance and heat balance data were acquired. The development targets established by the Industrial Technology Council have all been achieved. (NEDO)

  19. Proceedings of the symposium on assessing the industrial hygiene monitoring needs for the coal conversion and oil shale industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, O. Jr. (ed.)

    1979-03-01

    This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, Analysis and Assessment Program, through the Safety and Environmental Protection Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The symposium program included presentations centering around the themes: Recognition of Occupational Health Monitoring Requirements for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries and Status of Dosimetry Technology for Occupational Health Monitoring for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries. Sixteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; six had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  20. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was

  1. Gamma, X-ray and neutron techniques for the coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear techniques play a prominent role in all aspects of the coal industry, from exploration through mine development to testing of coal quality during production. The advent of on-line nuclear techniques allows continuous, near real time appraisal of coal quality free from the errors inherent in conventional techniques based on discrete samples. The Advisory Group Meeting reviews the latest developments in this area and makes recommendations on the most promising areas and priorities for future research and development activities. This report records the proceedings of the Advisory Group Meeting. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 13 papers in this report

  2. Ways of conserving fuel-energy resources in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshchenko, N.I.; Nabokov, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    A discussion is made of the work undertaken by enterprises and organizations of the coal industry to conserve fuel-energy resources in the tenth Five-Year Plan. An examination is made of the basic organizational-technical measures that have been implemented in this sector for conserving thermal and electrical energy. A presentation is made of the results obtained from the introduction of advanced technological processes and equipment aimed at increasing productivity and reducing operational losses of coal.

  3. Guide to groundwater monitoring for the coal industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... have an effective and economical groundwater monitoring system. This paper provides a comprehensive ... try's primary energy requirements, as well as bringing foreign investment into the country. Coal ... tinual population growth, is resulting in a ever-growing demand and impact on South Africa's scarce ...

  4. The Safety Attitudes of Senior Managers in the Chinese Coal Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiangshi; Chen, Na; Fu, Gui; Yan, Mingwei; Kim, Young-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Senior managers’ attitudes towards safety are very important regarding the safety practices in an organization. The study is to describe the current situation of senior managers′ attitudes towards safety in the Chinese coal industry. Method: We evaluated the changing trends as well as the reasons for these changes in the Chinese coal industry in 2009 and in 2014 with 168 senior manager samples from large Chinese state-owned coal enterprises. Evaluations of 15 safety concepts were performed by means of a questionnaire. Results and Conclusions: Results indicate that, in 2014, three concepts were at a very high level (mean > 4.5), and six were at a relatively high level (4.5 > mean > 4.0). Analyses of changing trends revealed that nine concepts improved significantly, while four greatly declined in 2014 compared to those in 2009. The data reported here suggest that the reasons for the significant improvement with respect to the nine concepts include the improvement in social and legal environments, the improvement of the culture of social safety, workers′ safety demands being met, and scientific and technical advances in the coal industry. The decline of the four concepts seemed to be caused by a poor awareness of managers in the coal industry that safety creates economic benefits, insufficient information on safety, inadequate attention to the development of a safety culture and safety management methods, and safety organizations and workers′ unions not playing their role effectively. Practical Applications: We therefore recommend strengthening the evidence that safety creates economic benefits, providing incentives for employees to encourage their participation in safety management, and paying more attention to the prevention of accidents in coal mines via safety organizations and unions. These results can provide guidelines for workers, industrialists, and government regarding occupational safety in the whole coal industry. PMID:27869654

  5. The Safety Attitudes of Senior Managers in the Chinese Coal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangshi Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Senior managers’ attitudes towards safety are very important regarding the safety practices in an organization. The study is to describe the current situation of senior managers′ attitudes towards safety in the Chinese coal industry. Method: We evaluated the changing trends as well as the reasons for these changes in the Chinese coal industry in 2009 and in 2014 with 168 senior manager samples from large Chinese state-owned coal enterprises. Evaluations of 15 safety concepts were performed by means of a questionnaire. Results and Conclusions: Results indicate that, in 2014, three concepts were at a very high level (mean > 4.5, and six were at a relatively high level (4.5 > mean > 4.0. Analyses of changing trends revealed that nine concepts improved significantly, while four greatly declined in 2014 compared to those in 2009. The data reported here suggest that the reasons for the significant improvement with respect to the nine concepts include the improvement in social and legal environments, the improvement of the culture of social safety, workers′ safety demands being met, and scientific and technical advances in the coal industry. The decline of the four concepts seemed to be caused by a poor awareness of managers in the coal industry that safety creates economic benefits, insufficient information on safety, inadequate attention to the development of a safety culture and safety management methods, and safety organizations and workers′ unions not playing their role effectively. Practical Applications: We therefore recommend strengthening the evidence that safety creates economic benefits, providing incentives for employees to encourage their participation in safety management, and paying more attention to the prevention of accidents in coal mines via safety organizations and unions. These results can provide guidelines for workers, industrialists, and government regarding occupational safety in the whole coal industry.

  6. The Safety Attitudes of Senior Managers in the Chinese Coal Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiangshi; Chen, Na; Fu, Gui; Yan, Mingwei; Kim, Young-Chan

    2016-11-17

    Introduction: Senior managers' attitudes towards safety are very important regarding the safety practices in an organization. The study is to describe the current situation of senior managers' attitudes towards safety in the Chinese coal industry. Method : We evaluated the changing trends as well as the reasons for these changes in the Chinese coal industry in 2009 and in 2014 with 168 senior manager samples from large Chinese state-owned coal enterprises. Evaluations of 15 safety concepts were performed by means of a questionnaire. Results and Conclusions : Results indicate that, in 2014, three concepts were at a very high level (mean > 4.5), and six were at a relatively high level (4.5 > mean > 4.0). Analyses of changing trends revealed that nine concepts improved significantly, while four greatly declined in 2014 compared to those in 2009. The data reported here suggest that the reasons for the significant improvement with respect to the nine concepts include the improvement in social and legal environments, the improvement of the culture of social safety, workers' safety demands being met, and scientific and technical advances in the coal industry. The decline of the four concepts seemed to be caused by a poor awareness of managers in the coal industry that safety creates economic benefits, insufficient information on safety, inadequate attention to the development of a safety culture and safety management methods, and safety organizations and workers' unions not playing their role effectively. Practical Applications : We therefore recommend strengthening the evidence that safety creates economic benefits, providing incentives for employees to encourage their participation in safety management, and paying more attention to the prevention of accidents in coal mines via safety organizations and unions. These results can provide guidelines for workers, industrialists, and government regarding occupational safety in the whole coal industry.

  7. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  8. Financial Incentives to Restructure Coal Mining Industry. Comparative Case Study Romania and State of Michigan, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger HAMLIN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Former coal mining sites have always raised environmental and economic challenges for the areas where they were located, especially for those communities that were highly dependent on the coal mining industry. The present paper will explore the factors leading to the decline of coal mining industry in Romania and State of Michigan, U.S., the social, economic and environmental impact that occurred after closing coal extractions and the approaches that the two states took to reconstruct the economy of the former mining areas. The paper attempts to make recommendations of financial incentives that can be used to foster the economic redevelopment of former coal mining sites in Romania.

  9. A NEW CHALLENGE FOR THE ROMANIAN COAL INDUSTRY: ELIMINATION OF THE STATE AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruian Claudiu-Marian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Commission decision N 239/2007 the Romanian coal industry will receive state aid by the end of 2010. After this period public companies in this sector will finance the costs of current production and investment entirely by their revenue. This article presents a short literature review regarding the subsidization of coal industry, shows the evolution of the mining industry in Romania so far, and identifies opportunities for continuing coal production after December 31, 2010 without state aid. The paper concludes that the abolition of subsides in is a positive measure but it must be taken gradually and responsibly, in order to ameliorate the negative effects on social end natural environment.

  10. Training of Engineering Personnel for the Innovative Coal Industry: Problems and Ways of Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaruba, Natalya; Fraltsova, Tamara; Snegireva, Tatyana

    2017-11-01

    The article is written based on some results of the long-term scientific research of the problem related to the urgent need to find the ways of training personnel for the innovative coal industry in the higher education system. This is due to the fundamental changes in the Russian social and economic conditions: the change in the social system and the owner of the coal industry, the emergence of new technologies in the field of coal mining and processing, and in the management of these processes. At the same time, the system of training specialists for the coal industry in the higher education institutions has largely remained unchanged: technologies and principles of training, scientific approaches and concepts take little account of the changed situation, traditional views of specialists work-ing in the university continue to dominate innovative ideas. Many innovations, especially related to technology and the principles of education, struggle to make their way into the higher education system. The article substantiates the urgency of the problem of training personnel for the innovative coal industry in the higher education system, as well as the importance of scientific analysis of the problem in order to find the ways to solve it.

  11. ECONOMIC AND THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF PLANNING EFFECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ENTERPRISES IN THE COAL INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. K. Galiev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Relevance and purpose of the study. Under modern conditions, the share of loss-making enterprises of the coal industry is still high. This brings the solution of the problem of improving the efficiency of their activities up to date. It also determines the purpose of this research. Research methods: scientific generalization, system and factor analysis, and statistical modeling are used in the present work. Results. The article discusses the economic and theoretical aspects of planning the effective activities in the coal industry. The paper analyzes the elasticity of the unit cost price in terms of its labor productivity. It also deals with the elasticity of the volume of output in terms of labor productivity. This indicates that the existing coal mining technologies have, to some extent, exhausted their advantages in the coal industry. They require a change on the achieved level of the capital-labor ratio. It is recommended to strive to ensure advanced ratio of growth of labor productivity of workers compared to the growth rate of unit costs. This should be done at the introduction of a new technology at the enterprises of the coal industry. The advanced ratio of growth in output compared to the growth rate of labor productivity of workers should also be guaranteed. The early growth rate of revenue from sales compared to the growth rate in total costs of production should be provided. The advanced ratio of profit growth compared to the growth rate of revenue from sales has to be provided as well. It is proven that for coal industry enterprises the type of competitive advantages called “the lowest costs” can be the only acceptable one in comparison with other types. We have considered the requirements to the new developed technologies for coal mining. They are as follows: the value of marginal profit in the planned period should be more than the fixed costs of the enterprise; the value of marginal profit in the planned period should be more

  12. Nonlinearity of bituminous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiafico, S.; Babadopulos, L. F. A. L.; Sauzéat, C.; Di Benedetto, H.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental characterization of the strain dependency of the complex modulus of bituminous mixtures for strain amplitude levels lower than about 110 μm/m. A series of strain amplitude sweep tests are performed at different temperatures (8, 10, 12 and 14°C) and frequencies (0.3, 1, 3 and 10 Hz), during which complex modulus is monitored. For each combination of temperature and frequency, four maximum strain amplitudes are targeted (50, 75, 100 and 110 μm/m). For each of them, two series of 50 loading cycles are applied, respectively at decreasing and increasing strain amplitudes. Before each decreasing strain sweep and after each increasing strain sweep, 5 cycles are performed at constant maximum targeted strain amplitude. Experimental results show that the behavior of the studied material is strain dependent. The norm of the complex modulus decreases and phase angle increases with strain amplitude. Results are presented in Black and Cole-Cole plots, where characteristic directions of nonlinearity can be identified. Both the effects of nonlinearity in terms of the complex modulus variation and of the direction of nonlinearity in Black space seem to validate the time-temperature superposition principle with the same shift factors as for linear viscoelasticity. The comparison between results obtained during increasing and decreasing strain sweeps suggests the existence of another phenomenon occurring during cyclic loading, which appears to systematically induce a decrease of the norm of the complex modulus and an increase of the phase angle, regardless of the type of the strain sweep (increasing or decreasing).

  13. Sulfidic vapor phase catalysts, especially tungsten sulfide, in industrial coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M.

    1943-01-01

    The historical development of high-pressure processes of the I. G. Farbenindustrie, from ammonia through methanol and gasoline, and the special case of gasoline production with a fixed-bed catalyst (tungsten sulfide) were discussed. The preparation, properties, and uses of this versatile catalyst were discussed, but it was emphasized that with the sotrmy development of the process, a condition which still existed at the time of this report, and with a great number of practical problems to solve, no extensive study of basic facts had ben possible. This tungsten sulfide catalyst was an especially active vapor-phase catalyst which operated at lower temperatures than the molybdenum catalysts formerly used. It also permitted higher thruputs, even with the oils from bituminous coal that were difficult to split. For certain uses, such as the improvement of the antiknock properties or the saving in tungsten, it was strongly diluted. Studies on using up sulfur in the tungsten sulfide catalyst were in progress at this time and showed there was practically no reduction of it under the conditions of hydrogenation under pressure as long as the raw material contained sulfur.

  14. Restructuring and privatising the coal industries in Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews coal industry reforms in central and Eastern Europe (CEE), including the former GDR and Estonia (oil shale), and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). It describes achievements and failures during the last ten years on the road to an efficient, viable and environmentally acceptable coal industry playing the various roles assigned to it by governments as part of their energy policies. Obeying to conflicting objectives, coal-restructuring policies can best be described as stop-go policies. As a result, between 1990 and 1998, production declined by 41%, the number of pits by 26% and the number of employees by 45%. Productivity rose by only 8% in the region as a whole. At present, 80 to 90% of coal production is actually or virtually profitable under local or national circumstances. Turning virtual into actual profitability depends as much on continued reforms (unbundling of profitable from unprofitable mines, customerization of mines, equity privatisation) as on a fresh assessment, by investors, of two major opportunities: mine-utility partnerships and untapped productivity gains. These opportunities are growingly recognised by the business community: by 1998, 20% of coal production in the region are owned by equity investors, domestic and foreign. With, these opportunities in mind and assuming economic recovery, WEC, IIASA, IEA, DOE* (*World Energy Council, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, International Energy Agency, US Department of Energy) and national governments project a medium-term (2010,2020) increase of coal production against 1998 of about 20%, mostly in the CIS. (author)

  15. Principles of assessment and management approaches to innovation potential of coal industry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Козлов

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines problems related to forming a complex of indicators to assess innovation potential of an industrial enterprise, on the example of coal industry enterprises, and an integral indicator of innovation potential, used for comparative analysis of the state of affairs in the industry. Analysis of different approaches to defining the term «innovation potential» for industrial enterprises has been carried out; resource-based, resultative, integrative and capacitive approaches have been highlighted, the latter one based on assessment of enterprise capacities. A conclusion has been made regarding advantages of integrative approach.Research has been made on the role of industry in the fuel and power sector of China and dynamics of industry and enterprise development in Shanxi province. Basing on suggested approach a system of assessment principles has been formulated, taking into account specific features of coal industry enterprises. Complex of indicators to assess innovation potential has been developed using expert evaluation method. An expertise procedure is proposed to assess competence of experts; results obtained from the expertise are presented. Proposed complex of indicators includes 23 parameters combined into three groups.Testing of proposed complex of indicators has been carried out on the example of coal industry in Shanxi province (China. Application of all stated principles has been proved in the process of indicator selection, assessment and formulation of recommendations for subsequent innovation potential management of coal industry enterprises. Proposed approach to forming a complex of indicators of innovation potential for industry enterprises permits to link together the logic of innovation potential definition, formation of the system of its principles, selection of the indicators complex for assessment and subsequent innovation potential management of the enterprise.

  16. Application of a Backfilling Method in Coal Mining to Realise an Ecologically Sensitive “Black Gold” Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Feng; Nong Zhang; Lianyuan Gong; Fei Xue; Xigui Zheng

    2015-01-01

    China, as the largest coal-producing and -consuming country in the world, is highly dependent on its coal industry, or “Black Gold” industry, for the national energy and economy. The consequent environmental crises, however, have persisted for decades, and the most serious effect is surface subsidence induced by underground mining. Underground coal excavation in China has ignored this problem for thousands of years, even though it causes conspicuous damage to the surface ecosystem and constru...

  17. Abandoned coal mining sites: using ecotoxicological tests to support an industrial organic sludge amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Radetski, Marilice R; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Tischer, Vinícius; Tiepo, Erasmo N; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2013-11-01

    The different stages involved in coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. Remediation of these contaminated soils can be carried out by application of industrial organic sludge if the concerns regarding the potential negative environmental impacts of this experimental practice are properly addressed. In this context, the objective of this study was to use ecotoxicological tests to determine the quantity of organic industrial sludge that is required as a soil amendment to restore soil production while avoiding environmental impact. Chemical analysis of the solids (industrial sludge and soil) and their leachates was carried out as well as a battery of ecotoxicity tests on enzymes (hydrolytic activity), bacteria, algae, daphnids, earthworms, and higher plants, according to standardized methodologies. Solid and leachate samples of coal-contaminated soil were more toxic than those of industrial sludge towards enzyme activity, bacteria, algae, daphnids, and earthworms. In the case of the higher plants (lettuce, corn, wild cabbage, and Surinam cherry) the industrial sludge was more toxic than the coal-contaminated soil, and a soil/sludge mixture (66:34% dry weight basis) had a stimulatory effect on the Surinam cherry biomass. The ecotoxicological assessment of the coal-contaminated soil remediation using sludge as an amendment is very important to determine application rates that could promote a stimulatory effect on agronomic species without negatively affecting the environment.

  18. Environmental benefits and drawbacks of composite fuels based on industrial wastes and different ranks of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyashina, G S; Vershinina, K Yu; Dmitrienko, M A; Strizhak, P A

    2018-04-05

    A promising solution to many problems that thermal power industry is facing today would be switching from conventional coal dust combustion to coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Here, we perform an experimental study of the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions (sulfur and nitrogen oxides) from the combustion of high-potential CWSP. We identify the main benefits and potential drawbacks of using CWSP in thermal power industry. A set of components and additives to CWSP are explored that significantly affect the environmental and energy performance of fuels. The anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of CWSP made of widespread coal and oil processing wastes are no higher than those from coal dust combustion. Using specialized additives to CWSP, we can change the concentrations of NO x and SO x several times. The most appealing additives to CWSP are sawdust, straw, charcoal, limestone, and glycerol. They provide better environmental, economic, and energy performance and improve the rheological properties of CWSP. Waste oils and oil sludge added to CWSP may impair the environmental performance but boost the cost and energy efficiency. Using coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals as a fuel at thermal power plants is an environmentally friendly as well as cost- and energy-efficient way to recover industrial wastes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Physicochemical Analysis And Mineralogical Composition Of Enugu Coal In Nigeria For Potential Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwoko Christopher Ikpeamadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of coal in certain regions of Nigeria had been described as an alternative energy solution. The potential information obtained from the physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of coal samples in such regions has enabled scientist and government to make well informed decisions. Coal samples were obtained from Okpara Mine in Enugu state Nigeria and subjected to proximate ultimate and mineralogical analyses. The results showed that the coal had uneven particle distribution with higher content of fixed carbon and lower amount of hydrogen and volatile matter. The mineral analyses showed that the coal was rich in silicon and aluminum. The rank was bituminous coal that can be utilized for power generation steel industry glass manufacturing and thermite process.

  20. Injury experience in coal mining, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  1. Injury experience in coal mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, R.B.; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  2. Black economic empowerment in the South African coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    South Africa has experienced great change and progress in the ten years since the end of apartheid and the inauguration of its first democratic government. Back in 1994, many were concerned about whether such a young and fragile democracy could survive. The new government needed to unify the country, while bringing about the significant change necessary to address the massive racial inequality at the heart of the apartheid system. The article explains actions and initiatives taken under the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) programme, one of which is the establishment of Eyesizwe Coal. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  3. The changing structure of the US coal industry: An update, July 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 requires the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of changes in the structure of the US coal industry between 1976 and 1991. The structural elements examined include the number of mines, average mine size, the size distribution of mines, and the size distribution of coal firms. The report measures changes in the market shares of the largest coal producers at the national level and in various regions. The Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal market is given special attention, and the market for coal reserves is examined. A history of mergers in the coal industry is presented, and changes in the proportions of US coal output that are produced by various types of companies, including foreign-controlled firms, are described. Finally, the impact of post-1991 mergers on the structure of the industry is estimated. The legislation that created the EIA vested the organization with an element of statutory independence. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA's responsibility is to provide timely, high-quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of deliberations by both public and private decisionmakers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration

  4. Activities of the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreszer, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze was established in 1955. The works on carbochemical technologies have been, therefore, carried out at the Institute for 40 years. The targets of the Institute`s activities are research, scientific and developing works regarding a sensible utilization of fuels via their processing into more refined forms, safe environment, highly efficient use of energy carriers and technological products of special quality. The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal has been dealing with the following: optimized use of home hard coals; improvement of classic coal coking technologies, processing and utilization of volatile coking products; production technologies of low emission rate fuels for communal management; analyses of coal processing technologies; new technologies aimed at increasing the efficiency of coal utilization for energy-generating purposes, especially in industry and studies on the ecological aspects of these processes; production technologies of sorbents and carbon activating agents and technologies of the utilization; rationalization of water and wastes management in the metallurgical and chemical industries in connection with removal of pollution especially dangerous to the environment from wastes; utilization technologies of refined materials (electrode cokes, binders, impregnating agents) for making electrodes, refractories and new generation construction carbon materials; production technologies of high quality bituminous and bituminous and resin coating, anti-corrosive and insulation materials; environmentally friendly utilization technologies for power station, mine and other wastes, and dedusting processes in industrial gas streams.

  5. From Mining to Post-Mining: The Sustainable Development Strategy of the German Hard Coal Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmann, J.; Efremenkov, A. B.; Khoreshok, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    By the end of the 1950s, the German coal mining industry produced 150 million tons of hard coal per year in 170 collieries with 600,000 employees. At that time, 70% of the primary energy demand of the Federal Republic of Germany was covered by domestic coal. Since the advance of oil, later of natural gas, in the world energy market and with the growth of world coal trade, domestic coal stood under a long-term restructuring pressure. This decision required a new strategy for the coal mining industry. Now German coal mining will be strictly finalized and will be prepared for the post-mining era. Within a sustainability strategy the long-term impacts of mining activities before and after the mine closures concerning the environmental, economic and social dimensions will be analyzed systematically and forward-looking.

  6. Modeling for comparison of leukemia incidence risk between nuclear and coal power industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prybutok, V.R.; Gold, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    The leukemia incidence risk for a single coal plant, a single nuclear plant, and a single nuclear accident is used to compute the total industry leukemia incidence risk. In the absence of a nuclear power plant accident, the leukemia incidence risk is normally lower for a nuclear industry than for a coal industry of equivalent size. The nuclear industry risk with accidents was compared to the coal industry risk for six proposed dose response curves. Simplifying assumptions about the negligible effect of the cell-killing term and the linear nature of the linear quadratic curve allowed derivation of risk models for the assumption of both linear and quadratic dose response. These derived models, representing leukemia incidence risk bounds, are used to estimate the total industry risk comparison. Evaluation of an accident's impact on the leukemia incidence risk comparison is done with the risk bounds and compared to the risk evaluations calculated during all six dose response curves. The overlapping plot of the number of nuclear accidents required for equivalent industry environment risks versus the accident fraction allows the conservative function to be defined

  7. Managerial Accounting Principles and Cost Calculation Used by Economic Entities in the Coal Mining Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Boca (Rakos) Ileana – Sorina; Vatasoiu Cristian Ionel

    2011-01-01

    Considering the specialized work in managerial accounting, this paper aims to show which cost calculation principles are actually applied in the coal mining industry today. The methodology used in this scientific approach is of qualitative nature, using the following methods: direct observation and interview.

  8. Ways to control quality of electric equipment in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipilov, A.D.; Nabokov, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    A structure is proposed for organization in the coal industry of a permanent service for controlling quality of electrical engineering equipment. A form was developed for introduction of recommendations to improve quality. Methods are suggested for evaluating the quality level as applied to specific tasks of controlling quality of the electrical equipment used in mining.

  9. Thermal stability of carboxylic acid functionality in coal; Sekitanchu ni sonzaisuru karubokishiruki no netsubunkai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Aida, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Carboxyl in coal was focused in discussing its pyrolytic behavior while tracking change of its absolute amount relative to the heating temperatures. A total of four kinds of coals, consisting of two kinds brown coals, sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were used. Change in the absolute amount of carboxyl due to heating varies with coalification degree. Decomposition starts in the bituminous coal from around 300{degree}C, and is rapidly accelerated when 400{degree}C is exceeded. Carboxyls in brown coals exist two to three times as much as those in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, of which 40% is decomposed at a temperature as low as about 300{degree}C. Their pyrolytic behavior at temperatures higher than 400{degree}C resembles that of the bituminous coal. Carboxyls consist of those easy to decompose and difficult to decompose. Aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with simple structure are stable at temperatures lower than 300{degree}C, and decompose abruptly from about 400{degree}C, hence their behavior resembles that of carboxyls in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Structure of low-temperature decomposing carboxyls in brown coals is not known, but it is assumed that humic acid originated from natural materials remains in the structure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Analysis of the holistic impact of the Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Shannon Perry

    As gas prices soar and energy demand continues to grow amidst increasingly stringent environmental regulations and an assortment of global pressures, implementing alternative energy sources while considering their linked economic, environmental and societal impacts becomes a more pressing matter. The Hydrogen Economy has been proposed as an answer to meeting the increasing energy demand for electric power generation and transportation in an environmentally benign way. Based on current hydrogen technology development, the most practical feedstock to fuel the Hydrogen Economy may prove to be coal via hydrogen production at FutureGen plants. The planned growth of the currently conceived Hydrogen Economy will cause dramatic impacts, some good and some bad, on the economy, the environment, and society, which are interlinked. The goal of this research is to provide tools to inform public policy makers in sorting out policy options related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy. This study examines the impact of a transition to a Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry by creating FutureGen penetration models, forecasting coal MFA's which clearly provide the impact on coal production and associated environmental impacts, and finally formulating a goal programming model that seeks the maximum benefit to society while analyzing the trade-offs between environmental, social, and economical concerns related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy.

  11. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    It is estimated that World coal trade remained strong during the second quarter of 1991, with contributing factors including unseasonally large shipments to Japan for power generation, sustained Japanese steel production at around 112 Mt and some buildup in stocks in that country. Purchases by North Asian and European consumers also remained high. At the same time Soviet output and exports declined because of strikes and political unrest. In addition, exportable supplies in Poland fell. As a result the demand for Indonesian coal increased, and Australia exported larger than previously expected quantities of coal. ills

  12. R&D status and the performance of domestic firms in China's coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Sizhong; Anwar, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Coal use accounts for a very large proportion of electricity production in China. Using a recently developed coarsened exact matching (CEM) technique, this paper examines the impact of research and development (R&D) activities on the performance of firms in China's coal mining industry. Our empirical results reveal that firms in China's coal industry that conduct R&D are more productive and their sales are higher. However, as far as the firm profitability and market shares are concerned, whether or not a firm in China's coal industry conducts R&D makes no difference. We find that foreign direct investment in China's coal mining industry leads to a significant decrease in the market share of domestic firms and its impact on productivity, sales and profitability of domestic firms is insignificant. The empirical results presented in this paper suggest that policies that encourage domestic firms in China's coal mining industries to conduct R&D can increase domestic production thereby reducing reliance on imports. Furthermore, productivity gains arising from R&D activities can also help Chinese mining firms to improve their competitive position in the international market. However, there is a need for restricting foreign direct investment in China's coal mining industry. - Highlights: • R&D status affects firm performance in China's coal mining industry. • Coal mining firms that conduct R&D are, on average, 0.2717% more productive. • Coal mining firms that conduct R&D experience an increase in sales. • Increase in foreign investment decreases the market share of coal mining firms

  13. Thermophysical properties of composite fuel based on T grade coal (Alardinskoe deposit) and timber industry wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovsky, S. A.; Tolokolnikov, A. A.; Gubin, V. E.; Slyusarskiy, K. V.; Zenkov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Results of experimental studies of composite fuel thermal decomposition processes based on T grade coal (Alardinskoe deposit) and timber industry wastes (fine wood) are presented. C, H, N, S weight percentage of each component of composite fuel was determined experimentally. It has been established that with an increase in wood concentration up to 50% in composite fuel, its energy characteristics decrease by less than 3.6%, while the yield of fly ash is 39.7%. An effective composite fuel composition has been defined as 50%/50%. Results of performed experimental studies suggest that it is possible to use composite fuels based on coal and wood at thermal power plants.

  14. Improving Occupational and Industrial Safety Management System at Coal Mining Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagina, Svetlana; Kadnikova, Oksana; Demidenko, Ksenia; Chistyakova, Galina; Rolgayzer, Anastasia

    2017-11-01

    The article highlights the problem of mine workers occupational safety. The foreign and domestic experience of the field is analyzed. Some areas, activities and methods that meet modern requirements for ensuring occupational safety and production development, which are aimed at improving the quality of occupational safety management system, are described. The possibilities of their use in industrial safety of Kuzbass coal mining enterprises are considered. The proposed methods were implemented by JSC "Shakhta Yuzhnaya", "Kiselevsky Razrez" Ltd., the coal mining enterprises of the Kemerovo region.

  15. Influence of Coal Industry Enterprises on Biodiversity (on the Example of Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, Svetlana; Dobrydina, Tatiana

    2017-11-01

    The fauna, the population density and the types of ants' nests on the territory affected by the coal industry have been studied. It has been found that the level of environmental contamination influences all the indicators: the minimum indices of density, 1-2 species of ants and only underground nests near the pollution sources. On the contrary, in the areas with a weak influence of coal enterprises, 9 species with a maximum density of up to 15.2 nests / m2 have been observed with predominance of nests in the form of earthen mounds. Lasius niger are the most resistant to pollution, while the Myrmica do not stand such an impact.

  16. Quartz exposure levels in the underground and surface coal mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, S.M.; Gero, A.J.; Parobeck, P.S; Tomb, T.F. [US Mine Safety and Health Administration, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Occupational quartz exposure data gathered from the Mine Safety and Health Adminsitration`s respirable dust enforcement program and a program to monitor quartz exposure in several mining occupations were compiled and analyzed to assess the status of quartz exposures in the coal mining industry. The analysis showed that, in underground mines, a substantial number of samples contained greater than 5% quartz. Occupations that showed a high frequency of excessive quartz exposure included the roof bolter, continuous miner operator, and continuous miner operator helper. In surface coal mines the highwall drill operator and helper, bulldozer operator, scraper operator, and truck driver were frequently exposed to high quartz concentrations.

  17. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  18. Investigation on Using SBS and Active Carbon Filler to Reduce the VOC Emission from Bituminous Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Peiqiang; Wu, Shaopeng; Li, Fuzhou; Xiao, Yue; Zhang, Honghua

    2014-01-01

    Bituminous materials are playing a vital role in pavement design and the roofing industry because of outstanding properties. Unfortunately, bituminous materials will release volatile organic compounds (VOC), making them non-environmentally friendly. Therefore, technologies that can be used to decrease the VOC emission are urgently required. In this research, the VOC emission and material behaviors were analyzed and compared to investigate the possibility of adding styrene butadiene styrene (S...

  19. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  20. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Han

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males' life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China.

  1. Viral Management as a New Type of Enterprise Management in Coal Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garafonova, Olga; Grigashkina, Svetlana; Zhosan, Anna

    2017-11-01

    The article considers the evolution of the concept of "management". The Internet analysis of the concept of "viral management" was conducted, the results of which testify to the positive trend, the growing interest in scientific circles, the relevance of the chosen direction for further research and the increasing popularity of the viral management among business leaders. The indices of coal and brown coal extraction in Ukraine and Russia for 2010-2016 are analyzed. Among the problems that exist in the coal industry are the following: mine assets have a high degree of deterioration; the equipment is rather obsolete and does not correspond to the world level; among the existing face equipment, the specific weight of longwall mining equipment, road headers, loading machines, and belt conveyors of the new generation is only several percent. Five steps of introduction of the virus management at the enterprise are identified: opening, development, participation, diffusion, sustainability. The principles of introduction of the viral management in the enterprises of the coal industry are offered. It is established that the main idea of the viral management is to "infect" the organization and, mainly, employees with one or another "virus" in the form of a common idea or goal. It is indicated that the viral management assumes a certain automaticity of changes, internal "obsession" with this or other innovation, involvement of an informal personal factor.

  2. Viral Management as a New Type of Enterprise Management in Coal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garafonova Olga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the evolution of the concept of “management”. The Internet analysis of the concept of “viral management” was conducted, the results of which testify to the positive trend, the growing interest in scientific circles, the relevance of the chosen direction for further research and the increasing popularity of the viral management among business leaders. The indices of coal and brown coal extraction in Ukraine and Russia for 2010-2016 are analyzed. Among the problems that exist in the coal industry are the following: mine assets have a high degree of deterioration; the equipment is rather obsolete and does not correspond to the world level; among the existing face equipment, the specific weight of longwall mining equipment, road headers, loading machines, and belt conveyors of the new generation is only several percent. Five steps of introduction of the virus management at the enterprise are identified: opening, development, participation, diffusion, sustainability. The principles of introduction of the viral management in the enterprises of the coal industry are offered. It is established that the main idea of the viral management is to “infect” the organization and, mainly, employees with one or another “virus” in the form of a common idea or goal. It is indicated that the viral management assumes a certain automaticity of changes, internal “obsession” with this or other innovation, involvement of an informal personal factor.

  3. Restructuring of the coal industry and thermal power sector in the Commonwealth of Independent States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-30

    The paper summarizes the most recent developments in the transformation of the coal and thermal power sector in Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Ukraine to market economy conditions. It also provides statistical data concerning the dynamics of the major indicators of restructuring, such as the allocation of state subsidies, productivity growth, employment and investment. Over the last three years, the restructuring of the coal and thermal power sectors has progressed differently in the above three countries. Both sectors and especially the coal industry sector have been forced to restructure with extreme rapidity under unstable conditions, such as economic decline, absence of stable economic and fiscal laws, hyperinflation, loss of purchasing power, collapse of payment system. The transformation has been management restructuring rather than technical or reinvestment. The programmes of restructuring were mor ambitious than their realistic implementation as the lack of financial resources had, in many cases, delayed or even postponed the deadlines and objectives. The first stage has been completed in the Russian Federation, but has not yet started in Ukraine. In Kazakhstan, the coal industry has been fully privatized, mainly by foreign companies, power generation is now following along the same lines. Both sectors adapt their structure to new market requirements.

  4. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China.

  5. Analysis of industrial markets for low and medium Btu coal gasification. [Forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-30

    Low- and medium-Btu gases (LBG and MBG) can be produced from coal with a variety of 13 existing and 25 emerging processes. Historical experience and previous studies indicate a large potential market for LBG and MBG coal gasification in the manufacturing industries for fuel and feedstocks. However, present use in the US is limited, and industry has not been making substantial moves to invest in the technology. Near-term (1979-1985) market activity for LBG and MBG is highly uncertain and is complicated by a myriad of pressures on industry for energy-related investments. To assist in planning its program to accelerate the commercialization of LBG and MBG, the Department of Energy (DOE) contracted with Booz, Allen and Hamilton to characterize and forecast the 1985 industrial market for LBG and MBG coal gasification. The study draws five major conclusions: (1) There is a large technically feasible market potential in industry for commercially available equipment - exceeding 3 quadrillion Btu per year. (2) Early adopters will be principally steel, chemical, and brick companies in described areas. (3) With no additional Federal initiatives, industry commitments to LBG and MBG will increase only moderately. (4) The major barriers to further market penetration are lack of economic advantage, absence of significant operating experience in the US, uncertainty on government environmental policy, and limited credible engineering data for retrofitting industrial plants. (5) Within the context of generally accepted energy supply and price forecasts, selected government action can be a principal factor in accelerating market penetration. Each major conclusion is discussed briefly and key implications for DOE planning are identified.

  6. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  7. Mineralogical and geochemical composition of particulate matter (PM10) in coal and non-coal industrial cities of Henan Province, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyan; Shao, Longyi; Zheng, Qiming; Yang, Shushen

    2014-06-01

    A total of 19 24-h PM10 samples, the 11 for a typical coal industrial city and 8 for a non-coal industrial city, were collected by a TSP-PM10 sampler during a serious and continuous haze event in Henan Province, North China. An X-ray diffractometer (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogy and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) was used to determine the morphology and chemical composition of the PM10 samples. The crystalline phases that were identified by XRD mainly include sulfate (dominated by koktaite, boussingaultite, gypsum, etc.) and silicate (quartz and kaolinite) as well as small amount of chloride (sal-ammoniac). Silicate particles mainly originate from crust as well as waste dumps for coal industrial cities, and usually have an irregular shape, while sulfate particles occur as individual sheets or needles, and have an anthropogenic origin, which are the products of chemical reaction of preexisting carbonate with SO2 emitted by coal combustion. Nitrogen, S and Cl occurring in particulate matter are considered to have an anthropogenic origin due to their high enrichment factors, and their abundance in particulate matter is associated with coal industrial activities. Nitrogen mainly occurs as NH4+ in sulfate, as well as in small amount of organic matter. Sulfur mainly occurs as SO42 - in sulfate. Chlorine mainly occurs in chloride.

  8. Influence of association of "EVA-NBR" on indirect tensile strength of modified bituminous concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinoun, M.; Soudani, K.; Haddadi, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the improvement of the mechanical properties of bituminous concrete by modification of bituminous concrete. In this study, we present the results of the indirect tensile strength "ITS" of modified bituminous concrete by the combination of two modifiers, one is a plastomer EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) and the other is a industrial waste from the shoe soles grinding NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) as crumb rubber. To modify the bitumen a wet process was used. The results show that the modification of bitumen by EVA-NBR combination increases their resistance to the indirect traction "ITS" compared to the bituminous concrete control. The mixture of 5% [50% EVA+ 50% NBR] is given the best result among the other associations.

  9. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, Coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [de

  10. The South Manchurian Railway Company and the Mining Industry: The Case of the Fushun Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-yu Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the Japanese victory over Czarist Russia in the Russo-Japanese War and the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth in 1905, the southernmost section of the southern branch of the China Far East Railway (Changchun–Port Arthur was transferred to Japanese control. A new, semi-privately held company, the South Manchuria Railway Company (SMR, Mantetsu, was established with 85.6 percent capitalization by the Japanese government and foreign bonds to operate the railroad and to develop settlements (including highways, public health facilities, educational institutions, and industries (coal mines, harbor facilities, electrical power plants, shale oil plants, chemical plants, and restaurants along its route. SMR nonetheless emphasized railway and mining investment. The centerpiece of its mining interests was the Fushun Coal Mine. Starting in 1917, SMR began to prosper, with most profits coming from its coal mines, and it soon spun off subsidiary companies. In this sense, although the factors that influenced development of the Fushun Coal Mine in each period were different, this development still shows continuity of the business management.

  11. Coal utilization in industrial boilers in China - a prospect for mitigating CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.; Zeng, T.; Yang, L.I.S.; Oye, K.A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    It is estimated from GEF statistical data for 1991 that more than 500,000 industrial boilers (mostly stoker-fired) in China consume over 400 million tons of coal per year. Each year, because of low boiler efficiency, 75 million tons of coal is wasted and 130 million tons of excess CO 2 are emitted. An analysis of 250 boiler thermal-balance test certificates and 6 field visits in three provinces have shown that: (1) boilers with efficiencies of less than 70% account for 75% of the total boiler-population; (2) the main causes of the low efficiencies are high excess air and unburned carbon in the slag and fly ash. The effect of unburned carbon on CO 2 emission is a balance of positive and negative contributions: while the unburned carbon does not produce CO 2 emissions, its replacement carbon, burned at a low efficiency, contributes to a net increase in CO 2 emissions. It seems from the analysis that the average boiler efficiency can be raised to 73% by relatively simple means, such as the size grading of the coal, improved boiler operating practice and some inexpensive equipment modifications. This could then result in savings each year of 34 million tons of coal and a reduction in CO 2 emissions of 63 million tons at an estimated cost of $10 per ton of CO 2 . (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Current and advanced NO/sub x/-control technology for coal-fired industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    A NOx-control-technology assessment study of coal-fired industrial boilers was conducted to examine the effectiveness of combustion-modification methods, including low excess air, staged combustion, and burner modifications. Boiler types considered included overfed and underfed stokers, spreader stokers, pulverized-coal and coal-fired cyclone units. Significant variations in NOx emissions occur with boiler type, firing method, and coal type; a relative comparison of emission-control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. Baseline (as-found) emissions from grate-fired stokers were shown to be in the range of 200 to 300 ppM. Similarly, as-found emissions from suspension-fired units were quite low (350 to 600 ppM) as compared to comparably designed utility-sized units. Low excess air was shown to be the most effective method on existing units, reducing emissions by approximately 10%. Evaluation of staged combustion and burner modification, however, were limited due to current boiler designs. Major hardware modification/design and implementation are necessary before the potential of these techniques can be fully evaluated. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion-modification program, including energy considerations, incremental capital and operating costs, corrosion, secondary pollutants, and retrofit potential.

  13. Corporate social responsibility in coal industry (practices of russian and european companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. В. Пономаренко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is built on interaction between companies and the society which is especially important for major companies that exploit natural resources and play the role of city-forming socially significant entities. Various interpretations of the notion of social responsibility define the varying levels of influence companies have on the society, different levels of contribution of companies in the said process and the degree and level of implementation of CSR. The relations between social responsibility and economic results and the effects of implementing CSR policies are often not obvious.This study offers an assessment of present-day state of corporate social responsibility policies in coal companies of Russia and Poland and formulates proposals on implementing social responsibility projects with consideration of state-of-the-art CSR concepts.The results of the study are as follows: the achieved level of social responsibility in coal companies of Russia and Poland has been assessed; it is proven that most companies in the coal industry are at the level of fragmentary application of CSR concepts; an analysis has been carried out of tools available in the area of social responsibility of coal companies.

  14. Utilizing Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel for industrial steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archie B. Maglaya [De La Salle University, Manila (Philippines). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-01-01

    The fast depletion of fuel oil and the continuous increase in the demand for power is a global issue. In the Philippines, the demand for diesel oil is expected to increase significantly in a 20-year period as projected by the Department of Energy. In line with the Philippine Government's thrust to lessen the dependence on imported energy, the agenda for the search for alternative fuel is highly prioritized. Thus, this paper presents the results of the study on performance analysis and efficiency test of a diesel oil fired industrial steam generator using Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel. A computer program was developed in HyperText Markup Language (HTML{copyright}) and JavaScript{copyright} to aid the computation of the adiabatic flame temperature from the governing system of equations based on the heat interaction between CDOM fuel, combustion air and products of combustion to determine the most desirable alternative fuel. Actual experimentation for the determination of CDOM fuel properties was also conducted to verify the alternative fuel selected through theoretical calculations. Results showed that the CDOM fuel with a particle size passing 75 {mu}m (-200 mesh) sieve having a proportion of 5% pulverized coal-95% diesel oil and 10% pulverized coal-90% diesel oil could be handled throughout the test with no degradation of the industrial steam generator. The steam generator efficiency using diesel oil is close to the steam generator efficiency using both CDOM fuels. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Feasibility study of producing lump fuel using oil-bituminous sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldybaev, A.B.; Ermagambetov, B.T.; Mamraeva, K.M.; Shin, R.G.; Bakirova, R.K. (Institut Organicheskogo Sinteza i Uglekhimii AN KazSSR (USSR))

    1991-04-01

    Describes production of lump fuel by briquetting and coking different mixtures of non-caking coal with coal preparation sludge and bitumen extracted from oil sands. The coal used was from the Shubarkol'sk coal deposit (USSR); the sludge was from the Saburkhanskaya preparation plant. Properties and composition of oil-bituminous sands and of bitumen to be used as binder are given. Technological details of the briquetting and coking processes are provided. Results show that briquets produced from mixtures of coal and oil-bituminous sands can only be used as a high-ash lump fuel, which cannot be further processed into semicoke. Experiments were carried out briquetting coal or coke, sludge and 6-8% bitumen extracted from the sands, varying coal or coke grain fractions and composition of the mixture. An increased briquet strength was found after using the vacuum-distilled 300-350 C bitumen fraction. Briquets from this non-caking coal with bitumen binder are regarded as ecologically clean fuel. 5 refs.

  16. Semi-coke briquettes: towards reducing emissions of primary PM2.5, particulate carbon, and carbon monoxide from household coal combustion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Jiang, Jingkun; Duan, Lei; Ge, Su; Zhang, Qi; Deng, Jianguo; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Direct household use of unprocessed raw coals for cooking and heating without any air pollution control device has caused serious indoor and outdoor environment problems by emitting particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. This study examined household emission reduction by switching from unprocessed bituminous and anthracite coals to processed semi-coke briquettes. Two typical stoves were used to test emission characteristics when burning 20 raw coal samples commonly used in residential heating activities and 15 semi-coke briquette samples which were made from bituminous coals by industrial carbonization treatment. The carbonization treatment removes volatile compounds from raw coals which are the major precursors for PM formation and carbon emission. The average emission factors of primary PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and carbon monoxide for the tested semi-coke briquettes are much lower than those of the tested raw coals. Based on the current coal consumption data in China, switching to semi-coke briquettes can reduce average emission factors of these species by about 92%, 98%, 91%, and 34%, respectively. Additionally, semi-coke briquette has relatively lower price and higher burnout ratio. The replacement of raw coals with semi-coke briquettes is a feasible path to reduce pollution emissions from household activities.

  17. Industrial Internet of Things: (IIoT) applications in underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Damiano, N; Whisner, B; Reyes, M

    2017-12-01

    The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), a concept that combines sensor networks and control systems, has been employed in several industries to improve productivity and safety. U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers are investigating IIoT applications to identify the challenges of and potential solutions for transferring IIoT from other industries to the mining industry. Specifically, NIOSH has reviewed existing sensors and communications network systems used in U.S. underground coal mines to determine whether they are capable of supporting IIoT systems. The results show that about 40 percent of the installed post-accident communication systems as of 2014 require minimal or no modification to support IIoT applications. NIOSH researchers also developed an IIoT monitoring and control prototype system using low-cost microcontroller Wi-Fi boards to detect a door opening on a refuge alternative, activate fans located inside the Pittsburgh Experimental Mine and actuate an alarm beacon on the surface. The results of this feasibility study can be used to explore IIoT applications in underground coal mines based on existing communication and tracking infrastructure.

  18. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  19. South Africa, a new perspective: How the coal industry of RSA looks to an observer from the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A microcosm of what was, what is, and hopefully what will be, is embodied in South Africa's coal industry-the sixth largest in the world, the third largest in coal exports behind the United States and Australia, and the second largest in the world's steam coal trade behind Australia. Mining is the international, economic life blood of South Africa. In total, the country exports 60 minerals to 80 countries, providing on a raw basis for 43% of the nation's international trade, and as much as 60% when beneficiated products are included. The nation's coal fields lie in the northeastern section of the country, running south from the Botswana-Zimbabwe-Mozambique borders, principally in the Transvaal, Natal, and Orange Free State provinces. The coal seams run in thickness from 2.5 to 8 m, with an average overburden thickness of 80 m. The coal industry provides 83% of the country's commercial energy and 52% of all the electric power consumed on the entire continent. Seen from the air, the veld around Johannesburg is dotted with power plants-virtually all coal-fired. There is only one nuclear plant and two hydroelectric produced in South Africa comes from Eskom, the state-owned utility, and 90% total comes from coal-fired units

  20. Pulp and paper plant wastes valorisation in bituminous mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, R; Benta, A; Ferreira, V M; Machado, L M

    2010-04-01

    Nowadays, the increasing amount of wastes is a concerning reality and the environmental aspects has become a major priority. Following this worry, the purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the possibility of using pulp and paper inorganic wastes, named dregs and grits, in bituminous mixtures as aggregate replacement to reduce environmental effects of these wastes disposal. First, the wastes were chemically and physically characterized and also tested primarily taking into account the requirements for aggregates in bituminous mixtures. Then, formulations were prepared replacing aggregates with wastes in different amounts. The mechanical properties of these mixtures containing wastes were compared with reference samples based on standard methods. According to the results it was possible to verify that grits had a good performance and it might be directly tested industrially as an aggregate in road construction. On the other hand, dregs need to be treated before incorporation to guarantee stable mixes in terms of water sensitivity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Current status of U.S. coal utilization and non-fuel uses of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C.S.; Schobert, H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    An understanding of the current situation is important for projecting the future direction of coal utilization. The world's annual consumption of coal in 1995 was 5104.01 million short tons (MST, 1 short ton = 0.907 metric ton). Coal plays a very important role in the US energy supply; US coal production in 1995 totaled 1033 MST, including 611.1 MST of bituminous coal, 328.4 MST of subbituminous coal, 86.1 MST of lignite, and 4.1 MST of anthracite. US coal consumption totaled 940.6 MST, with 88.1% in electric utilities, 3.5% in coke plants, 7.8% for other industrial uses, and only 0.6% in the residential and commercial sectors. The amount of fossil resources used for non-fuel purposes accounted for 8.4% of the total annual consumption in 1995. Non-fuel uses of fossil fuels particularly coal may become more important in the future. The demonstrated coal reserves in the world are large enough for consumption for over 220 years at the 1995 level, while proven oil reserves are only about 40 times the world's 1995 consumption level. Coal has several positive attributes when considered as a feedstock for aromatic chemicals, specialty chemicals, and carbon-based materials. Existing nonfuel uses of coals include (1) high temperature carbonization of bituminous and subbituminous coals to make metallurgical coke; (2) gasification of coal to make synthesis gases and other chemicals; (3) use of coal in manufacturing other materials such as activated carbons, carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and production of phosphorus (phosphoric acid); (4) the use of coal tars from carbonization and gasification for making aromatic and phenolic chemicals; (5) the use of coal tar pitch for making carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers; and (6) other non-fuel products derived from coal including combustion by-products. Coal may become more important both as an energy source and as the source of chemical feedstocks in the 21st century

  2. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Impact of Variability of Selected Geological and Mining Parameters on the Value and Risks of Projects in the Hard Coal Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Michał

    2017-09-01

    The paper attempts to assess the impact of variability of selected geological (deposit) parameters on the value and risks of projects in the hard coal mining industry. The study was based on simulated discounted cash flow analysis, while the results were verified for three existing bituminous coal seams. The Monte Carlo simulation was based on nonparametric bootstrap method, while correlations between individual deposit parameters were replicated with use of an empirical copula. The calculations take into account the uncertainty towards the parameters of empirical distributions of the deposit variables. The Net Present Value (NPV) and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) were selected as the main measures of value and risk, respectively. The impact of volatility and correlation of deposit parameters were analyzed in two aspects, by identifying the overall effect of the correlated variability of the parameters and the indywidual impact of the correlation on the NPV and IRR. For this purpose, a differential approach, allowing determining the value of the possible errors in calculation of these measures in numerical terms, has been used. Based on the study it can be concluded that the mean value of the overall effect of the variability does not exceed 11.8% of NPV and 2.4 percentage points of IRR. Neglecting the correlations results in overestimating the NPV and the IRR by up to 4.4%, and 0.4 percentage point respectively. It should be noted, however, that the differences in NPV and IRR values can vary significantly, while their interpretation depends on the likelihood of implementation. Generalizing the obtained results, based on the average values, the maximum value of the risk premium in the given calculation conditions of the "X" deposit, and the correspondingly large datasets (greater than 2500), should not be higher than 2.4 percentage points. The impact of the analyzed geological parameters on the NPV and IRR depends primarily on their co-existence, which can be

  4. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30

    , pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

  5. Occupational and traning requirements for expanded coal production (as of October 1980). [Forecasting to 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    This study was initiated because of the anticipated rapid growth in trained personnel requirements in bituminous coal mining, and because the industry had already experienced significant problems in recruiting skilled manpower in the course of its employment expansion during the 1970's. Employment in bituminous coal mining is projected to nearly double, from 234,000 in 1977 to 456,000 in 1995, as the net result of a projected threefold increase in coal output to nearly 2.0 billion in 1995 and of an expected significant improvement in overall productivity. A large proportion of current coal mining employees are in occupations which require significant amounts of training for effective work performance. Employment growth to 1955 will be most rapid in those occupations requiring the greatest training or educational preparation. The new training infrastructure which has emerged to meet these needs includes both internal, company-operated training programs and those offered by various external providers. Among the latter are: Vocational schools, community colleges, and university extension departments; public agencies, such as MSHA and state mining departments; coal industry trade associations; and vendors or training consultant groups. The Conference Board survey of coal industry training programs, conducted in late 1979, was designed to provide comprehensive data on the scope of the coal industry's own training activities and on related training issues, based on a mail questionnaire survey addressed to all companies producing 300,000 or more tons per year. The training programs are described with emphasis on time changes, regional effects and implications for a coordinated plan.

  6. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry.

  7. A World-Ecological Perspective on Socio-Ecological Transformation in the Appalachian Coal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Marley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the exhaustion of socio-ecological relations in the coalfields of West Virginia. We use the term socio-ecological to signify "the interwoven character and the indispensable unity of social and natural life" (Araghi 2009: 115. In particular we use classic literatures on labor history in the coalfields of central Appalachia and contemporary studies of mountaintop removal to think about phases of socio-ecological relations of the coal industry. We argue for the interrelationality of the social and the ecological in place of conventional eco-M arxist approaches which treat these as relatively independent units. This enables us to situate nature as an active component of capitalist developmental processes. We argue that the exhaustion of socio-ecological relations in the coalfields of West Virginia is an outcome of material practices within the phase of extraction using mountaintop removal, historical changes in the conditions of production in the coalfields, and of new forms of competition from other regions and energy sources. We find that the relative exhaustion of central Appalachian coal is tempered by favorable international markets and a specialization in metallurgical coal.

  8. Leachability of bituminized radioactive waste. Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Toshiyuki; Nakayama, Shinichi; Iida, Yoshihisa; Nagano, Tetsushi

    1999-02-01

    Bituminized radioactive waste that will be returned from COGEMA, France is planned to be disposed of in deep geologic repository in Japan. Data on leachability of radionuclides from bituminized waste are required for the performance assessment of the disposal. We made a literature survey on bitumen and bituminized radioactive waste, placing emphasis on leach tests and leach data in terms of geologic disposal. This survey revealed that reliable leach data on transuranium elements and data obtained under reducing conditions that is characteristic to deep underground are lacking. (author). 64 refs

  9. Coal Technology Program progress report, March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    In the final hydrocarbonization experiment with Wyodak subbituminous coal, the coal was hydrocarbonized at 1100/sup 0/F and 300 psig in the recirculating fluidized bed. Two-dimensional pyrolysis behavior of an eastern bituminous coal (Pittsburgh seam) continues to be examined. Results to date indicate that swelling is significantly more pronounced at very low heating rates. Several activities in progress are related to inspection techniques for wear- and process-resistant coatings. Experimental investigations of fireside corrosion on tubing from a fluidized bed combustor have proceeded with metallographic examination and analyses of the scale formed during the test exposure. Methods for nondestructively determining remaining tube wall thickness and scale thickness were developed. Failure prevention and analysis work was aimed at several parts from the Solvent Refined Coal Plant in Ft. Lewis, Washington. The mechanical design of the gas-fired potassium boiler system was completed with the issue of the last four drawings. One electrical and five instrument and control drawings were completed and some fabrication work was completed. Surveys of industrial coal conversion capabilities continued with emphasis on rotating components, valves, hot gas cleanup devices, and heat recovery equipment. Process and program analysis research studies continued with work on low-Btu gasification, direct combustion, advanced power conversion, liquefaction, high-Btu gasification, in-situ gasification, and beneficiation. In the fossil energy environmental project, a first draft of a landfill assessment report was issued for review. Work continued on the Environmental Monitoring Handbook and Pipeline Gas Programmatic Assessment.

  10. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T. V.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The mine refuse inventory maps were prepared in response to a need by both the State and the coal industry. The lack of information on the scope of the problem handicapped all people concerned in drafting realistic legislation for a severance tax on coal production to raise funds for restoration of refuse sites. The inventory was conducted rapidly and economically, and demonstrated the benefits which can be derived through remote sensing methods.

  11. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  12. Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina Zheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Lixuan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    As China continues its double-digit economic growth, coal remains the principal fuel for the country’s primary energy consumption and electricity generation. China’s dependence on coal in coming years makes its carbon emission intensity reduction targets more difficult to achieve, particularly given rising electricity demand from a growing number of Chinese cities. This paradox has led the government to pursue cleaner and more efficient development of the coal industry on the supply side and “low carbon” development of cities on the demand side. To understand and assess how China may be able to meet its energy and carbon intensity reduction targets, this report looks at the recent development of low carbon cities as well as new developments and trends in the coal industry. Specifically, we review low-carbon city and related eco-city development in China before delving into a comparison of eight pilot lowcarbon city plans to highlight their strengths and weaknesses in helping achieve national energy and carbon targets. We then provide insights into the future outlook for China’s coal industry by evaluating new and emerging trends in coal production, consumption, transport, trade and economic performance.

  13. Study of otoacoustic emissions in workers of various professional groups of the coal industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shydlovska T.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Noise influence takes one of the leading roles in the development of sensorineural hearing loss (SHL. At the same time professional deafness steadily occupies the 5th place in the structure of occupational diseases in Ukraine over the past few years. Of special importance is the problem of pre-clinical and early diagnosis of occupational hearing deterioration, in sense of timely prophylactic and rehabilitation measures in “risk group” workers. The objective research methods play an important role in the diagnosis of auditory analyzer state. Many scientific studies have shown the diagnostic effectiveness of method of otoacoustic emissions recording in the early diagnosis of lesions of receptor part of auditory analyzer. It is known that SHL of noise genesis largely affects the receptor part of the auditory analyzer, for which the OAE method has great practical diagnostic significance. Objective: to study informativity indicators of otoacoustic emission for the diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss in various occupational groups of coal workers in Ukrainian mines. Materials and Methods: Auditory function of 87 workers of the coal industry (drifters, miners and longwall miners with different levels of industrial noise and hygienic conditions in their workplaces was: 28 studied drifters (group 1, 25 miners (group 2 and 34 longwall miners (group 3. Work experience in noise in these groups was 17,9±1,0; 23,1±1,0 and 22,2±2,0 accordingly. Noise ratio in drifters was 93,6±4,9 dBA, in miners – 92,9±5,5 dBA and in longwall miners – 86,5±6,04 dBA accordingly, while the maximum permitted level is 80 dBA. The research was conducted on the analyzing system "Eclipse" "Interacoustics" (Denmark. All patients underwent registratiov of the caused OAE at frequency distortion product (DPOAE at frequencies 1-6 kHz. The results were rated using variation statistics Student's test. Results: The most prominent violation of the receptor part of the

  14. Low-Rank Coal Grinding Performance Versus Power Plant Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajive Ganguli; Sukumar Bandopadhyay

    2008-12-31

    The intent of this project was to demonstrate that Alaskan low-rank coal, which is high in volatile content, need not be ground as fine as bituminous coal (typically low in volatile content) for optimum combustion in power plants. The grind or particle size distribution (PSD), which is quantified by percentage of pulverized coal passing 74 microns (200 mesh), affects the pulverizer throughput in power plants. The finer the grind, the lower the throughput. For a power plant to maintain combustion levels, throughput needs to be high. The problem of particle size is compounded for Alaskan coal since it has a low Hardgrove grindability index (HGI); that is, it is difficult to grind. If the thesis of this project is demonstrated, then Alaskan coal need not be ground to the industry standard, thereby alleviating somewhat the low HGI issue (and, hopefully, furthering the salability of Alaskan coal). This project studied the relationship between PSD and power plant efficiency, emissions, and mill power consumption for low-rank high-volatile-content Alaskan coal. The emissions studied were CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and Hg (only two tests). The tested PSD range was 42 to 81 percent passing 76 microns. Within the tested range, there was very little correlation between PSD and power plant efficiency, CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2}. Hg emissions were very low and, therefore, did not allow comparison between grind sizes. Mill power consumption was lower for coarser grinds.

  15. Integrated process control for recirculating cooling water treatment in the coal chemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Y S; Guo, W; Yang, Z F

    2011-01-01

    This work focused on the integrated process of the recirculating cooling water (RCW) treatment to achieve approximate zero emission in the coal chemical industry. The benefits of fractional and comprehensive RCW treatment were quantified and qualified by using a water and mass balance approach. Limits of cycle of concentrations and some encountered bottlenecks were used to ascertain set target limits for different water sources. Makeup water was mixed with water produced from reverse osmosis (RO) in the proportion of 6:4, which notably reduced salts discharge. Side infiltration, which settled down suspended solids, can reduce energy consumption by over 40%. An automated on-line monitoring organic phosphorus inhibitor feed maintains the RCW system stability in comparison to the manual feed. Two-step electrosorb technology (EST) instead of an acid feed can lead cycle of concentration of water to reach 7.0. The wastewater from RO, EST and filter was transferred into a concentration treatment system where metallic ions were adsorbed by permanent magnetic materials. Separation of water and salts was completed by using a magnetic disc separator. Applying the integrated process in a coal chemical industry, a benefit of 1.60 million Yuan annually in 2 years was gained and approximate zero emission was achieved. Moreover, both technical and economic feasibility were demonstrated in detail.

  16. Nanometre-sized pores in coal: Variations between coal basins and coal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurovs, Richard; Koval, Lukas; Grigore, Mihaela; Sokolava, Anna; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Melnichenko, Yuri B.

    2018-01-01

    We have used small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate the differences in methane and hexane penetration in pores in bituminous coal samples from the U.S., Canada, South Africa, and China, and maceral concentrates from Australian coals. This work is an extension of previous work that showed consistent differences between the extent of penetration by methane into 10–20 nm size pores in inertinite in bituminous coals from Australia, North America and Poland.In this study we have confirmed that there are differences in the response of inertinite to methane and hexane penetration in coals sourced from different coal basins. Inertinite in Permian Australian coals generally has relatively high numbers of pores in the 2.5–250 nm size range and the pores are highly penetrable by methane and hexane; coals sourced from Western Canada had similar penetrability to these Australian coals. However, the penetrability of methane and hexane into inertinite from the Australian Illawarra Coal Measures (also Permian) is substantially less than that of the other Australian coals; there are about 80% fewer 12 nm pores in Illawarra inertinite compared to the other Australian coals examined. The inertinite in coals sourced from South Africa and China had accessibility intermediate between the Illawarra coals and the other Australian coals.The extent of hexane penetration was 10–20% less than CD4 penetration into the same coal and this difference was most pronounced in the 5–50 nm pore size range. Hexane and methane penetrability into the coals showed similar trends with inertinite content.The observed variations in inertinite porosity between coals from different coal regions and coal basins may explain why previous studies differ in their observations of the relationships between gas sorption behavior, permeability, porosity, and maceral composition. These variations are not simply a demarcation between Northern and Southern Hemisphere coals.

  17. Cold weather paving requirements for bituminous concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Cold weather paving specifications were developed from work by Corlew and Dickson, who used a computer solution to predict the cooling rate of bituminous concrete. Virginia had used a minimum atmospheric temperature as a criterion; however, it was ev...

  18. Soft capitalism and a hard industry: virtualism, the 'transition industry' and the restructuring of the Ukrainian coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Swain [University of Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Geography

    2006-06-15

    This paper examines the geographical transfer of economic knowledge and practices from centres of neoliberalism in North America and Western Europe to post-soviet Ukraine. The paper argues that a 'transition industry' emerged in the wake of the disintegration of the soviet system whose purpose was to realize economic transition in central and eastern Europe. The paper discusses the emergence of a community of academic and professional economists affiliated to international financial institutions and academic and professional economic research organizations in Kyiv engaged in promoting the Washington consensus. This community identified the coal industry, located in the Ukrainian Donbas, as a barrier to structural economic reform and the political re-alignment of the country. The paper then examines the way the World Bank unsuccessfully attempted to force the coal industry to conform to its own policy prescriptions. The example points to the articulation not only of extra-local and internal processes of neoliberalization, but also with indigenous informal marketization. In this instance the World Bank's vision failed to materialize because state power could not be allied to its neoliberal project.

  19. Isotopic variations in the nitrogen of natural humic and bituminous organic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiehl, G.; Lehmann, M.

    1980-01-01

    delta 15 N-values and nitrogen contents of a series of humic and bituminous organic sediments of different ranks were determined. The change of the isotopic abundance of nitrogen was investigated during heating in model experiments, using a gas flame coal. In the case of humic carbon coals the relative nitrogen contents vary from 0.8 to 1.4% and the delta 15 N-values from + 3.5 to + 6.3 parts per thousand increasing from the brown coal to anthracite ranks. During the coalification process both the delta 15 N-values and the relative nitrogen contents do not vary continuously with the rank, but pass through maxima and minima. Model experiments using a gas flame coal show the same trend. Nitrogen with delta 15 N-values of + 2.8 or -7 parts per thousand was released in pyrolysis experiments, applying a gas flame coal and a steam coal at temperatures of 650 and 1000 0 C, respectively. The investigated bituminous sediments yielded relative amounts of 0.1 to 0.8% with delta 15 N-values of + 4.2 to + 10.7 parts per thousand. The obtained results are discussed with respect to the elucidation of nitrogen genesis in natural gas deposits. (author)

  20. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-11-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  1. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  2. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  3. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  4. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  5. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  6. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  7. Discovery and ramifications of incidental Magnéli phase generation and release from industrial coal-burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Chen, Bo; Hower, James; Schindler, Michael; Winkler, Christopher; Brandt, Jessica; Di Giulio, Richard; Ge, Jianping; Liu, Min; Fu, Yuhao; Zhang, Lijun; Chen, Yuru; Priya, Shashank; Hochella, Michael F

    2017-08-08

    Coal, as one of the most economic and abundant energy sources, remains the leading fuel for producing electricity worldwide. Yet, burning coal produces more global warming CO 2 relative to all other fossil fuels, and it is a major contributor to atmospheric particulate matter known to have a deleterious respiratory and cardiovascular impact in humans, especially in China and India. Here we have discovered that burning coal also produces large quantities of otherwise rare Magnéli phases (Ti x O 2x-1 with 4 ≤ x ≤ 9) from TiO 2 minerals naturally present in coal. This provides a new tracer for tracking solid-state emissions worldwide from industrial coal-burning. In its first toxicity testing, we have also shown that nanoscale Magnéli phases have potential toxicity pathways that are not photoactive like TiO 2 phases, but instead seem to be biologically active without photostimulation. In the future, these phases should be thoroughly tested for their toxicity in the human lung.Solid-state emissions from coal burning remain an environmental concern. Here, the authors have found that TiO2 minerals present in coal are converted into titanium suboxides during burning, and initial biotoxicity screening suggests that further testing is needed to look into human lung consequences.

  8. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  9. Contaminated Sites by Residues from Romanian Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurelian, F.; Georgescu, D.; Vacariu, V.; Popescu, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In Romania, the mining industries of ferrous ore, non-ferrous ore, bauxite, coal, chemical fertilisers, the extraction of natural gas and oil, etc. have a considerable weight in economy. The study lets us know that in these industries, in different by-products and waste from the process, some radionuclides come out. The preliminary data, which are determined in these industries, are compared with those data, which are published by the countries from EU. There were determined uranium, radium and thorium from ore and sterile (ferrous, non-ferrous, bauxite, talc, clay, asbestos, barytine, salt, coal and bituminous schist). Also, there have been determined the radium and the uranium content of waters from non-uraniferous mining sites. The level of radioactive noxa has been informative determined in each mine. The level of the concentrations requires a systematic research and an assessment of the risk and the impact against the environment, the workers, and the public. (author)

  10. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.F.A.; Aftab, A.; Soomro, N.; Nawaz, M.S.; Vafai, K.

    2015-01-01

    The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO), granulated activated carbon (GAC) bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling coagulants with fly ash adsorbent bed. The ash was collected from coal fired boilers of power plant at Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this ash resolved the disposal and environmental issues by treating wastewater of chemical, dyes and pigment industry. The treatment bed comprised of briquettes of coal fly ash coupled with commercial coagulant ferrous sulfate-lime reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS of effluent remarkably. An adsorption capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment, coagulant FeSO/sun 4/-lime influenced reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS by 32 percentage, 48 percentage, 50 percentage and 51 percentage, respectively. The CFAB coupled with coagulant, resulted an excessive removal of color, TSS, COD, and turbidity by 88 percentage, 92 percentage, 67 percentage and 89 percentage, respectively. (author)

  11. Wear surface studies on coal water slurry nozzles in industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Zeliang [Hunan Engineering Technology Key Laboratory of Inorganic and Nonmetal Materials, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412008, Hunan Province (China)]. E-mail: dingzl@263.net; Deng Jianxin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong Province (China)]. E-mail: jxdeng@sdu.edu.cn; Li Jianfeng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong Province (China)]. E-mail: ljf@sdu.edu.cn

    2007-07-01

    In this study, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(W,Ti)C ceramic, WC/Co cemented carbide, and 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel were produced to be used as nozzle materials in coal water slurry (CWS) industry boilers. Coal water slurry burning tests with these nozzles were carried out. The wear surface features of the nozzles made from these materials were examined. The results showed that the wear mechanisms of nozzles varied from entry to exit. The material removal of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(W,Ti)C ceramic nozzle in CWS atomizing and burning is attributed to a mixed mode damage by brittle fracture, polishing, thermal cracking and chipping. The nozzle entry section appears to be entirely brittle in nature with evidence of large scale-chipping. The centre bore area showed a polishing effect with a very smooth surface. While the exit section exhibits cracking owing to the large thermal shock. Examination of the eroded bore surface of the WC/Co cemented carbide nozzles demonstrated that the wear occurred through preferential removal of the metal binder (Co) followed by pluck-out of the exposed WC grains at the entry zone, while the center and the exit zone showed polishing action. The primary wear mechanisms of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel nozzle exhibited plastic deformation at the entry zone, and plowing and micro-cutting at the other zones by the eroded particles.

  12. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Farman Ali Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO, granulated activated carbon (GAC bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling coagulants with fly ash adsorbent bed. The ash was collected from coal fired boilers of power plant at Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this ash resolved the disposal and environmental issues by treating wastewater of chemical, dyes and pigment industry. The treatment bed comprised of briquettes of coal fly ash coupled with commercial coagulant ferrous sulfate-lime reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS of effluent remarkably. An adsorption capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment, coagulant FeSO4-lime influenced reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS by 32%, 48%, 50% and 51%, respectively. The CFAB coupled with coagulant, resulted an excessive removal of color, TSS, COD, and turbidity by 88%, 92%, 67% and89%, respectively.

  13. Risk evaluation of lost-time injuries in the coal mining industry of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadoon, K.G.; Edwards, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Lost-time accidents frequently occur in underground coal mining, which result in a substantial amount of lost workdays. In order to evaluate injury risks for the underground mining industry in Pakistan, two years record of lost time accidents were collected and analysed. Risk indices were computed for different variables, such as cause of accidents; age and job of the injured person; place of accidents; and part of the body injured. These indices incorporate information that has not been used in traditional accident analysis. Fall of ground type accidents were the major cause followed by haulage and transport. More than 50 % of accidents occurred at or Near the working faces and coal cutters/ face workers were found to be at a higher risk as compared to all other job categories. Injuries to hand and foot for all group of workers were comparatively higher than those to all other parts of the body; Workers in the age group of (21-30) years were involved in the majority of the lost time accidents. Regular and systematic analysis of lost time accidents should be made which may be helpful in reducing the frequency and severity of these accidents. (author)

  14. Assessment of an atmospheric fluidized-bed coal-combustion gas-turbine cogeneration system for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R. L.; Holcomb, R. S.; Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-10-01

    This study was initiated to provide information on the future potential industrial market for a cogeneration system consisting of a fluidized-bed coal combustor coupled to a gas-turbine (Brayton cycle) power system that uses air as the working fluid. In assessing the potential applications for the system, the process heat energy consumption by industry is identified, with special detail included on the six most energy-intensive industries. The potential impact on the nation's oil and natural gas consumption that would result from wide-spread utilization of coal for process heat is also estimated. The fraction of industrial process heat that the system could feasibly satisfy from a thermodynamic viewpoint is estimated, and the performance (potential fuel efficiency and heat/power ratio) of the atmospheric fluidized-bed gas-turbine system is calculated. Also treated are several specific case studies of industries in which the system could be incorporated. Major parameters are specified, and flow sheets are derived for systems that would satisfy the heat and power requirements of the process or industry. The overall fuel utilization efficiency, thermal power rating, and potential number of installations are specified for these case studies. The findings of the study indicate that there is a sizable potential market for the system, with over 1000 possible installations disclosed after reviewing only 8 specific industries from 6 major Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. The potential displacement of oil and gas by coal in process heating is shown to be about 1.60 m/sup 3//sec (870,000 bbl/d) of oil and 4590 m/sup 3//sec (14.0 billion ft/sup 3//d) of natural gas for all industries combined. Continued development of the fluidized-bed coal combustor and power system is recommended so that this potential may be at least partially realized.

  15. Globalisation, transition and development in China. The case of the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huaichuan Rui

    2004-07-01

    The author aims to explain China's development strategy and its underlying forces, and the success of this strategy. It examines China's gradualist approach which emphasises development first and regards transition and globalisation as secondary, enacting liberalisation of domestic markets and integration into the world economy in a paced way, avoiding dramatic changes which might impede or even reverse development. The author argues that this approach is broadly correct. She considers China's failures, including the failure to build large globally competitive corporations despite the intention to do this, and shows how China's economic strategy has been implemented in detail with a case study of the coal industry.

  16. Estimate of cost of plant producing 125,000 t/ann. DHD feed for 100,000 t/ann. high performance gasoline from bituminous coal, at Ludwigshafen-Oppau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-11-03

    The first table was a summary showing the costs in Reichsmarks as follows: (1) hydrogen production--RM 20,700,000; (2) hydrogenation proper--RM 40,000,000; (3) hygas cleaning--RM 1,400,000; (4) power production RM 7,000,000; (5) power distribution--RM 4,000,000; (6) auxiliary plants--RM 11,000,000; and (7) miscellaneous--5,500,000 RM. The total cost was given as RM 90,000,000. A table showing the cost of hydrogen production broken down into smaller units showed the water gas plant for 50,000 m/sup 3//hr of hydrogen at RM 6,500,000 as the major cost, followed closely by compression to 325 atm at RM 5,000,000. Catalytic hydrogen production at RM 2,300,000 and CO/sub 2/ cleaning at RM 2,000,000 were also major factors in the cost. The major cost for hydrogenation proper was the liquid phase costing RM 25,300,000, with the vapor phase costing RM 9,900,000 for 300 atm processing or RM 12,200,000 for 700 atm processing. In the liquid phase, two four-stage coal stalls cost RM 10,000,000, while the paste press division, coal preparation division, and circulating gas wash cost RM 2,400,000, RM 2,300,000, and RM 2,000,000 respectively. In the vapor phase, four stalls would cost RM 5,400,000 for 300 atm or RM 7,300,000 for 700 atm. Hydrogenation gas cleaning showed the Claus Plant, which appeared to be oxygen-burning, as the main cost at RM 600,000. The major cost of power production was shown by the expansion of the power plant by one boiler and one turbine with a cost of RM 5,000,000. The main cost for power distribution was electric power lines which cost RM 2,000,000. The major costs for auxiliary plants were in construction and the miscellaneous heading included such things as catalysts, design, and construction.

  17. Dynamic analysis on market structure of China's coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qing; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    According to industrial organization theory, market structure is a crucial factor to market performance. Based on the VAR model and the data from 1994 to 2014, we revealed the dynamic response route of the market structure to these factors and the change process of contribution rate of these factors to the market structure. It shows that market structure is inertial adjustment; technology advance and industry policy have continuous effects on improvement of market concentration ratio; market size and production scale have sustained negative effects on market concentration ratio; fixed capital has barrier effect, which is mainly the entry barrier effect at the beginning, and then the exit barrier effect continues to play a leading role. Therefore, the government has no need to introduce special policies to encourage merger or expansion on the capacity as enterprises would do it spontaneously; it is necessary to make market access system stricter, to improve exit compensation mechanism and to promote technological innovation; all these policies need dynamic adjustment based on the stages of economic cycle. - Highlights: • The adjustment mechanism of China's coal market structure is revealed. • Technology and industry policy are significant factors to optimize the market structure. • The government need not introduce special policy to encourage merger. • The market access system should be stricter. • Policies strength should be dynamically adjusted based on the economic cycle.

  18. Investigation on Using SBS and Active Carbon Filler to Reduce the VOC Emission from Bituminous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiqiang Cui

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous materials are playing a vital role in pavement design and the roofing industry because of outstanding properties. Unfortunately, bituminous materials will release volatile organic compounds (VOC, making them non-environmentally friendly. Therefore, technologies that can be used to decrease the VOC emission are urgently required. In this research, the VOC emission and material behaviors were analyzed and compared to investigate the possibility of adding styrene butadiene styrene (SBS and active carbon filler into bituminous materials to develop environmentally-friendly materials. Thermal gravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-MS and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy testing (UV-Vis were employed to characterize the VOC emission process. Temperature sweep testing and frequency sweep testing were conducted to evaluate the rheological properties of bituminous materials. Research results indicated that the combined introduction of 4 wt% styrene butadiene styrene (SBS and 4 wt% active carbon filler cannot only significantly lower the VOC emission speed and amount, but also improve the deformation resistance behavior at a higher temperature. SBS and active carbon filler can be used to reduce the VOC emission form bituminous materials.

  19. Investigation on Using SBS and Active Carbon Filler to Reduce the VOC Emission from Bituminous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peiqiang; Wu, Shaopeng; Li, Fuzhou; Xiao, Yue; Zhang, Honghua

    2014-08-26

    Bituminous materials are playing a vital role in pavement design and the roofing industry because of outstanding properties. Unfortunately, bituminous materials will release volatile organic compounds (VOC), making them non-environmentally friendly. Therefore, technologies that can be used to decrease the VOC emission are urgently required. In this research, the VOC emission and material behaviors were analyzed and compared to investigate the possibility of adding styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) and active carbon filler into bituminous materials to develop environmentally-friendly materials. Thermal gravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy testing (UV-Vis) were employed to characterize the VOC emission process. Temperature sweep testing and frequency sweep testing were conducted to evaluate the rheological properties of bituminous materials. Research results indicated that the combined introduction of 4 wt% styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) and 4 wt% active carbon filler cannot only significantly lower the VOC emission speed and amount, but also improve the deformation resistance behavior at a higher temperature. SBS and active carbon filler can be used to reduce the VOC emission form bituminous materials.

  20. Coal technology program progress report for February 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-04-01

    Two-dimensional pyrolysis studies were continued using Eastern bituminous coal. Unusual char formations (associated with the swelling nature of the material) have been observed, though tar and gas production per gram is not greatly different from that observed with Western subbituminous coals. Materials engineering support activities continued with work on properties of thick sections of steel, development of methods for nondestructive testing of coatings, cladding of low-alloy steels, fireside corrosion in fluidized bed boilers, failure analysis, and publication of a draft report on the use of prestressed concrete pressure vessels. Design and construction work continued in preparation for operation of the gas-fired boiler with potassium. Design studies of a coal-fired, alkali-metal-vapor, power system continued. Engineering studies and technical support continued with work on process modeling, the process research digest, a survey of industrial equipment capabilities, and a study of large air separation plants. Process and program analysis studies continued with work on low Btu gasification, direct combustion, advanced power systems, liquefaction, in-situ gasification, and beneficiation of coal. In the coal-fueled MIUS project, a 1000-hr endurance run of the coal feed system was completed and analysis of corrosion specimens exposed in a fluidized bed combustor was started.

  1. Injury experience in coal mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

  2. Energy price slump and policy response in the coal-chemical industry district: A case study of Ordos with a system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Delu; Ma, Gang; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We employ system dynamics method towards a coal-chemical industry district economy evolution model, using coal industry, the coal-chemical industry, their downstream industries, and the manufacture-related service industry. Moreover, we construct energy price and policy response scenarios based on Ordos’ management experience. The results show that the energy price slump had a negative impact on the overall economic development of the coal-chemical industry district, despite promoting non-resource industries. Furthermore, policies had different effects on the industry's output value and profit. In the long-term, developing alternative industries (AI) helps increase the industrial output value and profit. Decreasing value added tax (VAT) has immediate results and a distinctive effect on industrial short-term production value and profit, its long-term effect being limited. The effect of production limit (PL) on industrial profit is stronger than output value, and financial support (FS) is more conducive to improve the latter. However, coal mining and coal-chemical loan increases decrease the gross industrial profit level. Technology innovation (TI) has the best individual policy overall effect on production value and profits. Furthermore, the simultaneous implementation of PL, TI and AI can generate the synergy effect for each of them. And the simultaneous implementation of VAT and one or couple of other policies will generate the crowding-out effect both for VAT and other policies. - Highlights: • A system dynamics model of the coal-chemical industry district economy evolution in Ordos is constructed. • The impact of coal and oil prices slump on the output value and profit of each industry is revealed. • The differences in the effects especially cumulative effects of different response policies are clarified. • The crowding-out and synergy effects of policy implementation are analyzed.

  3. Use of additives to improve the capacity of bituminous mixtures to be heated by means of microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, J.; Val, M.A. del; Contreras, V.; Páez, A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the potential of adding electric arc furnace slag to bituminous mixtures to be heated by microwaves. The susceptibility of bituminous mixtures to microwave energy is limited and so, in order to improve the energy performance of the heating process, it is necessary to incorporate additives or components to the mixture so as to improve the capacity for microwave heating. The article presents the results of adding various components, (steel wool, scrap tire wire, silicon carbide, iron filings) and an alternative aggregate: electric arc furnace slag. According to the results obtained in the laboratory, slag addition of at least 5% by weight of the bituminous mixture represents the best option for both technical and economic reasons. The results may promote the valorization of this steel industry residue in bituminous mixtures by improving microwave heating response. [es

  4. Apparatus for entrained coal pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy

    1982-11-16

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  5. Petrographic and mineral characterization of Balkan coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yossifova, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is part of a complex petrographic, mineralogical and chemical investigation on Balkan bituminous coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation. The petrographic and phase-mineralogical composition in ten composite samples and four water extracts have been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. 4 refs., 4 tabs

  6. Opportunities in low-rank coal applications for synfuels and power industries in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winch, R.A.; Alejandro, I.; Hernandez, G.

    1992-01-01

    The utilization of domestic coal is an important ingredient in the generation strategy of electricity in Mexico. The relative ranking of the MICARE and Sabinas coals, compared to other coals tested at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot test facility at Grand Forks is an important factor for future economic fuel studies. A test comparison between US and Mexican coals was made and observations are listed

  7. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure in China and their significances on the natural gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchen Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coal measure gas sources of coal-derived gas fields in the Late Paleozoic China are the Lower Carboniferous Dishuiquan Formation, the Upper Carboniferous Batamayineishan Formation and Benxi Formation, the Lower Permian Taiyuan Formation and Shanxi Formation, and the Upper Permian Longtan Formation. The coal-derived gas accumulates in Ordovician, Carboniferous, Permian, and Paleocene reservoirs and are distributed in Ordos Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, Junggar Basin, and Sichuan Basin. There are 16 gas fields and 12 of them are large gas fields such as the Sulige large gas field which is China's largest reserve with the highest annual output. According to component and alkane carbon isotope data of 99 gas samples, they are distinguished to be coal-derived gas from coal-derived gas with δ13C2 > −28.5‰ and δ13C1 -δ13C2 -δ13C3 identification chart. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure are significant for the Chinese natural gas industry: proven natural gas geological reserves and annual output of them account for 1/3 in China, and the gas source of three significant large gas fields is coal-derived, which of five significant large gas fields supporting China to be a great gas producing country. The average reserves of the gas fields and the large gas fields formed from the late Paleozoic coal measure are 5.3 and 1.7 times that of the gas fields and the large gas fields in China.

  8. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech

  9. Sequential solvent extraction for the modes of occurrence of selenium in coals of different ranks from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lei

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Forms of selenium in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite (natural coke from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, have been determined by sequential solvent extraction. The selenium content in bulk samples is 4.0, 2.4, and 2.0 μg/g in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite, respectively. The six forms of selenium determined by six-step solvent extraction are water-leachable, ion-exchangeable, organic matter-associated, carbonate-associated, silicate-associated, and sulfide-associated. The predominant forms of selenium in bituminous coal are organic matter-associated (39.0%, sulfide-associated (21.1%, and silicate bound (31.8%; these three forms account for 92% of the total. The organic matter bound-selenium decrease dramatically from bituminous coal (39.0% to anthracite (11.6% and to cokeite (0%, indicating that organic matter bound selenium is converted to other forms during metamorphism of the coal, most likely sulfide-form. The sulfide-associated form increased remarkably from bituminous coal (21.1% to anthracite (50.4% and cokeite (54.5%, indicating the formation of selenium sulfide, possibly in pyrite during the transformation of bituminous coal to anthracite and cokeite. The silicate-associated selenium in bituminous coal (31.8% is much higher than that in anthracite (16.4% and cokeite (15.8%, indicating that silicate-associated selenium is partly converted to sulfide during metamorphism.

  10. Raw-materials mixtures from waste of the coal industry for production of ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galpern, E.I. [Scientific-Manufacturing Enterprise ``Ceramics``, Donetsk (Ukraine); Pashchenko, L.V. [Inst. of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry of NASU, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1998-09-01

    The liquidation of waste dumps on the surface of mining enterprises and realization of measures by environment protection of air and aquatic basins are connected to the complex processing of mining mass. The main directions of utilization of mining rocks and coal wastes realized in Ukraine industry are: - filling of mines worked-out area by grouting solutions; - ceramic brick, porous filling materials and binding materials production; - road-making, construction of hydrostructures and industrial objects; - output of concrete items predominantly for using in mining conditions. The peculiarity of wastes using in above-mentioned fields is the possibility of their mass application in quantities commensurable with valumes of their yields. The experience of enterprises work which process mining rocks into building materials by burning method (ceramic brick, porous aggregates of concretes as aggloporite, expanded clay aggregate) has shown that unconstant and, as the rule, exceeding norms content of carbon and sulphur in the rock results to deterioration of products quality and technological factors of production. Unstability of carbon content in raw material makes the burning process hardly operated. Obtained products having residual carbon in the view of coke residue are often characterized by lower physical-mechanical characteristics. (orig./SR)

  11. THE ROMANIAN COAL INDUSTRY IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINA IONELA-CLAUDIA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last century, the world has seen an acceleration of technological development in almost all the fields related to human life, leading to rapid improvement of living standards in most countries. Electricity industry is a basic economic branch, and is also a branch with high importance to the economy and social life of any country. This branch, which currently is the base of industrial, agricultural, transportation and telecommunications activities, and which characterizes the entire modern world civilization, began to develop only towards the late of the XXth century. Electricity is an energy form easily usable in production, household consumption, transport, telecommunications etc. It was the one that revolutionized manufacturing resources and equipment used in all fields. Electricity production worldwide has increased about 30 times since 1938. Coal maintained a vital role in the total energy sources, especially by ensuring price stability which is a major and indispensable factor for stability and further economic growth, and also by its distribution around the globe.

  12. Supply constraints : Australia and Canada coal industry face logistics and capacity challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsato, J.

    2010-01-01

    Australia and Canada are benefiting from a global increase in coal consumption, but face challenges regarding coal and coal export capacity. Coal is Australia's biggest export commodity, accounting for over 50 percent of world coking coal exports, with almost 75 percent of those exports destined for Asian markets, primarily Japan. However, the number of ships delayed at Australian ports hit a record of 223 bulk carriers in early 2010. Compared to Canada, Australia faces greater logistical issues getting coal into port and onto ships at its 9 loading terminals. Two of Canada's 3 major shipping terminals, Westshore and Neptune, have some additional capacity. Its third terminal, Ridley Island, has considerable potential to carry more coal. With 98 percent of all coal moved by rail in Australia, rail issues also hinder growth. A national approach to planning freight transport on both roads and rail is being developed. While infrastructure issues remain the single greatest barrier to export growth for Australia's coal sector, Canada's most immediate issues pertain to mine permitting and mine-site expansion. In 2009, Canada exported 28 million tonnes of coal, 90 percent of it metallurgical. With approximately 70 million tonnes of annual production, mostly in British Columbia and Alberta, coal remains the number one commodity in Canada carried by rails and shipped from ports. 1 fig.

  13. Development of bituminization process for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Masao; Miyao, Hidehiko; Mizuno, Ryukichi

    1973-01-01

    For the bituminization of radioactive wastes from a fuel reprocessing plant, the leachability, irradiation stability and burning property of bitumen products have been studied. Sodium nitrate was used for simulated evaporator concentrate, and mixed with distillation bitumen or blown bitumen; the sodium nitrate content in the mixture was 30 to 60 wt%. The distillation bitumen is superior to the blown bitumen in leachability and flash point, but inferior in the increase of volume by irradiation. Since the volume increase is not large, the distillation bitumen is satisfactory for the bituminization of the evaporator concentrate from a fuel reprocessing plant. (Mori, K.)

  14. Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondi, Giulio; Tataranni, Piergiorgio; Pettinari, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Today recycling is one of the most innovative and interesting techniques for the rehabilitation of destressed road pavements. In recent years the increased interest in this process, has led to the development of various alternative methods for the recovery and the reuse of road bituminous materials....... Cold recycling is, among the recycling techniques, certainly the most studied and developed: it allows the recovering of bituminous material from an existing pavement without the addition of heat, whilst ensuring the creation of high quality bound base layers. A wide range of materials have been tested...

  15. Unexpected Dominance of Elusive Acidobacteria in Early Industrial Soft Coal Slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Eric Wegner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD and mine tailing environments are well-characterized ecosystems known to be dominated by organisms involved in iron- and sulfur-cycling. Here we examined the microbiology of industrial soft coal slags that originate from alum leaching, an ecosystem distantly related to AMD environments. Our study involved geochemical analyses, bacterial community profiling, and shotgun metagenomics. The slags still contained high amounts of alum constituents (aluminum, sulfur, which mediated direct and indirect effects on bacterial community structure. Bacterial groups typically found in AMD systems and mine tailings were not present. Instead, the soft coal slags were dominated by uncharacterized groups of Acidobacteria (DA052 [subdivision 2], KF-JG30-18 [subdivision 13], Actinobacteria (TM214, Alphaproteobacteria (DA111, and Chloroflexi (JG37-AG-4, which have previously been detected primarily in peatlands and uranium waste piles. Shotgun metagenomics allowed us to reconstruct 13 high-quality Acidobacteria draft genomes, of which two genomes could be directly linked to dominating groups (DA052, KF-JG30-18 by recovered 16S rRNA gene sequences. Comparative genomics revealed broad carbon utilization capabilities for these two groups of elusive Acidobacteria, including polysaccharide breakdown (cellulose, xylan and the competence to metabolize C1 compounds (ribulose monophosphate pathway and lignin derivatives (dye-decolorizing peroxidases. Equipped with a broad range of efflux systems for metal cations and xenobiotics, DA052 and KF-JG30-18 may have a competitive advantage over other bacterial groups in this unique habitat.

  16. Influence of Environmentally Friendly and High-Efficiency Composite Additives on Pulverized Coal Combustion in Cement Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 4 kinds of chemical reagents and 3 kinds of industrial wastes were selected as burning additives for 2 kinds of coals in cement industry. The work focused on the replacement of partial chemical reagents by industrial wastes, which not only reduced the cost and took full advantage of industrial wastes, but also guaranteed the high combustion efficiency and removed the NOX and SO2 simultaneously. The experiments were carried out in DTF. The combustion residues were analyzed by SEM and XRD. The results showed that the burnout rate was increased after adding the additives; meanwhile, the NOX and SO2 release concentration were reduced, but the degree of action varied for different additives and coals. The substitute of chemical reagents by industrial wastes was very effective; overall, the cold-rolled iron oxide worked better than others; the particles surface was tougher and the peaks of crystalline phase were lower than raw coal, which indicated that the additives played good roles in combustion process.

  17. Compare pilot-scale and industry-scale models of pulverized coal combustion in an ironmaking blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yansong; Yu, Aibing; Zulli, Paul

    2013-07-01

    In order to understand the complex phenomena of pulverized coal injection (PCI) process in blast furnace (BF), mathematical models have been developed at different scales: pilot-scale model of coal combustion and industry-scale model (in-furnace model) of coal/coke combustion in a real BF respectively. This paper compares these PCI models in aspects of model developments and model capability. The model development is discussed in terms of model formulation, their new features and geometry/regions considered. The model capability is then discussed in terms of main findings followed by the model evaluation on their advantages and limitations. It is indicated that these PCI models are all able to describe PCI operation qualitatively. The in-furnace model is more reliable for simulating in-furnace phenomena of PCI operation qualitatively and quantitatively. These models are useful for understanding the flow-thermo-chemical behaviors and then optimizing the PCI operation in practice.

  18. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  19. Fiscal 1997 achievement report. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. In the modification of facilities, equipment and devices were procured for the product oil reforming facilities and their installation was partly accomplished. In the coal injection operation, a 60-day slurry operation was conducted, using coal types of the upper limit and lower limit qualities, for expanding the scope of coal types applicable to the NEDOL process and for exploring optimum conditions, and another operation of 37 days was conducted using Chinese coal and Chinese-prepared liquefaction catalysts, and the two operations were studied for difference in yields and in operationality. Characteristics of the liquefaction reactors were investigated and basic studies were made relative to the physical property of the yielded coal oil. In the operation for maintenance, the 1st liquefaction reactor was singly operated for an 8-day slurry operation, which was to check the progress of liquefaction in a 1-reactor setup. Concerning the reforming of the product oil, the hydrogenation reactors were checked for their response to temperature control. Moreover, hydrogenation solvents were produced for the PSU and for China. (NEDO)

  20. Coal biodegradation study; Estudio de Biodegradacion del Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    A screening procedure has been set up for isolating microorganisms capable of liquefying coal. Spanish coals were used in the tests, namely a brown lignite from Galicia, sub-bituminous coal from Teruel and hard coal from MINAS DE FIGAREDO, S.A. (ASTURIAS). Among the isolated strains several microorganisms proved of liquefying untreated lignite. When lignites were pretreated a more intense and rapid liquefaction was achieved, chelating agents being among the best pretreatments. None of the isolated microorganisms could satisfactorily liquefy sub-bituminous and hard coals in solid media. On the other hand, some fungi grew specifically on the untreated coals, engulfing them and in many cases a soft and slurry was obtained. Several of the isolated microorganisms were able to solubilized all three untreated Spanish coals in liquid media. Coal solubilization was measured spectrophotometrically at 300, 400 and 450 nm.

  1. Rent-seeking mechanism for safety supervision in the Chinese coal industry based on a tripartite game model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong; Feng, Qun; Cao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    There are extensive governmental rent-seeking activities in safety supervision of the Chinese coal industry. The rents come from industry safety barriers, low resource taxes, and privilege policies for coalmining enterprises. The rent-seeking mechanism was analyzed using a model comprising dynamic games with incomplete information. The equilibrium results indicate that the probability of national supervision is influenced by penalties and bribery: there is negative correlation with penalties and positive correlation with bribery. The rent-seeking probability of a governmental safety supervision department is influenced by several factors, and positively correlates with the cost of national supervision. The probability of bribery of coalmining enterprises is influenced by several factors, and positively correlates with wages of governmental departments and a reasonable rent-seeking range. Reversed rent-seeking reduces the probability of bribery, but it's not worth recommending. Some recommendations are proposed. - Highlights: • We analyze rent-seeking mechanism for safety supervision in the coal industry. • A dynamic game with incomplete information for Chinese coal industry is built. • Reversed rent-seeking is proposed as a new rent-seeking form. • We analyze the selection probability of the three participants. • We give some policies about how to enhance safety supervision

  2. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  3. Protocol in NORM industries. Central thermal coal production; Protocolo de actuacion en industrial NORM. Centrales de produccion termica de carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Baeza, A.; Cancio, D.

    2011-07-01

    This protocol arises from the execution of R and D project Study of the radiological impact of coal power plants on their environment, funded by the Nuclear Safety Council. Its main objective was to assess the radiological impact exerted on workers and their environments, the four coal-fired power more currently in Spain: As Pontes (A Coruna), Compostilla II (Leon ),Litoral (Almeria) and Andorra (Teruel). (Author)

  4. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Filip P.; Berić Ivana M.; Jovanović Petar M.; Jovanović Aca D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reductio...

  5. Achievement report on developing coal liquefaction technologies in fiscal 1998 - edition B. Development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology (studies by using pilot plant) 2/2; 1998 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho B. 2/2. Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to improve the environment by substituting petroleum energy by coal, and by reducing emission of SOx and NOx, research and development has been performed on coal liquefaction technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements thereof in fiscal 1998. In the operation study, the coal charging operation has been carried out for 269 days (6,169 hours) in total since the operation has been launched, and the targets were achieved. In the facility repairs, periodical inspections were performed including daily maintenance during the operation, the legal inspection on the boiler and the pressure vessel of the category one after completing the RUN-5, and disassembling and opening inspections on other devices. After having completed the RUN-6 and 7, the final verification inspection and the facility rinsing were performed after the operation studies have been completed. The data acquired in the facility maintenance were summarized as part of the technological package after the assessment. The investigative researches have executed development of a liquefying reaction simulator, tests and investigations on pulverization of the liquefying catalyst, evaluation on the activity of the used hydrogenating catalyst, and investigation on the effect of the coal liquefaction facilities and products on the environment. The technologies were investigated on coal liquefaction, and the plans for disassembling studies were established. (NEDO)

  6. Fiscal 1998 achievement report. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. For the modification of facilities, product oil reforming facilities were installed. In the coal injection operation, a 59-day slurry operation was carried out using Tanito Harum coal, which was for the evaluation of the reforming effect under the product reforming conditions, operationality, and liquefaction characteristics. A 37-day slurry operation was also performed using Chinese coal, which was intended to pursue improved cost performance and to collect the light oil fraction in the flow of reforming operation. In the operation for maintenance, investigations were conducted into conditions for hydrogenation in a 1-through operation involving the solvent hydrogenation process and the normal pressure distillation facilities and into the effect of pre-hydrogenation solvent properties, which aimed at grasping the effect of product oil reforming measures and their influence on operationality. In the survey of environments, the properties of wastewater from the liquefaction process using Tanito Harum coal were studied and toxicity evaluation tests were conducted for activated sludge. (NEDO)

  7. Coal and the competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, M. [RDI Consulting, Arlington, VA (United States). FT Energy

    2000-07-01

    24 overheads/viewgraphs outline a presentation on competition in the US coal industry. It discussed four main subjects: key factors driving coal demand (environmental regulations, electric utility deregulation; competition with natural gas, inter-regional coal competition, supply availability and pricing; and the export market and competition from off-shore coal sources); coal's ability to boost market share; shifts in coal distribution and the risk of more branded coal; and attempts to keep more regional sources of coal in business. State tax incentives for coal use in Arizona, Ohio, Oklahoma, Virginia and Alabama were discussed.

  8. The economic case for industrial application of low-rank coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, W.

    1991-01-01

    The World Coal Institute estimates coal should overtake oil as the world's largest source of primary energy by the turn of the century. Current world coal production of 3.6 billion tons in 1990 is predicted to rise to 4 billion tons by the year 2000. It is conceded that a major environmental problem with burning coal is the so-called greenhouse effect. The question is how do you use the new technologies that have been developed which now allow coal to be burned with minimum damage to the environment. Despite their technical merits, acceptance of these new technologies is slow because they appear uncompetitive when compared with historic energy costs. Unless economic comparisons include some form of environmental evaluation, this issue will continue to be a barrier to progress. To avoid stagnation and provide the necessary incentive for implementing badly needed change, structural changes in energy economics need to be made which take into account the environmental cost element of these emerging new technologies. The paper discusses coal trade and quality and then describes the three main areas of development of clean coal technologies: coal preparation, combustion, and flue gas treatment

  9. Soot, organics, and ultrafine ash from air- and oxy-fired coal combustion

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pulverized bituminous coal was burned in a 10W externally heated entrained flow furnace under air-combustion and three oxy-combustion inlet oxygen conditions (28,...

  10. Heterogeneously catalyzed coal hydroliquefaction: screening of catalysts and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarreta, J.; Arias, P.L.; Marco, I. de; Chomon, M.J.; Caballero, B.; Cambra, J.F.; Guemez, B.; Fierro, J.L.G. (Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Escuel de Ingenieros de Bilbao)

    1994-03-01

    This project is centred upon the study of the activities of different catalysts in one-step coal liquefaction processes. A series of alumina supported catalysts was prepared by multistep impregnation, including a conventional CoMo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and other preparations containing Zn as a second promoter, and the alumina was acidified with different fluorine contents. These catalysts were extensive physicochemically characterized and their hydrodesulphurization (HDS) and hydrogenation (HYD) activities were tested using a model compound (thiophene). The results obtained indicate that partial substitution of Co by Zn does not affect the HDS and HYD activities and that fluorination diminishes these activities because of textural changes of the carrier. The prepared catalysts were tested in coal liquefaction and their activities were compared to those of cheap iron containing dispersion catalysts such as red mud, Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] aerosol, and Cottrell and pyrite ashes (by-products of the sulphur acid industry). Prior to the study and comparison of the catalyst activities and exploration of the influence of various operating conditions (temperature, tetralin/coal ratio, type of solvent and operating pressure) on catalytic and non-catalytic coal liquefaction was performed. The coal used in most of the experiments was a Spanish subbituminous A coal. Additionally, a comparison of all the catalysts was carried out with a standard high volatile bituminous coal. Supported catalysts present higher activities than iron-based catalysts. Among these catalysts, red mud proved to be the most active. Catalytic experiments using anthracene oil as solvent and CoZnMo/fluorinated alumina catalysts present maximum yields indicating that Zn as second promoter and carrier acidification to be beneficial in coal liquefaction with solvents similar to those used in real plants. 41 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Extraction of low rank coals by coal derived oils at 350 degrees C for producing clean fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K.; Mae, K.; Shindo, H.; Ashida, R.; Ihara, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    The authors have recently presented a new coal solvent extraction method that enhances the extraction yield dramatically. The method extracts coal using a flowing stream of either tetralin or 1-methylnaphthalene under 10 MPa at 200 to 400{sup o}C. The extract yield reached 65 to 80% for bituminous coals at 350{sup o}C, and the extract was almost free from mineral matter. Thus, this method was found to be effective to recover clean fuels from bituminous coals under rather mild conditions. To extend the extraction method to low rank coals and to make the method practically applicable, coal derived oils, carbol oil and creosote oil, were used in addition to tetralin in this study. Twenty kinds of coals were subjected to the extraction by tetralin and the coal derived oils at 350{sup o}C. Almost all sub-bituminous coals and brown coals examined were surprisingly extracted by 80% in the carbol oil at 350{sup o}C. It was also found that the extract was almost free from mineral matter and that most of sulfur was retained in the coal through the extraction by tetralin, whereas most of sulfur including pyritic sulfur was transferred into the soluble fraction through the extraction by the carbol oil. Thus, it was clarified that the proposed method was effective to produce a large amount of clean fuels from low rank coals under rather mild conditions.

  12. Radioactive wastes bituminization by the pilot-plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golinsky, M.; Ferenc, M.; Ksendzak, Z.; Tikal, A.

    1978-01-01

    Operation experience of pilot-plant for bituminization of radioactive wastes by the method of hot mixing is described. The results obtained have conffirmed parameters of the process gained in laboratory conditions for asphalts D-35 and P-60. The results are stated for experiments of bituminization of still residuums obtained as a result of distillation of low and intermediate-level of activity sewage waters. Chemical composition of the still residuums and characteristics of the P-60 asphalt are given. Bituminization of crystal sodium nitrate and supersaturated solutions at 200 centigrades up to 30% contents of salt in the compound was performed. It is shown that bituminization results depend on salts composition of radioactive wastes subject to solidification. The results are described of investigations of bituminization by the method of hot mixing of still residuums of radioactive wastes containing sodium nitrates on the pilot-plant. Parameters are given of bituminization process and characteristics of compounds obtained in bituminization of still residuums in a form of concentrates. Leachind process for wastes solidificated by the method of bituminization has been investigated. Leaching rate for radionuclides incorporated into bituminization products depending on time of storage is given. Results of the spectrometric analysis of solidificated concentrates, bituminization product and gaseous products of radioactive wastes processing by the method of hot mixing are given. (I.T.) [ru

  13. A brief petrographic review on Nigerian coal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, N. G.; Abaa, S. I.; Najime, T.; Suh, C. E.

    2000-01-01

    The coal resources of Nigeria are located mainly within the Benue Trough. In the lower Benue, subbituminous coals occur within the Maastrichtian Mamu Formation. High - volatile bituminous coals are found within the Turonian - Santonian Awgu Formation in the middle Benue while the upper Benue contains lignites and sub-bituminous coals in the Maastrichtian Gombe Sandstone Formation. Maceral analyses show that himinite dominates in the petrographic composition of the lower and upper Benue Trough coals with vitrinite reflectance values ranging from 0.30 to 0.63% Rm. In coals from the middle Benue, vitrinite macerals predominate and Rm values range from 0.74 to 1.25%. The present review suggests that the sub-bituminous coals in the lower and upper Benue are optimum for combustion and sub-optimum for liquefaction; while the high-volatile bituminous coals in the middle Benue, apart form being optimum for liquefaction, are the most suitable as raw material for coke making (carbonization) in steel manufacture

  14. Simulation of one-dimensional heat transfer system based on the blended coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y. G.; Li, W. B.; Cheng, Z. S.; Cheng, J. W.; liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the supercritical boiler thermodynamic calculation model is studied. Three types of heat exchangers are proposed, namely furnace (total radiation type), semi-radiation and convection, and discussed. Two cases were simulated - mixing of two bituminous coals and mixing of a bituminous coal and lignite- order to analyze the performance on the flue gas side. The study shows that the influence of flue air leakage and gas distribution coefficient on the system.

  15. A review of the timing of coalification in the light of coal seam erosion, clastic dykes and coal clasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pešek, J.; Sýkorová, Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 66, 1-2 (2006), s. 13-34 ISSN 0166-5162 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3111103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : timming of coalification * bituminous coal seam * erosion of coal seams Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2006

  16. major oxides and trace element distributions in coal and coaly shale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Elemental distributions in nine (9) sub-bituminous coal and four coaly shale samples from the Anambra Basin, south- ... Coal occurs also in other sedimentary formation in Nigeria, such as in Lafia-Obi, Lamja, Gombe, Bauchi, Pindiga among others. Most trace elements in coal are ..... Journal of Fuel Chemistry and.

  17. Third symposium on coal preparation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The third Symposium on Coal preparation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Fourteen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five additional papers had been entered previously from other sources. Topics covered involved chemical comminution and chemical desulfurization of coal (aimed at reducing sulfur sufficiently with some coals to meet air quality standards without flue gas desulfurization), coal cleaning concepts, removing coal fines and recycling wash water, comparative evaluation of coal preparation methods, coal refuse disposal without polluting the environment, spoil bank reprocessing, noise control in coal preparation plants, etc. (LTN)

  18. Behaviour of bituminized radioactive wastes under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaro, S.; Gilardi, T.; Vistoli, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    Studies are carried out by the CEA in order to predict the behaviour of bituminized radioactive wastes under self irradiation. Bitumen radiolysis produces gas (mainly H 2 ) which diffuses in the organic matrix. If the hydrogen yield is higher than the diffusion flux through the free surface, hydrogen concentration increases and exceeds its solubility in bitumen. Beyond saturation, bubbles are formed and gas is also evacuated by bubbles drift. The aim of these studies is to evaluate the evacuation capacity of radiolytic gas produced in function of initial bituminized wasteform characteristics. A model was developed to achieve this purpose, by calculating the evolution of bubbles population considering all elementary mechanisms of gas evacuation. (authors)

  19. Greenhouse gas emission factor development for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Eui-Chan; Myeong, Soojeong; Sa, Jae-Whan; Kim, Jinsu; Jeong, Jae-Hak

    2010-01-01

    Accurate estimation of greenhouse gas emissions is essential for developing an appropriate strategy to mitigate global warming. This study examined the characteristics of greenhouse gas emission from power plants, a major greenhouse gas source in Korea. The power plants examined use bituminous coal, anthracite, and sub-bituminous coal as fuel. The CO 2 concentration from power plants was measured using GC-FID with methanizer. The amount of carbon, hydrogen, and calorific values in the input fuel was measured using an elemental analyzer and calorimeter. For fuel analysis, CO 2 emission factors for anthracite, bituminous coal, and sub-bituminous coal were 108.9, 88.4, and 97.9 Mg/kJ, respectively. The emission factors developed in this study were compared with those for IPCC. The results showed that CO 2 emission was 10.8% higher for anthracite, 5.5% lower for bituminous coal, and 1.9% higher for sub-bituminous coal than the IPCC figures.

  20. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  1. Bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradev, G.D.; Ivanov, V.I.; Stefanova, I.G.; Milusheva, A.G.; Guteva, E.S.; Zhelyazkov, V.T.; Stefanov, G.I.; G'oshev, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    Salt-bitumen products are produced by the method of 'hot mixing' of some Bulgarian bitumens (road bitumen PB 66/99 and the hydroinsulating bitumen HB 80/25) and salts (chlorides, sulphates, borates, salt mixtures modelling the liquid waste from nuclear power plants) in different ratios to determine the optimum conditions for bituminization of liquid radioactive waste. The penetration, ductility and softening temperature were determined. The sedimentation properties and the thermal resistance of the various bitumen-salt mixtures were studied. The most suitable bitumen for technological research at the Kozloduy NPP was found to be the road bitumen PB 66/90 with softening temperature at 48 o C. The optimum amount of salts incorporated in the bitumen - about 45% - was found. No exothermal effects were observed in the bituminization process in the temperature range of up to 200 o C. The results obtained may be useful in the elaboration of a technology for bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes in the Kozloduy NPP. 4 tabs., 5 figs., 4 refs

  2. The modernization potential of gas turbines in the coal-fired power industry thermal and economic effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Bartnik, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    The opportunity of repowering the existing condensing power stations by means of  gas turbogenerators offers an important opportunity to considerably improvement of their energy efficiency. The Modernization Potential of Gas turbines in the Coal-Fired Power Industry presents the methodology, calculation procedures and tools used to support enterprise planning for adapting power stations to dual-fuel gas-steam combined-cycle technologies. Both the conceptual and practical aspects of the conversion of existing coal-fired power plants is covered. Discussions of the feasibility, advantages and disadvantages and possible methods are supported by chapters presenting equations of energy efficiency for the conditions of repowering a power unit by installing a gas turbogenerator in a parallel system and the results of technical calculations involving the selection heating structures of heat recovery steam generators. A methodology for analyzing thermodynamic and economic effectiveness for the selection of a structure...

  3. Bituminization of low- and medium-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefillatre, G.

    1976-01-01

    French operations are presented concerning mainly: the bituminization of radioactive wastes produced in light water reactors; the direct bituminization of liquid effluents without concentration; the experiments carried out for 18 months on the land burial of concentrates solidified by bitumen into blocks of 100 liters. The knowledge acquired in France is exposed: in Valduc and in Saclay with facilities equipped with thin film evaporators and in Marcoule with the conditioning of trilaurylamine and tributyl-phosphate. At last the Cadarache bituminization [fr

  4. Experiments on mixing of coal paste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, W. II

    1942-11-11

    For heat exchange of bituminous coal paste in hydrogenation plants, two kinds of coal paste were necessary: thick paste and thin paste. The solid content of these had to be maintained at a certain maximum for efficient operation of the preheater and the heat exchanger. Variations in the solid content observed at the Poelitz plant - the first to use paste heat exchange - were traced to the poor results obtained with the mixing orifice and the strirrer in the supply tank, because a settling of homogenous thin coal paste in the pipelines did not take place even when heated to operating temperatures. A practically sufficient improvement of the mixing process for thin paste production was obtained when the mixing nozzle was replaced by a mechanical power stirrer (which guaranteed a sufficiently uniform mixing of the circulated components). The coupled stirring tank was then used only as a buffer tank. On the basis of qualitative and quantitative tests with a laboratory model, the recommendation was for a suitable mixer for continuous production of 1.14 tons of thin paste per hour. The mixer consisted of a ten-vane double turbine with a pipeline and breaker arms. The mixing action was increased by location of the feed line in such a manner that the mixture of thick paste and oil entering at the bottom was barely sucked out and remained as long as possible in the pump for better mixing. The relationships existing between the laboratory model and the industrial unit were used in determination of revolutions per minute, mixer dimensions, recirculation and power requirements in order to produce geometrically similar flow conditions in the laboratory and industrial models. Experiments in the laboratory model and theoretical considerations of stirring and mixing processes have resulted in producing useful suggestions for the improvement of thin coal paste preparation. 7 figures.

  5. Report on results for fiscal 1997 (B edition) on development of coal liquefaction technology. Development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology (research by pilot plant) 1/2; 1997 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (B gan). Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu) 1/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Through the design, construction and operation of a pilot plant, the NEDOL method was verified, with its operation technology established, and also with a target set in collecting and accumulating data and knowledge required for a commercial plant in the future. With the Run-2, 3, 4 implemented using operating basis coal as the material, the operating stability of equipment/machines was confirmed, and a method of obtaining material balance as well as the operation technology was established, thereby demonstrating the NEDOL process, proving a long-term continuous operability and verifying the highest liquefaction yield. In addition, various process data, engineering data, operation control data, etc., were acquired, classified and analyzed. In the Run-3/4-1, a long-term coal charging continuous operation for 80 days was achieved, as was a high liquefaction yield of 58%. Moreover, data of material balance and thermal balance were obtained, with the performance confirmed of various kinds of equipment. Using the operating basis coat as the material, the coal charging operation of the Run-4-2 was commenced, with the performance verification test carried out for a neutron attenuation tracer method (NAT method), for the purpose of obtaining data of the flow characteristics of the liquefaction reaction tower. (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report on developing coal liquefaction technologies in fiscal 1999 - edition B. Development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology (studies by using pilot plant); 1999 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho B. Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to improve the environment by substituting petroleum energy by coal, and by reducing emission of SOx and NOx, research and development has been performed on coal liquefaction technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements thereof in fiscal 1999. In the disassembling study, wear, corrosion, and wall thickness change were investigated, and non-destructive inspection was performed on the major four facilities, and such newly developed devices as the liquefying catalyst manufacturing facilities, the slurry heat exchanger, and the let-down valves. The sampled test pieces were investigated of changes in the mechanical properties by means of the metallic structure inspection, hardness test, tensile test, and impact test. Deposits in the devices were investigated of their depositing conditions and constituents. The result reveals that the 3 Cr-1Mo-1/4V-Ti-B steel developed for the high-temperature, high-pressure, and hydrogen environment of the coal liquefaction plant showed excellent low-temperature tenacity and maintained good characteristics. No problems were discovered in corrosion resistance if PP using materials are used. The slurry handling centrifugal pump and instrumentation vales were worn out severely requiring replacements during the operation, for which further discussions are desired to be given. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1996 achievement report. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1996 nendo seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. In the modification of facilities, detailed designs were prepared for product oil reforming facilities and some equipment and devices were procured. In addition, the 3rd liquefaction reactor cone section and the neutron attenuation-aided measuring device were refurbished. In the injection of coal, a 62-day and 23-day slurry injection operations were accomplished using Tanito Harum coal, when the impact imposed on the yield of the product, etc., by the change of liquefaction catalysts and by gas phase hydrogen concentration enriching conditions was investigated, and the unit was examined for operationality. During a 42-day operation for maintenance, the unit was operated using only the slurry heater for the investigation of the initial reaction in liquefaction, and studies were conducted about the heater exit temperature, G/L (gas-liquid ratio), and the effect to ensue from the use of a different solvent. In the effort to develop and evaluate new materials, implantation tests were conducted for metallic materials and the 3rd liquefaction reactor was subjected to a non-destructive inspection. Wastewater from the process was examined for quality, and environment-related measurements were performed for the atmosphere. (NEDO)

  8. Mercury in coal and the impact of coal quality on mercury emissions from combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolker, Allan; Senior, Constance L.; Quick, Jeffrey C.

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of Hg in coal feedstock that is emitted by stack gases of utility power stations is a complex function of coal chemistry and properties, combustion conditions, and the positioning and type of air pollution control devices employed. Mercury in bituminous coal is found primarily within Fe-sulfides, whereas lower rank coal tends to have a greater proportion of organic-bound Hg. Preparation of bituminous coal to reduce S generally reduces input Hg relative to in-ground concentrations, but the amount of this reduction varies according to the fraction of Hg in sulfides and the efficiency of sulfide removal. The mode of occurrence of Hg in coal does not directly affect the speciation of Hg in the combustion flue gas. However, other constituents in the coal, notably Cl and S, and the combustion characteristics of the coal, influence the species of Hg that are formed in the flue gas and enter air pollution control devices. The formation of gaseous oxidized Hg or particulate-bound Hg occurs post-combustion; these forms of Hg can be in part captured in the air pollution control devices that exist on coal-fired boilers, without modification. For a given coal type, the capture efficiency of Hg by pollution control systems varies according to type of device and the conditions of its deployment. For bituminous coal, on average, more than 60% of Hg in flue gas is captured by fabric filter (FF) and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Key variables affecting performance for Hg control include Cl and S content of the coal, the positioning (hot side vs. cold side) of the system, and the amount of unburned C in coal ash. Knowledge of coal quality parameters and their effect on the performance of air pollution control devices allows optimization of Hg capture co-benefit

  9. Quantitative applications of gamma densitometry in the coal industry: a critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, P.; Sher, R.; Gozani, T.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of gamma densitometry to quantitatively assay bulk samples of coal on a continuous basis. Devices using these principles to determine mass flows are on the market, and work is progressing in several countries on instruments to determine ash content. The theoretical limits of applicability and inherent assumptions of these techniques are discussed, primarily as applied to dry bulk coal, but with some discussion of the more complicated problems of slurried coal. Gamma rays are generated by sources, usually a single radioactive element. These have several advantages over XRF, the main one being that no power is required to generate gammas. However, there are a limited number of gamma sources with useful energies, long enough half-lives to be economically useful, and clean spectra (that is, relatively few energies emitted by the source in question). Gamma densitometry measurements by single and multiple-energy transmission and backscatter measurements are discussed. A general formalism for analyzing multiple-energy systems is presented. While multi-energy systems can, in principle, pick out as many groups of elements as energies used, the matrices involved are ill-conditioned and thus require accurate measures of count rate (i.e., long counting times or high source intensities) to achieve acceptable errors. Changes in coal composition and profile of coal on a belt were also seen to be important sources of error. Transmission measurements are more amenable to analysis than backscatter, which are essentially transmission measurements made on a distributed source. In addition, transmission measurements are not restricted to low energy gamma sources, and can survey the entire bulk of coal rather than just the upper portion. The special problems of slurried coal measurements are briefly discussed

  10. Nuclear power aspects in an oil and coal producing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iljas, J.; Subki, I.

    1977-01-01

    In the near future the Government of Indonesia will face a crucial problem, when it has to decide which kinds of energy resources would be reasonably feasible to replace the oil which is currently being used in the country as the main source of energy supply. A description is given of the presently known energy reserves and its potential in the Indonesian Archipelago and specifically on the island of Java. These resources comprise, next to oil, a significant amount of bituminous coal, natural gas, and some hydro and geothermal power. Previous indications of the existence of radioactive minerals have been confirmed lately. The possible use of solar and wind energy on the eastern Indonesian islands is being discussed. A number of studies and opinions expressed at national scientific meetings on the topic of energy have suggested the use of coal and nuclear power as the most economical resources to replace oil as of the beginning of the eighties. A number of constraints, for both coal and nuclear power, are being discussed. They mostly touch the technical, economical, financial and political aspects. A comparison study is made of coal versus nuclear power under the present local conditions. The prospects of nuclear power are reviewed, including the initial steps leading thereto, which have already been taken. In this connection the role of a domestic nuclear industry is being discussed, and also the accelerating effect it may have in the distant future on the growth of electricity from nuclear energy

  11. Coal technology program progress report for January 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-03-01

    Block pyrolysis experiments were begun utilizing eastern bituminous coal from the Pricetown, West Virginia area. Results are significantly different from those obtained in past experiments with western subbituminous coals. Studies of liquid mixing in coal-solvent hydrogenation reactors continued as part of the Coal-Solvent-Hydrogen Mixing project. A series of residence-time, liquid hold-up, and pressure drop measurements was completed for air and clean water flowing cocurrently upward through a bed packed with 4-mm-diam glass spheres. The piping and pressure vessel project has experimental work in progress to determine the effects of heat treatment of 2 1/4 Cr--1 Mo plate. A FY 1977 work statement for inspection techniques for wear- and process-resistant coatings was completed. Experimental deposition of Alloy 20 cladding on carbon and low-alloy steels, and testing for cracking and microfissuring is in progress. An eddy current inspection system has been designed and fabricated and will be used for the inspection of the surveillance test tubes previously subjected to a 500-hr exposure in a fluidized bed coal combustor environment. In the gas-fired potassium boiler work, the parametric cycle analysis of the plant and the analysis of the metal vapor turbine designs for the fluidized-bad, coal-fired, alkali-metal-vapor topping cycle project was completed. Engineering studies and technical support continued with work on process modeling, the process research digest, a survey of industrial equipment capabilities, and s study of large air separation plants. An information assessment on landfill storage of coal conversion solid wastes is complete and final editing is underway.

  12. CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF COAL AND STEEL INDUSTRIES UNDER THE ECSC (1952-1967: WAS WEST GERMANY KEPT “SMALL”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Poelmans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1951, six European countries founded the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC, which they hoped would be a first step towards more European integration and which they hoped would provide a common legal framework for their coal and steel industries. The main aim of the ECSC was to make sure that the German coal and steel industries would never again reach their prewar capacities, which according to many had played a part in the coming of World War II. Another important aim was to forestall any attempt of the USSR to conquer West Germany. This article constitutes a case study of the regional concentration of the coal and steel industries in the six ECSC countries, and it investigates whether the importance of certain coal and steel producing regions within the ECSC changed between 1952 and 1967. Furthermore, an analysis is conducted of how the concentration ratios of the ECSC's industries differed among the six countries, whether these differences changed over time, how this influenced the size and number of coal and steel firms and whether the ECSC succeeded in its initial aim of keeping West Germany small.

  13. Advanced coal liquefaction research: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gall, W.; McIlvried, III, H. G.

    1988-07-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) To enhance the fundamental understanding of observed differences in the short contact time, donor solvent liquefaction of bituminous and subbituminous coals. (2) To determine if physical refining of subbituminous coals could be used to give a better feedstock for the first stage of two-stage liquefaction processes. Liquefaction studies using microautoclaves were carried out. Results are discussed. 11 refs., 25 figs., 29 tabs.

  14. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  15. Portable rapid gas content measurement - an opportunity for a step change in the coal industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamish, Basil; Kizil, Mehmet; Gu, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The last major advance in gas content measurement for coal seams was the introduction of the quick crush technique in the early 1990s. This is a laboratory test method that has proven very reliable over the years. Recent laboratory testing using a portable quick crushing device, known as the portable gas content analyser, has produced consistent gas content results for a set of core samples obtained from a single borehole that intersected four coal seams. The retained gas content values obtained for the seams show the same increasing gas content pattern and gas composition change with depth as the standard quick crush technique. Use of the portable gas content analyser provides the opportunity to produce rapid, reliable gas content measurement of coal that could be developed for assessing gas compliance cores and outburst-prone conditions at a mine site.

  16. REKUL'TIVATSIYA NARUSHENNYKH ZEMEL' V UGOL'NOY PROMYSHLENNOSTI [RECLAMATION OF DISTURBED LANDS IN THE COAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harionovskij A.A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the issue of reclamation of disturbed lands is due to the fact that coal mining by both open and underground methods is inevitably accompanied by exclusion from economic circulation and violation of lands for various purposes, by changing the terrain and forming an industrial landscape. The article contains information on the volumes of disturbance and reclamation of lands in the coal industry In the article the directions of reclamation and applied technologies, domestic developments and foreign experience are considered. It was noted that the priority areas for reclamation of disturbed lands in the coal industry are: agricultural, forestry and sanitary-hygienic. It is noted that the quality of the recultivated areas is not always at the proper level, which creates dif culties in their subsequent use. The main reasons for the low quality of reclamation are the lack of the necessary amount of initial data on the composition and properties of soil and rock mass of the dumps at the development stage of the reclamation projects, the lack of special technical means for performing remediation works at a high level, the lack of a landscape approach to the restoration of disturbed areas. Measures to prevent spontaneous combustion of rock dumps are laid in projects and are not implemented in practice in full, which leads to the occurrence of res. Two new developments in the eld of reclamation are presented: the microbiological method developed by MNIIECO TEK JSC, and the method for restoring the biological productivity of disturbed lands, proposed by the Scienti c Research Institute of Agricultural Problems of Khakassia SB RAAS. Identi ed problem issues in the eld of reclamation and a list of measures to improve the state of protection of land resources. In the article it is shown that in order to improve the state in the sphere of land resources protection in the coal industry, it is necessary to improve the applied mining technologies

  17. Environmental impact of coal industry and thermal power plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, U C

    2004-01-01

    Coal is the only natural resource and fossil fuel available in abundance in India. Consequently, it is used widely as a thermal energy source and also as fuel for thermal power plants producing electricity. India has about 90,000 MW installed capacity for electricity generation, of which more than 70% is produced by coal-based thermal power plants. Hydro-electricity contributes about 25%, and the remaining is mostly from nuclear power plants (NPPs). The problems associated with the use of coal are low calorific value and very high ash content. The ash content is as high as 55-60%, with an average value of about 35-40%. Further, most of the coal is located in the eastern parts of the country and requires transportation over long distances, mostly by trains, which run on diesel. About 70% oil is imported and is a big drain on India's hard currency. In the foreseeable future, there is no other option likely to be available, as the nuclear power programme envisages installing 20,000 MWe by the year 2020, when it will still be around 5% of the installed capacity. Hence, attempts are being made to reduce the adverse environmental and ecological impact of coal-fired power plants. The installed electricity generating capacity has to increase very rapidly (at present around 8-10% per annum), as India has one of the lowest per capita electricity consumptions. Therefore, the problems for the future are formidable from ecological, radio-ecological and pollution viewpoints. A similar situation exists in many developing countries of the region, including the People's Republic of China, where coal is used extensively. The paper highlights some of these problems with the data generated in the author's laboratory and gives a brief description of the solutions being attempted. The extent of global warming in this century will be determined by how developing countries like India manage their energy generation plans. Some of the recommendations have been implemented for new plants

  18. Characterization of the coal of the Cauca Valley in the Swallows sector, Cali Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros de Ferreira, Lucy; Garcia Gonzalez, Fabio; Saldarriaga Bermudez, Cesar

    1992-01-01

    The study of the geologic, physical-chemical and petrography characteristics of the coal of the Cauca valley, are indispensable for the knowledge of the Colombian coal. For technical and logistical reasons the sector Cerro Golondrinas was chosen, near to the Cali city, where were taken samplings in many mines realizing analysis and interpretation of the results. The importance of the development of the pacific region in the industrial aspect it is excellent. Therefore, the best knowledge in its energy resources is basic for an appropriate use. It was possible to determine the presence of bituminous coal high volatile A, with a heating, dry power free of ashy (slcz), around 8.000 calories for gram, also, a content average of 6% of hydrogen with a relationship H/C (slcz) near to 8 x 10 2 , that which gives to these coal the possibility of being used in gasification processes and liquefaction. The mill index shows an average of 46 corresponding to the range of coal of the area that which means that in the mill they should be kept in mind the conditions that require fairly hard coal. Even when there was not a mathematical correlation of the mill index with the ashes, the variability and the quantity of these last it is also an important parameter to keep in mind in the preparation of the coal. The same composition of the ashes is also variable in the whole area: of 75 samples of analyzed ashes, 56% is classified as bituminous and 44%, as lignite, in most of them was a deposition factor (slagging) low and an fouling factor, also low, that which indicates that these ashes don't present problems of accumulation of deposits in the combustion processes. The temperature of initial deformation in reducing atmosphere (itr) it reveals the presence of two populations, one with the maximum between 1.100 and 1.200 Celsius Degree and another with the maximum, superior to 1.500 Celsius Degree, fact that should be kept in mind for the correct use of the coal. One can say that the

  19. Energy generation potential from coals of the Charqueadas Coalfield, RS, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa da Silva, Z. C.; Heemann, R.; Castro, L.; Ketzer, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Three coal seams, I2B (Inferior 2), I1F (Inferior 1) and MB, from the Charqueadas Coalfield located in the central-east region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil were studied on the basis of geological, petrographic, chemical and geochemical techniques and correlated to the SR1, SR2 and SR3 coal seams from the Santa Rita Coalfield. The Charqueadas Coalfield reserves reach 2,993x106 metric tons of coal distributed in six coal seams. The study of sedimentary and organic facies is made on the subsurface data from five boreholes drilled in the area. There show a well marked lateral facies change from sub aquatic to sub aerial environment, conditioned by both the water level variations and the irregular palaeotopography of the basement. The coals change from limnic to forest-terrestrial moor types characterized by variations of composition in terms of macerals, microlithotypes and mineral matter. The coals are rich in mineral matter (28 to 40%); the vitrinite content reaches 50 %, inertinite 44 % and liptinite varies from 10 to 30 %, in mineral matter free basis. Among the microlithotypes carbominerite and vitrite are predominant. Rank studies carried out by different methods (vitrinite reflectance, max and red-green quotient among others) gave conflicting results, which are explained by the strong bituminization of the vitrinite. However, agreement between fluorescence measurements and organic geochemical parameters (e.g. CPI values) confirm that the coals are of a High Volatile Bituminous B/C (ASTM) or Gasflammkohle (DIN) rank. Based on these characteristics, the Charqueadas coal seams show great potential for use in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) and Enhanced Coalbed Methane (ECBM) projects. Nowadays the state of Rio Grande do Sul is rapidly growing and needs to increase the energy efficiency to attend the industrial demands, filling the gap between supply and energy generation. As with conventional IGCC, UCG gas can be used to generate

  20. Organic emissions from coal pyrolysis: mutagenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, A G; Wornat, M J; Mitra, A; Sarofim, A F

    1987-01-01

    Four different types of coal have been pyrolyzed in a laminar flow, drop tube furnace in order to establish a relationship between polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) evolution and mutagenicity. Temperatures of 900K to 1700K and particle residence times up to 0.3 sec were chosen to best simulate conditions of rapid rate pyrolysis in pulverized (44-53 microns) coal combustion. The specific mutagenic activity (i.e., the activity per unit sample weight) of extracts from particulates and volatiles captured on XAD-2 resin varied with coal type according to the order: subbituminous greater than high volatile bituminous greater than lignite greater than anthracite. Total mutagenic activity (the activity per gram of coal pyrolyzed), however, varied with coal type according to the order: high volatile bituminous much greater than subbituminous = lignite much greater than anthracite, due primarily to high organic yield during high volatile bituminous coal pyrolysis. Specific mutagenic activity peaked in a temperature range of 1300K to 1500K and generally appeared at higher temperatures and longer residence times than peak PAC production. PMID:3311724

  1. Ethoxylation as aid to separate brown coal low-temperature carbonization tars and high-temperature tars. Die Aethoxylierung als Hilfsmittel zur Auftrennung von Braunkohlenschwel- und Hochtemperaturteeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogts, A.

    1979-02-23

    This work describes the significance of brown coal tar as raw material source for chemical industry. 6% tar is yielded in low-temperature carbonization of brown coal as side product. This tar as opposed to bituminous coal tar does not occur as raw material in the Federal Republic of Germany. Numerous derivates are produced from brown coal low carbonization tar in central Germany. The paraffin, olefin and mining wax production is the main feature. Tar from brown coal of the Rhine is rich in creosotes, so classical physical separation processes cannot be applied here. One can react the creosotes with ethylene oxide and then separate off by extraction with water or decanting. Both methods are described and the ethoxylation conditions are shown. The paraffins and olefins obtained can be processed in a similar way to petroleum chemistry. The creosote polyglycol ethers produced in different molar ratios as intermediate and end products of coal chemistry are of increasing interest. Examples are given. Although one can hardly expect an increase of the occurrence of brown coal tar in the near future, its significance in view of the rediscovery of the possibilities of coal chemistry is increasing due the lack of petroleum.

  2. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  3. Industrial monument and symbol of a new beginning. Coal scrubber on mine Zollverein; Industriedenkmal und Symbol eines Neubeginns. Die Kohlenwaesche auf Zeche Zollverein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seht, Bernd von; Schneider, Helmut; Ferrarini, Dario [Ingenieurbuero Wetzel und von Seht, Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    The former coal mine ''Zollverein'' has been accepted in the UNESCO World Heritage List, which proves its status as an outstanding monument of industrial culture in the Ruhr region. Currently, the buildings are being converted into a culture and design forum of international renown. The coal scrubber building of Schacht XII is presented as an example to show how the conflicting goals of conservation and transformation can be integrated in consideration of current standards for supporting structures. (orig.)

  4. Bituminization of radioactive wastes at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hild, W.; Kluger, W.; Krause, H.

    1976-05-01

    A summary is given of the main operational experience gained at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe in 4 years operation of the bituminization plant for evaporator concentrates from low- and medium level wastes. At the same time some of the essential results are compiled that have been obtained in the R + D activities on bituminization. (orig.) [de

  5. Response Modelling of Bitumen, Bituminous Mastic and Mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on testing and modelling the viscoelastic response of bituminous binders. The main goal is to find an appropriate response model for bituminous binders. The desired model should allow implementation into numerical environments such as ABAQUS. On the basis of such numerical

  6. Simple volatility test for bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A simple, inexpensive test measuring the volatility or fuming propensity of bituminous materials with good repeatability has been devised. The test depends on measuring the mass loss which occurs when a small sample of the material is heated in a shallow open dish on a thermostatic hotplate for a fixed time. A rectilinear inverse relation between the mass losses and the softening points of a series of pitches from one source has been found, and the test has been shown to give results which correlate well with other methods for characterizing pitch volatility. Test results obtained with a range of tar products from pitches to creosotes all showed similarly good repeatability. (4 refs.)

  7. The Contribution of Individual, Social and Work Characteristics to Employee Mental Health in a Coal Mining Industry Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Considine

    Full Text Available Evidence regarding the extent of mental health problems and the associated characteristics within an employee population is necessary to inform appropriate and tailored workplace mental health programs. Mental health within male dominated industries (such as mining has received recent public attention, chiefly through observations regarding suicide in such populations in Australia and internationally. Currently there is limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health needs in the mining industry as an exemplar of a male dominated workforce, and the relative contribution to such problems of individual, socio-economic and workplace factors. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and associated characteristics among employees in the Australian coal mining industry with a specific focus on identifying modifiable work characteristics.A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees (n = 1457 across eight coal mines stratified by key mine characteristics (state, mine type and employee commute arrangements. Participants completed measures of psychological distress (K10+ and key variables across four categories (socio-demographic characteristics, health history, current health behaviours, work attitudes and characteristics.Psychological distress levels within this sample were significantly higher in comparison with a community sample of employed Australians. The following factors contributed significantly to levels of psychological distress using hierarchical linear regression analysis: lower social networks; a past history of depression, anxiety or drug/alcohol problems; high recent alcohol use; work role (managers and a set of work characteristics (level of satisfaction with work, financial factors and job insecurity; perception of lower workplace support for people with mental health problems.This is the first study to examine the characteristics associated with mental health problems in the Australian coal mining industry. The

  8. The Contribution of Individual, Social and Work Characteristics to Employee Mental Health in a Coal Mining Industry Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Robyn; Tynan, Ross; James, Carole; Wiggers, John; Lewin, Terry; Inder, Kerry; Perkins, David; Handley, Tonelle; Kelly, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the extent of mental health problems and the associated characteristics within an employee population is necessary to inform appropriate and tailored workplace mental health programs. Mental health within male dominated industries (such as mining) has received recent public attention, chiefly through observations regarding suicide in such populations in Australia and internationally. Currently there is limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health needs in the mining industry as an exemplar of a male dominated workforce, and the relative contribution to such problems of individual, socio-economic and workplace factors. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and associated characteristics among employees in the Australian coal mining industry with a specific focus on identifying modifiable work characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees (n = 1457) across eight coal mines stratified by key mine characteristics (state, mine type and employee commute arrangements). Participants completed measures of psychological distress (K10+) and key variables across four categories (socio-demographic characteristics, health history, current health behaviours, work attitudes and characteristics). Psychological distress levels within this sample were significantly higher in comparison with a community sample of employed Australians. The following factors contributed significantly to levels of psychological distress using hierarchical linear regression analysis: lower social networks; a past history of depression, anxiety or drug/alcohol problems; high recent alcohol use; work role (managers) and a set of work characteristics (level of satisfaction with work, financial factors and job insecurity; perception of lower workplace support for people with mental health problems. This is the first study to examine the characteristics associated with mental health problems in the Australian coal mining industry. The findings

  9. Biochemically enhanced methane production from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Aleksandra

    For many years, biogas was connected mostly with the organic matter decomposition in shallow sediments (e.g., wetlands, landfill gas, etc.). Recently, it has been realized that biogenic methane production is ongoing in many hydrocarbon reservoirs. This research examined microbial methane and carbon dioxide generation from coal. As original contributions methane production from various coal materials was examined in classical and electro-biochemical bench-scale reactors using unique, developed facultative microbial consortia that generate methane under anaerobic conditions. Facultative methanogenic populations are important as all known methanogens are strict anaerobes and their application outside laboratory would be problematic. Additional testing examined the influence of environmental conditions, such as pH, salinity, and nutrient amendments on methane and carbon dioxide generation. In 44-day ex-situ bench-scale batch bioreactor tests, up to 300,000 and 250,000 ppm methane was generated from bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste respectively, a significant improvement over 20-40 ppm methane generated from control samples. Chemical degradation of complex hydrocarbons using environmentally benign reagents, prior to microbial biodegradation and methanogenesis, resulted in dissolution of up to 5% bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste and up to 25% lignite in samples tested. Research results confirm that coal waste may be a significant underutilized resource that could be converted to useful fuel. Rapid acidification of lignite samples resulted in low pH (below 4.0), regardless of chemical pretreatment applied, and did not generate significant methane amounts. These results confirmed the importance of monitoring and adjusting in situ and ex situ environmental conditions during methane production. A patented Electro-Biochemical Reactor technology was used to supply electrons and electron acceptor environments, but appeared to influence methane generation in a

  10. The release of iron during coal combustion. Milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

    1995-06-01

    Iron plays an important role in the formation of both fly ash and deposits in many pulverized-coal-fired boilers. Several authors indicate that iron content is a significant indicator of the slagging propensity of a majority of US bituminous coals, in particular eastern bituminous coals. The pyritic iron content of these coals is shown to be a particularly relevant consideration. A series of investigations of iron release during combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile bituminous coal under combustion conditions ranging from oxidizing to inert. Experimental measurements are described in which, under selected conditions, major fractions of the iron in the coal are released within a 25 ms period immediately following coal devolatilization. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that the iron is released as a consequence of oxygen attack on porous pyrrhotite particles. Experimental testing of the proposed mechanism reveals that the release is dependent on the presence of both pyrite in the raw coal and oxygen in the gas phase, that slow preoxidation (weathering) of the pyrite significantly inhibits the iron release, and that iron loss increases as oxygen penetration of the particle increases. Each observation is consistent with the postulated mechanism.

  11. Rutting performance of cold bituminous emulsion mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Ahmad Kamil; Ali, Noor Azilatom; Shaffie, Ekarizan; Hashim, Wardati; Rahman, Zanariah Abd

    2017-10-01

    Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixture (CBEM) is an environmentally friendly alternative to hot mix asphalt (HMA) for road surfacing, due to its low energy requirements. However, CBEM has generally been perceived to be less superior in performance, compared to HMA. This paper details a laboratory study on the rutting performance of CBEM. The main objective of this study is to determine the Marshall properties of CBEM and to evaluate the rutting performance. The effect of cement in CBEM was also evaluated in this study. The specimens were prepared using Marshall Mix Design Method and rutting performance was evaluated using the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA). Marshall Properties were analysed to confirm compliance with the PWD Malaysia's specification requirements. The rutting performance for specimens with cement was also found to perform better than specimens without cement. It can be concluded that Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures (CBEM) with cement is a viable alternative to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) as their Marshall Properties and performance obtained from this study meets the requirements of the specifications. It is recommended that further study be conducted on CBEM for other performance criteria such as moisture susceptibility and fatigue.

  12. Feasibility study of environmentally friendly type coal utilization systems. Feasibility study of environmentally friendly type coal utilization systems in sectors except the coal industry in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sekitan kogyo igai no bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of working out a comprehensive master plan for application of the coal utilization system, the paper surveyed and studied the coal utilization system in terms of environmental measures and efficiency improvement in the utilization of coal. As a result of the discussion with NEDO and the National Planning Committee of China, Liaoning Province (the whole China) and Shenyang City were selected as a model area and a model city for the survey and study. As energy conservation measures taken in the former, desirable are intensifying/capacity-increase of boilers, kilns, etc. and adoption of new-type/high-efficient equipment. Also expected are reinforcement of combustion control and improvement of efficiency by using coal preparation, industrial use coal briquette, etc. Measures taken in the latter are the same as those taken in the whole China. As SOx reduction measures for Liaoning Province, desirable is installation of dry-type desulfurization equipment and simple desulfurization equipment. As dust prevention measures for it, desirable is installation of electrostatic precipitators or high-functional bag filters. SOx reduction measures for Shenyang City are the same as those taken in the whole China. SOx can be reduced by using coal-prepared low-sulfur coal and industrial use coal briquette added with desulfurizing agent. 88 figs., 163 tabs.

  13. Using MSD prevention for cultural change in mining: Queensland Government/Anglo Coal Industry partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilbury, Trudy; Sanderson, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Queensland Mining has a strong focus on safety performance, but risk management of health, including Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) continues to have a lower priority. The reliance on individual screening of workers and lower level approaches such as manual handling training is part of the coal mining 'culture'. Initiatives such as the New South Wales and Queensland Mining joint project to develop good practice guidance for mining has allowed for a more consistent message on participatory ergonomics and prevention of MSD. An evidence based practice approach, including the introduction of participatory ergonomics and safe design principles, was proposed to Anglo American Coal operations in Queensland. The project consisted of a skills analysis of current health personnel, design of a facilitated participatory ergonomics training program, site visits to identify good practice and champions, and a graduated mentoring program for health personnel. Early results demonstrate a number of sites are benefiting from site taskforces with a focus on positive performance outcomes.

  14. Environmental Impact of Restructuring of the Coal Industry in the Rostov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Zhukova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Negative anthropogenesis impact on environment is now felt especially sharply and gains global character. One of the most large-scale subjects of the economic environment doing harm to environment are the enterprises of an coal complex as they in large volumes throw out the polluting substances and in high volumes take natural resources. However the field of activity of such enterprises is a priority for national economy, and difficult interchangeability of energy raw material resources demands from the state and the coal enterprises of development within realization of complete branch ecological-economic policy of the economic mechanism of stimulation of ecologically sustainable development of the coal complex. In the conditions of an economic crisis, threat of world recession and external economic pressure upon the forefront there are two priority economic tasks: maintaining economic and social stability and promote economic growth of the Russian economy and its regions. Along with attempts to stabilize the preserved and newly opened businesses, and really putting their place in the market economy, it is necessary to overcome the whole complex of socio-economic and environmental impacts of restructuring. The neutralization of the negative environmental impact of the closure of coal enterprises, as well as warning of emerging environmental hazards require large material costs. To reduce costs requires a comprehensive, scientifically sound approach to solving this global problem. Significant reserve to reduce the negative impact of ecological consequences of liquidation of mines on the environment is the task of the use of related natural resources, which are currently the sources of pollution of the biosphere.

  15. Industrial and utility applications coal-oil mixture data index. [Oil-fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-01

    The seriousness of the present and projected national energy picture dictated the adoption of several approaches by the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop alternate fuel sources as a means of curtailing our present dependence on imported oil. One approach, which offers near term potential for reducing the domestic consumption rate of natural gas and oil, is the application of coal-oil mixture (COM) combustion technology. The idea of burning coal and oil in the form of a mixture has been around for some time and is not viewed by DOE, in any degree, as the solution to our domestic energy problem. However, it is viewed as a near-term retrofit coal utilization technology with a high degree of application potential to existing oil fired systems. In view of this, DOE has undertaken several demonstration and support-research projects to further define existing COM technical uncertainties. The purpose of this manual is to present a comprehensive technical description and status of each project, both informative and practical with respect to the diverse data requirements.

  16. Modified coal fly ash as low cost adsorbent for removal reactive dyes from batik industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiq Agus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of reactive dyes on modified coal fly ash has been investigated during a series of batch adsorption experiments. Physical characteristics of modified coal fly ash was characterized by Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET surface area analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The effects of operational parameters such as initial dye concentration (50–200 mg/L, solution pH (4–10 and adsorbent dosage (50–200 mg/L were studied. The adsorption experiments indicated that modified coal fly ash was effective in removing of Remazol Blue. The percentage removal of dyes increased while the modified fly ash dosage increased. The percentage removal of dyes increased with decreased initial concentration of the dye and also increased with amount of adsorbent used. The optimum of removal of dyes was found to be 94% at initial dye concentration 50 g/mL, modified fly ash dosage 250 g/mL, and pH of 2.0.

  17. Australian coal prospects and response to air quality issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Australia is unique in its high dependency on coal as a domestic energy source and as a major export commodity. Coal provides about 41% of Australia's primary energy and is the country's largest export. Australia's domestic air quality issues and standards are reviewed and current Australian research aimed at reducing emissions from both bituminous and brown coal combustion is summarized. Australia's greenhouse policy is also discussed. The future role of coal in the world, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region, where three quarters of Australia's coal exports are sold, is reviewed. Forecasts of the world import demand for both metallurgical coal and thermal coal to the year 2000 are provided. The supply capacity of major coal exporting countries in summarized and estimates of export coal market shares in 2000 given. Finally, the future of Australia's domestic use of coal is discussed, in the light of climate change concerns

  18. Direct Coal Oxidation in Modified Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Gil, Vanesa; Ippolito, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon-carbonate s......Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon......-carbonate slurry or anode layer. The nature of the coal affects both open circuit voltage and power output. Highest OCV and power densities were observed for bituminous coal and by adding manganese oxide or praseodymium-doped ceria to the carbon/carbonate mixture. Comparing the carbon black fueled performance...... bituminous coal (73 mW/cm2). © 2015 ECS - The Electrochemical Society...

  19. Direct Coal Oxidation in Modified Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Gil, Vanesa; Ippolito, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon-carbonate s......Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells employ a classical solid oxide fuel cell together with carbon dispersed in a carbonate melt on the anode side. In a European project, the utilization of various coals has been investigated with and without addition of an oxidation catalyst to the carbon......-carbonate slurry or anode layer. The nature of the coal affects both open circuit voltage and power output. Highest OCV and power densities were observed for bituminous coal and by adding manganese oxide or praseodymium-doped ceria to the carbon/carbonate mixture. Comparing the carbon black fueled performance...... bituminous coal (73 mW/cm2)....

  20. Coal supply/demand, 1980 to 2000. Task 3. Resource applications industrialization system data base. Final review draft. [USA; forecasting 1980 to 2000; sector and regional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, W.M.; Hasson, V.

    1980-10-10

    This report is a compilation of data and forecasts resulting from an analysis of the coal market and the factors influencing supply and demand. The analyses performed for the forecasts were made on an end-use-sector basis. The sectors analyzed are electric utility, industry demand for steam coal, industry demand for metallurgical coal, residential/commercial, coal demand for synfuel production, and exports. The purpose is to provide coal production and consumption forecasts that can be used to perform detailed, railroad company-specific coal transportation analyses. To make the data applicable for the subsequent transportation analyses, the forecasts have been made for each end-use sector on a regional basis. The supply regions are: Appalachia, East Interior, West Interior and Gulf, Northern Great Plains, and Mountain. The demand regions are the same as the nine Census Bureau regions. Coal production and consumption in the United States are projected to increase dramatically in the next 20 years due to increasing requirements for energy and the unavailability of other sources of energy to supply a substantial portion of this increase. Coal comprises 85 percent of the US recoverable fossil energy reserves and could be mined to supply the increasing energy demands of the US. The NTPSC study found that the additional traffic demands by 1985 may be met by the railways by the way of improved signalization, shorter block sections, centralized traffic control, and other modernization methods without providing for heavy line capacity works. But by 2000 the incremental traffic on some of the major corridors was projected to increase very significantly and is likely to call for special line capacity works involving heavy investment.

  1. THE DASHBOARD - STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT TOOL OF ACTIVITIES IN THE COAL MINING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINA IONELA-CLAUDIA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the objectives at all levels and categories of functions in the unit, use multiple information systems, including the dashboard which is one of the management tools that responds very well to the rationale and supporting data of management decisions complementary to those provided by other media. In this respect, we try to calculate indicators organization currently working compartments of the coal mining units and will propose a series of indicators whose calculation we consider would be necessary for a detailed presentation as activity carried out and the improvement of management.

  2. Bituminization of radioactive wastes: safety problems and application fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefillatre, G.; Leconnetable, J.

    1975-01-01

    The bituminization of low and medium radioactive wastes has many advantages: volume and weight reduction; homogeneity of the solid obtained; good resistance to leaching (biological resistance to microorganisms, resistance to radiations); very favorable characteristics for transport and storage. The latest bituminization facility put into service at the CEA is that of the Saclay Center. The bituminization unit is located after a primary evaporator having a distillation capacity of 2m 3 /h. It enables the coating of effluents at the rate of 60l/h [fr

  3. Skid resistance of bituminous surfaces in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colony, D. C.

    1984-03-01

    Statistical studies of skid number (SN) on the state highway system in Ohio reveal apparently systematic variations in distributions of SN among the twelve districts in the state. These variations appear to be significantly related to traffic and to geological characteristics of a given district. Regression calculations using traffic index, a function of ADT and age of the pavement surface in months, show a high correlation with SN, although standard errors of estimate were too large to make the equations useful for predicting SN from traffic variables. Similar results were obtained by elating SN to physiographic features in the state. Pavement surface type (bituminous or pcc) and coarse aggregate type (limestone, gravel or slag) are significantly related to SN.

  4. Predicting Water Quality Problems Associated with Coal Fly Ash Disposal Facilities Using a Trace Element Partitioning Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Donahoe, R. J.; Graham, E. Y.

    2006-12-01

    For much of the U.S., coal-fired power plants are the most important source of electricity for domestic and industrial use. Large quantities of fly ash and other coal combustion by-products are produced every year, the majority of which is impounded in lagoons and landfills located throughout the country. Many older fly ash disposal facilities are unlined and have been closed for decades. Fly ash often contains high concentrations of toxic trace elements such as arsenic, boron, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, lead, strontium and vanadium. Trace elements present in coal fly ash are of potential concern due to their toxicity, high mobility in the environment and low drinking water MCL values. Concern about the potential release of these toxic elements into the environment due to leaching of fly ash by acid rain, groundwater or acid mine drainage has prompted the EPA to develop national standards under the subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to regulate ash disposal in landfills and surface impoundments. An attempt is made to predict the leaching of toxic elements into the environment by studying trace element partitioning in coal fly ash. A seven step sequential chemical extraction procedure (SCEP) modified from Filgueiras et al. (2002) is used to determine the trace element partitioning in seven coal fly ash samples collected directly from electric power plants. Five fly ash samples were derived from Eastern Bituminous coal, one derived from Western Sub-bituminous coal and the other derived from Northern Lignite. The sequential chemical extraction procedure gives valuable information on the association of trace elements: 1) soluble fraction, 2) exchangeable fraction, 3) acid soluble fraction, 4) easily reducible fraction, 5) moderately reducible fraction, 6) poorly reducible fraction and 7) oxidizable organics/sulfide fraction. The trace element partitioning varies with the composition of coal fly ash which is influenced by the

  5. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  6. Coal resources availability in Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modisi, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that Southern Africa, and Botswana in particular, is well-endowed with relatively large reserves of coal. The existence of coal in Botswana has been known since the end of the last century. Exploration activities by the Geological Survey and the private sector led to the discovery of major deposits and by the late 1960s reserves capable of supporting a mine at Morupule for the domestic market has been confirmed. The oil crises of 1973-74 and 1978-79 stimulated increased interest in coal exploration the world over and Botswana attracted several private sector companies looking for coal that could be traded on the international market. As a result vast resources and reserves of low to medium quality bituminous coal, suitable for the export market, were proved. Resources amounting to 21,680 million tonnes of in situ coal had been revealed by 1987. Reserves of possible economic exploitation are estimated at 10,180 million tonnes in two coal field areas, namely the Morupule Coal Field and the Mmamabula Coal Field. Since the collapse of oil prices and consequently coal prices in the mid-1980s, enthusiasm for coal exploration has plummeted and relatively little prospecting has taken place. The coal occurs within the Upper Carboniferous to Jurassic Karoo Supergroup which underlies some 60 percent of the country's land surface. The western part of the country is mantled by the Kalahari beds, a top layer of unconsolidated sands masking bedrock geology. Although coal seams have been intersected in boreholes in this western area, most exploration activity has taken place in the eastern part of the country where the Morupule and Mmamabula coal fields are located. It is in the east that most of the population is concentrated and infrastructure has been developed

  7. Adsorption of Non-ionic Surface Active Agent on Fine Coal and Lignite

    OpenAIRE

    AKTAŞ, Zeki

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption of Triton X-100 in aqueous solution on the less than 53 \\mm size fractions of Tunçbilek lignite and Zonguldak bituminous coal was studied. The adsorption isotherms were formed for 5, 30 and 1,440 (equilibrium) minutes. The isotherms were evaluated using both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption equations. Concentrations of the reagent in the monolayer after equilibrium adsorption were determined to be 8.17 and 7.27 \\mM/g coal for the lignite and bituminous coal using th...

  8. Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Molecular characterization of flash pyrolysates of two Carboniferous coals and their constituting maceral fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hartgers, W.A.; Ling, Y.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Dyrckacz, G.

    1994-01-01

    Two high-volatile bituminous Upper Carboniferous coals from the Argonne Premium Coal Set and their constituting liptinite, vitrinite, and inertinite fractions, obtained by density gradient centrifugation (DGC), were characterized by Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A

  10. Heterogeneity in coal composition and implications for lung cancer risk in Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downward, George S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412435667; Hu, Wei; Large, David; Veld, Harry; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314119205; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Chapman, Robert S.; Rothman, Nat; Qing, Lan; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    2014-01-01

    Background: Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties in Yunnan Province, China have among the highest lung cancer rates in the country. This has been associated with the domestic combustion of bituminous coal (referred to as "smoky" coal). Additionally, significant geographical variation in cancer rates among

  11. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  12. Effect of antistripping additives on the compaction of bituminous concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of antistripping additives on the compaction of bituminous concrete. To do this, the densities obtained on test sections with and without additive were compared. Comparisons of nuclear d...

  13. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are ralated to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product. (author)

  14. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for the long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

  15. Design of bituminous surface mixes with high skid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The Virginia Highway Research Council has proposed a study of the skid resistance of bituminous surfaces incorporating relatively hard and expensive aggregates. The hardness of the aggregates to be used aluminum oxide (Exolon) and calcined kaolin -- ...

  16. Design of bituminous mixes with high skid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Certain highway locations need exceptionally high skid resistance because of the alignment, geometry, and drainage of the roadway and the complex turning maneuvers required. Several beam specimens made of bituminous mixes incorporating unconventional...

  17. Bituminous and asphaltic membranes for radioactive waste repositories on land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The aim of the study has been to identify, within generic designs for waste facilities, areas where bituminous materials might be incorporated as a barrier. The report is presented in three sections: Part I - The properties of bitumen are described, with particular reference to the long-term behaviour of the material. The durability of bitumen is discussed, including aspects such as ageing, microbial degradation, chemical resistance and radiation resistance. Part II -The use of bituminous materials in hydraulic engineering is outlined. Much of this section of the report concentrates on the use of bituminous materials in embankment dams and reservoir construction. A review of material technology and construction techniques is presented and a detailed assessment made of the performance of the materials in service. Part III - Generic trench type radioactive waste repository designs incorporating bituminous materials are presented. Material and construction specifications for the designs are detailed, and a performance assessment presented. (author)

  18. Joseph Conrad and the spontaneous combustion of coal - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, A.D. [Kilborn Engineering Pacific Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Joseph Conrad`s novel `Youth` described an on-board fire and explosion from transported coal between Sumatra and Bangka Island. This incident is based on Conrad`s experience as a mariner transporting coal, and displays a detailed knowledge of the technical issues and preventative actions involved in the spontaneous combustion of coal cargoes at sea. The coal concerned was West Hartley coal, and in this article the author examines the combustion characteristics of this coal, and the historical information available on the explosion on board the `Palestine`. The reasons for spontaneous combustion are examined, with particular attention paid to oxidation, moisture content and pyrite oxidation. West Hartley coal was a high volatile bituminous coal, with high self-heating tendencies, and so likely to undergo spontaneous combustion in the right conditions. Self-heating in ships is now well researched as a result of the international maritime coal trade. 21 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Effect of the grinding behaviour of coal blends on coal utilisation for combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubiera, F.; Arenillas, A.; Fuente, E.; Pis, J.J. [Inst. Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain); Miles, N. [School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering, Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    Grinding of a high volatile bituminous coal was performed in three comminution devices: Raymond Mill (RM), Rolls Crusher (RC) and Ball Mill (BM). The pulverised samples were sieved to obtain four particle size fractions, and temperature-programmed combustion (TPC) was used for the evaluation of their combustion behaviour. In addition, three coals of different hardness and rank were mixed in various proportions in order to compare the combustibility characteristics of the binary coal blends with those of the individual coals. The effect of coal blending on grindability was also studied. It was found that grindability was non-additive especially when coals of very different hardgrove grindability index (HGI) were blended. The combustion studies also suggested that there exists an interaction between individual coals when they are burnt as a blend. (orig.)

  20. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  1. 75 FR 70950 - Request for Certification of Compliance-Rural Industrialization Loan and Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... enterprise is: 212112 Bituminous Coal Underground Mining. DATES: All interested parties may submit comments... buildings, purchase mining equipment, and to create working capital. The office and mine are to be located...

  2. Undermining capitalism - state ownership and the dialectic of control in the British coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieger, J.

    1983-01-01

    The first section of this publication considers state ownership and contradictions of bureaucratic management with regard to the National Coal Board (NCB). Wages policy is discussed in terms of national rationalization, in particular the 1966 National Power Loading Agreement (NPLA). The second section outlines the effects of wage policy and structure upon production and also assesses the effects of work rules which determine organization of labour, division of tasks, norms for co-operation between team and shift groups etc. The third section discusses changes in power and labour relations and demonstrates distinctive regional patterns in the politics of productivity under piece-rate and time-based wage structures. Subsequent sections comprise colliery studies in County Durham and Nottinghamshire. The concluding chapter summarizes the arguments put forward in the preceding sections and discusses the relationship between organizational structure and class power.

  3. Evaluation of the effect of coal cleaning of fugitive elements. Part II. Analytical methods. Final report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshart, R.E.; Price, A.A.; Ford, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    This report contains the analytical and test methods which were used routinely at Bituminous Coal Research, Inc. during the project. The procedures contained herein should aid coal industry laboratories and others, including commercial laboratories, who might be required to determine trace elements in coal. Some of the procedures have been presented in previous BCR reports; however, this report includes additional procedures which are described in greater detail. Also presented are many as the more basic coal methods which have been in use at BCR for many years, or which have been adapted or refined from other standard reference sources for coal and water. The basis for choosing specific analytical procedures for trace elements in coal is somewhat complex. At BCR, atomic absorption was selected as the basic method in the development of these procedures. The choice was based on sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, practicability, and economy. Whenever possible, the methods developed had to be both adequate and amenable for use by coal industry laboratories by virtue of relative simplicity and cost. This is not to imply that the methods described are simple or inexpensive; however, atomic abosrption techniques do meet these criteria in relation to more complex and costly methods such as neutron activation, mass spectrometry, and x-ray fluorescence, some of which require highly specialized personnel as well as access to sophisticated nuclear and computational facilities. Many of the analytical procedures for trace elements in coal have been developed or adapted specifically for the BCR studies. Their presentation is the principal purpose of this report.

  4. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE RUHR DISTRICT – FROM THE FORMALLY CENTRE OF THE COAL AND STEAL INDUSTRY TO A CENTRE OF TERTIARY SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Anhuf

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional development within the Ruhr district – from the formally centre of the coal and steel industry to a centre of tertiary services. The Ruhrgebiet (Ruhr district is an urban agglomeration in the western part of Germany with a population of approximately 5.3 Million, covering an area of 4.435 km². It’s part of the metropolitan area of Rhine-Ruhr with more than 10 Million inhabitants living in an area of about 10.000 km².The black coal resources, deposited during the carboniferous area form the natural backbone for the development of the largest region of coal, iron, and steel industry in Europe. The economy of the Ruhrgebiet was unidirectional dominated for more than 150 years by four heavy industry sectors, black coal, steel, chemical industry and energy production. But later, when petroleum and natural gas and cheaper imported black coal conquered the German market and, as well, steel could be produced at a reduced rate elsewhere in the world the booming producing industry quasi collapsed. Thus, the Region is characterized by an above average unemployment since the mid 70ies. More than 50% of the 1 Million jobs in the region were lost, while only 300.000 new jobs could be added within the service sector between 1980 and 2002. The economic and social structural change within the Ruhr district is primarily based on the expansion of services like advertisement, science, development, transport logistics, consulting, and design. But also the cultural and tourist branches are characterized by growing figures. The BIP, produced within the Ruhrgebiet, is about 26% of the BIP of North-Rhine-Westphalia or 6% of Germany’s BIP. In comparison, the metropolitan area of São Paulo produces 17% of the national BIP of Brazil.

  5. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  6. Adhesion Promoters in Bituminous Road Materials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Oliviero Rossi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on certain classes of organic compounds known variously in the specific literature of asphalt as adhesion promoters, antistripping agents, wetting agents, antistrips, or adhesion agents. These kinds of organic additives are currently formulated to enhance the bitumen coating of mineral aggregates and improve the workability of asphalt mixtures. In this review, the term “adhesion promoters” includes both synthetic organic compounds as well as those extracted from natural resources, mixed in trace amounts to bitumen. Their main role is to alter the interfacial energy, so that the presence of water, even in trace, does not weaken the bitumen-aggregate bond and tends to favor adhesion. The report also considers the chemical functionalities that play a predominant role in bonding, as well as the effects of surface modification of the aggregate due to the presence of adhesion promoters in pre-blended bituminous mixtures. Although bitumen is widely used in road pavement construction and the discussion is mainly addressed to the improvement of adhesion in road materials, adhesion and wetting properties can also represent a general issue in various bitumen-based industrial products.

  7. RESOURCE SAVING IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY WITH HIGHWAY BRANCH AS EXAMPLE

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Roudensky

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of energy is an objective (independent on cost fluctuations) technical efficiency criterion of any construction or repair work. Highway/road (particularly bituminous pavement) sector is an important construction industry part. Bituminous road pavement construction consists of such components as excavation and preparation of basic materials, manufacture of mixes, ready mix laying/compacting and transportation of all materials. Average energy consumption for every bituminous pavemen...

  8. THE HISTORY OF EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION OF BITUMINOUS AND KEROGENOUS DEPOSITS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed thal the first known sedimens of natural bitumen or asphalt in coastal Croatia were exploited as the early moddle ages. Yet authenticated written documents about Vinišće near Trogir derive from no earlier than 1628, about Vrgorac/Paklina from only 1753. By the end of the 18th century, many deposits were discovered in Dalmatia, but it was Škrip on the Island of Brač and Suhi Dolac that were important. The earliest known deposits and occurrences of kerogenous rocks, or bituminous or oil shales, are mentioned as stone or fossil coal in Sovinjak, in the upper course of the River Mirna, and in Rebići in Istria; near Sinj, Slivno not far from the River Neretva, Mirta and near Nerežišće on the Island uf Brač. All if these were well known and described in 1804, while Sovinjak was mentioned in the 16th century. In the article, some of new information derived from mining and geological research into bituminous and kerogenous sediments and deposits are provided (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Study on coal char ignition by radiant heat flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkikh, A. G.; Slyusarskiy, K. V.

    2017-11-01

    The study on coal char ignition by CO2-continuous laser was carried out. The coal char samples of T-grade bituminous coal and 2B-grade lignite were studied via CO2-laser ignition setup. Ignition delay times were determined at ambient condition in heat flux density range 90–200 W/cm2. The average ignition delay time value for lignite samples were 2 times lower while this difference is larger in high heat flux region and lower in low heat flux region. The kinetic constants for overall oxidation reaction were determined using analytic solution of simplified one-dimensional heat transfer equation with radiant heat transfer boundary condition. The activation energy for lignite char was found to be less than it is for bituminous coal char by approximately 20 %.

  10. NO Reduction over Biomass and Coal Char during Simultaneous Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ke; Glarborg, Peter; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental study of NO reduction over chars of straw, bark, bituminous coal, and lignite. The experiments were performed in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 850–1150 °C. The chars were generated by in situ pyrolysis at the reaction temperature to minimize further...

  11. Ventilation air methane destruction - the new challenge to the underground coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Michael; Seddon, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of 'Carbon Taxes' the carbon footprint of coal has become an economic as well as an environmental issue and the emission of methane in mine out- bye air as ventilation air methane (VAM) is a pending liability. As well as being economic and environmental concerns, VAM and VAM management have safety, social licence and operational factors that must also be addressed. The need to mitigate (oxidise) methane to produce carbon dioxide and water vapour (VAM destruction) and thus lower the Greenhouse footprint is coming to be seen as a necessary mining activity. However, there are several key issues to be addressed with present technology using high temperature (1000°C) thermal oxidisers. Emerging technology may involve a catalytic approach. This technology aims to lower the oxidation temperature and produce a more efficient combustion process. Several systems (based on both precious metals and transition metals) have been shown to operate below 400°C. An ultimate solution would be oxidation at ambient temperature, which is clearly demonstrated by the enzyme methane mono-oxygenase (MMO) which oxidises methane to methanol. However, the rate of oxidation at ambient temperature is too low and the structure of the bio-reactors required would be very large. The challenge is to marry the natural oxidation with modern catalytic approaches and achieve high rates of methane oxidation, in compact equipment, well below the methane auto-ignition temperature.

  12. Carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of coal and carbon dioxide derived from laboratory coal combustion: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Ruppert, Leslie F.

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has dramatically increased from the start of the industrial revolution in the mid-1700s to present levels exceeding 400 ppm. Carbon dioxide derived from fossil fuel combustion is a greenhouse gas and a major contributor to on-going climate change. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope geochemistry is a useful tool to help model and predict the contributions of anthropogenic sources of CO2 in the global carbon cycle. Surprisingly few studies have addressed the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of CO2 derived from coal combustion. The goal of this study is to document the relationships between the carbon and oxygen isotope signatures of coal and signatures of the CO2 produced from laboratory coal combustion in atmospheric conditions.Six coal samples were selected that represent various geologic ages (Carboniferous to Tertiary) and coal ranks (lignite to bituminous). Duplicate splits of the six coal samples were ignited and partially combusted in the laboratory at atmospheric conditions. The resulting coal-combustion gases were collected and the molecular composition of the collected gases and isotopic analyses of δ13C of CO2, δ13C of CH4, and δ18O of CO2 were analysed by a commercial laboratory. Splits (~ 1 g) of the un-combusted dried ground coal samples were analyzed for δ13C and δ18O by the U.S. Geological Survey Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory.The major findings of this preliminary work indicate that the isotopic signatures of δ13C (relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite scale, VPDB) of CO2 resulting from coal combustion are similar to the δ13CVPDB signature of the bulk coal (− 28.46 to − 23.86 ‰) and are not similar to atmospheric δ13CVPDB of CO2 (~ − 8 ‰, see http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/outreach/isotopes/c13tellsus.html). The δ18O values of bulk coal are strongly correlated to the coal dry ash yields and appear to have little or no influence on the δ18O values of CO2

  13. Power industry and the environment III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The conference was primarily concerned with the future role of brown and bituminous coal in the energy policy of the Czech Republic and with their environmental impacts. Attention was also paid to remediation of consequences of open pit mining in the North Bohemian brown coal district and to the environmental impacts of coal-fired power plants operated by the CEZ utility, especially to air pollution with sulfur dioxide in northwestern Bohemia. (J.B.)

  14. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Research of composite fuels thermophysical properties based on low-grade coals with addition of fine sawdust and flour industry wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankovsky Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have been carried out to determine the energy and technical characteristics of composite fuels from coal grade 3B (Balakhtinskoye deposit, fine waste and flour from the milling industry. An effective concentration of 50% / 50% composite fuel has been established without the addition of a flour component, in which the combustion heat is reduced by less than 8%, with the flour component added up to 15%, the heat of combustion further decreases less than 2% of the heat of combustion of homogeneous coal. At the same time, the ash content is reduced to 11%, the yield of volatile components remains at the concentration level of the composite fuel of coal and wood. It is established that this component composition of three types of fuel is suitable for the formation of fuel briquettes suitable for burning in furnaces of small power boilers.

  16. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  17. Alkaloid-derived molecules in low rank Argonne premium coals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2000-11-30

    Molecules that are probably derived from alkaloids have been found in the extracts of the subbituminous and lignite Argonne Premium Coals. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) have been used to characterize pyridine and supercritical extracts. The supercritical extraction used an approach that has been successful for extracting alkaloids from natural products. The first indication that there might be these natural products in coals was the large number of molecules found containing multiple nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. These molecules are much less abundant in bituminous coals and absent in the higher rank coals.

  18. Isotopic and chemical characterization of coal in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.M.; Hasany, S.M.; Javed, T.; Sajjad, M.I.; Shah, Z.; Rehman, H.

    1993-11-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (delta/sup 13/C PDB) and toxic/trace element concentration levels are determined for Tertiary coal samples collected from seven coal fields in Pakistan. No systematic isotope effects are found in the process of coal liquefaction from peat to Tertiary lignites and sub bituminous coal. Similarly, no age effects are observed during the Tertiary regime. The observed variations in the carbon isotopic composition of coal obtained from 'Sharigh coal field' and the 'Sor-Range/Degari coal field' in Baluchistan are attributed to the depositional environments. More sampling of stable carbon isotope analysis are required to validate these observations. Significant concentrations of toxic elements such as S, Cr, Cd and Pb in Makarwal coal may pose environmental and engineering/operational problems for thermal power plants. (author)

  19. Utilization of coal rejects and coal washery tailings in Yong Rong Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, T.; Kefa, C.; Mingjiang, N.; Guoguan, H.; Yong, C.; Xiang, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The coal rejects and coal washery tailings discharged by coal washery not only occupies farmland but also causes environmental pollution. With the development of coal industry, the problem becomes more serious. In this paper, the properties of coal rejects and coal washery tailings are analyzed. The technology that burn coal rejects and coal washery tailings in boilers to produce electric power is reported. It has been shown the technology is feasible and successful. It saves energy as well as protects the environment

  20. The analysis of mercury content in coals and ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprzyk Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that mercury that enters the atmosphere is a serious threat to the natural environment. From the available literature, it can be stated that fossil fuels are among the main carriers of this fuel. The question arises whether it is the right approach. While the enrichment of bituminous coal produces limited amounts of mercury, they are being released into the atmosphere as a result of the combustion of coal. The situation is similar in the case of biomass, which releases large amounts of mercury into the atmosphere when subjected to the combustion process. While bituminous coal is the carrier of mercury, the application of currently known technology, rational production and the use of fossil fuels make it possible to maximally minimize mercury emissions into the atmosphere. This study evaluated the mercury content in the ashes resulting from the combustion of bituminous coal subjected to the enrichment process. The samples were collected from ten mines located in the Polish part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB. In total, thirty coal samples and thirty products of the combustion process were examined. All sixty samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis, including: moisture content, ash content, sulfur content, carbon content, and Gross Calorific Value.

  1. The potential risk of environmental contamination by mercury contained in Polish coal mining waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Antoszczyszyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains reference literature analysis concerning mercury content in Polish bituminous coal and post-mining waste as well as the impact of mercury content on the environment. The aim of the paper was to determine the occurrence of the risk of contamination of the environment with mercury compounds found in demolition bituminous coal landfills. Mercury, due to its toxic properties has been classified among the most dangerous substances to human health. There are three groups of sources of mercury release into the environment: natural, anthropogenic and remission. Coal mining, its processing and use in the energy sector has the greatest relevance regarding the pollution of the environment with mercury compounds in Poland. A review of reference literature shows that the average content of mercury in Polish bituminous coal varies within a wide range of 41–399 ppb, which is conditional on the origin, age and type of coal. The production of coal has led to a number of facilities in the form of structurally and age-varied landfills, heaps and mining waste dumps. The content of mercury in post-mining waste is in the range from approximately 55 to 380 ppb. The problem of environmental contamination with mercury has attracted considerable interest due to the effects that its concentration have in the biosphere. On the basis of the existing data it has been found that the content of mercury in soils in areas degraded by mining and processing of coal is even 10–16 times higher, compared to the geochemical background. It is necessary to conduct research in this area due to the limited results of research on mercury content in deposited waste from the preparation and flotation of Polish bituminous coals and the potential harmful effect of mercury on the environment. The paper is dedicated to the mercury content in waste from the extraction and processing of bituminous coal.

  2. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA)); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA)); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  3. Factors contributing to industrial accidents during coal mining operations. [Bulgaria: 1978 and 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedyalkova, N.

    1980-01-01

    Four hundred cases of severe industrial traumas from 1978 to 1979 were analyzed on a computer. The information was coded into four groups, characterizing the human undergoing the trauma, the time of the event, the working environment and the equipment involved, the causes of the accident (objective and subjective with respect to the victim). Eighty-six variables (values) of two types were input into the computer: quantitative (age, length of service at that job and in the profession, the month, date, day, hour and shift); categorical (profession- 11 subgroups; place of the event- 12 subgroups; work being done at the time of the event- 12 subgroups; indirect cause of the accident- 10 subgroups; circumstances of the accident- 11 subgroups; objective 15 subgroups and subjective- 7 subgroups of causes with respect to the victim). Ten factors were identified which lead to industrial accidents (By level of importance); poor dicipline, work shift, profession, date of the month, mine transport, poor instruction, unsafe work place, length of service, month of the year, poor organization of the work place. The following conclusions were made on the basis of these results: 1) poor discipline is undoubtably a primary factor in work safety; In a narrow context, it is connected with insufficient knowledge and lack of expertise, inability to work safely, poor control and organization of the work place; 48% of industrial accidents occur among stope miners and timbermen; 27% among transport workers; 2) 50% of the accidents occurred during the first shift, 16% between 11 and 12 o'clock; 3) 39.5% occurred at the end of the month; 4) 39% occurred due to insufficient and poor quality instruction, lack of necessary expertise and the ability to work safely.

  4. Coking coal of Checua Lenguazaque area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arboleda Otalora, Carlos Ariel

    1987-06-01

    In this report a summary of the main characteristics of the coal of the area of Checua-Samaca is presented. Using the main works carried out on this area, the most important geologic, physical-chemical, technological and petrographic aspects are compiled that are considered essential to carry out a technical evaluation of these coal and all the analyses they take to conclude that in this area, bituminous coal are presented with very good coking properties, on the other hand, it is demonstrated by the use that is given to the coal extracted by the small existent mining. However, keeping in mind the demands of the international market of the coking coal, it becomes necessary to improve the existent geologic information to be able to make reliable stratigraphic correlations

  5. Coal information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  6. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Filip P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reduction of the quantity of coke, whose production requires large amounts of energy, reduction of harmful exhaust emission and increase productivity of blast furnaces through the reduction of production costs. The project was complex and had high costs, so that it was necessary to predict risk events and plan responses to identified risks at an early stage of implementation, in the course of the project design, in order to minimise losses and implement the project in accordance with the defined time and cost limitations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179081: Researching contemporary tendencies of strategic management using specialized management disciplines in function of competitiveness of Serbian economy

  7. Baseload, industrial-scale wind power: An alternative to coal in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.J.; Williams, R.H. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Xie Shaoxiong; Zhang Shihui [Ministry of Electric Power, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a novel strategy for developing wind power on an industrial-scale in China. Oversized wind farms, large-scale electrical storage and long-distance transmission lines are integrated to deliver {open_quotes}baseload wind power{close_quotes} to distant electricity demand centers. The prospective costs for this approach to developing wind power are illustrated by modeling an oversized wind farm at Huitengxile, Inner Mongolia. Although storage adds to the total capital investment, it does not necessarily increase the cost of the delivered electricity. Storage makes it possible to increase the capacity factor of the electric transmission system, so that the unit cost for long-distance transmission is reduced. Moreover, baseload wind power is typically more valuable to the electric utility than intermittent wind power, so that storage can be economically attractive even in instances where the cost per kWh is somewhat higher than without storage. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  9. Formation of fine particles in co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel in a pulverized coal-fired power station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Fine particles formed from combustion of a bituminous coal and co-combustion of coal with 7 th% (thermal percentage) solid recovered fuel (SRF) in a pulverized coal-fired power plant were sampled and characterized in this study. The particles from dedicated coal combustion and co-combustion both...... appear to be an important formation mechanism. The elemental composition of the particles from coal combustion showed that S and Ca were significantly enriched in ultrafine particles and P was also enriched considerably. However, compared with supermicron particles, the contents of Al, Si and K were...

  10. Effective Diffusion Coefficients in Coal Chars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Jan Erik; Jensen, Anker

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of effective diffusion coefficients in char particles is important when interpreting experimental reactivity measurements and modeling char combustion or NO and N2O reduction. In this work, NO and N2O reaction with a bituminous coal char was studied in a fixed-bed quartz glass reactor....... In the case of strong pore diffusion limitations, the error in the interpretation of experimental results using the mean pore radius could be a factor of 5 on the intrinsic rate constant. For an average coal char reacting with oxygen at 1300 K, this would be the case for particle sizes larger than about 50...

  11. Effect of flotation on preparation of coal-water slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K.; Laskowski, J.S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    In order to study the effect of flotation reagents on the properties of coal-water slurry, a sub-bituminous coal was cleaned via either forward flotation or reverse flotation. The froth product from the forward flotation, obtained with the use of diesel oil and MIBC, and the tailings of the reverse flotation, carried out with dextrin-tannic acid depressants and dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride collector, were used in the preparation of coal-water slurries. It was shown that while it was possible to obtain the coal-water slurry with a high-solids content from the coal rendered hydrophilic (tailings from the coal reverse flotation), in the case of the hydrophobic product (froth product from the forward flotation) a dispersing agent was required to obtain the coal-water slurry of the same high-solids content.

  12. Regulation of coal polymer degradation by fungi. Tenth Quartery report, October 1996--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, R.L. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences; Bumpus, J.A. [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-28

    It has long been known that low rank coal such as leonardite can be solubilized by strong base (>pH 12). Recent discoveries have also shown that leonardite is solubilized by Lewis bases at considerably lower pH values and by fungi that secrete certain Lewis bases (i.e., oxalate ion). During the current reporting period we have studied the ability of a strong base (sodium hydroxide, pH 12), and two fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor, to solubilize Argonne Premium Coals. In general, Argonne Premium Coals were relatively resistant to base mediated solubilization. However, when these coals were preoxidized (150{degrees}C for seven days), substantial amounts of several coals were solubilized. Most affected were the Lewiston-Stockton bituminous coal, the Beulah-Zap lignite, the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal and the Blind Canyon bituminous coal. Argonne Premium Coals were previously shown by us to be relatively resistant to solubilization by sodium oxalate. When preoxidized coals were treated with sodium oxalate, only the Beulah-Zap lignite was substantially solubilized. Although very small amounts of the other preoxidized coals were solubilized by treatment with oxalate, the small amount of solubilization that did take place was generally increased relative to that observed for coals that were not preoxidized. None of the Argonne Premium Coals were solubilized by P. chrysosporium or T. versicolor. Of considerable interest, however, is the observation that P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor mediated extensive solubilization of Lewiston-Stockton bituminous coal, the Beulah-Zap lignite and the Wyodak-Anderson subbituminous coal.

  13. An assessment of chemical properties and hardgrove grindability index of punjab coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M.; Iqbal, M.M.; Hassan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the delamination of chemical properties and hardgrove grindability index (HGI) of coal samples collected from three different coal fields of Punjab; Eastern Salt Range, Central Salt Range and Makerwal coal fields. The chemical properties of Punjab coal reveal that most of the Punjab coal belongs to sub-bituminous category except coal of Tunnel C section of Makerwal Collieries and Iqbal Mineral coal mine of Dalwal, which are high volatile bituminous and lignite, respectively. The results of the research show that the HGI values of Punjab coal vary from 57 to 92. The eastern salt range coals are found to be the softest coals among that of three coal fields. It was further observed that the HGI values of the Punjab coal decrease with increasing moisture content, fixed carbon and sulphur contents, while it has a positive relation with volatile matter, ash content and gross calorific value. It was concluded that moisture content at its lower range has negligible effect on HGI of the Punjab coal. (author)

  14. Computer Aided Design of Advanced Turbine Airfoil Alloys for Industrial Gas Turbines in Coal Fired Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.E. Fuchs

    2007-12-31

    Recent initiatives for fuel flexibility, increased efficiency and decreased emissions in power generating industrial gas turbines (IGT's), have highlighted the need for the development of techniques to produce large single crystal or columnar grained, directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy turbine blades and vanes. In order to address the technical difficulties of producing large single crystal components, a program has been initiated to, using computational materials science, better understand how alloy composition in potential IGT alloys and solidification conditions during processing, effect castability, defect formation and environmental resistance. This program will help to identify potential routes for the development of high strength, corrosion resistant airfoil/vane alloys, which would be a benefit to all IGT's, including small IGT's and even aerospace gas turbines. During the first year, collaboration with Siemens Power Corporation (SPC), Rolls-Royce, Howmet and Solar Turbines has identified and evaluated about 50 alloy compositions that are of interest for this potential application. In addition, alloy modifications to an existing alloy (CMSX-4) were also evaluated. Collaborating with SPC and using computational software at SPC to evaluate about 50 alloy compositions identified 5 candidate alloys for experimental evaluation. The results obtained from the experimentally determined phase transformation temperatures did not compare well to the calculated values in many cases. The effects of small additions of boundary strengtheners (i.e., C, B and N) to CMSX-4 were also examined. The calculated phase transformation temperatures were somewhat closer to the experimentally determined values than for the 5 candidate alloys, discussed above. The calculated partitioning coefficients were similar for all of the CMSX-4 alloys, similar to the experimentally determined segregation behavior. In general, it appears that computational materials

  15. Analysis of thermal coal pricing and the coal price distortion in China from the perspective of market forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Herui; Wei, Pengbang

    2017-01-01

    The price of thermal coal has always been the focus of the debate between coal mining industry and electric power industry. The thermal coal price is always lower than other same quality coal, and this phenomenon of thermal coal price distortion has been existing in China for a long time. The distortion coal price can not reflect the external cost and the resource scarcity of coal, which could result in environment deteriorating and inefficient resource allocation. This paper studied the phenomenon of thermal coal price distortion through economic theoretical modeling and empirical cointegration analysis from the perspective of market forces. The results show that thermal coal price is determined by electricity price, the prediction elasticity of a electricity enterprise, price elasticity of demand of electricity, the input prediction elasticity of a electricity enterprise and the price elasticity of supply of thermal coal. The main reason of coal price distortion is the unbalance market force of coal industry and thermal coal generation industry. The distortion rate of coal price is positively related to the market force of electric power industry and negatively related to the industrial concentration of coal industry. - Highlights: • This paper studied thermal coal pricing and the coal price distortion in China. • The main reason of coal price distortion is the unbalance market force. • Thermal coal price is also influenced by electricity price and price elasticity of demand of electricity. • The distortion rate of coal price is negatively related to the industrial concentration of coal industry.

  16. Coal char oxidation kinetics in air medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh Alexander G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of oxidation kinetics for three types of coal char with different carbon content in air is presented. The coal char powders of anthracite, bituminous T-grade coal and 2B-grade lignite with particle size less than 80 μm were tested. The coal char oxidation was researched by isothermal method via simultaneous TG-DSC analyzer Netzsch STA 449 Jupiter F3 in the temperature range of 1000–1200 °C. Measurements were carried out at ambient pressure. Volumetric flow rate of oxidizing medium into analyser chamber was 250 ml/min. Flow consisted of air and argon with volumetric ratio 24/1. Carbon average rate of oxidation reaction at each temperature were defined based on experimental results. Kinetic constants (the frequency factor and activation energy were defined for Arrhenius equation modified with three submodels: volumetric model, shrinking core model and random pore model. The activation energy values for anthracite are 1,6-1,7 times higher than for chars of bituminous coal and lignite.

  17. Fiscal 1995 achievement report 1/2. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho 1/2. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. In the modification of facilities, oil product reforming facilities basic designs were prepared enabling the hydrogenation of coal oil after the liquefaction reaction process for reducing hetero compounds in coal oil in the NEDOL process. In the study of operation, pre-operation verification was accomplished under facilities cost performance exploring conditions for the pilot plant and, for the purpose of exploring optimum conditions for the NEDOL process, a 62-day and 25-day slurry injection operations were conducted using Tanito Harum coal and natural pyrite. In a 16-day operation for maintenance, data including mass balance were collected for the investigation of the initial reaction in liquefaction. The specimen sampling section of the high-temperature/high-pressure sampling device, which had been moved to the 3rd liquefaction reactor, was tentatively operated. In the solvent hydrogenation process, 2 hydrogenation reactors were connected in series and then operated for the verification of operationality. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 1994 achievement report 1/2. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1994 nendo seika hokokusho 1/2. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied in the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. Modification was made, which involved the installation of a high-temperature/high-pressure sampling device for observing reaction and fluidity in the liquefaction reactor, a differential pressure measuring device, and a neutron attenuation-aided measuring device. Relative to coal injection, a 49.5-day and 49.3-day slurry injections were carried out using Tanito Harum coal, when impacts on the product yield and the operability of the unit were examined. A verification test was conducted for an improved hydrogenation catalyst, and liquefaction reactor characteristics were investigated. During a 19-day operation for the study of maintenance, newly installed equipment and devices were verified for function, and operating methods were probed into. In the survey of environments, characteristics were examined of the wastewater discharged from the Tanito Harum coal liquefaction process, and wastewater treatment methods were studied. The air, odor, and tar mist were examined with the PSU in operation, and the measured values were found to be below the management limits showing that its operation did not pose any problems relating to working environments. (NEDO)

  19. Analysis of coals and biomass pyrolysis using the distributed activation energy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Liu, Chunlong; Chen, Zhichao; Qian, Juan; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Qunyi

    2009-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of coals and biomass was studied using thermogravimetric analysis with the distributed activation energy model. The integral method resulted in Datong bituminous coal conversions of 3-73% at activation energies of 100-486 kJ/mol. The corresponding frequency factors were e(19.5)-e(59.0)s(-1). Jindongnan lean coal conversions were 8-52% at activation energies of 100-462 kJ/mol. Their corresponding frequency factors were e(13.0)-e(55.8)s(-1). The conversion of corn-stalk skins were 1-84% at activation energies of 62-169 kJ/mol with frequency factors of e(10.8)-e(26.5)s(-1). Datong bituminous coal, Jindongnan lean coal and corn-stalk skins had approximate Gaussian distribution functions with linear ln k(0) to E relationships.

  20. Seventh symposium on coal mine drainage research. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Seventh Symposium on Coal Mine Drainage Research, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Seventeen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include chemical reactions of pyrite oxidation and acid formation in spoil banks, abandoned mines, etc., formation of small acid lakes from the drainage and their neutralization by natural and other neutralization measures, trace elements in acid mine drainage, ground water contamination, limnology, effects of surface mined ground reclamation and neutralization, water purification and treatment, mining and coal preparation plant waste disposal, ash and fly ash disposal (to minimize leaching from the wastes), runoff from large coal storage stockpiles during storms (prevention of environmental effects by collection and neutralization by passing through an ash pond). (LTN)

  1. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Phase 3 final report, November 1992--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    A three phase research and development program has resulted in the development and commercialization of a Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}), capable of being fueled by pulverized coal, natural gas, and other solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels, for the vitrification of industrial wastes. The Phase 3 research effort focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added glass products from the vitrification of boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project was to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential for successful commercialization. The demonstration test consisted of one test run with a duration of 105 hours, approximately one-half (46 hours) performed with coal as the primary fuel source (70% to 100%), the other half with natural gas. Approximately 50 hours of melting operation were performed vitrifying approximately 50,000 lbs of coal-fired utility boiler flyash/dolomite mixture, producing a fully-reacted vitrified product.

  2. Measurement of heat generation from simulated bituminized product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yoshiyuki; Yoneya, Masayuki [TRP Safety Evaluation and Analysis team, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The fire and explosion incident occurred at Bituminization Demonstration Facility of PNC Tokai Works on March 11, 1997. In order to ascertain the cause of incident, the investigation has been pushed forward. For the investigation, we prepared simulated bituminized product of measurement of heat generation in low temperature region less than 200degC. We used calvet Calorimeter MS80 for the heat generation measurement. Result of measurement, we were able to catch the feeble heat generation from bituminized product. The maximum calorific value that was able to detect it in isothermal measurement was approximately 1 mW/g in 160degC. It was approximately 2 mW/g in 200degC. And, as the another measurement, the measurement condition went heat rate by 0.01degC/minute, the highest temperature 190degC. As a result, the maximum generation of heat value that was able to detect it was approximately 0.5 mW/g. I changed simulated bituminized products and measured these. A difference of condition is salt particle size, salt content rate (45%, 60%), addition of the simulated precipitate. But there was not a difference in the generation of heat characteristic detected. (author)

  3. Reuse of steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Sanzeni, Alex; Rondi, Luca

    2012-03-30

    This paper presents a comprehensive study to evaluate the mechanical properties and environmental suitability of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures. A variety of tests were executed on samples of EAF slag to characterize the physical, geometrical, mechanical and chemical properties as required by UNI EN specifications, focusing additionally on the volumetric expansion associated with hydration of free CaO and MgO. Five bituminous mixtures of aggregates for flexible road pavement were designed containing up to 40% of EAF slag and were tested to determine Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength. The leaching behaviour of slag samples and bituminous mixtures was evaluated according to the UNI EN leaching test. The tested slag showed satisfactory physical and mechanical properties and a release of pollutants generally below the limits set by the Italian code. Tests on volume stability of fresh materials confirmed that a period of 2-3 months is necessary to reduce effects of oxides hydration. The results of tests performed on bituminous mixtures with EAF slag were comparable with the performance of mixtures containing natural aggregates and the leaching tests provided satisfactory results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The quality of Environmental Management Programmes (EMPRs) within the coal mining industry in South Africa / Casper Joubert

    OpenAIRE

    Joubert, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Mining operations negatively impact the environment and, as a result, South African legislation requires that, as part of an Environmental Impact Assessment, an Environmental Management Programme (EMPRs) be developed and implemented to manage all the impacts identified. The Coal Mining Sector was selected for this research because of the important role it plays within the South African economy. In this research, the quality of Environmental Management Programmes within the Coal Mining Sector ...

  5. Effect of intermolecular cohesion on coal liquefaction. 3. Reactivity of oxygen methylated coal; Sekitan teibunshika hanno ni okeru bunshikan gyoshuryoku no koka. 3. O-methyl ka tan no hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Nagaishi, H.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The reactivity of oxygen methylated coal was studied to control hydrogen bond in bituminous coal liquefaction and intermolecular cohesion such as van der Waals force. In experiment, crushed and dried Illinois coal of 100mesh or less was used as specimen, and oxygen methylated coal was prepared by Liotta`s method using tetrabutylammonium halide. Coal liquefaction was conducted in an electromagnetic agitation autoclave using tetralin solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 100kg/cm{sup 2} while heating. The molecular weight distribution of the products obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. The experimental results are as follows. The effect of intermolecular cohesion in bituminous coal on the reactivity is mainly derived from decomposing reaction from preasphaltene to oil. Yields of oil fraction by methylation increase corresponding to release of intermolecular cohesion. Since the thermal release is promoted with temperature rise, the difference in yield due to different treatments decreases. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1994--August 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new system specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. During this reporting period, the construction of the CWSF preparation circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) continued. The CWSF preparation circuit will be completed by November 1,1994. Additional activities included receiving a coal-designed burner and installing it on the demonstration boiler, and working with DOE in selecting pollution control systems to install on the boiler.

  7. Capital cost: low and high sulfur coal plants; 800 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 800-MWe (Nominal) low- and high-sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. (This the fourth subject in a series of eight performed in the Commercial Electric Power Cost Studies by the US NRC). The low-sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II (this volume), while Volume III describes the high-sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 801-MWe low-sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I and the drawings, equipment list, and site description are contained in this document. The design basis, drawings, and summary cost estimate for a 794-MWe high-sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal plant for burning high-sulfur bituminous coal. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  8. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-02-08

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char--for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests.

  9. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char-for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests

  10. The Structure of Sandstones in Productive Horizons of the Permian Bituminous Deposits of Tatarstan (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Khasanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The features of sandstones in productive horizons of the Permian bituminous deposits of Tatarstan (Russia have been considered. The composition and internal structure of sandstones have been studied by optical microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR, and electron microscopy, as well as using a number of physical and chemical methods to solve special problems. The investigated sandstones belong to the greywacke group. The clastic material of sandstones contains grains of feldspar, quartz, mica, and particles of volcanic rocks. The nature and composition of cement are important parameters that determine the filtration-capacity properties of sedimentary rocks. Bituminous deposits are characterized by vertical zoning, which is expressed in the alternation of sites with varying degrees of cementation of rocks. Atten-tion has been also paid to post-sedimentation processes, such as pyritization and calcification. Pyrite forms rare xenomorphic isometric grains. The formation of pyrite occurs in diagenesis and is associated with the processes of biogenic sulfate reduction. The source of calcium for the crystallization of dispersed cal-cite in the porous space of sandstones is the underground waters of red-colored Ufimian deposits characterized by the alkaline properties favorable for calcium migration. According to the data of X-ray computed tomography, the internal space of the studied rocks is not homogeneous and represented by a system of communicated and isolated pores. In the studied samples, two types of organic matter differing in organic radicals have been detected. The first type is an organic substance of coal origin. The second type of organic matter belongs to the oil origin and refers to bitumens in its properties. The presence of a significant percentage of asphaltenes in the bitumen composition indicates the destruction of the oil substance in the near-surface conditions.

  11. Hydrogen/deuterium transfer in coal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronauer, D.C.; McNeil, R.I.; Young, D.C.; Ruberto, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reactions have been made with deuterium-labelled solvent (d 4 - and d 12 -tetralin) and both Powhatan bituminous (Pittsburgh Seam) coal and model compounds under coal liquefaction conditions to study hydrogen transfer mechanisms. Powhatan coal liquefies quickly. Hydrogen transfer from the solvent to the reaction products continues throughout the heating period (up to 60 min). Significant hydrogen/deuterium exchange occurs and this strongly affects the distribution of deuterium in the products and also affects the extent of conversion as measured by the amount of THF-insoluble material. Increased deuteration of the solvent leads to decreased conversion. This exchange is enhanced by heavy aromatic species and by the presence of mineral matter and unconverted coal solids. (author)

  12. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1994--February 15, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.

    1995-05-12

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement to determine if CWSFs prepared from cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and stagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first three phases (i.e., the first demonstration) have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours.

  13. Sorption mechanism of solvent vapors to coals; Sekitan eno yobai joki no shuchaku kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to clarify the interactions between micropore structure of coal and solvent reagents, a sorption experiment was carried out under solvent saturated vapor pressure. Low-volatile bituminous coal, Pocahontas No. 3 coal, has the aromatic ring structure developed, and makes solvent more difficult to diffuse into coal, hence sorption amount is small. Methanol has permeated since its polarity is high. High-volatile bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, makes solvent penetrate easily, and the sorption amount was large with both of aromatic and polar solvents. Since brown coal, Beulah Zap coal, contains a large amount of oxygen, and hydrogen bonding is predominant, sorption amount of cyclohexane and benzene having no polarity is small. Methanol diffuses while releasing hydrogen bond due to its polarity, and its sorption amount is large. A double sorption model is available, which expresses the whole sorption amount as a sum of physical sorption amount and amount of permeation into coal. This model was applied when it explained successfully the sorption behavior of the solvents relative to coals, excepting some of the systems. However, also observed were such abnormal behavior as sorption impediment due to interactions between coal surface and solvents, and permeation impediment due to hydroxyl groups inside the coals. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Assessment of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion power plants using high sulfur coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeldon, J.M.; Drenker, S.G.; Booras, G.S.; McKinsey, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Results of an EPRI engineering and economic study confirm that pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plants have lower capital costs than other advanced fossil technologies. The operating costs are shown to be sensitive to coal properties, particularly the sulfur content. Lower sulfur content coals result in lower sorbent and ash disposal costs and a correspondingly lower cost of electricity. These sensitivity studies indicate that for medium to low sulfur coals the levelized cost of electricity from PFBC power plants is lower than from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants. Even though a low sulfur coal potentially offers the lowest cost of electricity, if it has to be transported any distance it may be more economic to use a local high sulfur coal. To test this hypothesis, costing were carried out for a utility-scale bubbling PFBC power plant located somewhere in the USA. The cost of electricity was determined for a local high sulfur bituminous coal and three low sulfur coals, two Appalachian bituminous coal, and a Wyoming subbituminous coal. The resulting costs of electricity were very similar. The closer the plant is the low sulfur coal producing regions the less economically attractive will be the high sulfur coal. Means of making the high sulfur coal more competitive are discussed. 18 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs

  15. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time

  16. Industrial-scale study of a retrofitted electrostatic precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrusik, M.; Jedrusik, J.; Sarna, M. [Technical University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland). Inst. of Heat Engineering and Fluid Mechanics

    1998-07-01

    Investigated was a retrofitted horizontal, three-zone electrostatic precipitator, which was designed in the late 1970s. The precipitator was installed after a bituminous-coal-fired 140 MW boiler. Prior to retrofit, the precipitator had spiked band corona electrodes which were to provide a firm efficiency of 95%. To make it comply with the enforced environmental standards it was necessary to increase this value. The retrofit consisted of replacing the spiked band corona electrode with a barbed-tube unit of a special design, which raised the efficiency of the precipitator to 99%, thus providing a dust concentration of 75 mg/m{sup 3} in the flue gas. These values were achieved without introducing additional zones. Prior to dust concentration measurements, the distribution of gas velocity at the inlet of an industrial precipitator was determined. The efficiency of the precipitator was measured for various heating power of the boiler to illustrate the improvement obtained. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Organization, activities, and issues with particular emphasis on coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses Colorado's coal industry; the Colorado Mining Association; lobbying and legislative actions; industry networking, information, and communications; coal issues and activities; and Colorado issues and activities. Some of the latter include: land reclamation of mined lands; oil and gas drilling and coal mine conflicts; wild and scenic river designations; general permitting of coal mining discharges; and coal mine land reclamation awards

  18. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  19. Liquefaction of Warukin Formation Coal, Barito Basin, South Kalimantan on Low Pressure and Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Nursanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research focusing on the quality of coal in Warukin Formation has been conducted in coal outcrops located on Tabalong area, particularly in 3 coal seams, namely Wara 120 which consists of low rank coal (lignite. Meanwhile, coals in seam Tutupan 210 and Paringin 712 are medium rank coal (sub-bituminous. Coal liquefaction is conducted in an autoclave on low pressure and temperature. Pressure during the process is 14 psi and temperature is 120oC. Catalyst used are alumina, hydrogen donor NaOH and water solvent. Liquefaction is conducted in three times variables of 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes. This process shows following yield : Wara seam 120: 25.37% - 51.27%; Tutupan seam 210: 3.02%-15.45% and seam Paringin 712:1.99%-11.95%. The average result of yield shows that coals in seam Wara has higher yield conversion than coals in seam Tutupan and Paringin.

  20. Use of coal-oil agglomerates for particulate gold recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvez, J.P.S.; Kim, M.J.; Wong, P.L.M.; Tran, T. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry

    1998-09-01

    The underlying principles by which gold is recovered by coal-oil agglomerates was investigated. The effects of various parameters such as oil:coal ratios, agglomerate:ore ratios, pH and coal particle size on gold recovery were evaluated using synthetic gold bearing samples, bituminous coal, and diesel oil and kerosene. The effects of sulfides on gold recovery and the depth of gold particle penetration within the agglomerates were also investigated. Results showed that gold recovery was increased by increasing agglomerate:ore ratio, decreasing oil:coal ratio and decreasing coal particle size. There was no significant difference in gold recoveries at pH range of 4-12 and at up to 5% sulfides in the feed.

  1. The position of the French coal industry on the European Commission strategy against acidification; Position de charbonnages de France sur la strategie de lutte contre l`acidification de la commission europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dejean, M. [CDF Energie, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1997-12-31

    The Charbonnages de France group (French coal industry) presents several objections to the projected European Commission program concerning the reduction of air pollution emission and acidification: reaching so rapidly the projected reduction level means a drastic improvement to the large burning plants, regardless of the low operating duration of the coal plants in France, which are used for electric power production only at peak or semi-base periods or in industries (principally food industry) with low energy duration requirements, and regardless of the important emission reductions already achieved in France. The coal industry proposes to simply apply the present IPPC directive; already, turning to circulating fluidized bed units has allowed important SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emission reductions. The evolution of sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions in France between 1990 and 1995 is detailed

  2. Developing Queensland coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philp, A. [Australian QTherm (Australia)

    1998-11-01

    Despite regional economic woes and falling coal prices, there have been exciting developments in Queensland`s coal industry with the announcement of three new coal mines, four mine expansions and two mine feasibility studies being undertaken. The article describes new projects being undertaken in Coppabella, Morahbah North and Hall Creek all in the Northern Bowen Basin, and mine expansions underway at Burton, Enshan, Newlands and Oaky North. Feasibility studies are the progress in the Millmerran and Acland deposits in The Moreton Basin. However, a number of proposed expansions at some major mines, such as Moura, Saraji and Peak Downs, have been postponed due to falling international coal prices. 2 figs., 2 photos.

  3. Industry trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This section discusses the US energy supply and demand situation including projections for energy use, the clean coal industry (constraints of regulation on investment in new technologies, technology trends, and current pollution control efficiency), opportunities in clean coal technology (Phase 2 requirements of Title 4 of the Clean Air Act, scrubber demand for lime and limestone, and demand for low sulfur coal), and the international market of clean coal technologies

  4. Evaluating the suitability of different environmental samples for tracing atmospheric pollution in industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francová, Anna; Chrastný, Vladislav; Šillerová, Hana; Vítková, Martina; Kocourková, Jana; Komárek, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Samples of lichens, snow and particulate matter (PM 10 , 24 h) are used for the source identification of air pollution in the heavily industrialized region of Ostrava, Upper Silesia, Czech Republic. An integrated approach that uses different environmental samples for metal concentration and Pb isotope analyses was applied. The broad range of isotope ratios in the samples indicates a combination of different pollution sources, the strongest among them being the metallurgical industry, bituminous coal combustion and traffic. Snow samples are proven as the most relevant indicator for tracing metal(loid)s and recent local contamination in the atmosphere. Lichens can be successfully used as tracers of the long-term activity of local and remote sources of contamination. The combination of PM 10 with snow can provide very useful information for evaluation of current pollution sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility study: comparison of coal- and nuclear-fueled alternatives for process steam and by product electrical power generation for the PPG Industries, Incorporated Plant Site, Lake Charles, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of a small, (365 MWt) nuclear reactor for supplying process steam and electricity as a replacement for energy sources using increasingly scarce natural gas or oil. The PPG Industries, Incorporated Plant Site at Lake Charles, Louisiana, was chosen as representative of industrial installations that require sizeable amounts of process steam and electricity. For comparison purposes conventional coal-fired boilers were also evaluated. It was determined that both nuclear- and coal-based process energy supply systems are technically feasible. For the specific steam/electricity demands at the reference site, the coal-fired plant proved to be economically more attractive than the nuclear units. For an application requiring a base-loaded supply of saturated steam, utilizing full reactor capacity, the nuclear option appears competitive for coal costing $40/ton in 1978 dollars.

  6. Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D. [United Technologies Research Center, E. Hartford, CT (United States); Rastogi, S.; Klinzing, G.E. [Univ. of Pittsburg, PA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The thermodynamic properties of coal under conditions of rapid heating have been determined using a combination of UTRC facilities including a proprietary rapid heating rate differential thermal analyzer (RHR-DTA), a microbomb calorimeter (MBC), an entrained flow reactor (EFR), an elemental analyzer (EA), and a FT-IR. The total heat of devolatilization, was measured for a HVA bituminous coal (PSOC 1451D, Pittsburgh No. 8) and a LV bituminous coal (PSOC 1516D, Lower Kittaning). For the HVA coal, the contributions of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization were measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars. Morphological characterization of coal and char samples was performed at the University of Pittsburgh using a PC-based image analysis system, BET apparatus, helium pcynometer, and mercury porosimeter. The bulk density, true density, CO{sub 2} surface area, pore volume distribution, and particle size distribution as a function of extent of reaction are reported for both the HVA and LV coal. Analyses of the data were performed to obtain the fractal dimension of the particles as well as estimates for the external surface area. The morphological data together with the thermodynamic data obtained in this investigation provides a complete database for a set of common, well characterized coal and char samples. This database can be used to improve the prediction of particle temperatures in coal devolatilization models. Such models are used both to obtain kinetic rates from fundamental studies and in predicting furnace performance with comprehensive coal combustion codes. Recommendations for heat capacity functions and heats of devolatilization for the HVA and LV coals are given. Results of sample particle temperature calculations using the recommended thermodynamic properties are provided.

  7. Thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether: A model of ether linkages in low rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Malcolm, E.A.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, an area of interest and frustration for coal chemists has been the direct liquefaction of low rank coal. Although low rank coals are more reactive than bituminous coals, they are more difficult to liquefy and offer lower liquefaction yields under conditions optimized for bituminous coals. Solomon, Serio, and co-workers have shown that: in the pyrolysis and liquefaction of low rank coals, a low temperature cross-linking reaction associated with oxygen functional groups occurs before tar evolution. A variety of pretreatments (demineralization, alkylation, and ion-exchange) have been shown to reduce these retrogressive reactions and increase tar yields, but the actual chemical reactions responsible for these processes have not been defined. In order to gain insight into the thermochemical reactions leading to cross-linking in low rank coal, we have undertaken a study of the pyrolysis of oxygen containing coal model compounds. Solid state NMR studies suggest that the alkyl aryl ether linkage may be present in modest amounts in low rank coal. Therefore, in this paper, we will investigate the thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) as a model of 0-aryl ether linkages found in low rank coal, lignites, and lignin, an evolutionary precursor of coal. Our results have uncovered a new reaction channel that can account for 25% of the products formed. The impact of reaction conditions, including restricted mass transport, on this new reaction pathway and the role of oxygen functional groups in cross-linking reactions will be investigated.

  8. Contributions to determine paleoenvironments, coals syncline ChecuaLenguazaque. Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastián Gómez-Neita

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to make new contributions to the knowledge and interpretation of paleoenvironment of Guaduas Formation´s coals, Superior Maestrichtian to Paleocene age. Petrographic analysis of 64 samples collected them by the channel method in three sections of the Checua-Lenguazaque syncline (Sutatausa, Guachetá and Samacá, establishing that the coals are composed mainly of macerals of the vitrinite group with percentages between (51.4% - 87%, followed by the inertinite group (5.4% - 43.8%, liptinite (0.2% - 14%, and mineral matter (0.4% - 18%. The average vitrinite reflectance ranged from 0.69 to 1.6; showing bituminous coals C to bituminous coals A. The maceral reading allowed the determination of the distribution of organic components of coal to implement the methodology proposed by Diessel (1992 and the used it by Singh & Singh (2000, for the definition of palaeoenvironments; concluding that the coals of Guachetá and Samacá blocks were deposited in environments of protected areas for barriers and bogs mainly, while the coals of the Sutatausa block extended into wet-forest swamps. Table water although variable, covered the peat bog which favored the preservation of organic material against oxidation.

  9. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-09-29

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University has been successfully managing the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by Penn State, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. Base funding for the selected projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. At the annual funding meeting held in October 2003, ten projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten 2004 projects were completed during the previous annual reporting period and their final reports were submitted with the previous annual report (i.e., 10/01/04-09/30/05). The final report for the remaining project, which was submitted during this reporting

  10. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected ten projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten projects have been completed and the final reports for these 2004 projects are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2004 and the council

  11. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  12. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1993--February 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Poe, R.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first demonstrations been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler has been determined to be unacceptable. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours. The second demonstration will be conducted after a proven CWSF-designed burner is installed on the boiler. During this reporting period, the construction of the fuel preparation facility that will contain the CWSF circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) was completed. Proposals from potential suppliers of the flue gas treatment systems were reviewed by Penn State and DOE.

  13. Automation and control in industrial installations. Its application in pressurized fluidized bed plants, coal washeries etc. Automatizacion y control en instalaciones industriales. Su aplicacion en centrales de lecho fluido a presion, lavaderos de carbon etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo Tarifa, R. (ENDESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the automation and electronic control systems, based on the most advanced technologies on the market. The most recent techniques concerning industrial plant supervision and the processing of information obtained from the above mentioned systems are discussed. Intraplant communications between the control systems and the supervision computers as well as communications among cascade computers are described. These studies are applied to specific cases of pressurized fluidized bed plants, coal washing plants, coal yards, etc.

  14. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Survey by region/industry in India; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Indo ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A survey was made in India which is a coal producing/consuming country following China in Asia and where coal is used for about 60% of the primary commercial energy. The survey was conducted on coal production/distribution/utilization and environmental issues, aiming at studying feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly coal utilization system into every industry including the residential/commercial one, and at implementing a comprehensive master plan including Japan`s international cooperation. Total power source facilities in fiscal 1995 are 83.3 million kW, 64% of which are coal thermal power facilities and generated 260 TWh, 69% of the total output energy. Main commercial energy sources are coal, oil and natural gas, and oil is self-sufficient. The survey this time did not examine very well the actual state of the environmental pollution problem caused by the coal utilization. Indian coal is high in ash content but low in sulfur content, and therefore, SOx polluting air has not been a very important problem so far, but soot/smoke is almost the problem. Further, ash treatment after combustion at boilers, etc. is expected to be a big problem in the future. 49 figs., 88 tabs.

  15. Coal: the dinosaur wakes up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, Y.; Cosnard, D.

    2005-01-01

    In western countries, coal is considered as an industry of the past, but at the Earth's scale the situation is radically the opposite. Since three years, coal is the faster developing energy source, in particular thanks to China expansion and to the oil crisis which makes coal more competitive. This short paper presents the situation of coal mining in China: projects, working conditions and environmental impact. (J.S.)

  16. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  17. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 industrial boiler retrofit. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1998-03-01

    Economics and/or political intervention may one day dictate the conversion from oil or natural gas to coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technical Center (DOE-FETC) supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories with support from the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University with the goal of demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall goal the following specific objectives were targeted: develop a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical and operational requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintain boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieve combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and determine ec